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Sample records for bacillus coagulans neutralization

  1. Bacillus coagulans

    MedlinePlus

    Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria. It is used similarly to lactobacillus and other probiotics as "beneficial" bacteria. People take Bacillus coagulans for diarrhea, including infectious types such as ...

  2. Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Ronald H. W.; Bakker, Robert R.; Jansen, Mickel L. A.; Visser, Diana; de Jong, Ed; Eggink, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. Decrease in pH because of lactic acid formation was partially adjusted by automatic addition of the alkaline substrate. After 55 h of incubation, the polymeric glucan, xylan, and arabinan present in the lime-treated straw were hydrolyzed for 55%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Lactic acid (40.7 g/l) indicated a fermentation efficiency of 81% and a chiral l(+)-lactic acid purity of 97.2%. In total, 711 g lactic acid was produced out of 2,706 g lime-treated straw, representing 43% of the overall theoretical maximum yield. Approximately half of the lactic acid produced was neutralized by fed-batch feeding of lime-treated straw, whereas the remaining half was neutralized during the batch phase with a Ca(OH)2 suspension. Of the lime added during the pretreatment of straw, 61% was used for the neutralization of lactic acid. This is the first demonstration of a process having a combined alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and pH control in fermentation resulting in a significant saving of lime consumption and avoiding the necessity to recycle lime. PMID:18247027

  3. Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate.

    PubMed

    Maas, Ronald H W; Bakker, Robert R; Jansen, Mickel L A; Visser, Diana; de Jong, Ed; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2008-04-01

    Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. Decrease in pH because of lactic acid formation was partially adjusted by automatic addition of the alkaline substrate. After 55 h of incubation, the polymeric glucan, xylan, and arabinan present in the lime-treated straw were hydrolyzed for 55%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Lactic acid (40.7 g/l) indicated a fermentation efficiency of 81% and a chiral L(+)-lactic acid purity of 97.2%. In total, 711 g lactic acid was produced out of 2,706 g lime-treated straw, representing 43% of the overall theoretical maximum yield. Approximately half of the lactic acid produced was neutralized by fed-batch feeding of lime-treated straw, whereas the remaining half was neutralized during the batch phase with a Ca(OH)2 suspension. Of the lime added during the pretreatment of straw, 61% was used for the neutralization of lactic acid. This is the first demonstration of a process having a combined alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and pH control in fermentation resulting in a significant saving of lime consumption and avoiding the necessity to recycle lime.

  4. Antifungal activity of Bacillus coagulans against Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Trojanowska, Krystyna; Mueller, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Bacillus coagulans against three pathogenic species of Fusarium was examined. Fungal growth was determined by colony forming units, dry matter and ergosterol level. Biosynthesis of Fusarium mycotoxins was also investigated. The strongest inhibition of fungal growth was noticed when Bacillus coagulans was co-inoculated at the beginning of culture. Estimation of ergosterol level as a determinant of fungal growth showed the greatest degree of Fusarium sp. inhibition. Addition of Bacillus coagulans to Fusarium culmorum culture inhibits the DON (deoxynivalenol) production.

  5. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, V; Adami, A; Castrovilli, C

    1998-09-01

    1. A newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain as probiotic was assayed as the only dietary additive for chickens. 2. Chickens receiving no additive at all or only virginiamycin were used for comparison. 3. Two trials each carried out on 75 chickens showed that, in terms of efficacy in growth and food conversion ratio, the B. coagulans biomass as a probiotic had a growth-promoting, prophylactic effect comparable to that of virginiamycin.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the Type Strain of the Species

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi

    2012-01-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans. PMID:23105047

  7. Genome sequence of the thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the type strain of the species.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  8. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  9. Should Lactobacillus sporogenes and Bacillus coagulans have a future?

    PubMed

    Drago, L; De Vecchi, E

    2009-08-01

    Probiotics are gaining increasing scientific and commercial interest as functional foods. Their success has led to the development and marketing of a broad range of products based on probiotics. In this context, resolution of the taxonomy of microbial species remains a key point, since different species belonging to the same genus may have different beneficial properties. Lactobacillus sporogenes, which should be correctly classified as Bacillus coagulans, represents the archetypal misidentified probiotic and its inclusion among probiotics has often been a matter of debate. Since this bacterium shows characteristics of both genera Lactobacillus and Bacillus, its taxonomic position between the families lactobacillaceae and bacillaceae has often been discussed.This review summarizes the salient probiotic features of L. sporogenes /B. coagulans by examining currently available information. Although the use of L. sporogenes spores as a probiotic has increased in recent years, clinical evidence of its benefits are limited to only a few studies involving small patient populations.

  10. Evaluation of genetic and phenotypic consistency of Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856: a commercial probiotic strain.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Sivakumar, Arumugam; Eshuis-de Ruiter, Talitha; Booij-Veurink, Janine; de Vries, Ynte P; Ali, Furqan

    2016-04-01

    Commercial probiotics preparation containing Bacillus coagulans have been sold in the market for several decades. Due to its high intra-species genomic diversity, it is very likely that B. coagulans strain may alter in different ways over multiple years of production. Therefore, the present study focuses to evaluate the genetic consistency and probiotic potential of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. Phenotypic and genotypic techniques including biochemical profiling, 16S rRNA sequencing, GTG 5″, BOX PCR fingerprinting, and Multi-Locus-Sequence typing (MLST) were carried out to evaluate the identity and consistency of the B. coagulans MTCC 5856. Further, in vitro probiotic potential, safety and stability at ambient temperature conditions of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 were evaluated. All the samples were identified as B. coagulans by biochemical profiling and 16S rRNA sequencing. GTG 5″, BOX PCR fingerprints and MLST studies revealed that the same strain was present over 3 years of commercial production. B. coagulans MTCC 5856 showed resistance to gastric acid, bile salt and exhibited antimicrobial activity in in-vitro studies. Additionally, B. coagulans MTCC 5856 was found to be non-mutagenic, non-cytotoxic, negative for enterotoxin genes and stable at ambient temperature (25 ± 2 °C) for 36 months. The data of the study verified that the same strain of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 was present in commercial preparation over multiple years of production.

  11. FORMATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE SPORE OF BACILLUS COAGULANS

    PubMed Central

    Ohye, D. F.; Murrell, W. G.

    1962-01-01

    Spore formation in Bacillus coagulans has been studied by electron microscopy using an epoxy resin (Araldite) embedding technique. The developmental stages from the origin of the initial spore septum to the mature spore were investigated. The two forespore membranes developed from the double layer of cytoplasmic membrane. The cortex was progressively deposited between these two membranes. The inner membrane finally became the spore protoplasmic membrane, and the outer membrane part of the inner spore coat or the outer spore coat itself. In the mature spore the completed integuments around the spore protoplasm consisted of the cortex, a laminated inner coat, and a dense outer coat. No exosporium was observed. The method of formation of the cortex and the spore coats is discussed. PMID:14481435

  12. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  13. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  14. Functional Analysis of the ComK Protein of Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Ákos T.; Eckhardt, Tom H.; van Kranenburg, Richard; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2013-01-01

    The genes for DNA uptake and recombination in Bacilli are commonly regulated by the transcriptional factor ComK. We have identified a ComK homologue in Bacillus coagulans, an industrial relevant organism that is recalcitrant for transformation. Introduction of B. coagulans comK gene under its own promoter region into Bacillus subtilis comK strain results in low transcriptional induction of the late competence gene comGA, but lacking bistable expression. The promoter regions of B. coagulans comK and the comGA genes are recognized in B. subtilis and expression from these promoters is activated by B. subtilis ComK. Purified ComK protein of B. coagulans showed DNA-binding ability in gel retardation assays with B. subtilis- and B. coagulans-derived probes. These experiments suggest that the function of B. coagulans ComK is similar to that of ComK of B. subtilis. When its own comK is overexpressed in B. coagulans the comGA gene expression increases 40-fold, while the expression of another late competence gene, comC is not elevated and no reproducible DNA-uptake could be observed under these conditions. Our results demonstrate that B. coagulans ComK can recognize several B. subtilis comK-responsive elements, and vice versa, but indicate that the activation of the transcription of complete sets of genes coding for a putative DNA uptake apparatus in B. coagulans might differ from that of B. subtilis. PMID:23301076

  15. Functional analysis of the ComK protein of Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Ákos T; Eckhardt, Tom H; van Hartskamp, Mariska; van Kranenburg, Richard; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2013-01-01

    The genes for DNA uptake and recombination in Bacilli are commonly regulated by the transcriptional factor ComK. We have identified a ComK homologue in Bacillus coagulans, an industrial relevant organism that is recalcitrant for transformation. Introduction of B. coagulans comK gene under its own promoter region into Bacillus subtilis comK strain results in low transcriptional induction of the late competence gene comGA, but lacking bistable expression. The promoter regions of B. coagulans comK and the comGA genes are recognized in B. subtilis and expression from these promoters is activated by B. subtilis ComK. Purified ComK protein of B. coagulans showed DNA-binding ability in gel retardation assays with B. subtilis- and B. coagulans-derived probes. These experiments suggest that the function of B. coagulans ComK is similar to that of ComK of B. subtilis. When its own comK is overexpressed in B. coagulans the comGA gene expression increases 40-fold, while the expression of another late competence gene, comC is not elevated and no reproducible DNA-uptake could be observed under these conditions. Our results demonstrate that B. coagulans ComK can recognize several B.subtilis comK-responsive elements, and vice versa, but indicate that the activation of the transcription of complete sets of genes coding for a putative DNA uptake apparatus in B. coagulans might differ from that of B. subtilis.

  16. Engineering of thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans for production of D(-)-lactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-12-02

    Genetically modified microorganisms having the ability to produce D(-)-lactic acid at temperatures between 30.degree. C. and 55.degree. C. are provided. In various embodiments, the microorganisms may have the chromosomal lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene and/or the chromosomal acetolactate synthase (alsS) gene inactivated. Exemplary microorganisms for use in the disclosed methods are Bacillus spp., such as Bacillus coagulans.

  17. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species. PMID:24473268

  18. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-29

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species.

  19. Germination and inactivation of Bacillus coagulans and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by high hydrostatic pressure treatment in buffer and tomato sauce.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, Anne; Vivijs, Bram; Lurquin, Ine; Michiels, Chris W

    2012-01-16

    Acidothermophilic bacteria like Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus coagulans can cause spoilage of heat-processed acidic foods because they form spores with very high heat resistance and can grow at low pH. The objective of this work was to study the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris and B. coagulans spores by high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at temperatures up to 60°C and both at low and neutral pH. In a first experiment, spores suspended in buffers at pH 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0 were processed for 10min at different pressures (100-800MPa) at 40°C. None of these treatments caused any significant inactivation, except perhaps at 800MPa in pH 4.0 buffer where close to 1 log inactivation of B. coagulans was observed. Spore germination up to about 2 log was observed for both bacteria but occurred mainly in a low pressure window (100-300MPa) for A. acidoterrestris and only in a high pressure window (600-800MPa) for B. coagulans. In addition, low pH suppressed germination in A. acidoterrestris, but stimulated it in B. coagulans. In a second series of experiments, spores were treated in tomato sauce of pH 4.2 and 5.0 at 100 - 800MPa at 25, 40 and 60°C for 10min. At 40°C, results for B. coagulans were similar as in buffer. For A. acidoterrestris, germination levels in tomato sauce were generally higher than in buffer, and showed little difference at low and high pressure. Remarkably, the pH dependence of A. acidoterrestris spore germination was reversed in tomato sauce, with more germination at the lowest pH. Furthermore, HP treatments in the pH 4.2 sauce caused between 1 and 1.5 log inactivation of A. acidoterrestris. Germination of spores in the high pressure window was strongly temperature dependent, whereas germination of A. acidoterrestris in the low pressure window showed little temperature dependence. When HP treatment was conducted at 60°C, most of the germinated spores were also inactivated. For the pH 4.2 tomato sauce, this

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus coagulans NL01, a Wonderful l-Lactic Acid Producer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Jiang, Ting; Lin, Xi; Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus coagulans NL01, which could produce high optically pure l-lactic acid using xylose as a sole carbon source. The draft genome is 3,505,081 bp, with 144 contigs. About 3,903 protein-coding genes and 92 rRNAs are predicted from this assembly. PMID:26089419

  1. Production of lactic acid from hemicellulose extracts by Bacillus coagulans MXL-9

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 was found capable of growing on pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts, utilizing all of the principle monosugars found in woody biomass. This organism is a moderate thermophile isolated from compost for its pentose utilizing capabilities. It was found to have high tolerance f...

  2. Fermentation of Corn Fiber Hydrolysate to Lactic Acid by the Moderate Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composted manure from a dairy farm in Texas was examined for thermophilic microorganisms by enrichment in xylose broth medium. Forty randomly picked isolates were identified as strains of Bacillus coagulans by sequence analysis of rRNA genes. One strain, designated as MXL-9, could convert mixed su...

  3. Genetic tool development for a new host for biotechnology, the thermotolerant bacterium Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Akos T; van Hartskamp, Mariska; Kuipers, Oscar P; van Kranenburg, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Bacillus coagulans has good potential as an industrial production organism for platform chemicals from renewable resources but has limited genetic tools available. Here, we present a targeted gene disruption system using the Cre-lox system, development of a LacZ reporter assay for monitoring gene transcription, and heterologous d-lactate dehydrogenase expression.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2

    PubMed Central

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Pitta, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 is a potential spore-forming probiotic that is commercially available on the market. The draft genome sequence presented here provides deep insight into the beneficial features of this strain for its safe use as a probiotic for various human and animal health applications. PMID:27103709

  5. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  6. Occurrence of selected bacterial groups in the faeces of piglets fed with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Adami, A; Cavazzoni, V

    1999-01-01

    A microbiological analysis of piglet faeces was performed on samples collected from animals fed a diet without any additive, animals fed a diet that contained Bacillus coagulans CNCMI-1061 as probiotic, and animals fed a diet that contained Zn-bacitracin. The analysis was carried out in concurrence with a zootechnical trial. Selected bacterial groups (lactic acid bacteria, lacotococci, enterococci, aerobic and anaerobic cocci, total and faecal coliforms, clostridia, bacteroides, bifidobacteria) were determined at day 1 and after 1, 4 and 10 weeks of life. Numbers of enterococci, coliforms (especially faecal coliforms) showed a decrease over time with probiotic, more evident than with the antibiotic. Daily administration of B. coagulans allowed this bacterium to become integrated into the enteric microflora where it is transient. These results seem to show a positive effect of B. coagulans addition on cocci and faecal coliforms. We suggest that this probiotic may represent an alternative to antibiotics.

  7. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Bacillus coagulans HM-08: A potential lactic acid producer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guoqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-06-20

    Bacillus coagulans HM-08 is a commercialized probiotic strain in China. Its genome contains a 3.62Mb circular chromosome with an average GC content of 46.3%. In silico analysis revealed the presence of one xyl operon as well as several other genes that are correlated to xylose utilization. The genetic information provided here may help to expand its future biotechnology potential in lactic acid production.

  8. High temperature lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans immobilized in LentiKats.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Michal; Rebros, Martin; Kristofíková, Ludmila; Malátová, Katarína

    2005-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans spores were immobilized in polyvinylalcohol (PVA) hydrogel, lens-shaped capsules known as LentiKats. The immobilized spores were used in an anaerobic, non-sterile process in the repeated batch fermentations at 50 degrees C and produced lactic acid at 7.4 g l(-1) h(-1), which was double that of the free cell system. No mechanical deformation of the capsules and no contamination were observed.

  9. Effects of a proprietary Bacillus coagulans preparation on symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolin, B J

    2009-12-01

    Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have a profound impact on quality of life for many patients and current treatments are sometimes unsatisfactory. This controlled pilot study was conducted to evaluate effects of the proprietary GanedenBC(30) (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) probiotic on IBS symptoms, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). Patients were randomized to receive either B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 or placebo once a day for 8 weeks. Patients filled out a quality-of-life questionnaire, and self-assessment diaries were provided to record stool count and consistency, symptom severity, and medication consumption. Of the 61 patients enrolled, six did not meet the inclusion criteria and three were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 52 patients with IBS-D, the average number of bowel movements per day was significantly reduced for patients treated with B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 when compared to placebo (P = 0.042). Large variability in baseline scores prevented the assessment of severity scores and quality of life. This small pilot study provides evidence that the proprietary B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 probiotic is safe and effective for reducing daily bowel movements in patients with IBS-D.

  10. Systematic development and optimization of chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Dong, Fengqing; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    With determined components and experimental reducibility, the chemically defined medium (CDM) and the minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) are used in many metabolism and regulation studies. This research aimed to develop the chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans, which is a promising producer of lactic acid and other bio-chemicals. In this study, a systematic methodology combining the experimental technique with flux balance analysis (FBA) was proposed to design and simplify a CDM. The single omission technique and single addition technique were employed to determine the essential and stimulatory compounds, before the optimization of their concentrations by the statistical method. In addition, to improve the growth rationally, in silico omission and addition were performed by FBA based on the construction of a medium-size metabolic model of B. coagulans 36D1. Thus, CDMs were developed to obtain considerable biomass production of at least five B. coagulans strains, in which two model strains B. coagulans 36D1 and ATCC 7050 were involved.

  11. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  12. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  13. Genome sequence of the thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans 2-6, an efficient producer of high-optical-purity L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Yu, Bo; Sun, Jibin; Ou, Hong-Yu; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Limin; Qin, Jiayang; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Ma, Cuiqing; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an efficient producer of lactic acid. The genome of B. coagulans 2-6 has the smallest genome among the members of the genus Bacillus known to date. The frameshift mutation at the start of the d-lactate dehydrogenase sequence might be responsible for the production of high-optical-purity l-lactic acid.

  14. Development of plasmid vector and electroporation condition for gene transfer in sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Mun Su; Kim, Jin-Woo; Qian, Yilei; Ingram, L O; Shanmugam, K T

    2007-07-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium that ferments glucose and xylose, major components of plant biomass, a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. The temperature and pH for optimum rate of growth of B. coagulans (50 to 55 degrees C, pH 5.0) are very similar to that of commercially developed fungal cellulases (50 degrees C; pH 4.8). Due to this match, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to products by B. coagulans is expected to require less cellulase than needed if the SSF is conducted at a sub-optimal temperature, such as 30 degrees C, the optimum for yeast, the main biocatalyst used by the ethanol industry. To fully exploit B. coagulans as a platform organism, we have developed an electroporation method to transfer plasmid DNA into this genetically recalcitrant bacterium. We also constructed a B. coagulans/E. coli shuttle vector, plasmid pMSR10 that contains the rep region from a native plasmid (pMSR0) present in B. coagulans strain P4-102B. The native plasmid, pMSR0 (6823bp), has 9 ORFs, and replicates by rolling-circle mode of replication. Plasmid pNW33N, developed for Geobacillus stearothermophilus, was also transformed into this host and stably maintained while several other Bacillus/Escherichia coli shuttle vector plasmids were not transformed into B. coagulans. The transformation efficiency of B. coagulans strain P4-102B using the plasmids pNW33N or pMSR10 was about 1.5x10(16) per mole of DNA. The availability of shuttle vectors and an electroporation method is expected to aid in genetic and metabolic engineering of B. coagulans.

  15. Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production.

  16. Gene cloning and biochemical analysis of thermostable chitosanase (TCH-2) from Bacillus coagulans CK108.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ho-Geun; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Hee-Yun; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Hong, Bum-Shik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2002-05-01

    The DNA sequence of the thermostable chitosanase TCH-2 gene from Bacillus coagulans CK108 showed a 843-bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 280 amino acids with a signal peptide corresponding to 32 kDa in size. The deduced amino acid sequence of the chitosanase from Bacillus coagulans CK108 has 61.6%, 48.0%, and 12.6% identities to those from Bacillus ehemensis, Bacillus circulans, and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. C-Terminal homology analysis shows that the enzyme belongs to the Cluster I group. The size of the gene was similar to those from mesophiles of the Cluster I group with regard to higher preference for codons ending in G or C. The recombinant chitosanase was electrophoretically purified to homogeneity by only two steps with column chromatography. The half-life of the enzyme was 40 min at 90 degrees C. The purified protein was also highly stable, retaining above 50% residual activities during treatment with denaturants such as urea (8 M) and guanidine x HCl (4 M) at 37 degrees C for 30 min. The enzyme had a useful reactivity and a high specific activity for producing functional oligosaccharides as well, producing the tetramer as a major product.

  17. Cr(VI) reduction by Bacillus coagulans isolated from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, L.; Iyengar, L.; Venkobachar, C.

    1998-12-01

    Investigation on Cr(VI) reduction was conducted using bacteria isolated from soil samples receiving electroplating wastewater. Chromium reduction capacity of these isolates was compared with that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a pure culture procured from the Institute of Microbial Technology, as well as Bacillus circulans, a laboratory isolate from garden soil. Bacillus coagulans, isolated and identified from chromium polluted soil, gave maximum reduction potential among all organisms studied. Malate was found to yield maximum biotransformation out of four electron donors employed. B. coagulans was able to reduce Cr(VI) even at 10 mM initial Cr(VI) concentration. With an increase in initial cell density, Cr(VI) reduction capacity was also increased; however, maximum specific biotransformation occurred at low cell densities. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) reduction was 7. Sulphates and nitrates did not compete with Cr(VI) for accepting the electrons. The presence of respiratory inhibitors like DNP and NaN{sub 3} marginally reduced the Cr(VI) reduction capacity. Cell free extracts were able to reduce Cr(VI) even in the absence of external electron donors; however, marginal increase was found in the presence of malate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The contribution of cell membrane in Cr(VI) reduction was negligible. Hence, the soluble enzymes appear to be responsible for Cr(VI) reduction by B. coagulans.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Chertkov, Olga; Land, Miriam L

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brelan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas S; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Pitluck, Sam; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, T; Dalin, E; Tice, H; Bruce, D; Goodwin, L; Chertkov, O; Brettin, T; Han, C; Detter, C; Pitluck, S; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-12-31

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  2. Polyphasic characterization of Bacillus coagulans strains, illustrating heterogeneity within this species, and emended description of the species.

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Elke; Rodriguez-Diaz, Marina; Forsyth, Gillian; Lebbe, Liesbeth; Logan, Niall A; DeVos, Paul

    2004-02-01

    Because of its food spoiling capacity on the one hand and its significant role in the production of industrially valuable products on the other, Bacillus coagulans is of economic concern. Several studies have revealed a great deal of diversity within the species and this has led to a number of taxonomic adjustments. The present study aims to clarify the diversity within Bacillus coagulans sensu stricto and determine the taxonomic status of the species. Therefore, a polyphasic study was performed on a set of B. coagulans strains from diverse habitats. Techniques as ARDRA, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins, FAME analysis, routine phenotypic tests and rep-PCR illustrate considerable intra-species heterogeneity, while 16S rDNA sequence comparison and DNA-DNA relatedness support the accommodation of these strains in one species. Although most techniques demonstrate appreciable heterogeneity among the Bacillus coagulans strains, the intraspecies groupings are not consistent throughout all the methods applied and are not supported by any economic, historic or practical traits. Therefore, a division in subspecies seems inappropriate. In attempt to achieve a better species delineation, an emended description of Bacillus coagulans is included.

  3. Coagulin, a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance produced by Bacillus coagulans I4.

    PubMed

    Hyronimus, B; Le Marrec, C; Urdaci, M C

    1998-07-01

    A protease-sensitive antibacterial substance produced by Bacillus coagulans I4 strain, isolated from cattle faeces, was classified as a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance and named coagulin. The inhibitory spectrum included B. coagulans and unrelated bacteria such as Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Listeria and Pediococcus. Coagulin was stable at 60 degrees C for 90 min, at a pH ranging from 4 to 8 and appeared to be unaffected by alpha-amylase, lipase or organic solvents (10% v/v). Coagulin exhibited a bactericidal and a bacteriolytic mode of action against indicator cells. The apparent molecular mass was estimated to be about 3-4 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The B. coagulans I4 strain harbours a plasmid, pI4, approximately 14 kb in size. Novobiocin curing experiments yielded two derivatives that no longer produced the bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance. Plasmid content of these two derivatives showed that one had lost pI4, whereas the second harboured a deleted form of this plasmid, thus suggesting a plasmid location for the genes for coagulin production.

  4. Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel Probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Endres, J R; Clewell, A; Jade, K A; Farber, T; Hauswirth, J; Schauss, A G

    2009-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that some strains of Bacillus coagulans can survive extremes of heat, acidity of the stomach, and bile acids, to which commonly consumed probiotics are susceptible. A toxicological safety assessment was performed on a proprietary preparation of B. coagulans - GanedenBC(30) - a novel probiotic. Seven toxicologic studies were conducted and included: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay; in vitro chromosomal aberration assay; micronucleus assay in mice; acute and 90 day subchronic repeated oral toxicity studies were conducted in Wistar Crl:(WI) BR rats; acute eye and skin irritation studies were conducted in rabbits. The results of this toxicological safety assessment indicate that GanedenBC(30)B. coagulans does not demonstrate mutagenic, clastogenic, or genotoxic effects. Furthermore, the results of the acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats resulted in the conclusion of a NOAEL greater than 1000 mg/kg per day. Since the concentration of the cell mass used in the 90-day study was 1.36 x 10(11) CFUs/g, this corresponds to 95.2 x 10(11) CFUs for a 70 kg human and since the suggested human dose is in the range of 100 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(9) CFUs, this gives a safety factor ranging from 3173 to 95,200 times. Based upon scientific procedures and supported by history of use, GanedenBC(30) is considered safe for chronic human consumption.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of Bacillus coagulans-loaded hypromellose mucoadhesive microspheres.

    PubMed

    Alli, Sk Md Athar

    2011-01-01

    Development of a novel delivery system has been attempted to deliver viable probiotic cells into the gut for a prolonged period of time while maintaining high numbers of viable cells within the formulation throughout the shelf-life of the product and during the gastrointestinal transit. Core mucoadhesive microspheres of Bacillus coagulans were developed employing several grades of hypromellose, a mucoadhesive polymer, following coacervation and phase separation technique and were subsequently enteric-coated with hypromellose phthalate. Microspheres were evaluated for percent yield; entrapment efficiency; in vitro swelling; surface morphology; particle size, size distribution, and zeta potential; flow property, mucoadhesion property by the ex vivo mucoadhesive strength test and the in vitro wash off test; in vitro release profile and release kinetic; in vivo probiotic activity; and stability. The values for the kinetic constant and regression coefficient of model-dependent approaches and the difference factor (f(1)), the similarity factor (f(2)), and the Rescigno index (ξ(1) and ξ(2)) of model independent approaches were determined for comparing in vitro dissolution profiles. Freeze dried B. coagulans cells were successfully formulated as enteric-coated mucoadhesive microspheres with satisfactory physical structure and yield. The viability of B. coagulans was maintained in the simulated gastric conditions and during processing; in simulated intestinal conditions exhibiting mucoadhesion, and controlling and extending the viable cell release following zero-order; and was satisfactorily stable at room temperature. Test results depict statistically significant effects of the hypromellose grade and their concentration on the performance and release profile of formulations.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Strain Bacillus coagulans2-6, an Efficient Producer of High-Optical-Purity l-Lactic Acid ▿

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Yu, Bo; Sun, Jibin; Ou, Hong-Yu; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Limin; Qin, Jiayang; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Ma, Cuiqing; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans2-6 is an efficient producer of lactic acid. The genome of B. coagulans2-6 has the smallest genome among the members of the genus Bacillusknown to date. The frameshift mutation at the start of the d-lactate dehydrogenase sequence might be responsible for the production of high-optical-purity l-lactic acid. PMID:21705584

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, a Widely Used Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain

    PubMed Central

    Orrù, Luigi; Salvetti, Elisa; Cattivelli, Luigi; Lamontanara, Antonella; Michelotti, Vania; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe; Keller, David; Cash, Howard; Martina, Alessia; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 is a safe strain, already available on the market, and characterized by certified beneficial effects. The draft genome sequence presented here constitutes the first pillar toward the identification of the molecular mechanisms responsible for its positive features and safety. PMID:25377698

  8. Genome sequence of the thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans XZL4, an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Bo; Tai, Cui; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Bacillus coagulans XZL4 is an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of important platform compounds, such as l-lactic acid, 2,3-butanediol, and acetoin. Here we present a 2.8-Mb assembly of its genome. Simple and efficient carbohydrate metabolism systems, especially the transketolase/transaldolase pathway, make it possible to convert pentose sugars to products at high levels.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, a Widely Used Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Luigi; Salvetti, Elisa; Cattivelli, Luigi; Lamontanara, Antonella; Michelotti, Vania; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe; Keller, David; Cash, Howard; Martina, Alessia; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2014-11-06

    Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 is a safe strain, already available on the market, and characterized by certified beneficial effects. The draft genome sequence presented here constitutes the first pillar toward the identification of the molecular mechanisms responsible for its positive features and safety.

  10. Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel Probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Endres, J.R.; Clewell, A.; Jade, K.A.; Farber, T.; Hauswirth, J.; Schauss, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that some strains of Bacillus coagulans can survive extremes of heat, acidity of the stomach, and bile acids, to which commonly consumed probiotics are susceptible. A toxicological safety assessment was performed on a proprietary preparation of B. coagulans – GanedenBC30™ – a novel probiotic. Seven toxicologic studies were conducted and included: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay; in vitro chromosomal aberration assay; micronucleus assay in mice; acute and 90 day subchronic repeated oral toxicity studies were conducted in Wistar Crl:(WI) BR rats; acute eye and skin irritation studies were conducted in rabbits. The results of this toxicological safety assessment indicate that GanedenBC30™B. coagulans does not demonstrate mutagenic, clastogenic, or genotoxic effects. Furthermore, the results of the acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats resulted in the conclusion of a NOAEL greater than 1000 mg/kg per day. Since the concentration of the cell mass used in the 90-day study was 1.36 × 1011 CFUs/g, this corresponds to 95.2 × 1011 CFUs for a 70 kg human and since the suggested human dose is in the range of 100 × 106 to 3 × 109 CFUs, this gives a safety factor ranging from 3173 to 95,200 times. Based upon scientific procedures and supported by history of use, GanedenBC30™ is considered safe for chronic human consumption. PMID:19248815

  11. A comparative proteomic analysis of Bacillus coagulans in response to lactate stress during the production of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuwen; Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Landong; Xu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    The growth rate and maximum biomass of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 were inhibited by lactate; inhibition by sodium lactate was stronger than by calcium lactate. The differences of protein expressions by B. coagulans 2-6 under the lactate stress were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric identification. Under the non-stress condition, calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, the number of detected protein spots was 1,571 ± 117, 1,281 ± 231 and 904 ± 127, respectively. Four proteins with high expression under lactate stress were identified: lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, aldo/keto reductase and ribosomal protein L7/L12. These proteins are thus potential targets for the reconstruction of B. coagulans to promote its resistance to lactate stress.

  12. In vitro evaluation of bioremediation capacity of a commercial probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, for chromium (VI) and lead (II) toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Kar, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The bioaccumulation of heavy metals including chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) and lead (II) (Pb (II)) causes fatal toxicity in humans. Some naturally occurring bacterial genera such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas help in bioremediation of these heavy metals and some of the species of Bacillus are proven probiotics. However, no study has been conducted on Bacillus coagulans, which is a proven probiotic species of genus Bacillus. Objectives: The primary objective of the present study was to assess the potential of a proven probiotic, B. coagulans, marketed as “Sporlac-DS,” to survive in the presence of Cr (VI) and Pb (II) and its ability to reduce its concentration in vitro. Materials and Methods: The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the organism for Cr (VI) and Pb (II) was determined followed by its biochemical and morphological characterization. Its antibiotic sensitivity and probiotic efficacy were assessed. Further, its bioremediation capacity was observed in vitro by determining the residual Cr (VI) and Pb (II) concentration after 72 h. Results: B. coagulans could tolerate up to 512 ppm concentration of Cr (VI) and had an MIC of 128 ppm for Pb (II). After 72 h, the organism reduced 32 ppm Cr (VI) and 64 ppm Pb (II) by 93% and 89%, respectively. When B. coagulans was studied before and after growing on Cr (VI) and Pb (II) for 24 h, an increase was seen in sensitivity toward the tested antibiotics whereas no change was observed in morphological and biochemical characters. It also showed no change in their bile and acid tolerance, indicating that it retains its probiotic efficacy. Conclusion: The tested probiotic B. coagulans may have a potential role in bioremediation of Cr (VI) and Pb (II), in vivo. PMID:28216949

  13. Bacteriocinogenic potential of a probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans [BDU3] from Ngari.

    PubMed

    Abdhul, Kaja; Ganesh, Mohan; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Vanithamani, Shanmugam; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2015-08-01

    Bacteriocin producing strain BDU3 was isolated from a traditional fermented fish of Manipur Ngari. The strain BDU3 was identified as Bacillus coagulans by phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The BDU3 produced novel bacteriocin, which showed an antimicrobial spectrum toward a wide spectrum of food borne, and closely related pathogens with a MIC that ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 μg/mL. The isolate was able to tolerate pH as low as 2.0 and up to 0.2% bile salt concentration. Three step purification was employed to increase the specific activity of the antimicrobial compound. The fractions were further chromatographed by Rp-HPLC C-18 column and the purified bacteriocin had a specific activity of ∼8500 AU/mg. However, the potency of bacteriocin was susceptible to digestion with Proteinase K, Pepsin, SDS, EDTA and Urea. Molecular mass of purified bacteriocin was found to be 1.4 kDa using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). The functional group was revealed by FTIR analysis. The cytotoxicity assay (MTT) using purified bacteriocin showed 2 times lower EC50 values compared to SDS. This is the smaller bacteriocin ever reported before from B. coagulans with greater antimicrobial potency with lower cytotoxicity. This bacteriocin raises the possibilities to be used as a biopreservative in food industries.

  14. Enhanced L-lactic acid production from biomass-derived xylose by a mutant Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Cai, Cong; Jiang, Ting; Zhao, Mingyue; Ouyang, Jia

    2014-08-01

    Xylose effective utilization is crucial for production of bulk chemicals from low-cost lignocellulosic substrates. In this study, an efficient L-lactate production process from xylose by a mutant Bacillus coagulans NL-CC-17 was demonstrated. The nutritional requirements for L-lactate production by B. coagulans NL-CC-17 were optimized statistically in shake flask fermentations. Corn steep liquor powder and yeast exact were identified as the most significant factors by the two-level Plackett-Burman design. Steepest ascent experiments were applied to approach the optimal region of the two factors, and a central composite design was employed to determine their optimal levels. The optimal medium was used to perform batch fermentation in a 3-l bioreactor. A maximum of 90.29 g l(-1)  L-lactic acid was obtained from 100 g l(-1) xylose in 120 h. When using corn stove prehydrolysates as substrates, 23.49 g l(-1)  L-lactic acid was obtained in 36 h and the yield was 83.09 %.

  15. Fermentation of corn fiber hydrolysate to lactic acid by the moderate thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Hughes, Stephen R; Rich, Joseph O

    2010-06-01

    A strain of Bacillus coagulans that converted mixed sugars of glucose, xylose, and arabinose to L: -lactic acid with 85% yield at 50 degrees C was isolated from composted dairy manure. The strain was tolerant to aldehyde growth inhibitors at 2.5 g furfural/l, 2.5 g 5-hydroxymethylfurfural/l, 2.5 g vanillin/l, and 1.2 g p-hydroxybenzaldehyde/l. In a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, the strain converted a dilute-acid hydrolysate of 100 g corn fiber/l to 39 g lactic acid/l in 72 h at 50 degrees C. Because of its inhibitor tolerance and ability to fully utilize pentose sugars, this strain has potential to be developed as a biocatalyst for the conversion of agricultural residues into valuable chemicals.

  16. Synthesis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate using molecular sieve-immobilized lipase from Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Raghuvanshi, Shilpa; Gupta, Reena

    2009-03-01

    Extracellular lipase from Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was immobilized on (3 A x 1.5 mm) molecular sieve. The molecular sieve showed approximately 68.48% binding efficiency for lipase (specific activity 55 IU mg(-1)). The immobilized enzyme achieved approx 90% conversion of acetic acid and 4-nitrophenol (100 mM each) into 4-nitrophenyl acetate in n-heptane at 65 degrees C in 3 h. When alkane of C-chain length other than n-heptane was used as the organic solvent, the conversion of 4-nitrophenol and acetic acid was found to decrease. About 88.6% conversion of the reactants into ester was achieved when reactants were used at molar ratio of 1:1. The immobilized lipase brought about conversion of approximately 58% for esterification of 4-nitrophenol and acetic acid into 4-nitrophenyl acetate at a temperature of 65 degrees C after reuse for 5 cycles.

  17. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    PubMed

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design.

  18. Production of lactic acid from hemicellulose extracts by Bacillus coagulans MXL-9.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sara L; Bischoff, Kenneth M; van Heiningen, Adriaan R P; van Walsum, G Peter

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 was found capable of growing on pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts, utilizing all of the principle monosugars found in woody biomass. This organism is a moderate thermophile isolated from compost for its pentose-utilizing capabilities. It was found to have high tolerance for inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium, which are present in pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts. Fermentation of 20 g/l xylose in the presence of 30 g/l acetic acid required a longer lag phase but overall lactic acid yield was not diminished. Similarly, fermentation of xylose in the presence of 20 g/l sodium increased the lag time but did not affect overall product yield, though 30 g/l sodium proved completely inhibitory. Fermentation of hot water-extracted Siberian larch containing 45 g/l total monosaccharides, mainly galactose and arabinose, produced 33 g/l lactic acid in 60 h and completely consumed all sugars. Small amounts of co-products were formed, including acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Hemicellulose extract formed during autohydrolysis of mixed hardwoods contained mainly xylose and was converted into lactic acid with a 94% yield. Green liquor-extracted hardwood hemicellulose containing 10 g/l acetic acid and 6 g/l sodium was also completely converted into lactic acid at a 72% yield. The Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 strain was found to be well suited to production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass due to its compatibility with conditions favorable to industrial enzymes and its ability to withstand inhibitors while rapidly consuming all pentose and hexose sugars of interest at high product yields.

  19. Heterologous expression and characterization of Bacillus coagulans L-arabinose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingding; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Bacillus coagulans has been of great commercial interest over the past decade owing to its strong ability of producing optical pure L: -lactic acid from both hexose and pentose sugars including L: -arabinose with high yield, titer and productivity under thermophilic conditions. The L: -arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from Bacillus coagulans was heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of the L-AI has 1,422 nucleotides encoding a protein with 474 amino acid residues. The recombinant L-AI was purified to homogeneity by one-step His-tag affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 56 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at 70°C and pH 7.0. The metal ion Mn(2+) was shown to be the best activator for enzymatic activity and thermostability. The enzyme showed higher activity at acidic pH than at alkaline pH. The kinetic studies showed that the K (m), V (max) and k (cat)/K (m) for the conversion of L: -arabinose were 106 mM, 84 U/mg and 34.5 mM(-1)min(-1), respectively. The equilibrium ratio of L: -arabinose to L: -ribulose was 78:22 under optimal conditions. L: -ribulose (97 g/L) was obtained from 500 g/l of L: -arabinose catalyzed by the enzyme (8.3 U/mL) under the optimal conditions within 1.5 h, giving at a substrate conversion of 19.4% and a production rate of 65 g L(-1) h(-1).

  20. Application of the broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 to inhibit Bacillus coagulans in canned fruit and vegetable foods.

    PubMed

    Lucas, R; Grande, M A J; Abriouel, H; Maqueda, M; Ben Omar, N; Valdivia, E; Martínez-Cañamero, M; Gálvez, A

    2006-10-01

    The enterococcal bacteriocin (enterocin) AS-48 is a broad-spectrum cyclic peptide. Enterocin AS-48 was tested against Bacillus coagulans in three vegetable canned foods: tomato paste (pH 4.64), syrup from canned peaches (pH 3.97), and juice from canned pineapple (pH 3.65). When vegetative cells of B. coagulans CECT (Spanish Type Culture Collection) 12 were inoculated in tomato paste supplemented with 6 microg/ml AS-48 and stored at different temperatures, viable cell counts were reduced by approximately 2.37 (4 degrees C), 4.3 (22 degrees C) and 3.0 (37 degrees C) log units within 24 h storage. After 15-days storage, no viable cells were detected in any sample. Strain B. coagulans CECT 561 showed a poor survival in tomato paste, but surviving cells were also killed by AS-48. The bacteriocin was also very active against B. coagulans CECT 12 vegetative cells in juice from canned pineapple stored at 22 degrees C, and slightly less active in syrup from canned peaches. In food samples supplemented with 1.5% lactic acid, enterocin AS-48 (6 microg/ml) rapidly reduced viable counts of vegetative cells below detection limits within 24 h storage. Addition of glucose and sucrose (10% and 20%) significantly increased bacteriocin activity against vegetative cells of B. coagulans CECT 12. Enterocin AS-48 had no significant effect on B. coagulans CECT 12 spores. However, the combined application of AS-48 and heat (80-95 degrees C for 5 min) significantly increased the effect of thermal treatments on spores.

  1. Highly efficient production of L-lactic acid from xylose by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans C106.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lidan; Zhou, Xingding; Hudari, Mohammad Sufian Bin; Li, Zhi; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-03-01

    Cost-effective production of optically pure lactic acid from lignocellulose sugars is commercially attractive but challenging. Bacillus coagulans C106 was isolated from environment and used to produce l-lactic acid from xylose at 50°C and pH 6.0 in mineral salts medium containing 1-2% (w/v) of yeast extract without sterilizing the medium before fermentation. In batch fermentation with 85g/L of xylose, lactic acid titer and productivity reached 83.6g/L and 7.5g/Lh, respectively. When fed-batch (120+80+60g/L) fermentation was applied, they reached 215.7g/L and 4.0g/Lh, respectively. In both cases, the lactic acid yield and optical purity reached 95% and 99.6%, respectively. The lactic acid titer and productivity on xylose are the highest among those ever reported. Ca(OH)2 was found to be a better neutralizing agent than NaOH in terms of its giving higher lactic acid titer (1.2-fold) and productivity (1.8-fold) under the same conditions.

  2. Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Strain Bacillus coagulans XZL4, an Efficient Pentose-Utilizing Producer of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Bo; Tai, Cui; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans XZL4 is an efficient pentose-utilizing producer of important platform compounds, such as l-lactic acid, 2,3-butanediol, and acetoin. Here we present a 2.8-Mb assembly of its genome. Simple and efficient carbohydrate metabolism systems, especially the transketolase/transaldolase pathway, make it possible to convert pentose sugars to products at high levels. PMID:22038963

  3. Contributory roles of two l-lactate dehydrogenases for l-lactic acid production in thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lifan; Zhang, Caili; Lyu, Pengcheng; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans is considered to be a more promising producer for bio-chemicals, due to its capacity to withstand harsh conditions. Two L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) encoding genes (ldhL1 and ldhL2) and one D-LDH encoding gene (ldhD) were annotated from the B. coagulans DSM1 genome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of ldhL2 was undetectable while the ldhL1 transcription level was much higher than that of ldhD at all growth phases. Deletion of the ldhL2 gene revealed no difference in fermentation profile compared to the wild-type strain, while ldhL1 single deletion or ldhL1ldhL2 double deletion completely blocked L-lactic acid production. Complementation of ldhL1 in the above knockout strains restored fermentation profiles to those observed in the wild-type strain. This study demonstrates ldhL1 is crucial for L-lactic acid production and NADH balance in B. coagulans DSM1 and lays the fundamental for engineering the thermotolerant B. coagulans strain as a platform chemicals producer. PMID:27885267

  4. Production of high concentration of L-lactic acid from cellobiose by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4.

    PubMed

    Ong, Shufen Angeline; Ng, Zhi Jian; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2016-07-01

    Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 is found to be able to convert cellobiose to optically pure L-lactic acid. Its β-glucosidase activity is detected in whole cells (7.3 U/g dry cells) but not in culture medium, indicating the intracellular location of the enzyme. Its β-glucosidase activity is observed only when cultured using cellobiose as the sole carbon source, indicating that the expression of this enzyme is tightly regulated in cells. The enzyme is most active at 50 °C and pH 7.0. The supplement of external β-glucosidase during fermentation of cellobiose (106 g/l) by B. coagulans WCP10-4 increased the fermentation time from 21 to 23 h and decreased the lactic acid yield from 96.1 to 92.9 % compared to the control without β-glucosidase supplementation. B. coagulans WCP10-4 converted 200 g/l of cellobiose to 196.3 g/l of L-lactic acid at a yield of 97.8 % and a productivity of 7.01 g/l/h. This result shows that B. coagulans WCP10-4 is a highly efficient strain for converting cellobiose to L-lactic acid without the need of supplementing external β-glucosidases.

  5. Contributory roles of two l-lactate dehydrogenases for l-lactic acid production in thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifan; Zhang, Caili; Lyu, Pengcheng; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo

    2016-11-25

    Thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans is considered to be a more promising producer for bio-chemicals, due to its capacity to withstand harsh conditions. Two L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) encoding genes (ldhL1 and ldhL2) and one D-LDH encoding gene (ldhD) were annotated from the B. coagulans DSM1 genome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of ldhL2 was undetectable while the ldhL1 transcription level was much higher than that of ldhD at all growth phases. Deletion of the ldhL2 gene revealed no difference in fermentation profile compared to the wild-type strain, while ldhL1 single deletion or ldhL1ldhL2 double deletion completely blocked L-lactic acid production. Complementation of ldhL1 in the above knockout strains restored fermentation profiles to those observed in the wild-type strain. This study demonstrates ldhL1 is crucial for L-lactic acid production and NADH balance in B. coagulans DSM1 and lays the fundamental for engineering the thermotolerant B. coagulans strain as a platform chemicals producer.

  6. The effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on rat intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Abhari, Kh; Shekarforoush, S. S; Sajedianfard, J; Hosseinzadeh, S; Nazifi, S

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans spores, with and without prebiotic, inulin, on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota of healthy rats and its potentiality to survive in the GI tract. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet supplied with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 109/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (synbiotic). Rats were fed the diets for 30 days. At day 10, 20 and 30 of experiment, 24 h post administration, four rats from each group were randomly selected and after faecal collection were sacrificed. Small intestine, cecum, and colon were excised from each rat and used for microbial analysis. Administration of synbiotic and probiotic diets led to a significant (P<0.05) increment in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total aerobic and total anaerobic population compared the prebiotic and control diets. A significant decrease in Enterobacteriaceae counts of various segments of GI tract (except small intestine) in synbiotic, probiotic and prebiotic fed groups were also seen. The obvious decline in spores count through passing GI tract and high surviving spore counts in faecal samples showed that spores are not a normal resident of GI microbiota and affect intestinal microbiota by temporary proliferation. In conclusion, the present study clearly showed probiotic B. coagulans was efficient in beneficially modulating GI microbiota and considering transitional characteristics of B. coagulans, daily consumption of probiotic products is necessary for any long-term effect. PMID:27175187

  7. The effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on rat intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Abhari, Kh; Shekarforoush, S S; Sajedianfard, J; Hosseinzadeh, S; Nazifi, S

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans spores, with and without prebiotic, inulin, on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota of healthy rats and its potentiality to survive in the GI tract. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet supplied with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 10(9)/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 10(9) spores/day of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (synbiotic). Rats were fed the diets for 30 days. At day 10, 20 and 30 of experiment, 24 h post administration, four rats from each group were randomly selected and after faecal collection were sacrificed. Small intestine, cecum, and colon were excised from each rat and used for microbial analysis. Administration of synbiotic and probiotic diets led to a significant (P<0.05) increment in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total aerobic and total anaerobic population compared the prebiotic and control diets. A significant decrease in Enterobacteriaceae counts of various segments of GI tract (except small intestine) in synbiotic, probiotic and prebiotic fed groups were also seen. The obvious decline in spores count through passing GI tract and high surviving spore counts in faecal samples showed that spores are not a normal resident of GI microbiota and affect intestinal microbiota by temporary proliferation. In conclusion, the present study clearly showed probiotic B. coagulans was efficient in beneficially modulating GI microbiota and considering transitional characteristics of B. coagulans, daily consumption of probiotic products is necessary for any long-term effect.

  8. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01) in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05) in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats. PMID:27536040

  9. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-04-01

    A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain's promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid-liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose.

  10. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%.

  11. Applications of β-gal-III isozyme from Bacillus coagulans RCS3, in lactose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Batra, Navneet; Singh, Jagtar; Joshi, Amit; Bhatia, Sonu

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans RCS3 isolated from hot water springs secreted five isozymes i.e. β-gal I-V of β-galactosidase. β-gal III isozyme was purified using DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G 100 column chromatography. Its molecular weight characterization showed a single band at 315kD in Native PAGE, while two subunits of 50.1 and 53.7 kD in SDS PAGE. β-Gal III had pH optima in the range of 6-7 and temperature optima at 65°C. It preferred nitro-aryl-β-d-galactoside as substrate having K(m) of 4.16 mM with ONPG. More than 85% and 80% hydrolysis of lactose (1-5%, w/v) was recorded within 48 h of incubation at 55°C and 50°C respectively and pH range of 6-7. About 78-86% hydrolysis of lactose in various brands of standardized milk was recorded at incubation temperature of 50°C. These results marked the applications of β-gal III in processing of milk/whey industry.

  12. Effect of Probiotic Bacillus Coagulans and Lactobacillus Plantarum on Alleviation of Mercury Toxicity in Rat.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Majid; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ghaisari, Hamid Reza; Nazifi, Saeid; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-01-13

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus coagulans) against mercury-induced toxicity using a rat model. Mercury (Hg) is a widespread heavy metal and was shown to be associated with various diseases. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, mercury-only, each probiotic-only, and mercury plus each probiotic group). Hg-treated groups received 10 ppm mercuric chloride, and probiotic groups were administrated 1 × 10(9) CFU of probiotics daily for 48 days. Levels of mercury were determined using cold vapor technique, and some biochemical factors (list like glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), creatinine, urea, bilirubin, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST)) were measured to evaluate changes in oxidative stress. Oral administration of either probiotic was found to provide significant protection against mercury toxicity by decreasing the mercury level in the liver and kidney and preventing alterations in the levels of GPx and SOD. Probiotic treatment generated marked reduction in the levels of creatinine, urea, bilirubin, ALT, and AST indicating the positive influence of the probiotics on the adverse effects of Hg in the body.

  13. Production and characterization of a thermostable beta-galactosidase from Bacillus coagulans RCS3.

    PubMed

    Batra, Navneet; Singh, Jagtar; Banerjee, Uttam C; Patnaik, Pratap R; Sobti, Ranbir C

    2002-08-01

    A strain of Bacillus coagulans RCS3 isolated from a hot-water spring produced significant beta-galactosidase activity at 10 days of growth in a flask. While enzyme production was maximum at 50 degrees C, the highest activity was at 65 degrees C, where the half-life was 2 h. A 2 degrees C decrease in temperature increased the half-life to 15 h without significantly changing the activity, suggesting that 63 degrees C is the temperature of preference compared with 65 degrees C for a combination of good activity and stability. The beta-galactosidase was also stable over pH 5-8, with peak activity at pH 6-7. It was strongly and competitively inhibited by the hydrolysis product galactose. Bivalent cations (Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Hg(2+)) in the concentration range of 0.5-2.0 mM also inhibited enzyme activity. Both lactose solution and whey could be hydrolysed substantially within 36 h at 50 degrees C. The thermostability and pH-stability and good hydrolytic capability make this enzyme potentially useful in the dairy industry.

  14. Survival of heated Bacillus coagulans spores in a medium acidified with lactic or citric acid.

    PubMed

    Palop, A; Marco, A; Raso, J; Sala, F J; Condón, S

    1997-08-19

    The influence of the intensity of heat treatments on the capacity of citric or lactic acid to prevent growth of survivors of Bacillus coagulans spores after 10 days storage at 35 degrees C was studied. In most cases, the number of survivors during storage decreased. The extent of this spore inactivation depended on the intensity of previous heat treatment and the pH of the medium and the acidulant used. The inactivating effect of storage was pronounced even at pH values less acidic than those used by the canning industry. Citric acid was more effective than lactic acid on spores given only low heat treatments, but lactic was more effective against those given more severe heat treatments. The severity of heat treatment required for lactic to be more effective than citric acid increased with pH of the medium. Heat treatment also required increased pH for heated spores to grow. pH 4.6, regardless of acidulant used, was unable to prevent growth of unheated spores but a less acidic pH (pH 5.2) did prevent growth even when spores had been given only mild heat treatments (10 s at 100 degrees C).

  15. Efficient non-sterilized fermentation of biomass-derived xylose to lactic acid by a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans NL01.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jia; Cai, Cong; Chen, Hai; Jiang, Ting; Zheng, Zhaojuan

    2012-12-01

    Xylose is the major pentose and the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic feedstock. Its efficient utilization is regarded as a technical barrier to the commercial production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. This work aimed at evaluating the lactic acid production from the biomass-derived xylose using non-sterilized fermentation by Bacillus coagulans NL01. A maximum lactic acid concentration of about 75 g/L was achieved from xylose of 100 g/L after 72 h batch fermentation. Acetic acid and levulinic acid were identified as important inhibitors in xylose fermentation, which markedly reduced lactic acid productivity at 15 and 1.0 g/L, respectively. But low concentrations of formic acid (<2 g/L) exerted a stimulating effect on the lactic acid production. When prehydrolysate containing total 25.45 g/L monosaccharide was fermented with B. coagulans NL01, the same preference for glucose, xylose, and arabinose was observed and18.2 g/L lactic acid was obtained after 48 h fermentation. These results proved that B. coagulans NL01 was potentially well-suited for producing lactic acid from underutilized xylose-rich prehydrolysates.

  16. Clinical Study of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 (ATCC PTA-11748) in the Treatment of Patients with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Ratna Sudha, M; Yelikar, Kanan A; Deshpande, Sonali

    2012-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent vaginal infection worldwide and is characterized by reduction of native lactobacilli. Antimicrobial therapy used to cure the disease is often found to be ineffective. We postulate that Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 (Unique Biotech Limited, India) might provide an appendage to antimicrobial treatment and improve curing rate. In the present study 40 Indian women diagnosed with BV by the presence of symptoms including white discharge, pH greater than 4.7, burning micturation, itching, soreness and redness at vulva. The subjects were divided in 2 groups probiotic (n = 20) and control (n = 20) based on age (control group, 33 ± 3 years and probiotic group, 32.5 ± 3 years), history of previous vaginosis (control group, 75% or 15/20 and probiotic group, 75% or 15/20) and severity of current vaginosis infection (burning micturation and itching, 35% in each group). Probiotic group subjects were assigned to receive a dose of antibiotic therapy [Ofloxacin-Ornidazole with strength of 200-500 mg per capsule/day for 5 days along with vaginal peccaries (co-kimaxazol) for 3 days] simultaneously with two probiotic capsules (10(9) CFUs of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 per capsule). The control group received only antibiotic therapy. At the end of the treatment the 80% of probiotic group subjects showed significant positive response as revealed by reduction of vaginosis symptoms compared to the control group which exhibited reduction in 45% subjects only. Thus, the results of present study indicate that strain Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 can provide benefits to women being treated with antibiotics to cure an infectious condition.

  17. Potential probiotic attributes of a new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shao-Bin; Zhao, Li-Na; Wu, Ying; Li, Shi-Chang; Sun, Jian-Rui; Huang, Jing-Fang; Li, Dan-Dan

    2015-06-01

    A new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9551, which has a broad range of antibacterial activities against six main pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O8, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Streptococcus suis, Listeria monocytogenes and Pasteurella multocida, was isolated from healthy piglet feces. In adhesion assay, the isolate exhibited a stronger adhesion to pig intestinal mucus than that of B. subtilis JT143 and L. acidophilus LY24 respectively isolated from BioPlus(®)2B and FloraFIT(®) Probiotics (P < 0.05). The adhesion activity reached 44.5 ± 3.2, 48.9 ± 2.6, 42.6 ± 3.3 and 37.6 ± 2.4% to jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and sigmoid colon, separately. The survival rate of B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 was reduced by only 20% at 4 h exposure under 0.9% w/v bile salt. The strain was fully resistant to pH 2 for 2 h with 90.1 ± 3.5% survival and susceptible to 15 antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine. Additionally, the bacteria showed amylase, protease and cellulase activities. The safety assessment demonstrated the lack of toxicity potential in B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 by ligated rabbit ileal loop assay, acute and subchronic toxicity test. These results implied that that the new strain of B. coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces has promising probiotic characteristics and offers desirable opportunities for its successful commercialization as one excellent candidate probiotic.

  18. Bacillus coagulans tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in aqueous and solid-state thermophilic culture.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Christopher W; Reddy, Amitha P; Vandergheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) to disrupt the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose and make polysaccharides accessible to hydrolytic enzymes is an emerging technology for biomass pretreatment in lignocellulosic biofuel production. Despite efforts to reclaim and recycle IL from pretreated biomass, residual IL can be inhibitory to microorganisms used for downstream fermentation. As a result, pathways for IL tolerance are needed to improve the activity of fermentative organisms in the presence of IL. In this study, microbial communities from compost were cultured under high-solids and thermophilic conditions in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ILs to enrich for IL-tolerant microorganisms. A strain of Bacillus coagulans isolated from an IL-tolerant community was grown in liquid and solid-state culture in the presence of the ILs 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) to gauge IL tolerance. Viability and respiration varied with the concentration of IL applied and the type of IL used. B. coagulans maintained growth and respiration in the presence of 4 wt% IL, a concentration similar to that present on IL-pretreated biomass. In the presence of both [C2mim][OAc] and [C2mim][Cl] in liquid culture, B. coagulans grew at a rate approximately half that observed in the absence of IL. However, in solid-state culture, the bacteria were significantly more tolerant to [C2mim][Cl] compared with [C2mim][OAc]. B. coagulans tolerance to IL under industrially relevant conditions makes it a promising bacterium for understanding mechanisms of IL tolerance and discovering IL tolerance pathways for use in other microorganisms, particularly those used in bioconversion of IL-pretreated plant biomass.

  19. [Inhibition of Bacillus coagulans growth in laboratory media and in fruit purees].

    PubMed

    Cerrutti, P; Alzamora, S M; de Huergo, M S

    2000-01-01

    The growth of two strains of B. coagulans was inhibited in laboratory media at pH < or = 4.5, and at water activity (aw) levels of 0.96 for B. coagulans NRS 609 and 0.95 for B. coagulans ATCC 803. The growth of both strains was also inhibited in apple and strawberry purees (pH = 3.5) stored at 37 degrees C for over two months. B. coagulans was able to grow in banana puree (pH approximately equal to 5.0) but acidification of the puree at pH = 3.5 was enough to prevent growth. The addition of up to 3,000 ppm vainillin ("natural" preservative) or 1,000 ppm potassium sorbate (traditional preservative) at pH higher than the inhibitory level previously determined could not prevent growth of B. coagulans in laboratory or in fruits, but 100 ppm lysozyme retarded growth in laboratory media at different pH levels (from 4.5 to 6.7) and in banana puree. As lysozyme showed to be effective at pH < or = 6.7, it might be used to prevent growth of B. coagulans at an eventual increment of pH during storage.

  20. The effects of orally administered Bacillus coagulans and inulin on prevention and progression of rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abhari, Khadijeh; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Nazifi, Saeid; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background Probiotics have been considered as an approach to addressing the consequences of different inflammatory disorders. The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic inulin also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Objective In the present study, an in vivo model was conducted to investigate the possible influences of probiotic B. coagulans and prebiotic inulin, both in combination and/or separately, on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using arthritis-induced rat model. Design Forty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into six experimental groups as follows: 1) control: normal healthy rats fed with standard diet, 2) disease control (RA): arthritis-induced rats fed with standard diet, 3) prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin, 4) probiotic (PRO): RA+ 109 spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin and 109 spores/day B. coagulans, and 6) treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with the listed diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by the biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for fibrinogen (Fn), serum amyloid A (SAA), and TNF-α and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28, and 35 (7, 14 and 21 days post RA induction), respectively. Results Pretreatment with PRE, PRO, and SYN diets significantly inhibits SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001). A significant decrease in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, was seen in the PRE, PRO, and SYN groups (P

  1. Administration of Bacillus coagulans in calves: recovery from faecal samples and evaluation of functional aspects of spores.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Barbara; Agazzi, Alessandro; Baldi, Antonella; Balzaretti, Claudia; Bersani, Carla; Pirani, Silvia; Rebucci, Raffaella; Savoini, Giovanni; Stella, Simone; Stenico, Alberta; Domeneghini, Cinzia

    2009-12-01

    An investigation was carried out into the recovery from calf faeces of Bacillus coagulans spores added to the feed as probiotic. For this purpose, Bacillus coagulans spores (9 log₁₀ CFU g⁻¹) were given daily to 10 calves during the whole farming periods; another 10 calves acted as controls. Throughout the trial the faecal spore counts were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the treated group than in the controls (averaging 2.1 x 10⁵ vs 3.7 x 10⁴ CFU g⁻¹). Bacterial cells were recovered from faecal samples and ribotyping matched the strain isolated from faecal sample to the clone administered to the animals. In addition, the recovered cells were found to maintain their functionality aspects of acid production, survival in artificial gastric juice and in the presence of bile, and attachment to human intestinal epithelial cells. The results further elucidate the fate of spore formers administered to calves, and this will help in the development of new species-specific nutritional strategies.

  2. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  3. Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30 (BC30) improves indices of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Probiotics have beneficial effects in rodent models of Clostridium difficile (C. diffiicle)-induced colitis. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in vitro. Our goal was to determine if BC30 improved C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. Starting on study day 0, female C57BL/6 mice were dosed by oro-gastric gavage for 15 days with vehicle (saline) or BC30 (2 × 109 CFU per day). Mice in the C. difficile groups received an antibiotic mixture (study days 5 to 8 in the drinking water), and clindamycin (10 mg/kg, i.p., on study day 10). The C. difficile strain VPI 10463 was given by gavage at 104 CFU to induce colitis on day 11. On day 16, stools and colons were collected for further analyses. Results All mice treated with BC30 survived on study day 13, while two mice treated with vehicle did not survive. On day 12, a significant difference (p = 0.0002) in the percentage of mice with normal stools (66.7%) was found in the BC30/C. difficile group, as compared to the vehicle/C. diffcile group (13.0%). On study day 16, 23.8% of mice treated with BC30 had normal stools, while this value was 0% with vehicle treatment (p value = 0.0187). On this day, the stool consistency score for the BC30/C. difficile group (1.1 ± 0.2) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the vehicle/C. difficile cohort (1.9 ± 0.2). BC30 modestly attenuated the colonic pathology (crypt damage, edema, leukocyte influx) that was present following C. difficile infection. Colonic MIP-2 chemokine contents (pg/2 cm colon) were: 10.2 ± 0.5 (vehicle/no C. difficile), 24.6 ± 9.5 (vehicle/C. difficile) and 16.3 ± 4.3 (BC30/C. difficle). Conclusion The probiotic BC30 improved some parameters of C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. BC30 prolonged the survival of C. diffiicle infected mice. Particularly, this probiotic improved the stool consistency of mice, in this infectious colitis model. PMID

  4. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A; Lowery, Ryan P; De Souza, Eduardo O; Partl, Jeremy M; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (-39.8 watts, -5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  5. Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans requires less cellulases for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to products than mesophilic microbial biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ou, Mark S; Mohammed, Nazimuddin; Ingram, L O; Shanmugam, K T

    2009-05-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass depends on simultaneous saccharification of cellulose to glucose by fungal cellulases and fermentation of glucose to ethanol by microbial biocatalysts (SSF). The cost of cellulase enzymes represents a significant challenge for the commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into renewable chemicals such as ethanol and monomers for plastics. The cellulase concentration for optimum SSF of crystalline cellulose with fungal enzymes and a moderate thermophile, Bacillus coagulans, was determined to be about 7.5 FPU g(-1) cellulose. This is about three times lower than the amount of cellulase required for SSF with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis, or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis whose growth and fermentation temperature optimum is significantly lower than that of the fungal cellulase activity. In addition, B. coagulans also converted about 80% of the theoretical yield of products from 40 g/L of crystalline cellulose in about 48 h of SSF with 10 FPU g(-1) cellulose while yeast, during the same period, only produced about 50% of the highest yield produced at end of 7 days of SSF. These results show that a match in the temperature optima for cellulase activity and fermentation is essential for decreasing the cost of cellulase in cellulosic ethanol production.

  6. Influence of pH on heat resistance of spores of Bacillus coagulans in buffer and homogenized foods.

    PubMed

    Palop, A; Raso, J; Pagán, R; Condón, S; Sala, F J

    1999-02-18

    The influence of pH of heating menstruum (McIlvaine buffer) on the heat resistance of Bacillus coagulans spores has been investigated and compared with the heat resistance in homogenized tomato and asparagus at pH 7 and 4 at a wide range of temperatures. Spores were less heat resistant in all menstrua at acid pH. The magnitude of this effect was greatest at the lowest heating temperatures tested. z values in buffer increased from 8.9 degrees C at pH 7 to 10.5 degrees C at pH 4. pH of menstrua was the main influencing factor, but media composition also influenced heat resistance: at pH 7 heat resistance was similar in all menstrua (D111 degrees C = 1.6 min) but at pH 4 the heat resistance in homogenized foods (D111 degrees C = 0.26 min in tomato and D111 degrees C = 0.28 min in asparagus) was lower than in buffer (D111 degrees C = 0.49 min). The reduced influence of the acidification of media on the heat resistance of B. coagulans at higher temperatures should be taken into account when a rise in the temperature of treatment for canned vegetables is considered to shorten duration of heat processes.

  7. Highly efficient production of optically pure l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Hu, Guoquan; Pan, Liwei; Wang, Zichao; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yanwei; Ruan, Zhiyong; He, Mingxiong

    2016-11-01

    A thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans (NBRC 12714) was employed to produce l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate in membrane integrated continuous fermentation. The strain NBRC 12714 metabolized glucose and xylose by the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP) and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), producing l-lactic acid with optical purity >99.5%. The overall l-lactic acid titer of 92g/l with a yield of 0.91g/g and a productivity of 13.8g/l/h were achieved at a dilution rate of 0.15h(-1). The productivity obtained was 1.6-fold than that of conventional continuous fermentation without cell recycling, and also was the highest among the relevant studies ever reported. These results indicated that the process developed had great potential for economical industrial production of l-lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass.

  8. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  9. L: (+)-Lactic acid production from non-food carbohydrates by thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Ou, Mark S; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-05-01

    Lactic acid is used as an additive in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, and is also an industrial chemical. Optically pure lactic acid is increasingly used as a renewable bio-based product to replace petroleum-based plastics. However, current production of lactic acid depends on carbohydrate feedstocks that have alternate uses as foods. The use of non-food feedstocks by current commercial biocatalysts is limited by inefficient pathways for pentose utilization. B. coagulans strain 36D1 is a thermotolerant bacterium that can grow and efficiently ferment pentoses using the pentose-phosphate pathway and all other sugar constituents of lignocellulosic biomass at 50°C and pH 5.0, conditions that also favor simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose. Using this bacterial biocatalyst, high levels (150-180 g l(-1)) of lactic acid were produced from xylose and glucose with minimal by-products in mineral salts medium. In a fed-batch SSF of crystalline cellulose with fungal enzymes and B. coagulans, lactic acid titer was 80 g l(-1) and the yield was close to 80%. These results demonstrate that B. coagulans can effectively ferment non-food carbohydrates from lignocellulose to L: (+)-lactic acid at sufficient concentrations for commercial application. The high temperature fermentation of pentoses and hexoses to lactic acid by B. coagulans has these additional advantages: reduction in cellulase loading in SSF of cellulose with a decrease in enzyme cost in the process and a reduction in contamination of large-scale fermentations.

  10. A brief dataset on the model-based evaluation of the growth performance of Bacillus coagulans and l-lactic acid production in a lignin-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Robert; Venus, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Model-based characterization of growth performance and l-lactic acid production with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans in a lignin-supplemented mixed substrate medium (R. Glaser and J. Venus, 2016) [1]". This data survey provides the information on characterization of three Bacillus coagulans strains. Information on cofermentation of lignocellulose-related sugars in lignin-containing media is given. Basic characterization data are supported by optical-density high-throughput screening and parameter adjustment to logistic growth models. Lab scale fermentation procedures are examined by model adjustment of a Monod kinetics-based growth model. Lignin consumption is analyzed using the data on decolorization of a lignin-supplemented minimal medium.

  11. Kinetic modeling of sporulation and product formation in stationary phase by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 vis-à-vis other Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhasish; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2011-10-01

    A logistic kinetic model was derived and validated to characterize the dynamics of a sporogenous bacterium in stationary phase with respect to sporulation and product formation. The kinetic constants as determined using this model are particularly important for describing intrinsic properties of a sporogenous bacterial culture in stationary phase. Non-linear curve fitting of the experimental data into the mathematical model showed very good correlation with the predicted values for sporulation and lipase production by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 culture in minimal media. Model fitting of literature data of sporulation and product (protease and amylase) formation in the stationary phase by some other Bacilli and comparison of the results of model fitting with those of Bacillus coagulans helped validate the significance and robustness of the developed kinetic model.

  12. Statistical optimization for enhanced yields of probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its phage resistant mutants followed by kinetic modelling of the process.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kavita R; Joshi, Chetan; Vakil, Babu V

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits to the host. A leading pharmaceutical company producing Bacillus coagulans as a probiotic was facing the problem of recurring phage attacks. Two mutants viz. B. co PIII and B. co MIII that were isolated as phage resistant mutants after UV irradiation and MMS treatment of phage sensitive B. coagulans parental culture were characterized at functional and molecular level and were noted to have undergone interesting genetic changes. The non-specific genetic alterations induced by mutagenesis can also lead to alterations in cell performance. Hence, in the current study the parental strain and the two mutants were selected for shake flask optimization. Plackett-Burman design was used to select the significant culture variables affecting biomass production. Evolutionary operation method was applied for further optimization. The study showed wide variations in the nutritional requirements of phage resistant mutants, post exposure to mutagens. An increment of 150, 134 and 152 % was observed in the biomass productions of B. coagulans (parental type) and mutants B.co PIII and B.co MIII respectively, compared to the yield from one-factor-at-a-time technique. Using Logistic and modified Leudeking-Piret equations, biomass accumulation and substrate utilization efficiency of the bioprocess were determined. The experimental data was in agreement with the results predicted by statistical analysis and modelling. The developed model may be useful for controlling the growth and substrate consumption kinetics in large scale fermentation using B. coagulans.

  13. Effect of prebiotics on the fecal microbiota of elderly volunteers after dietary supplementation of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086.

    PubMed

    Nyangale, Edna P; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David; Chernoff, David; Gibson, Glenn R

    2014-12-01

    In advancing age, gut populations of beneficial microbes, notably Bifidobacterium spp., show a marked decline. This contributes to an environment less capable of maintaining homoeostasis. This in vitro investigation studied the possible synergistic effects of probiotic supplementation in modulating the gut microbiota enabling prebiotic therapy to in elderly persons. Single stage batch culture anaerobic fermenters were used and inoculated with fecal microbiota obtained from volunteers after taking a 28 day treatment of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30 (BC30)) or a placebo. The response to prebiotic supplements fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in the fermenters was assessed. Bacterial enumeration was carried out using fluorescent in situ hybridisation and organic acids measured by gas chromatography. Baseline populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium lituseburense and Bacillus spp. were significantly higher in those having consumed BC30 compared to the placebo. Both prebiotics increased populations of several purportedly beneficial bacterial groups in both sets of volunteers. Samples from volunteers having ingested the BC30 also increased populations of C. lituseburense, Eubacterium rectale and F. prausnitzii more so than in persons who had consumed the placebo, this also resulted in significantly higher concentrations of butyrate, acetate and propionate. This shows that consumption of BC30 and subsequent use of prebiotics resulted in elevated populations of beneficial genres of bacteria as well as organic acid production.

  14. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian; Yu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production-NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)-were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  16. Purification and partial elucidation of the structure of an antioxidant carbohydrate biopolymer from the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans RK-02.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Vidya P; Perali, Ramu S; Sen, R

    2011-08-26

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) was isolated from Bacillus coagulans RK-02 and purified by size exclusion chromatography. The purified, homogeneous EPS had an average molecular weight of ∼3 × 10⁴ Da by comparison with FITC-labeled dextran standards. In vivo evaluations showed that, like other reported polysaccharides, this EPS displayed significant antioxidant activity. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of hydroxy, carboxy, and α-glycosidic linkages and a mannose residue. GC analysis indicated that the EPS was a heteropolymer composed of glucose, mannose, galactose, glucosamine, and fucose as monomeric constituent units. Partial elucidation of the structure of the carbohydrate biopolymer based on GC-MS and NMR analysis showed the presence of two unique sets of tetrasaccharide repeating units that have 1→3 and 1→6 glycosidic linkages. This is also the first report of a Gram-positive bacterial polysaccharide with both fucose as a sugar monomer and 1→3 and 1→6 glycosidic linkages in the molecular backbone.

  17. Integrate genome-based assessment of safety for probiotic strains: Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 as a case study.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Elisa; Orrù, Luigi; Capozzi, Vittorio; Martina, Alessia; Lamontanara, Antonella; Keller, David; Cash, Howard; Felis, Giovanna E; Cattivelli, Luigi; Torriani, Sandra; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that confer beneficial effects on the host; nevertheless, before being allowed for human consumption, their safety must be verified with accurate protocols. In the genomic era, such procedures should take into account the genomic-based approaches. This study aims at assessing the safety traits of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 integrating the most updated genomics-based procedures and conventional phenotypic assays. Special attention was paid to putative virulence factors (VF), antibiotic resistance (AR) genes and genes encoding enzymes responsible for harmful metabolites (i.e. biogenic amines, BAs). This probiotic strain was phenotypically resistant to streptomycin and kanamycin, although the genome analysis suggested that the AR-related genes were not easily transferrable to other bacteria, and no other genes with potential safety risks, such as those related to VF or BA production, were retrieved. Furthermore, no unstable elements that could potentially lead to genomic rearrangements were detected. Moreover, a workflow is proposed to allow the proper taxonomic identification of a microbial strain and the accurate evaluation of risk-related gene traits, combining whole genome sequencing analysis with updated bioinformatics tools and standard phenotypic assays. The workflow presented can be generalized as a guideline for the safety investigation of novel probiotic strains to help stakeholders (from scientists to manufacturers and consumers) to meet regulatory requirements and avoid misleading information.

  18. Analysis of the interaction between Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus thuringiensis S-layers and calcium ions by XRD, light microscopy, and FTIR.

    PubMed

    Babolmorad, Ghazal; Emtiazi, Giti; Emamzadeh, Rahman

    2014-05-01

    S-layer is a self-assemble regularly crystalline surface that covers major cell wall component of many bacteria and archaea and exhibits a high metal-binding capacity. We have studied the effect of the calcium ions and type of solid support (glass or mica) on the structure of the S-layers from Bacillus coagulans HN-68 and Bacillus thuringiensis MH14 upon simple methods based on light microscopy and AFM. Furthermore, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study is indicated that the calcium-S-layer interaction occurred mainly through the carboxylate groups of the side chains of aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu) and nitrogen atoms of Lys, Asn, and histidine (His) amino acids and N-H groups of the peptide backbone. Studied FTIR revealed that inner faces of S-layer are mainly negative, and outer faces of S-layer are mainly positive. Probably, calcium ions with positive charges bound to the carboxyl groups of Glu and Asp. Accordingly, calcium ions are anchored in the space between the inner faces of S-layer with negative charge and the surface of mica with negative charge. This leads to regular arrangement of the S-layer subunits.

  19. Open L-lactic acid fermentation of food refuse using thermophilic Bacillus coagulans and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of microflora.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenji; Ezaki, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    In the production of commercially useful poly-L-lactic acid plastic from biomass wastes, a feasible fermentation process to produce optically active L-lactic acid would be required. Here, model kitchen refuse (MKR) was inoculated with Bacillus coagulans NBRC12583 under nonsterilized openculture conditions. At temperatures below 45 degrees C, a racemic mixture of D- and L-lactic acids was accumulated, whereas only L-lactic acid was selectively accumulated by incubation at 50-65 degrees C. At 45 degrees C, the results of fermentation could not be consistently reproduced. To analyze microflora in this type of mixed culture system, whole-cell fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for B. coagulans, Bcoa191, and LAC722(L), a group-specific probe for a wide range of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria was applied. The dominancy of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria at lower temperatures, and that of B. coagulans at higher temperatures were confirmed. By using a saccharified liquid of collected kitchen refuse, 86 g/l of L-lactic acid was accumulated under nonsterile conditions by a 5-d incubation at 55 degrees C, pH 6.5, with 53% carbon yield and 97% optical purity. To conclude, high temperature open lactic acid fermentation is a simple and promising method for producing high-grade L-lactic acid from biomass waste, and FISH analysis of such mixed-culture systems is helpful for monitoring the microflora in these cultures.

  20. Probiotic metabolites from Bacillus coagulans GanedenBC30TM support maturation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Kathleen F; Redman, Kimberlee A; Carter, Steve G; Keller, David; Farmer, Sean; Endres, John R; Jensen, Gitte S

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of probiotic metabolites on maturation stage of antigen-presenting immune cells. METHODS: Ganeden Bacillus coagulans 30 (GBC30) bacterial cultures in log phase were used to isolate the secreted metabolite (MET) fraction. A second fraction was made to generate a crude cell-wall-enriched fraction, by centrifugation and lysis, followed by washing. A preparation of MET was subjected to size exclusion centrifugation, generating three fractions: < 3 kDa, 3-30 kDa, and 30-200 kDa and activities were tested in comparison to crude MET and cell wall in primary cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) as a source of antigen-presenting mononuclear phagocytes. The maturation status of mononuclear phagocytes was evaluated by staining with monoclonal antibodies towards CD14, CD16, CD80 and CD86 and analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Treatment of PBMC with MET supported maturation of mononuclear phagocytes toward both macrophage and dendritic cell phenotypes. The biological activity unique to the metabolites included a reduction of CD14+ CD16+ pro-inflammatory cells, and this property was associated with the high molecular weight metabolite fraction. Changes were also seen for the dendritic cell maturation markers CD80 and CD86. On CD14dim cells, an increase in both CD80 and CD86 expression was seen, in contrast to a selective increase in CD86 expression on CD14bright cells. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 indicates effective antigen presentation to T cells and support of T helper cell differentiation. The selective expression of CD86 in the absence of CD80 points to a role in generating T regulatory cells. CONCLUSION: The data show that a primary mechanism of action of GBC30 metabolites involves support of more mature phenotypes of antigen-presenting cells, important for immunological decision-making. PMID:22563167

  1. Relevance of charged groups for the integrity of the S-layer from Bacillus coagulans E38-66 and for molecular interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sára, M; Sleytr, U B

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of charged amino and carboxyl groups for the integrity of the cell surface layer (S-layer) lattice from Bacillus coagulans E38-66 and for the self-assembly of the isolated subunits was investigated. Amidination of the free amino groups which preserved their positive net charge had no influence on both. On the other hand, acetylation and succinylation, which converted the amino groups into either neutral or negatively charged groups, and amidation of carboxyl groups were accompanied by the disintegration or at least by the loss of the regular structure of the S-layer lattice. Treatment of S-layer monolayers with the zero-length cross-linker carbodiimide led to the introduction of peptide bonds between activated carboxyl groups and amino groups from adjacent subunits. This clearly indicated that in the native S-layer lattice the charged groups are located closely enough for direct electrostatic interactions. Under disrupting conditions in which the S-layer polypeptide chains were unfolded, 58% of the Asx and Glx residues could be amidated, indicating that they occur in the free carboxylic acid form. As derived from chemical modification of monolayer self-assembly products, about 90% of the lysine and 70% of the aspartic and glutamic acid residues are aligned on the surface of the S-layer protein domains. This corresponded to 45 amino groups and to 63 carboxyl groups per S-layer subunit. Labelling experiments with macromolecules with different sizes and charges and adsorption studies with ion-exchange particles revealed a surplus of free carboxyl groups on the inner and on the outer faces of the S-layer lattice. Since the carboxyl groups on the outer S-layer face were accessible only for protein molecules significantly smaller then the S-layer protomers or for positively charged, thin polymer chains extending from the surface of ion-exchange beads, the negatively charged sites must be located within indentations of the corrugated S

  2. Kinetic characterization of recombinant Bacillus coagulans FDP-activated l-lactate dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli and its substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Xu, Yanbing; Sun, Xiucheng; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a homofermentative, acid-tolerant and thermophilic sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, which is capable of producing high yields of optically pure lactic acid. The l-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from B. coagulans is considered as an ideal biocatalyst for industrial production. In this study, the gene ldhL encoding a thermostable l-LDH was amplified from B. coagulans NL01 genomic DNA and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and its enzymatic properties were characterized. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the l-LDH was a fructose 1,6-diphosphate-activated NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH). Its molecular weight was approximately 34-36kDa. The Km and Vmax values of the purified l-nLDH for pyruvate were 1.91±0.28mM and 2613.57±6.43μmol(minmg)(-1), respectively. The biochemical properties of l-nLDH showed that the specific activity were up to 2323.29U/mg with optimum temperature of 55°C and pH of 6.5 in the pyruvate reduction and 351.01U/mg with temperature of 55°C and pH of 11.5 in the lactate oxidation. The enzyme also showed some activity in the absence of FDP, with a pH optimum of 4.0. Compared to other lactic acid bacterial l-nLDHs, the enzyme was found to be relatively stable at 50°C. Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions had activated effects on the enzyme activity, and the enzyme was greatly inhibited by Ni(2+) ion. Besides these, l-nLDH showed the higher specificity towards pyruvate esters, such as methyl pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate.

  3. Effect of dietary probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, on growth performance, chemical composition, and meat quality of Guangxi Yellow chicken.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Wang, Y; Gu, Q; Li, W

    2010-03-01

    The effect of Bacillus coagulans ZJU0616 with different concentrations supplemented as probiotic was evaluated on growth performance, feed conversion ratio, survival rate, breast chemical composition, and meat quality of Guangxi Yellow chicken. Birds were randomly segregated into 12 groups so that 3 replicates were available for each of the 3 treatments (T-1, T-2, and T-3) and control groups. The control groups were fed a basal diet without any probiotic and other groups were fed the diets that consisted of 3 probiotic levels at initial concentrations of 1.0 x 10(6) cfu.g(-1) (T-1), 2.0 x 10(6) cfu.g(-1) (T-2), and 5.0 x 10(6) cfu.g(-1) (T-3). The lowest final weight and daily weight gain were found in control groups (P < 0.05) and there were no significant differences among probiotic-treated groups. Significantly lower feed conversion ratio and higher survival rate were observed in T-2 and T-3 than that of the control. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in contents of breast chemical composition including moisture, CP, crude fat, and crude ash among all groups. For the meat quality parameter assays, the pH, shear force, and drip loss were used as indicators. As for pH values of breasts, no significant difference was found across all treatments. Higher shear force was observed (P < 0.05) in T-2 compared with T-1 and the control. Similar significant difference was also observed in T-1 compared with the control. However, there was no significant difference in shear force between T-3 and the other probiotic treatment groups (T-1 and T-2). As for probiotic-treated groups, there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in breast drip loss compared with that of the control (6.22 +/- 0.18%), with the lowest drip loss found in T-3 (5.38 +/- 0.25%). However, no significant difference was observed in drip loss between T-2 and T-3.

  4. Precultivation of Bacillus coagulans DSM2314 in the presence of furfural decreases inhibitory effects of lignocellulosic by-products during L(+)-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Edwin; Springer, Jan; Vriesendorp, Bastienne; Weusthuis, Ruud; Eggink, Gerrit

    2016-12-01

    By-products resulting from thermo-chemical pretreatment of lignocellulose can inhibit fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to lactic acid. Furfural is such a by-product, which is formed during acid pretreatment of lignocellulose. pH-controlled fermentations with 1 L starting volume, containing YP medium and a mixture of lignocellulosic by-products, were inoculated with precultures of Bacillus coagulans DSM2314 to which 1 g/L furfural was added. The addition of furfural to precultures resulted in an increase in L(+)-lactic acid productivity by a factor 2 to 1.39 g/L/h, an increase in lactic acid production from 54 to 71 g and an increase in conversion yields of sugar to lactic acid from 68 to 88 % W/W in subsequent fermentations. The improved performance was not caused by furfural consumption or conversion, indicating that the cells acquired a higher tolerance towards this by-product. The improvement coincided with a significant elongation of B. coagulans cells. Via RNA-Seq analysis, an upregulation of pathways involved in the synthesis of cell wall components such as bacillosamine, peptidoglycan and spermidine was observed in elongated cells. Furthermore, the gene SigB and genes promoted by SigB, such as NhaX and YsnF, were upregulated in the presence of furfural. These genes are involved in stress responses in bacilli.

  5. One-year chronic oral toxicity with combined reproduction toxicity study of a novel probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Endres, J R; Qureshi, I; Farber, T; Hauswirth, J; Hirka, G; Pasics, I; Schauss, A G

    2011-05-01

    Some strains of Bacillus coagulans can survive extremes of heat, stomach acid and bile acids, to which commonly consumed probiotics are susceptible. A toxicological safety assessment was published in 2009 on a proprietary preparation of B. coagulans - GanedenBC(30)™ - a novel probiotic. It was concluded that GanedenBC(30)™ is safe for chronic human consumption based upon scientific procedures, supported by a safe history of use (Endres et al., 2009). A one-year chronic oral toxicity study combined with a one-generation reproduction study was conducted to further investigate safety of long-term consumption. The one-year study of GanedenBC(30)™ administered to male and female HsdBrlHan: Wistar rats in their diet showed no signs of toxicity at the highest dose tested. The conclusion from the reproduction toxicity study is that administration of GanedenBC(30)™ in the diet caused no signs of toxicity in the parental generation (male or female) nor the F1 offspring. Using the lowest NOEL of 1948 mg/kg concluded at the end of the 1-year feeding study, a 100-fold safety factor, a test article concentration of 6.88×10(10) CFU (colony forming units) per gram, and an average 70 kg human, it is determined that GanedenBC(30)™ is safe for chronic consumption at up to 9.38×10(10) CFUs per day.

  6. Conversion of acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch to L-lactic acid by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans JI12.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lidan; Hudari, Mohammad Sufian Bin; Zhou, Xingding; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-06-01

    Cost-effective conversion of lignocellulose hydrolysate to optically pure lactic acid is commercially attractive but very challenging. Bacillus coagulans JI12 was isolated from natural environment and used to produce L-lactic acid (optical purity > 99.5 %) from lignocellulose sugars and acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) at 50 °C and pH 6.0 without sterilization of the medium. In fed-batch fermentation with 85 g/L initial xylose and 55 g/L xylose added after 7.5 h, 137.5 g/L lactic acid was produced with a yield of 98 % and a productivity of 4.4 g/L h. In batch fermentation of a sugar mixture containing 8.5 % xylose, 1 % glucose, and 1 % L-arabinose, the lactic acid yield and productivity reached 98 % and 4.8 g/L h, respectively. When EFB hydrolysate was used, 59.2 g/L of lactic acid was produced within 9.5 h at a yield of 97 % and a productivity of 6.2 g/L h, which are the highest among those ever reported from lignocellulose hydrolysates. These results indicate that B. coagulans JI12 is a promising strain for industrial production of L-lactic acid from lignocellulose hydrolysate.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans 2-6

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiangzhi; Huang, Xianhui; Zhang, Guofang; Zhao, Xiufang; Zhu, Xianming; Dong, Hui

    2013-01-01

    (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (R,R-BDH) from Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is a zinc-dependent medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Recombinant R,R-BDH with a His6 tag at the C-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. The crystallization condition consisted of 8%(v/v) Tacsimate pH 4.6, 18%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350. The crystal diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution in the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.35, b = 128.73, c = 131.03 Å. PMID:24100567

  8. Diammonium phosphate stimulates transcription of L-lactate dehydrogenase leading to increased L-lactate production in the thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifan; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Limin; Wang, Yanping; Yu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of cost-effective fermentation substrates for efficient lactate production is an important economic objective. Although some organic nitrogen sources are also cheaper, inorganic nitrogen salts for lactate fermentation have additional advantages in facilitating downstream procedures and significantly improving the commercial competitiveness of lactate production. In this study, we first established an application of diammonium phosphate to replace yeast extract with a reduced 90 % nitrogen cost for a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain. In vivo enzymatic and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that diammonium phosphate stimulates the gene expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase, thus providing higher specific enzyme activity in vivo and increasing L-lactic acid production. This new information provides a foundation for establishing a cost-effective process for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in an industrial setting.

  9. Efficient production of L-lactic acid by newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with high glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingding; Ye, Lidan; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-05-01

    A thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with tolerance to high concentration of glucose was isolated from soil and used to produce optically pure L-lactic acid from glucose and starch. In batch fermentation at pH 6.0, 240 g/L of glucose was completely consumed giving 210 g/L of L-lactic acid with a yield of 95 % and a productivity of 3.5 g/L/h. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at 50 °C without sterilizing the medium, 200 g/L of corn starch was completely consumed producing 202.0 g/L of L-lactic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this strain shows the highest osmotic tolerance to glucose among the strains ever reported for lactic acid production. This is the first report of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch for lactic acid production under a non-sterilized condition.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans 2-6.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangzhi; Huang, Xianhui; Zhang, Guofang; Zhao, Xiufang; Zhu, Xianming; Dong, Hui

    2013-10-01

    (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (R,R-BDH) from Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is a zinc-dependent medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Recombinant R,R-BDH with a His6 tag at the C-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. The crystallization condition consisted of 8%(v/v) Tacsimate pH 4.6, 18%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350. The crystal diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution in the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2₁, with unit-cell parameters a=88.35, b=128.73, c=131.03 Å.

  11. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%.

  12. Jerusalem artichoke powder: a useful material in producing high-optical-purity l-lactate using an efficient sugar-utilizing thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Xue, Zhangwei; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Bo; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-02-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement crop, which does not interfere with food chain, and is a promising carbon source for industrial fermentation. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products, such as lactic acid, is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. In this study, high-optical-purity l-lactate was efficiently produced from the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke powder by a thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans XZL4. High l-lactate production (134gl(-1)) was obtained using 267gl(-1) Jerusalem artichoke powder (total reducing sugars of 140gl(-1)) and 10gl(-1) of corn steep powder in fed-batch fermentation, with an average productivity of 2.5gl(-1)h(-1) and a yield of 0.96gg(-1) reducing sugars. The final product optical purity is 99%, which meets the requirement of lactic acid polymerization. Our study represents a cost-effective and promising method for polymer-grade l-lactate production using a cheap raw bio-resource.

  13. Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of Coagulin, a New Antilisterial Bacteriocin in the Pediocin Family of Bacteriocins, Produced by Bacillus coagulans I4

    PubMed Central

    Le Marrec, Claire; Hyronimus, Bertrand; Bressollier, Philippe; Verneuil, Bernard; Urdaci, Maria C.

    2000-01-01

    A plasmid-linked antimicrobial peptide, named coagulin, produced by Bacillus coagulans I4 has recently been reported (B. Hyronimus, C. Le Marrec and M. C. Urdaci, J. Appl. Microbiol. 85:42–50, 1998). In the present study, the complete, unambiguous primary amino acid sequence of the peptide was obtained by a combination of both N-terminal sequencing of purified peptide and the complete sequence deduced from the structural gene harbored by plasmid I4. Data revealed that this peptide of 44 residues has an amino acid sequence similar to that described for pediocins AcH and PA-1, produced by different Pediococcus acidilactici strains and 100% identical. Coagulin and pediocin differed only by a single amino acid at their C terminus. Analysis of the genetic determinants revealed the presence, on the pI4 DNA, of the entire 3.5-kb operon of four genes described for pediocin AcH and PA-1 production. No extended homology was observed between pSMB74 from P. acidilactici and pI4 when analyzing the regions upstream and downstream of the operon. An oppositely oriented gene immediately dowstream of the bacteriocin operon specifies a 474-amino-acid protein which shows homology to Mob-Pre (plasmid recombination enzyme) proteins encoded by several small plasmids extracted from gram-positive bacteria. This is the first report of a pediocin-like peptide appearing naturally in a non-lactic acid bacterium genus. PMID:11097892

  14. Biochemical and genetic characterization of coagulin, a new antilisterial bacteriocin in the pediocin family of bacteriocins, produced by Bacillus coagulans I(4).

    PubMed

    Le Marrec, C; Hyronimus, B; Bressollier, P; Verneuil, B; Urdaci, M C

    2000-12-01

    A plasmid-linked antimicrobial peptide, named coagulin, produced by Bacillus coagulans I(4) has recently been reported (B. Hyronimus, C. Le Marrec and M. C. Urdaci, J. Appl. Microbiol. 85:42-50, 1998). In the present study, the complete, unambiguous primary amino acid sequence of the peptide was obtained by a combination of both N-terminal sequencing of purified peptide and the complete sequence deduced from the structural gene harbored by plasmid I(4). Data revealed that this peptide of 44 residues has an amino acid sequence similar to that described for pediocins AcH and PA-1, produced by different Pediococcus acidilactici strains and 100% identical. Coagulin and pediocin differed only by a single amino acid at their C terminus. Analysis of the genetic determinants revealed the presence, on the pI(4) DNA, of the entire 3.5-kb operon of four genes described for pediocin AcH and PA-1 production. No extended homology was observed between pSMB74 from P. acidilactici and pI(4) when analyzing the regions upstream and downstream of the operon. An oppositely oriented gene immediately dowstream of the bacteriocin operon specifies a 474-amino-acid protein which shows homology to Mob-Pre (plasmid recombination enzyme) proteins encoded by several small plasmids extracted from gram-positive bacteria. This is the first report of a pediocin-like peptide appearing naturally in a non-lactic acid bacterium genus.

  15. Cost-effective simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of l-lactic acid from bagasse sulfite pulp by Bacillus coagulans CC17.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Ouyang, Jia; Xu, Qianqian; Zheng, Zhaojuan

    2016-12-01

    The main barriers to cost-effective lactic acid production from lignocellulose are the high cost of enzymes and the ineffective utilization of the xylose within the hydrolysate. In the present study, the thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain CC17 was used for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of bagasse sulfite pulp (BSP) to produce l-lactic acid. Unexpectedly, SSF by CC17 required approximately 33.33% less fungal cellulase than did separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). More interestingly, CC17 can co-ferment cellobiose and xylose without any exogenous β-glucosidase in SSF. Moreover, adding xylanase could increase the concentration of lactic acid produced via SSF. Up to 110g/L of l-lactic acid was obtained using fed-batch SSF, resulting in a lactic acid yield of 0.72g/g cellulose. These results suggest that SSF using CC17 has a remarkable advantage over SHF and that a potentially low-cost and highly-efficient fermentation process can be established using this protocol.

  16. Effects of dietary fiber with Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 on bowel movement and fecal properties of healthy volunteers with a tendency for constipation.

    PubMed

    Minamida, Kimiko; Nishimura, Mie; Miwa, Kazunori; Nishihira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of Lilac LAB (Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 and okara [soy pulp] powder) on bowel movements/fecal properties, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial with healthy Japanese volunteers with a tendency for constipation (n = 297). The subjects ingested 2 g/d placebo (okara powder) or test food (Lilac LAB, 1 × 10(8) CFU) once a day for 2 weeks. In the test group of functionally constipated subjects, the changes in the average scores of self-reported fecal size, sensation of incomplete evacuation, and defecation frequency were significantly improved compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05), and fecal color and odor tended to improve (p = 0.07). In the test food group of all subjects and among the non-functionally constipated subjects, the fecal size tended to improve compared to the placebo group (p = 0.06, p = 0.07, respectively). Lilac LAB was effective in improving bowel movements and fecal properties in functionally constipated persons.

  17. The optimization of l-lactic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by mixed fermentation of Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus under unsterile conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Cai, Di; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    The cost reduction of raw material and sterilization could increase the economic feasibility of l-lactic acid fermentation, and the development of an cost-effective and efficient process is highly desired. To improve the efficiency of open fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus based on sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) and to overcome sucrose utilization deficiency of Bacillus coagulans, a mixed fermentation was developed. Besides, the optimization of pH, sugar concentration and fermentation medium were also studied. Under the condition of mixed fermentation and controlled pH, a higher yield of 96.3% was achieved, compared to that (68.8%) in sole Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermentation. With an optimized sugar concentration and a stepwise-controlled pH, the l-lactic acid titer, yield and productivity reached 121gL(-1), 94.6% and 2.18gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, corn steep powder (CSP) as a cheap source of nitrogen and salts was proved to be an efficient supplement to SSJ in this process.

  18. Open fermentative production of L-lactic acid with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans using excess sludge as nutrient.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Maeda, Toshinari; You, Huiyan; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2014-01-01

    The development of a low-cost polymer-grade L-lactic acid production process was achieved in this study. Excess sludge hydrolyzate (ESH) was chosen as nutrient source for the objective of reducing nutrient cost in lactic acid production. 1% of ESH had high performance in lactic acid production relative to 2g/l yeast extract (YE) while the production cost of ESH was much lower than that of YE, indicating ESH was a promising substitute of YE. By employing a thermophilic strain of Bacillus coagulans (NBRC 12583), non-sterilized batch and repeated batch L-lactic acid fermentation was successfully performed, and the optical purity of L-lactic acid accumulated was more than 99%. Moreover, the factors associated with cell growth and lactic acid fermentation was investigated through a two-stage lactic acid production strategy. Oxygen played an important role in cell growth, and the optimal condition for cell growth and fermentation was pH 7.0 and 50°C.

  19. Survival and metabolic activity of the GanedenBC30 strain of Bacillus coagulans in a dynamic in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Maathuis, A J H; Keller, D; Farmer, S

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated the survival and activity of GanedenBC(30) during passage through the upper gastro-intestinal tract. GanedenBC(30) was tested in a dynamic, validated, in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) on survival and its potential to aid in digestion of milk protein, lactose and fructose. The survival of GanedenBC(30) was high (70%), although germination of the spores was minimal (<10%) under the conditions tested. Survival of the strain in the presence of lactose and fructose was markedly lower (56-59%) than in the absence of the sugars. The amount of digested milk protein available for absorption was somewhat higher (+0.2 g) when GanedenBC(30) was added to the milk. When GanedenBC(30) was tested with lactose or fructose added to the meal, the cumulative amount of lactate produced was slightly higher (+0.12-0.18 mmol) compared to the GanedenBC(30) alone. In conclusion, although the differences in survival of GanedenBC(30) are small, these results show the potential of GanedenBC(30) to aid in protein digestion and in the digestion of lactose and fructose. If a larger fraction of the Bacillus coagulans cells had germinated, the influence on protein and carbohydrate digestion would probably have been much greater. Importance of the findings: the potential of GanedenBC(30) to aid in the digestion of lactose and fructose could be used to prevent occurrence of intestinal symptoms in individuals sensitive to these carbohydrates.

  20. Combination of soya pulp and Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 improves intestinal bile acid metabolism without impairing the effects of prebiotics in rats fed a cholic acid-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonmi; Yoshitsugu, Reika; Kikuchi, Keidai; Joe, Ga-Hyun; Tsuji, Misaki; Nose, Takuma; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Hara, Hiroshi; Minamida, Kimiko; Miwa, Kazunori; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing. The dietary supplementation of CA mimics the BA environment in diet-induced obesity and ageing. We investigated whether B. coagulans lilac-01 and soya pulp influence both BA metabolism and the maintenance of host health in CA-supplemented diet-fed rats. In CA-fed rats, soya pulp significantly increased the production of secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, and soya pulp ingestion alleviated problems related to plasma adiponectin and gut permeability in rats fed the CA diet. The combination of B. coagulans and soya pulp successfully suppressed the increased production of secondary BA in CA-fed rats compared with soya pulp itself, without impairing the beneficial effects of soya pulp ingestion. In conclusion, it is possible that a combination of prebiotics and probiotics can be used to avoid an unnecessary increase in the production of secondary BA in the large intestine without impairing the beneficial functions of prebiotics.

  1. Model-based characterisation of growth performance and l-lactic acid production with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans in a lignin-supplemented mixed substrate medium.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Robert; Venus, Joachim

    2017-02-08

    Three Bacillus coagulans strains were characterised in terms of their ability to grow in lignin-containing fermentation media and to consume the lignocellulose-related sugars glucose, xylose, and arabinose. An optical-density high-throughput screening was used for precharacterisation by means of different mathematical models for comparison (Logistic, Gompertz, Baranyi, Richards & Stannard, and Schnute). The growth response was characterised by the maximum growth rate and lag time. For a comparison of the screening and fermentation results, an unstructured mathematical model was proposed to characterise the lactate production, bacterial growth and substrate consumption. The growth model was then applied to fermentation procedures using wheat straw hydrolysates. The results indicated that the unstructured growth model can be used to evaluate lactate producing fermentation. Under the experimental fermentation conditions, one strain showed the ability to tolerate a high lignin concentration (2.5g/L) but lacked the capacity for sufficient pentose uptake. The lactate yield of the strains that were able to consume all sugar fractions of glucose, xylose and arabinose was ∼83.4%. A photometric measurement at 280nm revealed a dynamic change in alkali-lignin concentrations during lactate producing fermentation. A test of decolourisation of vanillin, ferulic acid, and alkali-lignin samples also showed the decolourisation performance of the B. coagulans strains under study.

  2. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086): n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA) bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046) and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048), with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061). A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322 PMID:19922649

  3. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers.

  4. Comparison of high-titer lactic acid fermentation from NaOH- and NH3-H2O2-pretreated corncob by Bacillus coagulans using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenting; Xie, Yuejiao; He, Xiaolan; Li, Xinli; Hu, Jinlong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is one of the most abundant renewable feedstocks that has attracted considerable attention as a substrate for biofuel and biochemical production. One such biochemical product, lactic acid, is an important fermentation product because of its great potential for the production of biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid. High-titer lactic acid production from lignocellulosic materials has been achieved recently; however, it requires biodetoxification or results in large amounts of waste washing water. In this study, we employed two alkaline pretreatment methods and compared their effects on lactic acid fermentation of pretreated corncob by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile conditions. The lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity from 16% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated and washed corncob were 122.99 g/L, 0.77 g/g corncob, and 1.37 g/L/h, respectively, and from 16% NH3-H2O2-pretreated and washed corncob were 118.60 g/L, 0.74 g/g corncob, and 1.32 g/L/h, respectively. Importantly, the lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity from 18.4% NH3-H2O2-pretreated and unwashed corncob by using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reached 79.47 g/L, 0.43 g/g corncob, and 1.10 g/L/h, respectively, demonstrating that this method is possible for industrial applications and saves washing water. PMID:27853308

  5. Comparison of high-titer lactic acid fermentation from NaOH- and NH3-H2O2-pretreated corncob by Bacillus coagulans using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenting; Xie, Yuejiao; He, Xiaolan; Li, Xinli; Hu, Jinlong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-11-17

    Lignocellulose is one of the most abundant renewable feedstocks that has attracted considerable attention as a substrate for biofuel and biochemical production. One such biochemical product, lactic acid, is an important fermentation product because of its great potential for the production of biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid. High-titer lactic acid production from lignocellulosic materials has been achieved recently; however, it requires biodetoxification or results in large amounts of waste washing water. In this study, we employed two alkaline pretreatment methods and compared their effects on lactic acid fermentation of pretreated corncob by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile conditions. The lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity from 16% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated and washed corncob were 122.99 g/L, 0.77 g/g corncob, and 1.37 g/L/h, respectively, and from 16% NH3-H2O2-pretreated and washed corncob were 118.60 g/L, 0.74 g/g corncob, and 1.32 g/L/h, respectively. Importantly, the lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity from 18.4% NH3-H2O2-pretreated and unwashed corncob by using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reached 79.47 g/L, 0.43 g/g corncob, and 1.10 g/L/h, respectively, demonstrating that this method is possible for industrial applications and saves washing water.

  6. Assessment of a Solid Phase Matrix for the Neutralization and Real-Time PCR Detection of Bacillus anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    for the Neutralization and Real - Time PCR Detection of Bacillus anthracis D.E. Bader, G.R. Fisher and C.W. Stratilo DRDC Suffield Technical Memorandum...Matrix for the Neutralization and Real - Time PCR Detection of Bacillus anthracis D.E. Bader, G.R. Fisher, and C.W. Stratilo Defence R&D Canada - Suffield...evaluated for their neutralization ability, based on cell culture analysis, and were also analyzed using real - time PCR detection assays designed to

  7. Improving the neutral phytase activity from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 1061 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Rong; Wang, Zupeng; Yan, Xiuhua

    2015-03-01

    Neutral phytase is used as a feed additive for degradation of anti-nutritional phytate in aquatic feed industry. Site-directed mutagenesis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 1061 phytase was performed with an aim to increase its activity. Mutation residues were chosen based on multiple sequence alignments and structure analysis of neutral phytsaes from different microorganisms. The mutation sites on surface (D148E, S197E and N156E) and around the active site (D52E) of phytase were selected. Analysis of the phytase variants showed that the specific activities of mutants D148E and S197E remarkably increased by about 35 and 13% over a temperature range of 40-75 °C at pH 7.0, respectively. The k cat of mutants D148E and S197E were 1.50 and 1.25 times than that of the wild-type phytase, respectively. Both D148E and S197E showed much higher thermostability than that of the wild-type phytase. However, mutants N156E and D52E led to significant loss of specific activity of the enzyme. Structural analysis revealed that these mutations may affect conformation of the active site of phytase. The present mutant phytases D148E and S197E with increased activities and thermostabilities have application potential as additives in aquaculture feed.

  8. Engineering of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain with High Neutral Protease Producing Capacity and Optimization of Its Fermentation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Lian; Ping, Yanhai; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Huang, Huoqing; Yao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The neutral protease has high potential for industrial applications, and attempts to improve enzyme expression level have important application values. In the present study, a neutral protease-encoding gene, Banpr, was cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain K11, and a genetic manipulation method specific for this difficult-to-transform strain was developed for the high-level expression of neutral protease. The recombinant plasmid pUB110-Banpr was constructed in Bacillus subtilis strain WB600 and then transformed into strain K11 under optimized conditions. A positive transformant 110N-6 with the highest protease secreting capacity on skim milk plates and great genetic stability for more than 100 generations was selected for further study. Optimization of the fermentation conditions increased the enzyme activity of strain 110N-6 to 8995 ± 250 U/ml in flask culture and 28084 ± 1282 U/ml in 15-l fermentor, which are significantly higher than that of the native strain K11 and industrial strain B. subtilis AS.1398, respectively. The high expression level and extreme genetic stability make B. amyloliquefaciens strain 110N-6 more favorable for mass production of neutral protease for industrial uses. PMID:26752595

  9. Antimicrobial activity of neutralized extracellular culture filtrates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a cultured Indian milk product ('dahi').

    PubMed

    Varadaraj, M C; Devi, N; Keshava, N; Manjrekar, S P

    1993-12-01

    Neutralized extracellular culture filtrate obtained from isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis from 'dahi' showed weak to moderate inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when tested by the diffusion agar well assay method. The effective minimum quantity of lactic culture filtrates required to obtain complete inhibition of an inoculum of 10(3) cfu/ml of the bacteria tested was between 20 and 26% (vol/vol), as determined by the agar incorporation method. Neutralized extracellular culture filtrate of these lactic cultures added at a level of 10% in sterile, 10% reconstituted non-fat dry milk was able to either suppress or retard growth of selected bacterial cultures when incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. This study indicated the antimicrobial activity of dahi and the potential of using neutralized extracellular culture filtrate of lactic acid bacteria in the biopreservation of foods.

  10. Purification and characterization of a new metallo-neutral protease for beer brewing from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SYB-001.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjing; Xu, Ailan; Wan, Yansong; Li, Qi

    2013-08-01

    The increased additive amount of adjuncts in the raw materials of Chinese beer requires the usage of protease to release more water-soluble proteins. Here, a metallo-neutral protease suited for brewing industry was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SYB-001. A 5.6-fold purification of the neutral protease was achieved with a 4-step procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel-filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 36.8 kDa. The protease was active and stable at a wide range of pH from 6.0-10.0 with an optimum at pH 7.0. The highest activity of the purified enzyme was found at 50 °C. The existence of manganese ion would specifically enhance the protease activity. Comparing with other commercial neutral proteases in China, adding the new neutral protease during mashing process would release more amino acids from wort such as aspartic acid, arginine, methione, and histidine, resulting in a better amino acid profile in wort. Moreover, the wort processed with the new neutral protease had a higher α-amino nitrogen concentration, which would ensure a vigorous yeast growth and better flavor. The study of the enzyme could lay a foundation for its industrial application and further research.

  11. Neutralizing antibody and functional mapping of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen-The first step toward a rationally designed anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    McComb, Ryan C; Martchenko, Mikhail

    2016-01-02

    Anthrax is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category A pathogen for its potential use as a bioweapon. Current prevention treatments include Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA). AVA is an undefined formulation of Bacillus anthracis culture supernatant adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. It has an onerous vaccination schedule, is slow and cumbersome to produce and is slightly reactogenic. Next-generation vaccines are focused on producing recombinant forms of anthrax toxin in a well-defined formulation but these vaccines have been shown to lose potency as they are stored. In addition, studies have shown that a proportion of the antibody response against these vaccines is focused on non-functional, non-neutralizing regions of the anthrax toxin while some essential functional regions are shielded from eliciting an antibody response. Rational vaccinology is a developing field that focuses on designing vaccine antigens based on structural information provided by neutralizing antibody epitope mapping, crystal structure analysis, and functional mapping through amino acid mutations. This information provides an opportunity to design antigens that target only functionally important and conserved regions of a pathogen in order to make a more optimal vaccine product. This review provides an overview of the literature related to functional and neutralizing antibody epitope mapping of the Protective Antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin.

  12. Acetalated Dextran Microparticulate Vaccine Formulated via Coaxial Electrospray Preserves Toxin Neutralization and Enhances Murine Survival Following Inhalational Bacillus Anthracis Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gallovic, Matthew D; Schully, Kevin L; Bell, Matthew G; Elberson, Margaret A; Palmer, John R; Darko, Christian A; Bachelder, Eric M; Wyslouzil, Barbara E; Keane-Myers, Andrea M; Ainslie, Kristy M

    2016-10-01

    Subunit formulations are regarded as the safest type of vaccine, but they often contain a protein-based antigen that can result in significant challenges, such as preserving antigenicity during formulation and administration. Many studies have demonstrated that encapsulation of protein antigens in polymeric microparticles (MPs) via emulsion techniques results in total IgG antibody titers comparable to alum formulations, however, the antibodies themselves are non-neutralizing. To address this issue, a coaxial electrohydrodynamic spraying (electrospray) technique is used to formulate a microparticulate-based subunit anthrax vaccine under conditions that minimize recombinant protective antigen (rPA) exposure to harsh solvents and high shear stress. rPA and the adjuvant resiquimod are encapsulated either in separate or the same acetalated dextran MPs. Using a murine model, the electrospray formulations lead to higher IgG2a subtype titers as well as comparable total IgG antibody titers and toxin neutralization relative to the FDA-approved vaccine (BioThrax). BioThrax provides no protection against a lethal inhalational challenge of the highly virulent Ames Bacillus anthracis anthrax strain, whereas 50% of the mice vaccinated with separately encapsulated electrospray MPs survive. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential use of electrospray for encapsulating protein antigens in polymeric MPs.

  13. Effect of delayed anthrax vaccine dose on Bacillus anthracis protective antigen IgG response and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Fisher, Diana; Quinn, Xiaofei; Schmader, Trevor; Barrera-Oro, Julio G

    2013-10-17

    We describe the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen IgG antibody response and the B. anthracis lethal toxin neutralization activity to a delayed dose of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax(®)) using validated assays. 373 individuals received 1, 2, or 3 priming doses, 18-24 months afterward, they received a delayed dose of AVA. Overall, 23.6% of subjects showed detectable anti-PA IgG before the boost, compared to 99.2% (P<0.0001) 28 days after the boost. Geometric mean anti-PA IgG concentration (GMC) was 1.66 μg/mL before and 887.82 μg/mL after the boost (P<0.0001). The proportion of individuals with four-fold increase in GMC following the boost ranged from 93.8% to 100%. Robust anti-PA IgG levels and B. anthracis lethal toxin neutralization activity are induced when an AVA dose is delayed as long as two years. These data support continuing with the vaccination schedule when a dose is delayed as long as two years rather than restarting the series.

  14. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin 8 in Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT-29 by Spore Probiotics: B. coagulans and B. subtilis (natto).

    PubMed

    Azimirad, Masoumeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Naji, Tahereh

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics are used as a treatment for different intestinal disorders. They confer health benefits by different ways. This study was aimed to investigate immunomodulatory effect of Bacillus probiotic spores on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) in HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model for the study of colonization of purified spores (Bacillus subtilis (natto) and B. coagulans) and their anti-inflammatory effects. MTT assay and trypan blue staining were used for the detection of optimal concentration of the purified spores and LPS. Pre-treatment assay was done by treatment of the cells with the purified spores for 2 h, followed by challenges with LPS for 3 and 18 h. Post-treatment assay was done by initial treatment of the cells with LPS for 18 h, followed by the spores for 3 and 6 h. Levels of IL-8 secretion and its mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and relative Q real-time PCR. Our results showed similar rates of adherence to intestinal epithelial cells by the spore probiotics, while displaying no cytotoxic effect. In the pre-treatment assay, a significant decrease in IL-8, at both protein and mRNA levels, was measured for B. coagulans spores after the addition of LPS, which was higher than those observed for Bacillus subtilis (natto) spores. In the post-treatment assay, while Bacillus subtilis (but not B. coagulans) diminished the LPS-stimulated IL-8 levels after 3 h of incubation, the inhibitory effect was not constant. In conclusion, ability of Bacillus spore probiotics for adherence to intestinal epithelial cell and their anti-inflammatory effects, through interference with LPS/IL-8 signaling, was shown in this study. Further studies are needed to characterize responsible bacterial compounds associated with these effects.

  15. Inactivation of Bacillus spores by the combination of moderate heat and low hydrostatic pressure in ketchup and potage.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Inoue, Ayaka; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Hayakawa, Isao

    2006-03-15

    The combination effect of moderate heat and low hydrostatic pressure (MHP) on the reduction of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores in food materials (potage and ketchup) was investigated. These bacterial spores were suspended in potage (pH 7), acidified potage (pH 4), neutralized ketchup (pH 7) and ketchup (pH 4). The suspensions were treated with and without pressure (100 MPa) and temperatures of 65-85 degrees C for 3 to 12 h. The bacterial spores were inactivated by 4-8 log cycles during MHP treatment in potage, acidified potage and ketchup, whereas the spores were highly resistant to long time heat treatment in potage and neutralized ketchup. The degrees of spore destruction were mostly dependent on pH and medium composition during MHP treatment. The inactivation effect in MHP treatment was higher at the pH 7 than at pH 4 both in ketchup and potage. The bacterial spores showed higher inactivation in potage than ketchup during MHP treatment.

  16. Carbohydrate analyses of Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N, co-purifying neutral lipids and their functional interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Azadi, P; Carlson, R; Adang, M J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac insecticidal toxin binds specifically to 120kDa aminopeptidase N (APN) (EC 3.4.11.2) in the epithelial brush border membrane of Manduca sexta midguts. The isolated 120-kDa APN is a member of a functional Cry1 toxin receptor complex (FEBS Lett. 412 (1997) 270). The 120-kDa form is glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored and converted to a 115-kDa form upon membrane solubilization. The 115-kDa APN also binds Cry1A toxins and Cry1Ac binding is inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). Here we determined the monosaccharide composition of APN. APN is 4.2mol% carbohydrate and contains GalNAc, a residue involved in Cry1Ac interaction. APN remained associated with non-covalently bound lipids through anion-exchange column purification. Most associated lipids were separated from APN by hydrophobic interaction chromatography yielding a lipid aggregate. Chemical analyses of the lipid aggregate separated from APN revealed neutral lipids consisting mostly of diacylglycerol and free fatty acids. The fatty acids were long, unsaturated chains ranging from C:14 to C:22. To test the effect of APN-associated lipids on Cry1Ac function, the lipid aggregate and 115-kDa APN were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. The lipid aggregate increased the amount of Cry1Ac binding, but binding due to the lipid aggregate was not saturable. In contrast the lipid aggregate promoted Cry1Ac-induced release of 86Rb(+) at the lowest Cry1Ac concentration (50nM) tested. The predominant neutral lipid component extracted from the lipid aggregate promoted Cry1Ac-induced 86Rb(+) release from membrane vesicles in the presence of APN.

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi Subspecies coagulans Infection in a Patient With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Thein; Naing, Akari Thein; Baqui, AAMA; Khillan, Ratesh

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge and literature search, Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans infection in human beings has rarely been described in the medical literature. Furthermore, we believe that this is a first detailed case report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans infection in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. Because of the possible association of Staphylococcus schleiferi infection and immunosuppression, any isolates of this bacterium in human beings should be presumed to be pathogenic, unless proven otherwise. PMID:27734018

  18. First report of a left ventricular assist device infection caused by Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans: a coagulase-positive organism.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Evangeline; Boucher, Helen; Denofrio, David; Pham, Duc Thinh; Snydman, David

    2012-09-01

    Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans is often misclassified as S. aureus given the production of a pseudocoagulase turning the tube coagulase test positive. It is therefore infrequently reported in the literature. We describe the first case of S. schleiferi subspecies coagulans left ventricular assist device infection in a patient awaiting heart transplantation.

  19. Comparative sequence analyses on the 16S rRNA (rDNA) of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus and proposal for creation of a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.; Deinhard, G.; Poralla, K.

    1992-01-01

    Comparative 16S rRNA (rDNA) sequence analyses performed on the thermophilic Bacillus species Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus revealed that these organisms are sufficiently different from the traditional Bacillus species to warrant reclassification in a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov. An analysis of 16S rRNA sequences established that these three thermoacidophiles cluster in a group that differs markedly from both the obligately thermophilic organisms Bacillus stearothermophilus and the facultatively thermophilic organism Bacillus coagulans, as well as many other common mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species. The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species B. acidocaldarius, B. acidoterrestris, and B. cycloheptanicus also are unique in that they possess omega-alicylic fatty acid as the major natural membranous lipid component, which is a rare phenotype that has not been found in any other Bacillus species characterized to date. This phenotype, along with the 16S rRNA sequence data, suggests that these thermoacidophiles are biochemically and genetically unique and supports the proposal that they should be reclassified in the new genus Alicyclobacillus.

  20. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  1. Production of diarrheal enterotoxins and other potential virulence factors by veterinary isolates of bacillus species associated with nongastrointestinal infections.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Neil J; Caldow, George; Gemmell, Curtis G; Hunter, Iain S

    2003-04-01

    With the exceptions of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus species are generally perceived to be inconsequential. However, the relevance of other Bacillus species as food poisoning organisms and etiological agents in nongastrointestinal infections is being increasingly recognized. Eleven Bacillus species isolated from veterinary samples associated with severe nongastrointestinal infections were assessed for the presence and expression of diarrheagenic enterotoxins and other potential virulence factors. PCR studies revealed the presence of DNA sequences encoding hemolysin BL (HBL) enterotoxin complex and B. cereus enterotoxin T (BceT) in five B. cereus strains and in Bacillus coagulans NB11. Enterotoxin HBL was also harbored by Bacillus polymyxa NB6. After 18 h of growth in brain heart infusion broth, all seven Bacillus isolates carrying genes encoding enterotoxin HBL produced this toxin. Cell-free supernatant fluids from all 11 Bacillus isolates demonstrated cytotoxicity toward human HEp-2 cells; only one Bacillus licheniformis strain adhered to this test cell line, and none of the Bacillus isolates were invasive. This study constitutes the first demonstration that Bacillus spp. associated with serious nongastrointestinal infections in animals may harbor and express diarrheagenic enterotoxins traditionally linked to toxigenic B. cereus.

  2. New approach for separating Bacillus subtilis metalloprotease and alpha-amylase by affinity chromatography and for purifying neutral protease by hydrophobic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lauer, I; Bonnewitz, B; Meunier, A; Beverini, M

    2000-01-14

    Proteases are commonly used in the biscuit and cracker industry as processing aids. They cause moderate hydrolysis of gluten proteins and improve dough rheology to better control product texture and crunchiness. Commercial bacterial proteases are derived from Bacillus fermentation broth. As filtration and ultrafiltration are carried out as the only recovery steps, these preparations contain also alpha-amylase and beta-glucanase as the main side activities. The aim of this study is to purify and characterize the Bacillus subtilis metalloprotease from a commercial preparation, in order to study separately the impact of the protease activity with regards to its functionality on biscuit properties. Purification was achieved by means of affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue and HIC as a polishing step. Affinity appeared to be the most appropriate matrix for large scale purification while ion exchange chromatography was inefficient in terms of recovery yields. The crude product was first loaded on a Hi Trap Blue column (34 microm, Pharmacia Biotech); elution was carried out with a gradient of NaCl in the presence of 1 mM ZnCl2. This step was only efficient in the presence of Zn cations, because this salt promoted both protease stabilization resulting in high recovery yields and also complexation of amylase units into dimers resulting in amylase retention on the column and a better separation of the 3 activities. Beta-glucanase was mostly non retained on the column and a part was coeluted with the protease. This protease fraction was then loaded on a Resource Phe column (15 microm, Pharmacia Biotech) in a last step of polishing. Elution was carried out with a linear gradient of 100-0% ammonium sulfate 1.3 M; protease was eluted at the beginning of the gradient and well separated from amylase and glucanase trace impurities. The homogeneity of the purified protease was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which showed that its MW was about 38. pH and temperature optima were also

  3. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Q. K.; Zhou, K. F.; Hu, H. M.; Zhao, H. B.; Zhang, Y.; Ying, W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects. PMID:26954164

  4. An enrichment isolation procedure for minor Bacillus populations.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Y; Koizumi, K

    1982-04-01

    In general, spores of B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. Sphaericus and B. subtilis strains germinated uniformly within a short time of incubation in a germination medium. In contrast, spores of B, circulans, B. brevis, B. laterosporus, B. pulvifaciens, B. polymyxa, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis and B. coagulans strains were usually slow and/or uneven germinators under the same conditions of incubation. The former group of Bacillus strains occur frequently in soils as the predominant population and the latter group of Bacillus species are found in many cases as minor populations. The minor populations of Bacillus were isolated with difficulty by the standard dilution-plate technique, but could easily be enriched by treating the soil sample in a germination medium for 2 to 3 hours at 30 to 35 degrees C, followed by heating it at 65 degrees C for 10 minutes ("minor-shifted isolation"). Using this technique, the minor Bacillus strains could be isolated from samples containing 100- to 1,000-fold more of the rapid germinators of Bacillus.

  5. Lethal effect of microwaves on spores of Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Hu, Shu-Hui; Lin, Chin-Yang

    2003-04-01

    Strains representing four types of common heat-resistant spores of Bacillus spp., B. cereus CCRC 14655, B. coagulans CCRC10606, B. licheniformis CCRC14693, and B. subtilis CCRC14199, were heated with microwaves at different power levels and under different conditions in salt solutions, starch solutions, and containers. The results of this study showed that B. licheniformis spores had the highest microwave tolerance at a power level of 100% for different incubation times. B. coagulans spores showed the lowest microwave tolerance in salt solutions with water activity values of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9, and B. licheniformis spores were the most resistant in the tested salt solutions at different incubation times. An analysis of the effect of the viscosity of the medium revealed that the bacteria had the lowest microwave resistance in a medium containing <0.8% starch in solution. The microwave resistance levels of the test microorganisms were the lower in glass containers than in polypropylene containers and aluminum foil-enclosed pouches. Of the four species of bacilli, B. licheniformis had the highest microwave tolerance (P < 0.05) under all conditions.

  6. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting aspartic protease from Withania coagulans fruit.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mahmoud; Aghamaali, Mahmoud Reza; Sajedi, Reza H; Asghari, S Mohsen; Jorjani, Eisa

    2017-05-01

    Withania coagulans fruit has traditionally been used as milk coagulant. The present study reports the purification and characterization of an aspartic protease from W. coagulans fruit. The enzyme was purified via fractional ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of a monomeric protein with molecular weight of 31kDa. Proteolytic activity (PA) of the protease was evaluated using casein, and the milk-clotting activity (MCA) was analyzed by skim milk. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for casein were obtained to be 1.29mg/ml and 0.035μmol Tyr/min, respectively. Optimal temperature and pH were 65°C and 5.5, respectively. After incubation of enzyme at 65°C for 1h, 73% of PA was remained which demonstrated high thermal stability of the enzyme. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified protease and enzyme assays in the presence of protease inhibitors indicated that aspartic protease was the only responsible enzyme in milk coagulation. Furthermore, by investigating the effect of salts on enzyme activity, it was observed that both NaCl and CaCl2 reduced enzyme activity. These characteristics of the protease suggest that the enzyme may be suitable for producing low salt content cheeses.

  7. Bacillus phytases: present scenario and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shijun; Sun, Jianyi; Qian, Lichun; Li, Zhiyu

    2008-10-01

    Phytases are a special class of phosphatases that catalyze the sequential hydrolysis of phytate to less-phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate. Bacillus phytases, which exhibit their desirable activity profile under neutral pH, higher thermal stability, and strict substrate specificity for the calcium-phytate complex, have considerable potential in commercial and environmental applications. This review describes recent findings concerning the production, biochemical properties, molecular characteristics, and expression of Bacillus phytases. Several potential applications of the Bacillus phytases in animal nutrition, human health, and synthesis of lower myo-inositol phosphates are also summarized.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of Withania coagulans root extract on CA1 hippocampus following cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh- Sagheb, Hamidreza; Valizadeh, Moharram; Doostkami, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxygen free radicals may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion damage. The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients, as well as complex plant extracts, on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries are well known. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydro-alcoholic root extract of Withania coagulans on CA1 hippocampus oxidative damages following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in five groups: control, sham operated, Ischemia/ Reperfiusion (IR), and Withania Coagulans Extract (WCE) 500 and 1000mg/kg + I/R groups. Ischemia was induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min after 30 days of WCE administration. Three days after, the animals were sacrificed, their brains were fixed for histological analysis (NISSL and TUNEL staining) and some samples were prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in hippocampus. Results: WCE showed neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in MDA level and increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activity in pretreated groups as compared to I/R groups (p<0.001). The number of intact neurons was increased while the number of TUNEL positive neurons in CA1 hippocampal region in pretreated groups were decreased as compared to I/R group (p<0.001). Conclusion: WCE showed potent neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced injuries caused by global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion in rats probably by radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:27516980

  9. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans subsp. nov., isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs with external ear otitis.

    PubMed

    Igimi, S; Takahashi, E; Mitsuoka, T

    1990-10-01

    A new subspecies, Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans, was isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external ear otitis and is described on the basis of studies of 21 strains. Phenotypic studies showed that these strains are more closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius than to other staphylococci, but DNA hybridization studies indicated that they are closely related to Staphylococcus schleiferi N850274T. On the basis of biochemical distinctiveness (positive test tube coagulase test and different carbohydrate reactions) and the etiological importance (frequent isolation from otitis specimens from dogs) of these strains, we propose to classify them as a subspecies of S. schleiferi. The strains of this new subspecies are coagulase tube test, beta-hemolysin, and heat-stable nuclease positive but clumping factor negative. A simple scheme for the differentiation of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans from the other coagulase-positive staphylococci is presented. The type strain is GA211 (= JCM 7470).

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolated from dogs with pyoderma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tetsuji; Shibata, Sanae; Murayama, Nobuo; Nagata, Masahiko; Nishifuji, Koji; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    To understand species distribution, trends of antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of methicillin resistance in canine staphylococci in Japan, 190 coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) were isolated from dogs with pyoderma in 2 Japanese veterinary referral hospitals. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) method, two CoPS species were identified: 170 Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (89.5%) and 20 S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates (10.5%). In these isolates, susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was determined. Overall, the levels of susceptibility to cefalexin (CEX), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (CVA/AMPC), minocycline (MINO), ofloxacin (OFLX), norfloxacin (NFLX), lincomycin (LCM) and clindamycin (CLDM) in S. pseudintermedius isolates were 38.2, 52.4, 34.7, 31.2, 34.1, 1.2 and 11.2%, respectively. In S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates, 55% demonstrated susceptibility to CEX, 80% to CVA/AMPC, 70% to MINO, 45% to OFLX or NFLX and 30% to CLDM. None of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates was susceptible to LCM. To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains, we used a PCR method, which enabled detection of the fragment of mecA gene in 66.5% (113 of 170) in S. pseudintermedius and 30.0% (6 of 20) in S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates. The frequencies of susceptibility to CEX, CVA/AMPC, OFLX, NFLX and CLDM were significantly lower in methicillin-resistant CoPS than in methicillin-susceptible CoPS isolates. These data suggest a high level of methicillin resistance in staphylococci isolated from dogs with pyoderma in Japan.

  11. Microbiological features of Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans, isolated from dogs and possible misidentification with other canine coagulase-positive staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Zdovc, I; Ocepek, M; Pirs, T; Krt, B; Pinter, L

    2004-12-01

    Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans has only rarely been isolated and identified from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external otitis. Its morphological and basic biochemical characteristics are of relatively little value for identification, as it phenotypically resembles another coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and, consequently, may be easily misidentified as S. intermedius or even as S. aureus. In the present work, differentiation of S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans was therefore based on specific biochemical and genetic methods. All the strains were evaluated with the following commercial methods: Api Staph System (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoil, France), BBL Crystal Identification Systems (Gram-Positive ID Kit and Rapid Gram-Positive ID Kit; Becton Dickinson), and GEN-PROBE AccuProbe, Staphylococcus aureus identification test (bioMérieux). Gram-Positive ID System/GP database includes the broadest range of staphylococcal species and correctly identifies the majority of strains important in veterinary medicine. Therefore, it is an acceptable alternative to conventional methods for identification of canine staphylococcal isolates. Reliable differentiation of S. aureus from S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans and S. intermedius was feasible with AccuProbe for S. aureus, which gave positive results only for S. aureus; all other CPS tested were negative.

  12. Evaluation of high-intensity ultrasonication for the inactivation of endospores of 3 bacillus species in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Som Nath; Anand, Sanjeev; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2014-10-01

    Endospores of Bacillus licheniformis [American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 6634], Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 12245), and Geobacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 15952) were spiked in sterile nonfat milk, and subjected to high intensity batch ultrasonication treatment at different amplitudes (80 or 100%) and durations (1 to 10 min). Increasing the amplitude from 80 to 100% did not result in enhanced inactivation of G. stearothermophilus endospores. However, an increase in the duration of ultrasonication from 1 to 10 min significantly increased the inactivation of endospores of all 3 species. About 48.96% of the G. stearothermophilus endospores were inactivated by ultrasonication alone, whereas ultrasonication and pasteurization combined increased the inactivation to 65.74%. Inactivation of endospores could be further enhanced to 75.32% by ultrasonication and higher heat (80 °C/1 min) combination. Endospores of B. licheniformis and B. coagulans were inactivated to a lesser extent compared with G. stearothermophilus spores. Ultrasonicated B. licheniformis endospores germinated in higher numbers when compared with untreated endospores resulting in their greater inactivation during the combined treatment. During microstructure imaging of ultrasonicated endospores, although no structural damage was noticed, they showed irregular shrinkage and wrinkles with surface coarseness. This may also have contributed to their reduced thermal resistance, in addition to sporulation.

  13. A real-time PCR assay to detect the Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin in staphylococci: screening Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans strains from companion animals.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Scott; O'Shea, Kathleen; Morris, Daniel; Robb, Andrew; Morrison, Donald; Rankin, Shelley

    2005-04-25

    Recent reports suggest that methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans are now commonly isolated from dogs. Given the association of a potentially mobile SCCmec type IV element with lysogenic phage-encoded Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) toxin genes in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains we hypothesized that methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains may also encode PVL toxin genes. Forty S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains isolated from companion animals were studied. Susceptibility to oxacillin was determined by broth microdilution and all isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of the mecA gene. SCCmec typing was performed on 14 isolates. A real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of the PVL genes using a SmartCycler. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine whether S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains were homogeneous. Twenty-eight of the 40 isolates (70%) were resistant to oxacillin and 26/28 possessed the mecA gene by PCR. SCCmec IV was identified in seven strains; the other seven isolates were not typable by this technique. All 40 strains were negative for the PVL toxin gene. PFGE showed a heterogeneous population and 13 different profiles were determined. In conclusion, this study showed that PVL toxin genes were not detected in a heterogeneous population of methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains isolated from companion animals.

  14. Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, R C

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax. In addition, treatment and vaccination strategies will be reviewed. PMID:12610093

  15. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture. This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

  17. Study of the bacterial load in a gelatine production process focussed on Bacillus and related endosporeforming genera.

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Elke; De Vos, Paul

    2002-12-01

    Gelatine is an animal protein with many industrial applications. Previous studies pointed out that endosporeforming bacteria, belonging to the genus Bacillus or related genera, might contaminate and survive the production process of gelatine, leading to products of low quality and safety. The aim of this study is to determine the bacterial diversity of contaminants isolated from a gelatine production chain with emphasis on aerobic endosporeforming bacteria. Contaminants were isolated from samples taken at five crucial points along two different production lines of a gelatine production process and from water supplies used for extraction and cooling. Gaschromatographic methyl ester analysis of fatty acids was performed to differentiate isolates at the genus level. Apart from members of the genus Bacillus or related endosporeforming genera, also members of Salmonella, Kluyvera, Staphylococcus, Burkholderia, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Yersinia, Streptococcus and Brevundimonas could be detected. Isolates identified as belonging to Bacillus and related endosporeforming genera were further characterised by gelatinase tests, rep-PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. All these isolates showed the ability to liquefy gelatine. Endosporeforming isolates were assigned to Bacillus licheniformis, B. fumarioli, members of the B. cereus group, B. badius, B. coagulans, B. subtilis, Brevibacillus agri, Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and a yet undescribed Paenibacillus species.

  18. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    PubMed

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk.

  19. Withania coagulans Extract Induces Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits COX-2 Expression in a Rat Model of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Khajavi, Ozra; Arab, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Phytotherapy is a popular treatment option in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with many different herbal products being used for the treatment of this condition. Withania coagulans (WC) is an herbal medicine that has shown anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Objectives This study examined the effect of Withania coagulans extract (WCE) on prostatic cell apoptosis and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats. Methods Forty Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups: control, sham, BPH, BPH + WCE, and BPH + CLX (celecoxib) as a positive control group. The induction of BPH was achieved via the subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg of testosterone propionate (TP) daily for 28 days. The animals received WCE, celecoxib, or distilled water by oral gavage accompanied by the TP injection. After four weeks, the prostate glands of the rats were weighed to measure the prostatic index (PI). The ventral lobes of the prostates were dissected and processed with paraffin blocks in order to study the number of mast cells. A TUNEL analysis was performed to evaluate the cell apoptosis, while the expression of COX-2 was examined using immunohistochemistry. Results BPH was obvious in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and the administration of WCE markedly decreased the PI and the number of mast cells (P < 0.001) in the BPH rats. Additionally, the WCE treatment induced prostatic cell apoptosis when compared to the BPH group. Furthermore, following the WCE treatment, the expression of COX-2 in the prostatic tissues was significantly decreased when compared to the BPH groups. Conclusions According to the results of this study, WCE was effective in the treatment of BPH in rats. It may therefore have beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with BPH. PMID:27878112

  20. Strong and consistently synergistic inactivation of spores of spoilage-associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by high pressure and heat compared with inactivation by heat alone.

    PubMed

    Olivier, S A; Bull, M K; Stone, G; van Diepenbeek, R J; Kormelink, F; Jacops, L; Chapman, B

    2011-04-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (F(z)(121.1)(°)(C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa)) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log(10) reduction/minute at F(T)(z)(121.1)(°)(C)) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (F(T)(z)). The use of the F(T)(z) approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes.

  1. Strong and Consistently Synergistic Inactivation of Spores of Spoilage-Associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by High Pressure and Heat Compared with Inactivation by Heat Alone ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, S. A.; Bull, M. K.; Stone, G.; van Diepenbeek, R. J.; Kormelink, F.; Jacops, L.; Chapman, B.

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (Fz121.1°C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log10 reduction/minute at FTz121.1°C) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (FTz). The use of the FTz approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes. PMID:21278265

  2. Incidence and biochemical characteristics of Bacillus flora in Sardinian dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, S; Mulargia, A F; Pisano, B; Tuveri, P; Palmas, F

    1997-09-16

    This study was planned to assess the frequency and level of Bacillus spp. contamination in Sardinian dairy products and to evaluate some food-spoilage-related characteristics of the strains isolated. Of the 378 dairy products tested, 265 (70%) were found to contain Bacillus spp. The overall level of contamination ranged from less than 10 cfu per ml or gram up to a maximum of 1200 cfu. A total of 483 strains, belonging to 14 species, have been isolated from the 265 positive samples. The most frequently isolated psychotropic species were B. cereus (18.6% of total isolates), B. coagulans and B. mycoides. B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. pumilis were the most common mesophilic strains and B. stearotermophilus was the dominant thermophilic species. Most strains showed strong enzymatic activity, as indicated by the high percentage of isolates capable of hydrolysing casein, gelatin, starch and liquids. As regards possible health hazards. 72% of the B. cereus strains tested showed evidence of toxin production using a reversed passive latex agglutination assay.

  3. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Brodetsky, Anna M.; Romig, W. R.

    1965-01-01

    Brodetsky, Anna M. (University of California, Los Angeles), and W. R. Romig. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages. J. Bacteriol. 90:1655–1663. 1965.—A group of six phages, SP5, SP6, SP7, SP8, SP9, and SP13, which use the Marburg strain of Bacillus subtilis as host was characterized. These phages, referred to as group 1, were examined for the following properties: host range, plaque morphology, stability, adsorption kinetics, one-step growth characteristics, calcium requirements, serum neutralization, thermal inactivation, and inactivation by ultraviolet irradiation. Five unrelated B. subtilis phages, SP3, SP10, PBS1, SP alpha, and SP beta, were included in the studies. When first isolated, none of the group 1 phages was able to replicate efficiently on B. subtilis SB19, a mutant of the “transforming” B. subtilis 168. Host range mutants capable of growth in SB19 were isolated for all of the group 1 phages except SP13, and are designated the “star” phages (SP5* through SP9*). For characterization, SB19 was used as host for the star phages, and another B. subtilis mutant, 168B, was host for SP13. PMID:4955056

  4. Laser induced fluorescence lifetime characterization of Bacillus endospore species using time correlated single photon counting analysis with the multi-exponential fit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Clint; Edwards, Jarrod; Fisher, Andmorgan

    2010-04-01

    Rapid detection of biological material is critical for determining presence/absence of bacterial endospores within various investigative programs. Even more critical is that if select material tests positive for bacillus endospores then tests should provide data at the species level. Optical detection of microbial endospore formers such as Bacillus sp. can be heavy, cumbersome, and may only identify at the genus level. Data provided from this study will aid in characterization needed by future detection systems for further rapid breakdown analysis to gain insight into a more positive signature collection of Bacillus sp. Literature has shown that fluorescence spectroscopy of endospores could be statistically separated from other vegetative genera, but could not be separated among one another. Results of this study showed endospore species separation is possible using laser-induce fluorescence with lifetime decay analysis for Bacillus endospores. Lifetime decays of B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. coagulans, and B. anthracis Sterne strain were investigated. Using the Multi-Exponential fit method data showed three distinct lifetimes for each species within the following ranges, 0.2-1.3 ns; 2.5-7.0 ns; 7.5-15.0 ns, when laser induced at 307 nm. The four endospore species were individually separated using principle component analysis (95% CI).

  5. Yield and protein quality of thermophilic Bacillus spp. biomass related to thermophilic aerobic digestion of agricultural wastes for animal feed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2008-05-01

    Bacillus spp. responsible for thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) of agricultural wastes were studied for their growth rate, yield and protein quality (amino acid profile) under conditions that approximate full-scale waste digestion as pointers to the capacity of TAD to achieve protein enrichment of wastes for reuse in animal feeding. Specific growth rates of the thermophiles varied with temperature and aeration rates. For Bacillus coagulans, the highest specific growth rate was 1.98 muh(-1); for Bacillus licheniformis 2.56 muh(-1) and for Bacillus stearothermophilus 2.63 muh(-1). Molar yield of B. stearothermophilus on glucose increased with temperature to a peak of 0.404 g g(-1) at 50 degrees C before declining. Peak concentration of overflow metabolite (acetate) increased from 10 mmol at 45 degrees C to 34 mmol at 65 degrees C before declining. Accumulation of biomass in all three isolates decreased with increase in temperature while protein content of biomass increased. Highest biomass protein (79%) was obtained in B. stearothermophilus at 70 degrees C. Content of most essential amino acids of the biomass improved with temperature. Amino acid profile of the biomass was comparable to or superior to the FAO standard for SCP intended for use in animal feeding. Culture condition (waste digestion condition) may be manipulated to optimize protein yield and quality of waste digested by TAD for recycling in animal feed.

  6. Bombiscardovia coagulans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Bifidobacteriaceae isolated from the digestive tract of bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Killer, J; Kopečný, J; Mrázek, J; Havlík, J; Koppová, I; Benada, O; Rada, V; Kofroňová, O

    2010-11-01

    One hundred and eighty-seven fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive strains were isolated from the digestive tract of three different bumblebee species. Analyses of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of the representative strains showed only 92.8% and 92.5% similarity to Bifidobacterium coryneforme YIT 4092(T) and Bifidobacterium indicum JCM 1302(T), 92.2% similarity to Alloscardovia omnicolens CCUG 18650 and slightly reduced similarity of 91% to other members of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. On the other hand, analyses of the partial heat-shock protein 60 (hsp60) gene sequence revealed that the proposed type strain BLAPIII-AGV(T) was affiliated only to the 60 kDa chaperonin sequence of uncultured bacteria from human vagina (79-80%) and the hsp60 gene sequence of A. omnicolens CCUG 31649(T) (75.5%). The peptidoglycan type was A4α with an l-Lys-d-Asp interpeptide bridge. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid, six glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids. The major fatty acids were C(18:1), C(20:0) and C(18:0). These and other analyses indicated that the isolates represented a new genus within the family Bifidobacteriaceae. This observation was further substantiated by determination of the DNA G+C contents (46.1-47.1 mol%). Affinity of the strains to some scardovial genera (Aeriscardovia, Alloscardovia and Metascardovia) was also confirmed by their ability to grow under aerobic conditions. Besides the above mentioned differences, Bombiscardovia coagulans was found to differ from all scardovial genera in the ability to grow at temperatures as low as 5°C, which was another major phenotypically different characteristic of this new member of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. Hence, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses using partial 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence data, and the temperature related phenotypic difference, we propose a novel taxa, B. coagulans gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain=BLAPIII-AGV(T)=DSM 22924(T)=ATCC BAA

  7. Isolation and characterization of hyper phenol tolerant Bacillus sp. from oil refinery and exploration sites.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2010-04-15

    Bacillus cereus MTCC 9817 strain AKG1 and B. cereus MTCC 9818 strain AKG2 were isolated from petroleum refinery and oil exploration site, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain AKG1 showed the closest relation to B. cereus 99.63% and Bacillus coagulans 99.63% followed by 99.34% homology with Bacillus thuringiensis strain 2PR56-10. AKG2 is mostly related to B. thuringiensis strain CMG 861 with 99.37% homology. The similarity search between AKG1 and AKG2 gave the lowest similarity 99.19% among same genus similar sequences. At phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L, the optimum growth conditions for AKG1 were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.0 and the same were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.5 for AKG2. The growth kinetics of the strains AKG1 and AKG2 are best fitted by Yano model (maximum growth rate, mu(max)=1.024 h(-1) and inhibition constant, K(I)=171,800 mg/L) and Edward model (mu(max)=0.5969 h(-1) and K(I)=1483 mg/L) respectively. Growth kinetics of both the strains are also well fitted by the Haldane model with mu(max)=0.4396 h(-1) and K(I)=637.8 mg/L for AKG1 and mu(max)=0.9332 h(-1) and K(I)=494.4 mg/L for AKG2.

  8. Investigation of spore surface antigens in the genus Bacillus by the use of polyclonal antibodies in immunofluorescence tests.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A P; Martin, K L

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescein-conjugated rabbit antibodies to formalized spores of Bacillus anthracis were tested against strains of B. anthracis and other Bacillus species in a subjective immunofluorescence test. The lack of reaction of B. anthracis Vollum spores with conjugated antibody raised against B. anthracis Sterne spores indicated that spores of the Vollum strain lacked a major surface antigen present in most of the other anthrax strains tested, including the non-encapsulated strains Sterne and the Soviet ST1, variants cured of the pX01 plasmid that codes for the toxin, and several virulent strains. Four other antibody preparations, raised against B. anthracis Vollum, New Hampshire, Ames and Strain 15, reacted to an approximately similar degree with spores of all four strains and of Sterne, indicating that Vollum has at least one spore antigen in common with these other strains. The anti-Sterne and anti-Vollum conjugates both displayed cross-reactions with spores of strains of B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. polymyxa, B. pumilus and B. thuringiensis. Absorption of the anti-anthrax conjugates with B. cereus NCTC 8035 and NCTC 10320 removed all these cross-reactions, demonstrating the existence of spore antigens specific for anthrax.

  9. Combined effects of carbonation with heating and fatty acid esters on inactivation and growth inhibition of various bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Klangpetch, Wannaporn; Nakai, Tomoe; Noma, Seiji; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2013-09-01

    The effects of carbonation treatment (1 to 5 MPa, 30 min) plus heat treatment (30 to 80°C, 30 min) in the presence of various fatty acid esters (FAEs; 0.05 and 0.1%, wt/vol) on counts of viable Bacillus subtilis spores were investigated. FAEs or carbonation alone had no inactivation or growth inhibition effects on B. subtilis spores. However, carbonation plus heat (CH; 80°C, 5 MPa, 30 min) in the presence of mono- and diglycerol fatty acid esters markedly decreased counts of viable spores, and the spore counts did not change during storage for 30 days. The greatest decrease in viable spore counts occurred in the presence of monoglycerol fatty acid esters. Under CH conditions, inactivation and/or growth inhibition occurred at only 80°C and increased with increasing pressure. The greatest decrease in spore counts (more than 4 log units) occurred with CH (80°C, 5 MPa, 30 min) in the presence of monoglycerol fatty acid esters. However, this treatment was less effective against Bacillus coagulans and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

  10. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit in experimental rat models

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Ankur; Bagchi, Chiranjib; Das, Saibal; Mitra, Achintya; Pati, Anuradha De; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit (WCDF) alone and in combination with glipizide, in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and evaluation of possible antihyperlipidemic activity of the same extract in high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia, in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in 30 albino rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into five groups receiving the following treatments orally for 4 weeks: Vehicle, glipizide (2.5 mg/kg), WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg), WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg) plus glipizide (1 mg/kg) and WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg) plus glipizide (2.5 mg/kg). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured every week for 4 weeks. Endocrine pancreas histopathology was done at the end. In a separate set of experiment, five groups of six albino rats each, received orally for 4 weeks, vehicle, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day), cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day) plus atorvastatin (7.2 mg/kg/day), cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day) plus WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg/day) and no treatment, respectively. Estimation of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology was done at the end of 4 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Between-group and within-group comparisons were respectively done by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated measures ANOVA, followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: The 4-week treatment with WCDF extract significantly reversed hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes that was comparable to glipizide. When combined with glipizide (2.5 mg/kg), WCDF extract produced a synergistic antihyperglycemic effect as well as improvement in pancreatic histopathology. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract of WCDF was effective and comparable to atorvastatin in controlling the high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. PMID:23930042

  11. Smallpox and pan-Orthodox Virus Detection by Real-Time 3’-Minor Groove Binder TaqMan Assays Oil the Roche LightCycler and the Cepheid Smart Cycler Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    megaterium Bacillus polymyxa Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus stearothermophilus Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus popilliae...xylosoxydans Bacillus anthracis BA0068 Ames Sterne SPS 97.13.213 Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus macerans Bacillus ...varicella- zoster virus, and Bacillus anthracis DNA by LightCycler polymerase chain reaction after

  12. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus schleiferi Subspecies coagulans from Canine Pyoderma Cases in Grenada, West Indies, and Their Susceptibility to Beta-Lactam Drugs.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Gibson, Kathryn; Peterson, Ross; Frankie, Matthew; Matthew, Vanessa; Daniels, Joshua; Martin, Nancy A; Andrews, Linton; Paterson, Tara; Sharma, Ravindra N

    2014-01-01

    Over a 2-year period 66 cases of canine pyoderma in Grenada, West Indies, were examined by aerobic culture in order to ascertain the bacteria involved and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Of the 116 total bacterial isolates obtained, the majority belonged to Gram-positive species, and the most common organism identified through biochemical and molecular methods was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Additionally, identification of a Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans isolate was confirmed by molecular methods. All isolates of staphylococci were susceptible to beta-lactam drugs: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefovecin, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, and cephalothin. They were also susceptible to chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Resistance was highest to tetracycline. Methicillin resistance was not detected in any isolate of S. pseudintermedius or in S. schleiferi. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, the most common species was Klebsiella pneumoniae, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus. The only drug to which all Gram-negative isolates were susceptible was enrofloxacin. This report is the first to confirm the presence of S. pseudintermedius and S. schleiferi subspecies coagulans, in dogs with pyoderma in Grenada, and the susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates to the majority of beta-lactam drugs used in veterinary practice.

  13. 76 FR 14289 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption From the... regulation extends a temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus... permissible level for residues of Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn. The temporary...

  14. 75 FR 34040 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption from the... regulation establishes a temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus... Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn under the FFDCA. The temporary tolerance exemption...

  15. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  16. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  17. Ruling Out Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Houhoula, Dimitra P.; Papadimitriou, Maria; Saroglou, Georgios; Legakis, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    Optimization of methods for ruling out Bacillus anthracis leads to increased yields, faster turnaround times, and a lighter workload. We used 72 environmental non–B. anthracis bacilli to validate methods for ruling out B. anthracis. Most effective were horse blood agar, motility testing after a 2-h incubation in trypticase soy broth, and screening with a B. anthracis–selective agar. PMID:15200872

  18. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; Reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617**T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618**T. Compara...

  19. Expression of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Bacillus megaterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    protective antigen in Bacillus megaterium B.J. Berger, K.E. Schwandt and C.L. Radford Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Technical Memorandum DISTRIBUTION...antigen in Bacillus megaterium B. J. Berger, K. E. Schwandt, and C. L. Radford Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Technical...expressed using Bacillus megaterium and a xylose-inducible heterologous expression system. After only 3.5 hours growth post-induction in Luria

  20. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  1. MICs of Selected Antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides From a Range of Clinical and Environmental Sources as Determined by the Etest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    1184–1187. 21. Kemmerly, S. A., and G. A. Pankey. 1993. Oral ciprofloxacin therapy for Bacillus cereus wound infection and bacteremia . Clin. Infect...Antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus , Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a Range of Clinical and Environmental Sources...76 isolates of Bacillus anthracis chosen for their diverse histories and 67, 12, and 4 cultures, respectively, of its close relatives B. cereus , B

  2. The tubercle bacillus

    PubMed Central

    1949-01-01

    A series of lectures on the tubercle bacillus by eminent authorities from various countries was organized at the Institut d'Hygiène et de Bactériologie of the University of Lausanne by Professor Paul Hauduroy, from 22 to 25 April 1949. Through the kindness of Professor Hauduroy it has been possible for the World Health Organization to publish in the Bulletin summaries of these lectures. * PMID:20603940

  3. Bacillus laterosporus endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Yabbara, K F; Juffali, F; Matossian, R M

    1977-12-01

    A strain of Bacillus laterosporus was isolated from the aqueous and vitreous humors of a patient with endophthalmitis that developed after a penetrating injury of the cornea. Intravitreal inoculation of the isolate into rabbits produced severe panophthalmitis, corneal perforation, orbital cellulitis, and even meningitis. These observations suggest that B laterosporus, hitherto classified as nonpathogenic, is an opportunist that can cause disease when conditions are favorable.

  4. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  5. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  6. Ions and neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, A.

    After a short presentation of intensity limitations examples due to trapped ions, the processes of ionization and neutralization build up in particle accelerators and storage rings are briefly reviewed. The tolerable limits in neutralization are then assessed at the light of current theories of incoherent and coherent effects driven by ions. Finally the usual antidotes such as clearing electrodes, missing bunch schemes and beam shaking are presented.

  7. Green synthesis of Pd/RGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite using Withania coagulans leaf extract and its application as magnetically separable and reusable catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Atarod, Monireh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    A reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 based nanocomposite with palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) has been synthesized via a green route by Withania coagulans leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent and its catalytic activity has been tested for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in water at room temperature. The hydroxyl groups of phenolics in W. coagulans leaf extract is directly responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+), Fe(3+) ions and GO. The nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, due to the magnetic separability and high stability of the composite the catalyst can be recovered and recycled several times without marked loss of activity.

  8. Microbial genotyping and differentiating between Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus subtilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus mojavensis, a specie recently distinguished from its previous Bacillus subtilis classification, was discovered in corn kernels and later determined to possess endophytic character. The bacterium was also determined to have biocontrol potential due to its growth inhibition of the maize mycot...

  9. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  10. Characterisation of Potential Antimicrobial Targets in Bacillus spp. I. Aminotransferases and Methionine Regeneration in Bacillus subtilis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    targets in Bacillus spp. I. Aminotransferases and methionine regeneration in Bacillus subtilis. Bradley J. Berger and Marvin H. Knodel Defence R&D...Characterisation of potential antimicrobial targets in Bacillus spp. I. Aminotransferases and methionine regeneration in Bacillus subtilis. Bradley J...examined in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Homogenates of this bacterium were able to convert ketomethiobutyrate to methionine, utilising

  11. Reclassification of bioindicator strains Bacillus subtilis DSM 675 and Bacillus subtilis DSM 2277 as Bacillus atrophaeus.

    PubMed

    Fritze, D; Pukall, R

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of high DNA-DNA reassociation values and confirmatory automated RiboPrint analysis, two aerobic spore-forming strains hitherto allocated to Bacillus subtilis and used as bioindicators (DSM 675, hot-air sterilization control; DSM 2277, ethylene oxide sterilization control) are reclassified as Bacillus atrophaeus.

  12. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-06

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  13. Bacillus weihenstephanensis characteristics are present in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus mycoides strains.

    PubMed

    Soufiane, Brahim; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2013-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group comprises seven bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus cytotoxicus, and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. Bacillus weihenstephanensis is distinguished based on its capability to grow at 7 °C but not at 43 °C, and the presence of specific signature sequences in the 16S rRNA and cspA genes and in several housekeeping genes: glpF, gmK, purH, and tpi. Bacillus weihenstephanensis-specific signature sequences were found in some B. cereus and B. mycoides strains suggesting psychrotolerance. This was confirmed by growth at 7 °C but not at 43 °C. The other B. cereus and B. mycoides strains and all B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. pseudomycoides harbored the mesophilic signature sequences. The strains tested grew at 43 °C but did not grow at 7 °C. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from comparisons of the concatenated nucleotide sequences. Three groups and one branch were revealed. Group I, II, and III comprised the mesophilic B. cereus, some mesophilic B. mycoides, and all B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis strains; the psychrotolerant B. cereus and B. mycoides, and all B. weihenstephanensis strains; and some mesophilic B. mycoides and all B. pseudomycoides strains, respectively. The branch corresponds to the single B. cytotoxicus strain. Based on psychrotolerance and multilocus sequence analysis, further confirmed by comparisons of amino acid sequences, we show that some B. cereus and B. mycoides strains should be reclassified as B. weihenstephanensis.

  14. Transduction in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    THORNE, C B

    1962-01-01

    Thorne, Curtis B. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.). Transduction in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 83:106-111. 1962.-A bacteriophage, SP-10, isolated from soil carries out general transduction in Bacillus subtilis. Phage propagated on a streptomycin-resistant mutant of the wild-type strain W-23 was capable of transducing to prototrophy strain 168 (indole(-)), as well as all of the auxotrophic mutants of W-23-S(r) tested, which included mutants requiring arginine, histidine, adenine, guanine, thiamine, leucine, or methionine. Although strain 168 was transduced by phage SP-10, lytic activity on this strain could not be detected and attempts to propagate the phage on it failed. Transductions occurred at frequencies in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-5) per plaque-forming unit. Homologous phage was ineffective, deoxyribonuclease had no effect on the frequency of transduction, and transduction was prevented by the addition of phage antiserum. Phage SP-10 was capable of lysogenizing strain W-23-S(r), and this condition was maintained through repeated growth and sporulation cycles in potato-extract medium. Although heating at 65 C for 60 min inactivated free phage particles, spores retained their lysogenic condition after such heat treatment. When heat-treated spores of the lysogenic cultures were used as inocula for growth in a nutrient broth-yeast extract-glucose medium, filtrates contained 10(9), or more, phage particles per ml.

  15. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  16. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  17. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  18. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  20. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  1. Carbon neutral hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank S; Keith, David W

    2008-11-13

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector may be the most difficult aspect of climate change mitigation. We suggest that carbon neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) offer an alternative pathway for deep emission cuts that complement the use of decarbonized energy carriers. Such fuels are synthesized from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon neutral hydrogen. The result is a liquid fuel compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure and therefore capable of a gradual deployment with minimum supply disruption. Capturing the atmospheric CO2 can be accomplished using biomass or industrial methods referred to as air capture. The viability of biomass fuels is strongly dependent on the environmental impacts of biomass production. Strong constraints on land use may favour the use of air capture. We conclude that CNHCs may be a viable alternative to hydrogen or conventional biofuels and warrant a comparable level of research effort and support.

  2. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  3. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  4. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  5. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  6. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  7. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  8. Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis—One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Helgason, Erlendur; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Caugant, Dominique A.; Johansen, Henning A.; Fouet, Agnes; Mock, Michéle; Hegna, Ida; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most commonly used biological pesticide worldwide. B. cereus is a probably ubiquitous soil bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen that is a common cause of food poisoning. In contrast to the differences in phenotypes, we show by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and by sequence analysis of nine chromosomal genes that B. anthracis should be considered a lineage of B. cereus. This determination is not only a formal matter of taxonomy but may also have consequences with respect to virulence and the potential of horizontal gene transfer within the B. cereus group. PMID:10831447

  9. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free…

  10. Evaluation of Three Methods for Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis From Other Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    EVALUATION OF THREE METHODS FOR DISCRIMINATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS FROM OTHER BACILLUS SPECIES. Diane L. Dutt Geo-Centers Aberdeen...ABSTRACT Bacillus anthracis shares the same ecological niche with other members of the B. cereus group: especially B. cereus and B. thuringiensis...Techniques that differentiate among Bacillus species using metabolic characteristics can be used to compliment PCR-based methods. These

  11. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  12. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  13. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  14. Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp. nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands.

    PubMed

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanparys, Bram; Logan, Niall A; Balcaen, An; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Felske, Andreas; De Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A group of 42 isolates were isolated from the soil of several disused hay fields, in the Drentse A agricultural research area (The Netherlands), that were taken out of production at different times. The group represents hitherto-uncultured Bacillus lineages that have previously been found, by a non-cultural method, to be predominant in soil. The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base-ratio determination, fatty acid analysis and morphological and biochemical characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained by (GTG)5-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, six clusters of similar strains could be recognized. A DNA-DNA relatedness study showed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies. Further analysis supported the proposal of five novel species in the genus Bacillus, namely Bacillus novalis sp. nov. (type strain IDA3307T=R-15439T=LMG 21837T=DSM 15603T), Bacillus vireti sp. nov. (type strain IDA3632T=R-15447T=LMG 21834T=DSM 15602T), Bacillus soli sp. nov. (type strain IDA0086T=R-16300T=LMG 21838T=DSM 15604T), Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1115T=R-16315T=LMG 21833T=DSM 15601T) and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1967T=R-16337T=LMG 21831T=DSM 15600T).

  15. Inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-04-15

    Bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (OCl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone (2K2HSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. The solution produced a free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-) concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved > or =5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 degrees C. Seawaterwas an effective substitute for solid sodium chloride and inactivated 5 to 8 logs of each organism in 10 min over temperatures ranging from -5 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Sporicidal effectiveness increased as free chlorine concentrations shifted from OCl- to HOCl. Neutrally buffered Oxone-chloride and Oxone-seawater solutions are mitigation alternatives for biologically contaminated equipment and environments that would otherwise be decontaminated using caustic bleach solutions.

  16. Capsule Depolymerase Overexpression Reduces Bacillus anthracis Virulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Friedlander, A. M. (2004). The NheA component of the non- hemolytic enterotoxin of Bacillus cereus is produced by Bacillus anthracis but is not required for...Capsule depolymerase overexpression reduces Bacillus anthracis virulence Angelo Scorpio,3 Donald J. Chabot, William A. Day,4 Timothy A. Hoover and...depolymerase (CapD) is a c-glutamyl transpeptidase and a product of the Bacillus anthracis capsule biosynthesis operon. In this study, we examined the

  17. Modeling Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    models which theorize damage to Bacillus spores by various methods. These models use multiple Bacillus species such as anthracis, cereus , and subtilis...MODELING THERMAL INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES THESIS Emily A. Knight Captain, USAF AFIT/GAM/ENC/09-01 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY...United States Government. AFIT/GAM/ENC/09-01 MODELING THERMAL INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Mathematics

  18. Protein secretion in Bacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Simonen, M; Palva, I

    1993-01-01

    Bacilli secrete numerous proteins into the environment. Many of the secretory proteins, their export signals, and their processing steps during secretion have been characterized in detail. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion have been relatively poorly characterized. However, several components of the protein secretion machinery have been identified and cloned recently, which is likely to lead to rapid expansion of the knowledge of the protein secretion mechanism in Bacillus species. Comparison of the presently known export components of Bacillus species with those of Escherichia coli suggests that the mechanism of protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane is conserved among gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differences are found in steps preceding and following the translocation process. Many of the secretory proteins of bacilli are produced industrially, but several problems have been encountered in the production of Bacillus heterologous secretory proteins. In the final section we discuss these problems and point out some possibilities to overcome them. PMID:8464403

  19. Neutral polypropylene laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolfino, Chiara; Lertora, Enrico; Gambaro, Carla

    2016-10-01

    The joining of polymeric materials is a technology used in many industrial applications, from transport to telecommunications and the medical sector. A new technology for the joining of polymers is the laser welding process. In particular, fibre laser welding is a flexible technology which allows high process speed and the realization of good quality joints. Despite its application becoming more widespread in the production of assemblies of high precision, the application of laser technology for the welding of polymers has not been the subject of many studies up to now. This study focused on the welding of neutral polypropylene. The window process parameter was identified, without the use of additives to increase radiation absorption, and a mechanical characterization was conducted in order to evaluate the quality of the joints realized.

  20. TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS OF BACILLUS DYSENTERIAE SHIGA.

    PubMed

    Olitsky, P K; Kligler, I J

    1920-01-01

    With the methods which have been described we have separated an exotoxin and an endotoxin from cultures of the Shiga dysenteric bacillus. The study of the nature and effect of the poison of this microorganism is thus simplified. The two toxins are physically and biologically distinct. The exotoxin is relatively heat-labile, arises in the early period of growth, and yields an antiexotoxic immune serum. The endotoxin, on the other hand, is heat-stable, is formed in the later period of growth, and is not neutralized by the antiexotoxic serum. The exotoxin exhibits a specific affinity for the central nervous organs in the rabbit, giving rise to a characteristic lesion-mainly, hemorrhages, necroses, and possibly a perivascular infiltration in the gray matter of the upper spinal cord and medulla. The endotoxin exerts a typical action on the intestinal tract, producing edema, hemorrhages, necroses, and ulcerations, especially in the large intestine. In dysentery in man the intestinal lesions predominate, but in severe epidemics paralysis and neuritis have been observed (Osler(17)). These facts become specially significant from the standpoint of the serum therapy of bacillary dysentery. A potent antidysenteric serum should contain antibodies against the exotoxin as well as the endotoxin. That such a serum can be produced in horses has been experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  2. Transient Photochemistry of Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ascorbic acid system to 50 successive flashes, indicating that no ground state neutral red is permanently converted to leuco dye . Since leuco neutral...complete regeneration of ground state neutral red in this pH range in the present study suggests that formation of leuco dye is not significant. The second...radical disproportionation step is followed by a slower step which converts leuco dye to semireduced radical. Because coupling the two steps

  3. Transient ion neutralization by electrons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems describing the lateral neutralization of ion beams for the cases that (1) an auxiliary electric field accelerates the electrons into the ion space, and (2) the electrons are injected into the ion space at a prescribed current density are treated. Analytical solutions are derived which give the position and speed of the neutralization front as a function of time, and the temporal development of the electron density, velocity, and electric fields during the neutralization process.

  4. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  5. Insecticidal activity of Bacillus laterosporus.

    PubMed

    Orlova, M V; Smirnova, T A; Ganushkina, L A; Yacubovich, V Y; Azizbekyan, R R

    1998-07-01

    The Bacillus laterosporus strains 921 and 615 were shown to have toxicity for larvae of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens. The larvicidal activity of B. laterosporus was associated with spores and crystalline inclusions. Purified B. laterosporus 615 crystals were highly toxic for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

  6. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  7. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  8. Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, You La; Yang, John Jeongseok; Kim, Min Jin; Lim, Gayoung; Cho, Sun Young; Park, Tae Sung; Suh, Jin-Tae; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Soo Cheol; Lee, Hee Joo

    2012-12-01

    Species of the genus Bacillus are a common laboratory contaminant, therefore, isolation of these organisms from blood cultures does not always indicate infection. In fact, except for Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, most species of the genus Bacillus are not considered human pathogens, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report an unusual presentation of bacteraemia and mediastinitis due to co-infection with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, which were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing, in a patient with an oesophageal perforation.

  9. Characterisation and profiling of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Díaz-Bao, M; Cepeda, A; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2013-04-01

    The Bacillus genus includes species such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, some of which may be pathogenic or causative agents in the spoilage of food products. The main goal of this work was to apply matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass fingerprinting to the classification of these Bacillus species. Genetic analyses were also compared to phyloproteomic analyses. A collection of 57 Bacillus strains isolated from fresh and processed food and from culture collections were studied and their mass spectra compiled. The resulting mass fingerprints were compared and characteristic peaks at the strain and species levels were assigned. The results showed that MALDI-TOF was a good complementary approach to 16S rRNA sequencing and even a more powerful tool in the accurate classification of Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. MALDI-TOF was also found to provide valuable information at both intra- and interspecies levels in the Bacillus species studied.

  10. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    PubMed

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries.

  11. Weak neutral current chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10{sup {minus}5} kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Weak neutral current chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10-5 kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production.

  13. The neutral upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. N.

    2002-07-01

    After World War II, Professor S.K. Mitra wrote a comprehensive book called The Upper Atmosphere, which dealt with information available from ground-based and balloon-borne experiments. As a result, topics such as day airglow were investigated and further ground-based experiments using incoherent back-scattering were carried out. These activities resulted in important new information on the ozonosphere. The dramatic discovery of ozone holes forms a new and exciting chapter in the discovery of atmospheric processes. While dealing with the limits of the atmosphere, reference may be made to interstellar molecules whose discovery has raised considerable scientific curiosity. Knowledge on the solar-terrestrial relationship advanced a great deal when more information on solar radiation became available by measuring higher energy photons in the UV, EUV, and even X-ray regime. All this information is incorporated in this volume and presented under the title The Neutral Upper Atmosphere. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/0-7923-6434-1

  14. Bacillus thiaminolyticus sp. nov., nom. rev.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, L K

    1990-07-01

    The name "Bacillus thiaminolyticus" Kuno 1951 was not included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and has lost standing in bacteriological nomenclature. The genetic homogeneity of "Bacillus thiaminolyticus" was assessed by determining guanine-plus-cytosine contents by the buoyant density method and by measuring DNA relatedness by using spectrophotometric reassociation procedures. Of the 26 strains which I studied, 24 had guanine-plus-cytosine contents in the range from 52 to 54 mol%. The consistently high DNA relatedness values of 60 to 100% of these 24 strains to the type strain indicated that the "B. thiaminolyticus" group is genetically homogeneous. Low DNA relatedness values of 20 to 31% showed that "B. thiaminolyticus" is genetically unrelated to Bacillus alvei, "Bacillus aneurinolyticus," "Bacillus apiarius," Bacillus larvae, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus macerans, and Bacillus stearothermophilus. In general, the "B. thiaminolyticus" group was highly homogeneous for 49 phenotypic characteristics and clearly distinguishable from B. alvei, with which it was allegedly synonymous. On the basis of these findings, revival of the name Bacillus thiaminolyticus is proposed.

  15. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  16. The Effects of Plasma-Neutral Interactions on Neutral Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, V.; Thayer, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma-neutral interactions are fundamental to the structure and behavior of the neutral thermosphere. This interaction, primarily through ion-neutral collisions, ties electrodynamics with hydrodynamics requiring a fully coupled ionosphere - thermosphere model to simulate and dissect the sequence of responses that occur in the neutral gas when a change occurs in the ionosphere. In particular, changes in the ion drag force prompt a hydrodynamic response that will alter several properties of the thermosphere, including neutral winds. Here, the fully coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIEGCM) is used to evaluate how changes in mechanical coupling, through the ion drag force, alter thermosphere properties, with a focus on thermospheric neutral winds. The equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) produces a transient wind system, and a dissection of the hydrodynamic processes responsible for its formation will be used to demonstrate the causal structure in neutral gas response to a change in field-aligned ion drag force. This well-behaved response elucidates processes that must be occurring in other regions of the thermosphere where more significant changes in the ion drag force occur.

  17. Photothermal spectroscopy of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Wig, Andrew G; Arakawa, Edward T; Passian, Ali; Ferrell, Thomas L; Thundat, Thomas George

    2006-03-01

    Microcalorimetric optical and infrared spectroscopy is a method of determining the spectral absorption of small quantities of materials over a wide range of incident wavelengths. In this paper, the first spectroscopic results for microcantilevers coated with Bacillus anthracis (BA) are presented. These results, for B. anthracis from 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m, are compared with results from microcantilevers coated with Bacillus cereus (BC) and standard spectroscopic absorption data. The results demonstrate strong correlation between the deflection measurements and the reference spectroscopic absorption peaks. An advantage of this microcantilever-based method over traditional spectroscopy is that much smaller amounts of material (nanogram quantities) can be detected in comparison with the milligram amounts needed for standard methods. Another advantage is that the complete system can be relatively small without sacrificing spectral resolution.

  18. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  19. Bacteria-shaped Gymnoplasts (Protoplasts) of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    van Iterson, W.; den Kamp, J. A. F. Op

    1969-01-01

    Addition of glucose to the medium in which Bacillus subtilis was grown lowered the pH and increased the amount of lysylphosphatidylglycerol relative to the phosphatidylglycerol content of the membrane fraction. This change in phospholipid composition was accompanied by changes in the shape and behavior of the gymnoplasts obtained by cell wall removal with lysozyme. These gymnoplasts appeared to retain most of their original cell shape and internal organization, often with preservation of the mesosomes. Cells harvested from neutral growth medium gave the usual spherical gymnoplasts. In a hypotonic medium, the spherical gymnoplasts lysed rapidly, whereas the rod-like gymnoplasts lost only part of their cell content while showing a tendency to preserve the original shape. This type of gymnoplast could not be produced from cells grown in neutral medium by simply raising the magnesium concentration. When this was done the gymnoplasts assumed bizarre shapes; they became compact and susceptible to the tonicity of the medium. Gymnoplasts or protoplasts, produced from bacilli exposed to low pH values, were found not to conform to the formulations on “protoplasts” given in 1958 by 13 authors. Cells exposed to a low environmental pH during growth seemed to possess a more rigid membrane structure than cells grown at neutral pH. Images PMID:4979444

  20. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joseph P.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Choi, Young W.; Rogers, James V.; Riggs, Karen B.; Willenberg, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  1. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph P; Meyer, Kathryn M; Kelly, Thomas J; Choi, Young W; Rogers, James V; Riggs, Karen B; Willenberg, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially.

  2. Environmental neutralization of polonium-218

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that two mechanisms of neutralization of the singly charged polonium ion exist. Charged Polonium-218 can be neutralized by reacting with oxygen to form a polonium oxide ion with a higher ionization potential than that of the polonium metal and then accepting an electron transferred from a lower ionization potential gas. In this present work, this mechanism has been verified by determining that the polonium oxide has an ionization potential in the range 10.35-10.53 eV. It was also previously reported that /sup 218/Po can be neutralized, in the absence of oxygen, by the scavenging of electrons by a trace gas such as water or nitrogen dioxide and their diffusion to the polonium ion. To verify this second neutralization mechanism, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in nitrogen in the range of 50 ppb-1 ppm were examined for their ability to neutralize the polonium ion. Complete neutralization of /sup 218/Po was observed at nitrogen dioxide concentrations greater than 700 ppb. For concentrations below 700 ppb, the degree of neutralization was found to increase smoothly with the nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  3. Neutralization of reovirus: the gene responsible for the neutralization antigen

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The S1 genome segment of reovirus is linked to type specificity as determined by neutralization antibody. This gene segment codes for a minor outer capsid polypeptide (sigma1). Therefore, sigma1 is the peptide responsible for induction of neutralization antibody and confers type specificity. This biologic property of reovirus was defined using hybrid recombinants clones between reovirus types 1 and 3 and 2 and 3. PMID:925604

  4. Inactivation of Biological Agents Using Neutral Oxone-Chloride Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-31

    concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved g5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger , and Escherichia coli...spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger , and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 oC. Seawater was an...microorganisms, Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), Bacillus thuringiensis (ATCC 35646), Escherichia coli (ATCC 15597), and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 1004), were

  5. Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species Ruben O. Zandomeni1, Joseph E. Fitzgibbon2, Monica Carrera1, Edward Stuebing2, James E...OCT 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species 5a. CONTRACT...Systematic comparison of the size of B.anthracis spores to size of other Bacillus spores (simulants/surrogates) - all spores produced under the same

  6. Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    layers in B. subtilis is unknown. Unlike B. subtilis, in B. anthracis, Bacillus megaterium , and other species, the spore is surrounded by an additional...nonpathogenic species including B. megaterium and Bacillus odysseyi (45, 85), suggesting that their primary role need not be in disease. Nonetheless, the exospo...S. 1994. Prime time for Bacillus megaterium . Microbiology 140:1001– 1013. 86. Warth, A. D., D. F. Ohye, and W. G. Murrell. 1963. The composition and

  7. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  8. Comparison of Bacillus Anthracis to the Surrogate Bacillus Atrophaeus for Spore Inactivation on a Novel Antimicrobial Fabric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    AFRL-HE-WP-TP-2006-0061 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Comparison of Bacillus Anthracis to the Surrogate Bacillus Atrophaeus for Spore Inactivation on...CONTRACT NUMBER Comparison of Bacillus Anthracis to the Surrogate Bacillus Atrophaeus for Spore Inactivation on a Novel Antimicrobial Fabric 5b. GRANT NUMBER...239.18 Comparison of Bacillus anthracis to the Surrogate Bacillus atrophaeus for Spore Inactivation on a Novel Antimicrobial Fabric Christopher C

  9. Vendor neutral archive in PACS.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-10-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. "Vendor neutral" may not be a suitable term, and "architecture neutral," "PACS neutral," "content neutral," or "third-party neutral" are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe.

  10. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications.

  11. Characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Márcia P; Bonatto, Diego; Bizani, Delmar; Henriques, João A P; Brandelli, Adriano

    2006-06-01

    A Bacillus strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain has high sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The antimicrobial substance was inhibitory to pathogenic and food-spoilage bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, and Pasteurella haemolytica. It was stable over a wide temperature range, but lost activity when the temperature reached 121 degrees C/15 min. Maximum activity was observed at acidic and neutral pH values, but not at alkaline pH. The antimicrobial substance was sensitive to the proteolytic action of trypsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Except for iturins, other antimicrobial peptides have not been described for B. amyloliquefaciens. The identification of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance active against L. monocytogenes addresses an important aspect of food protection.

  12. GLUCOSE CATABOLISM BY BACILLUS POPILLIAE AND BACILLUS LENTIMORBUS.

    PubMed

    PEPPER, R E; COSTILOW, R N

    1964-02-01

    Pepper, Rollin E. (Michigan State University, East Lansing), and Ralph N. Costilow. Glucose catabolism by Bacillus popilliae and Bacillus lentimorbus. J. Bacteriol. 87:303-310. 1964.-Resting cells of Bacillus popilliae and B. lentimorbus catabolize glucose with the production of CO(2), lactic acid, acetic acid, glycerol, ethanol, and trace amounts of acetoin and acetaldehyde. The first three products are the major ones, and their ratios may be varied by controlling the availability of oxygen. Practically no lactic acid is produced when oxygen is not limiting, whereas it may comprise up to 80% of the total acid when oxygen is greatly limited. However, no glucose is catabolized by resting cells in the absence of molecular oxygen. Isotope and inhibitor studies and assays for key enzymes of the established metabolic routes all indicate that these organisms utilize both the Embden-Meyerhof and hexosemonophosphate pathways for glucose dissimilation. With a concentrated resting-cell suspension, the extent of participation of the latter route was estimated to be as high as 40% in an atmosphere of pure oxygen, and as low as 2% in air. Acetate was oxidized by only one of the cultures of B. popilliae tested, which is apparently a mutant. Cells of this strain from stationary phase cultures oxidized acetate at pH 7.0 or higher, but not at pH 6.0; however, they oxidized succinate, fumarate, and malate more rapidly at pH 6.0 than at 7.0. The oxidation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, the presence of condensing enzyme in extracts of cells capable of oxidizing acetate, and the complete inhibition of acetate oxidation by arsenite and partial inhibition by malonate all indicate that terminal oxidation of acetate by this strain of B. popilliae is via the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  13. Crystal structures of Bacillus alkaline phytase in complex with divalent metal ions and inositol hexasulfate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi-Fang; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Hui-Lin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Ma, Yanhe; Chen, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chii-Shen; Cheng, Kuo-Joan; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Guo, Rey-Ting; Liu, Je-Ruei

    2011-06-03

    Alkaline phytases from Bacillus species, which hydrolyze phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositols and inorganic phosphate, have great potential as additives to animal feed. The thermostability and neutral optimum pH of Bacillus phytase are attributed largely to the presence of calcium ions. Nonetheless, no report has demonstrated directly how the metal ions coordinate phytase and its substrate to facilitate the catalytic reaction. In this study, the interactions between a phytate analog (myo-inositol hexasulfate) and divalent metal ions in Bacillus subtilis phytase were revealed by the crystal structure at 1.25 Å resolution. We found all, except the first, sulfates on the substrate analog have direct or indirect interactions with amino acid residues in the enzyme active site. The structures also unraveled two active site-associated metal ions that were not explored in earlier studies. Significantly, one metal ion could be crucial to substrate binding. In addition, binding of the fourth sulfate of the substrate analog to the active site appears to be stronger than that of the others. These results indicate that alkaline phytase starts by cleaving the fourth phosphate, instead of the third or the sixth that were proposed earlier. Our high-resolution, structural representation of Bacillus phytase in complex with a substrate analog and divalent metal ions provides new insight into the catalytic mechanism of alkaline phytases in general.

  14. Pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Barraud, Olivier; Hidri, Nadia; Ly, Kim; Pichon, Nicolas; Manea, Petrus; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Garnier, Fabien

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of a pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. Antibiotic treatment was ineffective, and the pacemaker had to be removed. B. cereus was cultured from several blood samples and from the pacemaker electrodes. This case underlines the contribution of the rpoB gene for Bacillus species determination.

  15. Bovine Bacillus anthracis in Cameroon ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Paola; Rossano, Alexandra; Bamamga, Hamadou; Abdoulkadiri, Souley; Perreten, Vincent; Frey, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Bovine Bacillus anthracis isolates from Cameroon were genetically characterized. They showed a strong homogeneity, and they belong, together with strains from Chad, to cluster Aβ, which appears to be predominant in western Africa. However, one strain that belongs to a newly defined clade (D) and cluster (D1) is penicillin resistant and shows certain phenotypes typical of Bacillus cereus. PMID:21705535

  16. Use of a continuous culture fermentation system to investigate the effect of GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) supplementation on pathogen survival in the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Honda, Harue; Gibson, Glenn R; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David; McCartney, Anne L

    2011-02-01

    Single-stage continuous fermentation systems were employed to examine the effects of GanedenBC(30) supplementation on the human gastrointestinal microbiota in relation to pathogen challenge in vitro. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that GanedenBC(30) supplementation modified the microbial profiles in the fermentation systems compared with controls, with profiles clustering according to treatment. Overall, GanedenBC(30) supplementation did not elicit major changes in bacterial population counts in vitro, although notably higher Bcoa191 counts were seen following probiotic supplementation (compared to the controls). Pathogen challenge did not elicit significant modification of the microbial counts in vitro, although notably higher Clit135 counts were seen in the control system post-Clostridium difficile challenge than in the corresponding GanedenBC(30)-supplemented systems. Sporulation appears to be associated with the anti-microbial activity of GanedenBC(30), suggesting that a bi-modal lifecycle of GanedenBC(30)in vivo may lead to anti-microbial activity in distal regions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. On the fate of ingested Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Spinosa, M R; Braccini, T; Ricca, E; De Felice, M; Morelli, L; Pozzi, G; Oggioni, M R

    2000-06-01

    Spores of various Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. clausii, are used as probiotics, although they are generally absent from the normal microflora of man. We used two nonpathogenic Bacillus species, B. subtilis and B. clausii, to follow the fate of spores inoculated intragastrically in mice. We did not find detectable amounts of vegetative cells in intestinal samples, probably because of high toxicity of the conjugated bile salt taurodeoxycholic acid against Bacillus species. Both spores and cells were detected in the lymph nodes and spleen of one mouse. Our results indicate that Bacillus is present in the intestinal tract solely as spores and that nonpathogenic Bacillus spores may germinate in lymphoid organs, a finding reminiscent of B. anthracis germination in macrophages. These results indicate that any claimed probiotic effect of B. subtilis should be due to spores or, alternatively, to vegetative growth outside the intestine.

  18. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''.

  19. Reduced neutral XLPE cable design

    SciTech Connect

    Valli, G.F.; Zawadzki, J.A.; Orton, H.E. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes the theoretical, laboratory and economic analyses undertaken to determine the optimum metallic concentric neutral design for its single conductor 750 and 500 kcmil aluminum XLPE 15 kV insulated concentric-neutral type feeder cables. The results suggest that reducing the cross-sectional area of this concentric neutral from the currently-recognized industry standard of 20 percent of the central conductor to 7% results in overall present-worth system cost saving of approximately $3 per conductor meter or approximately 22% of the cable first cost. The neutral configuration ultimately chosen to replace the previous standard 37 - number 14 AWG wires was 2 - 1 inch {times} 5 mil tinned copper tapes overlapped by 25%. Line voltage fault test were run in the high-power laboratory on samples with various neutral configurations to confirm they would successfully pass our worst-case fault duty of 10 kA for 20 cycles (i.e., .33 sec) with no reclosing.

  20. Selective neutrality and enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1997-10-01

    This article appeals to a recent theory of enzyme evolution to show that the properties, neutral or adaptive, which characterize the observed allelic variation in natural populations can be inferred from the functional parameters, substrate specificity, and reaction rate. This study delineates the following relations between activity variables, and the forces--adaptive or neutral--determining allelic variation: (1) Enzymes with broad substrate specificity: The observed polymorphism is adaptive; mutations in this class of enzymes can result in increased fitness of the organism and hence be relevant for positive selection. (2) Enzymes with absolute substrate specificity and diffusion-controlled rates: Observed allelic variation will be absolutely neutral; mutations in this class of enzymes will be either deleterious or have no effect on fitness. (3) Enzymes with absolute or group specificity and nondiffusion-controlled rates: Observed variation will be partially neutral; mutants which are selectively neutral may become advantageous under an appropriate environmental condition or different genetic background. We illustrate each of the relations between kinetic properties and evolutionary states with examples drawn from enzymes whose evolutionary dynamics have been intensively studied.

  1. Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation experiment is scheduled to be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission. The objective of this experiment is to measure very faint emissions at nighttime arising from fluxes of energetic neutral atoms in the thermosphere. These energetic atoms have energies ranging up to about 50 keV, and arise from ions of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen trapped in the inner magnetosphere. Some of these ions become neutralized in charge exchange reactions with neutral hydrogen in the hydrogen geocorona that extends through the region. The ions are trapped on magnetic field lines which cross the equatorial plane at 2 to 6 earth radii distance, and they mirror at a range of heights on these field lines, extending down to the thermosphere at 500 km altitude. The ATLAS 1 measurements will not be of the neutral atoms themselves but of the optical emission produced by those on trajectories that intersect the thermosphere. The ENAP measurements are to be made using the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) which is being flown on the ATLAS mission primarily for daytime spectral observations, and the ENAP measurements will all be nighttime measurements because of the faintness of the emissions and the relatively low level of magnetic activity expected.

  2. Tryptophanless Death in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Majerfeld, Irene; Barlati, Sergio; Ciferri, Orio

    1970-01-01

    A decline in colony-forming ability is observed in actively growing cultures of a tryptophan arginine auxotroph of Bacillus subtilis after removal of tryptophan (tryptophanless death). This phenomenon can be prevented by simultaneous starvation of the other required amino acid or by chloramphenicol administered in bacteriostatic concentration but not by actinomycin. Addition of tryptophan analogues not only prevents the death but also allows recovery of the cells that have lost the ability to form colonies on solid media. The term tryptophanless death is therefore inappropriate. Chloramphenicol but not actinomycin inhibits the recovery brought about by tryptophan analogues. PMID:4189906

  3. Fictibacillus phosphorivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. and proposal to reclassify Bacillus arsenicus, Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, Bacillus solisalsi and Bacillus gelatini in the genus Fictibacillus.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Stefanie P; Dott, Wolfgang; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Kämpfer, Peter

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterium (Ca7(T)) was isolated from a bioreactor showing extensive phosphorus removal. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain Ca7(T) was grouped in the genus Bacillus, most closely related to Bacillus nanhaiensis JSM 082006(T) (100 %), Bacillus barbaricus V2-BIII-A2(T) (99.2 %) and Bacillus arsenicus Con a/3(T) (97.7 %). Moderate 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were found to the type strains of the species Bacillus gelatini and Bacillus rigui (96.4 %), Bacillus macauensis (95.1 %) and Bacillus solisalsi (96.1 %). All these species were grouped into a monophyletic cluster and showed very low sequence similarities (<94 %) to the type species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus subtilis. The quinone system of strain Ca7(T) consists predominantly of menaquinone MK-7. The polar lipid profile exhibited the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. In addition, minor compounds of an unidentified phospholipid and an aminophospholipid were detected. No glycolipids were found in strain Ca7(T), which was consistent with the lipid profiles of B. nanhaiensis, B. barbaricus, B. arsenicus, B. rigui, B. solisalsi, B. macauensis and B. gelatini, but in contrast to B. subtilis. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the polyamine pattern contained predominantly spermidine and spermine. The major fatty acids, which were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0, supported the grouping of strain Ca7(T) in the family Bacillaceae. The strain showed DNA-DNA similarities of 48 % (reciprocal 47 %) to B. nanhaiensis DSM 23009(T), 31 % (reciprocal 36 %) to B. barbaricus V2-BIII-A2(T) and 29 % (reciprocal 39 %) to B. arsenicus DSM 15822(T), respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that strain Ca7(T) is a representative of a novel species, which can be differentiated from its closest relatives by physiological and

  4. Simulations of neutralized final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to drive an inertial fusion target or study high energy density physics with heavy ion beams, the beam radius must be focused to < 3 mm and the pulse length must be compressed to < 10 ns. The conventional scheme for temporal pulse compression makes use of an increasing ion velocity to compress the beam as it drifts and beam space charge to stagnate the compression before final focus. Beam compression in a neutralizing plasma does not require stagnation of the compression, enabling a more robust method. The final pulse shape at the target can be programmed by an applied velocity tilt. In this paper, neutralized drift compression is investigated. The sensitivity of the compression and focusing to beam momentum spread, plasma, and magnetic field conditions is studied with realistic driver examples. Using the 3D particle-in-cell code, we examine issues associated with self-field generation, stability, and vacuum-neutralized transport transition and focusing.

  5. A Re-Examiniation of Phonological Neutralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these…

  6. Bacterial Growth in Tray Pack Acidified Rice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans , which were able to survive the pasteurization processing temperature. Because of the potential for spoilage that was indicated...Inoculum A miKed inoculum consisting o-f Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus circulans and iour strains of Bacillus coagulans was prepared. All cultures...ineffective in preventing growth of sporeforming bacillus species. Moreover, there was nonuniform distribution of the acidulant, which resulted in

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND PATHOGENESIS OF BACILLUS X (STERNBERG), BACILLUS ICTEROIDES (SANARELLI), AND THE HOG-CHOLERA BACILLUS (SALMON AND SMITH)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Walter; Carroll, James

    1900-01-01

    1. Bacillus X (Sternberg) belongs to the colon group. 2. Bacillus icteroides (Sanarelli) is a member of the hog-cholera group. 3. The various channels of infection, the duration of the disease and the gross and microscopical lesions in mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits are the same for Bacillus icteroides and the hog-cholera bacillus. 4. The clinical symptoms and the lesions observed in dogs inoculated intravenously with Bacillus icteroides, are reproduced in these animals by infection with the hog-cholera bacillus. 5. Bacillus icteroides when fed to the domestic pig causes fatal infection, accompanied by diphtheritic, necrotic and ulcerative lesions in the digestive tract, such as are seen in hogs when infected with the hog-cholera bacillus. 6. This disease may be acquired by exposing swine in pens already infected with Bacillus icteroides, or by feeding them with the viscera of infected pigs. 7. Guinea-pigs may be immunized with sterilized cultures ofBacillus icteroides from a fatal dose of the hog-cholera bacillus and vice versa. 8. Rabbits may be rendered immune by gradually increasing doses of a living culture of Bacillus icteroides of weak virulence from a fatal dose of a virulent culture of the hog-cholera bacillus 9. The sera of animals immunized with Bacillus icteroides and with the hog-cholera bacillus, respectively, show a marked reciprocal agglutinative reaction. 10. While the blood of yellow fever practically does not exercise an agglutinative reaction upon Bacillus icteroides, the blood of hog-cholera agglutinates this bacillus in a much more marked degree, thus pointing, we think, to the closer etiological relationship of this bacillus to hog-cholera than to yellow fever. PMID:19866945

  8. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  9. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.

  10. Mechanism of Algal Aggregation by Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting. PMID:24771029

  11. Mechanism of algal aggregation by Bacillus sp. strain RP1137.

    PubMed

    Powell, Ryan J; Hill, Russell T

    2014-07-01

    Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting.

  12. Effects of Bacillus subtilis KD1 on broiler intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Wu, B Q; Zhang, T; Guo, L Q; Lin, J F

    2011-11-01

    A novel Bacillus subtilis KD1 strain was isolated and identified from healthy broilers, and its phylogenetic classification was subsequently analyzed. To evaluate its probiotic availability, its growth characteristics and tolerance for the gut environment were evaluated in vitro. The results suggest that B. subtilis KD1 is superior in secreting neutral protease and is highly tolerant of gastric acid and bile salt. In the logarithmic growth phase, the neutral protease reached a maximum of 1,369.3 U/mL. When all live bacteria had become spores in the broth, B. subtilis KD1 was freeze dried and fed to broilers at 10(9), 5 × 10(9), and 10(10) bacilli/kg of feed. The animal trial results suggest that the addition of the new strain significantly improved intestinal flora by increasing lactobacilli and reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.05) as compared with the control; hence, B. subtilis KD1 is a promising probiotic organism in broilers.

  13. Whole-genome sequences of Bacillus subtilis and close relatives.

    PubMed

    Earl, Ashlee M; Eppinger, Mark; Fricke, W Florian; Rosovitz, M J; Rasko, David A; Daugherty, Sean; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-05-01

    We sequenced four strains of Bacillus subtilis and the type strains for two closely related species, Bacillus vallismortis and Bacillus mojavensis. We report the high-quality Sanger genome sequences of B. subtilis subspecies subtilis RO-NN-1 and AUSI98, B. subtilis subspecies spizizenii TU-B-10(T) and DV1-B-1, Bacillus mojavensis RO-H-1(T), and Bacillus vallismortis DV1-F-3(T).

  14. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H. [Livermore, CA; Frank, Alan M. [Livermore, CA

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process.

  15. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, J.H.; Frank, A.M.

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment is disclosed. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process. 2 figs.

  16. Low energy neutral atom imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Gosling, J.T.; Moore, K.R.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Energetic neutral atom (ENA) and low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging of space plasmas are emerging new technology which promises to revolutionize the way we view and understand large scale space plasma phenomena and dynamics. ENAs and LENAs are produced in the magnetosphere by charge exchange between energetic and plasma ions and cold geocoronal neutrals. While imaging techniques have been previously developed for observing ENAs, with energies above several tens of keV, most of the ions found in the terrestrial magnetosphere have lower energies. We recently suggested that LENAs could be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions and then electrostatically analyzing them to reject the UV background. In this paper we extend this work to examine in detail the sensor elements needed to make an LENA imager. These elements are (1) a biased collimator to remove the ambient plasma ions and electrons and set the azimuthal field-of-view; (2) a charge modifier to convert a portion of the incident LENAs to ions; (3) an electrostatic analyzer to reject UV light and set the energy passband; and (4) a coincidence detector to measure converted LENAs while rejecting noise and penetrating radiation. We also examine the issue of LENA imager sensitivity and describe ways of optimizing sensitivity in the various sensor components. Finally, we demonstrate in detail how these general considerations are implemented by describing one relatively straightforward design based on a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer.

  17. MSFC Skylab neutral buoyancy simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of a neutral buoyancy simulator for developing extravehicular activity systems and for training astronauts in weightless activities is discussed. The construction of the facility and the operations are described. The types of tests and the training activities conducted in the simulator are reported. Photographs of the components of the simulator and actual training exercises are included.

  18. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  19. The Cortical Peptidoglycan from Spores of Bacillus Megaterium and Bacillus Subtilis Is Not Highly Cross-Linked

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Bacilius megaterium and Bacillus subtilis Is Not Highly Cross-Linked 6. AUTHOR(S) David L. Popham and Peter Setlow 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...Determination by amino acid analyses of the percentage of diaminopimelic acid in the spore cortex of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis which is...Peptidoglycan from Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis Is Not Highly Cross-Linked DAVID L. POPHAM ANDl PETER SETLOW* Department of Biochemistry

  20. Mechanisms of Bacillus cereus enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, D K; Narayan, K G; Gupta, M K

    1992-04-01

    Three strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from sausages (Salami and Trekker, RANBAC, Ranchi) produced enterotoxin which caused vascular permeability in skin and haemorrhage in the ligated ileal loops of rabbits. Histopathological studies revealed haemorrhage and congestion in submucosa, mononuclear cell infiltration in lamina propria and submucosa and villous atrophy. Histochemical studies ruled out the effect on mitochondrial enzymes of intestinal epithelial cells. Purified enterotoxin given intradermally to rabbits caused severe necrotic reaction at the site of injection and death within 4 hr. Histopathological changes observed in liver included congestion of portal veins and sinusoids, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, and hyperplasia of bile ducts. These suggested that B. cereus enterotoxin affected the capillaries of blood vessels locally and also systemically resulting into release of proteinaceous exudates and red blood cells.

  1. [Extracellular ribonuclease from Bacillus thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Chepurnova, N K; Liakhov, D L; Rechinskiĭ, V O; Karpeĭskiĭ, M Ia

    1988-04-01

    The ability of the strain Bacillus thuringiensis var. subtoxicus to produce extracellular ribonuclease (ribonuclease Bt) was studied. It was found that the culture medium possesses a RNA-depolymerizing activity whose maximum is observed 4-5 hours after the beginning of the linear growth phase. A three-step chromatography of the culture extract on phosphocellulose resulted in a homogeneous enzyme with a molecular mass of 12000 Da. The enzyme showed the maximum activity towards RNA at pH 8.5, catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyribonucleotides and guanosine-2',3'-cyclophosphate. Hence, the enzyme can be related to base-nonspecific cyclizing ribonucleases showing the guanylic specificity towards nucleoside-2',3'-cyclophosphates.

  2. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin). PMID:16345844

  3. A case of Bacillus cereus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Barnham, M; Taylor, A J

    1977-07-01

    A case is presented of Bacillus cereus bacteraemia in a patient receiving hepatic perfusion with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) for metastasis from a carcinoma of the breast. The literature concerning systemic B. cereus infections is briefly reviewed.

  4. 75 FR 862 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... AGENCY Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY... proposed registration review decision for the pesticide Bacillus subtilis (case 6012) and opens a public... EPA's proposed registration review decision Bacillus subtilis (case 6012). The Bacillus subtilis...

  5. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kwong, K L; Que, T L; Wong, S N; So, K T

    1997-12-01

    We report the first case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in Hong Kong over the past 60 years. A 13 year-old boy presented with right lower quadrant pain, diarrhoea and progressive headache. Lumbar puncture yielded gram positive bacilli initially thought to be Bacillus cereus, a contaminant. He was treated with ampicillin and cefotaxime, but died 3 days after hospitalization. The organism isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid was later identified as Bacillus anthracis.

  6. Optical neutrality: invisibility without cloaking.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Reed; Dean, Cleon; Durach, Maxim

    2017-02-15

    We show that it is possible to design an invisible wavelength-sized metal-dielectric metamaterial object without evoking cloaking. Our approach is an extension of the neutral inclusion concept by Zhou and Hu [Phys. Rev. E74, 026607 (2006)PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.74.026607] to Mie scatterers. We demonstrate that an increase of metal fraction in the metamaterial leads to a transition from dielectric-like to metal-like scattering, which proceeds through invisibility or optical neutrality of the scatterer. Formally this is due to cancellation of multiple scattering orders, similarly to plasmonic cloaking introduced by Alù and Engheta [Phys. Rev. E72, 016623 (2005)PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.72.016623], but without introduction of the separation of the scatterer into cloak and hidden regions.

  7. Neutral matter in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    1991-01-01

    A review of current studies of neutral envelopes is presented with particular attention given to the use of the envelopes as test cases for understanding the ionization and thermal structure of photodissociation regions. The study of near-IR H2 emission is discussed with detailed spectra given for a few planetary nebulae, and airborne observations of far-IR atomic lines are discussed. These two methods can discern photodissociation regions with warm gas and UV flux is fairly prominent. The use of resonance-absorption-line spectroscopy is also reviewed with respect to the analysis of the Na D lines, and thereby allows the measurement of integrated columns of material through the shell. The methods provide evidence for the notion that planetary nebulae consist of more than just ionized material; large amounts of neutral and molecular material are being confirmed, which has important implications for the mass-loss episode of the nebulae.

  8. Neutral depletion versus repletion due to ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchtman, A.; Makrinich, G.; Raimbault, J.-L.; Liard, L.; Rax, J.-M.; Chabert, P.

    2008-05-15

    Recent theoretical analyses which predicted unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless plasmas are reviewed. We focus on the depletion of collisionless neutrals induced by strong ionization of a collisionless plasma and contrast this depletion with the effect of strong ionization on thermalized neutrals. The collisionless plasma is analyzed employing a kinetic description. The collisionless neutrals and the plasma are coupled through volume ionization and wall recombination only. The profiles of density and pressure both of the plasma and of the neutral-gas and the profile of the ionization rate are calculated. It is shown that for collisionless neutrals the ionization results in neutral depletion, while when neutrals are thermalized the ionization induces a maximal neutral-density at the discharge center, which we call neutral repletion. The difference between the two cases stems from the relation between the neutral density and pressure. The pressure of the collisionless neutral-gas turns out to be maximal where its density is minimal, in contrast to the case of a thermalized neutral gas.

  9. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  10. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  11. Vendor neutral archive in PACS

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Tapesh Kumar; Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA) has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. “Vendor neutral” may not be a suitable term, and “architecture neutral,” “PACS neutral,” “content neutral,” or “third-party neutral” are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe. PMID:23833411

  12. Interstellar neutrals in interplanetary space

    SciTech Connect

    Hovestadt, D.; Moebius, E. )

    1989-03-01

    The solar system is moving through the interstellar medium with a velocity of about 20 km/s. The neutral interstellar gas, which thereby penetrates the heliosphere, is subject to ionization by solar UV radiation, charge exchange with the solar wind, and electron collisions. The newly created ions are then picked by the solar wind through interaction of interstellar neutrals with the interplanetary magnetic field. The pick-up ions with their peculiar elemental composition probably also constitute the source particles of the Anomalous Cosmic Ray Component (ACR). In this report descriptions of the interaction with the solar wind are reviewed. While most of the constituents are already ionized far beyond the orbit of the Earth, neutral helium (because of its high ionization potential) approaches the Sun to {lt}1 AU. The pick-up of interstellar He{sup +} ions has recently been directly observed for the first time. The observed velocity distribution of He{sup +} extending up to twice the solar wind velocity can be explained in terms of pitch angle scattering of the ions probably by interplanetary Alven waves and subsequent adiabatic cooling in the expanding solar wind. Thermal coupling of the He{sup +} to the solar wind is negligible in the inner heliosphere. Detailed studies of the pick-up distribution provide a method to investigate the interplanetary propagation parameters and the state of the local interstellar medium.

  13. Neutral naturalness with bifundamental gluinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherghetta, Tony; Nguyen, Minh; Thomas, Zachary

    2016-12-01

    We study constraints on one-loop neutral naturalness at the LHC by considering gluon partners which are required to ameliorate the tuning in the Higgs mass-squared arising at two loops. This is done with a simple orbifold model of folded supersymmetry which not only contains color-neutral stops but also bifundamental gluinos that are charged under the Standard Model color group S U (3 )C and a separate S U (3 )C' group. The bifundamental gluinos reduce the Higgs mass tuning at two loops and maintain naturalness provided the gluinos are lighter than approximately 1.9 TeV for a 5 TeV cutoff scale. Limits from the LHC already forbid bifundamental gluinos below 1.4 TeV, and other noncolored states such as electroweakinos, Z' bosons and dark sector bound states may be probed at future colliders. The search for bifundamental gluinos therefore provides a direct probe of one-loop neutral naturalness that can be fully explored at the LHC.

  14. Neutral-current x-distributions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W.; Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.; Fisk, R.; Fuess, S.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.; et al.

    1984-06-01

    The role of the semi leptonic neutral current interaction as a probe of nucleon structure is examined. Previous measurements of neutral current x-distributions are reviewed, and new results from the Fermilab - MIT - MSU collaboration are presented.

  15. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  16. Phylogenomic analysis shows that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus methylotrophicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  17. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  18. Neutralizing monoclonal antibody to edema toxin and its effect on murine anthrax.

    PubMed

    Winterroth, Lisa; Rivera, Johanna; Nakouzi, Antonio S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-06-01

    Edema factor (EF) is a component of an anthrax toxin that functions as an adenylate cyclase. Numerous monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been reported for the other Bacillus anthracis toxin components, but relatively few to EF have been studied. We report the generation of six murine hybridoma lines producing two IgM and four IgG1 MAbs to EF. Of the six MAbs, only one IgM neutralized EF, as assayed by an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) production by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Analysis of the variable gene elements revealed that the single neutralizing MAb had a different binding site than the others. There was no competition between the neutralizing IgM and the nonneutralizing IgG MAbs indicative of different specificity. MAb-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected EF in liver lysates from mice infected with B. anthracis Sterne 34F2. Administration of the neutralizing IgM MAb to A/JCr mice lethally infected with B. anthracis strain Sterne had no significant effect on median time to death, but mice treated with the MAb were more likely to survive infection. Combining the neutralizing IgM to EF with a subprotective dose of a neutralizing MAb to protective antigen (PA) prolonged mean time to death of infected mice, suggesting that neutralization of EF and PA could produce synergistic beneficial effects. In summary, the results from our study and literature observations suggest that the majority of Abs to EF are nonneutralizing, but the toxin has some epitopes that can be targeted by the humoral response to generate useful Abs that may contribute to defense against anthrax.

  19. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  20. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  1. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  2. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2010-05-21

    Ion beam emission/neutralization is one of the most fundamental problems in spacecraft plasma interactions and electric propulsion. Although ion beam neutralization is readily achieved in experiments, the understanding of the underlying physical process remains at a rather primitive level. No theoretical or simulation models have convincingly explained the detailed neutralization mechanism, and no conclusions have been reached. This paper presents a fully kinetic simulation of ion beam neutralization and plasma beam propagation and discusses the physics of electron-ion coupling and the resulting propagation of a neutralized mesothermal plasma.

  3. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  4. Neutral gas dynamics in fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-06-01

    Fireballs are local discharge phenomena on positively biased electrodes in partially ionized plasmas. Electrons, energized at a double layer, heat neutral gas which expands. The gas pressure exceeds the plasma pressure, hence becomes important to the stability and transport in fireballs. The flow of gas moves the electrode and sensors similar to a mica pendulum. Flow speed and directions are measured. A fireball gun has been developed to partially collimate the flow of hot gas and heat objects in its path. New applications of fireballs are suggested.

  5. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  6. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  7. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  8. Cloning a neutral protease of Clostridium histolyticum, determining its substrate specificity, and designing a specific substrate.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kanako; Murayama, Kazutaka; Goto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Kimiko; Takeuchi, Michio; Yamagata, Youhei

    2015-12-01

    Islet transplantation is a prospective treatment for restoring normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. Islet isolation from pancreases by decomposition with proteolytic enzymes is necessary for transplantation. Two collagenases, collagenase class I (ColG) and collagenase class II (ColH), from Clostridium histolyticum have been used for islet isolation. Neutral proteases have been added to the collagenases for human islet isolation. A neutral protease from C. histolyticum (NP) and thermolysin from Bacillus thermoproteolyicus has been used for the purpose. Thermolysin is an extensively studied enzyme, but NP is not well known. We therefore cloned the gene encoding NP and constructed a Bacillus subtilis overexpression strain. The expressed enzyme was purified, and its substrate specificity was examined. We observed that the substrate specificity of NP was higher than that of thermolysin, and that the protein digestion activities of NP, as determined by colorimetric methods, were lower than those of thermolysin. It seems that decomposition using NP does not negatively affect islets during islet preparation from pancreases. Furthermore, we designed a novel substrate that allows the measurement of NP activity specifically in the enzyme mixture for islet preparation and the culture broth of C. histolyticum. The activity of NP can also be monitored during islet isolation. We hope the purified enzyme and this specific substrate contribute to the optimization of islet isolation from pancreases and that it leads to the success of islet transplantation and the improvement of the quality of life (QOL) for diabetic patients.

  9. Effects of Enteric-coated Lactoferrin Tablets Containing Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on Fecal Properties, Defecation Frequency and Intestinal Microbiota of Japanese Women with a Tendency for Constipation: a Randomized Placebo-controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Noriyuki; MURAKOSHI, Michiaki; ONO, Tomoji; MORISHITA, Satoru; KOIDE, Misao; BAE, Min Jung; TOTSUKA, Mamoru; SHIMIZU, Makoto; SUGIYAMA, Keikichi; NISHINO, Hoyoku; IIDA, Norio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oral administration of enteric-coated tablets containing lactoferrin (LF; 100 mg/tablet) and heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans FREM BP-4693 (LB; 6×109 bacteria/tablet) on fecal properties were examined in 32 Japanese women (20–60 years of age) with a tendency for constipation (defecation frequency at equal to or less than 10 times/2 weeks) by a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. A significant increase in defecation days per week was obserbed in the subjects who ingested the tablets containing LF and LB compared with the placebo group. The number of bifidobacteria in feces also significantly increased compared with the placebo group. In an in vitro study, LF and tryptic hydrolysate of LF, but not peptic hydrolysate of LF, upregulated the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707 when added to the culture. These results demonstrate the capability of the enteric-coated tablets containing LF and LB in improving intestinal function and suggest that they have a growth promoting function for bifidobacteria. PMID:24936358

  10. Diversity and applications of Bacillus bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Franz, Charles M A P; Ben Omar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Members of the genus Bacillus are known to produce a wide arsenal of antimicrobial substances, including peptide and lipopeptide antibiotics, and bacteriocins. Many of the Bacillus bacteriocins belong to the lantibiotics, a category of post-translationally modified peptides widely disseminated among different bacterial clades. Lantibiotics are among the best-characterized antimicrobial peptides at the levels of peptide structure, genetic determinants and biosynthesis mechanisms. Members of the genus Bacillus also produce many other nonmodified bacteriocins, some of which resemble the pediocin-like bacteriocins of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while others show completely novel peptide sequences. Bacillus bacteriocins are increasingly becoming more important due to their sometimes broader spectra of inhibition (as compared with most LAB bacteriocins), which may include Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts or fungi, in addition to Gram-positive species, some of which are known to be pathogenic to humans and/or animals. The present review provides a general overview of Bacillus bacteriocins, including primary structure, biochemical and genetic characterization, classification and potential applications in food preservation as natural preservatives and in human and animal health as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Furthermore, it addresses their environmental applications, such as bioprotection against the pre- and post-harvest decay of vegetables, or as plant growth promoters.

  11. Directed evolution of a maltogenic alpha-amylase from Bacillus sp. TS-25.

    PubMed

    Jones, Aubrey; Lamsa, Michael; Frandsen, Torben P; Spendler, Tina; Harris, Paul; Sloma, Alan; Xu, Feng; Nielsen, Jack Bech; Cherry, Joel R

    2008-04-30

    Directed evolution coupled with a high-throughput robotic screen was employed to broaden the industrial use of the maltogenic alpha-amylase Novamyl from Bacillus sp. TS-25. Wild-type Novamyl is currently used in the baking industry as an anti-staling agent in breads baked at neutral or near neutral pH. However, the enzyme is rapidly inactivated during the baking process of bread made with low pH recipes and Novamyl thus has very limited beneficial effect for this particular application. In an effort to improve the performance of Novamyl for low pH bread applications such as sourdough and rye, two error-prone PCR libraries were generated, expressed in Bacillus subtilis and screened for variants with improved thermal stability and activity under low pH conditions. Variants exhibiting improved performance were iteratively recombined using DNA shuffling to create two generations of libraries. Relative to wild-type Novamyl, a number of the resulting variants exhibited more than 10 degrees C increase in thermal stability at pH 4.5, one of which demonstrated substantial anti-staling properties in low pH breads.

  12. Determination of the most closely related bacillus isolates to Bacillus anthracis by multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijeong; Cheon, Eunhee; Wheeler, Katherine E.; Youn, Youngchul; Leighton, Terrance J.; Park, Chulmin; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In

    2005-01-01

    There have been many efforts to develop Bacillus anthracis detection assays, but the problem of false-positive results has often been encountered. Therefore, to validate an assay for B. anthracis detection, it is critical to examine its specificity with the most closely related Bacillus isolates that are available. To define the most closely related Bacillus isolates to B. anthracis in our Bacillus collections, we analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) the phylogeny of 77 closely related Bacillus isolates selected from 264 Bacillus isolates. The selection includes all the Bacillus isolates that have been shown in our previous studies to produce false-positive results by some anthrax-detection assays. The MLST phylogenetic analyses revealed that 27 of the non-B. anthracis isolates clustered within the B. anthracis clade, and four of them (three sequence types, STs) had the highest degree of genetic relatedness with B. anthracis, 18 (11 STs) had the second highest, and five (five STs) had the third highest. We anticipate that the inclusion of the 19 ST isolates when analyzing B. anthracis detection assays will prove to be useful for screening for their specificity to detect B. anthracis. PMID:16197725

  13. Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Selinger, L B; Khachatourians, G G; Byers, J R; Hynes, M F

    1998-03-01

    The delta-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were introduced into a rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacillus pumilus isolate to create a delta-endotoxin expression and delivery system for subterranean feeding insects such as the larvae of pale western cutworm (Agrotis orthogonia Morrison (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)). Preliminary experiments indicated that Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki cultures were toxic to pale western cutworm larvae. Three different cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki were cloned into high and low copy number vectors and mated into Bacillus pumilus RB8. When carried on high copy number vectors, cry genes appeared to inhibit sporulation and delta-endotoxin production in Bacillus pumilus RB8 cultures, since microscopic examination of these cultures revealed that < 0.1% of the cells of late stationary phase cultures had sporulated and produced parasporal inclusions. On low copy number vectors, the cry genes did not inhibit sporulation; however, production of delta-endotoxins was undetectable. Using a heat shock regime for enrichment of sporogenous crystalliferous variants, a Bacillus pumilus isolate, carrying cryIA(c) on a high copy number plasmid, was obtained in which high level delta-endotoxin production occurred concomitant with sporulation. Synthesis of functional delta-endotoxin by this strain was confirmed by Western blot analysis and bioassay with pale western cutworm larvae. These results show that rhizosphere-inhabiting bacilli are indeed a potential route for introduction of delta-endotoxins to the root environment for biocontrol purposes.

  14. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  15. Detailed Atomic Structure of Neutral and Near-Neutral Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Paul; Hibbert, Alan

    2011-05-11

    This paper highlights the issues which need to be addressed in undertaking accurate calculations of multi-electron atoms and ions, particularly at or near the neutral end of an isoelectronic sequence. We illustrate the processes through two calculations--of transitions in Cl I and Sn II--and discuss the convergence of our results as well as updating previous work. In particular, in the case of Cl I, we propose new identifications of the levels involved in certain transitions which are important in determining the abundance of chlorine in the inter-stellar medium (ISM), while in singly ionised tin, our calculations suggest a re-evaluation of the the abundance of tin in the ISM. We also confirm recent identification of Sn II lines seen in tokamak plasmas.

  16. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin.

    PubMed

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B

    2015-01-01

    The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing determinant in alpha

  17. Correlations Between Neutral and Ionized Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, M.; Pilkerton, B.; Moore, T.

    The Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) Imager on the IMAGE spacecraft has observed the neutral component of the solar wind (JGR, 106, 24,893, 2001) independently adumbrated by Akasofu and Dessler about forty years ago. Neutral solar wind is formed by solar wind charge exchange with interstellar neutrals, dust and the Earth's exosphere, in addition to any intrinsically neutral component. Here we report the results of a statistical study correlating the solar wind fluxes observed by ACE during late 2000 and throughout 2001 with neutral solar wind fluxes observed by LENA. The average correlation coefficient between the neutral and ionized solar wind is 0.66 with "good" correlations (peak correlation coefficient above 0.80) occurring about 28% of the time. The results are similar to those obtained by in-situ multi-spacecraft correlation studies. In this study, however, IMAGE is almost never in the solar wind or magnetosheath. The slope of the relationship between the neutral solar wind flux and the solar wind flux shows a peak in the upstream direction, but shifted toward higher ecliptic longitudes than the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction by about 20 degrees. The estimated peak interstellar neutral upstream density is about 10-2 cm-3.

  18. Pressure Inactivation of Bacillus Endospores

    PubMed Central

    Margosch, Dirk; Gänzle, Michael G.; Ehrmann, Matthias A.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2004-01-01

    The inactivation of bacterial endospores by hydrostatic pressure requires the combined application of heat and pressure. We have determined the resistance of spores of 14 food isolates and 5 laboratory strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. licheniformis to treatments with pressure and temperature (200 to 800 MPa and 60 to 80°C) in mashed carrots. A large variation in the pressure resistance of spores was observed, and their reduction by treatments with 800 MPa and 70°C for 4 min ranged from more than 6 log units to no reduction. The sporulation conditions further influenced their pressure resistance. The loss of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from spores that varied in their pressure resistance was determined, and spore sublethal injury was assessed by determination of the detection times for individual spores. Treatment of spores with pressure and temperature resulted in DPA-free, phase-bright spores. These spores were sensitive to moderate heat and exhibited strongly increased detection times as judged by the time required for single spores to grow to visible turbidity of the growth medium. The role of DPA in heat and pressure resistance was further substantiated by the use of the DPA-deficient mutant strain B. subtilis CIP 76.26. Taken together, these results indicate that inactivation of spores by combined pressure and temperature processing is achieved by a two-stage mechanism that does not involve germination. At a pressure between 600 and 800 MPa and a temperature greater than 60°C, DPA is released predominantly by a physicochemical rather than a physiological process, and the DPA-free spores are inactivated by moderate heat independent of the pressure level. Relevant target organisms for pressure and temperature treatment of foods are proposed, namely, strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, which form highly pressure-resistant spores. PMID:15574932

  19. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.

  20. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  1. Production and characterization of a novel bioflocculant from Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuyan; Wang, Yuanpeng; Yu, Yi; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Haitao; Chen, Ronghui; He, Ning

    2010-05-01

    A bacterium producing an extracellular bioflocculant was isolated from contaminated LB medium and identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and its biochemical/physiological characteristics. The optimum culture conditions for flocculant production were an initial medium pH of 7.2 and an inoculum size of 4% (vol/vol). The maximum flocculating activity (700 U/ml) was obtained after cultivation at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Chemical analyses of the purified bioflocculant revealed that it was a proteoglycan composed of 89% carbohydrate and 11% protein (wt/wt). The mass ratio of neutral sugar, amino sugar, and uronic acid was measured at 7.9:4:1. Infrared spectrometry further indicated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amino groups, typical of heteropolysaccharide. The average mass of the bioflocculant was calculated to be 1.76 x 10(6) Da. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the bioflocculant showed an irregular structure with netted texture. Its efficient flocculation capabilities suggest potential applications in industry.

  2. Fulminant septicaemic syndrome of Bacillus cereus: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Musa, M O; Al Douri, M; Khan, S; Shafi, T; Al Humaidh, A; Al Rasheed, A M

    1999-09-01

    Three patients with acute leukaemia, who were severely neutropenic and iatrogenically immunosuppressed post-chemotherapy, developed rapidly fatal septicaemic shock and coma caused by Bacillus cereus (B. cereus). The illness was marked by two phases: a mild febrile illness lasting 6-14 h and accompanied by subtle symptoms of autonomic sympathetic nervous system overactivity, and a second short fulminant one, marked by high fever of 40-41 degrees C accompanied by major central nervous system disturbances, and ending with deep coma and brain stem dysfunction. One patient developed the sepsis in spite of 4 days of coverage with amikacin. In the other two patients, amikacin was commenced at the earliest phase of the infection, but failed to influence the outcome. This form of B. cereus sepsis in neutropenic patients seems to be caused by strains capable of causing bacteraemia and meningitis and has the ability to produce a substance that causes leptomeningeal and neuronal necrosis. Lack of early clinical and laboratory markers inevitably leads to death. Use of antibiotics effective against B. cereus and capable of achieving high concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid. and identification and neutralization of the necrotizing substance may hopefully help to reverse this fatal illness.

  3. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  4. Neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of neutral-beam current drive in tokamaks is reviewed. Experiments are discussed where neutral beams have been used to drive current directly and also indirectly through neoclassical effects. Application of the theory to an experimental test reactor is described. It is shown that neutral beams formed from negative ions accelerated to 500 to 700 keV are needed for this device.

  5. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  6. Expression of low endotoxin 3-O-sulfotransferase in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenya; Englaender, Jacob A; Xu, Peng; Mehta, Krunal K; Suwan, Jiraporn; Dordick, Jonathan S; Zhang, Fuming; Yuan, Qipeng; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2013-10-01

    A key enzyme for the biosynthesis and bioengineering of heparin, 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 (3-OST-1), was expressed and purified in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium. Western blotting, protein sequence analysis, and enzyme activity measurement confirmed the expression. The enzymatic activity of 3-OST-1 expressed in Bacillus species were found to be similar to those found when expressed in Escherichia coli. The endotoxin level in 3-OST-1 from B. subtilis and B. megaterium were 10(4)-10(5)-fold lower than that of the E. coli-expressed 3-OST-1, which makes the Bacillus expression system of particular interest for the generation of pharmaceutical grade raw heparin from nonanimal sources.

  7. Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. L. Vijaya; Thippeswamy, B.; Kuppust, I. L.; Naveenkumar, K. J.; Shivakumar, C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: All the sample extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in paralyzing the worms comparable with that of the standard drug. The time of death exhibited by BP metabolites was close to the time exhibited by standard. Conclusion: The study indicates both bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus have anthelmintic activity indicating potential metabolites in them. PMID:25598639

  8. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  9. Influenza virus antigenicity and broadly neutralizing epitopes.

    PubMed

    Air, Gillian M

    2015-04-01

    A vaccine formulation that would be effective against all strains of influenza virus has long been a goal of vaccine developers, but antibodies after infection or vaccination were seen to be strain specific and there was little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies that neutralized across subtypes. Recently a number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. This review describes the different classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies and discusses the potential of their therapeutic use or for design of immunogens that induce a high proportion of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  10. Neutral Vlasov kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tronci, Cesare; Camporeale, Enrico

    2015-02-15

    The low-frequency limit of Maxwell equations is considered in the Maxwell-Vlasov system. This limit produces a neutral Vlasov system that captures essential features of plasma dynamics, while neglecting radiation effects. Euler-Poincaré reduction theory is used to show that the neutral Vlasov kinetic theory possesses a variational formulation in both Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates. By construction, the new model recovers all collisionless neutral models employed in plasma simulations. Then, comparisons between the neutral Vlasov system and hybrid kinetic-fluid models are presented in the linear regime.

  11. EFFECTS OF LEAKAGE NEUTRAL PARTICLES ON SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2012-10-20

    In this paper, we investigate effects of neutral particles on shocks propagating into the partially ionized medium. We find that for 120 km s{sup -1} < u {sub sh} < 3000 km s{sup -1} (u {sub sh} is the shock velocity), about 10% of upstream neutral particles leak into the upstream region from the downstream region. Moreover, we investigate how the leakage neutral particles affect the upstream structure of the shock and particle accelerations. Using four-fluid approximations (upstream ions, upstream neutral particles, leakage neutral particles, and pickup ions), we provide analytical solutions of the precursor structure due to leakage neutral particles. It is shown that the upstream flow is decelerated in the precursor region and the shock compression ratio becomes smaller than without leakage neutral particles, but the total compression ratio does not change. Even if leakage of neutral particles is small (a few percent of total upstream particles), this smaller compression ratio of the shock can explain steep gamma-ray spectra from young supernova remnants. Furthermore, leakage neutral particles could amplify the magnetic field and heat the upstream region.

  12. Strategy for identification of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains closely related to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Raddadi, Noura; Merabishvili, Maya; Cherif, Ameur; Carmagnola, Lorenzo; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Aurora; Chanishvili, Nina; Visca, Paolo; Sharp, Richard; Borin, Sara

    2006-02-01

    Bacillus cereus strains that are genetically closely related to B. anthracis can display anthrax-like virulence traits (A. R. Hoffmaster et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:8449-8454, 2004). Hence, approaches that rapidly identify these "near neighbors" are of great interest for the study of B. anthracis virulence mechanisms, as well as to prevent the use of such strains for B. anthracis-based bioweapon development. Here, a strategy is proposed for the identification of near neighbors of B. anthracis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS) containing tRNA genes, characteristic of B. anthracis. By using restriction site insertion-PCR (RSI-PCR) the presence of two SNP typical of B. anthracis was screened in 126 B. cereus group strains of different origin. Two B. cereus strains and one B. thuringiensis strain showed RSI-PCR profiles identical to that of B. anthracis. The sequencing of the entire ITS containing tRNA genes revealed two of the strains to be identical to B. anthracis. The strict relationship with B. anthracis was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of four other independent loci: cerA, plcR, AC-390, and SG-749. The relationship to B. anthracis of the three strains described by MLST was comparable and even higher to that of four B. cereus strains associated with periodontitis in humans and previously reported as the closest known strains to B. anthracis. SNP in ITS containing tRNA genes combined with RSI-PCR provide a very efficient tool for the identification of strains closely related to B. anthracis.

  13. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  14. Genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dubnau, D

    1991-01-01

    Genetic competence may be defined as a physiological state enabling a bacterial culture to bind and take up high-molecular-weight exogenous DNA (transformation). In Bacillus subtilis, competence develops postexponentially and only in certain media. In addition, only a minority of the cells in a competent culture become competent, and these are physiologically distinct. Thus, competence is subject to three regulatory modalities: growth stage specific, nutritionally responsive, and cell type specific. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning competence in B. subtilis. The study of genes required for transformability has permitted their classification into two broad categories. Late competence genes are expressed under competence control and specify products required for the binding, uptake, and processing of transforming DNA. Regulatory genes specify products that are needed for the expression of the late genes. Several of the late competence gene products have been shown to be membrane localized, and others are predicted to be membrane associated on the basis of amino acid sequence data. Several of these predicted protein sequences show a striking resemblance to gene products that are involved in the export and/or assembly of extracellular proteins and structures in gram-negative organisms. This observation is consistent with the idea that the late products are directly involved in transport of DNA and is equally consistent with the notion that they play a morphogenetic role in the assembly of a transport apparatus. The competence regulatory apparatus constitutes an elaborate signal transduction system that senses and interprets environmental information and passes this information to the competence-specific transcriptional machinery. Many of the regulatory gene products have been identified and partially characterized, and their interactions have been studied genetically and in some cases biochemically as well. These include several

  15. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus endophyticus 2102.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang-Jae; Kim, Sun Hong; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lee, Han-Seung; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Bacillus endophyticus 2102 is an endospore-forming, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a hypersaline pond in South Korea. Here we present the draft sequence of B. endophyticus 2102, which is of interest because of its potential use in the industrial production of algaecides and bioplastics and for the treatment of industrial textile effluents.

  16. Genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis WX-02.

    PubMed

    Yangtse, Wuming; Zhou, Yinhua; Lei, Yang; Qiu, Yimin; Wei, Xuetuan; Ji, Zhixia; Qi, Gaofu; Yong, Yangchun; Chen, Lingling; Chen, Shouwen

    2012-07-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is an important bacterium that has been used extensively for large-scale industrial production of exoenzymes and peptide antibiotics. B. licheniformis WX-02 produces poly-gamma-glutamate increasingly when fermented under stress conditions. Here its genome sequence (4,270,104 bp, with G+C content of 46.06%), which comprises a circular chromosome, is announced.

  17. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus oceanisediminis 2691.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang-Jae; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kim, Hyun Ju; Ryu, Naeun; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lee, Han-Seung; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sang Jun

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus oceanisediminis 2691 is an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, and moderately halophilic bacterium that was isolated from marine sediment of the Yellow Sea coast of South Korea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. oceanisediminis 2691 that may have an important role in the bioremediation of marine sediment.

  18. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pascal.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Jeffery D; Vega Gonzalez, Alexander E; Maroun, Justin W; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-29

    Podophage Pascal infects Bacillus megaterium, a commonly used model organism in biochemical research and an important industrial-scale protein production system. Here, we report the sequenced and annotated genome of Pascal and describe its prominent features. Bacteriophages such as Pascal may be valuable tools for research and industry.

  19. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  20. Parasporal bodies of Bacillus laterosporus sporangia.

    PubMed

    Montaldi, F A; Roth, I L

    1990-04-01

    Intact colonies of Bacillus laterosporus examined by thin-section transmission electron microscopy revealed sporangia in various stages of development and degeneration as the endospores matured. The sporangia formed a surface layer of hexagonally arranged subunits. The variety of parasporal bodies raised questions of developmental and ecologic utility.

  1. Bacillus cereus endocarditis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Block, C S; Levy, M L; Fritz, V U

    1978-04-08

    Bacillus cereus may cause infective problems in compromised patients. No previous record of infective endocarditis due to this organism could be found. A 51-year-old White woman with B. cereus endocarditis after prosthetic mitral valve replacement is described. The problems of interpreting the significance of B. cereus bacteraemia, delayed diagnosis, and the inherent resistance of the organism are discussed.

  2. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis: source of the organism.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, D; Tuazon, C U; Levy, C; Curtin, J

    1982-01-01

    Serious infections with the "nonpathogenic" Bacillus species are increasingly being recognized, especially in drug abusers. Cases of panophthalmitis secondary to infection with Bacillus cereus, with and without associated bacteremia, have been reported. Three drug abusers with panophthalmitis seen in our hospitals during a three-year period are described, and the similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. The syndrome is characterized by an acute onset with a rapid fulminating course that eventually leads to enucleation or evisceration of the eye. The pathogenic mechanism is unknown, but is probably related to the production of toxin (lecithinase) by B. cereus. Clindamycin appears to be the antibiotic of choice in the treatment of this infection. In order to identify a possible source of the organism, 59 samples of heroin and injection paraphernalia were cultured. Twenty cultures yielded organisms; Bacillus species were the predominant isolates. Thirty-eight percent of the isolates were identified as B. cereus. Thus, infections caused by Bacillus species in drug abusers can probably be associated with intravenous heroin abuse because heroin mixtures and injection paraphernalia are frequently contaminated with this organism.

  3. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)-Based Next Generation Commercially Available Substrate: Physical Characterization and Biological Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    the spore and the active areas on the Klarite surface. For these experiments an aliquot of the common bacillus spore B. coagulans was drop...suspension B. coagulans (ATCC SUS-CG) was purchased from Raven Biologicals and used at a log 4 or 6 population per 0.1 mL of solution. For experiments...Klarite substrates were evaluated with the spore sample B. coagulans . In these experiments different substrates and the changes in overall band

  4. Neutralization efficiency estimation in a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the optimal conditions of neutral beam generation to maintain a high degree of neutralization and focusing during beam energy variation for a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma with a three-grid ion beam acceleration system. The neutral beam energy distribution was estimated by measuring the energy profiles of ions that 'survived' the neutralization after reflection. The energy measurements of the primary and reflected ions showed narrow distribution functions, each with only one peak. At higher beam energies, both the ratio of the ion energy loss to the primary energy and the degree of energy divergence decreased, confirming the precise alignment of the neutral beam. The neutralization efficiency of the neutral beam source with a three-grid acceleration system was found to be affected mainly by the beam angle divergence rather than by the particle translation energy.

  5. Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov., isolated from pebbles.

    PubMed

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (>5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of < 98.41 % with all species of the genus Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26 ± 1 % and 34 ± 3 %, respectively. Based on taxonomic data obtained using a polyphasic approach, strain JC267T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC267T ( = IBRC-M 10914T = KCTC 33579T).

  6. Neutral Models of Microbiome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinglong; Sukumaran, Jeet; Wu, Steven; Rodrigo, Allen

    2015-01-01

    There has been an explosion of research on host-associated microbial communities (i.e.,microbiomes). Much of this research has focused on surveys of microbial diversities across a variety of host species, including humans, with a view to understanding how these microbiomes are distributed across space and time, and how they correlate with host health, disease, phenotype, physiology and ecology. Fewer studies have focused on how these microbiomes may have evolved. In this paper, we develop an agent-based framework to study the dynamics of microbiome evolution. Our framework incorporates neutral models of how hosts acquire their microbiomes, and how the environmental microbial community that is available to the hosts is assembled. Most importantly, our framework also incorporates a Wright-Fisher genealogical model of hosts, so that the dynamics of microbiome evolution is studied on an evolutionary timescale. Our results indicate that the extent of parental contribution to microbial availability from one generation to the next significantly impacts the diversity of microbiomes: the greater the parental contribution, the less diverse the microbiomes. In contrast, even when there is only a very small contribution from a constant environmental pool, microbial communities can remain highly diverse. Finally, we show that our models may be used to construct hypotheses about the types of processes that operate to assemble microbiomes over evolutionary time. PMID:26200800

  7. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  8. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  9. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  10. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  11. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  12. Energetic neutral particles from Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft has detected energetic neutral particles escaping from the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. These energetic neutrals are created in charge exchange reactions between radiation belt ions and ambient atoms or molecules in the magnetosphere. If the Io torus is assumed to be the dominant Jovian source region for energetic neutrals, the Voyager observations can be used to infer upper limits to the average ion intensities there below about 200 keV. No readily interpretable in-situ measurements are available in the Io torus at these energies. The middle and outer Jovian magnetospheres may also be a significant source of energetic neutrals. At Saturn, the observed neutral particle count rates are too high to be explained by charge exchange between fast protons and H atoms of the Titan torus. Most of the energetic neutrals may be produced by charge exchanges between heavy ions and a neutral cloud containing H2O in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. If so, the Voyager measurements of energetic neutral fluxes would be the first detected emissions from this region of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  13. The Source of Saturn's Extended Neutral Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleshman, B. L.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Enceladus plumes are largely responsible for the water and its by-products found throughout Saturn's Enceladus plasma-neutral torus. Flybys of Enceladus by the Cassini spacecraft from 2005 to present have revealed a dynamic system, from which varying estimates have been made of the release rate of neutral H2O from Enceladus at 75-1600 kg/s. The rate of fresh ion pick-up near Enceladus has also been observed to vary between flybys. In Fleshman et al. (2010a), we showed that the magnitude of fresh ion pick-up on respective flybys requires a source (possibly in beams) of `hot' electrons at Enceladus. In this work, we build on our understanding of the local interaction by quantifying the degree to which neutrals produced as a by-product of charge exchange contribute to the Saturn's neutral cloud extending from 3 to 10 RS (see also Johnson et al., (2006)). We follow individual ion and neutral trajectories, while accounting for velocity-dependent cross sections. Our aim is to compare the neutral cloud resulting from charge exchange at Enceladus to that resulting from both (1) photodissociation and (2) electron impact dissociation throughout the Enceladus torus. The goal of the study, when compared with neutral cloud observations, is to shed light on which of these mechanisms dominates the neutral cloud morphology at Saturn.

  14. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  15. Types of Neutralization and Types of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Neutralization theory was tested with questionnaires administered to a random sample of public high school students (N-298) and institutionalized male delinquents (N-53). Neutralization acceptance technique patterns were similar across subsamples; however, correlations between each technique and each type of delinquency were statistically…

  16. Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Stewart, L D

    1980-01-01

    Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

  17. Neutral-current x-distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.; Fisk, R.; Fuess, S.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.

    1984-06-01

    The role of the semi-leptonic neutral current interaction as a probe of nucleon structure is examined. Previous measurements of neutral current x-distributions are reviewed, and new results from the Fermilab - MIT - MSU collaboration are presented. 4 references.

  18. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  19. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  20. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  1. A New Age of Constructivism: "Mode Neutral"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Peter; Smith, Brian; Sherratt, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This article presents work in progress exploring social constructivism within Mode Neutral, and how various conditions impact upon the student experience. Mode Neutral's three dimensions--curriculum design, the role of the tutor and communication for learning--are affected by the conditions that can vary in any given context. The authors realise…

  2. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  3. Neutral red staining for plant vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Birgit; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-06-01

    For almost 100 years, neutral red has been used to stain living cells and fixed tissue. It can be used as a general-purpose stain, a pH indicator (turning from red to yellow, as the medium becomes alkaline), or a nuclear stain. In this protocol, neutral red is used to stain plant vacuoles.

  4. Targets for high power neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs.

  5. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  6. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  7. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup −3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 μs. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  8. Sensitive neutralization test for rubella antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H; Albrecht, P; Krugman, S; Ennis, F A

    1979-01-01

    A modified rubella virus plaque neutralization test for measuring rubella antibody was developed based on the potentiation of the virus-antibody complex by heterologous anti-immunoglobulin. The test is highly sensitive, yielding titers on the average 50 to 100 times higher than the haemagglutination inhibition test or the conventional plaque neutralization test. The sensitivity of this enhanced neutralization test is somewhat limited by the existence of a prozone phenomenon which precludes testing of low-titered sera below a dilution of 1:16. No prozone effect was observed with cerebrospinal fluids. The specificity of the enhanced neutralization test was determined by seroconversion of individuals receiving rubella vaccine. Although the rubella hemagglutination inhibition test remains the test of choice in routine diagnostic and surveillance work, the enhanced rubella neutralization test is particularly useful in monitoring low-level antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurological disorders and in certain instances of vaccine failure. PMID:107192

  9. Estimating the stoichiometry of HIV neutralization.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Carsten; Regoes, Roland R

    2010-03-19

    HIV-1 virions infect target cells by first establishing contact between envelope glycoprotein trimers on the virion's surface and CD4 receptors on a target cell, recruiting co-receptors, fusing with the cell membrane and finally releasing the genetic material into the target cell. Specific experimental setups allow the study of the number of trimer-receptor-interactions needed for infection, i.e., the stoichiometry of entry and also the number of antibodies needed to prevent one trimer from engaging successfully in the entry process, i.e., the stoichiometry of (trimer) neutralization. Mathematical models are required to infer the stoichiometric parameters from these experimental data. Recently, we developed mathematical models for the estimations of the stoichiometry of entry [1]. In this article, we show how our models can be extended to investigate the stoichiometry of trimer neutralization. We study how various biological parameters affect the estimate of the stoichiometry of neutralization. We find that the distribution of trimer numbers-which is also an important determinant of the stoichiometry of entry-influences the estimated value of the stoichiometry of neutralization. In contrast, other parameters, which characterize the experimental system, diminish the information we can extract from the data about the stoichiometry of neutralization, and thus reduce our confidence in the estimate. We illustrate the use of our models by re-analyzing previously published data on the neutralization sensitivity [2], which contains measurements of neutralization sensitivity of viruses with different envelope proteins to antibodies with various specificities. Our mathematical framework represents the formal basis for the estimation of the stoichiometry of neutralization. Together with the stoichiometry of entry, the stoichiometry of trimer neutralization will allow one to calculate how many antibodies are required to neutralize a virion or even an entire population of

  10. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.71 Mbp with a DNA G+C content of 46.3 mol%. Comparative genomic analysis with its nearest relatives showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T), with a calculated DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) value of 91.2 % and an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 98.9 %. This DDH value is well above the recommended 70 % threshold for species delineation, as well as the ANI threshold of 95 %. In addition, the results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar with phenotype coherence. A core genome multi-locus sequencing analysis was conducted for the strains and the results show that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 clusters closely to the type strain of Bacillus siamensis. Therefore, it is proposed that the species ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T). An emended description of Bacillus siamensis is provided.

  11. Genetic diversity among Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains using repetitive element polymorphism-PCR.

    PubMed

    Brumlik, Michael J; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Zakowska, Dorota; Liang, Xudong; Spalletta, Ronald A; Patra, Guy; Delvecchio, Vito G

    2004-01-01

    Repetitive element polymorphism-PCR (REP-PCR) is one of the tools that has been used to elucidate genetic diversity of related microorganisms. Using the MB1 primer, REP-PCR fingerprints from 110 Bacillus strains within the "B. cereus group" have identified eighteen distinct categories, while other more distantly related bacterial species fell within six additional categories. All Bacillus anthracis strains tested were found to be monomorphic by fluorophore-enhanced REP-PCR (FERP) fingerprinting using the MB1 primer. In contrast, other non- B. anthracis isolates displayed a high degree of polymorphism. Dendrogramic analysis revealed that the non- B. anthracis strains possessing the Ba813 chromosomal marker were divided into two clusters. One of the clusters shared identity with the B. cereus strains examined.

  12. Characterization and Potential Application of Next Generation Commercial Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    were evaluated. For these experiments, an aliquot of the common bacillus spore B. coagulans was drop-dried onto the SERS substrate active surface...the Klarite surface. Spectra for bacillus spore B. coagulans on different substrate types. 3.5 Energetic Sample Evaluation Hazard detection...substrate types (a–f). Notice the dramatic difference in size between the spore and the active areas on the Klarite surface. Spectra for bacillus

  13. In vitro assay for neutralizing antibody to hepatitis C virus: evidence for broadly conserved neutralization epitopes.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Birke; Bukh, Jens; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Granier, Christelle; Engle, Ronald E; Blackwelder, William C; Emerson, Suzanne U; Cosset, François-Loïc; Purcell, Robert H

    2003-11-25

    Our understanding of the humoral immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is limited because the virus can be studied only in humans and chimpanzees and because previously described neutralization assays have not been robust or simple to perform. Nevertheless, epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggested that neutralizing Ab to HCV might be important in preventing infection. We have recently described a neutralization assay based on the neutralization of pseudotyped murine retrovirus constructs bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins on their surface. We have applied the assay to well characterized clinical samples from HCV-infected patients and chimpanzees, confirmed the existence of neutralizing Ab to HCV, and validated most previously reported neutralizations of the virus. We did not find neutralizing anti-HCV in resolving infections but did find relatively high titers (>1:320) of such Ab in chronic infections. Neutralizing Ab was directed not only to epitope(s) in the hypervariable region of the E2 envelope protein but also to one or more epitopes elsewhere in the envelope of the virus. Neutralizing Ab was broadly reactive and could neutralize pseudotype particles bearing the envelope glycoproteins of two different subgenotypes (1a and 1b). The ability to assay neutralizing anti-HCV should permit an assessment of the prospects for successful Ab-mediated passive and active immunoprophylaxis against hepatitis C.

  14. In vitro assay for neutralizing antibody to hepatitis C virus: Evidence for broadly conserved neutralization epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Bartosch, Birke; Bukh, Jens; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Granier, Christelle; Engle, Ronald E.; Blackwelder, William C.; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Cosset, François-Loïc; Purcell, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of the humoral immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is limited because the virus can be studied only in humans and chimpanzees and because previously described neutralization assays have not been robust or simple to perform. Nevertheless, epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggested that neutralizing Ab to HCV might be important in preventing infection. We have recently described a neutralization assay based on the neutralization of pseudotyped murine retrovirus constructs bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins on their surface. We have applied the assay to well characterized clinical samples from HCV-infected patients and chimpanzees, confirmed the existence of neutralizing Ab to HCV, and validated most previously reported neutralizations of the virus. We did not find neutralizing anti-HCV in resolving infections but did find relatively high titers (>1:320) of such Ab in chronic infections. Neutralizing Ab was directed not only to epitope(s) in the hypervariable region of the E2 envelope protein but also to one or more epitopes elsewhere in the envelope of the virus. Neutralizing Ab was broadly reactive and could neutralize pseudotype particles bearing the envelope glycoproteins of two different subgenotypes (1a and 1b). The ability to assay neutralizing anti-HCV should permit an assessment of the prospects for successful Ab-mediated passive and active immunoprophylaxis against hepatitis C. PMID:14617769

  15. Comparative Genomics Within the Bacillus Genus Reveal the Singularities of Two Robust Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Biocontrol Strains.

    PubMed

    Magno-Pérez-Bryan, M C; Martínez-García, P M; Hierrezuelo, J; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, P; Arrebola, E; Ramos, C; de Vicente, A; Pérez-García, A; Romero, D

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 8237 and CECT 8238, formerly known as Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 and UMAF6614, respectively, contribute to plant health by facing microbial pathogens or inducing the plant's defense mechanisms. We sequenced their genomes and developed a set of ad hoc scripts that allowed us to search for the features implicated in their beneficial interaction with plants. We define a core set of genes that should ideally be found in any beneficial Bacillus strain, including the production of secondary metabolites, volatile compounds, metabolic plasticity, cell-to-cell communication systems, and biofilm formation. We experimentally prove that some of these genetic elements are active, such as i) the production of known secondary metabolites or ii) acetoin and 2-3-butanediol, compounds that stimulate plant growth and host defense responses. A comparison with other Bacillus genomes permits us to find differences in the cell-to-cell communication system and biofilm formation and to hypothesize variations in their persistence and resistance ability in diverse environmental conditions. In addition, the major protection provided by CECT 8237 and CECT 8238, which is different from other Bacillus strains against bacterial and fungal melon diseases, permits us to propose a correlation with their singular genetic background and determine the need to search for additional blind biocontrol-related features.

  16. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T).

  17. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    PubMed

    La Duc, Myron T; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T).

  18. Bacillus DNA in fossil bees: an ancient symbiosis?

    PubMed Central

    Cano, R J; Borucki, M K; Higby-Schweitzer, M; Poinar, H N; Poinar, G O; Pollard, K J

    1994-01-01

    We report here the isolation of DNA from abdominal tissue of four extinct stingless bees (Proplebeia dominicana) in Dominican amber, PCR amplification of a 546-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene from Bacillus spp., and their corresponding nucleotide sequences. These sequences were used in basic local alignment search tool searches of nonredundant nucleic acid data bases, and the highest scores were obtained with 16S rRNA sequences from Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic inference analysis by the maximum-likelihood method revealed close phylogenetic relationships of the four presumed ancient Bacillus sequences with Bacillus pumilus, B. firmus, B. subtilis, and B. circulans. These four extant Bacillus spp. are commonly isolated from abdominal tissue of stingless bees. The close phylogenetic association of the extracted DNA sequences with these bee colonizers suggests that a similar bee-Bacillus association existed in the extinct species P. dominicana. PMID:8031102

  19. Current development in genetic engineering strategies of Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huina; Zhang, Dawei

    2014-05-03

    The complete sequencing and annotation of the genomes of industrially-important Bacillus species has enhanced our understanding of their properties, and allowed advances in genetic manipulations in other Bacillus species. Post-genomic studies require simple and highly efficient tools to enable genetic manipulation. Here, we summarize the recent progress in genetic engineering strategies for Bacillus species. We review the available genetic tools that have been developed in Bacillus species, as well as methods developed in other species that may also be applicable in Bacillus. Furthermore, we address the limitations and challenges of the existing methods, and discuss the future research prospects in developing novel and useful tools for genetic modification of Bacillus species.

  20. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation.

  1. Neutral Supersymmetric Higgs Boson Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Stephen Luke

    2008-07-01

    In some Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, including the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the coupling of Higgs bosons to b-quarks is enhanced. This enhancement makes the associated production of the Higgs with b-quarks an interesting search channel for the Higgs and Supersymmetry at D0. The identification of b-quarks, both online and offline, is essential to this search effort. This thesis describes the author's involvement in the development of both types of b-tagging and in the application of these techniques to the MSSM Higgs search. Work was carried out on the Level-3 trigger b-tagging algorithms. The impact parameter (IP) b-tagger was retuned and the effects of increased instantaneous luminosity on the tagger were studied. An extension of the IP-tagger to use the z-tracking information was developed. A new b-tagger using secondary vertices was developed and commissioned. A tool was developed to allow the use of large multi-run samples for trigger studies involving b-quarks. Offline, a neural network (NN) b-tagger was trained combining the existing offline lifetime based b-tagging tools. The efficiency and fake rate of the NN b-tagger were measured in data and MC. This b-tagger was internally reviewed and certified by the Collaboration and now provides the official b-tagging for all analyses using the Run IIa dataset at D0. A search was performed for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying to a b{bar b} pair and produced in association with one or more b-quarks. Limits are set on the cross-section times the branching ratio for such a process. The limits were interpreted in various MSSM scenarios. This analysis uses the NN b-tagger and was the first to use this tool. The analysis also relies on triggers using the Level-3 IP b-tagging tool described previously. A likelihood discriminant was used to improve the analysis and a neural network was developed to cross-check this technique. The result of the analysis has been submitted to PRL and

  2. Evaluation of smallpox vaccines using variola neutralization.

    PubMed

    Damon, Inger K; Davidson, Whitni B; Hughes, Christine M; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Frey, Sharon E; Newman, Frances; Belshe, Robert B; Yan, Lihan; Karem, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    The search for a 'third'-generation smallpox vaccine has resulted in the development and characterization of several vaccine candidates. A significant barrier to acceptance is the absence of challenge models showing induction of correlates of protective immunity against variola virus. In this light, virus neutralization provides one of few experimental methods to show specific 'in vitro' activity of vaccines against variola virus. Here, we provide characterization of the ability of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine to induce variola virus-neutralizing antibodies, and we provide comparison with the neutralization elicited by standard Dryvax vaccination.

  3. On the neutral points in Rayleigh transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viik, T.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we consider the dependence of the existence and position of the neutral points on the albedo of single scattering and the optical thickness in a Rayleigh scattering plane-parallel homogeneous atmospheres. We use the Chandrasekhar method of discrete ordinates and the method of approximating the Sobolev resolvent function to solve the vector equation of transfer in l- and r-representation. On the basis of many different models of Rayleigh atmospheres we show the behaviour of the neutral points while the parallel incident flux can be both unpolarized or polarized. Our calculations show with high probability that the maximum number of neutral points in a Rayleigh atmosphere is four.

  4. Engineering Environmentally-Stable Proteases to Specifically Neutralize Protein Toxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-14

    Betzel, C. (2005) Bacillus licheniformis variant DY proteinase: specificity in relation to the geometry of the substrate recognition site. Curr Microbiol...acid residues forming the hydrophobic S4 binding pocket of subtilisin 309 from Bacillus lentus. Biochemistry 32, 8994-8999. (32) Bech, L. M...Sorensen, S. B., and Breddam, K. (1993) Significance of hydrophobic S4-P4 interactions in subtilisin 309 from Bacillus lentus. Biochemistry 32, 2845-2852

  5. Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-30

    2010 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: (Life Science Division/Biochemistry) Inactivation of Bacillus ...S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Bacillus Anthracis, Spores, Biofilm, Inhibition...Biochemistry) Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes Report Title The Specific Aims of the project were to investigate: 1) the

  6. Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

    2003-10-01

    The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus.

  7. Processing, Assembly and Localization of a Bacillus anthracis Spore Protein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    anthracis (but not, for example, Bacillus megaterium ), a series of fine hair-like projections, also called a nap, extends from the exosporium (Aronson...3373–3378. Vary, P. S. (1994). Prime time for Bacillus megaterium . Microbiology 140, 1001–1013. Welkos, S. L., Cote, C. K., Rea, K. M. & Gibbs, P. H...Processing, assembly and localization of a Bacillus anthracis spore protein K. L. Moody,13 A. Driks,2 G. L. Rother,1 C. K. Cote,1 E. E. Brueggemann,3

  8. Computational based functional analysis of Bacillus phytases.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anukriti; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Gaur, Smriti

    2016-02-01

    Phytase is an enzyme which catalyzes the total hydrolysis of phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate and digests the undigestable phytate part present in seeds and grains and therefore provides digestible phosphorus, calcium and other mineral nutrients. Phytases are frequently added to the feed of monogastric animals so that bioavailability of phytic acid-bound phosphate increases, ultimately enhancing the nutritional value of diets. The Bacillus phytase is very suitable to be used in animal feed because of its optimum pH with excellent thermal stability. Present study is aimed to perform an in silico comparative characterization and functional analysis of phytases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to explore physico-chemical properties using various bio-computational tools. All proteins are acidic and thermostable and can be used as suitable candidates in the feed industry.

  9. Induced calcium carbonate precipitation using Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an emerging process for the production of self-healing concrete. This study was aimed to investigate the effects and optimum conditions on calcium carbonate biosynthesis. Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, yeast extract, urea, calcium chloride and aeration were found to be the most significant factors affecting the biomineralization of calcium carbonate. It was noticed that the morphology of microbial calcium carbonate was mainly affected by the genera of bacteria (cell surface properties), the viscosity of the media and the type of electron acceptors (Ca(2+)). The maximum calcium carbonate concentration of 33.78 g/L was achieved at the optimum conditions This value is the highest concentration reported in the literature.

  10. Bacillus cereus Biofilms-Same, Only Different.

    PubMed

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area.

  11. Bacillus cereus Biofilms—Same, Only Different

    PubMed Central

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  12. Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R; Mueller, A; Wehler, M; Neureiter, D; Fischer, E; Gramatzki, M; Hahn, E G

    2001-09-01

    We present a case of a rapidly progressive pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in a 52-year-old woman with severe aplastic anemia. Bacillus cereus was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, blood cultures, and pseudomembrane biopsy specimens; despite intensive antibiotic treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a B. cereus infection that has caused pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, possibly because of the production of bacterial toxins.

  13. [Spontaneous bacteriophage induction in Bacillus thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Besaeva, S G; Mikhaĭlov, A A; Petrova, T M; Tur, A I; Bystrova, E V

    1987-01-01

    The production of temperate bacteriophages was studied in the process of batch cultivation of three Bacillus thuringiensis lysogenic strains. Phage titres were determined using an indicator culture (IPM-1148). The growth of bacteriophages was induced when thermoactivated spores germinated. Some cells (1.10(-3)-2.10(-3)) underwent lysis without their division. The subsequent lytic cycles occurred in the actively growing culture. Phage titres ceased to rise before the exponential growth phase was over.

  14. Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Mawlankar, Rahul; Thorat, Meghana N; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Dastager, Syed G

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain NIO-1130(T) was isolated from sediment sample taken from Chorao Island, Goa Province, India, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, and motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate within the genus Bacillus and strain NIO-1130(T) showed highest sequence similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) (98.4%) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T) (98.1%), whereas other Bacillus species showed <97.0% similarity. Tree based on gyrB gene sequence revealed that strain bacillus group. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The strain showed a DNA G+C content of 39.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that strain NIO-1130(T) exhibits 70% similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T). On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, we consider the isolate to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1130(T) (=NCIM 5461(T)=CCTCC AB 2011126(T)).

  15. Systemic Bacillus species infection mimicking listeriosis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Workowski, K A; Flaherty, J P

    1992-03-01

    Bacillus species are increasingly recognized as agents of infection in humans. These organisms are ubiquitous in nature and can cause clinical illness ranging from transient bacteremia to serious systemic infection. We describe a pregnant intravenous drug abuser with fever, constitutional symptoms, and premature labor. Her blood cultures yielded gram-positive bacilli, and her clinical course was consistent with systemic listeriosis of pregnancy. Pathological examination of the placenta revealed acute villitis, and Bacillus species grew from cultures of both placenta and blood. Through biochemical testing the isolate was identified as Bacillus pumilis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of premature labor induced by Bacillus species infection.

  16. Murine Macrophages Kill the Vegetative Form of Bacillus anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-18

    inhibitor of the germination of B. anthracis and Bacillus cereus spores. It converts L-alanine to D-alanine, an isomer that is not recognized by...nation of Bacillus cereus spores in response to L-alanine and to inosine: the roles of gerL and gerQ operons. Microbiology 148:2089–2095. 5. Dixon, T...anthracis. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 62:269–273. 32. Todd, S. J., A. J. Moir, M. J. Johnson, and A. Moir. 2003. Genes of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis

  17. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker Specific for the Bacillus cereus Group Is Diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Frova, Giuseppe; Gallo, Romina; Mori, Elena; Fani, Renato; Sorlini, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group. PMID:10049896

  18. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections.

    PubMed

    Siegman-Igra, Y; Lavochkin, J; Schwartz, D; Konforti, N

    1983-06-01

    A patient with meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus is described. The patient had transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for chromophobe adenoma, complicated by rhinorrhea, which was corrected by subarachnoid drainage. Three weeks after removal of the drain, the patient presented with meningitis and died the following day. The causative organism was identified as B. cereus. The literature on Bacillus infections is reviewed with special attention to severe infections. A modified classification is proposed, dividing infections into superficial, closed-space and systemic ones. Sixty-one previously reported cases of systemic Bacillus infections are reviewed according to type of infection (endocarditis, meningitis or pulmonary infection), and the underlying conditions, ways of acquiring the infection, clinical picture and mortality are discussed.

  19. Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.

  20. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  1. Kinetics of neutralization of Po-218

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    In a well-defined experimental system the neutralization of polonium-218 ions was investigated as a function of the physical and chemical properties of the controlled composition atmosphere. The mobilities of Po/sup +/ and PoO/sub 2//sup +/ are determined by combining experimental results with a computer model of the system. Three neutralization mechanisms were individually studied. The small ion recombination rate has been found to be proportional to the square root of radon concentration. The electron scavenging mechanism is responsible for the neutralization of Po/sup +/ in NO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O in nitrogen. When PoO/sub 2//sup +/ is formed, the electron transfer mechanism dominates the neutralization process. The electron is transferred to PoO/sub 2//sup +/ from molecules with lower ionization potentials. The ionization potential of PoO/sub 2//sup +/ is also determined to be 10.44 +/- 0.05 eV.

  2. An autoneutralizing neutral molecular beam gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmore, J. E.; Appelhans, A. D.; Dahl, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    A high-energy (up to 28 keV) neutral molecular beam gun has been developed and put into routine use that takes advantage of the autoneutralization properties of the sulfur hexafluoride anion for the production of high-energy sulfur hexafluoride neutral molecules. The anions are produced in an electron-capture source, accelerated, and focused in a lens assembly designed to minimize residence time, allowed to drift at their terminal velocity for a suitable distance during which up to 30% auto-eject an electron, and all remaining charged particles are electrostatically skimmed, resulting in a focused neutral beam. Rasterable neutral beams focused to a 5-mm spot size up to 3 m from the source have been produced with beam currents up to 40 pA equivalent. Spot sizes of 1 mm can be produced with intensity levels of a few picoamperes equivalent.

  3. Neutrality tests for sequences with missing data.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Luca; Raineri, Emanuele; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastian

    2012-08-01

    Missing data are common in DNA sequences obtained through high-throughput sequencing. Furthermore, samples of low quality or problems in the experimental protocol often cause a loss of data even with traditional sequencing technologies. Here we propose modified estimators of variability and neutrality tests that can be naturally applied to sequences with missing data, without the need to remove bases or individuals from the analysis. Modified statistics include the Watterson estimator θW, Tajima's D, Fay and Wu's H, and HKA. We develop a general framework to take missing data into account in frequency spectrum-based neutrality tests and we derive the exact expression for the variance of these statistics under the neutral model. The neutrality tests proposed here can also be used as summary statistics to describe the information contained in other classes of data like DNA microarrays.

  4. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J.; Kucera, T.; Antiochos, S.; Kawashima, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between ions and neutrals in magnetized plasmas is fundamentally important to many aspects of heliophysics, including our ionosphere, the solar chromosphere, the solar wind interaction with planetary atmospheres, and the interface between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Ion-neutral coupling also plays a major role in the physics of solar prominences. By combining theory, modeling, and observations we are working toward a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of partially ionized prominence plasma. Two key questions are addressed in the present work: 1) what physical mechanism(s) sets the cross-field scale of prominence threads? 2) Are ion-neutral interactions responsible for the vertical flows and structure in prominences? We present initial results from a study investigating what role ion-neutral interactions play in prominence dynamics and structure. This research was supported by NASA.

  5. Study of the radiation effect of 99Mo/99mTc generator on Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus species.

    PubMed

    Fukumori, Neuza T O; Endo, Erica M M; Felgueiras, Carlos F; Matsuda, Margareth M N; Osso Junior, João A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, molybdenum-99 loaded columns were challenged with Bacillus subtilis vegetative cells and Bacillus pumilus spores inside and outside the alumina column, and microbial recovery and radiation effect were assessed. Alumina was a barrier for the passage of microorganisms regardless the species, whilst spores were more retained than vegetative cells with a lower microbial recovery, without significant differences between 9.25 and 74 GBq generators. Bacillus pumilus biological indicator showed lower recoveries, suggesting a radiation inactivating effect on microorganisms.

  6. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  7. Nitrogen-neutrality: a step towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison; Musinguzi, Patrick; Tumwesigye, Trust; Olupot, Giregon; Tenywa, John Stephen; Mudiope, Joseph; Hutton, Olivia; Cordovil, Claudia M. d. S.; Bekunda, Mateete; Galloway, James

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel indicator measuring one dimension of the sustainability of an entity in modern societies: Nitrogen-neutrality. N-neutrality strives to offset Nr releases an entity exerts on the environment from the release of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment by reducing it and by offsetting the Nr releases elsewhere. N-neutrality also aims to increase awareness about the consequences of unintentional releases of nitrogen to the environment. N-neutrality is composed of two quantified elements: Nr released by an entity (e.g. on the basis of the N footprint) and Nr reduction from management and offset projects (N offset). It includes management strategies to reduce nitrogen losses before they occur (e.g., through energy conservation). Each of those elements faces specific challenges with regard to data availability and conceptual development. Impacts of Nr releases to the environment are manifold, and the impact profile of one unit of Nr release depends strongly on the compound released and the local susceptibility to Nr. As such, N-neutrality is more difficult to conceptualize and calculate than C-neutrality. We developed a workable conceptual framework for N-neutrality which was adapted for the 6th International Nitrogen Conference (N2013, Kampala, November 2013). Total N footprint of the surveyed meals at N2013 was 66 kg N. A total of US 3050 was collected from the participants and used to offset the conference’s N footprint by supporting the UN Millennium Village cluster Ruhiira in South-Western Uganda. The concept needs further development in particular to better incorporate the spatio-temporal variability of impacts and to standardize the methods to quantify the required N offset to neutralize the Nr releases impact. Criteria for compensation projects need to be sharply defined to allow the development of a market for N offset certificates.

  8. Neutral thermospheric temperature from ion concentration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, E. L.; Donaldson, J. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.; Power, R. A.; Kayser, D. C.; Spencer, N. W.; Wharton, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extracting information on neutral temperature from in situ F region measurements of O(+) and H(+) ion concentrations is analyzed and evaluated. Advantage is taken of the condition of charge-exchange equilibrium of these species in the neighborhood of 320 km to infer the associated relative abundances of neutral oxygen and hydrogen. Results are shown to be generally consistent with other concurrent in situ measurements.

  9. A class of neutral functional differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Formulation and study of the initial value problem for neutral functional differential equations. The existence, uniqueness, and continuation of solutions to this problem are investigated, and an analysis is made of the dependence of the solutions on the initial conditions and parameters, resulting in the derivation of a continuous dependence theorem in which the fundamental mathematical principles underlying the continuous dependence problem for a very general system of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations are separated out.

  10. Ecotoxicity of neutral red (dye) and its environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Kastury, Farzana; Juhasz, Albert; Beckmann, Sabrina; Manefield, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Neutral red (NR) is a synthetic phenazine with promising prospect in environmental biotechnology as an electron shuttle. Recently, NR injections into coal seam associated groundwater in Australia (final dissolved NR concentration: 8 µM ± 0.2) were shown to increase methanogenesis up to ten-fold. However, information about NR toxicity to ecological receptors is sorely lacking. The main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration dependent toxicity of NR in microorganisms and plants. Acute toxicity of NR was determined by the modified Microtox™ assay. Microbial viability was determined using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Germination and early growth of plants was studied using Lactuca sativa, Daucus carota, Allium cepa and an Australian native Themeda triandra. Lastly, mutagenicity of the coal seam associated groundwater was assessed using the Ames test. The EC50 of acute NR toxicity was determined to be 0.11 mM. The EC50 of microbial viability was between 1 and 7.1mM NR. Among the concentrations tested, only 0.01, 0.10 and 100mM of NR significantly affected (p<0.001) germination of L. sativa. The EC50 for root elongation in seeds was between 1.2 and 35.5mM NR. Interestingly, root elongation in seeds was significantly stimulated (p<0.001) between 0.25 and 10mM NR, showing a hormetic effect. A significant increase in mutagenicity was only observed in one of the three wells tested. The results suggest that the average dissolved NR concentration (8 µM ± 0.2) deployed in the field trial at Lithgow State Coal Mine, Australia, appears not to negatively impact the ecological receptors tested in this study.

  11. Host immunity to Bacillus anthracis lethal factor and other immunogens: implications for vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Daniel M

    2015-03-01

    Infections of humans with Bacillus anthracis are an issue with respect to the biothreat both to civilians and military personnel, infections of individuals by infected livestock in endemic regions and, recently, infections of intravenous drug users injecting anthrax-contaminated heroin. Existing vaccination regimens are reliant on protective antigen neutralization induced by repeated boosts with the AVA or AVP vaccines. However, there is ongoing interest in updated approaches in light of the intensive booster regime and extent of reactogenicity inherent in the current protocols. Several other immunogens from the B. anthracis proteome have been characterized in recent years, including lethal factor. Lethal factor induces strong CD4 T-cell immunity and encompasses immunodominant epitopes of relevance across diverse HLA polymorphisms. Taken together, recent studies emphasize the potential benefits of vaccines able to confer synergistic immunity to protective antigen and to other immunogens, targeting both B-cell and T-cell repertoires.

  12. Purification and characterization of proteases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from traditional soybean fermentation starter.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong-Jun; Oh, Sung-Hoon; Pridmore, R David; Juillerat, Marcel A; Lee, Cherl-Ho

    2003-12-17

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FSE-68 isolated from meju, a Korean soybean fermentation starter, was identified on the basis of biophysical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence. A neutral metalloprotease (NPR68) and an alkaline serine-protease (APR68) were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation exchange chromatography and identified on the basis of their activities at different pH values and the selective protease inhibitors. The molecular weights of NPR68 and APR68 measured with ESI-MS were 32743 (+/- 0.8) and 27443 (+/- 0.5) Da, respectively. Against oxidized insulin chains, the NPR68 has a cleavage preference at the site where leucine is located as a P1' residue followed by phenylalanine, and the APR68 has broad specificity and favors leucine at the P1 site. These results indicate that the proteases are natural variants of subtilisin and bacillolysin.

  13. Preparation and partial structural characterization of the exopolysaccharide from Bacillus mucilaginosus SM-01.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Xu, Shuqin; Deng, Chao; Li, Hui; Yang, Qingsheng; Xu, Zhenghong; Chen, Jinghua

    In this study, an acidic hetero-exopolysaccharide, designated as BMPS, was isolated from the culture supernatant of bacteria Bacillus mucilaginosus SM-01 by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The molecular weight of BMPS was measured to be 2.67×10(6)Da. To analyze the structure of the polysaccharide, the low-molecular weight fragment (BMPS-H) of BMPS was obtained under mild hydrolysis. BMPS-H was determined to be a liner neutral fraction with an average molecular weight of 1621Da. Monosaccharide analysis indicated that BMPS-H contained glucose and mannose in a molar ratio of 1.5:1. Based on methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy data, the following structure of BMPS-H was established: In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed the hydroxyl group on C-2 of 1,4-linked-glucosyl residues was partially acetylated.

  14. The Phobos neutral and ionized torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Curry, S. M.; Fatemi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Charged particle sputtering, micrometeoroid impact vaporization, and photon-stimulated desorption are fundamental processes operating at airless surfaces throughout the solar system. At larger bodies, such as Earth's Moon and several of the outer planet moons, these processes generate tenuous surface-bound exospheres that have been observed by a variety of methods. Phobos and Deimos, in contrast, are too gravitationally weak to keep ejected neutrals bound and, thus, are suspected to generate neutral tori in orbit around Mars. While these tori have not yet been detected, the distribution and density of both the neutral and ionized components are of fundamental interest. We combine a neutral Monte Carlo model and a hybrid plasma model to investigate both the neutral and ionized components of the Phobos torus. We show that the spatial distribution of the neutral torus is highly dependent on each individual species (due to ionization rates that span nearly 4 orders of magnitude) and on the location of Phobos with respect to Mars. Additionally, we present the flux distribution of torus pickup ions throughout the Martian system and estimate typical pickup ion fluxes. We find that the predicted pickup ion fluxes are too low to perturb the ambient plasma, consistent with previous null detections by spacecraft around Mars.

  15. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Chung K.; Ibrahim, Hisham; Lee, Philip; Churchwell, George; Gumke, Megan; Stanek, Danielle; Gee, Jay E.; Boyer, Anne E.; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Barr, John R.; Li, Han; Boulay, Darbi; Cronin, Li; Quinn, Conrad P.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity. PMID:27257909

  16. Comparison of JEV neutralization assay using pseudotyped JEV with the conventional plaque-reduction neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Jung; Min, Kyung-Il; Park, Ki Hoon; Choi, Hyo Jung; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Ahn, Chi-Young; Hong, Young-Jin; Kim, Young Bong

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the development of a neutralization assay system for evaluating Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) neutralizing antibody (NAb) using pseudotyped-JEV (JEV-PV). JEV-PV-based neutralization assay offers several advantages compared with the current standard plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), including simplicity, safety, and speed. To evaluate the suitability of the JEV-PV assay as new replacement neutralization assay, we compared its repeatability, reproducibility, specificity, and correlated its results with those obtained using the PRNT. These analyses showed a close correlation between the results obtained with the JEV-PV assay and the PRNT, using the 50% plaque reduction method as a standard for measuring NAb titers to JEV. The validation results met all analytical acceptance criteria. These results suggest that the JEV-PV assay could serve as a safe and simple method for measuring NAb titer against JEV and could be used as an alternative approach for assaying the potency of JEV neutralization.

  17. Automated facial coding software outperforms people in recognizing neutral faces as neutral from standardized datasets.

    PubMed

    Lewinski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about people's accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge - automated facial coding (AFC) software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90%) was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%). I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e., smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings.

  18. Automated facial coding software outperforms people in recognizing neutral faces as neutral from standardized datasets

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about people’s accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge – automated facial coding (AFC) software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90%) was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%). I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e., smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings. PMID:26441761

  19. Linking Temporal Changes in Bacterial Community Structures with the Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Neutral Metalloprotease Genes in the Sediments of a Hypereutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Imai, Akio; Satou, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal variations in bacterial community structures as well as the presence of three functional proteolytic enzyme genes in the sediments of a hypereutrophic freshwater lake in order to acquire an insight into dynamic links between bacterial community structures and proteolytic functions. Bacterial communities determined from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries markedly changed bimonthly, rather than vertically in the sediment cores. The phylum Firmicutes dominated in the 4–6 cm deep sediment layer sample after August in 2007, and this correlated with increases in interstitial ammonium concentrations (p < 0.01). The Firmicutes clones were mostly composed of the genus Bacillus. npr genes encoding neutral metalloprotease, an extracellular protease gene, were detected after the phylum Firmicutes became dominant. The deduced Npr protein sequences from the retrieved npr genes also showed that most of the Npr sequences used in this study were closely related to those of the genus Bacillus, with similarities ranging from 61% to 100%. Synchronous temporal occurrences of the 16S rRNA gene and Npr sequences, both from the genus Bacillus, were positively associated with increases in interstitial ammonium concentrations, which may imply that proteolysis by Npr from the genus Bacillus may contribute to the marked increases observed in ammonium concentrations in the sediments. Our results suggest that sedimentary bacteria may play an important role in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle of freshwater lakes. PMID:25130992

  20. Diamagnetic currents in the neutral He atoms.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Yamabe, Tokio

    2007-09-06

    The mechanism of the occurrence of intraatomic diamagnetic currents in the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes is investigated. It is found that most of all electrons can form electron pairs originating from attractive Coulomb interactions between two electrons with opposite spins occupying the 1s atomic orbital in the neutral He atom at 298 K. Intraatomic diamagnetic currents in the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes can be explained by such electron pairing. The transition temperature Tc(He),(1s) value at which intraatomic diamagnetic currents can disappear in each He atom is estimated. The Tc(He),(1s) values for the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes are estimated to be much larger than the superconducting transition temperatures Tc,BCS values for the conventional superconductors with macroscopic sizes. This result can be understood from continuous energy levels of electronic states in conventional superconductivity with macroscopic sizes, and from discrete energy levels of electronic states in the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes. The energy difference between the occupied and unoccupied orbitals decreases with an increase in material size and thus the second-order perturbation effect becomes more important with an increase in material size. Therefore, the mechanism of the occurrence of intraatomic diamagnetic current in the neutral He atoms suggested in this research would not be true for materials with large sizes. The dependence of electronic properties on temperature in the diamagnetic currents in the neutral He atoms with microscopic sizes is studied and compared with that in the conventional superconductivity with macroscopic sizes.

  1. Services provided in support of the planetary quarantine requirements of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favero, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The project to evaluate thermal sterilization for unmanned landers is reported. A temperature controlled oven with a nitrogen gas supply containing a known concentration of water is discussed. The studies show that bacillus lentus, bacillus brevis, bacillus coagulans, atypical bacillus spp., and actinomycete are isolated heat survivors. The thermal resistance is given for naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores collected on exposed teflon ribbons.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage Smudge

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, Jessica L.; Breslin, Eileen; Schuhmacher, Zachary; Himelright, Madison; Berluti, Cassandra; Boyd, Charles; Carson, Rachel; Del Gallo, Elle; Giessler, Caris; Gilliam, Benjamin; Heatherly, Catherine; Nevin, Julius; Nguyen, Bryan; Nguyen, Justin; Parada, Jocelyn; Sutterfield, Blake; Tukruni, Muruj

    2016-01-01

    Smudge, a bacteriophage enriched from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis DSM-350 as the host, had its complete genome sequenced. Smudge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 292 genes and was identified as belonging to the C1 cluster of Bacillus phages. PMID:27540049

  3. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Tangail-1 from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Braun, Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Grass, Gregor; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Hanczaruk, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Soil was collected in July 2013 at a site where a cow infected with anthrax had been the month before. Selective culturing yielded Bacillus anthracis strain Tangail-1. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this Bacillus anthracis isolate that belongs to the canonical A.Br.001/002 clade. PMID:27469968

  4. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Diomandé, Sara E.; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The large bacterial genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbor pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA) composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness. PMID:26300876

  5. Intractable Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    John, Anna B; Razak, Eissa A S A; Razak, Emad E M H; Al-Naqeeb, Niran; Dhar, Rita

    2007-04-01

    Although often regarded as a contaminant, Bacillus spp. have been implicated in serious systemic infections. The incidence of such infections is low with only a few cases reported in the literature. We describe the clinical course of early-onset Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin.

  6. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus vanillea’ XY18T (=CGMCC 8629 T =NCCB 100507 T) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this type strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.72 Mbp and a GC content of 46.3%. Comparative genomic analysis with its ...

  7. Detection of Anthrax Simulants with Microcalorimetric Spectroscopy: Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus Spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Edward T.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2003-04-01

    Recent advances in the development of ultrasensitive micromechanical thermal detectors have led to the advent of novel subfemtojoule microcalorimetric spectroscopy (CalSpec). On the basis of principles of photothermal IR spectroscopy combined with efficient thermomechanical transduction, CalSpec provides acquisition of vibrational spectra of microscopic samples and absorbates. We use CalSpec as a method of identifying nanogram quantities of biological micro-organisms. Our studies focus on Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus spores as simulants for Bacillus anthracis spores. Using CalSpec, we measured IR spectra of B. subtilis and B. cereus spores present on surfaces in nanogram quantities (approximately 100 -1000 spores). The spectra acquired in the wavelength range of 690 -4000 cm-1 (2.5 -14.5 μm) contain information-rich vibrational signatures that reflect the different ratios of biochemical makeup of the micro-organisms. The distinctive features in the spectra obtained for the two types of micro-organism can be used to distinguish between the spores of the Bacillus family. As compared with conventional IR and Fourier-transform IR microscopic spectroscopy techniques, the advantages of the present technique include significantly improved sensitivity (at least a full order of magnitude), absence of expensive IR detectors, and excellent potential for miniaturization.

  8. Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov., isolated from a composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Kosowski, Kornelia; Schmidt, Marie; Pukall, Rüdiger; Hause, Gerd; Kämpfer, Peter; Lechner, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Two strains, 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T), were isolated from a biowaste composting reactor. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains belong to the genus Bacillus. Strain 8-4-E12(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus shackletonii, B. acidicola, B. sporothermodurans and B. oleronius (96.4, 96.3, 96.0 and 95.6 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, respectively), whereas strain 8-4-E13(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Bacillus humi (96.5 % sequence similarity). Strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) shared 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E12(T) was dominated by saturated iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids (iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0), and also contained considerable amounts of C16 : 0. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E13(T) showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 (65 %), with smaller amounts of other saturated branched-chain fatty acids along with an unsaturated alcohol. Both strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids. Additionally, strain 8-4-E12(T) contained an unknown lipid and strain 8-4-E13(T) two unknown (amino-)phospholipids. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed phenotypic differentiation of the two strains from each other and from related Bacillus species. On the basis of their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E12(T) = DSM 23947(T) = LMG 27601(T)) and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E13(T) = DSM 23948(T) = LMG 27602(T)) are proposed.

  9. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  10. Correlations between neutral and ionized solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkerton, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.

    We report results of a statistical study correlating ionized solar wind (ISW) fluxes observed by ACE during late 2000 and throughout 2001 with neutral solar wind (NSW) fluxes observed by IMAGE/LENA over the same period. The average correlation coefficient between the neutral and ionized solar wind is 0.66 with correlations greater than 0.80 occurring about 29% of the time. Correlations appear to be driven by high solar wind flux variability, similar to results obtained by in situ multi-spacecraft correlation studies. In this study, however, IMAGE remains inside the magnetosphere on over 95% of its orbits. As a function of day of year, or equivalently ecliptic longitude, the slope of the relationship between the neutral solar wind flux and the ionized solar wind flux shows an enhancement near the upstream direction, but the symmetry point appears shifted toward higher ecliptic longitudes than the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction by about 20°. The estimated peak interstellar neutral upstream density inside of 1 AU is about 7 × 10 -3 cm -3.

  11. Species ages in neutral biodiversity models.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; O'Dwyer, James P

    2014-05-01

    Biogeography seeks to understand the mechanisms that drive biodiversity across long temporal and large spatial scales. Theoretical models of biogeography can be tested by comparing their predictions of quantities such as species ages against empirical estimates. It has previously been claimed that the neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography predicts species ages that are unrealistically long. Any improved theory of biodiversity must rectify this problem, but first it is necessary to quantify the problem precisely. Here we provide analytical expressions for species ages in neutral biodiversity communities. We analyse a spatially implicit metacommunity model and solve for both the zero-sum and non-zero-sum cases. We explain why our new expressions are, in the context of biodiversity, usually more appropriate than those previously imported from neutral molecular evolution. Because of the time symmetry of the spatially implicit neutral model, our expressions also lead directly to formulas for species persistence times and species lifetimes. We use our new expressions to estimate species ages of forest trees under a neutral model and find that they are about an order of magnitude shorter than those predicted previously but still unrealistically long. In light of our results, we discuss different models of biogeography that may solve the problem of species ages.

  12. Infrared thermography and overloaded neutral conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, John; Niebla, Hector E.

    1999-03-01

    Present findings of two recent case studies. One involves transformer failures on three computer-stores within eight hours of their grand opening. The second discusses the findings during an infrared thermography-training course for electric utility engineers of a transformer vault serving an industrial customer. Both of these deal with overloaded neutral conductors. Historically, the average neutral conductor carried only the imbalance of the current between the phases of a three-phase system. This current was typically small in relation to the load being served. In fact, for economic reasons many neutrals were installed smaller than their associated phase conductors. Today however, certain types of loads (non-linear loads such as computers) and certain transformer connections (4 bushing single phase with a collector bus) cause the neutral to have up to three times as much amperage as the phase conductors. This paper will discuss the conditions under which such loading occurs and further investigate steps that can be taken/recommended should an infrared test indicate an overloaded neutral conductor.

  13. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  14. Bacillus Endospores - an ideal exobiological Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, R.; Horneck, G.

    Exobiology investigations have one overall goal -- finding the answer to the question if Earth is the only possible place in our universe where life was created. For tackling this question a good approach is to use a simple and ubiquitous system like bacteria as used in BIOPAN and EXPOSE. Many of these microorganisms have the ability to form metabolic inactive continuous forms such as Bacillus endospores. These spores are highly resistant against a variety of environmental stresses, such as toxic chemical agents, desiccation, high and low pressure, high doses of ionising and UV radiation and temperature extremes such as heat or permafrost. They are ubiquitous, inhabit soils and rocks and are easily disseminated by wind and water. Therefore they are suitable test systems for studying several questions of astrobiology, such as the theory of Panspermia, planetary protection issues in connection with missions to Mars or Europa, or chances for life on past or present Mars. The strategies Bacillus sp. endospores have developed to survive harsh conditions include a desiccated spore core, an altered conformation of their DNA (A-form), high concentration of small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) stabilising the DNA, dipicolinic acid (DPA) for stabilisation and protective spore coating layers. We have investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous pigments in the UV-resistance of Bacillus endospores by using spores of different degree and kind of pigmentation, i.e. white, grey or red spores (DSMZ culture collection). The spectral ranges of UV radiation represented those of the early or present UV radiation climate of Earth or Mars. It was found, that endogenous carotenoids, identified by spectrophotometrical analysis from a spore extract as well as in-situ by Raman spectroscopy, efficiently protect against UV-A radiation, whereas melanin was also protective against UV-C radiation. From these studied follows, that highly pigmented spores might survive even in an intense UV

  15. Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore▿

    PubMed Central

    Giorno, Rebecca; Bozue, Joel; Cote, Christopher; Wenzel, Theresa; Moody, Krishna-Sulayman; Mallozzi, Michael; Ryan, Matthew; Wang, Rong; Zielke, Ryszard; Maddock, Janine R.; Friedlander, Arthur; Welkos, Susan; Driks, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. form a specialized cell type, called a spore, during a multistep differentiation process that is initiated in response to starvation. Spores are protected by a morphologically complex protein coat. The Bacillus anthracis coat is of particular interest because the spore is the infective particle of anthrax. We determined the roles of several B. anthracis orthologues of Bacillus subtilis coat protein genes in spore assembly and virulence. One of these, cotE, has a striking function in B. anthracis: it guides the assembly of the exosporium, an outer structure encasing B. anthracis but not B. subtilis spores. However, CotE has only a modest role in coat protein assembly, in contrast to the B. subtilis orthologue. cotE mutant spores are fully virulent in animal models, indicating that the exosporium is dispensable for infection, at least in the context of a cotE mutation. This has implications for both the pathophysiology of the disease and next-generation therapeutics. CotH, which directs the assembly of an important subset of coat proteins in B. subtilis, also directs coat protein deposition in B. anthracis. Additionally, however, in B. anthracis, CotH effects germination; in its absence, more spores germinate than in the wild type. We also found that SpoIVA has a critical role in directing the assembly of the coat and exosporium to an area around the forespore. This function is very similar to that of the B. subtilis orthologue, which directs the assembly of the coat to the forespore. These results show that while B. anthracis and B. subtilis rely on a core of conserved morphogenetic proteins to guide coat formation, these proteins may also be important for species-specific differences in coat morphology. We further hypothesize that variations in conserved morphogenetic coat proteins may play roles in taxonomic variation among species. PMID:17114257

  16. Bacillus oryzisoli sp. nov., isolated from rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Cai-Wen; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The taxonomy of strain 1DS3-10T, a Gram-staining-positive, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from rice rhizosphere, was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strain was grouped with established members of the genus Bacillus and appeared to be closely related to the type strains Bacillus benzoevorans DSM 5391T (97.9 %), Bacillus circulans DSM 11T (97.7 %), Bacillus novalis JCM 21709T (97.3 %), Bacillus soli JCM 21710T (97.3 %), Bacillus oceanisediminis CGMCC 1.10115T (97.3 %) and BacillusnealsoniiFO-92T (97.1 %). The fatty acid profile of strain 1DS3-10T, which showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Bacillus. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (100 %). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown aminolipids. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 1DS3-10T and the type strains of closely related species were 25-33 %, which supported that 1DS3-10T represented a novel species in the genus Bacillus. The results of some physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain 1DS3-10T from the most closely related recognized species. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain 1DS3-10T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryzisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the novel species is 1DS3-10T (=ACCC 19781T=DSM 29761T).

  17. Bacillus endospores isolated from granite: close molecular relationships to globally distributed Bacillus spp. from endolithic and extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-04-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain approximately 500 cultivable Bacillus spores and approximately 10(4) total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted.

  18. Purification, Characterization and Comparison between Two New L-asparaginases from Bacillus PG03 and Bacillus PG04

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Poodat, Manijeh; Javadpour, Sedigheh; Qeshmi, Fatemeh Izadpanah; Shamsipour, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: L-asparaginase has been used as a chemotherapeutic agent in treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia. In the present investigation, Bacillus sp. PG03 and Bacillus sp. PG04 were studied. Methods: L- asparaginases were produced using different culture media and were purified using ion exchange chromatography. Results: Maximum productivity was obtained when asparagine was used as the nitrogen source at pH 7 and 48 h after cultivation. New intracellular L-asparaginases showed an apparent molecular weight of 25 kDa and 30 kDa by SDS-PAGE respectively. These enzymes were active in a wide pH range (3-9) with maximum activity at pH 6 for Bacillus PG03 and pH 7 for Bacillus PG04 L-asparaginase. Bacillus PG03 enzyme was optimally active at 37 ˚C and Bacillus PG04 maximum activity was observed at 40˚C. Kinetic parameters km and Vmax of both enzymes were studied using L-asparagine as the substrate. Thermal inactivation studies of Bacillus PG03 and Bacillus PG04 L-asparaginase exhibited t1/2 of 69.3 min and 34.6 min in 37 ˚C respectively. Also T50 and ∆G of inactivation were measured for both enzymes. Conclusion: The results revealed that both enzymes had appropriate characteristics and thus could be a potential candidate for medical applications. PMID:27999622

  19. Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain ∼500 cultivable Bacillus spores and ∼104 total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted. PMID:16597992

  20. When neutral turns significant: brain dynamics of rapidly formed associations between neutral stimuli and emotional contexts.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    The ability to associate neutral stimuli with motivationally relevant outcomes is an important survival strategy. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate brain dynamics of associative emotional learning when participants were confronted with multiple heterogeneous information. Participants viewed 144 different objects in the context of 144 different emotional and neutral background scenes. During each trial, neutral objects were shown in isolation and then paired with the background scene. All pairings were presented twice to compare ERPs in response to neutral objects before and after single association. After single pairing, neutral objects previously encoded in the context of emotional scenes evoked a larger P100 over occipital electrodes compared to objects that were previously paired with neutral scenes. Likewise, larger late positive potentials (LPPs) were observed over parieto-occipital electrodes (450-750 ms) for objects previously associated with emotional relative to neutral contexts. The LPP - but not P100 - enhancement was also related to subjective object/context binding. Taken together, our ERP data provide evidence for fast emotional associative learning, as reflected by heightened perceptual and sustained elaborative processing for neutral information previously encountered in emotional contexts. These findings could assist in understanding binding mechanisms in stress and anxiety, as well as in addiction and eating-related disorders.

  1. The occurrence of disporous Bacillus thuringiensis cells.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G B; Slob-van Herk, A; Eguía, J M

    1992-05-01

    Ultrathin sections of sporulating Bacillus thuringiensis were examined in a transmission electron microscope. Less than 1% of the about 2,000 approximately sagittal sections of the bacterial cells examined contained two endospores per cell. This finding clarifies the majority of textbook and research reports (which tend to be ambiguous), contradicts several of the most recent textbook reports, and confirms three unillustrated textbook reports, in relation to the occurrence of disporous bacilli. Electron microscopic evidence of the observation is presented, apparently for the first time.

  2. Bacillus licheniformis prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Santini, F; Borghetti, V; Amalfitano, G; Mazzucco, A

    1995-01-01

    A 73-year old man developed an acute prosthetic aortic valve dehiscence for which emergent operation was undertaken. The intraoperative evidence of an aortic annular disruption and of a subannular abscess led to the hypothesis that an endocarditis process was involved. The aortic valve was replaced with a stentless porcine bioprosthesis. Cultures taken intraoperatively from the aortic area had a pure growth of aerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli identified as Bacillus licheniformis. The patient responded to specific antibiotic therapy with no relapse at a 20-month follow-up. The potentiality of B. licheniformis as a pathogen should be reconsidered. PMID:8576381

  3. A Love Affair with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Losick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    My career in science was launched when I was an undergraduate at Princeton University and reinforced by graduate training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, it was only after I moved to Harvard University as a junior fellow that my affections were captured by a seemingly mundane soil bacterium. What Bacillus subtilis offered was endless fascinating biological problems (alternative sigma factors, sporulation, swarming, biofilm formation, stochastic cell fate switching) embedded in a uniquely powerful genetic system. Along the way, my career in science became inseparably interwoven with teaching and mentoring, which proved to be as rewarding as the thrill of discovery. PMID:25533458

  4. Genes controlling xylan utilization by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, M I

    1983-01-01

    Eight mutants of Bacillus subtilis deficient in xylan utilization were isolated and characterized genetically and biochemically. Each mutant was obtained independently after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. All of the analyzed mutations were shown to be linked. Reciprocal transformation crosses revealed the existence of two genes controlling xylan utilization which have been designated xynA and xynB. Available data have indicated that these two genes code for two xylan-degrading enzymes existing in the wild-type strains, an extracellular beta-xylanase (xynA) and a cell-associated beta-xylosidase (xynB). PMID:6413490

  5. Bacillus anthracis factors for phagosomal escape.

    PubMed

    Tonello, Fiorella; Zornetta, Irene

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, B. anthracis secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of B. anthracis toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  6. Landau-like states in neutral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Ågren, Hans; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    We show the emergence of a new type of dispersion relation for neutral atoms with an interesting similarity to the spectrum of two-dimensional electrons in an applied perpendicular constant magnetic field. These neutral atoms can be confined in toroidal optical traps and give quasi-Landau spectra. In strong contrast to the equidistant infinitely degenerate Landau levels for charged particles, the spectral gap for such two-dimensional neutral particles increases in particular electric-field configurations. The idea in the paper is motivated by the development in cold atom experiments and builds on the seminal paper of Aharonov and Casher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 319 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.319].

  7. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, O.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    Full particle PIC simulations are performed to study the neutralization of an ion beam in the cohesionless, mesothermal regime. Simulations further confirmed that neutralization is achieved through interactions between the trapped electrons and the potential well established by the propagation of the beam front along the beam direction and is not through plasma instabilities as previous studies suggested. In the transverse direction, the process is similar to that of the expansion of mesothermal plasma into vacuum. Parametric simulations are also performed to investigate the effects of beam radius and domain boundary condition on the neutralization process. The results suggests that, while the qualitative behavior may be similar in ground tests, quantitative parameters such as the beam potential will be affected significantly by the vacuum chamber because of the limits imposed on the expansion process by the finite chamber space.

  8. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV Eradication.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-02-01

    Passive transfer of antibodies has long been considered a potential treatment modality for infectious diseases, including HIV. Early efforts to use antibodies to suppress HIV replication, however, were largely unsuccessful, as the antibodies that were studied neutralized only a relatively narrow spectrum of viral strains and were not very potent. Recent advances have led to the discovery of a large portfolio of human monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing across many HIV-1 subtypes and are also substantially more potent. These antibodies target multiple different epitopes on the HIV envelope, thus allowing for the development of antibody combinations. In this review, we discuss the application of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for HIV treatment and HIV eradication strategies. We highlight bNAbs that target key epitopes, such as the CD4 binding site and the V2/V3-glycan-dependent sites, and we discuss several bNAbs that are currently in the clinical development pipeline.

  9. Methods for neutralizing anthrax or anthrax spores

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Mark A; Vivekandanda, Jeevalatha; Holwitt, Eric A; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2013-02-26

    The present invention concerns methods, compositions and apparatus for neutralizing bioagents, wherein bioagents comprise biowarfare agents, biohazardous agents, biological agents and/or infectious agents. The methods comprise exposing the bioagent to an organic semiconductor and exposing the bioagent and organic semiconductor to a source of energy. Although any source of energy is contemplated, in some embodiments the energy comprises visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, laser radiation, pulsed corona discharge or electron beam radiation. Exemplary organic semiconductors include DAT and DALM. In certain embodiments, the organic semiconductor may be attached to one or more binding moieties, such as an antibody, antibody fragment, or nucleic acid ligand. Preferably, the binding moiety has a binding affinity for one or more bioagents to be neutralized. Other embodiments concern an apparatus comprising an organic semiconductor and an energy source. In preferred embodiments, the methods, compositions and apparatus are used for neutralizing anthrax spores.

  10. Neutral Beam Injection in the Electric Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Carter, T. A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Grossman, A.; Lafonteese, D. J.; Pace, D. C.; Schmitz, L. W.; Taylor, R. J.; White, A. E.; Yates, T. F.

    2004-11-01

    The Electric Tokamak (ET) at UCLA (Bt=0.25T, R=5m, a=1m, Te(0)=300eV, tau(0)=1s) is now running long shots (5s). A new development program was started last year to include a neutral beam in the daily operations of the machine. As a result, a 10kV neutral beam injector was built to deal with plasma and measurement issues. The design and parameters of the beam are discussed. The source is based on an RF generated plasma, with a single extraction grid providing an accel-decel configuration. Plasma neutralization efficiency is also presented. Co- or counter injection is now possible using a single beam. The construction of a second beam is planned for simultaneous co- and counter injections for toroidal momentum input control. Plasma toroidal and poloidal rotation, particle diffusion and current drive effects will be presented.

  11. Edge rotation from momentum transport by neutrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotani, JT; Newton, SL; Pusztai, I.; Fülöp, T.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their high cross field mobility, neutral atoms can have a strong effect on transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix. We use a charge-exchange dominated model for the neutrals, coupled to neoclassical ions, to calculate momentum transport when it is dominated by the neutrals. We can then calculate self-consistently the radial electric field and predict the intrinsic rotation in an otherwise torque-free plasma. Using a numerical solver for the ion distribution to allow arbitrary collisionality, we investigate the effects of inverse aspect ratio and elongation on plasma rotation. We also calculate the rotation of a trace carbon impurity, to facilitate future comparison to experiments using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics.

  12. Viewing perspective in energetic neutral atom intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Fok, Mei-Ching

    2008-09-01

    Through interspacecraft comparison of energetic neutral oxygen (ENO) intensity from two different vantage points provided by IMAGE and Geotail, Lui et al. (2005) showed that viewing perspective plays a very important role in the observed ENO intensity level during a magnetic storm period. Motivated by the findings of Lui et al. (2005), we investigate how viewing perspective influences energetic neutral atom emissions from a modeling perspective. The main results of this paper are that (1) our simulation results, based upon O+ ion fluxes from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model and the subsequent ENO calculation, reproduce the total differential ENO intensity obtained from two spacecraft to a reasonable degree and (2) further analysis of our results indicates that pitch angle anisotropy in ring current ion flux, a crucial physical quantity in ring current dynamics, is one major contributor to the difference in energetic neutral atom intensity from different viewing perspectives.

  13. A Label as a Hidden Persuader: Chemists' Neutralization Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1991-01-01

    Identifies and describes the problems students have with the concept of neutralization. Analysis of over 7,500 students' answers to test questions over neutralization showed that many students understand the concept in its original meaning. Students assumed that in any neutralization reaction a neutral solution is formed, even if a weak acid or…

  14. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  15. Theory of neutral clustering for growing populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2009-11-01

    The spatial distribution of most species in nature is nonuniform. We have shown recently [B. Houchmandzadeh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078103 (2008)] on an experimental ecological community of amoeba that the most basic facts of life—birth and death—are enough to cause considerable aggregation which cannot be smoothened by random movements of the organisms. This clustering, termed neutral and always present, is independent of external causes and social interaction. We develop here the theoretical groundwork of this phenomenon by explicitly computing the pair-correlation function and the variance to mean ratio of the above neutral model and its comparison to numerical simulations.

  16. Photoproduction of neutral pions off protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crede, V.; Sparks, N.; Wilson, A.; Anisovich, A. V.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bantes, R.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Castelijns, R.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, Chr.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, P.; Jaegle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E.; Kotulla, M.; Krusche, B.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lugert, S.; Menze, D.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L. M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, C.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Sokhoyan, V.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.

    2011-11-01

    Photoproduction of neutral pions has been studied with the CBELSA/TAPS detector in the reaction γp→pπ0 for photon energies between 0.85 and 2.50 GeV. The π0 mesons are observed in their dominant neutral decay mode: π0→γγ. For the first time, the differential cross sections cover the very forward region, θc.m.<60∘. A partial-wave analysis of these data within the Bonn-Gatchina framework observes the high-mass resonances G17(2190), D13(2080), and D15(2070).

  17. Apparatus for neutralization of accelerated ions

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.; Frank, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for neutralization of a beam of accelerated ions, such as hydrogen negative ions (H.sup.-), using relatively efficient strip diode lasers which emit monochromatically at an appropriate wavelength (.lambda. = 8000 A for H.sup.- ions) to strip the excess electrons by photodetachment. A cavity, formed by two or more reflectors spaced apart, causes the laser beams to undergo multiple reflections within the cavity, thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the illumination required to obtain an acceptable percentage (.about. 85%) of neutralization.

  18. High-current plasma contactor neutralizer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Williamson, W. S.; Matossian, J. N.; Vourgourakis, E. J.; Burch, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    A plasma-contactor neutralizer system is described, for the stabilizing the Orbiter's potential during flights of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science missions. The plasma contactor neutralizer will include a Xe plasma source that can provide steady-state ion-emission currents of up to 1.5 A. The Orbiter's potential will be maintained near that of the surrounding space plasma during electron-beam accelerator firings through a combination of ion emission from the Xe plasma source and electron collection from the ambient space plasma. Configuration diagrams and block diagrams are presented along with the performance characteristics of the system.

  19. Formation of Spheroplasts from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, B. R.; Williams, Robert P.

    1965-01-01

    Chatterjee, B. R. (Baylor University College of Medicine, Houston, Tex.), and Robert P. Williams. Formation of spheroplasts from Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 89:1128–1133. 1965.—Spheroplasts were prepared from Bacillus anthracis by combined treatment with lysozyme and glycine. Glycine, at a final concentration of 3%, was added to cultures of B. anthracis in nutrient broth that had grown at 37 C for 16 to 18 hr under 50% CO2. After additional incubation under CO2 for 2 hr, lysozyme, at the appropriate concentration (50 to 100 μg/ml), and sucrose, to a concentration of 15%, were added, and incubation was continued for 2 to 6 hr in CO2. At the end of this period, incubation in CO2 was discontinued. Spheroplasts formed after incubation in air for 6 to 12 hr. Lysozyme alone exhibited the same effect when added at much higher concentrations (500 to 2,000 μg/ml) to cultures growing under CO2. No spheroplasts formed when cultures were treated with glycine alone. Treatment with lysozyme was more effective on smooth strains than rough. Cells from young cultures were more susceptible to lysozyme than older cells. CO2 apparently was essential for formation of spheroplasts from B. anthracis. Images PMID:14276107

  20. The Phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Okinaka, Richard T; Keim, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The three main species of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were recognized and established by the early 1900 s because they each exhibited distinct phenotypic traits. B. thuringiensis isolates and their parasporal crystal proteins have long been established as a natural pesticide and insect pathogen. B. anthracis, the etiological agent for anthrax, was used by Robert Koch in the 19th century as a model to develop the germ theory of disease, and B. cereus, a common soil organism, is also an occasional opportunistic pathogen of humans. In addition to these three historical species designations, are three less-recognized and -understood species: B. mycoides, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. pseudomycoides. All of these "species" combined comprise the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. Despite these apparently clear phenotypic definitions, early molecular approaches to separate the first three by various DNA hybridization and 16S/23S ribosomal sequence analyses led to some "confusion" because there were limited differences to differentiate between these species. These and other results have led to frequent suggestions that a taxonomic change was warranted to reclassify this group to a single species. But the pathogenic properties of B. anthracis and the biopesticide applications of B. thuringiensis appear to "have outweighed pure taxonomic considerations" and the separate species categories are still being maintained. B. cereus sensu lato represents a classic example of a now common bacterial species taxonomic quandary.

  1. Enzymatic potential of heterotrophic bacteria from a neutral copper mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bruna Zucoloto da; Rodrigues, Viviane Drumond; Oliveira, Valéria Maia de; Ottoboni, Laura Maria Mariscal; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne

    Copper mine drainages are restricted environments that have been overlooked as sources of new biocatalysts for bioremediation and organic syntheses. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the enzymatic activities (esterase, epoxide hydrolase and monooxygenase) of 56 heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a neutral copper mine drainage (Sossego Mine, Canaã dos Carajás, Brazil). Hydrolase and monooxygenase activities were detected in 75% and 20% of the evaluated bacteria, respectively. Bacterial strains with good oxidative performance were also evaluated for biotransformation of organic sulfides. Fourteen strains with good enzymatic activity were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealing the presence of three genera: Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. The bacterial strains B. megaterium (SO5-4 and SO6-2) and Pseudomonas sp. (SO5-9) efficiently oxidized three different organic sulfides to their corresponding sulfoxides. In conclusion, this study revealed that neutral copper mine drainages are a promising source of biocatalysts for ester hydrolysis and sulfide oxidation/bioremediation. Furthermore, this is a novel biotechnological overview of the heterotrophic bacteria from a copper mine drainage, and this report may support further microbiological monitoring of this type of mine environment.

  2. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    PubMed

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity.

  3. A facile analytical method for the identification of protease gene profiles from Bacillus thuringiensis strains.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Chu; Shen, Li-Fen; Chak, Kin-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Five pairs of degenerate universal primers have been designed to identify the general protease gene profiles from some distinct Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Based on the PCR amplification patterns and DNA sequences of the cloned fragments, it was noted that the protease gene profiles of the three distinct strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73, tenebrionis and israelensis T14001 are varied. Seven protease genes, neutral protease B (nprB), intracellular serine protease A (ispA), extracellular serine protease (vpr), envelope-associated protease (prtH), neutral protease F (nprF), thermostable alkaline serine protease and alkaline serine protease (aprS), with known functions were identified from three distinct B. thuringiensis strains. In addition, five DNA sequences with unknown functions were also identified by this facile analytical method. However, based on the alignment of the derived protein sequences with the protein domain database, it suggested that at least one of these unknown genes, yunA, might be highly protease-related. Thus, the proposed PCR-mediated amplification design could be a facile method for identifying the protease gene profiles as well as for detecting novel protease genes of the B. thuringiensis strains.

  4. Production and characteristics of a bioflocculant produced by Bacillus sp. F19.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Ye, Zhi-Long; Fang, Xu-Liang; Li, Ya-Hong; Cai, Wei-Min

    2008-11-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterium isolated from soil was identified as Bacillus sp. and the bioflocculant produced was named MBFF19. Effects of physico-chemical conditions including pH, carbon sources and nitrogen sources on MBFF19 production were studied. Chemical analyses of the purified bioflocculant MBFF19 indicated that it was a sugar-protein derivative, composed of neutral sugar (3.6%, w/w), uronic acid (37.0%, w/w), amino sugars (0.5%, w/w) and protein (16.4%, w/w). The two neutral sugar components were mannose and glucose and the molar ratio was 1.2:1. Infrared spectrophotometry analysis revealed that MBFF19 contained carboxyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl groups in its structural. Flocculating properties of bioflocculant MBFF19 was examined using kaolin, activated carbon and fly coal suspension. Cation supplement had no positive effects on the flocculating activity whereas the presence of Fe3+ inhibited flocculation. Influences of pH and bioflocculant dosage on the flocculation were also examined.

  5. Roles of the Bacillus anthracis Spore Protein ExsK in Exosporium Maturation and Germination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis and the nonpathogenic bac- teria Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus odysseyi, have an addi- tional structure called the...exosporium. J. Bacte- riol. 185:3373–3378. 47. Vary, P. S. 1994. Prime time for Bacillus megaterium . Microbiology 140:1001– 1013. 48. Weaver, J., T. J...Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Roles of the Bacillus anthracis Spore Protein ExsK in Exosporium Maturation and Germination Kari M. Severson,1

  6. Rapid Detection & Identification of Bacillus Species using MALDI-TOF/TOF and Biomarker Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Identification of Selected Bacillus Species (excerpt from [42]) S0 0 00 two IL - ZZO al 0 > W Z 0 . 0j~ COLN SPECIESIL B. megaterium v + + + v + + - v...identification for genus (eg. Bacillus vs. Escherichia) and species ( Bacillus anthracis vs. Bacillus megaterium ), but not strains (B. anthracis Ames... Bacillus Species using MALDI-TOF/TOF and Biomarker Database A Strategic Plan Nora W.C. Chan and William E. Lee Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Zoltan Mester

  7. Detection of Bacillus Spores by Apatmer Selectivity Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Caugant, Henning A. Johansen, Agnes Fouet, Michèle Mock, Ida Hegna, and Anne-Britt Kolsto. “ Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus , and Bacillus ...DETECTION OF BACILLUS SPORES BY APATMER SELECTIVITY USING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY THESIS Nina M. Houtkooper, Captain, USAF...or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GAP/ENP/05-03 DETECTION OF BACILLUS

  8. Identification of Anthrax Toxin Genes in a Bacillus cereus Associated With An Illness Resembling Inhalation Anthrax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Identification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax Alex R. Hoffmaster*†, Jacques... Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax, an acute fatal disease among mammals. It was thought to differ from Bacillus cereus , an...correlation of phenotypic characteristics and their genetic basis. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis are members of a closelyrelated phylogenetic

  9. Identification of strains Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304T as Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305T as a Proteus sp. and the status of the species Bacillus aeriusShivaji et al. 2006. Request for an Opinion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ramesh Kumar, N; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Juan; Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour; Shao, Zongze

    2015-09-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB and pycA gene sequence analyses, characterization of biochemical features and other phenotypic traits and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting, it was ascertained that strains Bacillus aerius MTCC 7303T, Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304(T) and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305(T) do not conform to the descriptions of the type strains of the respective species. Strains MTCC 7303(T) and MTCC 7304(T) were indistinguishable from Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631(T), while strain MTCC 7305(T) should be classified as a representative of a Proteus sp. Our attempts to find other deposits of the type strains of these species were unsuccessful. Therefore, the results support the Request for an Opinion on the status of the species Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus by Branquinho et al. [Branquinho, R., Klein, G., Kämpfer, P. & Peixe, L. V. (2015). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65, 1101]. It is also proposed that the Judicial Commission should place the name Bacillus aerius on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain cannot be found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request (Rule 18c).

  10. Bacillus lehensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Bhardwaj, M; Satyanarayana, T; Khurana, M; Mayilraj, S; Jain, R K

    2007-02-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, alkalitolerant bacterial strain, designated MLB2T, was isolated from soil from Leh, India, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. Growth was observed at pH 7.0-11.0, but not at pH 6.0. The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%. The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was with Bacillus oshimensis JCM 12663T (98.8 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated low levels of genomic relatedness with the type strains of B. oshimensis (62 %), Bacillus patagoniensis (55 %), Bacillus clausii (51 %) and Bacillus gibsonii (34 %), the species with which strain MLB2T formed a coherent cluster (based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness of strain MLB2T, it should be classified within a novel species of Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus lehensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MLB2T (=MTCC 7633T=JCM 13820T).

  11. Real-Time PCR Identification of Unique Bacillus anthracis Sequences.

    PubMed

    Cieślik, P; Knap, J; Kolodziej, M; Mirski, T; Joniec, J; Graniak, G; Zakowska, D; Winnicka, I; Bielawska-Drózd, A

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, Gram-positive microorganism. It is a causative agent of anthrax, a highly infectious disease. It belongs to the "Bacillus cereus group", which contains other closely related species, including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus pseudomycoides. B. anthracis naturally occurs in soil environments. The BA5345 genetic marker was used for highly specific detection of B. anthracis with TaqMan probes. The detection limit of a real-time PCR assay was estimated at the level of 16.9 copies (CI95% - 37.4 to 37.86, SD = 0.2; SE = 0.118). Oligonucleotides designed for the targeted sequences (within the tested locus) revealed 100 % homology to B. anthracis strain reference sequences deposited in the database (NCBI) and high specificity to all tested B. anthracis strains. Additional in silico analysis of plasmid markers pag and cap genes with B. anthracis strains included in the database was carried out. Our study clearly indicates that the BA5345 marker can be used with success as a chromosomal marker in routine identification of B. anthracis; moreover, detection of plasmid markers indicates virulence of the examined strains.

  12. Chitin extraction from shrimp shell waste using Bacillus bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Maâlej, Hana; Hajji, Sawssen; Nasri, Moncef

    2012-12-01

    The ability of six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus mojavencis A21, Bacillus licheniformis RP1, Bacillus cereus SV1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 and Bacillus subtilis A26) to ferment media containing only shrimp shell waste, for chitin extraction, was investigated. More than 80% deproteinization was attained by all the strains tested. However, demineralization rates not exceeding 67% were registered. Cultures conducted in media containing shrimp shell waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, without affecting deproteinization rates. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates, at different concentrations, produced during fermentation in medium supplemented with glucose, were determined using different tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method, reducing power assay and chelating activity. All hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. Hydrolysate produced by B. pumilus A1 exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.3 mg/ml. Highest reducing power (DO 700 nm=1.55 at 1.5 mg/ml) and metal chelating activity (98% at 5mg/ml) were obtained with B. pumilus A1 and B. licheniformis RP1 hydrolysates, respectively.

  13. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Pace, D. C.; Grierson, B. A.

    2015-10-15

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  14. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Pace, D C

    2015-10-01

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  15. Neutralization escape mutants define a dominant immunogenic neutralization site on hepatitis A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.T.; Lemon, S.M.

    1987-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus is an hepatotrophic human picornavirus which demonstrates little antigenic variability. To topologically map immunogenic sites on hepatitis A virus which elicit neutralizing antibodies, eight neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were evaluated in competition immunoassays employing radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and HM-175 virus. Whereas two antibodies (K3-4C8 and K3-2F2) bound to intimately overlapping epitopes, the epitope bound by a third antibody (B5-B3) was distinctly different as evidenced by a lack of competition between antibodies for binding to the virus. The other five antibodies variably blocked the binding of both K3-4C8-K3-2F2 and B5-B3, suggesting that these epitopes are closely spaced and perhaps part of a single neutralization immunogenic site. Several combinations of monoclonal antibodies blocked the binding of polyclonal human convalescent antibody by greater than 96%, indicating that the neutralization epitopes bound by these antibodies are immunodominant in humans. Spontaneously arising HM-175 mutants were selected for resistance to monoclonal antibody-mediated neutralization. Neutralization resistance was associated with reduced antibody binding. These results suggest that hepatitis A virus may differ from poliovirus in possessing a single, dominant neutralization immunogenic site and therefore may be a better candidate for synthetic peptide or antiidiotype vaccine development.

  16. If It's Neutral, It's Not Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strate, Lance

    2012-01-01

    Taking a media ecology perspective, this article argues that technology cannot be neutral, because it is a form of change, and it has an inherent bias based on the properties of its materials and methods. Additionally, the application of a technology is an intrinsic part of the technology itself, as is technique, instructions, software, or…

  17. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  18. Intraprostatic injection of neutralized zinc in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, M.S.; Wang, M.; Sutcu, M.F.; Fahim, Z.; Safron, J.A.; Ganjam, V.K. Xian Medical University )

    1991-03-11

    Zinc has been implicated in steroid endocrinology of the prostate gland. The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme is believed to express androgenic responses in the prostate. To note the effect of neutralized zinc on the prostate, 50 sexually mature rats, weighing 325 {plus minus} 20 grams, were divided into 5 groups as follows: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) castrated, (4) injected intraprostatically with 10 mg. neutralized zinc, and (5) injected intraprostatically with 20 mg. neutralized zinc. Results in the treated groups indicated significant reduction of prostate weights, 12% and 53% and histologically normal prostate; no significant change in weight and histological structure of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; significant reduction in 5{alpha}-reductase activity and total protein and DNA concentrations in prostate tissue; and no significant effect on progeny of treated animals. These results suggest that direct application of neutralized zinc to the prostate offers a new modality for treatment of prostatitis without affecting spermatogenesis and testosterone production.

  19. Semiconductor etching by hyperthermal neutral beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K. (Inventor); Giapis, Konstantinos P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An at-least dual chamber apparatus and method in which high flux beams of fast moving neutral reactive species are created, collimated and used to etch semiconductor or metal materials from the surface of a workpiece. Beams including halogen atoms are preferably used to achieve anisotropic etching with good selectivity at satisfactory etch rates. Surface damage and undercutting are minimized.

  20. Neutral glycosphingolipid content of ovine milk.

    PubMed

    Zancada, L; Sánchez-Juanes, F; Alonso, J M; Hueso, P

    2010-01-01

    Milk glycosphingolipids (GSL) have been reported to participate in the newborn's defense against pathogens. Taking this into account, in this study we determined the neutral GSL content of ovine milk, including its fatty acid profile. Its role in bacterial adhesion was also addressed by immunodetection of separate GSL in a high-performance thin-layer chromatography overlay assay. Ovine milk has a neutral GSL pattern similar to human milk and includes lactosylceramide (LacCer; 45.7%), monohexosylceramide (glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, 31.2%), globotriaosylceramide (Gb3; 19.1%), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4; 3.5%). Globotriaosylceramide and Gb4 are present in human but not bovine milk. Neutral GSL contained C23:0 and C24:0 as the most abundant fatty acids, a finding consistent with its high content of very long chain fatty acids (longer than C20). Most fatty acids were saturated and had a low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains bound strongly to LacCer and showed a weak binding to monohexosylceramide. The K99 strain also bound strongly to Gb3, and F41 to Gb4. Lactosylceramide, monohexosylceramide, and Gb3 were also observed to bind to human uropathogenic E. coli strains. The results reported here show the ability of neutral GSL in ovine milk to bind to E. coli strains. These compounds could be used as an alternative and available source to supplement infant or bovine formulas with a view to preventing bacterial infections.

  1. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  2. Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL); and Flash player, version 5 or higher (available from Macromedia).

  3. [Spectrophotometric determination of heparin with neutral red].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Ding, Ya-Qin; Rao, Jun; Jiao, Kui

    2006-07-01

    The interaction of neutral red and heparin was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in pH 3.0 Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution. Neutral red has a strong absorbance at 523 nm and the addition of heparin into neutral red solution resulted in the decrease in the absorbance value at 523 nm without the appearance of new absorbance peak. The decrease in absorbance value was linear with the concentration of heparin. The conditions for the interaction were optimized and the interferences of coexistent substances were investigated. Under the optimal conditions a linear regression equation was obtained as deltaA = 0.044 + 0.076c (mg x L(-1)) (n = 12, r = 0.997) in the range of 0.10-15.0 mg x L(-1) with the detection limit of 0.073 mg x L(-1). The molar absorptivity of the method was calculated to be 2.037 x 10(6) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). The method was applied to determine the heparin sodium injection solution with satisfactory results. The stoichiometry of heparin with neutral red was calculated as 1 : 3.

  4. Absence of neutral alkali atoms in rhodizite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnay, G.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Sioda, R.

    1966-01-01

    The formula CsB12Be4Al4O28 has been proposed by others for the mineral rhodizite. Electron-spin-resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements prove the absence of neutral cesium atoms. An ionic formula CsB11Be4Al4O 26(OH)2is proposed.

  5. Khalfin's Theorem and Neutral Mesons Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanowski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of Khalfin's Theorem are discussed. we find, eg., that diagonal matrix elements of the exact effective Hamiltonian for the neutral meson complex can not be equal if CPT symmetry holds and CP symmetry is violated. Within a given model we examine numerically the Khalfin's Theorem and show in a graphic form how the Khalfin's Theorem works.

  6. Doubly perturbed neutral stochastic functional equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lanying; Ren, Yong

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution to a class of doubly perturbed neutral stochastic functional equations (DPNSFEs in short) under some non-Lipschitz conditions. The solution is constructed by successive approximation. Furthermore, we give the continuous dependence of the solution on the initial value by means of the corollary of Bihari inequality.

  7. Diagnostics for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Diagnostic techniques for neutral-beam-heated tokamak plasmas fall into three categories: (1) magnetic diagnostics for measurements of gross stored energy, (2) profile diagnostics for measurements of stored thermal and beam energy, impurity content and plasma rotation, and (3) fast time resolution diagnostics to study MHD fluctuations and micro-turbulence.

  8. Selectionism and Neutralism in Molecular Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nei, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Charles Darwin proposed that evolution occurs primarily by natural selection, but this view has been controversial from the beginning. Two of the major opposing views have been mutationism and neutralism. Early molecular studies suggested that most amino acid substitutions in proteins are neutral or nearly neutral and the functional change of proteins occurs by a few key amino acid substitutions. This suggestion generated an intense controversy over selectionism and neutralism. This controversy is partially caused by Kimura's definition of neutrality, which was too strict (|2Ns| ≤ 1). If we define neutral mutations as the mutations that do not change the function of gene products appreciably, many controversies disappear because slightly deleterious and slightly advantageous mutations are engulfed by neutral mutations. The ratio of the rate of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution to that of synonymous substitution is a useful quantity to study positive Darwinian selection operating at highly variable genetic loci, but it does not necessarily detect adaptively important codons. Previously, multigene families were thought to evolve following the model of concerted evolution, but new evidence indicates that most of them evolve by a birth-and-death process of duplicate genes. It is now clear that most phenotypic characters or genetic systems such as the adaptive immune system in vertebrates are controlled by the interaction of a number of multigene families, which are often evolutionarily related and are subject to birth-and-death evolution. Therefore, it is important to study the mechanisms of gene family interaction for understanding phenotypic evolution. Because gene duplication occurs more or less at random, phenotypic evolution contains some fortuitous elements, though the environmental factors also play an important role. The randomness of phenotypic evolution is qualitatively different from allele frequency changes by random genetic drift. However, there is

  9. Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer with Ion Drifts, Temperatures and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, temperatures, ion drifts and neutral winds, are in high demand to study the dynamics of the ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system. This paper presents a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) with impended ion drifts and temperature, and neutral winds capability for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2. The mass resolution M/dM is approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-20eV. The goal is to resolve ion drifts in the range 0 to 3000m/sec with a resolution better than 50m/sec, and neutral winds in the range of 0 to 1000m/sec with similar resolution. For temperatures the goal is to cover a dynamic range of 0 to 5000K. The INMS is based on front end optics for ions and neutrals, pre acceleration, gated time of flight, top hat ESA, MCP detectors and compact electronics. The instrument is redundant for ions and neutrals with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The ion front end includes RPA for temperature scanning and neutral front end includes angular modulation and thermionic ionization and ion blocking grids. The electronics include fast electric gating, TOF electronics, TOF binning and C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded from 0.1 to 10 sec with 1sec nominal setting. The instrument has significant onboard storage capability and a data compression scheme. The mass spectrometer version of the instrument has been flown on the Exocube mission. The instrument occupied 1.5U volume, weighed only 560 g and required nominal power of 1.6W The ExoCube mission was designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and H+, He+, O+ in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar and

  10. An ORF from Bacillus licheniformis encodes a putative DNA repressor.

    PubMed

    Naval, J; Aguilar, D; Serra, X; Pérez-Pons, J A; Piñol, J; Lloberas, J; Querol, E

    2000-01-01

    The complete sequence of a reading frame adjacent to the endo-beta-1,3-1,4-D-glucanase gene from Bacillus licheniformis is reported. It encodes a putative 171 amino acid residues protein with either, low significant sequence similarity in data banks or the corresponding orthologue in the recently sequenced Bacillus subtilis genome. Computer analyses predict a canonical Helix-Turn-Helix motif characteristic of bacterial repressors/DNA binding proteins. A maxicells assay shows that the encoded polypeptide is expressed. A DNA-protein binding, assay performed by gel electrophoresis shows that the expressed protein specifically binds to Bacillus licheniformis DNA.

  11. Nucleotide Sequence of the Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus Anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-02

    transcription and translation of the Bacillus megaterium protein C gene. J. Bacteriol. 158:e09-813. 9. Friedlander, A, M. 1986. Macrophages are sensitive to...of the Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus anthracis 6. pEaltranalO opl. AMPOA’T B*u~iA S. L. Welkos, J. R. Lowe, F. Eden-McCutchan, M. Vodkin, S. M... Bacillus anthracls and the 5’ and 3’ flanking sequences were determined. Protective antigen ie one of three proteins comprising anthrax toxin. The open

  12. An Optical Biosensor for Bacillus Cereus Spore Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengquan; Tom, Harry W. K.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate a new transduction scheme for optical biosensing. Bacillus cereus is a pathogen that may be found in food and dairy products and is able to produce toxins and cause food poisoning. It is related to Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). A CCD array covered with micro-structured glass coverslip is used to detect the optical resonant shift due to the binding of the antigen (bacillus cereus spore) to the antibody (polyclonal antibody). This novel optical biosensor scheme has the potential for detecting 10˜100 bioagents in a single device as well as the potential to test for antigens with multiple antibody tests to avoid ``false positives.''

  13. Discovery of crystalline inclusions in Bacillus licheniformis that resemble parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Roehrl, Michael H; Wang, Julia Y

    2007-09-01

    Crystalline inclusions were discovered in stationary and sporulating cells of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a. As detected by electron microscopy, dying or sporulating bacterial cells contain a single crystal of strikingly large size. The crystals in sporulating cells are located next to nascent spores and can be several times larger than the spores. Morphologically, most crystals are rhomboid with uniformly spaced grids. These newly discovered crystalline inclusions of B. licheniformis closely resemble parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis that are formed by insecticidal toxin proteins and used widely as biopesticides. The taxonomic identity of this strain was verified by its 16S rRNA gene sequence and its fatty acid profile. The finding of crystal proteins in B. licheniformis may lead to the discovery of new protein toxins and may expand our pool of biopesticides.

  14. Penicillin-Susceptible, Oxidase-Negative, Nonhemolytic, Nonmotile Bacillus megaterium in Disguise of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen of major concern. The spores of this bacteria can survive harsh environmental conditions for extended periods and are well recognized as a potential bioterror weapon with significant implications. Accurate and timely identification of this Bacillus species in the diagnostic laboratory is essential for disease and public health management. Biosafety Level 3 measures and ciprofloxacin treatment were instituted when B. anthracis was suspected from a patient with gangrenous foot. 16S rDNA sequencing was performed to accurately identify the suspected bacterium, due to the superiority of this method to accurately identify clinically isolated bacteria. B. megaterium was identified as the causative agent and the organism was subsequently treated as a Biosafety Level 2 pathogen. PMID:28331641

  15. Stability and antibacterial activity of bacteriocins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Jin; Mabood, Fazli; Souleimanov, Alfred; Zhou, Xiaomin; Jaoua, Samir; Kamoun, Fakher; Smith, Donald L

    2008-11-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by bacteria and toxic to bacterial strains closely related to the producer strain. It has previously been reported that Bacillus thuringiensis strain NEB17 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki BUPM4 produce the bacteriocins thuricin 17 (3,162 Da) and bacthuricin F4 (3,160.05 Da), respectively. Here, we demonstrate that these bacteriocins have functional similarities and show a similar spectrum of antimicrobial activities against indicator strains. We also studied the effects of sterilization methods on the recovery and biological activities of these bacteriocins. They were completely degraded by autoclaving and the two were similarly affected by the tested filter membranes. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyestersulfone (PES), and cellulose acetate (CA) are suitable for filter sterilization of these bacteriocins. The two bacteriocins were stable across a range of storage conditions. These data will facilitate their utilization in food preservation or agricultural applications.

  16. Multilocus sequence analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis reveals a common phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Soufiane, Brahim; Baizet, Mathilde; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group sensu lato includes six closely-related bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. B. thuringiensis is distinguished from the other species mainly by the appearance of an inclusion body upon sporulation. B. weihenstephanensis is distinguished based on its psychrotolerance and the presence of specific signature sequences in the 16S rRNA gene and cspA genes. A total of seven housekeeping genes (glpF, gmK, ilvD, pta, purH, pycA and tpi) from different B. thuringiensis serovars and B. weihenstephanensis strains were amplified and their nucleotide sequences determined. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from comparisons of the concatenated sequences. B. thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis clustered not with the other B. thuringiensis serovars but rather with the B. weihenstephanensis strains, indicative of a common phylogeny. In addition, specific signature sequences and single nucleotide polymorphisms common to B. thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis and the B. weihenstephanensis strains, and absent in the other B. thuringiensis serovars, were identified.

  17. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance for Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 To Include Residues of Bacillus subtilis... Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 in or on all food commodities by including residues of Bacillus...

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis Inhibit the Growth of Phytopathogenic Verticillium Species.

    PubMed

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Wemheuer, Franziska; Harting, Rebekka; Kolarzyk, Anna M; Diaz Valerio, Stefani M; Poehlein, Anja; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta B; Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Braus, Gerhard H; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum. In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities

  19. Genetic differentiation between sympatric populations of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Vilas-Boas, Gislayne; Sanchis, Vincent; Lereclus, Didier; Lemos, Manoel Victor F; Bourguet, Denis

    2002-03-01

    Little is known about genetic exchanges in natural populations of bacteria of the spore-forming Bacillus cereus group, because no population genetics studies have been performed with local sympatric populations. We isolated strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus from small samples of soil collected at the same time from two separate geographical sites, one within the forest and the other at the edge of the forest. A total of 100 B. cereus and 98 B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and characterized by electrophoresis to determine allelic composition at nine enzymatic loci. We observed genetic differentiation between populations of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Populations of a given Bacillus species--B. thuringiensis or B. cereus--were genetically more similar to each other than to populations of the other Bacillus species. Hemolytic activity provided further evidence of this genetic divergence, which remained evident even if putative clones were removed from the data set. Our results suggest that the rate of gene flow was higher between strains of the same species, but that exchanges between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis were nonetheless possible. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed sufficient recombination for B. cereus populations to be considered panmictic units. In B. thuringiensis, the balance between clonal proliferation and recombination seemed to depend on location. Overall, our data indicate that it is not important for risk assessment purposes to determine whether B. cereus and B. thuringiensis belong to a single or two species. Assessment of the biosafety of pest control based on B. thuringiensis requires evaluation of the extent of genetic exchange between strains in realistic natural conditions.

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis Inhibit the Growth of Phytopathogenic Verticillium Species

    PubMed Central

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Wemheuer, Franziska; Harting, Rebekka; Kolarzyk, Anna M.; Diaz Valerio, Stefani M.; Poehlein, Anja; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta B.; Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum. In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities