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Sample records for bacillus coagulans neutralization

  1. Bacillus coagulans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and infection due to the ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Some people use Bacillus coagulans to prevent respiratory ... with of potentially harmful bacteria in the intestine. Helicobacter pylori infection. Which causes stomach ulcers. Inflammatory bowel disease ( ...

  2. Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Ronald H. W.; Bakker, Robert R.; Jansen, Mickel L. A.; Visser, Diana; de Jong, Ed; Eggink, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. Decrease in pH because of lactic acid formation was partially adjusted by automatic addition of the alkaline substrate. After 55 h of incubation, the polymeric glucan, xylan, and arabinan present in the lime-treated straw were hydrolyzed for 55%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Lactic acid (40.7 g/l) indicated a fermentation efficiency of 81% and a chiral l(+)-lactic acid purity of 97.2%. In total, 711 g lactic acid was produced out of 2,706 g lime-treated straw, representing 43% of the overall theoretical maximum yield. Approximately half of the lactic acid produced was neutralized by fed-batch feeding of lime-treated straw, whereas the remaining half was neutralized during the batch phase with a Ca(OH)2 suspension. Of the lime added during the pretreatment of straw, 61% was used for the neutralization of lactic acid. This is the first demonstration of a process having a combined alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and pH control in fermentation resulting in a significant saving of lime consumption and avoiding the necessity to recycle lime. PMID:18247027

  3. Evaluation of genetic and phenotypic consistency of Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856: a commercial probiotic strain.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Sivakumar, Arumugam; Eshuis-de Ruiter, Talitha; Booij-Veurink, Janine; de Vries, Ynte P; Ali, Furqan

    2016-04-01

    Commercial probiotics preparation containing Bacillus coagulans have been sold in the market for several decades. Due to its high intra-species genomic diversity, it is very likely that B. coagulans strain may alter in different ways over multiple years of production. Therefore, the present study focuses to evaluate the genetic consistency and probiotic potential of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. Phenotypic and genotypic techniques including biochemical profiling, 16S rRNA sequencing, GTG 5″, BOX PCR fingerprinting, and Multi-Locus-Sequence typing (MLST) were carried out to evaluate the identity and consistency of the B. coagulans MTCC 5856. Further, in vitro probiotic potential, safety and stability at ambient temperature conditions of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 were evaluated. All the samples were identified as B. coagulans by biochemical profiling and 16S rRNA sequencing. GTG 5″, BOX PCR fingerprints and MLST studies revealed that the same strain was present over 3 years of commercial production. B. coagulans MTCC 5856 showed resistance to gastric acid, bile salt and exhibited antimicrobial activity in in-vitro studies. Additionally, B. coagulans MTCC 5856 was found to be non-mutagenic, non-cytotoxic, negative for enterotoxin genes and stable at ambient temperature (25 ± 2 °C) for 36 months. The data of the study verified that the same strain of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 was present in commercial preparation over multiple years of production.

  4. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  5. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  6. Engineering of thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans for production of D(-)-lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-12-02

    Genetically modified microorganisms having the ability to produce D(-)-lactic acid at temperatures between 30.degree. C. and 55.degree. C. are provided. In various embodiments, the microorganisms may have the chromosomal lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene and/or the chromosomal acetolactate synthase (alsS) gene inactivated. Exemplary microorganisms for use in the disclosed methods are Bacillus spp., such as Bacillus coagulans.

  7. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species. PMID:24473268

  8. Germination and inactivation of Bacillus coagulans and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by high hydrostatic pressure treatment in buffer and tomato sauce.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, Anne; Vivijs, Bram; Lurquin, Ine; Michiels, Chris W

    2012-01-16

    Acidothermophilic bacteria like Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus coagulans can cause spoilage of heat-processed acidic foods because they form spores with very high heat resistance and can grow at low pH. The objective of this work was to study the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris and B. coagulans spores by high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at temperatures up to 60°C and both at low and neutral pH. In a first experiment, spores suspended in buffers at pH 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0 were processed for 10min at different pressures (100-800MPa) at 40°C. None of these treatments caused any significant inactivation, except perhaps at 800MPa in pH 4.0 buffer where close to 1 log inactivation of B. coagulans was observed. Spore germination up to about 2 log was observed for both bacteria but occurred mainly in a low pressure window (100-300MPa) for A. acidoterrestris and only in a high pressure window (600-800MPa) for B. coagulans. In addition, low pH suppressed germination in A. acidoterrestris, but stimulated it in B. coagulans. In a second series of experiments, spores were treated in tomato sauce of pH 4.2 and 5.0 at 100 - 800MPa at 25, 40 and 60°C for 10min. At 40°C, results for B. coagulans were similar as in buffer. For A. acidoterrestris, germination levels in tomato sauce were generally higher than in buffer, and showed little difference at low and high pressure. Remarkably, the pH dependence of A. acidoterrestris spore germination was reversed in tomato sauce, with more germination at the lowest pH. Furthermore, HP treatments in the pH 4.2 sauce caused between 1 and 1.5 log inactivation of A. acidoterrestris. Germination of spores in the high pressure window was strongly temperature dependent, whereas germination of A. acidoterrestris in the low pressure window showed little temperature dependence. When HP treatment was conducted at 60°C, most of the germinated spores were also inactivated. For the pH 4.2 tomato sauce, this

  9. Biosynthesis of poly(galactosylglycerol phosphate) in Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, K; Araki, Y; Ito, E

    1987-05-15

    The pathway for the de novo synthesis of a teichoic acid, poly(galactosylglycerol phosphate), in Bacillus coagulans AHU 1366 was studied by means of characterization and stepwise conversion of lipid-linked intermediates. Incubation of membranes with UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-glucose yielded a disaccharide-linked polyprenylpyrophosphate, whose sugar moiety was characterized as glucosyl(beta 1----4)N-acetylglucosamine (Glc-GlcNAc). By incubation with membranes and CDP-glycerol, Glc-GlcNAc-PP-prenol was converted to a series of glycolipids characterized as (Gro-P)1-6-Glc-GlcNAc-PP-prenol (Gro = glycerol). Glc-[14C]GlcNAc-PP-prenol was converted to polymer by incubation with membranes, CDP-glycerol and UDP-galactose. Smith degradation of the polymer gave two radioactive fragments corresponding to (Gro-P)3-Glc-GlcNAc and (Gro-P)4-Glc-GlcNAc. These results, together with data on gel chromatography of radioactive polymer synthesized from UDP-[3H]galactose, CDP-glycerol and Glc-[14C]GlcNAc-PP-prenol, led to the conclusion that in this strain poly(galactosylglycerol phosphate) is probably synthesized through the following pathway: GlcNAc-PP-prenol----Glc-GlcNAc-PP-prenol----(Gro-P)3-4 -Glc-GlcNAc-PP-prenol----(Gro-P-Gal)n- (Gro-P)3-4-Glc-GlcNAc-PP-prenol----(Gro-P-Gal)n- (Gro-P)3-4-Glc-GlcNAc-P-peptidoglycan complex.

  10. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

  11. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

  12. High temperature lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans immobilized in LentiKats.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Michal; Rebros, Martin; Kristofíková, Ludmila; Malátová, Katarína

    2005-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans spores were immobilized in polyvinylalcohol (PVA) hydrogel, lens-shaped capsules known as LentiKats. The immobilized spores were used in an anaerobic, non-sterile process in the repeated batch fermentations at 50 degrees C and produced lactic acid at 7.4 g l(-1) h(-1), which was double that of the free cell system. No mechanical deformation of the capsules and no contamination were observed.

  13. Systematic development and optimization of chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Dong, Fengqing; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    With determined components and experimental reducibility, the chemically defined medium (CDM) and the minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) are used in many metabolism and regulation studies. This research aimed to develop the chemically defined medium supporting high cell density growth of Bacillus coagulans, which is a promising producer of lactic acid and other bio-chemicals. In this study, a systematic methodology combining the experimental technique with flux balance analysis (FBA) was proposed to design and simplify a CDM. The single omission technique and single addition technique were employed to determine the essential and stimulatory compounds, before the optimization of their concentrations by the statistical method. In addition, to improve the growth rationally, in silico omission and addition were performed by FBA based on the construction of a medium-size metabolic model of B. coagulans 36D1. Thus, CDMs were developed to obtain considerable biomass production of at least five B. coagulans strains, in which two model strains B. coagulans 36D1 and ATCC 7050 were involved. PMID:27262567

  14. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Chertkov, Olga; Land, Miriam L

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brelan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas S; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Pitluck, Sam; Land, Miriam L; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  18. Isolation and characterization of site-specific DNA-methyltransferases from Bacillus coagulans K.

    PubMed

    Svadbina, I V; Zelinskaya, N V; Kovalevskaya, N P; Zheleznaya, L A; Matvienko, N I

    2004-03-01

    Two site-specific DNA methyltransferases, M.BcoKIA and M.BcoKIB, were isolated from the thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans K. Each of the methylases protects the recognition site 5'-CTCTTC-3'/5'-GAAGAG-3' from cleavage with the cognate restriction endonuclease BcoKI. It is shown that M.BcoKIB is an N6-adenine specific methylase and M.BcoKIA is an N4-cytosine specific methylase. According to bisulfite mapping, M.BcoKIA methylates the first cytosine in the sequence 5'-CTCTTC-3'. PMID:15061697

  19. Bacillus coagulans: a viable adjunct therapy for relieving symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis according to a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) probiotics demonstrate immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory effects and the ability to lessen the symptoms of arthritis in both animals and humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design, clinical pilot trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the LAB probiotic preparation, Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, on symptoms and measures of functional capacity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in combination with pharmacological anti-arthritic medications. Methods Forty-five adult men and women with symptoms of RA were randomly assigned to receive Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 or placebo once a day in a double-blind fashion for 60 days in addition to their standard anti-arthritic medications. Arthritis activity was evaluated by clinical examination, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and laboratory tests for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results Subjects who received Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 experienced borderline statistically significant improvement in the Patient Pain Assessment score (P = .052) and statistically significant improvement in Pain Scale (P = .046) vs placebo. Compared with placebo, Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 treatment resulted in greater improvement in patient global assessment and self-assessed disability; reduction in CRP; as well as the ability to walk 2 miles, reach, and participate in daily activities. There were no treatment-related adverse events reported throughout this study. Conclusions Results of this pilot study suggest that adjunctive treatment with Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 LAB probiotic appeared to be a safe and effective for patients suffering from RA. Because of the low study population size, larger trials are needed to verify these results. Trial registration ACTRN12609000435280 PMID:20067641

  20. Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel Probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Endres, J.R.; Clewell, A.; Jade, K.A.; Farber, T.; Hauswirth, J.; Schauss, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that some strains of Bacillus coagulans can survive extremes of heat, acidity of the stomach, and bile acids, to which commonly consumed probiotics are susceptible. A toxicological safety assessment was performed on a proprietary preparation of B. coagulans – GanedenBC30™ – a novel probiotic. Seven toxicologic studies were conducted and included: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay; in vitro chromosomal aberration assay; micronucleus assay in mice; acute and 90 day subchronic repeated oral toxicity studies were conducted in Wistar Crl:(WI) BR rats; acute eye and skin irritation studies were conducted in rabbits. The results of this toxicological safety assessment indicate that GanedenBC30™B. coagulans does not demonstrate mutagenic, clastogenic, or genotoxic effects. Furthermore, the results of the acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats resulted in the conclusion of a NOAEL greater than 1000 mg/kg per day. Since the concentration of the cell mass used in the 90-day study was 1.36 × 1011 CFUs/g, this corresponds to 95.2 × 1011 CFUs for a 70 kg human and since the suggested human dose is in the range of 100 × 106 to 3 × 109 CFUs, this gives a safety factor ranging from 3173 to 95,200 times. Based upon scientific procedures and supported by history of use, GanedenBC30™ is considered safe for chronic human consumption. PMID:19248815

  1. A comparative proteomic analysis of Bacillus coagulans in response to lactate stress during the production of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuwen; Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Landong; Xu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    The growth rate and maximum biomass of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 were inhibited by lactate; inhibition by sodium lactate was stronger than by calcium lactate. The differences of protein expressions by B. coagulans 2-6 under the lactate stress were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric identification. Under the non-stress condition, calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, the number of detected protein spots was 1,571 ± 117, 1,281 ± 231 and 904 ± 127, respectively. Four proteins with high expression under lactate stress were identified: lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, aldo/keto reductase and ribosomal protein L7/L12. These proteins are thus potential targets for the reconstruction of B. coagulans to promote its resistance to lactate stress.

  2. Enhanced L-lactic acid production from biomass-derived xylose by a mutant Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Cai, Cong; Jiang, Ting; Zhao, Mingyue; Ouyang, Jia

    2014-08-01

    Xylose effective utilization is crucial for production of bulk chemicals from low-cost lignocellulosic substrates. In this study, an efficient L-lactate production process from xylose by a mutant Bacillus coagulans NL-CC-17 was demonstrated. The nutritional requirements for L-lactate production by B. coagulans NL-CC-17 were optimized statistically in shake flask fermentations. Corn steep liquor powder and yeast exact were identified as the most significant factors by the two-level Plackett-Burman design. Steepest ascent experiments were applied to approach the optimal region of the two factors, and a central composite design was employed to determine their optimal levels. The optimal medium was used to perform batch fermentation in a 3-l bioreactor. A maximum of 90.29 g l(-1)  L-lactic acid was obtained from 100 g l(-1) xylose in 120 h. When using corn stove prehydrolysates as substrates, 23.49 g l(-1)  L-lactic acid was obtained in 36 h and the yield was 83.09 %. PMID:24879598

  3. The function of galactosyl phosphorylpolyprenol in biosynthesis of lipoteichoic acid in Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, K; Araki, Y; Ito, E

    1988-04-15

    Incubation of UDP-[14C]galactose with membranes of Bacillus coagulans led to the formation of a radioactive glycolipid, which was tentatively characterized as beta-galactosyl phosphorylpolyprenol (Gal-P-prenol) on the basis of its chromatographic behavior and data from structural analysis of its sugar 1-phosphate moiety. The sugar moiety of [14C]Gal-P-prenol was shown to be incorporated into a membrane-bound polymer, which coincided with the diacyl form of lipoteichoic acid in its chromatographic behavior on columns of Sephacryl S-300, DEAE-Sephacel and octyl-Sepharose. Hydrogen fluoride hydrolysis of the polymer afforded an alpha-galactoside identical with Gal(alpha 1----2)Gro obtained from lipoteichoic acids. The incorporation of galactose residues from [14C]Gal-P-prenol into the polymer was greatly enhanced by exogenous lipoteichoic acids, especially of the diacyl and monoacyl forms. The optimal pH and metal concentration for the Gal-P-prenol formation, respectively, were found to be 8.4 and 10 mM (MgCl2), whereas those for the transfer of galactose from this lipid intermediate to polymer were 4.5 and 16 mM (CaCl2). The above results lead to the conclusion that Gal-P-prenol serves as the direct galactosyl donor in the synthesis of lipoteichoic acids in B. coagulans.

  4. Microbial hydrogen production with Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 isolated from anaerobic sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus coagulans strain IIT-BT S1 isolated from anaerobically digested activated sewage sludge was investigated for its ability to produce H(2) from glucose-based medium under the influence of different environmental parameters. At mid-exponential phase of cell growth, H(2) production initiated and reached maximum production rate in the stationary phase. The maximal H(2) yield (2.28 mol H(2)/molglucose) was recorded at an initial glucose concentration of 2% (w/v), pH 6.5, temperature 37 degrees C, inoculum volume of 10% (v/v) and inoculum age of 14 h. Cell growth rate and rate of hydrogen production decreased when glucose concentration was elevated above 2% w/v, indicating substrate inhibition. The ability of the organism to utilize various carbon sources for H(2) fermentation was also determined.

  5. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    PubMed

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design.

  6. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    PubMed

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design. PMID:26133510

  7. Heterologous expression and characterization of Bacillus coagulans L-arabinose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingding; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Bacillus coagulans has been of great commercial interest over the past decade owing to its strong ability of producing optical pure L: -lactic acid from both hexose and pentose sugars including L: -arabinose with high yield, titer and productivity under thermophilic conditions. The L: -arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from Bacillus coagulans was heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of the L-AI has 1,422 nucleotides encoding a protein with 474 amino acid residues. The recombinant L-AI was purified to homogeneity by one-step His-tag affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 56 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at 70°C and pH 7.0. The metal ion Mn(2+) was shown to be the best activator for enzymatic activity and thermostability. The enzyme showed higher activity at acidic pH than at alkaline pH. The kinetic studies showed that the K (m), V (max) and k (cat)/K (m) for the conversion of L: -arabinose were 106 mM, 84 U/mg and 34.5 mM(-1)min(-1), respectively. The equilibrium ratio of L: -arabinose to L: -ribulose was 78:22 under optimal conditions. L: -ribulose (97 g/L) was obtained from 500 g/l of L: -arabinose catalyzed by the enzyme (8.3 U/mL) under the optimal conditions within 1.5 h, giving at a substrate conversion of 19.4% and a production rate of 65 g L(-1) h(-1).

  8. Production of lactic acid from paper sludge using acid-tolerant, thermophilic Bacillus coagulan strains.

    PubMed

    Budhavaram, Naresh K; Fan, Zhiliang

    2009-12-01

    Production of lactic acid from paper sludge was studied using thermophilic Bacillus coagulan strains 36D1 and P4-102B. More than 80% of lactic acid yield and more than 87% of cellulose conversion were achieved using both strains without any pH control due to the buffering effect of CaCO(3) in paper sludge. The addition of CaCO(3) as the buffering reagent in rich medium increased lactic acid yield but had little effect on cellulose conversion; when lean medium was utilized, the addition of CaCO(3) had little effect on either cellulose conversion or lactic acid yield. Lowering the fermentation temperature lowered lactic acid yield but increased cellulose conversion. Semi-continuous simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) using medium containing 100 g/L cellulose equivalent paper sludge without pH control was carried out in serum bottles for up to 1000 h. When rich medium was utilized, the average lactic acid concentrations in steady state for strains 36D1 and P4-102B were 92 g/L and 91.7 g/L, respectively, and lactic acid yields were 77% and 78%. The average lactic acid concentrations produced using semi-continuous SSCF with lean medium were 77.5 g/L and 77.0 g/L for strains 36D1 and P4-102B, respectively, and lactic acid yields were 72% and 75%. The productivities at steady state were 0.96 g/L/h and 0.82 g/L/h for both strains in rich medium and lean medium, respectively. Our data support that B. coagulan strains 36D1 and P4-102B are promising for converting paper sludge to lactic acid via SSCF.

  9. The effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on rat intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Abhari, Kh; Shekarforoush, S. S; Sajedianfard, J; Hosseinzadeh, S; Nazifi, S

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans spores, with and without prebiotic, inulin, on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota of healthy rats and its potentiality to survive in the GI tract. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet supplied with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 109/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (synbiotic). Rats were fed the diets for 30 days. At day 10, 20 and 30 of experiment, 24 h post administration, four rats from each group were randomly selected and after faecal collection were sacrificed. Small intestine, cecum, and colon were excised from each rat and used for microbial analysis. Administration of synbiotic and probiotic diets led to a significant (P<0.05) increment in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total aerobic and total anaerobic population compared the prebiotic and control diets. A significant decrease in Enterobacteriaceae counts of various segments of GI tract (except small intestine) in synbiotic, probiotic and prebiotic fed groups were also seen. The obvious decline in spores count through passing GI tract and high surviving spore counts in faecal samples showed that spores are not a normal resident of GI microbiota and affect intestinal microbiota by temporary proliferation. In conclusion, the present study clearly showed probiotic B. coagulans was efficient in beneficially modulating GI microbiota and considering transitional characteristics of B. coagulans, daily consumption of probiotic products is necessary for any long-term effect. PMID:27175187

  10. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01) in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05) in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats. PMID:27536040

  11. Applications of β-gal-III isozyme from Bacillus coagulans RCS3, in lactose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Batra, Navneet; Singh, Jagtar; Joshi, Amit; Bhatia, Sonu

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans RCS3 isolated from hot water springs secreted five isozymes i.e. β-gal I-V of β-galactosidase. β-gal III isozyme was purified using DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G 100 column chromatography. Its molecular weight characterization showed a single band at 315kD in Native PAGE, while two subunits of 50.1 and 53.7 kD in SDS PAGE. β-Gal III had pH optima in the range of 6-7 and temperature optima at 65°C. It preferred nitro-aryl-β-d-galactoside as substrate having K(m) of 4.16 mM with ONPG. More than 85% and 80% hydrolysis of lactose (1-5%, w/v) was recorded within 48 h of incubation at 55°C and 50°C respectively and pH range of 6-7. About 78-86% hydrolysis of lactose in various brands of standardized milk was recorded at incubation temperature of 50°C. These results marked the applications of β-gal III in processing of milk/whey industry. PMID:21855568

  12. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%. PMID:27359065

  13. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%.

  14. Efficient non-sterilized fermentation of biomass-derived xylose to lactic acid by a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans NL01.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jia; Cai, Cong; Chen, Hai; Jiang, Ting; Zheng, Zhaojuan

    2012-12-01

    Xylose is the major pentose and the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic feedstock. Its efficient utilization is regarded as a technical barrier to the commercial production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. This work aimed at evaluating the lactic acid production from the biomass-derived xylose using non-sterilized fermentation by Bacillus coagulans NL01. A maximum lactic acid concentration of about 75 g/L was achieved from xylose of 100 g/L after 72 h batch fermentation. Acetic acid and levulinic acid were identified as important inhibitors in xylose fermentation, which markedly reduced lactic acid productivity at 15 and 1.0 g/L, respectively. But low concentrations of formic acid (<2 g/L) exerted a stimulating effect on the lactic acid production. When prehydrolysate containing total 25.45 g/L monosaccharide was fermented with B. coagulans NL01, the same preference for glucose, xylose, and arabinose was observed and18.2 g/L lactic acid was obtained after 48 h fermentation. These results proved that B. coagulans NL01 was potentially well-suited for producing lactic acid from underutilized xylose-rich prehydrolysates.

  15. Efficient non-sterilized fermentation of biomass-derived xylose to lactic acid by a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans NL01.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jia; Cai, Cong; Chen, Hai; Jiang, Ting; Zheng, Zhaojuan

    2012-12-01

    Xylose is the major pentose and the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic feedstock. Its efficient utilization is regarded as a technical barrier to the commercial production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. This work aimed at evaluating the lactic acid production from the biomass-derived xylose using non-sterilized fermentation by Bacillus coagulans NL01. A maximum lactic acid concentration of about 75 g/L was achieved from xylose of 100 g/L after 72 h batch fermentation. Acetic acid and levulinic acid were identified as important inhibitors in xylose fermentation, which markedly reduced lactic acid productivity at 15 and 1.0 g/L, respectively. But low concentrations of formic acid (<2 g/L) exerted a stimulating effect on the lactic acid production. When prehydrolysate containing total 25.45 g/L monosaccharide was fermented with B. coagulans NL01, the same preference for glucose, xylose, and arabinose was observed and18.2 g/L lactic acid was obtained after 48 h fermentation. These results proved that B. coagulans NL01 was potentially well-suited for producing lactic acid from underutilized xylose-rich prehydrolysates. PMID:23076574

  16. Bacillus coagulans tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in aqueous and solid-state thermophilic culture.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Christopher W; Reddy, Amitha P; Vandergheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) to disrupt the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose and make polysaccharides accessible to hydrolytic enzymes is an emerging technology for biomass pretreatment in lignocellulosic biofuel production. Despite efforts to reclaim and recycle IL from pretreated biomass, residual IL can be inhibitory to microorganisms used for downstream fermentation. As a result, pathways for IL tolerance are needed to improve the activity of fermentative organisms in the presence of IL. In this study, microbial communities from compost were cultured under high-solids and thermophilic conditions in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ILs to enrich for IL-tolerant microorganisms. A strain of Bacillus coagulans isolated from an IL-tolerant community was grown in liquid and solid-state culture in the presence of the ILs 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) to gauge IL tolerance. Viability and respiration varied with the concentration of IL applied and the type of IL used. B. coagulans maintained growth and respiration in the presence of 4 wt% IL, a concentration similar to that present on IL-pretreated biomass. In the presence of both [C2mim][OAc] and [C2mim][Cl] in liquid culture, B. coagulans grew at a rate approximately half that observed in the absence of IL. However, in solid-state culture, the bacteria were significantly more tolerant to [C2mim][Cl] compared with [C2mim][OAc]. B. coagulans tolerance to IL under industrially relevant conditions makes it a promising bacterium for understanding mechanisms of IL tolerance and discovering IL tolerance pathways for use in other microorganisms, particularly those used in bioconversion of IL-pretreated plant biomass. PMID:24376258

  17. The effects of orally administered Bacillus coagulans and inulin on prevention and progression of rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abhari, Khadijeh; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Nazifi, Saeid; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background Probiotics have been considered as an approach to addressing the consequences of different inflammatory disorders. The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic inulin also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Objective In the present study, an in vivo model was conducted to investigate the possible influences of probiotic B. coagulans and prebiotic inulin, both in combination and/or separately, on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using arthritis-induced rat model. Design Forty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into six experimental groups as follows: 1) control: normal healthy rats fed with standard diet, 2) disease control (RA): arthritis-induced rats fed with standard diet, 3) prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin, 4) probiotic (PRO): RA+ 109 spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin and 109 spores/day B. coagulans, and 6) treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with the listed diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by the biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for fibrinogen (Fn), serum amyloid A (SAA), and TNF-α and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28, and 35 (7, 14 and 21 days post RA induction), respectively. Results Pretreatment with PRE, PRO, and SYN diets significantly inhibits SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001). A significant decrease in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, was seen in the PRE, PRO, and SYN groups (P

  18. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A; Lowery, Ryan P; De Souza, Eduardo O; Partl, Jeremy M; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (-39.8 watts, -5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  19. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  20. Highly efficient production of optically pure l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Hu, Guoquan; Pan, Liwei; Wang, Zichao; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yanwei; Ruan, Zhiyong; He, Mingxiong

    2016-11-01

    A thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans (NBRC 12714) was employed to produce l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate in membrane integrated continuous fermentation. The strain NBRC 12714 metabolized glucose and xylose by the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP) and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), producing l-lactic acid with optical purity >99.5%. The overall l-lactic acid titer of 92g/l with a yield of 0.91g/g and a productivity of 13.8g/l/h were achieved at a dilution rate of 0.15h(-1). The productivity obtained was 1.6-fold than that of conventional continuous fermentation without cell recycling, and also was the highest among the relevant studies ever reported. These results indicated that the process developed had great potential for economical industrial production of l-lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27479802

  1. Highly efficient production of optically pure l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Hu, Guoquan; Pan, Liwei; Wang, Zichao; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yanwei; Ruan, Zhiyong; He, Mingxiong

    2016-11-01

    A thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans (NBRC 12714) was employed to produce l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate in membrane integrated continuous fermentation. The strain NBRC 12714 metabolized glucose and xylose by the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP) and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), producing l-lactic acid with optical purity >99.5%. The overall l-lactic acid titer of 92g/l with a yield of 0.91g/g and a productivity of 13.8g/l/h were achieved at a dilution rate of 0.15h(-1). The productivity obtained was 1.6-fold than that of conventional continuous fermentation without cell recycling, and also was the highest among the relevant studies ever reported. These results indicated that the process developed had great potential for economical industrial production of l-lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  3. L: (+)-Lactic acid production from non-food carbohydrates by thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Ou, Mark S; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-05-01

    Lactic acid is used as an additive in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, and is also an industrial chemical. Optically pure lactic acid is increasingly used as a renewable bio-based product to replace petroleum-based plastics. However, current production of lactic acid depends on carbohydrate feedstocks that have alternate uses as foods. The use of non-food feedstocks by current commercial biocatalysts is limited by inefficient pathways for pentose utilization. B. coagulans strain 36D1 is a thermotolerant bacterium that can grow and efficiently ferment pentoses using the pentose-phosphate pathway and all other sugar constituents of lignocellulosic biomass at 50°C and pH 5.0, conditions that also favor simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose. Using this bacterial biocatalyst, high levels (150-180 g l(-1)) of lactic acid were produced from xylose and glucose with minimal by-products in mineral salts medium. In a fed-batch SSF of crystalline cellulose with fungal enzymes and B. coagulans, lactic acid titer was 80 g l(-1) and the yield was close to 80%. These results demonstrate that B. coagulans can effectively ferment non-food carbohydrates from lignocellulose to L: (+)-lactic acid at sufficient concentrations for commercial application. The high temperature fermentation of pentoses and hexoses to lactic acid by B. coagulans has these additional advantages: reduction in cellulase loading in SSF of cellulose with a decrease in enzyme cost in the process and a reduction in contamination of large-scale fermentations. PMID:20694852

  4. Permeability and charge-dependent adsorption properties of the S-layer lattice from Bacillus coagulans E38-66.

    PubMed Central

    Sára, M; Pum, D; Sleytr, U B

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the permeability properties of the oblique S-layer lattice from Bacillus coagulans E38-66 after depositing cell wall fragments on a microfiltration membrane, cross-linking the S-layer protein with glutaraldehyde, and degrading the peptidoglycan with lysozyme. Comparative permeability studies on such multilayered S-layer membranes and suspended S-layer vesicles from thermophilic members of the family Bacillaceae with use of the space technique (M. Sára and U. B. Sleytr, J. Bacteriol. 169:4092-4098, 1987) revealed identical molecular exclusion limits (M. Sára and U. B. Sleytr, J. Membr. Sci. 33:27-49, 1987). Examination of the S-layer lattice from B. coagulans E38-66 with the S-layer membrane technique revealed unhindered passage for molecules up to the size of myoglobin (M(r) 17,000). The molecular dimensions of this protein (2.8 by 3.2 by 4.5 nm) correspond approximately to the size of the ovoid-shaped pore previously shown by high-resolution electron microscopy of negatively stained S-layer self-assembly products (D. Pum, M. Sára, and U. B. Sleytr, J. Bacteriol. 171:5296-5303, 1989). Chemical modification of the S-layer protein and comparative labeling, adsorption, and permeability studies clearly demonstrated that (i) in the native state, free amino and carboxyl groups are present on the outer S-layer face and in the interior of the pores and (ii) electrostatic interactions between these groups prevent unspecific adsorption of the S-layer in vivo. Images PMID:1317378

  5. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production—NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)—were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6. PMID:25217009

  6. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in the Production of l-Lactic Acid with High Optical Purity by the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Yumeng; Zhu, Lingfeng; Guo, Honglian; Yu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is an excellent producer of optically pure l-lactic acid. However, little is known about the mechanism of synthesis of the highly optically pure l-lactic acid produced by this strain. Three enzymes responsible for lactic acid production-NAD-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH; encoded by ldhL), NAD-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase (d-nLDH; encoded by ldhD), and glycolate oxidase (GOX)-were systematically investigated in order to study the relationship between these enzymes and the optical purity of lactic acid. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 (a d-lactic acid producer) and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum DSM 20174 (a dl-lactic acid producer) were also examined in this study as comparative strains, in addition to B. coagulans. The specific activities of key enzymes for lactic acid production in the three strains were characterized in vivo and in vitro, and the levels of transcription of the ldhL, ldhD, and GOX genes during fermentation were also analyzed. The catalytic activities of l-nLDH and d-nLDH were different in l-, d-, and dl-lactic acid producers. Only l-nLDH activity was detected in B. coagulans 2-6 under native conditions, and the level of transcription of ldhL in B. coagulans 2-6 was much higher than that of ldhD or the GOX gene at all growth phases. However, for the two Lactobacillus strains used in this study, ldhD transcription levels were higher than those of ldhL. The high catalytic efficiency of l-nLDH toward pyruvate and the high transcription ratios of ldhL to ldhD and ldhL to the GOX gene provide the key explanations for the high optical purity of l-lactic acid produced by B. coagulans 2-6.

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  8. Comparison of the Effects of pH-Dependent Peppermint Oil and Synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + Fructooligosaccharides) on Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Asgarshirazi, Masoumeh; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Still there is no consensus on the best treatment for abdominal pain-related functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + fructooligosaccharide (FOS)), peppermint oil (Colpermin) and placebo (folic acid) on abdominal pain-related FGIDs except for abdominal migraine. Patients and Methods: This placebo-controlled study was conducted on 120 children aged 4 - 13 years to compare the efficacy of pH-dependent peppermint oil (Colpermin) versus synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + fructooligosaccharids (FOS)) in decreasing duration, severity and frequency of functional abdominal pain. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups (n = 40 in each group) and each group received Colpermin or Lactol or placebo. Results: Eighty-eight out of 120 enrolled patients completed a one-month protocol and analyses were performed on 88 patients’ data. Analyses showed that improvement in pain duration, frequency and severity in the Colpermin group was better than the placebo group (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, pain duration and frequency were decreased in the Lactol group more than the placebo (P = 0.012 and P = 0.0001, respectively), but changes in pain severity were not significant (P = 0.373). Colpermin was superior to Lactol in decreasing pain duration and severity (P = 0.040 and P = 0.013, respectively). No known side effects or intolerance were seen with Colpermin or Lactol. Conclusions: The pH-dependent peppermint oil capsule and Lactol tablet (Bacillus coagulans+ FOS) as synbiotics seem to be superior to placebo in decreasing the severity, duration and frequency of pain in abdominal pain-related functional GI disorders. PMID:26023339

  9. Relevance of charged groups for the integrity of the S-layer from Bacillus coagulans E38-66 and for molecular interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sára, M; Sleytr, U B

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of charged amino and carboxyl groups for the integrity of the cell surface layer (S-layer) lattice from Bacillus coagulans E38-66 and for the self-assembly of the isolated subunits was investigated. Amidination of the free amino groups which preserved their positive net charge had no influence on both. On the other hand, acetylation and succinylation, which converted the amino groups into either neutral or negatively charged groups, and amidation of carboxyl groups were accompanied by the disintegration or at least by the loss of the regular structure of the S-layer lattice. Treatment of S-layer monolayers with the zero-length cross-linker carbodiimide led to the introduction of peptide bonds between activated carboxyl groups and amino groups from adjacent subunits. This clearly indicated that in the native S-layer lattice the charged groups are located closely enough for direct electrostatic interactions. Under disrupting conditions in which the S-layer polypeptide chains were unfolded, 58% of the Asx and Glx residues could be amidated, indicating that they occur in the free carboxylic acid form. As derived from chemical modification of monolayer self-assembly products, about 90% of the lysine and 70% of the aspartic and glutamic acid residues are aligned on the surface of the S-layer protein domains. This corresponded to 45 amino groups and to 63 carboxyl groups per S-layer subunit. Labelling experiments with macromolecules with different sizes and charges and adsorption studies with ion-exchange particles revealed a surplus of free carboxyl groups on the inner and on the outer faces of the S-layer lattice. Since the carboxyl groups on the outer S-layer face were accessible only for protein molecules significantly smaller then the S-layer protomers or for positively charged, thin polymer chains extending from the surface of ion-exchange beads, the negatively charged sites must be located within indentations of the corrugated S

  10. Diammonium phosphate stimulates transcription of L-lactate dehydrogenase leading to increased L-lactate production in the thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifan; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Limin; Wang, Yanping; Yu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of cost-effective fermentation substrates for efficient lactate production is an important economic objective. Although some organic nitrogen sources are also cheaper, inorganic nitrogen salts for lactate fermentation have additional advantages in facilitating downstream procedures and significantly improving the commercial competitiveness of lactate production. In this study, we first established an application of diammonium phosphate to replace yeast extract with a reduced 90 % nitrogen cost for a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain. In vivo enzymatic and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that diammonium phosphate stimulates the gene expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase, thus providing higher specific enzyme activity in vivo and increasing L-lactic acid production. This new information provides a foundation for establishing a cost-effective process for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in an industrial setting. PMID:26883345

  11. Large-scale recrystallization of the S-layer of Bacillus coagulans E38-66 at the air/water interface and on lipid films.

    PubMed Central

    Pum, D; Weinhandl, M; Hödl, C; Sleytr, U B

    1993-01-01

    S-layer protein isolated from Bacillus coagulans E38-66 could be recrystallized into large-scale coherent monolayers at an air/water interface and on phospholipid films spread on a Langmuir-Blodgett trough. Because of the asymmetry in the physiochemical surface properties of the S-layer protein, the subunits were associated with their more hydrophobic outer face with the air/water interface and oriented with their negatively charged inner face to the zwitterionic head groups of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) monolayer films. The dynamic crystal growth at both types of interfaces was first initiated at several distant nucleation points. The individual monocrystalline areas grew isotropically in all directions until the front edge of neighboring crystals was met. The recrystallized S-layer protein and the S-layer-DPPE layer could be chemically cross-linked from the subphase with glutaraldehyde. Images PMID:8478338

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans 2-6

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiangzhi; Huang, Xianhui; Zhang, Guofang; Zhao, Xiufang; Zhu, Xianming; Dong, Hui

    2013-01-01

    (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (R,R-BDH) from Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is a zinc-dependent medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Recombinant R,R-BDH with a His6 tag at the C-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. The crystallization condition consisted of 8%(v/v) Tacsimate pH 4.6, 18%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350. The crystal diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution in the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.35, b = 128.73, c = 131.03 Å. PMID:24100567

  13. The optimization of l-lactic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by mixed fermentation of Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus under unsterile conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Cai, Di; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    The cost reduction of raw material and sterilization could increase the economic feasibility of l-lactic acid fermentation, and the development of an cost-effective and efficient process is highly desired. To improve the efficiency of open fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus based on sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) and to overcome sucrose utilization deficiency of Bacillus coagulans, a mixed fermentation was developed. Besides, the optimization of pH, sugar concentration and fermentation medium were also studied. Under the condition of mixed fermentation and controlled pH, a higher yield of 96.3% was achieved, compared to that (68.8%) in sole Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermentation. With an optimized sugar concentration and a stepwise-controlled pH, the l-lactic acid titer, yield and productivity reached 121gL(-1), 94.6% and 2.18gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, corn steep powder (CSP) as a cheap source of nitrogen and salts was proved to be an efficient supplement to SSJ in this process.

  14. The optimization of l-lactic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by mixed fermentation of Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus under unsterile conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Cai, Di; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    The cost reduction of raw material and sterilization could increase the economic feasibility of l-lactic acid fermentation, and the development of an cost-effective and efficient process is highly desired. To improve the efficiency of open fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus based on sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) and to overcome sucrose utilization deficiency of Bacillus coagulans, a mixed fermentation was developed. Besides, the optimization of pH, sugar concentration and fermentation medium were also studied. Under the condition of mixed fermentation and controlled pH, a higher yield of 96.3% was achieved, compared to that (68.8%) in sole Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermentation. With an optimized sugar concentration and a stepwise-controlled pH, the l-lactic acid titer, yield and productivity reached 121gL(-1), 94.6% and 2.18gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, corn steep powder (CSP) as a cheap source of nitrogen and salts was proved to be an efficient supplement to SSJ in this process. PMID:27469090

  15. Jerusalem artichoke powder: a useful material in producing high-optical-purity l-lactate using an efficient sugar-utilizing thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Xue, Zhangwei; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Bo; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-02-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement crop, which does not interfere with food chain, and is a promising carbon source for industrial fermentation. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products, such as lactic acid, is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. In this study, high-optical-purity l-lactate was efficiently produced from the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke powder by a thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans XZL4. High l-lactate production (134gl(-1)) was obtained using 267gl(-1) Jerusalem artichoke powder (total reducing sugars of 140gl(-1)) and 10gl(-1) of corn steep powder in fed-batch fermentation, with an average productivity of 2.5gl(-1)h(-1) and a yield of 0.96gg(-1) reducing sugars. The final product optical purity is 99%, which meets the requirement of lactic acid polymerization. Our study represents a cost-effective and promising method for polymer-grade l-lactate production using a cheap raw bio-resource. PMID:23306126

  16. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%. PMID:27035470

  17. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%.

  18. Combination of soya pulp and Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 improves intestinal bile acid metabolism without impairing the effects of prebiotics in rats fed a cholic acid-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonmi; Yoshitsugu, Reika; Kikuchi, Keidai; Joe, Ga-Hyun; Tsuji, Misaki; Nose, Takuma; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Hara, Hiroshi; Minamida, Kimiko; Miwa, Kazunori; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing. The dietary supplementation of CA mimics the BA environment in diet-induced obesity and ageing. We investigated whether B. coagulans lilac-01 and soya pulp influence both BA metabolism and the maintenance of host health in CA-supplemented diet-fed rats. In CA-fed rats, soya pulp significantly increased the production of secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, and soya pulp ingestion alleviated problems related to plasma adiponectin and gut permeability in rats fed the CA diet. The combination of B. coagulans and soya pulp successfully suppressed the increased production of secondary BA in CA-fed rats compared with soya pulp itself, without impairing the beneficial effects of soya pulp ingestion. In conclusion, it is possible that a combination of prebiotics and probiotics can be used to avoid an unnecessary increase in the production of secondary BA in the large intestine without impairing the beneficial functions of prebiotics. PMID:27464459

  19. Combination of soya pulp and Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 improves intestinal bile acid metabolism without impairing the effects of prebiotics in rats fed a cholic acid-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonmi; Yoshitsugu, Reika; Kikuchi, Keidai; Joe, Ga-Hyun; Tsuji, Misaki; Nose, Takuma; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Hara, Hiroshi; Minamida, Kimiko; Miwa, Kazunori; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing. The dietary supplementation of CA mimics the BA environment in diet-induced obesity and ageing. We investigated whether B. coagulans lilac-01 and soya pulp influence both BA metabolism and the maintenance of host health in CA-supplemented diet-fed rats. In CA-fed rats, soya pulp significantly increased the production of secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, and soya pulp ingestion alleviated problems related to plasma adiponectin and gut permeability in rats fed the CA diet. The combination of B. coagulans and soya pulp successfully suppressed the increased production of secondary BA in CA-fed rats compared with soya pulp itself, without impairing the beneficial effects of soya pulp ingestion. In conclusion, it is possible that a combination of prebiotics and probiotics can be used to avoid an unnecessary increase in the production of secondary BA in the large intestine without impairing the beneficial functions of prebiotics.

  20. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086): n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA) bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046) and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048), with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061). A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322 PMID:19922649

  1. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers. PMID:25704098

  2. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers.

  3. Occurrence of a Highly Heat-Sensitive Spore Subpopulation of Bacillus coagulans STCC 4522 and Its Conversion to a More Heat-Stable Form

    PubMed Central

    Palop, A.; Sala, F. J.; Condon, S.

    1997-01-01

    The profile of the survival curves, at different heating temperatures, of B. coagulans STCC 4522 sporulated at 52(deg)C has been studied, focusing on the early moments of treatment. A highly heat-sensitive spore subpopulation that includes more than 90% of the total spore population has been found. This heat-sensitive spore fraction was inactivated after 2 s of treatment at 111(deg)C. Its heat resistance was as much as 200-fold lower than that of the heat-resistant spore fraction (D(inf111(deg)C) of 0.01 min for the heat-sensitive spore fraction compared with D(inf111(deg)C) of 2 min for the heat-resistant fraction). The shape of the survival curve at 108.5(deg)C was modified after a sublethal heat shock at 80(deg)C for 3.5 h, resulting in a straight-line survival curve. The temperature of treatment also influenced the shape of the survival curves. The conversion of the highly heat-sensitive spore subpopulation to a more heat-stable form is discussed. PMID:16535625

  4. The propeptide is not required to produce catalytically active neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Mansfeld, Johanna; Petermann, Eva; Dürrschmidt, Peter; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2005-02-01

    The thermolysin-like neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus (TLP-ste) is usually produced extracellularly in Bacillus subtilis, where it is expressed as preproenzyme and subsequently processed in an autocatalytic, intramolecular process. To create the basis for the production of inactive mutants of TLP-ste, which cannot be processed in B. subtilis, we studied the expression of TLP-ste and its propeptide in cis and in trans in Escherichia coli. In contrast to thermolysin, subtilisin and alpha-lytic protease, which could be obtained only in the presence of the corresponding propeptides, TLP-ste could be produced as an active mature enzyme in E. coli in the absence of its prosequence. Surprisingly, however, a much more effective access to active mature protease was found when TLP-ste (devoid of its prosequence) was expressed as protein with an N-terminal His6 tag which accumulated in the form of inclusion bodies. Completely unexpected, the protein could be renatured from the inclusion bodies after solubilization in guanidine hydrochloride solutions in high yields. Purification to homogeneity was possible by affinity chromatography on Bacitracin silica as well as by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. By addition of separately expressed propeptide to the renaturation mixture yields of renaturation could not be increased significantly, confirming that the propeptide is not essential for proper folding of the enzyme or its stabilization during the folding process. Also in vivo, the expression levels of active mature TLP-ste in Escherichia coli did not significantly differ when the mature sequence was expressed alone or coexpressed with the prosequence in cis or in trans.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of neutralized extracellular culture filtrates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a cultured Indian milk product ('dahi').

    PubMed

    Varadaraj, M C; Devi, N; Keshava, N; Manjrekar, S P

    1993-12-01

    Neutralized extracellular culture filtrate obtained from isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis from 'dahi' showed weak to moderate inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when tested by the diffusion agar well assay method. The effective minimum quantity of lactic culture filtrates required to obtain complete inhibition of an inoculum of 10(3) cfu/ml of the bacteria tested was between 20 and 26% (vol/vol), as determined by the agar incorporation method. Neutralized extracellular culture filtrate of these lactic cultures added at a level of 10% in sterile, 10% reconstituted non-fat dry milk was able to either suppress or retard growth of selected bacterial cultures when incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. This study indicated the antimicrobial activity of dahi and the potential of using neutralized extracellular culture filtrate of lactic acid bacteria in the biopreservation of foods.

  6. Short communication: Presence of neutral metallopeptidase (npr) gene and proteolytic activity of Bacillus cereus isolated from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Montanhini, M T M; Colombo, M; Nero, L A; Bersot, L S

    2013-09-01

    The control of proteolytic microorganisms is one of the main challenges of the dairy industry, due to their spoilage activity that jeopardizes the quality of their products. Seventy-four Bacillus cereus strains isolated from powdered, UHT, and pasteurized milks were tested for the presence of the neutral metallopeptidase (npr) gene and proteolytic activity at 7, 10, 25, 30, and 37°C. All strains had the npr gene, and proteolytic activity increased with the incubation temperature. The obtained results highlight the relevance of B. cereus as a spoiling agent in the dairy industry in terms of its genetic predisposition for proteolytic capacity, especially at room temperature.

  7. Short communication: Presence of neutral metallopeptidase (npr) gene and proteolytic activity of Bacillus cereus isolated from dairy products.

    PubMed

    Montanhini, M T M; Colombo, M; Nero, L A; Bersot, L S

    2013-09-01

    The control of proteolytic microorganisms is one of the main challenges of the dairy industry, due to their spoilage activity that jeopardizes the quality of their products. Seventy-four Bacillus cereus strains isolated from powdered, UHT, and pasteurized milks were tested for the presence of the neutral metallopeptidase (npr) gene and proteolytic activity at 7, 10, 25, 30, and 37°C. All strains had the npr gene, and proteolytic activity increased with the incubation temperature. The obtained results highlight the relevance of B. cereus as a spoiling agent in the dairy industry in terms of its genetic predisposition for proteolytic capacity, especially at room temperature. PMID:23849645

  8. Purification and characterization of a new metallo-neutral protease for beer brewing from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SYB-001.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjing; Xu, Ailan; Wan, Yansong; Li, Qi

    2013-08-01

    The increased additive amount of adjuncts in the raw materials of Chinese beer requires the usage of protease to release more water-soluble proteins. Here, a metallo-neutral protease suited for brewing industry was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SYB-001. A 5.6-fold purification of the neutral protease was achieved with a 4-step procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel-filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 36.8 kDa. The protease was active and stable at a wide range of pH from 6.0-10.0 with an optimum at pH 7.0. The highest activity of the purified enzyme was found at 50 °C. The existence of manganese ion would specifically enhance the protease activity. Comparing with other commercial neutral proteases in China, adding the new neutral protease during mashing process would release more amino acids from wort such as aspartic acid, arginine, methione, and histidine, resulting in a better amino acid profile in wort. Moreover, the wort processed with the new neutral protease had a higher α-amino nitrogen concentration, which would ensure a vigorous yeast growth and better flavor. The study of the enzyme could lay a foundation for its industrial application and further research.

  9. Production of L-lactic acid by a thermophilic Bacillus mutant using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ma, Cuiqing; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2010-10-01

    A sodium lactate tolerant mutant strain named Bacillus sp. Na-2 was obtained and applied to sodium hydroxide-based L-lactic acid (LA) production process. The influences of aeration and pH were investigated to further improve the resistance of strain Na-2 against sodium lactate stress and to obtain the most efficient L-LA production process. Although mild aeration was favorable for cell growth and L-LA production, vigorous aeration resulted in a metabolic shift from homolactic to mixed-acid/acetoin fermentation. Therefore, a two-stage aeration control strategy was employed. Optimum pH was found to be 6.0. A total of 106.0 g/l L-LA was produced in 30 h by Bacillus sp. Na-2 using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent. Productivity, conversion rate and optical purity were 3.53 g/l/h, 94% and 99.5%, respectively. The remarkable fermentation traits of Bacillus sp. Na-2 and the environment-friendly characteristics of NaOH-based process represent new insight for industrial scale production of L-LA.

  10. Effect of delayed anthrax vaccine dose on Bacillus anthracis protective antigen IgG response and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Fisher, Diana; Quinn, Xiaofei; Schmader, Trevor; Barrera-Oro, Julio G

    2013-10-17

    We describe the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen IgG antibody response and the B. anthracis lethal toxin neutralization activity to a delayed dose of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax(®)) using validated assays. 373 individuals received 1, 2, or 3 priming doses, 18-24 months afterward, they received a delayed dose of AVA. Overall, 23.6% of subjects showed detectable anti-PA IgG before the boost, compared to 99.2% (P<0.0001) 28 days after the boost. Geometric mean anti-PA IgG concentration (GMC) was 1.66 μg/mL before and 887.82 μg/mL after the boost (P<0.0001). The proportion of individuals with four-fold increase in GMC following the boost ranged from 93.8% to 100%. Robust anti-PA IgG levels and B. anthracis lethal toxin neutralization activity are induced when an AVA dose is delayed as long as two years. These data support continuing with the vaccination schedule when a dose is delayed as long as two years rather than restarting the series.

  11. Characterization of a buried neutral histidine residue in Bacillus circulans xylanase: NMR assignments, pH titration, and hydrogen exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Plesniak, L. A.; Connelly, G. P.; Wakarchuk, W. W.; McIntosh, L. P.

    1996-01-01

    Bacillus circulans xylanase contains two histidines, one of which (His 156) is solvent exposed, whereas the other (His 149) is buried within its hydrophobic core. His 149 is involved in a network of hydrogen bonds with an internal water and Ser 130, as well as a potential weak aromatic-aromatic interaction with Tyr 105. These three residues, and their network of interactions with the bound water, are conserved in four homologous xylanases. To probe the structural role played by His 149, NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the histidines in BCX. Complete assignments of the 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances and tautomeric forms of the imidazole rings were obtained from two-dimensional heteronuclear correlation experiments. An unusual spectroscopic feature of BCX is a peak near 12 ppm arising from the nitrogen bonded 1H epsilon 2 of His 149. Due to its solvent inaccessibility and hydrogen bonding to an internal water molecule, the exchange rate of this proton (4.0 x 10(-5) s-1 at pH*7.04 and 30 degrees C) is retarded by > 10(6)-fold relative to an exposed histidine. The pKa of His 156 is unperturbed at approximately 6.5, as measured from the pH dependence of the 15N- and 1H-NMR spectra of BCX. In contrast, His 149 has a pKa < 2.3, existing in the neutral N epsilon 2H tautomeric state under all conditions examined. BCX unfolds at low pH and 30 degrees C, and thus His 149 is never protonated significantly in the context of the native enzyme. The structural importance of this buried histidine is confirmed by the destablizing effect of substituting a phenylalanine or glutamine at position 149 in BCX. PMID:8931150

  12. Inactivation of Bacillus spores by the combination of moderate heat and low hydrostatic pressure in ketchup and potage.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Inoue, Ayaka; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Hayakawa, Isao

    2006-03-15

    The combination effect of moderate heat and low hydrostatic pressure (MHP) on the reduction of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores in food materials (potage and ketchup) was investigated. These bacterial spores were suspended in potage (pH 7), acidified potage (pH 4), neutralized ketchup (pH 7) and ketchup (pH 4). The suspensions were treated with and without pressure (100 MPa) and temperatures of 65-85 degrees C for 3 to 12 h. The bacterial spores were inactivated by 4-8 log cycles during MHP treatment in potage, acidified potage and ketchup, whereas the spores were highly resistant to long time heat treatment in potage and neutralized ketchup. The degrees of spore destruction were mostly dependent on pH and medium composition during MHP treatment. The inactivation effect in MHP treatment was higher at the pH 7 than at pH 4 both in ketchup and potage. The bacterial spores showed higher inactivation in potage than ketchup during MHP treatment. PMID:16260058

  13. Chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at determining the chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities. The compounds were isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, chemical methods, and comparison with reported spectroscopic data. One new phenolic glycoside, methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with 12 known compounds (2-13), were isolated from the aerial parts of Solanum coagulans. Compound 1 was a new phenolic glycoside, and 2-6 were isolated from Solanum genus for the first time. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Compound 7 showed remarkable antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum and E. floccosum with MIC values being 3.13, 1.56 and 3.13 μg·mL(-1), respectively. PMID:27114320

  14. Purification and characterization of a novel neutral and heat-tolerant phytase from a newly isolated strain Bacillus nealsonii ZJ0702

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytic acid and phytates can interact with biomolecules, such as proteins and carbohydrates, and are anti-nutritional factors found in food and feed. Therefore, it is necessary to remove these compounds in food and feed processing. Phytase can hydrolyze phytic acid and phytates to release a series of lower phosphate esters of myoinositol and orthophosphate. Thus, the purification and characterization of novel phytases that can be used in food and feed processing is of particular interest to the food and feed industries. Results A novel neutral and heat-tolerant phytase from a newly isolated strain Bacillus nealsonii ZJ0702 was purified to homogeneity with a yield of 5.7% and a purification fold of 44. The molecular weight of the purified phytase obtained by SDS-PAGE was 43 kDa. The homology analysis based on N-terminal amino acid and DNA sequencing indicated that the purified phytase was different from other known phytases. The optimal thermal and pH activity of the phytase was observed at 55°C and 7.5, respectively. Seventy-three percent of the original activity of the phytase was maintained following incubation at 90°C for 10 min. The phytase was stable within a pH range of 6.0 − 8.0 and showed high substrate specificity for sodium phytate. Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ba2+ and Ni2+ ions were found to inhibit the activity of the phytase. Conclusions A novel phytase purified from B. nealsonii ZJ0702 was identified. The phytase was found to be thermally stable over a wide temperature range at neutral pH. These properties suggest that this phytase is a suitable alternative to fungal phytases for the hydrolysis of phytic acid and phytates in food and feed processing industries. PMID:24073799

  15. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi Subspecies coagulans Infection in a Patient With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Thein; Naing, Akari Thein; Baqui, AAMA; Khillan, Ratesh

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge and literature search, Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans infection in human beings has rarely been described in the medical literature. Furthermore, we believe that this is a first detailed case report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans infection in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. Because of the possible association of Staphylococcus schleiferi infection and immunosuppression, any isolates of this bacterium in human beings should be presumed to be pathogenic, unless proven otherwise. PMID:27734018

  16. Comparative sequence analyses on the 16S rRNA (rDNA) of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus and proposal for creation of a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.; Deinhard, G.; Poralla, K.

    1992-01-01

    Comparative 16S rRNA (rDNA) sequence analyses performed on the thermophilic Bacillus species Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus revealed that these organisms are sufficiently different from the traditional Bacillus species to warrant reclassification in a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov. An analysis of 16S rRNA sequences established that these three thermoacidophiles cluster in a group that differs markedly from both the obligately thermophilic organisms Bacillus stearothermophilus and the facultatively thermophilic organism Bacillus coagulans, as well as many other common mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species. The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species B. acidocaldarius, B. acidoterrestris, and B. cycloheptanicus also are unique in that they possess omega-alicylic fatty acid as the major natural membranous lipid component, which is a rare phenotype that has not been found in any other Bacillus species characterized to date. This phenotype, along with the 16S rRNA sequence data, suggests that these thermoacidophiles are biochemically and genetically unique and supports the proposal that they should be reclassified in the new genus Alicyclobacillus.

  17. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  18. Mechanism of Lethal Toxin Neutralization by a Human Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the PA20 Region of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Reason, Donald; Liberato, Justine; Sun, Jinying; Camacho, Jessica; Zhou, Jianhui

    2011-01-01

    The primary immunogenic component of the currently approved anthrax vaccine is the protective antigen (PA) unit of the binary toxin system. PA-specific antibodies neutralize anthrax toxins and protect against infection. Recent research has determined that in humans, only antibodies specific for particular determinants are capable of effecting toxin neutralization, and that the neutralizing epitopes recognized by these antibodies are distributed throughout the PA monomer. The mechanisms by which the majority of these epitopes effect neutralization remain unknown. In this report we investigate the process by which a human monoclonal antibody specific for the amino-terminal domain of PA neutralizes lethal toxin in an in vitro assay of cytotoxicity, and find that it neutralizes LT by blocking the requisite cleavage of the amino-terminal 20 kD portion of the molecule (PA20) from the remainder of the PA monomer. We also demonstrate that the epitope recognized by this human monoclonal does not encompass the 166RKKR169 furin recognition sequence in domain 1 of PA. PMID:22069752

  19. In Vitro Shoot Cultures and Analysis of Steroidal Lactones in Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2016-01-01

    Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae), also known as 'Panir Bandh' is an important medicinal plant that is extensively used as a home remedy for several diseases in the Indian subcontinent. The plant possesses specific steroidal lactones known as withanolides which show high level of pharmaceutical activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Natural propagation of the plant occurs through Seed but due to unisexual nature of the flowers; chances of Seed setting are very limited and the plant is on the verge of extinction because of overexploitation and reproductive failure. Plant tissue culture techniques offer opportunities for ex situ conservation and mass multiplication of endangered plant species through micropropagation and also enhancement of in vitro biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. In this chapter we present protocols for the mass multiplication of W. coagulans, assessment of clonal fidelity by RAPD, and estimation of bioactive compounds (withanolides) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and reverse phase HPLC developed in our laboratory. PMID:27108323

  20. New fatty acid, aromatic ester and monoterpenic benzyl glucoside from the fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections in the indigenous system of medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of W. coagulans fruits led to the isolation of a new fatty acid, an aromatic ester and a monoterpenic benzyl glucoside characterised as n-octatriacont-17-enoic acid (3), geranilan-10-olyl dihydrocinnamoate (4) and geranilan-8-oic acid-10-olyl salicyloxy-2-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl-(6″→1‴)-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl-6‴-n-octadec-9‴',11‴'-dienoate (5) along with two known fatty acids, n-dotriacont-21-enoic acid (1) and n-tetratriacontanoic acid (2). The structures of isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, FT-IR, UV, and MS data and chemical means.

  1. The Aqueous Extract of Withania coagulans Fruit Partially Reverses Nicotinamide/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Dikshit, Piyush; Shukla, Rimi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Withania coagulans fruit has been shown to possess antihyperglycemic properties and is used in the traditional Indian system of medicine. However, there has no systematic study of its mechanism of action. In a rat model diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (230 mg/kg of body weight) followed by streptozotocin at 55 mg/kg of body weight. After 96 h, mildly diabetic (MD) (fasting plasma glucose [FPG]=7–11.1 mmol/L) and severely diabetic (SD) (FPG>11.1 mmol/L) rats were treated with aqueous extract of W. coagulans fruit at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of body weight/day orally. FPG, postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma insulin, tissue glycogen, and glucose-metabolizing enzymes were assayed at Day 30. Treatment of diabetic animals (MD and SD) with different doses of aqueous W. coagulans resulted in significantly decreased FPG, PPPG, and HbA1c (P<.01), whereas serum insulin increased significantly compared with that in diabetic-untreated rats (P<.01). MD and SD animals treated with aqueous W. coagulans also showed significant increases in liver and muscle glycogen compared with diabetic-untreated animals (P<.01). Moreover, activities of glucokinase and phosphofructokinase were also significantly increased (P<.01), whereas glucose-6-phosphatase activity was significantly decreased (P<.01) in MD and SD groups treated with aqueous W. coagulans compared with diabetic-untreated groups. The most effective dose of aqueous W. coagulans was 250 mg/kg of body weight. These results show that the aqueous extract of W. coagulans fruit has significant antihyperglycemic effects, which may be through the modulation of insulin levels and related enzyme activities. PMID:22846078

  2. Sensitive quantification of six steroidal lactones in Withania coagulans extract by UHPLC electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ali, Arslan; Maher, Saima; Khan, Shahid Ali; Chaudhary, M Iqbal; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam

    2015-12-01

    A method for the concurrent determination of six known steroidal lactones (syn. withanolides or withasteroids), namely withaferin A, withanolide H, withanolide K, withanolide A, withacoagulin H, and withanolide J in Withania coagulans extracts was developed. Extracts of Withania species and purified withanolides are considered among the most important natural products used for medicinal purposes. Methanolic extract of plant material was subjected to reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray (JetStream ESI) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode. Satisfactory separation of withanolide component was achieved within 9 min on UHPLC runtime. The limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) for the six withanolides ranged between 0.040-4.80 ng/mL, and 0.13-16 ng/mL, respectively. Linear responses were attained for all six withanolides in two orders of magnitude with the linear regression coefficient values ⩾0.998. At the five QC levels inspected, the relative standard deviations (RSD) were found below 5% in most cases. The newly developed method is fast, precise, and sensitive, therefore, the method can be used for high-throughput quantification of various withanolides in W. coagulans extract, and other herbal formulations, derived from W. coagulans.

  3. Sensitive quantification of six steroidal lactones in Withania coagulans extract by UHPLC electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ali, Arslan; Maher, Saima; Khan, Shahid Ali; Chaudhary, M Iqbal; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam

    2015-12-01

    A method for the concurrent determination of six known steroidal lactones (syn. withanolides or withasteroids), namely withaferin A, withanolide H, withanolide K, withanolide A, withacoagulin H, and withanolide J in Withania coagulans extracts was developed. Extracts of Withania species and purified withanolides are considered among the most important natural products used for medicinal purposes. Methanolic extract of plant material was subjected to reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray (JetStream ESI) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode. Satisfactory separation of withanolide component was achieved within 9 min on UHPLC runtime. The limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) for the six withanolides ranged between 0.040-4.80 ng/mL, and 0.13-16 ng/mL, respectively. Linear responses were attained for all six withanolides in two orders of magnitude with the linear regression coefficient values ⩾0.998. At the five QC levels inspected, the relative standard deviations (RSD) were found below 5% in most cases. The newly developed method is fast, precise, and sensitive, therefore, the method can be used for high-throughput quantification of various withanolides in W. coagulans extract, and other herbal formulations, derived from W. coagulans. PMID:26459135

  4. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Q K; Zhou, K F; Hu, H M; Zhao, H B; Zhang, Y; Ying, W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects. PMID:26954164

  5. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Q. K.; Zhou, K. F.; Hu, H. M.; Zhao, H. B.; Zhang, Y.; Ying, W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects. PMID:26954164

  6. Vaccination of Rhesus Macaques with Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Env V3 Elicits Neutralizing Antibody-Mediated Protection against Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus with a Homologous but Not a Heterologous V3 Motif

    PubMed Central

    Someya, Kenji; Cecilia, Dayaraj; Ami, Yasushi; Nakasone, Tadashi; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Burda, Sherri; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Naoto; Kaizu, Masahiko; Ando, Shuji; Okuda, Kenji; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Yamazaki, Shudo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    Although the correlates of vaccine-induced protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are not fully known, it is presumed that neutralizing antibodies (NAb) play a role in controlling virus infection. In this study, we examined immune responses elicited in rhesus macaques following vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin expressing an HIV-1 Env V3 antigen (rBCG Env V3). We also determined the effect of vaccination on protection against challenge with either a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-MN) or a highly pathogenic SHIV strain (SHIV-89.6PD). Immunization with rBCG Env V3 elicited significant levels of NAb for the 24 weeks tested that were predominantly HIV-1 type specific. Sera from the immunized macaques neutralized primary HIV-1 isolates in vitro, including HIV-1BZ167/X4, HIV-1SF2/X4, HIV-1CI2/X4, and, to a lesser extent, HIV-1MNp/X4, all of which contain a V3 sequence homologous to that of rBCG Env V3. In contrast, neutralization was not observed against HIV-1SF33/X4, which has a heterologous V3 sequence, nor was it found against primary HIV-1 R5 isolates from either clade A or B. Furthermore, the viral load in the vaccinated macaques was significantly reduced following low-dose challenge with SHIV-MN, and early plasma viremia was markedly decreased after high-dose SHIV-MN challenge. In contrast, replication of pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD was not affected by vaccination in any of the macaques. Thus, we have shown that immunization with an rBCG Env V3 vaccine elicits a strong, type-specific V3 NAb response in rhesus macaques. While this response was not sufficient to provide protection against a pathogenic SHIV challenge, it was able to significantly reduce the viral load in macaques following challenge with a nonpathogenic SHIV. These observations suggest that rBCG vectors have the potential to deliver an appropriate virus immunogen for desirable immune elicitations. PMID:15650171

  7. Withania coagulans fruit extract reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shreesh; Alkaabi, Juma; Amir, Naheed; Sheikh, Azimullah; Agil, Ahmad; Fahim, Mohamed Abdelmonem; Adem, Abdu

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the changes in oxidative and inflammatory status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat's kidneys and serum following treatment with Withania coagulans, a popular herb of ethnomedicinal significance. The key markers of oxidative stress and inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) were increased in kidneys along with significant hyperglycemia. However, treatment of four-month diabetic rats with Withania coagulans (10 mg/kg) for 3 weeks significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in kidneys. In addition, Withania coagulans treatment restored the glutathione levels and inhibited lipid peroxidation along with marked reduction in kidney hypertrophy. The present study demonstrates that Withania coagulans corrects hyperglycemia and maintained antioxidant status and reduced the proinflammatory markers in kidneys, which may subsequently reduce the development and progression of renal injury in diabetes. The results of the present study are encouraging for its potential use to delay the onset and progression of diabetic renal complications. However, the translation of therapeutic efficacy in humans requires further studies.

  8. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Effects of Withania coagulans Extract on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Khani, Mohaddeseh; Salimi, Saeedeh; Valizadeh, Mohharam; Sargolzaei Aval, Fereydoon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common urological disorder in elderly men. Phytotherapy is frequently used to alleviate the symptoms of this condition. Objectives: The present study investigated the effect of Withania coagulans extract (WCE), which is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, and anti-cancer properties, on testosterone-induced BPH in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into five groups (each n = 8): the control group, the untreated BPH group, and three WCE-treated groups (WCE250, 500, and 1000). BPH was induced with 3 mg/kg subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate for four weeks. WCE was concomitantly administrated by oral gavage. At the end of the induction schedule, the animals were sacrificed and their prostate glands were dissected, weighed, and fixed for histological examination (H&E and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] staining). Half of each sample was prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in the prostate. Results: The present study revealed that BPH caused elevation of MDA levels, suppression of TAC levels, and increased PCNA expression in the prostate gland. Interestingly, in a dose-dependent manner, WCE caused decreased MDA levels and increased TAC levels in the prostate gland, compared to the untreated BPH group. Histopathological examinations showed a reduction in PCNA expression in the prostate epithelium of the WCE animals. Conclusions: W. coagulans inhibits the development of BPH can be useful for the treatment of this condition. PMID:26981498

  9. In vivo and in silico investigation of antidiabetic activity of fruit of withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Krishnan, Supriya; Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Prakash, Om; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Awanish

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the antidiabetic activities of methanolic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal (Ashutosh booti) fruit (WCFE) in poloxamer-407 induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. The electrochemical behaviour of WCFE with anodic peak of 1.19± 0.01V was found similar to standards used indicating that extract is antioxidant in nature. Unlike diabetic control rats, the WCFE treated diabetic rats presented significant amelioration of glycaemia, insulinamia and lipid dysmetabolism, remarkable reduction of oxidative markers and improved cecal and pancreatic characteristics. HYBRID and FRED docking were performed for 25 documented WCFE botanicals for putative action mechanism concerning three diabetic therapeutic proteins namely PTP-1B, PPAR-γ and DPP-IV fully support the in vivo findings. Botanicals like nicandrenone10 and Acnistin F have shown considerable interaction potential with aforesaid proteins. Results provide pharmacological evidence of WCFE as antihyperglyceamic mediated by interaction of various botanicals with various targets operating in diabetes mellitus.

  10. In vivo and in silico investigation of antidiabetic activity of fruit of withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Krishnan, Supriya; Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Prakash, Om; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Awanish

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the antidiabetic activities of methanolic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal (Ashutosh booti) fruit (WCFE) in poloxamer-407 induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. The electrochemical behaviour of WCFE with anodic peak of 1.19± 0.01V was found similar to standards used indicating that extract is antioxidant in nature. Unlike diabetic control rats, the WCFE treated diabetic rats presented significant amelioration of glycaemia, insulinamia and lipid dysmetabolism, remarkable reduction of oxidative markers and improved cecal and pancreatic characteristics. HYBRID and FRED docking were performed for 25 documented WCFE botanicals for putative action mechanism concerning three diabetic therapeutic proteins namely PTP-1B, PPAR-γ and DPP-IV fully support the in vivo findings. Botanicals like nicandrenone10 and Acnistin F have shown considerable interaction potential with aforesaid proteins. Results provide pharmacological evidence of WCFE as antihyperglyceamic mediated by interaction of various botanicals with various targets operating in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26238114

  11. Neuroprotective effects of Withania coagulans root extract on CA1 hippocampus following cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh- Sagheb, Hamidreza; Valizadeh, Moharram; Doostkami, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxygen free radicals may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion damage. The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients, as well as complex plant extracts, on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries are well known. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydro-alcoholic root extract of Withania coagulans on CA1 hippocampus oxidative damages following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in five groups: control, sham operated, Ischemia/ Reperfiusion (IR), and Withania Coagulans Extract (WCE) 500 and 1000mg/kg + I/R groups. Ischemia was induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min after 30 days of WCE administration. Three days after, the animals were sacrificed, their brains were fixed for histological analysis (NISSL and TUNEL staining) and some samples were prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in hippocampus. Results: WCE showed neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in MDA level and increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activity in pretreated groups as compared to I/R groups (p<0.001). The number of intact neurons was increased while the number of TUNEL positive neurons in CA1 hippocampal region in pretreated groups were decreased as compared to I/R group (p<0.001). Conclusion: WCE showed potent neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced injuries caused by global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion in rats probably by radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:27516980

  12. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans subsp. nov., isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs with external ear otitis.

    PubMed

    Igimi, S; Takahashi, E; Mitsuoka, T

    1990-10-01

    A new subspecies, Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans, was isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external ear otitis and is described on the basis of studies of 21 strains. Phenotypic studies showed that these strains are more closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius than to other staphylococci, but DNA hybridization studies indicated that they are closely related to Staphylococcus schleiferi N850274T. On the basis of biochemical distinctiveness (positive test tube coagulase test and different carbohydrate reactions) and the etiological importance (frequent isolation from otitis specimens from dogs) of these strains, we propose to classify them as a subspecies of S. schleiferi. The strains of this new subspecies are coagulase tube test, beta-hemolysin, and heat-stable nuclease positive but clumping factor negative. A simple scheme for the differentiation of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans from the other coagulase-positive staphylococci is presented. The type strain is GA211 (= JCM 7470).

  13. Microbiological features of Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans, isolated from dogs and possible misidentification with other canine coagulase-positive staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Zdovc, I; Ocepek, M; Pirs, T; Krt, B; Pinter, L

    2004-12-01

    Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans has only rarely been isolated and identified from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external otitis. Its morphological and basic biochemical characteristics are of relatively little value for identification, as it phenotypically resembles another coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and, consequently, may be easily misidentified as S. intermedius or even as S. aureus. In the present work, differentiation of S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans was therefore based on specific biochemical and genetic methods. All the strains were evaluated with the following commercial methods: Api Staph System (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoil, France), BBL Crystal Identification Systems (Gram-Positive ID Kit and Rapid Gram-Positive ID Kit; Becton Dickinson), and GEN-PROBE AccuProbe, Staphylococcus aureus identification test (bioMérieux). Gram-Positive ID System/GP database includes the broadest range of staphylococcal species and correctly identifies the majority of strains important in veterinary medicine. Therefore, it is an acceptable alternative to conventional methods for identification of canine staphylococcal isolates. Reliable differentiation of S. aureus from S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans and S. intermedius was feasible with AccuProbe for S. aureus, which gave positive results only for S. aureus; all other CPS tested were negative.

  14. Evaluation of high-intensity ultrasonication for the inactivation of endospores of 3 bacillus species in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Som Nath; Anand, Sanjeev; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2014-10-01

    Endospores of Bacillus licheniformis [American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 6634], Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 12245), and Geobacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 15952) were spiked in sterile nonfat milk, and subjected to high intensity batch ultrasonication treatment at different amplitudes (80 or 100%) and durations (1 to 10 min). Increasing the amplitude from 80 to 100% did not result in enhanced inactivation of G. stearothermophilus endospores. However, an increase in the duration of ultrasonication from 1 to 10 min significantly increased the inactivation of endospores of all 3 species. About 48.96% of the G. stearothermophilus endospores were inactivated by ultrasonication alone, whereas ultrasonication and pasteurization combined increased the inactivation to 65.74%. Inactivation of endospores could be further enhanced to 75.32% by ultrasonication and higher heat (80 °C/1 min) combination. Endospores of B. licheniformis and B. coagulans were inactivated to a lesser extent compared with G. stearothermophilus spores. Ultrasonicated B. licheniformis endospores germinated in higher numbers when compared with untreated endospores resulting in their greater inactivation during the combined treatment. During microstructure imaging of ultrasonicated endospores, although no structural damage was noticed, they showed irregular shrinkage and wrinkles with surface coarseness. This may also have contributed to their reduced thermal resistance, in addition to sporulation. PMID:25087024

  15. Neutralizer optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Mohajeri, Kayhan

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary results of a test program to optimize a neutralizer design for 30 cm xenon ion thrusters are discussed. The impact of neutralizer geometry, neutralizer axial location, and local magnetic fields on neutralizer performance is discussed. The effect of neutralizer performance on overall thruster performance is quantified, for thruster operation in the 0.5-3.2 kW power range. Additionally, these data are compared to data published for other north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) and primary propulsion xenon ion thruster neutralizers.

  16. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of fruit of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Dikshit, Piyush; Shukla, Rimi; Sharma, Sonal; Gambhir, Jasvinder K

    2014-09-01

    Withania coagulans (family: Solanaceae, English: Indian Cheese Maker, Hindi: Doda Paneer) fruit is known for its ethanopharmacological significance in health care system of India. Diet rich in high-fat is an important risk factor for diabetes, atherosclerosis and macro and microvascular complications. Treatment with aqueous extract of fruit of W. coagulans (aqWC; 250 mg/kg body weight) in cholesterol-fed animals resulted in significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein, tissue lipid content and acetyl CoA carboxylase activity whereas, the level of high density lipoprotein and activity of HMGCoA reductase also recovered partially. Treatment with aqWC also significantly decreased plasma lipid peroxide levels and increased reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of W. coagulans has potent lipid lowering and antioxidant activities.

  17. Laser neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, O.G.

    1986-06-17

    Laser photodetachment of the excess electron to neutralize relativistic ions offers many advantages over the more conventional collisional methods using gases or thin foils as the neutralization agents. Probably the two most important advantages of laser photodetachment are the generation of a compact and low divergence beam, and the production of intense neutral beams at very high efficiency (approximately 90%). The high intensities or high current densities of the neutral beam result from the fixed maximum divergence that can be added to the beam by photodetachment of the charge using laser intensity of fixed wavelength and incident angle. The high neutralization efficiency is possible because there is no theoretical maximum to the neutralization efficiency, although higher efficiencies require higher laser powers and, therefore, costs. Additional advantages include focusability of the laser light onto the ion beam to maximize its efficacy. There certainly is no residual gas left in the particle beam path as is typical with gas neutralizers. The photodetachment process leaves the neutral atoms in the ground state so there is no excited state fluorescence to interfere with the subsequent beam sensing. Finally, since the beams to be neutralized are very high powered, for a large range of neutralization efficiencies the neutral beam can be increased more by increasing the power to the laser neutralizer than by adding an equal amount of power to the primary accelerator. 26 figs.

  18. Molecular cloning and catalytic characterization of a recombinant tropine biosynthetic tropinone reductase from Withania coagulans leaf.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Amit K; Sangwan, Neelam S; Tripathi, Sandhya; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2013-03-10

    Tropinone reductases (TRs) are small proteins belonging to the SDR (short chain dehydrogenase/reductase) family of enzymes. TR-I and TR-II catalyze the conversion of tropinone into tropane alcohols (tropine and pseudotropine, respectively). The steps are intermediary enroute to biosynthesis of tropane esters of medicinal importance, hyoscyamine/scopolamine, and calystegins, respectively. Biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids has been proposed to occur in roots. However, in the present report, a tropine forming tropinone reductase (TR-I) cDNA was isolated from the aerial tissue (leaf) of a medicinal plant, Withania coagulans. The ORF was deduced to encode a polypeptide of 29.34 kDa. The complete cDNA (WcTRI) was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant His-tagged protein was purified for functional characterization. The enzyme had a narrow pH range of substantial activity with maxima at 6.6. Relatively superior thermostability of the enzyme (30% retention of activity at 60 °C) was catalytic novelty in consonance with the desert area restricted habitat of the plant. The in vitro reaction kinetics predominantly favoured the forward reaction. The enzyme had wide substrate specificity but did not cover the substrates of other well-known plant SDR related to menthol metabolism. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on any gene and enzyme of secondary metabolism from the commercially and medicinally important vegetable rennet species.

  19. New withanolide, acyl and menthyl glucosides from fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohd; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections. Phytochemical investigation of the fruits yielded a withanolide tetraglucoside identified as (20S, 22R)-5alpha, 20alpha-diacetoxy-6beta-hydroxy- 1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide-6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6' --> 1")-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6" --> 1''')-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6''' --> 1''''-beta-D-glucopyranoside), a capryloyl hexaglucoside formulated as n-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6a --> 1b)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6b --> c)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6c --> 1d)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(6d --> 1e)-glucopyranosyl-(6e --> 1f)-glucopyranoside and a menthyl tetraglucoside characterized as menthol-O-alpha-L-glucopyranosyl-(2a --> 1b)-O-alpha-L-glucopyranosyl-(2b --> 1c)-O-alpha-L-glucopyranosyl-(2c --> 1d)-O-alpha-L-glucopyranoside along with three fatty acid esters, n-nonacosanyl linolenate, n-octacosanyl linolenate and n-heptacosanyl linolenate. The structures of the isolated phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical means.

  20. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  1. Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from external auditory meatus of dogs with or without otitis externa with special reference to Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kenji; Shimizu, Akira; Kawano, Junichi; Uchida, Eiji; Haruna, Akihiro; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2005-03-01

    Staphylococci were isolated from the external auditory meatus in 14 (48.3%) of 29 dogs affected with otitis externa (OE dogs) and 28 (68.3%) of 41 dogs without OE (non-OE dogs). Twenty-two OE isolates were identified as belonging to 12 species, and 42 non-OE isolates were identified as belonging to 13 species. The predominant species found in both OE and non-OE isolates were S. intermedius, and S. epidermidis. Thirty-eight (59.4%) of 64 isolates were resistant to one or more of the 17 antimicrobial agents tested. Resistance to PCG and ABPC was most frequent. S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, a recent etiologic agent of canine OE, was isolated from OE and non-OE dogs. All of the 5 S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates showed typical characteristics. No clear difference in the extracellular enzyme or toxin profiles, nor in the PFGE patterns, was demonstrated between the OE and non-OE isolates of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. A new PCR primer set specific for 16S rDNA was designed to identify strains of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. The amplified fragment was detected in all of the 5 isolates as well as the type strain GA 211 (=JCM 7470) and a reference strain GA 11, but was not detected in any strains of the related species, S. aureus, S. intermedius and S. hyicus. The PCR may allow a simple, rapid and precise identification of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, in addition to the standard tube test for free coagulase.

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture. This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

  3. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    PubMed

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk.

  4. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    PubMed

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk. PMID:25084664

  5. Proteomic profiling and identification of immunodominant spore antigens of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Vito G; Connolly, Joseph P; Alefantis, Timothy G; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian A; Patra, Guy; Ashton, John M; Whittington, Jessica T; Chafin, Ryan D; Liang, Xudong; Grewal, Paul; Khan, Akbar S; Mujer, Cesar V

    2006-09-01

    Differentially expressed and immunogenic spore proteins of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis, were identified. Comparative proteomic profiling of their spore proteins distinguished the three species from each other as well as the virulent from the avirulent strains. A total of 458 proteins encoded by 232 open reading frames were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for all the species. A number of highly expressed proteins, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), elongation factor G, 60-kDa chaperonin, enolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and others exist as charge variants on two-dimensional gels. These charge variants have similar masses but different isoelectric points. The majority of identified proteins have cellular roles associated with energy production, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, posttranslational modifications, and translation. Novel vaccine candidate proteins were identified using B. anthracis polyclonal antisera from humans postinfected with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen immunoreactive proteins were identified in B. anthracis spores, whereas 7, 14, and 7 immunoreactive proteins were identified for B. cereus and in the virulent and avirulent strains of B. thuringiensis spores, respectively. Some of the immunodominant antigens include charge variants of EF-Tu, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Alanine racemase and neutral protease were uniquely immunogenic to B. anthracis. Comparative analysis of the spore immunome will be of significance for further nucleic acid- and immuno-based detection systems as well as next-generation vaccine development.

  6. Strong and consistently synergistic inactivation of spores of spoilage-associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by high pressure and heat compared with inactivation by heat alone.

    PubMed

    Olivier, S A; Bull, M K; Stone, G; van Diepenbeek, R J; Kormelink, F; Jacops, L; Chapman, B

    2011-04-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (F(z)(121.1)(°)(C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa)) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log(10) reduction/minute at F(T)(z)(121.1)(°)(C)) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (F(T)(z)). The use of the F(T)(z) approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes. PMID:21278265

  7. Strong and consistently synergistic inactivation of spores of spoilage-associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by high pressure and heat compared with inactivation by heat alone.

    PubMed

    Olivier, S A; Bull, M K; Stone, G; van Diepenbeek, R J; Kormelink, F; Jacops, L; Chapman, B

    2011-04-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (F(z)(121.1)(°)(C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa)) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log(10) reduction/minute at F(T)(z)(121.1)(°)(C)) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (F(T)(z)). The use of the F(T)(z) approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes.

  8. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn's moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  9. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn’s moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  10. Laser induced fluorescence lifetime characterization of Bacillus endospore species using time correlated single photon counting analysis with the multi-exponential fit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Clint; Edwards, Jarrod; Fisher, Andmorgan

    2010-04-01

    Rapid detection of biological material is critical for determining presence/absence of bacterial endospores within various investigative programs. Even more critical is that if select material tests positive for bacillus endospores then tests should provide data at the species level. Optical detection of microbial endospore formers such as Bacillus sp. can be heavy, cumbersome, and may only identify at the genus level. Data provided from this study will aid in characterization needed by future detection systems for further rapid breakdown analysis to gain insight into a more positive signature collection of Bacillus sp. Literature has shown that fluorescence spectroscopy of endospores could be statistically separated from other vegetative genera, but could not be separated among one another. Results of this study showed endospore species separation is possible using laser-induce fluorescence with lifetime decay analysis for Bacillus endospores. Lifetime decays of B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. coagulans, and B. anthracis Sterne strain were investigated. Using the Multi-Exponential fit method data showed three distinct lifetimes for each species within the following ranges, 0.2-1.3 ns; 2.5-7.0 ns; 7.5-15.0 ns, when laser induced at 307 nm. The four endospore species were individually separated using principle component analysis (95% CI).

  11. Isolation and characterization of hyper phenol tolerant Bacillus sp. from oil refinery and exploration sites.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2010-04-15

    Bacillus cereus MTCC 9817 strain AKG1 and B. cereus MTCC 9818 strain AKG2 were isolated from petroleum refinery and oil exploration site, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain AKG1 showed the closest relation to B. cereus 99.63% and Bacillus coagulans 99.63% followed by 99.34% homology with Bacillus thuringiensis strain 2PR56-10. AKG2 is mostly related to B. thuringiensis strain CMG 861 with 99.37% homology. The similarity search between AKG1 and AKG2 gave the lowest similarity 99.19% among same genus similar sequences. At phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L, the optimum growth conditions for AKG1 were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.0 and the same were found to be 37 degrees C and pH 7.5 for AKG2. The growth kinetics of the strains AKG1 and AKG2 are best fitted by Yano model (maximum growth rate, mu(max)=1.024 h(-1) and inhibition constant, K(I)=171,800 mg/L) and Edward model (mu(max)=0.5969 h(-1) and K(I)=1483 mg/L) respectively. Growth kinetics of both the strains are also well fitted by the Haldane model with mu(max)=0.4396 h(-1) and K(I)=637.8 mg/L for AKG1 and mu(max)=0.9332 h(-1) and K(I)=494.4 mg/L for AKG2. PMID:19945784

  12. Combined effects of carbonation with heating and fatty acid esters on inactivation and growth inhibition of various bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Klangpetch, Wannaporn; Nakai, Tomoe; Noma, Seiji; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2013-09-01

    The effects of carbonation treatment (1 to 5 MPa, 30 min) plus heat treatment (30 to 80°C, 30 min) in the presence of various fatty acid esters (FAEs; 0.05 and 0.1%, wt/vol) on counts of viable Bacillus subtilis spores were investigated. FAEs or carbonation alone had no inactivation or growth inhibition effects on B. subtilis spores. However, carbonation plus heat (CH; 80°C, 5 MPa, 30 min) in the presence of mono- and diglycerol fatty acid esters markedly decreased counts of viable spores, and the spore counts did not change during storage for 30 days. The greatest decrease in viable spore counts occurred in the presence of monoglycerol fatty acid esters. Under CH conditions, inactivation and/or growth inhibition occurred at only 80°C and increased with increasing pressure. The greatest decrease in spore counts (more than 4 log units) occurred with CH (80°C, 5 MPa, 30 min) in the presence of monoglycerol fatty acid esters. However, this treatment was less effective against Bacillus coagulans and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. PMID:23992501

  13. 75 FR 34040 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption from the... Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn under the FFDCA. The temporary tolerance exemption expires... establishing an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  14. 76 FR 14289 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption From the... permissible level for residues of Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn. The temporary tolerance... for residues of Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn. This notice referenced a summary...

  15. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus schleiferi Subspecies coagulans from Canine Pyoderma Cases in Grenada, West Indies, and Their Susceptibility to Beta-Lactam Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kathryn; Frankie, Matthew; Matthew, Vanessa; Daniels, Joshua; Martin, Nancy A.; Andrews, Linton; Paterson, Tara; Sharma, Ravindra N.

    2014-01-01

    Over a 2-year period 66 cases of canine pyoderma in Grenada, West Indies, were examined by aerobic culture in order to ascertain the bacteria involved and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Of the 116 total bacterial isolates obtained, the majority belonged to Gram-positive species, and the most common organism identified through biochemical and molecular methods was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Additionally, identification of a Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans isolate was confirmed by molecular methods. All isolates of staphylococci were susceptible to beta-lactam drugs: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefovecin, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, and cephalothin. They were also susceptible to chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Resistance was highest to tetracycline. Methicillin resistance was not detected in any isolate of S. pseudintermedius or in S. schleiferi. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, the most common species was Klebsiella pneumoniae, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus. The only drug to which all Gram-negative isolates were susceptible was enrofloxacin. This report is the first to confirm the presence of S. pseudintermedius and S. schleiferi subspecies coagulans, in dogs with pyoderma in Grenada, and the susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates to the majority of beta-lactam drugs used in veterinary practice. PMID:24592351

  16. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  17. PLASMOLYSIS IN BACILLUS MEGATERIUM.

    PubMed

    WEIBULL, C

    1965-04-01

    Weibull, Claes (Central Bacteriological Laboratory of Stockholm City, Stockholm, Sweden). Plasmolysis in Bacillus megaterium. J. Bacteriol. 89:1151-1154. 1965.-Sucrose solutions stronger than 1 m caused plasmolysis in Bacillus megaterium strain M, whereas concentrated NaCl and KNO(3) solutions were ineffective. In plasmolyzed cells, mesosome bodies were found in pockets between the cytoplasmic membrane and the cell wall. After plasmolysis, the cytoplasmic membrane appeared as a triple-layered structure, a "unit membrane." Plasmolysis did not markedly influence the viability of the cells.

  18. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  19. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; Reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617**T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618**T. Compara...

  20. Green synthesis of Pd/RGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite using Withania coagulans leaf extract and its application as magnetically separable and reusable catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Atarod, Monireh; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    A reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe3O4 based nanocomposite with palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) has been synthesized via a green route by Withania coagulans leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent and its catalytic activity has been tested for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in water at room temperature. The hydroxyl groups of phenolics in W. coagulans leaf extract is directly responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+), Fe(3+) ions and GO. The nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, due to the magnetic separability and high stability of the composite the catalyst can be recovered and recycled several times without marked loss of activity.

  1. Neutral beam monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.

    1981-08-18

    Method and apparatus for monitoring characteristics of a high energy neutral beam. A neutral beam is generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange neutralizes the high energy ion beam. The neutral beam is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are further identified.

  2. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  3. Transduction in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    THORNE, C B

    1962-01-01

    Thorne, Curtis B. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.). Transduction in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 83:106-111. 1962.-A bacteriophage, SP-10, isolated from soil carries out general transduction in Bacillus subtilis. Phage propagated on a streptomycin-resistant mutant of the wild-type strain W-23 was capable of transducing to prototrophy strain 168 (indole(-)), as well as all of the auxotrophic mutants of W-23-S(r) tested, which included mutants requiring arginine, histidine, adenine, guanine, thiamine, leucine, or methionine. Although strain 168 was transduced by phage SP-10, lytic activity on this strain could not be detected and attempts to propagate the phage on it failed. Transductions occurred at frequencies in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-5) per plaque-forming unit. Homologous phage was ineffective, deoxyribonuclease had no effect on the frequency of transduction, and transduction was prevented by the addition of phage antiserum. Phage SP-10 was capable of lysogenizing strain W-23-S(r), and this condition was maintained through repeated growth and sporulation cycles in potato-extract medium. Although heating at 65 C for 60 min inactivated free phage particles, spores retained their lysogenic condition after such heat treatment. When heat-treated spores of the lysogenic cultures were used as inocula for growth in a nutrient broth-yeast extract-glucose medium, filtrates contained 10(9), or more, phage particles per ml.

  4. On neutral plasma oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy.

  5. Developments in the use of Bacillus species for industrial production.

    PubMed

    Schallmey, Marcus; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus species continue to be dominant bacterial workhorses in microbial fermentations. Bacillus subtilis (natto) is the key microbial participant in the ongoing production of the soya-based traditional natto fermentation, and some Bacillus species are on the Food and Drug Administration's GRAS (generally regarded as safe) list. The capacity of selected Bacillus strains to produce and secrete large quantities (20-25 g/L) of extracellular enzymes has placed them among the most important industrial enzyme producers. The ability of different species to ferment in the acid, neutral, and alkaline pH ranges, combined with the presence of thermophiles in the genus, has lead to the development of a variety of new commercial enzyme products with the desired temperature, pH activity, and stability properties to address a variety of specific applications. Classical mutation and (or) selection techniques, together with advanced cloning and protein engineering strategies, have been exploited to develop these products. Efforts to produce and secrete high yields of foreign recombinant proteins in Bacillus hosts initially appeared to be hampered by the degradation of the products by the host proteases. Recent studies have revealed that the slow folding of heterologous proteins at the membrane-cell wall interface of Gram-positive bacteria renders them vulnerable to attack by wall-associated proteases. In addition, the presence of thiol-disulphide oxidoreductases in B. subtilis may be beneficial in the secretion of disulphide-bond-containing proteins. Such developments from our understanding of the complex protein translocation machinery of Gram-positive bacteria should allow the resolution of current secretion challenges and make Bacillus species preeminent hosts for heterologous protein production. Bacillus strains have also been developed and engineered as industrial producers of nucleotides, the vitamin riboflavin, the flavor agent ribose, and the supplement poly

  6. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  7. Search for neutral leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references.

  8. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  9. Neutrality in Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The unavoidability of language makes it critical that language policies appeal to some notion of language neutrality as part of their rationale, in order to assuage concerns that the policies might otherwise be unduly discriminatory. However, the idea of language neutrality is deeply ideological in nature, since it is not only an attempt to treat…

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  11. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  12. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  13. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  14. Surface-Active Agents from Two Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, David G.; Goldenberg, Beena G.

    1987-01-01

    Two Bacillus species were studied which produced bioemulsifiers; however, they were distinctly different compounds. Bacillus sp. strain IAF 343 produced unusually high yields of extracellular biosurfactant when grown on a medium containing only water-soluble substrates. The yield of 1 g/liter was appreciably better than those of most of the biosurfactants reported previously. This neutral lipid product, unlike most lipid biosurfactants, had significant emulsifying properties. It did not appreciably lower the surface tension of water. On the same medium, Bacillus cereus IAF 346 produced a more conventional polysaccharide bioemulsifier, but it also produced a monoglyceride biosurfactant. The bioemulsifier contained substantial amounts of glucosamine and originated as part of the capsule layer. The monoglyceride lowered the surface tension of water to 28 mN/m. It formed a strong association with the polysaccharide, and it was necessary to use ultrafiltration to effect complete separation. The removal of the monoglyceride caused the polysaccharide to precipitate. It is suggested that earlier reports of biopolymers which both stabilized emulsions and lowered surface tension were actually similar aggregates of lipid and bioemulsifier. PMID:16347271

  15. Aminopeptidases of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, E P; Starnes, W L; Behal, F J

    1975-01-01

    Three enzymes with L- and one enzyme with D-aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11; alpha-aminoacyl peptide hydrolase) activity have been separated from each other and partially purified from Bacillus subtilis 168 W.T., distinguished with respect to their molecular weights and catalytic properties, and studied in relation to the physiology of this bacterium. One L-aminopeptidase, designated aminopeptidase I, has a molecular weight of 210,000 +/- 20,000, is produced early in growth, and hydrolyzes L-alanyl-beta-naphthylamide most rapidly. Another, designated aminopeptidase II, molecular weight 67,000 +/- 10,000, is also produced early in growth and hydrolyzes L-lysyl-beta-naphthylamide most rapidly. A third, aminopeptidase III, molecular weight 228,000 +/- 20,000, is produced predominantly in early stationary phase and most efficiently utilizes L-alpha-aspartyl-beta-naphthylamide as substrate. The synthesis of aminopeptidase III in early stationary phase suggests that selective catabolism of peptides occurs at this time, perhaps related to the cessation of growth or the onset of early sporulation-associated events. A D-aminopeptidase which hydrolyzes the carboxyl-blocked dipeptide D-alanyl-D-alanyl-beta-naphthylamide (as well as D-alanyl-beta-naphthylamide and D-alanyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine) has also been identified, separated from aminopeptidase II, and purified 170-fold. D-Aminopeptidase, molecular weight 220,000 +/- 20,000, is localized predominantly in the cell wall and periplasm of the organism. This evidence and the variation of the activity during the growth cycle suggest an important function in cell wall or peptide antibiotic metabolism. PMID:240808

  16. Nature of Escherichia coli cell lysis by culture supernatants of Bacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, C R; Ward, O P

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells were found to be sensitive to lysis by the supernatants of a variety of protease-positive Bacillus species when treated at 45 degrees C but not when treated at 37 degrees C. Different E. coli strains manifested different lysis sensitivities when treated at 45 degrees C. When the lysis rates of E. coli cells at various stages of growth were investigated, post-exponential-phase cells were shown to be most sensitive to lysis. The lysis rate was inversely related to cell viability, and susceptibility appeared to be at least partly due to lysis of dead E. coli cells. A close relation was observed between levels of lysis activity and proteolytic activity. A Bacillus subtilis mutant lacking alkaline and neutral protease activity failed to lyse E. coli cells. It was concluded that Bacillus proteases played a major role in the observed E. coli lysis. PMID:1892379

  17. Tautomerism in neutral histidine.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-01

    Histidine is an important natural amino acid, involved in many relevant biological processes, which, because of its physical properties, proved difficult to characterize experimentally in its neutral form. In this work, neutral histidine has been generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of solid samples and its N(ε)H tautomeric form unraveled through its rotational spectrum. The quadrupole hyperfine structure, arising from the existing three (14)N nuclei, constituted a site-specifically probe for revealing the tautomeric form as well as the side chain configuration of this proteogenic amino acid.

  18. Phages preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  19. Phages preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  20. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  1. Susceptibilities of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and avirulent Bacillus anthracis spores to liquid biocides.

    PubMed

    Hilgren, J; Swanson, K M J; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Cords, B

    2009-02-01

    The susceptibility of spores of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and avirulent Bacillus anthracis to treatment with hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, a peroxy-fatty acid mixture, sodium hypochlorite, and acidified sodium chlorite was investigated. Results indicated that B. cereus spores may be reasonable predictors of B. anthracis spore inactivation by peroxyacetic acid-based biocides. However, B. cereus was not a reliable predictor of B. anthracis inactivation by the other biocides. In studies comparing B. cereus and B. subtilis, B. cereus spores were more resistant (by 1.5 to 2.5 log CFU) than B. subtilis spores to peroxyacetic acid, the peroxy-fatty acid mixture, and acidified sodium chlorite. Conversely, B. subtilis spores were more resistant than B. cereus spores to hydrogen peroxide. These findings indicated the relevance of side-by-side testing of target organisms and potential surrogates against categories of biocides to determine whether both have similar properties and to validate the use of the surrogate microorganisms.

  2. TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS OF BACILLUS DYSENTERIAE SHIGA.

    PubMed

    Olitsky, P K; Kligler, I J

    1920-01-01

    With the methods which have been described we have separated an exotoxin and an endotoxin from cultures of the Shiga dysenteric bacillus. The study of the nature and effect of the poison of this microorganism is thus simplified. The two toxins are physically and biologically distinct. The exotoxin is relatively heat-labile, arises in the early period of growth, and yields an antiexotoxic immune serum. The endotoxin, on the other hand, is heat-stable, is formed in the later period of growth, and is not neutralized by the antiexotoxic serum. The exotoxin exhibits a specific affinity for the central nervous organs in the rabbit, giving rise to a characteristic lesion-mainly, hemorrhages, necroses, and possibly a perivascular infiltration in the gray matter of the upper spinal cord and medulla. The endotoxin exerts a typical action on the intestinal tract, producing edema, hemorrhages, necroses, and ulcerations, especially in the large intestine. In dysentery in man the intestinal lesions predominate, but in severe epidemics paralysis and neuritis have been observed (Osler(17)). These facts become specially significant from the standpoint of the serum therapy of bacillary dysentery. A potent antidysenteric serum should contain antibodies against the exotoxin as well as the endotoxin. That such a serum can be produced in horses has been experimentally demonstrated.

  3. Alanylated lipoteichoic acid primer in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid is a major lipid-anchored polymer in Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. This polymer typically consists of repeating phosphate-containing units and therefore has a predominant negative charge. The repeating units are attached to a glycolipid anchor which has a diacylglycerol (DAG) moiety attached to a dihexopyranose head group. D-alanylation is known as the major modification of type I and type IV lipoteichoic acids, which partially neutralizes the polymer and plays important roles in bacterial survival and resistance to the host immune system. The biosynthesis pathways of the glycolipid anchor and lipoteichoic acid have been fully characterized. However, the exact mechanism of D-alanyl transfer from the cytosol to cell surface lipoteichoic acid remains unclear. Here I report the use of mass spectrometry in the identification of possible intermediate species in the biosynthesis and D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid: the glycolipid anchor, nascent lipoteichoic acid primer with one phosphoglycerol unit, as well as mono- and di-alanylated forms of the lipoteichoic acid primer. Monitoring these species as well as the recently reported D-alanyl-phosphatidyl glycerol should aid in shedding light on the mechanism of the D-alanylation pathway of lipoteichoic acid. PMID:27134729

  4. Protonmotive force and motility of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Shioi, J I; Imae, Y; Oosawa, F

    1978-01-01

    Motility of Bacillus subtilis was inhibited within a few minutes by a combination of valinomycin and a high concentration of potassium ions in the medium at neutral pH. Motility was restored by lowering the concentration of valinomycin or potassium ions. The valinomycin concentration necessary for motility inhibition was determined at various concentrations of potassium ions and various pH's. At pH 7.5, valinomycin of any concentration did not inhibit the motility, when the potassium ion concentration was lower than 9 mM. In the presence of 230 mM potassium ion, the motility inhibition by valinomycin was not detected at pH lower than 6.1. These results are easily explained by the idea that the motility of B. subtilis is supported by the electrochemical potential difference of the proton across the membrane, or the protonmotive force. The electrochemical potential difference necessary for motility was estimated to be about -90 mV. PMID:25261

  5. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  6. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Plant Probiotic Bacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of four Bacillus strains that exhibit plant probiotic activities. Three of them are the type strains of Bacillus endophyticus, “Bacillus gaemokensis,” and Bacillus trypoxylicola, and the other, Bacillus sp. strain KCTC 13219, should be reclassified into a species belonging to the genus Lysinibacillus. PMID:27174273

  8. Between detection and neutralization.

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark Kamerer; Green, Mary Wilson; Adams, Douglas Glenn; Pritchard, Daniel Allison

    2005-08-01

    Security system analytical performance analysis is generally based on the probability of system effectiveness. The probability of effectiveness is a function of the probabilities of interruption and neutralization. Interruption occurs if the response forces are notified in sufficient time to engage the adversary. Neutralization occurs if the adversary attack is defeated after the security forces have actively engaged the adversary. Both depend upon communications of data. This paper explores details of embedded communications functions that are often assumed to be inconsequential. It is the intent of the authors to bring focus to an issue in security system modeling that, if not well understood, has the potential to be a deciding factor in the overall system failure or effectiveness.

  9. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  10. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  11. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  12. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  13. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  14. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A diver tests a secondary camera and maneuvering platform in Marshall's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS).The secondary camera will be beneficial for recording repairs and other extra vehicular activities (EVA) the astronuats will perform while making repairs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The maneuvering platform was developed to give the astronauts something to stand on while performing maintenance tasks. These platforms were developed to be mobile so that the astronauts could move them to accommadate different sites.

  15. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species by lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, H B; Ezzell, J W; Keller, K F; Doyle, R J

    1984-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis was agglutinated by several lectins, including those from Griffonia simplicifolia, Glycine max, Abrus precatorius, and Ricinus communis. Some strains of Bacillus cereus var. mycoides (B. mycoides) were strongly reactive with the lectin from Helix pomatia and weakly reactive with the G. max lectin. The differential interactions between Bacillus species and lectins afforded a means of distinguishing B. anthracis from other bacilli. B. cereus strains exhibited heterogeneity with respect to agglutination patterns by lectins but could readily be differentiated from B. anthracis and the related B. mycoides. Spores of B. anthracis and B. mycoides retained lectin receptors, although the heating of spores or vegetative cells at 100 degrees C resulted in a decrease in their ability to be specifically agglutinated. Fluorescein-conjugated lectin of G. max stained vegetative cells of B. anthracis uniformly, suggesting that the distribution of lectin receptors was continuous over the entire cellular surface. B. anthracis cells grown under conditions to promote the production of capsular poly(D-glutamyl peptide) were also readily agglutinated by the lectins, suggesting that the lectin reactive sites penetrate the polypeptide layer. Trypsin, subtilisin, lysozyme, and mutanolysin did not modify the reactivity of B. anthracis with the G. max agglutinin, although the same enzymes markedly diminished the interaction between the lectin and B. mycoides. Because the lectins which interact with B. anthracis are specific for alpha-D-galactose or 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactose residues, it is likely that the bacteria possess cell surface polymers which contain these sugars. Lectins may prove useful in the laboratory identification of B. anthracis and possibly other pathogenic Bacillus species, such as B. cereus. Images PMID:6418761

  16. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph P; Meyer, Kathryn M; Kelly, Thomas J; Choi, Young W; Rogers, James V; Riggs, Karen B; Willenberg, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  17. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joseph P.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Choi, Young W.; Rogers, James V.; Riggs, Karen B.; Willenberg, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  18. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph P; Meyer, Kathryn M; Kelly, Thomas J; Choi, Young W; Rogers, James V; Riggs, Karen B; Willenberg, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially.

  19. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  20. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  1. Inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-04-15

    Bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (OCl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone (2K2HSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. The solution produced a free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-) concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved > or =5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 degrees C. Seawaterwas an effective substitute for solid sodium chloride and inactivated 5 to 8 logs of each organism in 10 min over temperatures ranging from -5 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Sporicidal effectiveness increased as free chlorine concentrations shifted from OCl- to HOCl. Neutrally buffered Oxone-chloride and Oxone-seawater solutions are mitigation alternatives for biologically contaminated equipment and environments that would otherwise be decontaminated using caustic bleach solutions.

  2. Inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-04-15

    Bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (OCl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone (2K2HSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. The solution produced a free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-) concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved > or =5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 degrees C. Seawaterwas an effective substitute for solid sodium chloride and inactivated 5 to 8 logs of each organism in 10 min over temperatures ranging from -5 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Sporicidal effectiveness increased as free chlorine concentrations shifted from OCl- to HOCl. Neutrally buffered Oxone-chloride and Oxone-seawater solutions are mitigation alternatives for biologically contaminated equipment and environments that would otherwise be decontaminated using caustic bleach solutions. PMID:16683620

  3. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free Exercise and…

  4. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  5. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications.

  6. [Bacillus licheniformis: an unusual cause of erysipelosis].

    PubMed

    Ameur, M A; Dubrous, P; Koeck, J L

    2005-01-01

    The authors report a case of a cutaneous infection due to Bacillus licheniformis. It occurred after a wound due to a wicker splinter. The bacteriological identification was easy thanks to the very typical aspects of culture. First intention antibiotherapy given for bacterial dermo-hypodermatitis may be ineffective because Bacillus licheniformis secretes a biofilm and is frequently resistant to Beta-lactams.

  7. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1986-06-17

    A method is described for treating a warm-blooded animal comprising administering to the animal a neutral glycerolipid with a 12 to 20 carbon alkyl group at the sn-1 position, a short carbon chain acyl group at the sn-2 position and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position in an amount sufficient to lower the arterial blood pressure of the animal. A method is also described for treating a warm-blooded animal comprising administering a composition consisting essentially of a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl (or propionyl)-sn glycerol in combination with a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, wherein the 1-alkyl groups contain 12 to 20 carbon atoms, dissolved in an inert pharmaceutically acceptable solvent in amounts sufficient to lower the arterial blood pressure of the animal.

  8. On the fate of ingested Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Spinosa, M R; Braccini, T; Ricca, E; De Felice, M; Morelli, L; Pozzi, G; Oggioni, M R

    2000-06-01

    Spores of various Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. clausii, are used as probiotics, although they are generally absent from the normal microflora of man. We used two nonpathogenic Bacillus species, B. subtilis and B. clausii, to follow the fate of spores inoculated intragastrically in mice. We did not find detectable amounts of vegetative cells in intestinal samples, probably because of high toxicity of the conjugated bile salt taurodeoxycholic acid against Bacillus species. Both spores and cells were detected in the lymph nodes and spleen of one mouse. Our results indicate that Bacillus is present in the intestinal tract solely as spores and that nonpathogenic Bacillus spores may germinate in lymphoid organs, a finding reminiscent of B. anthracis germination in macrophages. These results indicate that any claimed probiotic effect of B. subtilis should be due to spores or, alternatively, to vegetative growth outside the intestine. PMID:10919516

  9. Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Irene S.; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although prokaryotes ordinarily undergo binary fission to produce two identical daughter cells, some are able to undergo alternative developmental pathways that produce daughter cells of distinct cell morphology and fate. One such example is a developmental program called sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which occurs under conditions of environmental stress. Sporulation has long been used as a model system to help elucidate basic processes of developmental biology including transcription regulation, intercellular signaling, membrane remodeling, protein localization, and cell fate determination. This review highlights some of the recent work that has been done to further understand prokaryotic cell differentiation during sporulation and its potential applications. PMID:24983526

  10. Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Irene S; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S

    2014-06-01

    Although prokaryotes ordinarily undergo binary fission to produce two identical daughter cells, some are able to undergo alternative developmental pathways that produce daughter cells of distinct cell morphology and fate. One such example is a developmental programme called sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which occurs under conditions of environmental stress. Sporulation has long been used as a model system to help elucidate basic processes of developmental biology including transcription regulation, intercellular signalling, membrane remodelling, protein localization and cell fate determination. This review highlights some of the recent work that has been done to further understand prokaryotic cell differentiation during sporulation and its potential applications. PMID:24983526

  11. Characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Márcia P; Bonatto, Diego; Bizani, Delmar; Henriques, João A P; Brandelli, Adriano

    2006-06-01

    A Bacillus strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain has high sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The antimicrobial substance was inhibitory to pathogenic and food-spoilage bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, and Pasteurella haemolytica. It was stable over a wide temperature range, but lost activity when the temperature reached 121 degrees C/15 min. Maximum activity was observed at acidic and neutral pH values, but not at alkaline pH. The antimicrobial substance was sensitive to the proteolytic action of trypsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Except for iturins, other antimicrobial peptides have not been described for B. amyloliquefaciens. The identification of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance active against L. monocytogenes addresses an important aspect of food protection.

  12. Transient ion neutralization by electrons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems describing the lateral neutralization of ion beams for the cases that (1) an auxiliary electric field accelerates the electrons into the ion space, and (2) the electrons are injected into the ion space at a prescribed current density are treated. Analytical solutions are derived which give the position and speed of the neutralization front as a function of time, and the temporal development of the electron density, velocity, and electric fields during the neutralization process.

  13. Chemistry of carotenoid neutral radicals.

    PubMed

    Ligia Focsan, A; Magyar, Adam; Kispert, Lowell D

    2015-04-15

    Proton loss from the carotenoid radical cations (Car(+)) to form neutral radicals (#Car) was investigated by numerous electrochemical, EPR, ENDOR and DFT studies described herein. The radical cation and neutral radicals were formed in solution electrochemically and stabilized on solid silica-alumina and MCM-41 matrices. Carotenoid neutral radicals were recently identified in Arabidopsis thaliana plant and photosystem II samples. Deprotonation at the terminal ends of a zeaxanthin radical cation could provide a secondary photoprotection pathway which involves quenching excited state chlorophyll by the long-lived zeaxanthin neutral radicals formed. PMID:25687648

  14. Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george

    2016-10-01

    "Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.

  15. A proposed neutral line signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxas, I.; Speiser, T. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    An identifying signature is proposed for the existence and location of the neutral line in the magnetotail. The signature, abrupt density, and temperature changes in the Earthtail direction, was first discovered in test particle simulations. Such temperature variations have been observed in ISEE data (Huang et. al. 1992), but their connection to the possible existence of a neutral line in the tail has not yet been established. The proposed signature develops earlier than the ion velocity space ridge of Martin and Speiser (1988), but can only be seen by spacecraft in the vicinity of the neutral line, while the latter can locate a neutral line remotely.

  16. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.

  17. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  18. OXIDATIVE ASSIMILATION BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, C. E.

    1963-01-01

    Clifton, C. E. (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.). Oxidative assimilation by Bacillus megaterium. J. Bacteriol. 85:1365–1370. 1963.—Washed suspensions of Bacillus megaterium oxidized to CO2 about 39% of the U-C14-glucose supplied and incorporated about 37% of the label by the time a marked break in the rate of O2 consumption was noted. Almost one-half of the label was lost from the cells on acidification of the suspension. The remainder of the C14 was present in the supernatant fluid, primarily in forms as yet unidentified, but other than carbohydrate. Both the Embden-Meyerhof and hexose monophosphate pathways of oxidation were involved. Endogenous respiration appeared to be inhibited only to a slight extent in the presence of an exogenous substrate. C14 appeared in all fractions of the cells; the highest percentage of firmly bound C14 was present in hot 5% trichloroacetic acid-insoluble matter. A decrease in C14 content of the various fractions was noted during endogenous respiration of cells labeled during growth. Pyruvate and acetate were oxidized very slowly by B. megaterium. The results indicate the complexity of oxidative assimilation and the dynamic state of cellular metabolism. PMID:14047231

  19. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  20. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  1. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC ). The MSFC NBS provided an excellent environment for testing hardware to examine how it would operate in space and for evaluating techniques for space construction and spacecraft servicing. Here, engineers, designers, and astronauts performed various tests to develop basic concepts, preliminary designs, final designs, and crew procedures. The NBS was constructed of welded steel with polyester-resin coating. The water tank was 75-feet (22.9- meters) in diameter, 40-feet (12.2-meters) deep, and held 1.32 million gallons of water. Since it opened for operation in 1968, the NBS had supported a number of successful space missions, such as the Skylab, Solar Maximum Mission Satellite, Marned Maneuvering Unit, Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (EASE/ACCESS), the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Space Station. The function of the MSFC NBS was moved to the larger simulator at the Johnson Space Center and is no longer operational.

  2. Europa's Neutral Gas Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Mitchell, D. G.; McEntire, R. W.; Paranicas, C. P.; Roelof, E. C.; Williams, D. J.; Krimigis, S. M.; Lagg, A.

    2004-05-01

    In-situ energetic ion measurements from the Galileo spacecraft and remote energetic neutral atom (ENA) images from the Cassini spacecraft have been previously interpreted as revealing an unexpectedly massive torus of gas co-orbiting with Jupiter's moon Europa (Lagg et al., 2003; Mauk et al., 2003). Here we report on the results of detailed modeling of the ENA emission process from the Europa regions. Updates to the distribution and composition of the trapped energetic ion populations are included in the models, as are considerations of the partitioning of the gas products into multiple atomic and molecular species. Comparisons between the models and the Cassini observations reveal a torus with a total gas content equal to (0.5 +/- 0.2) E34 atoms plus molecules. This value is higher than, but within a factor of 3 of, an estimate inferred from a prediction of gas densities derived from Voyager plasma measurements and modeling of the interaction between the plasmas and the gases assumed to be emanating from Europa (Schreier et al., 1993). Lagg, A., N. Krupp, J. Woch, and D. J. Williams, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, DOI 10.1029/2003GL017214, 2003. Mauk, B. H., D. G. Mitchell, S. M. Krimigs, E. C. Roelof, and C. P. Paranicas, Nature, 241, 920, 2003. Schreier, S., A. Eviatar, V. M. Vasyliunas, and J. D. Richardson, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 21231, 1993.

  3. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  4. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  5. Mechanism of Algal Aggregation by Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting. PMID:24771029

  6. Neutral point detection by satellites. [magnetospheric neutral sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, K.; Ness, N. F.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a neutral point depends on the physical phenomena described. The regions with B less than about 1 gamma detected by Schindler and Ness may be interpreted as neutral regions for the ion-tearing process. The assumption of the presence of a multiple neutral point structure (with temporal variations) is still the most promising interpretation of the Explorer 34 data. Alternatives suggested by Russell lead to difficulties. Nevertheless, the final answer can come only from multiple satellite systems. A 1-day displacement of the day count in the data discussed by Schindler and Ness is corrected.

  7. Phosphatidyltransferase activity in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Morii, H; Goldfine, H

    1991-07-01

    Phosphatidyl transfer between phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidylserine as donors and primary hydroxyl acceptors including ethanolamine, glycerol, serine and Triton X-100 has been shown to be catalysed by membrane particles derived from Bacillus megaterium strains ATCC 13632 and ATCC 14581. The rate of cardiolipin synthesis from phosphatidylglycerol in the presence of ethanolamine was an order of magnitude greater than that of phosphatidylethanolamine formation. Cardiolipin synthesis from phosphatidylethanolamine in the presence of glycerol was also observed, and was 1.5-fold greater than the formation of phosphatidylglycerol. Similar heat lability, effects of pH and of Triton X-100 for phosphatidyl transfer and cardiolipin synthesis indicate that both reactions were catalysed by cardiolipin synthase. PMID:1659610

  8. Environmental neutralization of polonium-218

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that two mechanisms of neutralization of the singly charged polonium ion exist. Charged Polonium-218 can be neutralized by reacting with oxygen to form a polonium oxide ion with a higher ionization potential than that of the polonium metal and then accepting an electron transferred from a lower ionization potential gas. In this present work, this mechanism has been verified by determining that the polonium oxide has an ionization potential in the range 10.35-10.53 eV. It was also previously reported that /sup 218/Po can be neutralized, in the absence of oxygen, by the scavenging of electrons by a trace gas such as water or nitrogen dioxide and their diffusion to the polonium ion. To verify this second neutralization mechanism, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in nitrogen in the range of 50 ppb-1 ppm were examined for their ability to neutralize the polonium ion. Complete neutralization of /sup 218/Po was observed at nitrogen dioxide concentrations greater than 700 ppb. For concentrations below 700 ppb, the degree of neutralization was found to increase smoothly with the nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  9. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection.

  10. Positional nystagmus showing neutral points.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Numata, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    We encountered patients who had their static direction-changing positional nystagmus canceled at about 20-30 degrees yaw head rotation from the supine position. This nystagmus was also canceled when the head was rotated 180 degrees from this position. We call these head positions neutral points. At the neutral points, the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal of the affected ear is positioned vertical to the gravitational plane and no deflection of the cupula occurs. The positional nystagmus observed (except the neutral points) was thought to occur due to a "heavy cupula" or "light cupula", which may be determined by the specific gravity of its endolymph.

  11. Neutral current interactions in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Alexandre; /Oxford U.

    2007-07-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) long-baseline experiment has been actively collecting beam data since 2005, having already accumulated 3 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target (POT). The several million neutrinos per year observed at the Near detector may improve the existing body of knowledge of neutrino cross-sections and the Near-Far comparison of the observed energy spectrum neutral current events constrains oscillations into sterile neutrinos. MINOS capabilities of observing neutral current neutrino events are described and the employed methodology for event selection is discussed, along with preliminary results obtained. An outlook on the expected neutral current related contributions from MINOS is also presented.

  12. [Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Mitsuru

    2013-03-01

    The Ibaraki Medical Association established the Committee for Alternative Dispute Resolution called the Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee in 2006. Among 64 claims presented to the committee, 29 were settled through mediation or consultation. Patients were generally satisfied that their claims were considered fairly by the committee and that they were able to talk directly with healthcare professionals. However, some did not consider the committee to be completely neutral. The healthcare professionals involved rated the committee highly because they felt that the processes were neutral and no emotional aspects were involved. PMID:23617190

  13. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design. PMID:26267277

  14. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  15. The status of the species Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus. Request for an Opinion.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Raquel; Klein, Günter; Kämpfer, Peter; Peixe, Luísa V

    2015-03-01

    During a study assessing the diversity of the Bacillus pumilus group it became apparent that the type strains of both Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus were not available from any established culture collection, nor from the authors who originally described them. Therefore, type strains of these species cannot be included in any further scientific studies. It is therefore proposed that the Judicial Commission of the International Committee of Systematics of Prokaryotes place the names Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus on the list of rejected names, if suitable replacements for the type strains are not found or if neotype strains are not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion.

  16. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  17. Characterization of a Family GH5 Xylanase with Activity on Neutral Oligosaccharides and Evaluation as a Pulp Bleaching Aid ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Óscar; Fernández-Fernández, María; Valls, Cristina; Valenzuela, Susana Valeria; Roncero, M. Blanca; Vidal, Teresa; Díaz, Pilar; Pastor, F. I. Javier

    2010-01-01

    A new bacterial xylanase belonging to family 5 of glycosyl hydrolases was identified and characterized. The xylanase, Xyn5B from Bacillus sp. strain BP-7, was active on neutral, nonsubstituted xylooligosaccharides, showing a clear difference from other GH5 xylanases characterized to date that show a requirement for methyl-glucuronic acid side chains for catalysis. The enzyme was evaluated on Eucalyptus kraft pulp, showing its effectiveness as a bleaching aid. PMID:20656870

  18. Tryptophan catabolism in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed Central

    Bouknight, R R; Sadoff, H L

    1975-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium grows in a medium containing L-tryptophan as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. Kynurenine, anthranilic acid, and catechol are metabolic intermediates, suggesting that this organism used the anthranilic acid pathway for tryptophan degradation. Cells that grow on L-tryptophan oxidize kynurenine, alanine, and anthranilic acid and the presence of tryptophan oxygenase (EC 1.13.1.12), kynureninase (EC 3.7.1.3), and catechol oxygenase (EC 1.13.1.1) in cell extracts provide additional evidence for the degradative pathway in B. megaterium. Tryptophan oxygenase is inhibited by sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and hydroxylamine, indicating that the enzyme has a functional heme group. D-Tryptophan is not a substrate for tryptophan oxygenase, and the D-isomer does not inhibit this enzyme. Formamidase (EC 3.5.1.9) and anthranilate hydroxylase are not detectable in extracts. Tryptophan catabolism is inducible in B megaterium and is subject to catabolite repression by glucose and glutamate. Arginine does not cause repression, and kynurenine induces both tryptophan oxygenase and kynureninase. PMID:803956

  19. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  20. Neutral and Non-Neutral Evolution of Drosophila Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rand, D. M.; Dorfsman, M.; Kann, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    To test hypotheses of neutral evolution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), nucleotide sequences were determined for 1515 base pairs of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene in the mitochondrial DNA of 29 lines of Drosophila melanogaster and 9 lines of its sibling species Drosophila simulans. In contrast to the patterns for nuclear genes, where D. melanogaster generally exhibits much less nucleotide polymorphism, the number of segregating sites was slightly higher in a global sample of nine ND5 sequences in D. melanogaster (s = 8) than in the nine lines of D. simulans (s = 6). When compared to variation at nuclear loci, the mtDNA variation in D. melanogaster does not depart from neutral expectations. The ND5 sequences in D. simulans, however, show fewer than half the number of variable sites expected under neutrality when compared to sequences from the period locus. While this reduction in variation is not significant at the 5% level, HKA tests with published restriction data for mtDNA in D. simulans do show a significant reduction of variation suggesting a selective sweep of variation in the mtDNA in this species. Tests of neutral evolution based on the ratios of synonymous and replacement polymorphism and divergence are generally consistent with neutral expectations, although a significant excess of amino acid polymorphism within both species is localized in one region of the protein. The rate of mtDNA evolution has been faster in D. melanogaster than in D. simulans and the population structure of mtDNA is distinct in these species. The data reveal how different rates of mtDNA evolution between species and different histories of neutral and adaptive evolution within species can compromise historical inferences in population and evolutionary biology. PMID:7851771

  1. Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation experiment is scheduled to be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission. The objective of this experiment is to measure very faint emissions at nighttime arising from fluxes of energetic neutral atoms in the thermosphere. These energetic atoms have energies ranging up to about 50 keV, and arise from ions of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen trapped in the inner magnetosphere. Some of these ions become neutralized in charge exchange reactions with neutral hydrogen in the hydrogen geocorona that extends through the region. The ions are trapped on magnetic field lines which cross the equatorial plane at 2 to 6 earth radii distance, and they mirror at a range of heights on these field lines, extending down to the thermosphere at 500 km altitude. The ATLAS 1 measurements will not be of the neutral atoms themselves but of the optical emission produced by those on trajectories that intersect the thermosphere. The ENAP measurements are to be made using the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) which is being flown on the ATLAS mission primarily for daytime spectral observations, and the ENAP measurements will all be nighttime measurements because of the faintness of the emissions and the relatively low level of magnetic activity expected.

  2. Effects of Enteric-coated Lactoferrin Tablets Containing Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on Fecal Properties, Defecation Frequency and Intestinal Microbiota of Japanese Women with a Tendency for Constipation: a Randomized Placebo-controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Noriyuki; MURAKOSHI, Michiaki; ONO, Tomoji; MORISHITA, Satoru; KOIDE, Misao; BAE, Min Jung; TOTSUKA, Mamoru; SHIMIZU, Makoto; SUGIYAMA, Keikichi; NISHINO, Hoyoku; IIDA, Norio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oral administration of enteric-coated tablets containing lactoferrin (LF; 100 mg/tablet) and heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans FREM BP-4693 (LB; 6×109 bacteria/tablet) on fecal properties were examined in 32 Japanese women (20–60 years of age) with a tendency for constipation (defecation frequency at equal to or less than 10 times/2 weeks) by a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. A significant increase in defecation days per week was obserbed in the subjects who ingested the tablets containing LF and LB compared with the placebo group. The number of bifidobacteria in feces also significantly increased compared with the placebo group. In an in vitro study, LF and tryptic hydrolysate of LF, but not peptic hydrolysate of LF, upregulated the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707 when added to the culture. These results demonstrate the capability of the enteric-coated tablets containing LF and LB in improving intestinal function and suggest that they have a growth promoting function for bifidobacteria. PMID:24936358

  3. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  4. 46 CFR 502.404 - Neutrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resolution proceeding. A neutral shall have no official, financial, or personal conflict of interest with... Dispute Resolution § 502.404 Neutrals. (a) A neutral may be a permanent or temporary officer or employee... Maritime Commission Dispute Resolution Specialist will seek to provide a neutral in dispute...

  5. 46 CFR 502.404 - Neutrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resolution proceeding. A neutral shall have no official, financial, or personal conflict of interest with... Dispute Resolution § 502.404 Neutrals. (a) A neutral may be a permanent or temporary officer or employee... Maritime Commission Dispute Resolution Specialist will seek to provide a neutral in dispute...

  6. 46 CFR 502.404 - Neutrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resolution proceeding. A neutral shall have no official, financial, or personal conflict of interest with... Dispute Resolution § 502.404 Neutrals. (a) A neutral may be a permanent or temporary officer or employee... Maritime Commission Dispute Resolution Specialist will seek to provide a neutral in dispute...

  7. 46 CFR 502.404 - Neutrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resolution proceeding. A neutral shall have no official, financial, or personal conflict of interest with... Dispute Resolution § 502.404 Neutrals. (a) A neutral may be a permanent or temporary officer or employee... Maritime Commission Dispute Resolution Specialist will seek to provide a neutral in dispute...

  8. 46 CFR 502.404 - Neutrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resolution proceeding. A neutral shall have no official, financial, or personal conflict of interest with... Dispute Resolution § 502.404 Neutrals. (a) A neutral may be a permanent or temporary officer or employee... Maritime Commission Dispute Resolution Specialist will seek to provide a neutral in dispute...

  9. A Re-Examiniation of Phonological Neutralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these…

  10. PDX neutral beam reionization losses

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Dylla, H.F.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Moore, R.; Schilling, G.; Stuart, L.D.; Von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-04-01

    Reionization losses for 1.5 MW H /sup 0/ and 2 MW D /sup 0/ neutral beams injected into the PDX tokamak were studied using pressure gauges, phototransistors, thermocouples, surface shielding, and surface sample analysis. Considerable outgassing of conventionally prepared 304 SS ducts occurred during initial injections and gradually decreased with the cumulative absorption of beam power. Reionization power losses are presently about 5% in the ducts and about 12% total for a beamline including the duct. Present duct pressures are attributed primarily to gas from the ion source and neutralizer with much smaller contributions from residual wall desorption. Physical mechanisms for the observed duct outgassing are discussed.

  11. ATF neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Morris, R.N.; Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility is a stellarator torsatron being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate improved plasma confinement schemes. Plasmas heating will be carried out predominantly by means of neutral beam injection. This paper describes the basic parameters of the injection system. Numerical calculations were done to optimize the aiming of the injectors. The results of these calculations and their implications on the neutral power to the machine are elaborated. The effects of improving the beam optics and altering the focal length on the power transmitted to the plasma are discussed.

  12. Directed evolution of a maltogenic alpha-amylase from Bacillus sp. TS-25.

    PubMed

    Jones, Aubrey; Lamsa, Michael; Frandsen, Torben P; Spendler, Tina; Harris, Paul; Sloma, Alan; Xu, Feng; Nielsen, Jack Bech; Cherry, Joel R

    2008-04-30

    Directed evolution coupled with a high-throughput robotic screen was employed to broaden the industrial use of the maltogenic alpha-amylase Novamyl from Bacillus sp. TS-25. Wild-type Novamyl is currently used in the baking industry as an anti-staling agent in breads baked at neutral or near neutral pH. However, the enzyme is rapidly inactivated during the baking process of bread made with low pH recipes and Novamyl thus has very limited beneficial effect for this particular application. In an effort to improve the performance of Novamyl for low pH bread applications such as sourdough and rye, two error-prone PCR libraries were generated, expressed in Bacillus subtilis and screened for variants with improved thermal stability and activity under low pH conditions. Variants exhibiting improved performance were iteratively recombined using DNA shuffling to create two generations of libraries. Relative to wild-type Novamyl, a number of the resulting variants exhibited more than 10 degrees C increase in thermal stability at pH 4.5, one of which demonstrated substantial anti-staling properties in low pH breads.

  13. Neutralization of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by humic acid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Kühnert, Manfred; Haufe, Svent; Krüger, Monika

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the neutralization ability of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by different humic acids was investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of glyphosate for different bacteria such as Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Escherichia coli, E. coli 1917 strain Nissle, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were determined in the presence or absence of different concentrations of humic acid (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL(-1)). Our findings indicated that humic acids inhibited the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate on different bacteria. This information can help overcome the negative impact of glyphosate residues in feed and water. PMID:24268342

  14. Purification and partial characterization of bacillocin 490, a novel bacteriocin produced by a thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Martirani, Luca; Varcamonti, Mario; Naclerio, Gino; De Felice, Maurilio

    2002-04-18

    BACKGROUND: Applications of bacteriocins as food preservatives have been so far limited, principally because of their low antimicrobial activity in foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin of significant use, but applications are restricted principally because of its very low activity at neutral or alkaline pH. Thus the isolation of new bacteriocins active in foods is desirable. RESULTS: We isolated a Bacillus licheniformis thermophilic strain producing a bacteriocin with some novel features, named here bacillocin 490. This bacteriocin was inactivated by pronase E and proteinase K and was active against closely related Bacillus spp. both in aerobic and in anaerobic conditions. Bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4 degrees C and was remarkably stable in a wide pH range. The bacteriocin was partially purified by elution after adhesion to cells of the food-isolated strain Bacillus smithii and had a rather low mass (2 KDa). Antimicrobial activity against B. smithii was observed also when this organism was grown in water buffalo milk. CONCLUSIONS: Bacillocin 490 is a novel candidate as a food anti-microbial agent since it displays its activity in milk, is stable to heat treatment and during storage, is active in a wide pH range and has bactericidal activity also at high temperature. These features may allow the use of bacillocin 490 during processes performed at high temperature and as a complementary antimicrobial agent of nisin against some Bacillus spp. in non-acidic foods. The small size suggests its use on solid foods.

  15. MSFC Skylab neutral buoyancy simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of a neutral buoyancy simulator for developing extravehicular activity systems and for training astronauts in weightless activities is discussed. The construction of the facility and the operations are described. The types of tests and the training activities conducted in the simulator are reported. Photographs of the components of the simulator and actual training exercises are included.

  16. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, J.H.; Frank, A.M.

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment is disclosed. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process. 2 figs.

  17. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H. [Livermore, CA; Frank, Alan M. [Livermore, CA

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process.

  18. RE: Pedagogy--After Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    I'Anson, John

    2010-01-01

    Within the UK and in many parts of the world, official accounts of what it is to make sense of religion are framed within a rhetorics of neutrality in which such study is premised upon the possibility of dispassionate engagement and analysis. This paper, which is largely theoretical in scope, explores both the affordances and the costs of such an…

  19. Self-neutralized ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Nikolaev, A.; Savkin, K. P.; Oks, E. M.; Spaedtke, P.; Yu, K. M.; Brown, I. G.

    2011-10-15

    A vacuum arc ion source provides high current beams of metal ions that have been used both for accelerator injection and for ion implantation, and in both of these applications the degree of space charge neutralization of the beam is important. In accelerator injection application, the beam from the ion source may be accelerated further (post-acceleration), redirected by a bending magnet(s), or focused with magnetic or electrostatic lenses, and knowledge of the beam space charge is needed for optimal design of the optical elements. In ion implantation application, any build-up of positive charge in the insulating targets must be compensated by a simultaneous flux of cold electrons so as to provide overall charge neutrality of the target. We show that in line-of-sight ion implantation using a vacuum arc ion source, the high current ion beam carries along its own background sea of cold electrons, and this copious source of electrons provides a ''self-neutralizing'' feature to the beam. Here we describe experiments carried out in order to demonstrate this effect, and we provide an analysis showing that the beam is space-charge-neutralized to a very high degree.

  20. Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. L. Vijaya; Thippeswamy, B.; Kuppust, I. L.; Naveenkumar, K. J.; Shivakumar, C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: All the sample extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in paralyzing the worms comparable with that of the standard drug. The time of death exhibited by BP metabolites was close to the time exhibited by standard. Conclusion: The study indicates both bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus have anthelmintic activity indicating potential metabolites in them. PMID:25598639

  1. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  2. Genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dubnau, D

    1991-01-01

    Genetic competence may be defined as a physiological state enabling a bacterial culture to bind and take up high-molecular-weight exogenous DNA (transformation). In Bacillus subtilis, competence develops postexponentially and only in certain media. In addition, only a minority of the cells in a competent culture become competent, and these are physiologically distinct. Thus, competence is subject to three regulatory modalities: growth stage specific, nutritionally responsive, and cell type specific. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning competence in B. subtilis. The study of genes required for transformability has permitted their classification into two broad categories. Late competence genes are expressed under competence control and specify products required for the binding, uptake, and processing of transforming DNA. Regulatory genes specify products that are needed for the expression of the late genes. Several of the late competence gene products have been shown to be membrane localized, and others are predicted to be membrane associated on the basis of amino acid sequence data. Several of these predicted protein sequences show a striking resemblance to gene products that are involved in the export and/or assembly of extracellular proteins and structures in gram-negative organisms. This observation is consistent with the idea that the late products are directly involved in transport of DNA and is equally consistent with the notion that they play a morphogenetic role in the assembly of a transport apparatus. The competence regulatory apparatus constitutes an elaborate signal transduction system that senses and interprets environmental information and passes this information to the competence-specific transcriptional machinery. Many of the regulatory gene products have been identified and partially characterized, and their interactions have been studied genetically and in some cases biochemically as well. These include several

  3. An acetoin-regulated expression system of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Silbersack, Jörg; Jürgen, Britta; Hecker, Michael; Schneidinger, Bernd; Schmuck, Rainer; Schweder, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    An expression system, which is based on the promoter of the acoABCL operon of Bacillus subtilis was developed and characterized. The acoABCL operon codes for the acetoin dehydrogenase complex, which is the major enzyme system responsible for the catabolism of acetoin in B. subtilis. Besides weak organic acids, the neutral overflow metabolite acetoin is metabolized by the cells in the early stationary phase. Transcription of reporter gene fusions with the acoA promoter of this operon is strongly repressed by glucose but induced by acetoin as soon as the preferred carbon source glucose is exhausted. The co-expression of an additional copy of the regulator gene acoR led to more than twofold higher activity of the acoA promoter. It is demonstrated that the induction of this promoter in growing cells with acetoin is possible with non-phosphotransferase system sugars as carbon and energy source and in a ccpA mutant background. Moreover, it could be shown that the activity of the acoA-directed expression system correlates with the level of acetoin in the medium. During glucose limitation, the utilization of the alternative energy source acetoin keeps the protein synthesis machinery of B. subtilis cells active and thus allows for a long lasting acoA-controlled expression of recombinant genes.

  4. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  5. Measurement of plasma production and neutralization in gas neutralizers

    SciTech Connect

    Maor, D.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B.; Jones, K.; Agagu, A.; Hu, B.

    1986-06-17

    In order to satisfy the need of experimental data for the designing of gas neutralizers we have started a project aimed at measuring all relevant cross sections for the charge exchange of H/sup -/, H/sup 0/ and H/sup +/ projectiles, as well as the cross sections for the production of ions in the target. The expected results of these latter measurements are shown schematically.

  6. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures. PMID:26502561

  7. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pascal.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Jeffery D; Vega Gonzalez, Alexander E; Maroun, Justin W; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-29

    Podophage Pascal infects Bacillus megaterium, a commonly used model organism in biochemical research and an important industrial-scale protein production system. Here, we report the sequenced and annotated genome of Pascal and describe its prominent features. Bacteriophages such as Pascal may be valuable tools for research and industry.

  8. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus endophyticus 2102.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang-Jae; Kim, Sun Hong; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lee, Han-Seung; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Bacillus endophyticus 2102 is an endospore-forming, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a hypersaline pond in South Korea. Here we present the draft sequence of B. endophyticus 2102, which is of interest because of its potential use in the industrial production of algaecides and bioplastics and for the treatment of industrial textile effluents. PMID:23012284

  9. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  10. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  11. Rocket Experiment For Neutral Upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenward, D. R.; Lessard, M.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from the CHAMP satellite from 2004 show relatively small scale heating in the thermosphere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The RENU 2 rocket mission includes a suite of 14 instruments which will acquire data to help understand processes involved in neutral upwelling in the cusp. Neutral, ion, and electron measurements will be made to provide an assessment of the upwelling process. SUPERDarn measurements of large- scale Joule heating in the cusp during overflight will also be acquired. Small-scale data which could possibly be associated with Alfvén waves, will be acquired using onboard electric field measurements. In-situ measurement of precipitating electrons and all other measurements will be used in thermodynamic and electrodynamic models for comparison to the observed upwelling.

  12. Sq Currents and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between ionospheric dynamo currents and neutral winds is examined using the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM). The simulation is run for May and June 2009 with variable neutral winds but with constant solar and magnetospheric energy inputs, which ensures that day-to-day changes in the solar quiet (Sq) current system arise only from lower atmospheric forcing. The intensity and focus position of the simulated Sq current system exhibit large day-to-day variability, as is also seen in ground magnetometer data. We show how the day-to-day variation of the Sq current system relate to variable winds at various altitudes, latitudes, and longitudes.

  13. Neutral depletion versus repletion due to ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchtman, A.; Makrinich, G.; Raimbault, J.-L.; Liard, L.; Rax, J.-M.; Chabert, P.

    2008-05-15

    Recent theoretical analyses which predicted unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless plasmas are reviewed. We focus on the depletion of collisionless neutrals induced by strong ionization of a collisionless plasma and contrast this depletion with the effect of strong ionization on thermalized neutrals. The collisionless plasma is analyzed employing a kinetic description. The collisionless neutrals and the plasma are coupled through volume ionization and wall recombination only. The profiles of density and pressure both of the plasma and of the neutral-gas and the profile of the ionization rate are calculated. It is shown that for collisionless neutrals the ionization results in neutral depletion, while when neutrals are thermalized the ionization induces a maximal neutral-density at the discharge center, which we call neutral repletion. The difference between the two cases stems from the relation between the neutral density and pressure. The pressure of the collisionless neutral-gas turns out to be maximal where its density is minimal, in contrast to the case of a thermalized neutral gas.

  14. Method of measuring Bacillus anthracis spores in the presence of copious amounts of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gossett A; Mutharasan, Raj

    2007-02-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for the detection of Bacillus anthracis (BA; Sterne strain 7702) spores in presence of large amounts of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and Bacillus cereus (BC) is presented based on a novel PZT-anchored piezoelectric excited millimeter-sized cantilever (PAPEMC) sensor with a sensing area of 1.5 mm2. Antibody (anti-BA) specific to BA spores was immobilized on the sensing area and exposed to various samples of BA, BT, and BC containing the same concentration of BA at 333 spores/mL, and the concentration of BT + BC was varied in concentration ratios of (BA:BT + BC) 0:1, 1:0, 1:1, 1:10, 1:100, and 1:1000. In each case, the sensor responded with an exponential decrease in resonant frequency and the steady-state frequency changes reached were 14 +/- 31 (n = 11), 2742 +/- 38 (n = 3), 3053 +/- 19 (n = 2), 2777 +/- 26 (n = 2), 2953 +/- 24 (n = 2), and 3105 +/- 27 (n = 2) Hz, respectively, in 0, 27, 45, 63, 154, and 219 min. The bound BA spores were released in each experiment, and the sensor response was nearly identical to the frequency change during attachment. These results suggest that the transport of BA spores to the antibody immobilized surface was hindered by the presence of other Bacillus species. The observed binding rate constant, based on the Langmuir kinetic model, was determined to be 0.15 min-1. A hindrance factor (alpha) is defined to describe the reduced attachment rate in the presence of BT + BC and found to increase exponentially with BT and BC concentration. The hindrance factor increased from 3.52 at 333 BT + BC spores/mL to 11.04 at 3.33 x 105 BT + BC spores/mL, suggesting that alpha is a strong function of BT and BC concentration. The significance of these results is that anti-BA functionalized PEMC sensors are highly selective to Bacillus anthracis spores and the presence of other Bacillus species, in large amounts, does not prevent binding but impedes BA transport to the sensor.

  15. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  16. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  17. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.71 Mbp with a DNA G+C content of 46.3 mol%. Comparative genomic analysis with its nearest relatives showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T), with a calculated DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) value of 91.2 % and an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 98.9 %. This DDH value is well above the recommended 70 % threshold for species delineation, as well as the ANI threshold of 95 %. In addition, the results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar with phenotype coherence. A core genome multi-locus sequencing analysis was conducted for the strains and the results show that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 clusters closely to the type strain of Bacillus siamensis. Therefore, it is proposed that the species ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T). An emended description of Bacillus siamensis is provided. PMID:26296875

  18. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.71 Mbp with a DNA G+C content of 46.3 mol%. Comparative genomic analysis with its nearest relatives showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T), with a calculated DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) value of 91.2 % and an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 98.9 %. This DDH value is well above the recommended 70 % threshold for species delineation, as well as the ANI threshold of 95 %. In addition, the results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar with phenotype coherence. A core genome multi-locus sequencing analysis was conducted for the strains and the results show that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 clusters closely to the type strain of Bacillus siamensis. Therefore, it is proposed that the species ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T). An emended description of Bacillus siamensis is provided.

  19. Osmotically regulated synthesis of the compatible solute ectoine in Bacillus pasteurii and related Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Anne U; Bremer, Erhard

    2002-02-01

    By using natural-abundance (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis we have investigated the types of compatible solutes that are synthesized de novo in a variety of Bacillus species under high-osmolality growth conditions. Five different patterns of compatible solute production were found among the 13 Bacillus species we studied. Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, and B. megaterium produced proline; B. cereus, B. circulans, B. thuringiensis, Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus synthesized glutamate; B. alcalophilus, B. psychrophilus, and B. pasteurii synthesized ectoine; and Salibacillus (formerly Bacillus) salexigens produced both ectoine and hydroxyectoine, whereas Virgibacillus (formerly Bacillus) pantothenticus synthesized both ectoine and proline. Hence, the ability to produce the tetrahydropyrimidine ectoine under hyperosmotic growth conditions is widespread within the genus Bacillus and closely related taxa. To study ectoine biosynthesis within the group of Bacillus species in greater detail, we focused on B. pasteurii. We cloned and sequenced its ectoine biosynthetic genes (ectABC). The ectABC genes encode the diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase (EctA), the diaminobutyric acid aminotransferase (EctB), and the ectoine synthase (EctC). Together these proteins constitute the ectoine biosynthetic pathway, and their heterologous expression in B. subtilis led to the production of ectoine. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the ectABC genes are genetically organized as an operon whose expression is strongly enhanced when the osmolality of the growth medium is raised. Primer extension analysis allowed us to pinpoint the osmoregulated promoter of the B. pasteurii ectABC gene cluster. HPLC analysis of osmotically challenged B. pasteurii cells revealed that ectoine production within this bacterium is finely tuned and closely correlated with the osmolality of the growth

  20. Neutral-current x-distributions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W.; Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.; Fisk, R.; Fuess, S.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.; et al.

    1984-06-01

    The role of the semi leptonic neutral current interaction as a probe of nucleon structure is examined. Previous measurements of neutral current x-distributions are reviewed, and new results from the Fermilab - MIT - MSU collaboration are presented.

  1. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  2. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective…

  3. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  4. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  5. On abstract degenerate neutral differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Eduardo; O'Regan, Donal

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a new abstract model of functional differential equations, which we call abstract degenerate neutral differential equations, and we study the existence of strict solutions. The class of problems and the technical approach introduced in this paper allow us to generalize and extend recent results on abstract neutral differential equations. Some examples on nonlinear partial neutral differential equations are presented.

  6. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and use any…

  7. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T).

  8. Nucleotide sequence and cloning in Bacillus subtilis of the Bacillus stearothermophilus pleiotropic regulatory gene degT.

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, M; Takada, H; Imanaka, T

    1990-01-01

    The regulatory gene (degT) from Bacillus stearothermophilus NCA1503 which enhanced production of extracellular alkaline protease (Apr) was cloned in Bacillus subtilis with pTB53 as a vector. When B. subtilis MT-2 (Npr- [deficiency of neutral protease] Apr+) was transformed with the recombinant plasmid, pDT145, the plasmid carrier produced about three times more alkaline protease than did the wild-type strain. In contrast, when B. subtilis DB104 (Npr- Apr-) was used as a host, the transformant with pDT145 could not exhibit any protease activity. After construction of the deletion plasmids, DNA sequencing was done. A large open reading frame was found, and nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the degT gene was composed of 1,116 bases (372 amino acid residues, molecular weight of 41,244). A Shine-Dalgarno sequence was found nine bases upstream from the open reading frame. A B. subtilis strain carrying degT showed the following pleiotropic phenomena: (i) enhancement of production of extracellular enzymes such as alkaline protease and levansucrase, (ii) repression of autolysin activity, (iii) decrease of transformation efficiency for B. subtilis (competent cell procedure), (iv) altered control of sporulation, (v) loss of flagella, and (vi) abnormal cell division. When B. stearothermophilus SIC1 was transformed with the recombinant plasmid carrying degT, the transformants exhibited abnormal cell division. These phenomena are similar to those of the phenotypes of degSU(Hy) (hyperproduction), degQ(Hy), and degR mutants of B. subtilis. However, the amino acid sequence of the degT product (DegT) is different from those of the reported gene products. Furthermore, DegT includes a hydrophobic core region in the N-terminal portion (amino acid numbers 50 to 160), a consensus sequence for a DNA binding region (amino acid numbers 160 to 179), and a region homologous to transcription activator proteins (amino acid numbers 351 to 366). We discuss the possibility that the membrane

  9. Nonlinear neutral inclusions: assemblages of coated ellipsoids

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Silvia Jiménez; Vernescu, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The problem of determining nonlinear neutral inclusions in (electrical or thermal) conductivity is considered. Neutral inclusions, inserted in a matrix containing a uniform applied electric field, do not disturb the field outside the inclusions. The well-known Hashin-coated sphere construction is an example of a neutral inclusion. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing neutral inclusions from nonlinear materials. In particular, we discuss assemblages of coated ellipsoids. The proposed construction is neutral for a given applied field. PMID:26064633

  10. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2010-05-21

    Ion beam emission/neutralization is one of the most fundamental problems in spacecraft plasma interactions and electric propulsion. Although ion beam neutralization is readily achieved in experiments, the understanding of the underlying physical process remains at a rather primitive level. No theoretical or simulation models have convincingly explained the detailed neutralization mechanism, and no conclusions have been reached. This paper presents a fully kinetic simulation of ion beam neutralization and plasma beam propagation and discusses the physics of electron-ion coupling and the resulting propagation of a neutralized mesothermal plasma.

  11. Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

    2003-10-01

    The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus. PMID:14626420

  12. Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

    2003-10-01

    The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus.

  13. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  14. Neutral gas dynamics in fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-06-01

    Fireballs are local discharge phenomena on positively biased electrodes in partially ionized plasmas. Electrons, energized at a double layer, heat neutral gas which expands. The gas pressure exceeds the plasma pressure, hence becomes important to the stability and transport in fireballs. The flow of gas moves the electrode and sensors similar to a mica pendulum. Flow speed and directions are measured. A fireball gun has been developed to partially collimate the flow of hot gas and heat objects in its path. New applications of fireballs are suggested.

  15. Advanced neutral-beam technology

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.H.

    1980-09-01

    Extensive development will be required to achieve the 50- to 75-MW, 175- to 200-keV, 5- to 10-sec pulses of deuterium atoms envisioned for ETF and INTOR. Multi-megawatt injector systems are large (and expansive); they consist of large vacuum tanks with many square meters of cryogenic pumping panels, beam dumps capable of dissipating several megawatts of un-neutralized beam, bending magnets, electrical power systems capable of fast turnoff with low (capacity) stored energy, and, of course, the injector modules (ion sources and accelerators). The technology requirements associated with these components are described.

  16. [Spontaneous bacteriophage induction in Bacillus thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Besaeva, S G; Mikhaĭlov, A A; Petrova, T M; Tur, A I; Bystrova, E V

    1987-01-01

    The production of temperate bacteriophages was studied in the process of batch cultivation of three Bacillus thuringiensis lysogenic strains. Phage titres were determined using an indicator culture (IPM-1148). The growth of bacteriophages was induced when thermoactivated spores germinated. Some cells (1.10(-3)-2.10(-3)) underwent lysis without their division. The subsequent lytic cycles occurred in the actively growing culture. Phage titres ceased to rise before the exponential growth phase was over.

  17. Bacillus cereus Biofilms-Same, Only Different.

    PubMed

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  18. Bacillus cereus Biofilms—Same, Only Different

    PubMed Central

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  19. Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.

  20. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin.

    PubMed

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B

    2015-01-01

    The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing determinant in alpha

  1. Extending the limits of Bacillus for novel biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prasun; Patel, Sanjay K S; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kalia, Vipin C

    2013-12-01

    Bacillus, generally regarded as safe, has emerged as a robust organism that can withstand adverse environmental conditions and grows easily to very high densities. Bacillus has been recognized for its biotechnological applications on an industrial scale. Recent efforts have shown the potential of Bacillus to generate biofuels (hydrogen), biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates), and bioactive molecules (acyl-homoserine lactonases). Bacillus can be considered the dark horse in the race to generate sustainable energy, ecofriendly non-fossil fuel-based polymers, and bioactive molecules for use as therapeutics.

  2. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker Specific for the Bacillus cereus Group Is Diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Frova, Giuseppe; Gallo, Romina; Mori, Elena; Fani, Renato; Sorlini, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a putative (366-nucleotide) open reading frame highly homologous to the ypuA gene of Bacillus subtilis. The restriction analysis of the SG-850 fragment with AluI distinguished B. anthracis from the other species of the B. cereus group. PMID:10049896

  3. Bacillus thermolactis sp. nov., isolated from dairy farms, and emended description of Bacillus thermoamylovorans.

    PubMed

    Coorevits, An; Logan, Niall A; Dinsdale, Anna E; Halket, Gillian; Scheldeman, Patsy; Heyndrickx, Marc; Schumann, Peter; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vos, Paul

    2011-08-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on 22 thermotolerant, aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria from dairy environments. Seventeen isolates were retrieved from raw milk, one from a filter cloth and four from grass, straw or milking equipment. These latter four isolates (R-6546, R-7499, R-7764 and R-7440) were identified as Bacillus thermoamylovorans based on DNA-DNA hybridizations (values above 70 % with Bacillus thermoamylovorans LMG 18084(T)) but showed discrepancies in characteristics with the original species description, so an emended description of this species is given. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the remaining 18 isolates (R-6488(T), R-28193, R-6491, R-6492, R-7336, R-33367, R-6486, R-6770, R-31288, R-28160, R-26358, R-7632, R-26955, R-26950, R-33520, R-6484, R-26954 and R-7165) represented one single species, most closely related to Bacillus thermoamylovorans (93.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), for which the name Bacillus thermolactis is proposed. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming rods that grew optimally at 40-50 °C. The cell wall peptidoglycan type of strain R-6488(T), the proposed type strain, was A1γ based on meso-diaminopimelic acid. Major fatty acids of the strains were C(16 : 0) (28.0 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (12.1 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) (12.0 %). MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone, and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and some unidentified phospholipids. DNA G+C content was 35.0 mol%. Phenotypic properties allowed discrimination from other thermotolerant species of the genus Bacillus and supported the description of the novel species Bacillus thermolactis, with strain R-6488(T) ( = LMG 25569(T)  = DSM 23332(T)) as the proposed type strain.

  4. Bacillus luteus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-05-01

    Two bacterial strains (JC167T and JC168) were isolated from a soil sample collected from Mandpam, Tamilnadu, India. Colonies of both strains were orange and cells Gram-stain-positive. Cells were small rods, and formed terminal endospores of ellipsoidal to oval shape. Both strains were positive for catalase, oxidase and hydrolysis of starch/gelatin, and negative for chitin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production and nitrate reduction activity. Major fatty acids of both strains (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:0 with minor (<5 but >1%) amounts of iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0 B/iso-C17:0 I and C16:1ω11c. Diphosphatydilglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids of both strains. Cell wall amino acids were L-alanine, D-alanine, D-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. β-Carotene and five unidentified carotenoids were present in both strains. Mean genomic DNA G+C content was 53.4±1 mol% and the two strains were closely related (mean DNA-DNA hybridization>90%). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons of both strains indicated that they represent species of the genus Bacillus within the family Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes. Both strains had a sequence similarity of 97.6% with Bacillus saliphilus 6AGT and <96.8% with other members of the genus Bacillus. Sequence similarity between strain JC167T and 168 was 100%. Strain JC167T showed 25.8±1% reassociation (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with B. saliphilus DSM 15402T (=6AGT). Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC167T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC167T (=KCTC 33100T=LMG 27257T). PMID:24478212

  5. Detailed Atomic Structure of Neutral and Near-Neutral Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Paul; Hibbert, Alan

    2011-05-11

    This paper highlights the issues which need to be addressed in undertaking accurate calculations of multi-electron atoms and ions, particularly at or near the neutral end of an isoelectronic sequence. We illustrate the processes through two calculations--of transitions in Cl I and Sn II--and discuss the convergence of our results as well as updating previous work. In particular, in the case of Cl I, we propose new identifications of the levels involved in certain transitions which are important in determining the abundance of chlorine in the inter-stellar medium (ISM), while in singly ionised tin, our calculations suggest a re-evaluation of the the abundance of tin in the ISM. We also confirm recent identification of Sn II lines seen in tokamak plasmas.

  6. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation. PMID:23886646

  7. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  8. Neutral Hydrogen in Arp 158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Mansie G.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, Stephen T.; Malphrus, Benjamin K.

    2004-09-01

    We present 21 cm observations of Arp 158. We have performed a study of the neutral hydrogen (H I) to help us understand the overall formation and evolution of this system. This is a disturbed system with distinct optical knots connected by a linear structure embedded in luminous material. There is also a diffuse spray to the southeast. The H I seems to be made up of three distinct, kinematically separate systems. Arp 158 bears a certain optical resemblance to NGC 520 (Arp 157), which has been identified as a mid-stage merger. From our 21 cm observations of Arp 158, we also see a comparable H I content with NGC 520. These similarities suggest that Arp 158 is also an intermediate-stage merger.

  9. After treatment ends: neutral time.

    PubMed

    Hurt, G J; McQuellon, R P; Barrett, R J

    1994-01-01

    For persons diagnosed with cancer, the remission period may be marked by increased anxiety and distress. While the medical team may view remission as an eagerly anticipated milestone, the decreased medical surveillance during this time can cause a heightened fear of recurrence for the patient. One author has called this period of remission "neutral time," a time characterized by uncertainty. The safety signal hypothesis, developed by Martin Seligman, may help to explain the anxiety experienced by some patients during the remission period. Because cancer is frequently a silent disease with no overt symptoms, patients in remission often have no safety signal to indicate that the disease will not return. A case study is presented and discussed in light of these two concepts.

  10. An accessible heavy neutral lepton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi

    1982-09-01

    In the SUL(2) ⊗ SUR(2) ⊗ UB-L(1) model, an accessible heavy neutral lepton may exist owing to the mixing of generations. Based on a rough estimate, it is pointed out that the most hopeful experiments to observe this lepton are ν-production in an emulsion (because the track of a particle with lifetime 10-11-10-13 s could be seen) and e-production. The author thanks Professor J.D. Bjorken, Professor He Zuo-Xiu, Professor R.E. Mashark, Professor S.J. Chang, Professor Zhu Cong-Yuan and Professor M. Dine for helpful discussions and comments. He would like to thank the referee for valuable comments.

  11. High Resolution Neutral Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucay, Igal; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Stratis, Georgios; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a high resolution neutral atom microscope based on metastable atom electron spectroscopy (MAES). When a metastable atom of a noble gas is near a solid, a surface electron will tunnel to an empty energy level of the metastable atom, thereby ejecting the excited electron from the atom. The emitted electrons carry information regarding the local topography and electronic, magnetic, and chemical structures of most hard materials. Furthermore, using a chromatic aberration corrected magnetic hexapole lens we expect to attain a spatial resolution below 10 nm. We will use this microscope to investigate how local phenomena can give rise to macroscopic effects in materials that cannot be probed using a scanning tunneling microscope, namely insulating transition metal oxides.

  12. Phenomenology of neutral heavy leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyniak, P.; Melo, I.

    1997-02-01

    We continue our previous work on the flavor-conserving leptonic decays of the Z boson with neutral heavy leptons (NHL`s) in the loops by considering box, vertex, and self-energy diagrams for the muon decay. By inclusion of these loops (they contribute to the input parameter M{sub W}), we can probe the full parameter space spanned by the so-called flavor-conserving mixing parameters ee{sub mix},{mu}{mu}{sub mix},{tau}{tau}{sub mix}. We show that only two diagrams from each class (box, vertex, and self-energy) are important; further, after renormalization only two box diagrams {open_quotes}survive{close_quotes} as dominant. We compare the results of our analysis with the existing work in this field and conclude that flavor-conserving decays have certain advantages over traditionally considered flavor-violating ones. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Phenomenology of neutral heavy leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyniak, Pat; Melo, I.

    1997-02-01

    We continue our previous work on the flavor-conserving leptonic decays of the Z boson with neutral heavy leptons (NHL's) in the loops by considering box, vertex, and self-energy diagrams for the muon decay. By inclusion of these loops (they contribute to the input parameter MW), we can probe the full parameter space spanned by the so-called flavor-conserving mixing parameters eemix,μμmix,ττmix. We show that only two diagrams from each class (box, vertex, and self-energy) are important; further, after renormalization only two box diagrams ``survive'' as dominant. We compare the results of our analysis with the existing work in this field and conclude that flavor-conserving decays have certain advantages over traditionally considered flavor-violating ones.

  14. Screening of Bacterial Strains for Polygalacturonase Activity: Its Production by Bacillus sphaericus (MTCC 7542).

    PubMed

    Jayani, Ranveer Singh; Shukla, Surendra Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2010-10-31

    At present almost all the pectinolytic enzymes used for industrial applications are produced by fungi. There are a few reports of pectinase production by bacterial strains. Therefore, in the present study, seventy-four bacterial strains, isolated from soil and rotten vegetable samples, were screened for polygalacturonase production. The strain PG-31, which gave maximum activity, was identified as Bacillus sphaericus (MTCC 7542). Maximal quantities of polygalacturonase were produced when a 16-hours-old inoculum was used at 7.5% (v/v) in production medium and incubated in shaking conditions (160 rpm) for 72 hours. The optimal temperature and pH for bacterial growth and polygalacturonase production were found to be 30°C and 6.8, respectively. Maximum enzyme production resulted when citrus pectin was used as the carbon source at a concentration of 1.25% (w/v), whereas other carbon sources led to a decrease (30%-70%) in enzyme production. Casein hydrolysate and yeast extract used together as organic nitrogen source gave best results, and ammonium chloride was found to be the most suitable inorganic nitrogen source. The supplementation of media with 0.9% (w/v) D-galacturonic acid led to a 23% increase in activity. Bacillus sphaericus, a bacterium isolated from soil, produced good amount of polygalacturonase activity at neutral pH; hence, it would be potentially useful to increase the yield of banana, grape, or apple juice.

  15. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Chung K.; Ibrahim, Hisham; Lee, Philip; Churchwell, George; Gumke, Megan; Stanek, Danielle; Gee, Jay E.; Boyer, Anne E.; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Barr, John R.; Li, Han; Boulay, Darbi; Cronin, Li; Quinn, Conrad P.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity. PMID:27257909

  16. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar.

    PubMed

    Marston, Chung K; Ibrahim, Hisham; Lee, Philip; Churchwell, George; Gumke, Megan; Stanek, Danielle; Gee, Jay E; Boyer, Anne E; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Barr, John R; Li, Han; Boulay, Darbi; Cronin, Li; Quinn, Conrad P; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity. PMID:27257909

  17. Anthrax Toxin-Expressing Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Eschar.

    PubMed

    Marston, Chung K; Ibrahim, Hisham; Lee, Philip; Churchwell, George; Gumke, Megan; Stanek, Danielle; Gee, Jay E; Boyer, Anne E; Gallegos-Candela, Maribel; Barr, John R; Li, Han; Boulay, Darbi; Cronin, Li; Quinn, Conrad P; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

  18. Preparation and partial structural characterization of the exopolysaccharide from Bacillus mucilaginosus SM-01.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Xu, Shuqin; Deng, Chao; Li, Hui; Yang, Qingsheng; Xu, Zhenghong; Chen, Jinghua

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an acidic hetero-exopolysaccharide, designated as BMPS, was isolated from the culture supernatant of bacteria Bacillus mucilaginosus SM-01 by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The molecular weight of BMPS was measured to be 2.67×10(6)Da. To analyze the structure of the polysaccharide, the low-molecular weight fragment (BMPS-H) of BMPS was obtained under mild hydrolysis. BMPS-H was determined to be a liner neutral fraction with an average molecular weight of 1621Da. Monosaccharide analysis indicated that BMPS-H contained glucose and mannose in a molar ratio of 1.5:1. Based on methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy data, the following structure of BMPS-H was established: In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed the hydroxyl group on C-2 of 1,4-linked-glucosyl residues was partially acetylated. PMID:27112868

  19. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  20. Molecular clock on a neutral network.

    PubMed

    Raval, Alpan

    2007-09-28

    The number of fixed mutations accumulated in an evolving population often displays a variance that is significantly larger than the mean (the overdispersed molecular clock). By examining a generic evolutionary process on a neutral network of high-fitness genotypes, we establish a formalism for computing all cumulants of the full probability distribution of accumulated mutations in terms of graph properties of the neutral network, and use the formalism to prove overdispersion of the molecular clock. We further show that significant overdispersion arises naturally in evolution when the neutral network is highly sparse, exhibits large global fluctuations in neutrality, and small local fluctuations in neutrality. The results are also relevant for elucidating aspects of neutral network topology from empirical measurements of the substitution process.

  1. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus vanillea’ XY18T (=CGMCC 8629 T =NCCB 100507 T) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this type strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.72 Mbp and a GC content of 46.3%. Comparative genomic analysis with its ...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus luciferensis Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Lews; Kelkar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus luciferensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile rod. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence, to our knowledge, of a B. luciferensis strain (CH01), which will provide useful information for Bacillus and soil bacteria research. PMID:27795273

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage Smudge

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, Jessica L.; Breslin, Eileen; Schuhmacher, Zachary; Himelright, Madison; Berluti, Cassandra; Boyd, Charles; Carson, Rachel; Del Gallo, Elle; Giessler, Caris; Gilliam, Benjamin; Heatherly, Catherine; Nevin, Julius; Nguyen, Bryan; Nguyen, Justin; Parada, Jocelyn; Sutterfield, Blake; Tukruni, Muruj

    2016-01-01

    Smudge, a bacteriophage enriched from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis DSM-350 as the host, had its complete genome sequenced. Smudge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 292 genes and was identified as belonging to the C1 cluster of Bacillus phages. PMID:27540049

  4. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Tangail-1 from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Antwerpen, Markus; Braun, Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Grass, Gregor; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Hanczaruk, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Soil was collected in July 2013 at a site where a cow infected with anthrax had been the month before. Selective culturing yielded Bacillus anthracis strain Tangail-1. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this Bacillus anthracis isolate that belongs to the canonical A.Br.001/002 clade. PMID:27469968

  5. Non-peptide metabolites from the genus Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Hamdache, Ahlem; Lamarti, Ahmed; Aleu, Josefina; Collado, Isidro G

    2011-04-25

    Bacillus species produce a number of non-peptide metabolites that display a broad spectrum of activity and structurally diverse bioactive chemical structures. Biosynthetic, biological, and structural studies of these metabolites isolated from Bacillus species are reviewed. This contribution also includes a detailed study of the activity of the metabolites described, especially their role in biological control mechanisms.

  6. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Diomandé, Sara E.; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The large bacterial genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbor pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA) composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness. PMID:26300876

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage Smudge.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Jessica L; Breslin, Eileen; Schuhmacher, Zachary; Himelright, Madison; Berluti, Cassandra; Boyd, Charles; Carson, Rachel; Del Gallo, Elle; Giessler, Caris; Gilliam, Benjamin; Heatherly, Catherine; Nevin, Julius; Nguyen, Bryan; Nguyen, Justin; Parada, Jocelyn; Sutterfield, Blake; Tukruni, Muruj; Temple, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Smudge, a bacteriophage enriched from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis DSM-350 as the host, had its complete genome sequenced. Smudge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 292 genes and was identified as belonging to the C1 cluster of Bacillus phages. PMID:27540049

  8. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Tangail-1 from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Braun, Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Grass, Gregor; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Hanczaruk, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Soil was collected in July 2013 at a site where a cow infected with anthrax had been the month before. Selective culturing yielded Bacillus anthracis strain Tangail-1. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this Bacillus anthracis isolate that belongs to the canonical A.Br.001/002 clade. PMID:27469968

  9. Neutral Vlasov kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tronci, Cesare; Camporeale, Enrico

    2015-02-15

    The low-frequency limit of Maxwell equations is considered in the Maxwell-Vlasov system. This limit produces a neutral Vlasov system that captures essential features of plasma dynamics, while neglecting radiation effects. Euler-Poincaré reduction theory is used to show that the neutral Vlasov kinetic theory possesses a variational formulation in both Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates. By construction, the new model recovers all collisionless neutral models employed in plasma simulations. Then, comparisons between the neutral Vlasov system and hybrid kinetic-fluid models are presented in the linear regime.

  10. EFFECTS OF LEAKAGE NEUTRAL PARTICLES ON SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2012-10-20

    In this paper, we investigate effects of neutral particles on shocks propagating into the partially ionized medium. We find that for 120 km s{sup -1} < u {sub sh} < 3000 km s{sup -1} (u {sub sh} is the shock velocity), about 10% of upstream neutral particles leak into the upstream region from the downstream region. Moreover, we investigate how the leakage neutral particles affect the upstream structure of the shock and particle accelerations. Using four-fluid approximations (upstream ions, upstream neutral particles, leakage neutral particles, and pickup ions), we provide analytical solutions of the precursor structure due to leakage neutral particles. It is shown that the upstream flow is decelerated in the precursor region and the shock compression ratio becomes smaller than without leakage neutral particles, but the total compression ratio does not change. Even if leakage of neutral particles is small (a few percent of total upstream particles), this smaller compression ratio of the shock can explain steep gamma-ray spectra from young supernova remnants. Furthermore, leakage neutral particles could amplify the magnetic field and heat the upstream region.

  11. Neutralization of Chlamydia trachomatis in cell culture.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, L V

    1975-01-01

    Neutralization of Chlamydia trachomatis was assayed by the decrease in inclusion-forming units in baby hamster kidney cells grown in culture. Five percent fresh guinea pig sera increased neutralization titers of rabbit antisera 100- to 1,000-fold but had no effect when normal rabbit sera were tested. Neutralization of a type A or B trachoma isolate was strain specific. Neutralization by human eye secretions and sera also was demonstrated when guinea pig sera were included in the test. All of the six human sera tested showed strain specificity against types A or B, in agreement with typing by the fluorescent antibody technique. PMID:1091549

  12. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  13. Services provided in support of the planetary quarantine requirements of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favero, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The project to evaluate thermal sterilization for unmanned landers is reported. A temperature controlled oven with a nitrogen gas supply containing a known concentration of water is discussed. The studies show that bacillus lentus, bacillus brevis, bacillus coagulans, atypical bacillus spp., and actinomycete are isolated heat survivors. The thermal resistance is given for naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores collected on exposed teflon ribbons.

  14. A Love Affair with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Losick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    My career in science was launched when I was an undergraduate at Princeton University and reinforced by graduate training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, it was only after I moved to Harvard University as a junior fellow that my affections were captured by a seemingly mundane soil bacterium. What Bacillus subtilis offered was endless fascinating biological problems (alternative sigma factors, sporulation, swarming, biofilm formation, stochastic cell fate switching) embedded in a uniquely powerful genetic system. Along the way, my career in science became inseparably interwoven with teaching and mentoring, which proved to be as rewarding as the thrill of discovery. PMID:25533458

  15. Genetic exchange in Bacillus subtilis in soil.

    PubMed

    Graham, J B; Istock, C A

    1978-11-01

    Genetically labelled strains of Bacillus subtilis have been shown to exchange blocks of linked genes while growing together in soil. After eight days of incubation, 79% of unselected colony-forming units exhibited a phenotype containing markers from both parents; the parental strains were not detected after the first day of incubation. High frequencies of transformation were also obtained by adding genetically labelled deoxyribonucleic acid to single-strain soil cultures. Observed linkage of genetic markers was greater in soil transformation than in standard laboratory procedures. The results indicate that transformation may play an important role in the adaptation of the Bacilli to their natural habitat.

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Supercritical CO2-Tolerant Bacteria Bacillus subterraneus MITOT1 and Bacillus cereus MIT0214.

    PubMed

    Peet, Kyle C; Thompson, Janelle R

    2015-01-01

    We report draft genome sequences of Bacillus subterraneus MITOT1 and Bacillus cereus MIT0214 isolated through enrichment of samples from geologic sequestration sites in pressurized bioreactors containing a supercritical (sc) CO2 headspace. Their genome sequences expand the phylogenetic range of sequenced bacilli and allow characterization of molecular mechanisms of scCO2 tolerance.

  17. Bacillus endospores isolated from granite: close molecular relationships to globally distributed Bacillus spp. from endolithic and extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-04-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain approximately 500 cultivable Bacillus spores and approximately 10(4) total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted.

  18. Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain ∼500 cultivable Bacillus spores and ∼104 total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted. PMID:16597992

  19. Bacillus endospores isolated from granite: close molecular relationships to globally distributed Bacillus spp. from endolithic and extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-04-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain approximately 500 cultivable Bacillus spores and approximately 10(4) total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted. PMID:16597992

  20. Frequency and domain specificity of toxin-neutralizing paratopes in the human antibody response to anthrax vaccine adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Reason, Donald; Liberato, Justine; Sun, Jinying; Keitel, Wendy; Zhou, Jianhui

    2009-05-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is the cell surface recognition unit of the binary anthrax toxin system and the primary immunogenic component in both the current and proposed "next-generation" anthrax vaccines. Several studies utilizing animal models have indicated that PA-specific antibodies, acquired by either active or passive immunization, are sufficient to protect against infection with Bacillus anthracis. To investigate the human antibody response to anthrax immunization, we have established a large panel of human PA-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from multiple individuals vaccinated with the currently approved anthrax vaccine BioThrax. We have determined that although these antibodies bind PA in standard binding assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, capture assays, and dot blots, less than 25% are capable of neutralizing lethal toxin (LT) in vitro. Nonneutralizing antibodies also fail to neutralize toxin when present in combination with other nonneutralizing paratopes. Although neutralizing antibodies recognize determinants throughout the PA monomer, they are significantly less common among those paratopes that bind to the immunodominant amino-terminal portion of the molecule. These findings demonstrate that PA binding alone is not sufficient to neutralize LT and suggest that for an antibody to effectively block PA-mediated toxicity, it must bind to PA such that one of the requisite toxin functions is disrupted. A vaccine design strategy that directed a higher percentage of the antibody response toward neutralizing epitopes may result in a more efficacious vaccine for the prevention of anthrax infection.

  1. Neutral Beams from Blazar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atoyan, Armen M.; Dermer, Charles D.

    2003-03-01

    We treat the production of neutrons, photons, and neutrinos through photomeson interactions of relativistic protons with ambient photons in the compact inner jets of blazars. Internal synchrotron and external isotropic radiation due to scattered optical/UV accretion-disk radiation are considered as target photon fields. Protons are assumed to be accelerated to a maximum energy limited by the size scale and magnetic field of the jet, and by competing energy losses. We characterize the conditions when the photomeson interactions of ultrarelativistic protons become effective, and show that the presence of the external radiation field makes possible strong energy losses for protons with energies Ep>~1015 eV. Without this component, effective energy losses of protons begin at Ep>~1018 eV, and would rapidly disappear with expansion of the blob. We develop a model describing the production and escape of neutrons from a comoving spherical blob, which continue to interact with the ambient external radiation field on the parsec-scale broad-line region (BLR). Neutrons may carry ~10% of the overall energy of the accelerated protons with Ep>~1015 eV outside the BLR. Ultra-high-energy gamma rays produced by photomeson interaction of neutrons outside the blob can also escape the BLR. The escaping neutrons, gamma rays, and neutrinos form a collimated neutral beam with a characteristic opening angle θ~1/Γ, where Γ is the bulk Lorentz factor of the inner jet. Energy and momentum is deposited in the extended jet from the decay of neutrons at distances ld(En)~(En/1017eV) kpc, and through pair-production attenuation of gamma rays with energies Eγ>~1015 eV which propagate to ~10-100 kpc distances. In this scenario, neutral beams of ultra-high-energy gamma rays and neutrons can be the reason for straight extended jets, such as in Pictor A. Fluxes of neutrinos detectable with kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes are predicted from flat-spectrum radio quasars such as 3C 279.

  2. Modelling the Neutral Sodium Tails of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and at some comets a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) data taken using CoCam [Cremonese et al, 1997], but since this initial detection similar features have been observed at a number of near-Sun comets using the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph. An understanding of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be developed using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout a comet's orbit. At present the source of neutral sodium in comets is unknown, primarily because the evolution of neutral cometary sodium is difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. Several authors [review presented in Cremonese et al, 1999] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail and ion tail. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three dimensional, heliocentric distance dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model (initially based on a model developed by [Brown et al, 1998]). Our model is known as COMPASS (Cometary Orbital Motion at Perihelion: an Adaptable Sodium Simulation), and incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. We present the initial results of a comparison between COMPASS and observational data. We have found good agreement between the overall morphology of the neutral sodium tail imaged at comet Hale-Bopp and COMPASS, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present a comparison between simulated COMPASS spectra and observations. The versatility of COMPASS allows it to

  3. Neutralization efficiency estimation in a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the optimal conditions of neutral beam generation to maintain a high degree of neutralization and focusing during beam energy variation for a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma with a three-grid ion beam acceleration system. The neutral beam energy distribution was estimated by measuring the energy profiles of ions that 'survived' the neutralization after reflection. The energy measurements of the primary and reflected ions showed narrow distribution functions, each with only one peak. At higher beam energies, both the ratio of the ion energy loss to the primary energy and the degree of energy divergence decreased, confirming the precise alignment of the neutral beam. The neutralization efficiency of the neutral beam source with a three-grid acceleration system was found to be affected mainly by the beam angle divergence rather than by the particle translation energy.

  4. The status of neutral currents

    SciTech Connect

    Zwirner, F.

    1987-11-01

    The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Neutral Models of Microbiome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinglong; Sukumaran, Jeet; Wu, Steven; Rodrigo, Allen

    2015-01-01

    There has been an explosion of research on host-associated microbial communities (i.e.,microbiomes). Much of this research has focused on surveys of microbial diversities across a variety of host species, including humans, with a view to understanding how these microbiomes are distributed across space and time, and how they correlate with host health, disease, phenotype, physiology and ecology. Fewer studies have focused on how these microbiomes may have evolved. In this paper, we develop an agent-based framework to study the dynamics of microbiome evolution. Our framework incorporates neutral models of how hosts acquire their microbiomes, and how the environmental microbial community that is available to the hosts is assembled. Most importantly, our framework also incorporates a Wright-Fisher genealogical model of hosts, so that the dynamics of microbiome evolution is studied on an evolutionary timescale. Our results indicate that the extent of parental contribution to microbial availability from one generation to the next significantly impacts the diversity of microbiomes: the greater the parental contribution, the less diverse the microbiomes. In contrast, even when there is only a very small contribution from a constant environmental pool, microbial communities can remain highly diverse. Finally, we show that our models may be used to construct hypotheses about the types of processes that operate to assemble microbiomes over evolutionary time. PMID:26200800

  6. Synthesis of Lipoteichoic Acids in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Garufi, Gabriella; Hendrickx, Antoni P.; Beeri, Karen; Kern, Justin W.; Sharma, Anshika; Richter, Stefan G.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a glycerol phosphate polymer, is a component of the envelope of Gram-positive bacteria that has hitherto not been identified in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. LTA synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus and other microbes is catalyzed by the product of the ltaS gene, a membrane protein that polymerizes polyglycerol phosphate from phosphatidyl glycerol. Here we identified four ltaS homologues, designated ltaS1 to -4, in the genome of Bacillus anthracis. Polyglycerol phosphate-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to detect LTA in the envelope of B. anthracis strain Sterne (pXO1+ pXO2−) vegetative forms. B. anthracis mutants lacking ltaS1, ltaS2, ltaS3, or ltaS4 did not display defects in growth or LTA synthesis. In contrast, B. anthracis strains lacking both ltaS1 and ltaS2 were unable to synthesize LTA and exhibited reduced viability, altered envelope morphology, aberrant separation of vegetative forms, and decreased sporulation efficiency. Expression of ltaS1 or ltaS2 alone in B. anthracis as well as in other microbes was sufficient for polyglycerol phosphate synthesis. Thus, similar to S. aureus, B. anthracis employs LtaS enzymes to synthesize LTA, an envelope component that promotes bacterial growth and cell division. PMID:22685279

  7. The Phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Okinaka, Richard T; Keim, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The three main species of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were recognized and established by the early 1900 s because they each exhibited distinct phenotypic traits. B. thuringiensis isolates and their parasporal crystal proteins have long been established as a natural pesticide and insect pathogen. B. anthracis, the etiological agent for anthrax, was used by Robert Koch in the 19th century as a model to develop the germ theory of disease, and B. cereus, a common soil organism, is also an occasional opportunistic pathogen of humans. In addition to these three historical species designations, are three less-recognized and -understood species: B. mycoides, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. pseudomycoides. All of these "species" combined comprise the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. Despite these apparently clear phenotypic definitions, early molecular approaches to separate the first three by various DNA hybridization and 16S/23S ribosomal sequence analyses led to some "confusion" because there were limited differences to differentiate between these species. These and other results have led to frequent suggestions that a taxonomic change was warranted to reclassify this group to a single species. But the pathogenic properties of B. anthracis and the biopesticide applications of B. thuringiensis appear to "have outweighed pure taxonomic considerations" and the separate species categories are still being maintained. B. cereus sensu lato represents a classic example of a now common bacterial species taxonomic quandary. PMID:26999390

  8. Disinfection of Bacillus spores with acidified nitrite.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Adcock, Noreen J; Rice, Eugene W

    2014-10-01

    Disinfecting water generated from a bioterrorism contamination event will require large amounts of disinfectant since the volume of water flushed from a drinking water distribution system or wash water collected from a contaminated outdoor area can accumulate quickly. Commonly used disinfectants may be unavailable in the necessary amounts, so evaluation of alternative disinfectants is needed. This study focuses on disinfection of Bacillus spores in water using acidified nitrite. The effect of varying pH (2 or 3), temperature (5°C or 24°C), nitrite concentration (0.01 or 0.1M), buffer (Butterfields or Phosphate Buffered Saline, PBS) and Bacillus species (B. globigii and B. anthracis Sterne) was evaluated. B. globigii was more resistant to disinfection under all water quality conditions. Disinfection was more effective for B. globigii and B. anthracis Sterne at 0.1M nitrite, pH 2, and 24°C. Disinfection of B. anthracis Sterne was enhanced in low ionic strength Butterfields buffer compared to PBS.

  9. Analysis of Bacillus globigii spores by CE.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Kimberly D; Silcott, David B; Colyer, Christa L

    2008-02-01

    It is imperative in today's world that harmful airborne or solution-based microbes can be detected quickly and efficiently. Bacillus globigii (Bg) spores are used as a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (Ba) due to their similar shape, size, and cellular makeup. The utility of CE to separate and detect low levels of Bg spore concentrations will be evaluated. To differentiate spores from background particulates, several dyes, including fluorescamine, C-10, NN-127, Red-1c, and indocyanine green (ICG), were utilized as noncovalent labels for proteins on the Bg spore surface, as well as for HSA and homoserine standards. On-column labeling, with dye present in the running buffer, was utilized to obtain greater sensitivity and better separation. CE with LIF detection enables interactions between the dye and spore surface proteins to be observed, with enhanced fluorescence occurring upon binding of the dye to surface protein. Resulting electropherograms showed unique fingerprints for each dye with Bg spores. Migration times were under 10 min for all dye-spore complexes, with net mobilities ranging from 3.5x10(-4) to 6.9x10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and calibration curves yielded correlation coefficients of 0.98 or better for four of the dyes studied. PMID:18203249

  10. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  11. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  12. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  13. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  14. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  15. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  16. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  17. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  18. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  19. Targets for high power neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs.

  20. Topologies for neutral functional differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Bounded topologies are considered for functional differential equations of the neutral type in which present dynamics of the system are influenced by its past behavior. A special bounded topology is generated on a collection of absolutely continuous functions with essentially bounded derivatives, and an application to a class of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations due to Driver (1965) is presented.

  1. Types of Neutralization and Types of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Neutralization theory was tested with questionnaires administered to a random sample of public high school students (N-298) and institutionalized male delinquents (N-53). Neutralization acceptance technique patterns were similar across subsamples; however, correlations between each technique and each type of delinquency were statistically…

  2. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  3. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup −3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 μs. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  4. Identification of strains Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304T as Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305T as a Proteus sp. and the status of the species Bacillus aeriusShivaji et al. 2006. Request for an Opinion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ramesh Kumar, N; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Juan; Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour; Shao, Zongze

    2015-09-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB and pycA gene sequence analyses, characterization of biochemical features and other phenotypic traits and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting, it was ascertained that strains Bacillus aerius MTCC 7303T, Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304(T) and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305(T) do not conform to the descriptions of the type strains of the respective species. Strains MTCC 7303(T) and MTCC 7304(T) were indistinguishable from Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631(T), while strain MTCC 7305(T) should be classified as a representative of a Proteus sp. Our attempts to find other deposits of the type strains of these species were unsuccessful. Therefore, the results support the Request for an Opinion on the status of the species Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus by Branquinho et al. [Branquinho, R., Klein, G., Kämpfer, P. & Peixe, L. V. (2015). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65, 1101]. It is also proposed that the Judicial Commission should place the name Bacillus aerius on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain cannot be found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request (Rule 18c).

  5. Bacillus lehensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Bhardwaj, M; Satyanarayana, T; Khurana, M; Mayilraj, S; Jain, R K

    2007-02-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, alkalitolerant bacterial strain, designated MLB2T, was isolated from soil from Leh, India, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. Growth was observed at pH 7.0-11.0, but not at pH 6.0. The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%. The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was with Bacillus oshimensis JCM 12663T (98.8 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated low levels of genomic relatedness with the type strains of B. oshimensis (62 %), Bacillus patagoniensis (55 %), Bacillus clausii (51 %) and Bacillus gibsonii (34 %), the species with which strain MLB2T formed a coherent cluster (based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness of strain MLB2T, it should be classified within a novel species of Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus lehensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MLB2T (=MTCC 7633T=JCM 13820T). PMID:17267957

  6. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    PubMed

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  7. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    PubMed

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  8. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  9. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in a gastroenteritis outbreak investigation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S G; Goodbrand, R B; Ahmed, R; Kasatiya, S

    1995-08-01

    During investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a chronic care institution, Norwalk virus was found in stool specimens from two individuals and bacterial isolates presumptively identified as Bacillus cereus were isolated from four individuals (including one with Norwalk virus) and spice. Phage typing confirmed all Bacillus clinical isolates were phage type 2. All clinical isolates were subsequently identified as B. thuringiensis when tested as a result of a related study (L. Leroux, personal communication). Eight of 10 spice isolates were phage type 4. All B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates showed cytotoxic effects characteristic of enterotoxin-producing B. cereus. An additional 20 isolates each of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis from other sources were tested for cytotoxicity. With the exception of one B. cereus, all showed characteristic cytotoxic patterns.

  10. Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis Synergizes Activity of Bacillus sphaericus against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Federici, Brian A.; Walton, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is a mosquitocidal bacterium recently developed as a commercial larvicide that is used worldwide to control pestiferous and vector mosquitoes. Whereas B. sphaericus is highly active against larvae of Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, it is virtually nontoxic to Aedes aegypti, an important vector species. In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of the cytolytic protein Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to enhance the toxicity of B. sphaericus toward A. aegypti. Various combinations of these two materials were evaluated, and all were highly toxic. A ratio of 10:1 of B. sphaericus to Cyt1A was 3,600-fold more toxic to A. aegypti than B. sphaericus alone. Statistical analysis showed this high activity was due to synergism between the Cyt1A toxin and B. sphaericus. These results suggest that Cyt1A could be useful in expanding the host range of B. sphaericus. PMID:10698776

  11. ssp genes and spore osmotolerance in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, A; Sanchez de Rivas, C

    1995-10-01

    It was shown previously that spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus sphaericus (Bf) and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) are very sensitive to osmotic variations. Since spore osmotolerance has been associated with their SASP (small acid soluble spore proteins) content coded by ssp genes, hybridization assays were performed with sspE and sspA genes from B. subtilis as probes and showed that Bti and Bf strains could lack an sspE-like gene. The B. subtilis sspE gene was then introduced into Bti 4Q2 strain; spores were obtained and showed a 65 to 650 times higher level of osmotolerance to NaCl, without affecting other important properties: hypoosmotic resistance in vegetative cells, spore UV resistance, and larvicidal activity against diptera larvae. PMID:7549769

  12. An Optical Biosensor for Bacillus Cereus Spore Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengquan; Tom, Harry W. K.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate a new transduction scheme for optical biosensing. Bacillus cereus is a pathogen that may be found in food and dairy products and is able to produce toxins and cause food poisoning. It is related to Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). A CCD array covered with micro-structured glass coverslip is used to detect the optical resonant shift due to the binding of the antigen (bacillus cereus spore) to the antibody (polyclonal antibody). This novel optical biosensor scheme has the potential for detecting 10˜100 bioagents in a single device as well as the potential to test for antigens with multiple antibody tests to avoid ``false positives.''

  13. Construction of novel shuttle expression vectors for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhao, Hongyan; Tan, Xuemei; Feng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A native plasmid (pSU01) was detected by genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis strain S1-4. Two pSU01-based shuttle expression vectors pSU02-AP and pSU03-AP were constructed enabling stable replication in B. subtilis WB600. These vectors contained the reporter gene aprE, encoding an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus BA06. The expression vector pSU03-AP only possessed the minimal replication elements (rep, SSO, DSO) and exhibited more stability on structure, suggesting that the rest of the genes in pSU01 (ORF1, ORF2, mob, hsp) were unessential for the structural stability of plasmid in B. subtilis. In addition, recombinant production of the alkaline protease was achieved more efficiently with pSU03-AP whose copy number was estimated to be more than 100 per chromosome. Furthermore, pSU03-AP could also be used to transform and replicate in B. pumilus BA06 under selective pressure. In conclusion, pSU03-AP is expected to be a useful tool for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus. PMID:26377132

  14. Modeling Neutral Hydrogen in the Heliospheric Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N.

    2009-05-01

    Observational data of neutral atoms provides us with a 1 AU picture of the neutral atom flux in the heliosphere. The large mean free paths of neutrals allow us to infer properties of their distant source, as well as the properties of the intermediary medium. Energetic neutral hydrogen, for example, travels on almost straight trajectories, so that the particles observed coming from a particular direction were created from energetic protons along that line of sight. Similarly, low energy interstellar atoms are attenuated and deflected as they enter the heliosphere, and this deflection tells us something about the structure of the heliospheric interface. Of course, to infer quantitative features of the global heliosphere from neutral atom observations at 1 AU, we need accurate models that capture the 3D structure of the heliosphere. We will present an advanced MHD-neutral model of the heliosphere which is 3D, employs kinetic neutral Hydrogen, and incorporates a suprathermal tail on the solar wind proton distribution to approximate pick-up ions. We will demonstrate that with the help of such a model, we can test various hypotheses regarding the heliospheric boundary via forward modeling and comparison with data.

  15. Modeling Neutral Hydrogen in the Heliospheric Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Brand, Pontus

    2010-03-01

    Observational data of neutral atoms provides us with a 1 AU picture of the neutral atom flux in the heliosphere. The large mean free paths of neutrals allow us to infer properties of their distant source, as well as the properties of the intermediary medium. Energetic neutral hydrogen, for example, travels on almost straight trajectories, so that the particles observed coming from a particular direction were created from energetic protons along that line of sight. Similarly, low energy interstellar atoms are attenuated and deflected as they enter the heliosphere, and this deflection tells us something about the structure of the heliospheric interface. Of course, to infer quantitative features of the global heliosphere from neutral atom observations at 1 AU, we need accurate models that capture the 3D structure of the heliosphere. In this paper we present our MHD-plasma/kinetic-neutral model of the heliospheric interface that uses a Lorentzian distribution function to approximate a suprathermal tail on the solar wind proton distribution due to pick-up ions. We investigate the effect the k parameter of the Lorentzian function has on the overall solution and the flux of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). ENA fluxes are also compared to ``pre-IBEX'' spacecraft data.

  16. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    PubMed

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity. PMID:27135959

  17. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must be... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded)....

  18. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must be... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded)....

  19. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must be... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded)....

  20. Neutral Supersymmetric Higgs Boson Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Stephen Luke

    2008-07-01

    In some Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, including the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the coupling of Higgs bosons to b-quarks is enhanced. This enhancement makes the associated production of the Higgs with b-quarks an interesting search channel for the Higgs and Supersymmetry at D0. The identification of b-quarks, both online and offline, is essential to this search effort. This thesis describes the author's involvement in the development of both types of b-tagging and in the application of these techniques to the MSSM Higgs search. Work was carried out on the Level-3 trigger b-tagging algorithms. The impact parameter (IP) b-tagger was retuned and the effects of increased instantaneous luminosity on the tagger were studied. An extension of the IP-tagger to use the z-tracking information was developed. A new b-tagger using secondary vertices was developed and commissioned. A tool was developed to allow the use of large multi-run samples for trigger studies involving b-quarks. Offline, a neural network (NN) b-tagger was trained combining the existing offline lifetime based b-tagging tools. The efficiency and fake rate of the NN b-tagger were measured in data and MC. This b-tagger was internally reviewed and certified by the Collaboration and now provides the official b-tagging for all analyses using the Run IIa dataset at D0. A search was performed for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying to a b{bar b} pair and produced in association with one or more b-quarks. Limits are set on the cross-section times the branching ratio for such a process. The limits were interpreted in various MSSM scenarios. This analysis uses the NN b-tagger and was the first to use this tool. The analysis also relies on triggers using the Level-3 IP b-tagging tool described previously. A likelihood discriminant was used to improve the analysis and a neural network was developed to cross-check this technique. The result of the analysis has been submitted to PRL and

  1. Evaluation of smallpox vaccines using variola neutralization.

    PubMed

    Damon, Inger K; Davidson, Whitni B; Hughes, Christine M; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Frey, Sharon E; Newman, Frances; Belshe, Robert B; Yan, Lihan; Karem, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    The search for a 'third'-generation smallpox vaccine has resulted in the development and characterization of several vaccine candidates. A significant barrier to acceptance is the absence of challenge models showing induction of correlates of protective immunity against variola virus. In this light, virus neutralization provides one of few experimental methods to show specific 'in vitro' activity of vaccines against variola virus. Here, we provide characterization of the ability of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine to induce variola virus-neutralizing antibodies, and we provide comparison with the neutralization elicited by standard Dryvax vaccination.

  2. Neutral particle beams for space defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botwin, Robert; Favale, Anthony

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) weapons direct highly focused high energy streams of electrically neutral atomic particles traveling at nearly the speed of light, escaping deflection from the earth's magnetic field and acting on the subatomic structure of a target, destroying it from within. The beam's brief contact with a reentry vehicle produces a nuclear reaction in the latter that yields particle emissions; by detecting and identifying those particles, it becomes possible to effectively distinguish warheads from decoys. Attention is given to the NPB program roles to be played by the Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket and Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment projects.

  3. Fast Neutral Pressure Measurements in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raman; H.W. Kugel; T. Provost; R. Gernhardt; T.R. Jarboe; M.G. Bell

    2002-08-06

    Several fast neutral pressure gauges have been installed on NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] to measure the vessel and divertor pressure during inductive and coaxial helicity injected (CHI) plasma operations. Modified, PDX [Poloidal Divertor Experiment]-type Penning gauges have been installed on the upper and lower divertors. Neutral pressure measurements during plasma operations from these and from two shielded fast Micro ion gauges at different toroidal locations on the vessel mid-plane are described. A new unshielded ion gauge, referred to as the In-vessel Neutral Pressure (INP) gauge is under development.

  4. Ecotoxicity of neutral red (dye) and its environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Kastury, Farzana; Juhasz, Albert; Beckmann, Sabrina; Manefield, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Neutral red (NR) is a synthetic phenazine with promising prospect in environmental biotechnology as an electron shuttle. Recently, NR injections into coal seam associated groundwater in Australia (final dissolved NR concentration: 8 µM ± 0.2) were shown to increase methanogenesis up to ten-fold. However, information about NR toxicity to ecological receptors is sorely lacking. The main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration dependent toxicity of NR in microorganisms and plants. Acute toxicity of NR was determined by the modified Microtox™ assay. Microbial viability was determined using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Germination and early growth of plants was studied using Lactuca sativa, Daucus carota, Allium cepa and an Australian native Themeda triandra. Lastly, mutagenicity of the coal seam associated groundwater was assessed using the Ames test. The EC50 of acute NR toxicity was determined to be 0.11 mM. The EC50 of microbial viability was between 1 and 7.1mM NR. Among the concentrations tested, only 0.01, 0.10 and 100mM of NR significantly affected (p<0.001) germination of L. sativa. The EC50 for root elongation in seeds was between 1.2 and 35.5mM NR. Interestingly, root elongation in seeds was significantly stimulated (p<0.001) between 0.25 and 10mM NR, showing a hormetic effect. A significant increase in mutagenicity was only observed in one of the three wells tested. The results suggest that the average dissolved NR concentration (8 µM ± 0.2) deployed in the field trial at Lithgow State Coal Mine, Australia, appears not to negatively impact the ecological receptors tested in this study. PMID:26247897

  5. Ecotoxicity of neutral red (dye) and its environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Kastury, Farzana; Juhasz, Albert; Beckmann, Sabrina; Manefield, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Neutral red (NR) is a synthetic phenazine with promising prospect in environmental biotechnology as an electron shuttle. Recently, NR injections into coal seam associated groundwater in Australia (final dissolved NR concentration: 8 µM ± 0.2) were shown to increase methanogenesis up to ten-fold. However, information about NR toxicity to ecological receptors is sorely lacking. The main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration dependent toxicity of NR in microorganisms and plants. Acute toxicity of NR was determined by the modified Microtox™ assay. Microbial viability was determined using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Germination and early growth of plants was studied using Lactuca sativa, Daucus carota, Allium cepa and an Australian native Themeda triandra. Lastly, mutagenicity of the coal seam associated groundwater was assessed using the Ames test. The EC50 of acute NR toxicity was determined to be 0.11 mM. The EC50 of microbial viability was between 1 and 7.1mM NR. Among the concentrations tested, only 0.01, 0.10 and 100mM of NR significantly affected (p<0.001) germination of L. sativa. The EC50 for root elongation in seeds was between 1.2 and 35.5mM NR. Interestingly, root elongation in seeds was significantly stimulated (p<0.001) between 0.25 and 10mM NR, showing a hormetic effect. A significant increase in mutagenicity was only observed in one of the three wells tested. The results suggest that the average dissolved NR concentration (8 µM ± 0.2) deployed in the field trial at Lithgow State Coal Mine, Australia, appears not to negatively impact the ecological receptors tested in this study.

  6. Linking Temporal Changes in Bacterial Community Structures with the Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Neutral Metalloprotease Genes in the Sediments of a Hypereutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Imai, Akio; Satou, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal variations in bacterial community structures as well as the presence of three functional proteolytic enzyme genes in the sediments of a hypereutrophic freshwater lake in order to acquire an insight into dynamic links between bacterial community structures and proteolytic functions. Bacterial communities determined from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries markedly changed bimonthly, rather than vertically in the sediment cores. The phylum Firmicutes dominated in the 4–6 cm deep sediment layer sample after August in 2007, and this correlated with increases in interstitial ammonium concentrations (p < 0.01). The Firmicutes clones were mostly composed of the genus Bacillus. npr genes encoding neutral metalloprotease, an extracellular protease gene, were detected after the phylum Firmicutes became dominant. The deduced Npr protein sequences from the retrieved npr genes also showed that most of the Npr sequences used in this study were closely related to those of the genus Bacillus, with similarities ranging from 61% to 100%. Synchronous temporal occurrences of the 16S rRNA gene and Npr sequences, both from the genus Bacillus, were positively associated with increases in interstitial ammonium concentrations, which may imply that proteolysis by Npr from the genus Bacillus may contribute to the marked increases observed in ammonium concentrations in the sediments. Our results suggest that sedimentary bacteria may play an important role in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle of freshwater lakes. PMID:25130992

  7. Kinetic studies of Bacillus polymyxa nitrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, T E; Wilson, P W

    1976-01-01

    Nitrogenase from the facultative anaerobe Bacillus polymxa was separated into its component proteins, which were recombined in the ratio that produced optimal specific activity (125 to 175 nmol of C2H2 reduced/min per mg of total protein). The apparent Michaelis constants (Km)for the magnesium adenosine triphosphate complex, reducible substrates azide, acetylene, and N2 and the nonphysiological electron donor hydrosulfite (S2O42-) were determined to be 0.7, 0.7, 0.2, 0.06, and 0.03 MM, respectively. These apparent Km values are in reasonable agreement with those reported for the nitrogenases of Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Either a total lack of cooperativity between binding sites or a single binding site for reducible substrates is indicated by analysis of Hill plots. Hill plot slopes of approximately 1.7 suggest that multiple binding sites exist for both ATP and S2O42-. PMID:770451

  8. Enumeration of Bacillus cereus in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Mossel, D. A. A.; Koopman, M. J.; Jongerius, E.

    1967-01-01

    For the enumeration of vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus in foods, a mannitol-egg yolk-phenol red-agar has been developed which exploits the failure of B. cereus to dissimilate mannitol, and the ability of most strains to produce phospholipase C. When a high degree of selectivity was required, polymyxin B sulfate in a concentration of 10 ppm appeared to be the most effective selective additive. Useful characteristics for the identification of presumptive isolates of B. cereus were found to be: morphology, dissimilation of glucose mostly to acetyl methyl carbinol under anaerobic conditions, hydrolysis of starch and gelatin, reduction of nitrate, and growth on 0.25% chloral hydrate agar. PMID:4291956

  9. Growth kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M.; Subramanian, R.; Bly, M.J.; Winter, S.; Aronson, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219, a phenol-resistant thermophile, can convert phenol to the specialty chemical catechol. The growth kinetics of this organism were studied in batch, continuous, and immobilized-cell culture. Batch growth was insensitive to pH between 6.0 and 8.0, but little growth occurred at 5.5. In continuous culture on a dilute medium supplemented with 10 mM phenol, several steady states were achieved between dilution rates of 0.25 and 1.3 h{sup -1}. Phenol degradation was found to be uncoupled from growth. Immobilized cells grew rapidly in a rich medium, but cell viability plummeted following a switch to a dilute medium supplemented with 5 mM phenol.

  10. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay KS; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA. PMID:19619289

  11. Fermentation of xylose by bacillus macerans

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, T.A.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-09-01

    Plant stems, leaves, wood and most other sources of cellulose contain hemicelluloses. When cellulose from these sources is enzymatically hydrolyzed, hemicelluloses are also hydrolyzed by the action of xylanase. The hydrolysis of hemicelluloses yields pentoses, primarily xylose, and some hexoses. Bacillus macerans is capable of fermenting pentoses to ethanol. The ability of B. macerans to ferment pentoses to ethanol was examined. The organism was grown in a continuous flow stirred-tank fermenter. In continuous culture at steady state, ethanol and acetic acid were produced, whereas in batch culture and during transients in continuous culture, ethanol, acetic acid and acetone were produced. The organism was found to have a relatively high maximum specific growth rate. This maximum specific growth rate was observed to be higher than previously reported for B. macerans organisms. It was found that B. macerans had difficulty attaining and maintaining a steady state when grown in continuous culture.

  12. Bacillus phytases: Current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Boudebbouze, Samira; Mkaouar, Héla; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid in a stepwise manner to lower inositol phosphates, myo-inositol (having important role in metabolism and signal transduction pathways), and inorganic phosphate. These enzymes have been widely used in animal feed in order to improve phosphorus nutrition and to decrease pollution in animal waste. Compared to previously described phytases, the phytase (PhyL) from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 has attractive biochemical properties which can increase the profitability of several biotechnological procedures (animal nutrition, humain health…etc). Due to its amino acid sequence with critical substitutions, the PhyL could be a model to enhance other phytases features, in terms of thermal stability and high activity. Otherwise, an engineered PhyL, with low pH optimum, will represent a challenge within the class of β- propeller phytases. PMID:25946551

  13. Bacillus phytases: Current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Boudebbouze, Samira; Mkaouar, Héla; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2015-01-01

    Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid in a stepwise manner to lower inositol phosphates, myo-inositol (having important role in metabolism and signal transduction pathways), and inorganic phosphate. These enzymes have been widely used in animal feed in order to improve phosphorus nutrition and to decrease pollution in animal waste. Compared to previously described phytases, the phytase (PhyL) from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 has attractive biochemical properties which can increase the profitability of several biotechnological procedures (animal nutrition, humain health…etc). Due to its amino acid sequence with critical substitutions, the PhyL could be a model to enhance other phytases features, in terms of thermal stability and high activity. Otherwise, an engineered PhyL, with low pH optimum, will represent a challenge within the class of β- propeller phytases. PMID:25946551

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N.; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J.; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and other natural settings, and the evolution of resistance mechanisms in target pests. Armed with this knowledge base and with the tools of modern biotechnology, researchers are now reporting promising results in engineering more-useful toxins and formulations, in creating transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, and in constructing integrated management strategies to insure that these products are utilized with maximum efficiency and benefit. PMID:9729609

  15. General and regulatory proteolysis in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Molière, Noël; Turgay, Kürşad

    2013-01-01

    The soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used as a model organism to study the Gram-positive branch of Bacteria. A variety of different developmental pathways, such as endospore formation, genetic competence, motility, swarming and biofilm formation, have been studied in this organism. These processes are intricately connected and regulated by networks containing e.g. alternative sigma factors, two-component systems and other regulators. Importantly, in some of these regulatory networks the activity of important regulatory factors is controlled by proteases. Furthermore, together with chaperones, the same proteases constitute the cellular protein quality control (PQC) network, which plays a crucial role in protein homeostasis and stress tolerance of this organism. In this review, we will present the current knowledge on regulatory and general proteolysis in B. subtilis and discuss its involvement in developmental pathways and cellular stress management.

  16. Bacillus phytases: Current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Boudebbouze, Samira; Mkaouar, Héla; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2015-01-01

    Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid in a stepwise manner to lower inositol phosphates, myo-inositol (having important role in metabolism and signal transduction pathways), and inorganic phosphate. These enzymes have been widely used in animal feed in order to improve phosphorus nutrition and to decrease pollution in animal waste. Compared to previously described phytases, the phytase (PhyL) from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 has attractive biochemical properties which can increase the profitability of several biotechnological procedures (animal nutrition, humain health…etc). Due to its amino acid sequence with critical substitutions, the PhyL could be a model to enhance other phytases features, in terms of thermal stability and high activity. Otherwise, an engineered PhyL, with low pH optimum, will represent a challenge within the class of β- propeller phytases.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  18. The Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis AlHakam

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Xie, Gary; Bhotika,Smriti S.; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell,Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Green, Lance D.; Han, Cliff S.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; Martinez, Diego; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk,A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, LeePhilip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders,Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson,Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Paul; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen that is widelyused as a biopesticide (3). Here we report the finished, annotated genomesequence of B. thuringiensis Al Hakam, which was collected in Iraq by theUnited Nations Special Commission (2).

  19. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  20. Storage stability of Bacillus subtilis ethylene oxide biological indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, R R

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis biological indicators, stored at ambient and freezer conditions for 24 months, demonstrated no statistical difference in ethylene oxide resistance and spore viability from initial production levels. PMID:6766701

  1. Antifungal activity of Bacillus sp. isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Czaczyk, K; Stachowiak, B; Trojanowska, K; Gulewicz, K

    2000-01-01

    Four strains of Bacillus isolated from lupine compost exhibited an antifungal activity against six plant fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum). It was significantly influenced by the composition of the cultivation media.

  2. Kinetics of neutralization of Po-218

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    In a well-defined experimental system the neutralization of polonium-218 ions was investigated as a function of the physical and chemical properties of the controlled composition atmosphere. The mobilities of Po/sup +/ and PoO/sub 2//sup +/ are determined by combining experimental results with a computer model of the system. Three neutralization mechanisms were individually studied. The small ion recombination rate has been found to be proportional to the square root of radon concentration. The electron scavenging mechanism is responsible for the neutralization of Po/sup +/ in NO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O in nitrogen. When PoO/sub 2//sup +/ is formed, the electron transfer mechanism dominates the neutralization process. The electron is transferred to PoO/sub 2//sup +/ from molecules with lower ionization potentials. The ionization potential of PoO/sub 2//sup +/ is also determined to be 10.44 +/- 0.05 eV.

  3. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J.; Kucera, T.; Antiochos, S.; Kawashima, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between ions and neutrals in magnetized plasmas is fundamentally important to many aspects of heliophysics, including our ionosphere, the solar chromosphere, the solar wind interaction with planetary atmospheres, and the interface between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Ion-neutral coupling also plays a major role in the physics of solar prominences. By combining theory, modeling, and observations we are working toward a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of partially ionized prominence plasma. Two key questions are addressed in the present work: 1) what physical mechanism(s) sets the cross-field scale of prominence threads? 2) Are ion-neutral interactions responsible for the vertical flows and structure in prominences? We present initial results from a study investigating what role ion-neutral interactions play in prominence dynamics and structure. This research was supported by NASA.

  4. Neutralized transport of high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Anders, A.; Sharp, W.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Welch, D.; Rose, D.

    2003-05-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. A converging ion beam at the exit of the final focus magnetic system is injected into a neutralized drift section. The neutralization is provided by a metal arc source and an RF plasma source. Effects of a ''plasma plug'', where electrons are extracted from a localized plasma in the upstream end of the drift section, and are then dragged along by the ion potential, as well as the ''volumetric plasma'', where neutralization is provided by the plasma laid down along the ion path, are both studied and their relative effects on the beam spot size are compared. Comparisons with 3-D PIC code predictions will also be presented.

  5. Resistance of Bacillus Endospores to Extreme Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Munakata, Nobuo; Horneck, Gerda; Melosh, Henry J.; Setlow, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for exploration of the resistance of spores to environmental extremes both on Earth and during postulated interplanetary transfer through space as a result of natural impact processes. PMID:10974126

  6. Bacillus anthracis: current knowledge in relation to contamination of food.

    PubMed

    Erickson, M C; Kornacki, J L

    2003-04-01

    In this article, information related to anthrax and its etiologic agent, Bacillus anthracis, in food is reviewed. The major topics discussed include the taxonomic relationship of B. anthracis to other Bacillus species, methods used for the recovery of the organism from surfaces and foods, routes of infection, the pathogenesis of the organism, the microbial ecology of the vegetative cell and spore in foods and the environment, chemical and physical treatments for spore inactivation, and the control of the disease in animals. PMID:12696699

  7. Modeling the neutral sodium tails of comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K.; Jones, G.; Coates, A.

    2014-07-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and, at some comets, a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) data taken using CoCam [1], but, since this initial detection, similar features have been observed at near-Sun comets using the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO. A full picture of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be established using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout the orbit. The high efficiency of the sodium D transition has allowed it to be detected in systems, even if the column density of sodium is extremely low. In these instances it is sometimes possible to determine some of the system's characteristics from the sodium emission detection, such as in Io's plasma torus [2] and Enceladus's plume [3,4]. It is hoped that a similar approach may be applied to the active cometary environment, but, at present, the production of neutral sodium is unknown. Various authors [5--9, thorough review presented in 10] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail, and ion tail. The morphology and evolution of the neutral cometary sodium tail are difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three-dimensional, heliocentric-distance-dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model, which incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. Our model was initially based on that of Brown et al [7]. We present preliminary results from this model. We have found initial agreement with the overall morphology and

  8. Primary interstellar neutrals in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Hans R.; Moebius, Eberhard; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    Among other accomplishments, IBEX has detected direct interstellar helium and oxygen. With the help of a 3D MHD/kinetic hydrogen background heliosphere model by Pogorelov and Heerikhuisen, the distributions of primary interstellar neutrals throughout the heliosphere are calculated, identifying contributions from direct and indirect particle trajectories. The results are converted into expected fluxes at IBEX. The comparison of these fluxes to the measurements characterizes the density of neutrals in the pristine interstellar medium, and their filtration in the heliosphere.

  9. Nitrogen-neutrality: a step towards sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison; Musinguzi, Patrick; Tumwesigye, Trust; Olupot, Giregon; Tenywa, John Stephen; Mudiope, Joseph; Hutton, Olivia; Cordovil, Claudia M. d. S.; Bekunda, Mateete; Galloway, James

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel indicator measuring one dimension of the sustainability of an entity in modern societies: Nitrogen-neutrality. N-neutrality strives to offset Nr releases an entity exerts on the environment from the release of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment by reducing it and by offsetting the Nr releases elsewhere. N-neutrality also aims to increase awareness about the consequences of unintentional releases of nitrogen to the environment. N-neutrality is composed of two quantified elements: Nr released by an entity (e.g. on the basis of the N footprint) and Nr reduction from management and offset projects (N offset). It includes management strategies to reduce nitrogen losses before they occur (e.g., through energy conservation). Each of those elements faces specific challenges with regard to data availability and conceptual development. Impacts of Nr releases to the environment are manifold, and the impact profile of one unit of Nr release depends strongly on the compound released and the local susceptibility to Nr. As such, N-neutrality is more difficult to conceptualize and calculate than C-neutrality. We developed a workable conceptual framework for N-neutrality which was adapted for the 6th International Nitrogen Conference (N2013, Kampala, November 2013). Total N footprint of the surveyed meals at N2013 was 66 kg N. A total of US 3050 was collected from the participants and used to offset the conference’s N footprint by supporting the UN Millennium Village cluster Ruhiira in South-Western Uganda. The concept needs further development in particular to better incorporate the spatio-temporal variability of impacts and to standardize the methods to quantify the required N offset to neutralize the Nr releases impact. Criteria for compensation projects need to be sharply defined to allow the development of a market for N offset certificates.

  10. Neutral hydrogen survey of andromeda galaxy.

    PubMed

    Brundage, W D; Kraus, J D

    1966-07-22

    A neutral hydrogen survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) has been conducted with the 260-foot (80m) Ohio State University radio telescope. The neutral hydrogen is concentrated in the spiral arm regions, with but relatively small amounts near the center of the galaxy. Similar deficiencies have been found near the center of M33 and our galaxy, suggesting similar evolutionary processes in the three galaxies.

  11. Neutral-particle-beam production and injection

    SciTech Connect

    Post, D.; Pyle, R.

    1982-07-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first is a discussion of the interactions of neutral beams with confined plasmas, the second is concerned with the production and diagnosis of the neutral beams. In general we are dealing with atoms, molecules, and ions of the isotopes of hydrogen, but some heavier elements (for example, oxygen) will be mentioned. The emphasis will be on single-particle collisions; selected atomic processes on surfaces will be included.

  12. A class of neutral functional differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Formulation and study of the initial value problem for neutral functional differential equations. The existence, uniqueness, and continuation of solutions to this problem are investigated, and an analysis is made of the dependence of the solutions on the initial conditions and parameters, resulting in the derivation of a continuous dependence theorem in which the fundamental mathematical principles underlying the continuous dependence problem for a very general system of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations are separated out.

  13. Mortality of adult Stomoxys calcitrans fed isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Kalischuk-Tymensen, L D; Selinger, L B

    2012-10-01

    We examined the ability of five isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to cause mortality in adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Isolates Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi 4L3 (serotype 9), Bacillus thuringiensis darmstadiensis 4M1 (serotype 10a10b), Bacillus thuringiensis thompsoni 401 (serotype 12), Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis HD2 (serotype 1), and Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD945 (serotype 3a3b3c) were administered to adult flies in diets containing blood only, sugar only, and both sugar and blood combined. B. t. tolworthi 4L3 had no effect on adult mortality regardless of the feeding substrate. The remaining isolates tended to cause the greatest mortality when administered in blood alone. B. t. thompsoni 401 was the only isolate that consistently caused adult mortality when fed in blood at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 50.0 microg of protein per ml of blood. This isolate also caused mortality when applied topically. The time to 50% mortality declined with dose and reached a lower asymptote at approximately equal to 1.3 d at an oral dose of 8.75 microg/ml and at a topical dose of 0.14 microg per fly.

  14. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Bae, Euiwon

    2014-01-01

    Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (Bacterial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased two-fold and the number of small speckles increased seven-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony. PMID:25352840

  15. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

  16. The Phobos neutral and ionized torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Curry, S. M.; Fatemi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Charged particle sputtering, micrometeoroid impact vaporization, and photon-stimulated desorption are fundamental processes operating at airless surfaces throughout the solar system. At larger bodies, such as Earth's Moon and several of the outer planet moons, these processes generate tenuous surface-bound exospheres that have been observed by a variety of methods. Phobos and Deimos, in contrast, are too gravitationally weak to keep ejected neutrals bound and, thus, are suspected to generate neutral tori in orbit around Mars. While these tori have not yet been detected, the distribution and density of both the neutral and ionized components are of fundamental interest. We combine a neutral Monte Carlo model and a hybrid plasma model to investigate both the neutral and ionized components of the Phobos torus. We show that the spatial distribution of the neutral torus is highly dependent on each individual species (due to ionization rates that span nearly 4 orders of magnitude) and on the location of Phobos with respect to Mars. Additionally, we present the flux distribution of torus pickup ions throughout the Martian system and estimate typical pickup ion fluxes. We find that the predicted pickup ion fluxes are too low to perturb the ambient plasma, consistent with previous null detections by spacecraft around Mars.

  17. Characterization of elusive neutrals and ions by neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fura, A.

    1992-01-01

    Neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry (NRMS) provides a dilute gas phase environment where a variety of neutral species can be produced and characterized. In NRMS fast neutrals are produced from mass-selected precursor ions. The neutrals can undergo isomerization or dissociation by using a low ionization-energy target for neutralization or by angular resolution. The neutrals are reionized to positive or negative ions that are mass analyzed and detected. Angular resolution is used here to obtain NR spectra of isomeric butenes and N-hexenes. A study of oxirane produced an energy surface of five isomers, showing C-C favored over C-O bond rupture. [center dot]CH[sub 2]CH[sub 2]O[center dot], [sup +]CH[sub 2]CH[sub 2]O[center dot], and the oxirane cation represent bound structures, as do [center dot]CH[sub 2]CH[sub 2]O[sup [minus

  18. Automated facial coding software outperforms people in recognizing neutral faces as neutral from standardized datasets

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about people’s accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge – automated facial coding (AFC) software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90%) was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%). I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e., smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings. PMID:26441761

  19. Comparison of JEV neutralization assay using pseudotyped JEV with the conventional plaque-reduction neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Jung; Min, Kyung-Il; Park, Ki Hoon; Choi, Hyo Jung; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Ahn, Chi-Young; Hong, Young-Jin; Kim, Young Bong

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the development of a neutralization assay system for evaluating Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) neutralizing antibody (NAb) using pseudotyped-JEV (JEV-PV). JEV-PV-based neutralization assay offers several advantages compared with the current standard plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), including simplicity, safety, and speed. To evaluate the suitability of the JEV-PV assay as new replacement neutralization assay, we compared its repeatability, reproducibility, specificity, and correlated its results with those obtained using the PRNT. These analyses showed a close correlation between the results obtained with the JEV-PV assay and the PRNT, using the 50% plaque reduction method as a standard for measuring NAb titers to JEV. The validation results met all analytical acceptance criteria. These results suggest that the JEV-PV assay could serve as a safe and simple method for measuring NAb titer against JEV and could be used as an alternative approach for assaying the potency of JEV neutralization.

  20. Modeling Neutral Densities Downstream of a Gridded Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    The details of a model for determining the neutral density downstream of a gridded ion thruster are presented. An investigation of the possible sources of neutrals emanating from and surrounding a NEXT ion thruster determined that the most significant contributors to the downstream neutral density include discharge chamber neutrals escaping through the perforated grids, neutrals escaping from the neutralizer, and vacuum facility background neutrals. For the neutral flux through the grids, near- and far-field equations are presented for rigorously determining the neutral density downstream of a cylindrical aperture. These equations are integrated into a spherically-domed convex grid geometry with a hexagonal array of apertures for determining neutral densities downstream of the ion thruster grids. The neutrals escaping from an off-center neutralizer are also modeled assuming diffuse neutral emission from the neutralizer keeper orifice. Finally, the effect of the surrounding vacuum facility neutrals is included and assumed to be constant. The model is used to predict the neutral density downstream of a NEXT ion thruster with and without neutralizer flow and a vacuum facility background pressure. The impacts of past simplifying assumptions for predicting downstream neutral densities are also examined for a NEXT ion thruster.

  1. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J. W.; Letant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-17

    We found that energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemicalcode. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. These results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide andaluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. Our results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  2. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-21

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  3. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    DOE PAGES

    Tringe, J. W.; Letant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-17

    We found that energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemicalcode. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly themore » full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. These results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide andaluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. Our results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.« less

  4. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300-2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%-1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  5. Neutralization of adenoviruses: kinetics, stoichiometry, and mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfart, C

    1988-01-01

    Kinetic curves for neutralization of adenovirus type 2 with anti-hexon serum revealed no lag periods even when the serum was highly diluted or when the temperature was lowered to 4 degrees C, thus indicating a single-hit mechanism. Multiplicity curves determined with anti-hexon serum displayed a linear correlation between the degree of neutralization and dilution of antiserum. Neutralization values experimentally obtained under steady-state conditions fully fitted a single-hit model based on Poisson calculations. Quantitation of the amount of 125I-labeled type-specific anti-hexon antibodies needed for full neutralization of adenovirus showed that 1.4 antibodies were attached per virion under such conditions. Virions already attached to HeLa cells at 4 degrees C were, to a large extent, neutralizable by anti-hexon serum, whereas anti-fiber and anti-penton base antisera were negative. It is suggested that adenovirus may be neutralized by two pathways: aggregation of the virions (extracellular neutralization) as performed by anti-fiber antibodies and blocking of virion entrance from the acidic endosomes into the cytoplasm (intracellular neutralization). The latter effect could be obtained by (i) covering of the penton bases, as performed by anti-penton base antibodies, thereby preventing interaction between the penton bases and the endosomal membrane, which results in trapping of virions within endosomes, and (ii) inhibition of the low-pH-induced conformational change of the viral capsid, which seems to occur in the endosomes and is necessary for proper exposure of the penton bases, as performed by anti-hexon antibodies. Images PMID:3373570

  6. New applications of ORNL neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C. C.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1998-01-01

    The injection of energetic hydrogen and deuterium atoms has been used to heat plasmas in various fusion experimental devices including tokamaks, mirrors, and stellarators. The neutral beam injection is a proven plasma heating technique for increasing plasma densities, temperatures, and pressures. For this fusion endeavor, scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed multimegawatt neutral beam injectors. Various ORNL injectors have been used for studying properties of beam-heated plasmas in Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK), Impurity Study Experiment-B (ISX-B), Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), Princeton Large Torus (PLT), and Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX) in the United States and in Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START) in the United Kingdom. By using a 30-cm and 100-A ion source, each ORNL neutral beam injector is capable of injecting >1.5 MW of hydrogen atoms at 50-keV for a pulse length up to 0.5 s. For increasing plasma densities and raising plasma temperatures in START, one such injector was installed and commissioned during 1995. The initial goal was to provide an injected neutral beam power of more than 0.5 MW at a beam energy of 40 keV for 20 ms. Addition of a getter pump has allowed the beam power to be raised to 1 MW at 33 keV. Recent experiments have demonstrated that neutral beam heating can play a big role in raising plasma pressures to a record volume-average beta value over 30%. ORNL neutral beam injectors have been approved for plasma heating experiments on both the TJ-II stellarator at CIEMAT, Spain, and the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Science Centre (Culham). Two proven ORNL NE injectors are being installed at the TJ-II facility. Additional ORNL beam equipment is being used to implement two 5-s NE injectors at the MAST facility. In this paper, we report and discuss the progress and plans for these neutral beam activities.

  7. Bacillus nanhaiisediminis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant member of Bacillus rRNA group 6.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianli; Wang, Jiewei; Song, Fei; Fang, Caiyuan; Xin, Yuhua; Zhang, Yabo

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain NH3(T), was isolated from a sediment sample from the South China Sea and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The isolate grew optimally at 37 °C and pH 9. Strain NH3(T) had cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The cellular fatty acid profile included significant amounts of iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(14 : 0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain NH3(T) was 40.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NH3(T) was a member of rRNA group 6 of the genus Bacillus, which includes alkalitolerant, alkaliphilic and halotolerant species. The closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus akibai 1139(T) (96.82 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), B. pseudofirmus DSM 8715(T) (96.76 %), B. okhensis Kh10-101(T) (96.76 %) and B. alkalidiazotrophicus MS 6(T) (96.47 %). Strain NH3(T) could be distinguished from these phylogenetically close neighbours based on a number of phenotypic properties. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic data, we conclude that strain NH3(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10116(T)  = JCM 16507(T)) merits classification as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Bacillus nanhaiisediminis sp. nov. is proposed.

  8. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding a calcium-dependent exoproteinase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Fortnagel, P

    1993-01-01

    The gene nprM encoding the calcium-dependent extracellular proteinase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 was cloned in the vector pBR322 and expressed in Escherichia coli HB101. The DNA sequence of the cloned 3.7 kb fragment revealed only one open reading frame consisting of 1686 bp with a coding capacity of 562 amino acid residues. A predicted Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence was observed 9 bp upstream from the presumptive translation start site (ATG). A possible promoter sequence (TAGACG for the -35 region and TATAAT for the -10 region) was found about 69 bp upstream of the ATG start site. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited a 24 amino acid residue signal peptide and an additional polypeptide 'pro' sequence of 221 amino acids preceding the putative mature protein of 317 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence comparison revealed 84.5% homology between the mature protein and that of a thermolabile neutral protease from B. cereus. It also shares 73% homology with the thermostable neutral proteases of B. thermoproteolyticus and B. stearothermophilus. The zinc-binding sites and the catalytic residues are completely conserved in all four proteases. NprM has a temperature optimum of 58 degrees C, a pH optimum of between 6.4 and 7.2, and is stimulated by calcium ions and inhibited by EDTA. These results indicate that the enzyme is a neutral (metallo-) protease. PMID:8450307

  9. Decontamination Options for Bacillus anthracis-Contaminated Drinking Water Determined from Spore Surrogate Studies ▿

    PubMed Central

    Raber, Ellen; Burklund, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination alternatives for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were as follows: (i) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus), (ii) spore concentration in suspension (102 and 106 spores/ml), (iii) chemical characteristics of the decontaminant (sodium dichloro-S-triazinetrione dihydrate [Dichlor], hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate [Oxone], sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS), (iv) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%), and (v) exposure time to decontaminant (10 min to 1 h). Results from 138 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5% and Dichlor or sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2% were highly effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and a more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting the EPA biocide standard of greater than a 6-log kill after a 10-min exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS and Oxone were less effective as decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for a biocide, although they were found to be as effective for concentrations of 102 spores/ml. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult. PMID:20709855

  10. Decontamination options for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated drinking water determined from spore surrogate studies.

    PubMed

    Raber, Ellen; Burklund, Alison

    2010-10-01

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination alternatives for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were as follows: (i) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus), (ii) spore concentration in suspension (10(2) and 10(6) spores/ml), (iii) chemical characteristics of the decontaminant (sodium dichloro-S-triazinetrione dihydrate [Dichlor], hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate [Oxone], sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS), (iv) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%), and (v) exposure time to decontaminant (10 min to 1 h). Results from 138 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5% and Dichlor or sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2% were highly effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and a more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting the EPA biocide standard of greater than a 6-log kill after a 10-min exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS and Oxone were less effective as decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for a biocide, although they were found to be as effective for concentrations of 10(2) spores/ml. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  11. Observed vegetation patterns in tidal environments: neutral vs. non-neutral explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluco, E.; Zillio, T.; Silvestri, S.; Maritan, A.; Marani, M.

    2009-12-01

    The quantitative retrieval of vegetation patterns in tidal environments from high-resolution satellite and airborne sensors has recently been shown to be accurate and repeatable. This makes available unprecedentedly accurate observations of competing species distributions over a broad range of spatial scales. Such distributions are here characterized statistically, suggesting the absence of characteristic scales, as revealed by the power-law form of cluster size pdf's. A competition model based on a neutral approach, serving as a reference null hypothesis, reproduces some of the basic observed system properties. It is, however, shown that the availability of spatially-detailed observations allows the development and application of a non-neutral model, which is seen to capture several observed bio-diversity properties (alpha and beta diversity). The non-neutral model developed, based on cloning and seed dispersal processes, is amenable to analytical solution and yields closed-form characterizations of beta-diversity. The validation of the non-neutral model shows a remarkable agreement with observations within the wide observational range of scales explored (0.5 m - 1000 m). We contend the good agreement of the neutral model with the more limited characterization of beta-diversity typical of the neutral theory to be misleading, as the recruitment rates by propagules and by seed dispersal assumed by the neutral model do not reflect known species characteristics and correspond to averages of those obtained under the more general non-neutral hypothesis. We conclude that non-neutral beta-diversity characterizations are required to describe ecosystem dynamics in the presence of species-dependent properties and to successfully relate the observed patterns to the underlying processes. The hypothesis of neutrality, often fostered by the lack of spatially-detailed data, is no longer a necessity, in view of the recent advances in remote-sensing retrievals of vegetation

  12. Bacillus nanhaiensis sp. nov., isolated from an oyster.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Qin; He, Jian-Wu; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, You-Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2011-04-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, slightly halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 082006(T), was isolated from an oyster collected from Naozhou Island in the South China Sea. The isolate grew in 0-18 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5-4.0 %), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0) and at 15-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Strain JSM 082006(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 40.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 082006(T) should be assigned to the genus Bacillus and that it was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus barbaricus (sequence similarity 99.1 %) and Bacillus arsenicus (97.5 %), followed by those of Bacillus rigui (96.6 %) and Bacillus solisalsi (96.1 %). Phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data support the view that strain JSM 082006(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is JSM 082006(T) ( = DSM 23009(T)  = KCTC 13712(T)).

  13. Bacillus crassostreae sp. nov., isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Hua; Tian, Xiang-Rong; Ruan, Ying; Yang, Ling-Ling; He, Ze-Qiang; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun; Shi, Huazhong; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2015-05-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, endospore-forming, facultatively anaerobic rod, designated strain JSM 100118(T), was isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) collected from the tidal flat of Naozhou Island in the South China Sea. Strain JSM 100118(T) was able to grow with 0-13% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-5%), at pH 5.5-10.0 (optimum pH 7.5) and at 5-50 °C (optimum 30-35 °C). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω11c. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown glycolipid and an unknown phospholipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 100118(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus , and was most closely related to Bacillus litoralis SW-211(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Bacillus halosaccharovorans E33(T) (98.3%), Bacillus niabensis 4T19(T) (97.8%) and Bacillus herbersteinensis D-1,5a(T) (97.1%). The combination of results from the phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization supported the conclusion that strain JSM 100118(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus crassostreae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 100118(T) ( = CTCC AB 2010452(T) =DSM 24486(T) =JCM 17523(T)).

  14. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black-pigment-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Saunders, Lauren P; Schisler, David A; Leathers, Timothy D; Naeem, Naveed; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-08-01

    Two isolates of a Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a dark pigment on tryptic soy agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these strains were related most closely to Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum (99.7 % similarity) and Bacillus axarquiensis (99.7 %). In phenotypic characterization, the novel strains were found to grow between 17 and 50 °C and can tolerate up to 9 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strains grew in media of pH 5.5-10 (optimal growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (34.8 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (21.9 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. A draft genome of both strains was completed. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis on the core genome of these two new strains and all members of the Bacillus subtilis group revealed these two strains formed a distinct monophyletic clade with the nearest neighbour Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. DNA-DNA relatedness studies using in silico DNA-DNA hybridizations showed the two strains were conspecific (93.8 %), while values with all other species (<31.5 %) were well below the species threshold of 70 %. Based on the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, these strains are considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41091T (=CCUG 68786T). PMID:27150918

  15. Species ages in neutral biodiversity models.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; O'Dwyer, James P

    2014-05-01

    Biogeography seeks to understand the mechanisms that drive biodiversity across long temporal and large spatial scales. Theoretical models of biogeography can be tested by comparing their predictions of quantities such as species ages against empirical estimates. It has previously been claimed that the neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography predicts species ages that are unrealistically long. Any improved theory of biodiversity must rectify this problem, but first it is necessary to quantify the problem precisely. Here we provide analytical expressions for species ages in neutral biodiversity communities. We analyse a spatially implicit metacommunity model and solve for both the zero-sum and non-zero-sum cases. We explain why our new expressions are, in the context of biodiversity, usually more appropriate than those previously imported from neutral molecular evolution. Because of the time symmetry of the spatially implicit neutral model, our expressions also lead directly to formulas for species persistence times and species lifetimes. We use our new expressions to estimate species ages of forest trees under a neutral model and find that they are about an order of magnitude shorter than those predicted previously but still unrealistically long. In light of our results, we discuss different models of biogeography that may solve the problem of species ages.

  16. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  17. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  18. Midplane Neutral Density Profiles in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotler, D. P.; Scotti, F.; Bell, R. E.; Leblanc, B. P.; Raman, R.

    2013-10-01

    The experimental determination of neutral densities in tokamak plasmas from line radiation is only accurate in the narrow region in which both the excitation rate and neutral density are significant; elsewhere the result is dominated by noise. We propose an alternative, simulation based inversion procedure utilizing tools developed in the validation of the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code against Gas Puff Imaging camera data. Here, the Balmer- β emission rate recorded by an absolutely calibrated tangentially viewing camera is used to quantify a simulated, ad hoc neutral gas source at the vacuum vessel wall. This procedure yields absolute radial profiles of deuterium atoms and molecules at midplane. The validity of this characterization of the gas source is confirmed by the similarity of the shapes of the simulated and observed light emission profiles. We also compare the resulting neutral pressures at the vessel walls with data from midplane micro-ion gauges. This work supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Focusing and neutralization of intense beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Simon S.; Anders, Andre; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, Shmuel; Henestroza, Enrique; Roy, Prabir; Shuman, Derek; Waldron, William; Sharp, William; Rose, Dave; Welch, Dale; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Eric

    2003-05-01

    In heavy ion inertial confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams through the target chamber is essential for the viability of an economically competitive heavy ion fusion power plant. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with PIC simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the NTX (Neutralized Transport Experiment) as shown in Figure 1. The experiment consists of 3 phases, each with physics issues of its own. Phase 1 is designed to generate a very high brightness potassium beam with variable perveance, using a beam aperturing technique. Phase 2 consists of magnetic transport through four pulsed quadrupoles. Here, beam tuning as well as the effects of phase space dilution through higher order nonlinear fields must be understood. In Phase 3, a converging ion beam at the exit of the magnetic section is transported through a drift section with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we present first results from all 3 phases of the experiment.

  20. Cannibalism stress response in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Höfler, Carolin; Heckmann, Judith; Fritsch, Anne; Popp, Philipp; Gebhard, Susanne; Fritz, Georg; Mascher, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    When faced with carbon source limitation, the Gram-positive soil organism Bacillus subtilis initiates a survival strategy called sporulation, which leads to the formation of highly resistant endospores that allow B. subtilis to survive even long periods of starvation. In order to avoid commitment to this energy-demanding and irreversible process, B. subtilis employs another strategy called 'cannibalism' to delay sporulation as long as possible. Cannibalism involves the production and secretion of two cannibalism toxins, sporulation delaying protein (SDP) and sporulation killing factor (SKF), which are able to lyse sensitive siblings. The lysed cells are thought to then provide nutrients for the cannibals to slow down or even prevent them from entering sporulation. In this study, we uncovered the role of the cell envelope stress response (CESR), especially the Bce-like antimicrobial peptide detoxification modules, in the cannibalism stress response during the stationary phase. SDP and SKF specifically induce Bce-like systems and some extracytoplasmic function σ factors in stationary-phase cultures, but only the latter provide some degree of protection. A full Bce response is only triggered by mature toxins, and not by toxin precursors. Our study provides insights into the close relationship between stationary-phase survival and the CESR of B. subtilis. PMID:26364265

  1. Bacillus cereus, a Volatile Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent β-lactamase conferring marked resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. PMID:20375358

  2. Mechanical Behavior of a Bacillus subtilis Pellicle.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Emily C; Douarche, Carine; Allain, Jean-Marc; Roger, Philippe; Regeard, Christophe; Cegelski, Lynette; Fuller, Gerald G; Raspaud, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial biofilms consist of a complex network of biopolymers embedded with microorganisms, and together these components form a physically robust structure that enables bacteria to grow in a protected environment. This structure can help unwanted biofilms persist in situations ranging from chronic infection to the biofouling of industrial equipment, but under certain circumstances it can allow the biofilm to disperse and colonize new niches. Mechanical properties are therefore a key aspect of biofilm life. In light of the recently discovered growth-induced compressive stress present within a biofilm, we studied the mechanical behavior of Bacillus subtilis pellicles, or biofilms at the air-liquid interface, and tracked simultaneously the force response and macroscopic structural changes during elongational deformations. We observed that pellicles behaved viscoelastically in response to small deformations, such that the growth-induced compressive stress was still present, and viscoplastically at large deformations, when the pellicles were under tension. In addition, by using particle imaging velocimetry we found that the pellicle deformations were nonaffine, indicating heterogeneous mechanical properties with the pellicle being more pliable near attachment surfaces. Overall, our results indicate that we must consider not only the viscoelastic but also the viscoplastic and mechanically heterogeneous nature of these structures to understand biofilm dispersal and removal. PMID:27046510

  3. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He–H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuls, Elise; van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0-g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1-g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  5. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    PubMed

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

  6. Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, I. W.; Mandelstam, J.

    1970-01-01

    Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis 168 was studied in chemostat cultures. Sporulation occurred at high frequency under limitation of growth by glucose or the nitrogen source in minimal medium, whereas rates of sporulation were low for Mg2+, phosphate, citrate, or tryptophan limitation. Sporulation was found at all growth rates tested, and the incidence of spores increased with decrease in growth rate of the culture. Within the range of growth rates up to the maximum obtainable with the defined medium, no threshold effect of growth rate on sporulation was observed. By studying transient states, it was possible to determine the time taken for the appearance of a refractile spore after initiation of a cell to sporulation. Under conditions of glucose limitation, cells were found to be committed to sporulation as soon as they were initiated. In nitrogen-limited cultures, however, a partial relief of nitrogen limitation prevented the development of spores during the first hour after initiation. The results of experiments with multistep changes in dilution rate of a chemostat culture indicate that initiation to sporulation is probably restricted to a particular point in the cell division cycle. PMID:4990846

  7. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-11-10

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions. PMID:26438858

  8. Characteristics of some psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    PubMed

    Dufrenne, J; Bijwaard, M; te Giffel, M; Beumer, R; Notermans, S

    1995-10-01

    Twelve strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from different food products and foodborne disease outbreaks, and able to grow at temperatures < 7 degrees C, were characterised. Generation times at 7 degrees C varied from 9.4 h up to 75 h. Lag phase of the vegetative cells at 7 degrees C was strongly influenced by the previous temperature history of the cells. Preincubation at 37 degrees C increased the duration of the lag phase drastically. The heat resistance at 90 degrees C (D90 degrees C-values in min) for spores produced at 30 degrees C varied from 2.2 to 9.2 min for 11 strains. One strain, however, showed a D90 degrees C-value of > 100 min. Germination of spores in milk was delayed compared to those grown in brain heart infusion broth (BHI). All strains showed production of the diarrheal type enterotoxin in BHI. Addition of 50 IU of nisin to skim milk resulted in a decrease of numbers for 9 of the 12 strains tested. At a nisin concentration of 250 IU, a decrease in bacterial numbers was observed for all strains tested. PMID:8579988

  9. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    PubMed

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds.

  10. Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed Central

    Höfte, H; Whiteley, H R

    1989-01-01

    A classification for crystal protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis is presented. Criteria used are the insecticidal spectra and the amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins. Fourteen genes are distinguished, encoding proteins active against either Lepidoptera (cryI), Lepidoptera and Diptera (cryII), Coleoptera (cryIII), or Diptera (cryIV). One gene, cytA, encodes a general cytolytic protein and shows no structural similarities with the other genes. Toxicity studies with single purified proteins demonstrated that every described crystal protein is characterized by a highly specific, and sometimes very restricted, insect host spectrum. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences reveals sequence elements which are conserved for Cry proteins. The expression of crystal protein genes is affected by a number of factors. Recently, two distinct sigma subunits regulating transcription during different stages of sporulation have been identified, as well as a protein regulating the expression of a crystal protein at a posttranslational level. Studies on the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity suggest that B. thuringiensis crystal proteins induce the formation of pores in membranes of susceptible cells. In vitro binding studies with radiolabeled toxins demonstrated a strong correlation between the specificity of B. thuringiensis toxins and the interaction with specific binding sites on the insect midgut epithelium. The expression of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins in plant-associated microorganisms and in transgenic plants has been reported. These approaches are potentially powerful strategies for the protection of agriculturally important crops against insect damage. Images PMID:2666844

  11. The peroxide stress response of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Rebecca; Voigt, Birgit; Jürgen, Britta; Methling, Karen; Pöther, Dierk-Christoph; Schäfer, Heinrich; Albrecht, Dirk; Mostertz, Jörg; Mäder, Ulrike; Evers, Stefan; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Lalk, Michael; Mascher, Thorsten; Hecker, Michael; Schweder, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The oxidative stress response of Bacillus licheniformis after treatment with hydrogen peroxide was investigated at the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome levels. In this comprehensive study, 84 proteins and 467 transcripts were found to be up or downregulated in response to the stressor. Among the upregulated genes were many that are known to have important functions in the oxidative stress response of other organisms, such as catalase, alkylhydroperoxide reductase or the thioredoxin system. Many of these genes could be grouped into putative regulons by genomic mining. The occurrence of oxidative damage to proteins was analyzed by a 2-DE-based approach. In addition, we report the induction of genes with hitherto unknown functions, which may be important for the specific oxidative stress response of B. licheniformis. The genes BLi04114 and BLi04115, that are located adjacent to the catalase gene, were massively induced during peroxide stress. Furthermore, the genes BLi04207 and BLi04208, which encode proteins homologous to glyoxylate cycle enzymes, were also induced by peroxide. Metabolomic analyses support the induction of the glyoxylate cycle during oxidative stress in B. licheniformis.

  12. Bacillus anthracis diversity in Kruger National Park.

    PubMed

    Smith, K L; DeVos, V; Bryden, H; Price, L B; Hugh-Jones, M E; Keim, P

    2000-10-01

    The Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, has a recorded history of periodic anthrax epidemics causing widespread disease among wild animals. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease primarily affecting ungulate herbivores. Worldwide there is little diversity among B. anthracis isolates, but examination of variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci has identified six major clones, with the most dissimilar types split into the A and B branches. Both the A and B types are found in southern Africa, giving this region the greatest genetic diversity of B. anthracis worldwide. Consequently, southern Africa has been hypothesized to be the geographic origin of B. anthracis. In this study, we identify the genotypic types of 98 KNP B. anthracis isolates using multiple-locus VNTR analysis. Two major types are evident, the A branch and the B branch. The spatial and temporal distribution of the different genotypes indicates that anthrax epidemic foci are independent, though correlated through environmental cues. Kruger B isolates were found on significantly higher-calcium and higher-pH soils than were Kruger type A. This relationship between genotype and soil chemistry may be due to adaptive differences among divergent anthrax strains. While this association may be simply fortuitous, adaptation of A types to diverse environmental conditions is consistent with their greater geographic dispersal and genetic dissimilarity.

  13. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions. PMID:26438858

  14. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    PubMed

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.

  15. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  16. The Bacillus subtilis heat shock stimulon

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    All organisms respond to a sudden increase in temperature by the so-called heat shock response. This response results in the induction of a subset of genes, designated heat shock genes coding for heat shock proteins, which allow the cell to cope with the stress regimen. Research carried out during the last 10 years with eubacteria has revealed that the heat shock genes of a given species fall into different classes (regulons), where each class is regulated by a different transcriptional regulator, which could be an alternative sigma factor, a transcriptional activator, or a transcriptional repressor. All regulons of a single species constitute the heat shock stimulon. In Bacillus subtilis, more than 200 genes representing over 7% of the transcriptionally active genes are induced at least 3-fold in response to a heat shock. This response becomes apparent within the first minute after exposure to heat stress, is transient, and is coordinated by at least 5 transcriptional regulator proteins, including 2 repressors, an alternate sigma-factor, and a 2-component signal transduction system. A detailed analysis of the regulation of all known heat shock genes has shown that they belong to at least 6 regulons that together comprise the B subtilis heat shock stimulon. Potential thermosensors are discussed in this article. PMID:14984053

  17. A pangenomic study of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjun; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Jiucheng; Shu, Changlong; Wang, Xumin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Duojun; Liu, Guiming; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Jie; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim; Yu, Jun

    2011-12-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium and its plasmid-encoded toxins (Cry) are commonly used as biological alternatives to pesticides. In a pangenomic study, we sequenced seven B. thuringiensis isolates in both high coverage and base-quality using the next-generation sequencing platform. The B. thuringiensis pangenome was extrapolated to have 4196 core genes and an asymptotic value of 558 unique genes when a new genome is added. Compared to the pangenomes of its closely related species of the same genus, B. thuringiensis pangenome shows an open characteristic, similar to B. cereus but not to B. anthracis; the latter has a closed pangenome. We also found extensive divergence among the seven B. thuringiensis genome assemblies, which harbor ample repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identities among orthologous genes are greater than 84.5% and the hotspots for the genome variations were discovered in genomic regions of 2.3-2.8Mb and 5.0-5.6Mb. We concluded that high-coverage sequence assemblies from multiple strains, before all the gaps are closed, are very useful for pangenomic studies. PMID:22196399

  18. Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases

    PubMed Central

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

  19. Keratinolytic proteinase from Bacillus thuringiensis AD-12.

    PubMed

    Gegeckas, Audrius; Gudiukaitė, Renata; Citavicius, Donaldas

    2014-08-01

    A new isolated strain noted to produce a novel detergent-stable serine keratinolytic proteinase and identified as Bacillus thuringiensis AD-12. Native keratinolytic proteinase from B. thuringiensis (BtKER) was purified and characterized. The purified BtKER enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 39kDa. Biochemical characterization assays revealed that the BtKER attained optimal activity at pH 7 and 30°C. Residual activity after 1h incubation at 50°C was higher than 80%. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by Mn(2+) and Li(+) metal ions but inactivated by organic solvents. Purified BtKER showed the highest substrate specificity toward keratin from wool>sodium caseinate>collagen>BSA>gelatin in descending order. BtKER is the first reported keratinolytic proteinase from B. thuringiensis and obtained results suggested that new characterized enzyme can be a powerful biocatalyst in peptide production associated to hydrolysis of keratinous and/or keratin-like waste.

  20. A pangenomic study of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjun; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Jiucheng; Shu, Changlong; Wang, Xumin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Duojun; Liu, Guiming; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Jie; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim; Yu, Jun

    2011-12-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium and its plasmid-encoded toxins (Cry) are commonly used as biological alternatives to pesticides. In a pangenomic study, we sequenced seven B. thuringiensis isolates in both high coverage and base-quality using the next-generation sequencing platform. The B. thuringiensis pangenome was extrapolated to have 4196 core genes and an asymptotic value of 558 unique genes when a new genome is added. Compared to the pangenomes of its closely related species of the same genus, B. thuringiensis pangenome shows an open characteristic, similar to B. cereus but not to B. anthracis; the latter has a closed pangenome. We also found extensive divergence among the seven B. thuringiensis genome assemblies, which harbor ample repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identities among orthologous genes are greater than 84.5% and the hotspots for the genome variations were discovered in genomic regions of 2.3-2.8Mb and 5.0-5.6Mb. We concluded that high-coverage sequence assemblies from multiple strains, before all the gaps are closed, are very useful for pangenomic studies.

  1. Mechanical Behavior of a Bacillus subtilis Pellicle.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Emily C; Douarche, Carine; Allain, Jean-Marc; Roger, Philippe; Regeard, Christophe; Cegelski, Lynette; Fuller, Gerald G; Raspaud, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial biofilms consist of a complex network of biopolymers embedded with microorganisms, and together these components form a physically robust structure that enables bacteria to grow in a protected environment. This structure can help unwanted biofilms persist in situations ranging from chronic infection to the biofouling of industrial equipment, but under certain circumstances it can allow the biofilm to disperse and colonize new niches. Mechanical properties are therefore a key aspect of biofilm life. In light of the recently discovered growth-induced compressive stress present within a biofilm, we studied the mechanical behavior of Bacillus subtilis pellicles, or biofilms at the air-liquid interface, and tracked simultaneously the force response and macroscopic structural changes during elongational deformations. We observed that pellicles behaved viscoelastically in response to small deformations, such that the growth-induced compressive stress was still present, and viscoplastically at large deformations, when the pellicles were under tension. In addition, by using particle imaging velocimetry we found that the pellicle deformations were nonaffine, indicating heterogeneous mechanical properties with the pellicle being more pliable near attachment surfaces. Overall, our results indicate that we must consider not only the viscoelastic but also the viscoplastic and mechanically heterogeneous nature of these structures to understand biofilm dispersal and removal.

  2. Neutral Site Planning Project, Final Report. Volume I: Neutral Site Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Providence School Dept., RI.

    This report documents the process, findings, and support data of the Neutral Site Planning Project (NSPP) regarding a proposed magnet school program in Providence, Rhode Island. The need for a neutral site school that is accessible to a substantial number of students from different racial/ethnic backgrounds in Providence is discussed and an…

  3. When neutral turns significant: brain dynamics of rapidly formed associations between neutral stimuli and emotional contexts.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Löw, Andreas; Wendt, Julia; Dolcos, Florin; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    The ability to associate neutral stimuli with motivationally relevant outcomes is an important survival strategy. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate brain dynamics of associative emotional learning when participants were confronted with multiple heterogeneous information. Participants viewed 144 different objects in the context of 144 different emotional and neutral background scenes. During each trial, neutral objects were shown in isolation and then paired with the background scene. All pairings were presented twice to compare ERPs in response to neutral objects before and after single association. After single pairing, neutral objects previously encoded in the context of emotional scenes evoked a larger P100 over occipital electrodes compared to objects that were previously paired with neutral scenes. Likewise, larger late positive potentials (LPPs) were observed over parieto-occipital electrodes (450-750 ms) for objects previously associated with emotional relative to neutral contexts. The LPP - but not P100 - enhancement was also related to subjective object/context binding. Taken together, our ERP data provide evidence for fast emotional associative learning, as reflected by heightened perceptual and sustained elaborative processing for neutral information previously encountered in emotional contexts. These findings could assist in understanding binding mechanisms in stress and anxiety, as well as in addiction and eating-related disorders. PMID:27337689

  4. Detection of neutralizing antibodies against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 by an optimized plasma neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Worwa, Gabriella; Chaignat, Valérie; Feldmann, Julia; Thür, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The neutralization test is used commonly for quantifying neutralizing antibodies and for distinguishing among different virus serotypes (serotyping). Due to the co-circulation of multiple serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV), the neutralization test has become an important surveillance method in Europe. However, the existence of different protocols makes test standardization and interpretation of results difficult. The current paper describes the development of a neutralization test using plasma and addresses the factors critical for detection of neutralizing antibodies against BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8), such as virus propagation, stability of virus infectivity and origin of the BTV-8 strain. The results indicated that animals exposed to the Northern European BTV-8 strain developed low neutralizing antibody titers, particularly after vaccination and experimental infection. Although clearly ELISA-positive, these samples often yielded false negative results when tested by the neutralization test using the OIE recommended virus concentration of 100 TCID₅₀/50 μl. The sensitivity of the neutralization test could be improved significantly with retained specificity by using a reduced TCID₅₀ and the homologous European BTV-8 strain instead of the South African reference strain.

  5. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Nick S.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite available antivirals and vaccines, influenza infections continue to be a major cause of mortality worldwide. Vaccination generally induces an effective, but strain-specific antibody response. As the virus continually evolves, new vaccines have to be administered almost annually when a novel strain becomes dominant. Furthermore, the sporadic emerging resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors among circulating strains suggests an urgent need for new therapeutic agents. Recently, several cross-reactive antibodies have been described, which neutralize an unprecedented spectrum of influenza viruses. These broadly neutralizing antibodies generally target conserved functional regions on the major influenza surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). The characterization of their neutralization breadth and epitopes on HA could stimulate the development of new antibody-based antivirals and broader influenza vaccines. PMID:23583287

  6. Landau-like states in neutral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Ågren, Hans; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    We show the emergence of a new type of dispersion relation for neutral atoms with an interesting similarity to the spectrum of two-dimensional electrons in an applied perpendicular constant magnetic field. These neutral atoms can be confined in toroidal optical traps and give quasi-Landau spectra. In strong contrast to the equidistant infinitely degenerate Landau levels for charged particles, the spectral gap for such two-dimensional neutral particles increases in particular electric-field configurations. The idea in the paper is motivated by the development in cold atom experiments and builds on the seminal paper of Aharonov and Casher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 319 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.319].

  7. Methods for neutralizing anthrax or anthrax spores

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Mark A; Vivekandanda, Jeevalatha; Holwitt, Eric A; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2013-02-26

    The present invention concerns methods, compositions and apparatus for neutralizing bioagents, wherein bioagents comprise biowarfare agents, biohazardous agents, biological agents and/or infectious agents. The methods comprise exposing the bioagent to an organic semiconductor and exposing the bioagent and organic semiconductor to a source of energy. Although any source of energy is contemplated, in some embodiments the energy comprises visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, laser radiation, pulsed corona discharge or electron beam radiation. Exemplary organic semiconductors include DAT and DALM. In certain embodiments, the organic semiconductor may be attached to one or more binding moieties, such as an antibody, antibody fragment, or nucleic acid ligand. Preferably, the binding moiety has a binding affinity for one or more bioagents to be neutralized. Other embodiments concern an apparatus comprising an organic semiconductor and an energy source. In preferred embodiments, the methods, compositions and apparatus are used for neutralizing anthrax spores.

  8. Neutral-beam-injection systems for reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Pyle, R.V.

    1983-06-01

    Increasing effort is being put into engineering designs of reactors and reactor-like magnetic confinement experiments. A central question concerns the methods of heating, fueling, and maintaining the plasmas, functions that primarily are now performed by neutral beams. Planning in the USA does not include the use of neutral beams on tokamaks in the 1990's and beyond. Tandem mirrors, however, will use energetic beams (sloshing ion beams) in the end plugs to produce electrostatic potentials that will confine plasma ions. These systems will be based on the production, acceleration, transport, and neutralization of negative hydrogen-ion (D/sup -/), multiampere beams with energies of 200-to 500-keV. In addition, lower-energy D and T beams may be used. These systems must operate steady state, with high reliability, and be compatible with radiation from a D-T burning plasma.

  9. The control of powerful neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Theil, E.; Jacobson, V.

    1986-05-02

    While significant progress has been made in the development of neutral beams for the heating and sustaining of plasmas in large fusion experiments, the control of such devices has largely been a matter of hardware interlocks and operator experience. The need for computer-assisted control becomes more evident, however, with the initiation of multi-beamline experiments. This paper describes a software system that incorporates simple mathematical models coupled to Kalman filters for control of the high power (6 to 8 MW) beams currently under development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility. Among the principal features of the system are: reduction of a large number of operator variables to just a few (usually one or two); the ability to describe most of the major neutral beams in use and under development; a foundation resting on statistical data analysis and control system principles rather than rules-of-thumb.

  10. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, O.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    Full particle PIC simulations are performed to study the neutralization of an ion beam in the cohesionless, mesothermal regime. Simulations further confirmed that neutralization is achieved through interactions between the trapped electrons and the potential well established by the propagation of the beam front along the beam direction and is not through plasma instabilities as previous studies suggested. In the transverse direction, the process is similar to that of the expansion of mesothermal plasma into vacuum. Parametric simulations are also performed to investigate the effects of beam radius and domain boundary condition on the neutralization process. The results suggests that, while the qualitative behavior may be similar in ground tests, quantitative parameters such as the beam potential will be affected significantly by the vacuum chamber because of the limits imposed on the expansion process by the finite chamber space.

  11. Genomic characterization of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato species: backdrop to the evolution of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Michael E; Joseph, Sandeep J; Didelot, Xavier; Chen, Peter E; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Stewart, Andrew C; Willner, Kristin; Nolan, Nichole; Lentz, Shannon; Thomason, Maureen K; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Mateczun, Alfred J; Du, Lei; Read, Timothy D

    2012-08-01

    The key genes required for Bacillus anthracis to cause anthrax have been acquired recently by horizontal gene transfer. To understand the genetic background for the evolution of B. anthracis virulence, we obtained high-redundancy genome sequences of 45 strains of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s.l.) species that were chosen for their genetic diversity within the species based on the existing multilocus sequence typing scheme. From the resulting data, we called more than 324,000 new genes representing more than 12,333 new gene families for this group. The core genome size for the B. cereus s.l. group was ∼1750 genes, with another 2150 genes found in almost every genome constituting the extended core. There was a paucity of genes specific and conserved in any clade. We found no evidence of recent large-scale gene loss in B. anthracis or for unusual accumulation of nonsynonymous DNA substitutions in the chromosome; however, several B. cereus genomes isolated from soil and not previously associated with human disease were degraded to various degrees. Although B. anthracis has undergone an ecological shift within the species, its chromosome does not appear to be exceptional on a macroscopic scale compared with close relatives.

  12. Chitinase production by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus licheniformis: their potential in antifungal biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2012-02-01

    Thirty bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants collected from Egypt and screened for production of chitinase enzymes. Bacillus thuringiensis NM101-19 and Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17 had the highest chitinolytic activities amongst those investigated. The production of chitinase by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis was optimized using colloidal chitin medium amended with 1.5% colloidal chitin, with casein as a nitrogen source, at 30°C after five days of incubation. An enhancement of chitinase production by the two species was observed by addition of sugar substances and dried fungal mats to the colloidal chitin media. The optimal conditions for chitinase activity by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis were at 40°C, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. Na(+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+) caused enhancement of enzyme activities whereas they were markedly inhibited by Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+). In vitro, B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis chitinases had potential for cell wall lysis of many phytopathogenic fungi tested. The addition of B. thuringiensis chitinase was more effective than that of B. licheniformis in increasing the germination of soybean seeds infected with various phytopathogenic fungi.

  13. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Viviane; Silva, Ana Carolina Telles de Carvalho e; de Moraes, Gabriela Pinhel; McIntosh, Douglas; de Filippis, Ivano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST) was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR). Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap), encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species. PMID:23440117

  14. Architecture and High-Resolution Structure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus Spore Coat Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T; Wheeler, K; Malkin, A

    2005-02-18

    We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the native surface topology and ultrastructure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus spores in water and in air. AFM was able to resolve the nanostructure of the exosporium and three distinctive classes of appendages. Removal of the exosporium exposed either a hexagonal honeycomb layer (B. thuringiensis) or a rodlet outer spore coat layer (B. cereus). Removal of the rodlet structure from B. cereus spores revealed an underlying honeycomb layer similar to that observed with B. thuringiensis spores. The periodicity of the rodlet structure on the outer spore coat of B. cereus was {approx}8 nm, and the length of the rodlets was limited to the cross-patched domain structure of this layer to {approx}200 nm. The lattice constant of the honeycomb structures was {approx}9 nm for both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores. Both honeycomb structures were composed of multiple, disoriented domains with distinct boundaries. Our results demonstrate that variations in storage and preparation procedures result in architectural changes in individual spore surfaces, which establish AFM as a useful tool for evaluation of preparation and processing ''fingerprints'' of bacterial spores. These results establish that high-resolution AFM has the capacity to reveal species-specific assembly and nanometer scale structure of spore surfaces. These species-specific spore surface structural variations are correlated with sequence divergences in a spore core structural protein SspE.

  15. Expression of the subtilisin Carlsberg-encoding gene in Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M F

    1995-01-11

    The cloning and sequence of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the Bacillus licheniformis (Bl) 6816 subtilisin Carlsberg gene (subC) are reported here. The 5' and 3' ends of subC transcripts were characterized, and the promoter identified. Expression was studied using a fused lacZ reporter gene integrated into the chromosome of heterologous host Bacillus subtilis (Bs). beta Gal activities of mutants deleted within the promoter region identified a region which is required for stimulation by the transcriptional activator proteins, DegU and DegQ. This region is close to the transcription start point (tsp), and is adjacent to a sequence homologous to that involved in DegU/Q stimulation of the Bs subtilisin gene, aprE. Expression of subC in Bs was optimized by the use of heterologous promoter and by the deletion of UTR sequences predicted to be involved in secondary structures in the native subC mRNA. Sequence comparison with other subtilisin Carlsberg-type-encoding genes revealed a high degree of conservation of the entire 5'-UTR, including regulatory sequences and promoter, as well as part of the structural gene.

  16. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products.

  17. Various Enterotoxin and Other Virulence Factor Genes Widespread Among Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Strains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ju; Han, Jae-Kwang; Park, Jong-Su; Lee, Jin-Sung; Lee, Soon-Ho; Cho, Joon-Il; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2015-06-01

    Many strains of Bacillus cereus cause gastrointestinal diseases, and the closely related insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis has also been involved in outbreaks of diarrhea. The diarrheal diseases are attributed to enterotoxins. Sixteen reference strains of B. cereus and nine commercial and 12 reference strains of B. thuringiensis were screened by PCR for the presence of 10 enterotoxigenic genes (hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, bceT, entFM, and entS), one emetogenic gene (ces), seven hemolytic genes (hlyA, hlyII, hlyIII, plcA, cerA, cerB, and cerO), and a pleiotropic transcriptional activator gene (plcR). These genes encode various enterotoxins and other virulence factors thought to play a role in infections of mammals. Amplicons were successfully generated from the strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis for each of these sequences, except the ces gene. Intriguingly, the majority of these B. cereus enterotoxin genes and other virulence factor genes appeared to be widespread among B. thuringiensis strains as well as B. cereus strains.

  18. THE BEHAVIOR OF BACILLUS LEPRAE IN COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    Couret, M

    1911-05-01

    Before proceeding to a discussion of the experiments upon cold-blooded animals, it is necessary to review briefly some of the work recently done with the bacillus of leprosy. The appearance of the bacillus in man and its behavior under artificial cultivation, and in the tissues of lower animals, should be considered in order that comparisons may be drawn. In their studies with the organism under cultivation, Duval and Gurd pointed out that the long, slender, and beaded appearance of the leprosy bacillus described by Hansen, in 1872, is lost when removed for several generations from the parent stem, and under artificial cultivation the organism becomes unbeaded, short, and coccoid. Duval also noted that these changes in morphology were always followed by rapid multiplication of the organism. Duval argues, a priori, that the bacillus is not in a favorable environment in the human tissues. If these deductions are correct, the morphology of the leprosy bacillus should vary according to the resistance offered by the tissues of different animals. The resistance of the human host to the leprosy bacillus becomes more evident in the light of the clinical aspect of the disease. The long period of incubation, the duration of the disease, and the disappearance of the bacilli preceding the healing of the infected foci show that the resistance offered to the bacillus by the human tissues is not to be overestimated. This opinion is confirmed when the behavior of the leprosy bacillus under cultivation and in the tissues of various mammals is compared. When cats, rabbits, bats, guinea pigs, and rats are inoculated either below the skin or into the peritoneal cavity with large quantities of Bacillus leprae, a slight local reaction follows within twenty-four to forty-eight hours, but no definite lesions are produced and the bacilli soon disappear. The resistance of some animals to Bacillus leprae is well illustrated by two cats which were inoculated subcutaneously and

  19. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C. PMID:26248285

  20. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C. PMID:26248285

  1. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  2. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.376 Grounded distribution systems... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each... generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power generation system must...

  3. A Label as a Hidden Persuader: Chemists' Neutralization Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1991-01-01

    Identifies and describes the problems students have with the concept of neutralization. Analysis of over 7,500 students' answers to test questions over neutralization showed that many students understand the concept in its original meaning. Students assumed that in any neutralization reaction a neutral solution is formed, even if a weak acid or…

  4. Bacillus as a potential diagnostic marker for yellow tongue coating.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juan; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hu, Chunping; Xia, Junquan; Shen, Jianping; Su, Kelei; Yan, Huaijiang; Xu, Yuehua; Zhang, Yiyan; Zhang, Sujie; Yang, Lijun; Zhi, Hao; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Jingqing; Cao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Observation of tongue coating, a foundation for clinical diagnosis and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a major indicator of the occurrence, development, and prognosis of disease. The biological basis of tongue diagnosis and relationship between the types and microorganisms of tongue coating remain elusive. Thirteen chronic erosive gastritis (CEG) patients with typical yellow tongue coating (YTC) and ten healthy volunteers with thin white tongue coating (WTC) were included in this study. Patients were provided a 2-course targeted treatment of a herbal medicine Ban Xia Xie Xin decoction, traditionally prescribed for CEG patients with YTC, to evaluate the relationship between tongue coating microbiota and diagnosis of CEG with typical YTC. The tongue coating segregation structure was determined using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Bacillus was significantly observed only in CEG patients with YTC, but not in patients who received the decoction. YTC (n = 22) and WTC (n = 29) samples were collected for bacterial culturing to illustrate the relationship between Bacillus and YTC. The Bacillus positivity rate of YTC samples was 72.7%; Bacillus was not observed in WTC samples. In conclusion, Bacillus was strongly associated with YTC. PMID:27578261

  5. Bacillus as a potential diagnostic marker for yellow tongue coating

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Juan; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hu, Chunping; Xia, Junquan; Shen, Jianping; Su, Kelei; Yan, Huaijiang; Xu, Yuehua; Zhang, Yiyan; Zhang, Sujie; Yang, Lijun; Zhi, Hao; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Jingqing; Cao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Observation of tongue coating, a foundation for clinical diagnosis and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a major indicator of the occurrence, development, and prognosis of disease. The biological basis of tongue diagnosis and relationship between the types and microorganisms of tongue coating remain elusive. Thirteen chronic erosive gastritis (CEG) patients with typical yellow tongue coating (YTC) and ten healthy volunteers with thin white tongue coating (WTC) were included in this study. Patients were provided a 2-course targeted treatment of a herbal medicine Ban Xia Xie Xin decoction, traditionally prescribed for CEG patients with YTC, to evaluate the relationship between tongue coating microbiota and diagnosis of CEG with typical YTC. The tongue coating segregation structure was determined using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the V4–V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Bacillus was significantly observed only in CEG patients with YTC, but not in patients who received the decoction. YTC (n = 22) and WTC (n = 29) samples were collected for bacterial culturing to illustrate the relationship between Bacillus and YTC. The Bacillus positivity rate of YTC samples was 72.7%; Bacillus was not observed in WTC samples. In conclusion, Bacillus was strongly associated with YTC. PMID:27578261

  6. Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

  7. Characterization of Bacillus probiotics available for human use.

    PubMed

    Duc, Le H; Hong, Huynh A; Barbosa, Teresa M; Henriques, Adriano O; Cutting, Simon M

    2004-04-01

    Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use. PMID:15066809

  8. Neutral naturalness from orbifold Higgs models.

    PubMed

    Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon; Longhi, Pietro

    2015-02-13

    We present a general class of natural theories in which the Higgs boson is a pseudo-Goldstone boson in an orbifolded gauge theory. The symmetry protecting the Higgs boson at low energies is an accidental global symmetry of the quadratic action, rather than a full continuous symmetry. The lightest degrees of freedom protecting the weak scale carry no standard model (SM) quantum numbers and interact with visible matter principally through the Higgs portal. This opens the door to the systematic study of "neutral naturalness": natural theories with SM-neutral states that are as yet untested by the LHC.

  9. Photoproduction of neutral pions off protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crede, V.; Sparks, N.; Wilson, A.; Anisovich, A. V.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bantes, R.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Castelijns, R.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, Chr.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, P.; Jaegle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E.; Kotulla, M.; Krusche, B.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Lugert, S.; Menze, D.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L. M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, C.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Sokhoyan, V.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.

    2011-11-01

    Photoproduction of neutral pions has been studied with the CBELSA/TAPS detector in the reaction γp→pπ0 for photon energies between 0.85 and 2.50 GeV. The π0 mesons are observed in their dominant neutral decay mode: π0→γγ. For the first time, the differential cross sections cover the very forward region, θc.m.<60∘. A partial-wave analysis of these data within the Bonn-Gatchina framework observes the high-mass resonances G17(2190), D13(2080), and D15(2070).

  10. High-current plasma contactor neutralizer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Williamson, W. S.; Matossian, J. N.; Vourgourakis, E. J.; Burch, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    A plasma-contactor neutralizer system is described, for the stabilizing the Orbiter's potential during flights of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science missions. The plasma contactor neutralizer will include a Xe plasma source that can provide steady-state ion-emission currents of up to 1.5 A. The Orbiter's potential will be maintained near that of the surrounding space plasma during electron-beam accelerator firings through a combination of ion emission from the Xe plasma source and electron collection from the ambient space plasma. Configuration diagrams and block diagrams are presented along with the performance characteristics of the system.

  11. Neutral Beam Ion Confinement in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; S.S. Medley; and A.L. Roquemore

    2001-07-24

    Neutral-beam (NB) heating in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) began in September 2000 using up to 5 MW of 80 keV deuterium (D) beams. An initial assessment of beam ion confinement has been made using neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer (NPA), and a Faraday cup beam ion loss probe. Preliminary neutron results indicate that confinement may be roughly classical in quiescent discharges, but the probe measurements do not match a classical loss model. MHD activity, especially reconnection events (REs) causes substantial disturbance of the beam ion population.

  12. Theory of neutral clustering for growing populations.

    PubMed

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2009-11-01

    The spatial distribution of most species in nature is nonuniform. We have shown recently [B. Houchmandzadeh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078103 (2008)] on an experimental ecological community of amoeba that the most basic facts of life--birth and death--are enough to cause considerable aggregation which cannot be smoothened by random movements of the organisms. This clustering, termed neutral and always present, is independent of external causes and social interaction. We develop here the theoretical groundwork of this phenomenon by explicitly computing the pair-correlation function and the variance to mean ratio of the above neutral model and its comparison to numerical simulations. PMID:20365019

  13. Theory of neutral clustering for growing populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2009-11-01

    The spatial distribution of most species in nature is nonuniform. We have shown recently [B. Houchmandzadeh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078103 (2008)] on an experimental ecological community of amoeba that the most basic facts of life—birth and death—are enough to cause considerable aggregation which cannot be smoothened by random movements of the organisms. This clustering, termed neutral and always present, is independent of external causes and social interaction. We develop here the theoretical groundwork of this phenomenon by explicitly computing the pair-correlation function and the variance to mean ratio of the above neutral model and its comparison to numerical simulations.

  14. PDX neutral-beam reionization losses

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Dylla, H.F.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Moore, R.; Schilling, G.; Stewart, L.D.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-02-01

    Reionization losses for 1.5 MW H/sup 0/ and 2 MW D/sup 0/ neutral beams injected into the PDX tokamak were studied using pressure gauges, photo-transistors, thermocouples, surface shielding, and surface sample analysis. Considerable outgassing of conventionally prepared 304SS ducts occurred during initial injections and gradually decreased with the cumulative absorption of beam power. Reionization power losses are presently about 5% in the ducts and about 12% total for a beamline including the duct. Present duct pressures are attributed primarily to gas from the ion source and neutralizer with much smaller contributions from residual wall desorption. Physical mechanisms for the observed duct outgassing are discussed.

  15. Apparatus for neutralization of accelerated ions

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.; Frank, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for neutralization of a beam of accelerated ions, such as hydrogen negative ions (H.sup.-), using relatively efficient strip diode lasers which emit monochromatically at an appropriate wavelength (.lambda. = 8000 A for H.sup.- ions) to strip the excess electrons by photodetachment. A cavity, formed by two or more reflectors spaced apart, causes the laser beams to undergo multiple reflections within the cavity, thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the illumination required to obtain an acceptable percentage (.about. 85%) of neutralization.

  16. Weak neutral currents and collapse initiated supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.R.

    1993-03-19

    Since 1974 the neutrino processes mediated by neutral currents have been a part of supernova (SN) modeling calculations. In this report only present day SN calculations will be discussed. First I will give brief description of the SN computer model and an outline of the explosion process as depicted by that model. Then I will discuss the role weak neutral current (WNC) processes play in this explosion process. Finally, I will discus inelastic scattering of tau neutrinos by heavy elements in WNC or Earth as a mechanism for measuring the mass of tau neutrino.

  17. Neutral reactors on shunt compensated EHV lines

    SciTech Connect

    Atmuri, S.R.; Thallam, R.S.; Gerlach, D.W.; Lundquist, T.G.; Selin, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper examines the applications of a neutral reactor in limiting resonance overvoltages induced on deenergized conductors due to parallel energized circuits and stuck breaker conditions. These applications are demonstrated through the planned 243 mile long Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line running on the same right of way as the existing Mead-Liberty 345 kV line. Reducing the secondary arc current during single pole reclosing is also examined. In addition to its applications, a procedure for sizing, rating and protection of the neutral reactor is explained.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial effect of Satureja wiedemanniana against Bacillus species isolated from raw meat samples.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Nihal; Aslim, Belma; Ozdoğan, Hakan

    2009-08-01

    In this study a total of 30 raw meat samples obtained from Ankara, Turkey were screened for the presence of Bacillus species. Among the meat samples analyzed, the predominant species isolated was Bacillus circulans; other Bacillus species were identified as Bacillus firmus, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus sphaericus, and Bacillus cereus. Minced meat samples were more contaminated with Bacillus species than sliced beef sample. From these samples, 242 Bacillus species isolates were obtained, which were investigated for proteolytic and lipolytic activity, associated with meat spoilage. Interestingly, some Bacillus strains produced the highest values of proteolytic/lipolytic activities. Nineteen Bacillus strains were selected among the 242 isolates according to their proteolytic/lipolytic activity with a clear zone diameter of > or =6 mm. The essential oil of Satureja wiedemanniana (Lalem) Velen was also tested against these 19 Bacillus species that had proteolytic and lipolytic activity. The essential oil yield obtained from the aerial parts of the plant was 0.35% (vol/wt). The inhibition zones of the essential oil obtained against all the Bacillus species were in the range of 5.0-12.0 mm. The oil showed high antimicrobial activities against B. licheniformis M 6(26), M 11(16), and M 12(1) strains. B. licheniformis 12(1) showed high lipolytic activity (18.0 mm). Also, B. licheniformis M 6(26) and M 11(16) showed high proteolytic activity (16.0 and 14.0 mm). These results may suggest that an essential oil of S. wiedemanniana can be used as a natural preservative in meat against spoilage bacteria.

  19. Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings

    PubMed Central

    de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

    2014-01-01

    Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

  20. Comparative analysis of the immunologic response induced by the Sterne 34F2 live spore Bacillus anthracis vaccine in a ruminant model.

    PubMed

    Ndumnego, Okechukwu C; Köhler, Susanne M; Crafford, Jannie; van Heerden, Henriette; Beyer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine (SLSV) developed in 1937 is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax. However, literature on the immunogenicity of this vaccine in a target ruminant host is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the humoral response to the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (rPA), a recombinant bacillus collagen-like protein of anthracis (rBclA), formaldehyde inactivated spores (FIS) prepared from strain 34F2 and a vegetative antigen formulation prepared from a capsule and toxin deficient strain (CDC 1014) in Boer goats. The toxin neutralizing ability of induced antibodies was evaluated using an in vitro toxin neutralization assay. The protection afforded by the vaccine was also assessed in vaccinates. Anti-rPA, anti-FIS and lethal toxin neutralizing titres were superior after booster vaccinations, compared to single vaccinations. Qualitative analysis of humoral responses to rPA, rBclA and FIS antigens revealed a preponderance of anti-FIS IgG titres following either single or double vaccinations with the SLSV. Antibodies against FIS and rPA both increased by 350 and 300-fold following revaccinations respectively. There was no response to rBclA following vaccinations with the SLSV. Toxin neutralizing titres increased by 80-fold after single vaccination and 700-fold following a double vaccination. Lethal challenge studies in naïve goats indicated a minimum infective dose of 36 B. anthracis spores. Single and double vaccination with the SLSV protected 4/5 and 3/3 of goats challenged with>800 spores respectively. An early booster vaccination following the first immunization is suggested in order to achieve a robust immunity. Results from this study indicate that this crucial second vaccination can be administered as early as 3 months after the initial vaccination.

  1. Comparative analysis of the immunologic response induced by the Sterne 34F2 live spore Bacillus anthracis vaccine in a ruminant model.

    PubMed

    Ndumnego, Okechukwu C; Köhler, Susanne M; Crafford, Jannie; van Heerden, Henriette; Beyer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine (SLSV) developed in 1937 is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax. However, literature on the immunogenicity of this vaccine in a target ruminant host is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the humoral response to the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (rPA), a recombinant bacillus collagen-like protein of anthracis (rBclA), formaldehyde inactivated spores (FIS) prepared from strain 34F2 and a vegetative antigen formulation prepared from a capsule and toxin deficient strain (CDC 1014) in Boer goats. The toxin neutralizing ability of induced antibodies was evaluated using an in vitro toxin neutralization assay. The protection afforded by the vaccine was also assessed in vaccinates. Anti-rPA, anti-FIS and lethal toxin neutralizing titres were superior after booster vaccinations, compared to single vaccinations. Qualitative analysis of humoral responses to rPA, rBclA and FIS antigens revealed a preponderance of anti-FIS IgG titres following either single or double vaccinations with the SLSV. Antibodies against FIS and rPA both increased by 350 and 300-fold following revaccinations respectively. There was no response to rBclA following vaccinations with the SLSV. Toxin neutralizing titres increased by 80-fold after single vaccination and 700-fold following a double vaccination. Lethal challenge studies in naïve goats indicated a minimum infective dose of 36 B. anthracis spores. Single and double vaccination with the SLSV protected 4/5 and 3/3 of goats challenged with>800 spores respectively. An early booster vaccination following the first immunization is suggested in order to achieve a robust immunity. Results from this study indicate that this crucial second vaccination can be administered as early as 3 months after the initial vaccination. PMID:27496738

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Group Phage TsarBomba.

    PubMed

    Erill, Ivan; Caruso, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group bacteriophage TsarBomba, a double-stranded DNA Myoviridae, was isolated from soil collected in Saratov, Russia. TsarBomba was found to be similar to Bacillus phages BCP78 and BCU4, and to have a wide host range among Bacillus cereus group species.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops....

  7. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops....

  10. 40 CFR 180.1282 - Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1282 Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a..., for residues of Bacillus firmus I-1582 when used as a soil application or seed treatment....

  11. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1282 - Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1282 Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a..., for residues of Bacillus firmus I-1582 when used as a soil application or seed treatment....

  13. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1011 Section 180.1011... microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) For the... authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner conforming to the morphological and...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1011 Section 180.1011... microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) For the... authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner conforming to the morphological and...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  18. Bacillus atrophaeus: main characteristics and biotechnological applications - a review.

    PubMed

    Sella, Sandra R B R; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The genus Bacillus includes a great diversity of industrially important strains, including Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var. niger). This spore-forming bacterium has been established as industrial bacteria in the production of biological indicators for sterilization, in studies of biodefense and astrobiology methods as well as disinfection agents, in treatment evaluation and as potential adjuvants or vehicles for vaccines, among other applications. This review covers an overview of the fundamental aspects of the B. atrophaeus that have been studied to date. Although the emphasis is placed on recent findings, basic information's such as multicellularity and growth characteristics, spore structure and lifecycle are described. The wide biotechnological application of B. atrophaeus spores, including vegetative cells, is briefly demonstrated, highlighting their use as a biological indicator of sterilization or disinfection.

  19. A Phosphate Starvation-Inducible Ribonuclease of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Nguyen, Minh Hung; Nguyen, Huy Thuan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Le, Thi Hoi; Schweder, Thomas; Jürgen, Britta

    2016-08-28

    The BLi03719 protein of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 belongs to the most abundant extracellular proteins under phosphate starvation conditions. In this study, the function of this phosphate starvation inducible protein was determined. An amino-acid sequence analysis of the BLi03719-encoding gene showed a high similarity with genes encoding the barnase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and binase-like RNase of Bacillus pumilus SARF-032. The comparison of the control strain and a BLi03719-deficient strain revealed a strongly reduced extracellular ribonuclease activity of the mutant. Furthermore, this knockout mutant exhibited delayed growth with yeast RNA as an alternative phosphate and carbon source. These results suggest that BLi03719 is an extracellular ribonuclease expressed in B. licheniformis under phosphate starvation conditions. Finally, a BLi03719 mutant showed an advantageous effect on the overexpression of the heterologous amyE gene under phosphate-limited growth conditions.

  20. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  1. Whole Genome Phylogeny of Bacillus by Feature Frequency Profiles (FFP)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aisuo; Ash, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty complete Bacillus genome sequences and associated plasmids were compared using the “feature frequency profile” (FFP) method. The resulting whole-genome phylogeny supports the placement of three Bacillus species (B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B. cereus) as a single clade. The monophyletic status of B. anthracis was strongly supported by the analysis. FFP proved to be more effective in inferring the phylogeny of Bacillus than methods based on single gene sequences [16s rRNA gene, GryB (gyrase subunit B) and AroE (shikimate-5-dehydrogenase)] analyses. The findings of FFP analysis were verified using kSNP v2 (alignment-free sequence analysis method) and Harvest suite (core genome sequence alignment method).

  2. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Pace, D. C.; Grierson, B. A.

    2015-10-15

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  3. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Pace, D C

    2015-10-01

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  4. Neutralization escape mutants define a dominant immunogenic neutralization site on hepatitis A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.T.; Lemon, S.M.

    1987-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus is an hepatotrophic human picornavirus which demonstrates little antigenic variability. To topologically map immunogenic sites on hepatitis A virus which elicit neutralizing antibodies, eight neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were evaluated in competition immunoassays employing radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and HM-175 virus. Whereas two antibodies (K3-4C8 and K3-2F2) bound to intimately overlapping epitopes, the epitope bound by a third antibody (B5-B3) was distinctly different as evidenced by a lack of competition between antibodies for binding to the virus. The other five antibodies variably blocked the binding of both K3-4C8-K3-2F2 and B5-B3, suggesting that these epitopes are closely spaced and perhaps part of a single neutralization immunogenic site. Several combinations of monoclonal antibodies blocked the binding of polyclonal human convalescent antibody by greater than 96%, indicating that the neutralization epitopes bound by these antibodies are immunodominant in humans. Spontaneously arising HM-175 mutants were selected for resistance to monoclonal antibody-mediated neutralization. Neutralization resistance was associated with reduced antibody binding. These results suggest that hepatitis A virus may differ from poliovirus in possessing a single, dominant neutralization immunogenic site and therefore may be a better candidate for synthetic peptide or antiidiotype vaccine development.

  5. Crystal structures of Bacillus subtilis Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Duman, Ramona E; Löwe, Jan

    2010-08-27

    Lon ATP-dependent proteases are key components of the protein quality control systems of bacterial cells and eukaryotic organelles. Eubacterial Lon proteases contain an N-terminal domain, an ATPase domain, and a protease domain, all in one polypeptide chain. The N-terminal domain is thought to be involved in substrate recognition, the ATPase domain in substrate unfolding and translocation into the protease chamber, and the protease domain in the hydrolysis of polypeptides into small peptide fragments. Like other AAA+ ATPases and self-compartmentalising proteases, Lon functions as an oligomeric complex, although the subunit stoichiometry is currently unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of truncated versions of Lon protease from Bacillus subtilis (BsLon), which reveal previously unknown architectural features of Lon complexes. Our analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy show different oligomerisation of Lon proteases from two different bacterial species, Aquifex aeolicus and B. subtilis. The structure of BsLon-AP shows a hexameric complex consisting of a small part of the N-terminal domain, the ATPase, and protease domains. The structure shows the approximate arrangement of the three functional domains of Lon. It also reveals a resemblance between the architecture of Lon proteases and the bacterial proteasome-like protease HslUV. Our second structure, BsLon-N, represents the first 209 amino acids of the N-terminal domain of BsLon and consists of a globular domain, similar in structure to the E. coli Lon N-terminal domain, and an additional four-helix bundle, which is part of a predicted coiled-coil region. An unexpected dimeric interaction between BsLon-N monomers reveals the possibility that Lon complexes may be stabilised by coiled-coil interactions between neighbouring N-terminal domains. Together, BsLon-N and BsLon-AP are 36 amino acids short of offering a complete picture of a full-length Lon protease.

  6. The sigma factors of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Haldenwang, W G

    1995-01-01

    The specificity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase for target promotes is largely due to the replaceable sigma subunit that it carries. Multiple sigma proteins, each conferring a unique promoter preference on RNA polymerase, are likely to be present in all bacteria; however, their abundance and diversity have been best characterized in Bacillus subtilis, the bacterium in which multiple sigma factors were first discovered. The 10 sigma factors thus far identified in B. subtilis directly contribute to the bacterium's ability to control gene expression. These proteins are not merely necessary for the expression of those operons whose promoters they recognize; in many instances, their appearance within the cell is sufficient to activate these operons. This review describes the discovery of each of the known B. subtilis sigma factors, their characteristics, the regulons they direct, and the complex restrictions placed on their synthesis and activities. These controls include the anticipated transcriptional regulation that modulates the expression of the sigma factor structural genes but, in the case of several of the B. subtilis sigma factors, go beyond this, adding novel posttranslational restraints on sigma factor activity. Two of the sigma factors (sigma E and sigma K) are, for example, synthesized as inactive precursor proteins. Their activities are kept in check by "pro-protein" sequences which are cleaved from the precursor molecules in response to intercellular cues. Other sigma factors (sigma B, sigma F, and sigma G) are inhibited by "anti-sigma factor" proteins that sequester them into complexes which block their ability to form RNA polymerase holoenzymes. The anti-sigma factors are, in turn, opposed by additional proteins which participate in the sigma factors' release. The devices used to control sigma factor activity in B, subtilis may prove to be as widespread as multiple sigma factors themselves, providing ways of coupling sigma factor activation to

  7. Dynamics of evolutionary radiation under ecological neutrality.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takanori Mizuno; Chiba, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    The most spectacular phenomenon of evolutionary biota is the explosive radiation that occurs in depauperate environments in which there are fewer competitors and predators, such as oceanic islands and crater lakes. Adaptation to divergent niches has been proposed as a major cause for this accelerated speciation. Here, we show that neutral mutation, genetic drift, and neutral community dynamics are sufficient to lead to radiation. In addition, these processes yield overshooting dynamics with a decline in species richness in the later stages of radiation. We constructed an ecologically neutral model for a community on an island with a uniform environment. For the speciation process, we introduced a null model with minimal assumptions in which the incompatibilities between alleles in different lineages evolve by a random accumulation of mutations via genetic drift. Our simulations showed that the speciation rate, extinction rate and genetic variation of the species colonizing the island rapidly increased to a sharp peak followed by a decrease that approached zero. Because the extinction rate reached a peak later than the speciation rate, the species richness initially increased, but declined in the later stage, exhibiting "overshooting". The highest species richness was found for the largest island at the largest initial population size. Accordingly, speciation is accelerated by the large population size of depauperate biota, whereas it is decelerated with increasing species richness from the decreasing population size. Explosive radiation without ecological divergence can occur in depauperate environments via neutral stochastic processes. PMID:27297287

  8. OGO-6 neutral atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taeusch, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The continued analysis of data obtained from the neutral atmospheric composition experiment flown on OGO-V6 is discussed. The effort was directed toward the study of five specific areas of interest for which the OGO-V6 data were especially useful.

  9. Absence of neutral alkali atoms in rhodizite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnay, G.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Sioda, R.

    1966-01-01

    The formula CsB12Be4Al4O28 has been proposed by others for the mineral rhodizite. Electron-spin-resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements prove the absence of neutral cesium atoms. An ionic formula CsB11Be4Al4O 26(OH)2is proposed.

  10. Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL); and Flash player, version 5 or higher (available from Macromedia).

  11. The neutral and ion tori of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, John D.; Smith, Howard T.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetosphere of Saturn is dominated by a large neutral close derived mainly from Enceladus.This cloud is ionized to form the plasma torus. We use a self-consistent model to find the neutralcloud and plasma densities and composition and show how changing source rates modify these parameters.

  12. Ion Acoustic Waves in Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; Killian, T. C.

    2010-08-06

    We photoionize laser-cooled atoms with a laser beam possessing spatially periodic intensity modulations to create ultracold neutral plasmas with controlled density perturbations. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging reveals that the density perturbations oscillate in space and time, and the dispersion relation of the oscillations matches that of ion acoustic waves, which are long-wavelength, electrostatic, density waves.

  13. If It's Neutral, It's Not Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strate, Lance

    2012-01-01

    Taking a media ecology perspective, this article argues that technology cannot be neutral, because it is a form of change, and it has an inherent bias based on the properties of its materials and methods. Additionally, the application of a technology is an intrinsic part of the technology itself, as is technique, instructions, software, or…

  14. The LIPSS search for light neutral bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Afanasev; Oliver K. Baker; Kevin Beard; George Biallas; James Boyce; Minarni Minarni; Roopchan Ramdon; Michelle D. Shinn; Penny Slocum

    2009-07-01

    An overview is presented of the LIPSS experimental search for very light neutral bosons using laser light from Jefferson Lab's Free Electron Laser. This facility provides very high power beams of photons over a large optical range, particularly at infrared wavelengths. Data has been collected in several experimental runs during the course of the past three years, most recently in the Fall of 2009.

  15. Semiconductor etching by hyperthermal neutral beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K. (Inventor); Giapis, Konstantinos P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An at-least dual chamber apparatus and method in which high flux beams of fast moving neutral reactive species are created, collimated and used to etch semiconductor or metal materials from the surface of a workpiece. Beams including halogen atoms are preferably used to achieve anisotropic etching with good selectivity at satisfactory etch rates. Surface damage and undercutting are minimized.

  16. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  17. TPX Neutral Beam Injection System design

    SciTech Connect

    von Halle, A.; Bowen, O.N.; Edwards, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    The existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Neutral Beam system is proposed to be modified for long pulse operation on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Day one of TPX will call for one TFTR beamline modified for 1000 second pulse lengths oriented co-directional to the plasma current. The system design will be capable of accommodating an additional co-directional and a single counter directional beamline. For the TPX conceptual design, every attempt was made to use existing Neutral Beam hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary systems, service infrastructure, and control systems. This paper describes the moderate modifications required to the power systems, the ion sources, and the beam impinged surfaces of the ion dumps, the calorimeters, the various beam scrapers, and the neutralizers. Also described are the minimal modifications required to the vacuum, cryogenic, and gas systems and the major modification of replacing the beamline-torus duct in its entirety. Operational considerations for Neutral Beam subsystems over 1000 second pulse lengths will be explored including proposed operating scenarios for full steady state operation.

  18. Neutralization of rainwater acidity at Kanpur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Sheo Prasad; Sharma, Mukesh

    2010-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) levels show significant seasonal variability and this can influence the neutralization of rainwater acidity. Months were grouped in two periods: monsoon (July to October) and non-monsoon (November to June) for studying the seasonal variability in PM and rainwater composition. To clearly establish the cause effect relationship of acid rain neutralization, a two tier model was proposed involving source apportionment of particulates at two levels: (i) ambient air and (ii) rainwater particulate interaction. For modelling purpose, PM10 (n = 100), soil (n = 4) and rainwater (n = 83) samples were collected at Kanpur, India during 2000-2002. The collected samples were analysed for metals and water soluble ion composition to employ factor analysis for source identification. Knowledge of statistical correlation and chemistry fundamentals were combined to estimate the sources for acid rain neutralization. NH4+ was a dominating ion responsible for neutralizing the acidity of rainwater in monsoon period and Ca2+ was dominating in non-monsoon period. Components of secondary particles (SO42- and NO3-) showed affinity with NH4+, signifying the major role that ammonia can play if present in excess of stoichiometric requirements.

  19. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  20. Diagnostics for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Diagnostic techniques for neutral-beam-heated tokamak plasmas fall into three categories: (1) magnetic diagnostics for measurements of gross stored energy, (2) profile diagnostics for measurements of stored thermal and beam energy, impurity content and plasma rotation, and (3) fast time resolution diagnostics to study MHD fluctuations and micro-turbulence.