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Sample records for background chronic cough

  1. Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Soni, Resha S; Ebersole, Barbara; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cough remains a challenging condition, especially in cases where it persists despite comprehensive medical management. For these particular patients, there appears to be an emerging role for behavior modification therapy. We report a series of patients with refractory chronic cough to assess if there is any benefit of adding behavioral therapy to their treatment regimen. Study Design A case series with planned chart review of patients treated for chronic cough. Setting The review was performed with an outpatient electronic health record system at a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods The charts of all patients treated for chronic cough by a single laryngologist over a 30-month period were analyzed. Patients' response to treatment and rate of cough improvement were assessed for those with refractory chronic cough who underwent behavior modification therapy. Results Thirty-eight patients with chronic cough were initially treated empirically for the most common causes of cough, of which 32% experienced improvement. Nineteen patients who did not significantly improve with medical management underwent behavior modification therapy with a speech-language pathologist. Of these patients, 84% experienced resolution or marked improvement of their symptoms. Conclusion Behavioral therapy may be underutilized in practice and could lead to improvement of otherwise recalcitrant cough.

  2. Airway Hypersensitivity, Reflux, and Phonation Contribute to Chronic Cough

    PubMed Central

    Francis, David O.; Slaughter, James C.; Ates, Fehmi; Higginbotham, Tina; Stevens, Kristin L.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Vaezi, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Although chronic cough is a common, its etiology is often elusive, making patient management a challenge. Gastroesophageal reflux and airway hypersensitivity can cause chronic cough. We explored the relationship between reflux, phonation, and cough in patients with idiopathic chronic cough. Methods We performed a blinded, cross-sectional study of non-smoking patients with chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) refractory to reflux treatment referred to the Digestive Disease Center at Vanderbilt University. All underwent 24-hour acoustic recording concurrently and temporally synchronized with ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. Cough, phonation, and pH-impedance events were recorded. We evaluated the temporal relationship between cough and phonation or reflux events using Poisson and logistic regression. Results Seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria (88% female; 100% Caucasian; median age, 63 years and interquartile age range, 52–66 years; mean body mass index, 30.6 and interquartile range 27.9–34.0); there were 2048 analyzable coughing events. The probability of subsequent coughing increased with higher burdens of preceding cough, reflux, or phonation. Within the first 15 min after a cough event, the cough event itself was the main trigger of subsequent cough events. After this period, de novo coughing occurred with increases of 1.46-fold in association with reflux alone (95% confidence interval, 1.17–1.82; P<.001) and 1.71-fold in association with the combination of phonation and reflux events. Conclusion Antecedent phonation and reflux increased the rate of cough events in patients with idiopathic chronic cough. Reflux events were more strongly associated with increased rate of coughing. Our findings support the concept that airway hypersensitivity is a cause of chronic cough, and that the vocal folds may be an effector in chronic cough. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01263626. PMID:26492842

  3. Chronic Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with chronic bronchitis are current or former smokers. Chronic bronchitis is usually part of the spectrum ... and emphysema often coexist in current or former smokers with COPD. Less commonly, chronic cough may be ...

  4. Chronic cough due to occupational factors

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, David A; Nowak, Dennis; Wussow, Anke; Fischer, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Within the large variety of subtypes of chronic cough, either defined by their clinical or pathogenetic causes, occupational chronic cough may be regarded as one of the most preventable forms of the disease. Next to obstructive airway diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which are sometimes concomitant with chronic cough, this chronic airway disease gains importance in the field of occupational medicine since classic fiber-related occupational airway diseases will decrease in the future. Apart from acute accidents and incidental exposures which may lead to an acute form of cough, there are numerous sources for the development of chronic cough within the workplace. Over the last years, a large number of studies has focused on occupational causes of respiratory diseases and it has emerged that chronic cough is one of the most prevalent work-related airway diseases. Best-known examples of occupations related to the development of cough are coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, or concrete manufacturing workers. As chronic cough is often based on a variety of non-occupational factors such as tobacco smoke, a distinct separation into either occupational or personally -evoked can be difficult. However, revealing the occupational contribution to chronic cough and to the symptom cough in general, which is the commonest cause for the consultation of a physician, can significantly lead to a reduction of the socioeconomic burden of the disease. PMID:16722562

  5. Chronic Cough: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Michaudet, Charlie; Malaty, John

    2017-11-01

    Although chronic cough in adults (cough lasting longer than eight weeks) can be caused by many etiologies, four conditions account for most cases: upper airway cough syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease/laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Patients should be evaluated clinically (with spirometry, if indicated), and empiric treatment should be initiated. Other potential causes include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, environmental triggers, tobacco use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest radiography can rule out concerning infectious, inflammatory, and malignant thoracic conditions. Patients with refractory chronic cough may warrant referral to a pulmonologist or otolaryngologist in addition to a trial of gabapentin, pregabalin, and/or speech therapy. In children, cough is considered chronic if present for more than four weeks. In children six to 14 years of age, it is most commonly caused by asthma, protracted bacterial bronchitis, and upper airway cough syndrome. Evaluation should focus initially on these etiologies, with targeted treatment and monitoring for resolution.

  6. Chronic Cough and OSA: A New Association?

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Krishna M.; Daly, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cough is defined as cough lasting more than 2 months. Common causes for chronic cough in nonsmokers with normal chest radiographs and pulmonary functions include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), cough-variant asthma (CVA), and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Current guidelines recommend diagnosing the etiology of chronic cough based upon the results of therapy for suspected GERD, CVA, and UACS. Despite following current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment, the cause for a significant proportion of chronic cough remains unexplained. Recent reports indicate the resolution of chronic cough following treatment of concomitantly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether this represents a co-occurrence of two commonly prevalent disorders or a pathophysiologic relationship between OSA and cough remains unknown. This review offers insights into a pathophysiologic link between OSA and the commonly purported etiologies for cough, namely, GERD, UACS, and CVA. In addition, evidence for a relationship between airway inflammation that can trigger or perpetuate cough and OSA is discussed. This review explores mechanisms by which nocturnal continuous positive airway therapy resolves cough by improving underlying airway inflammation secondary to OSA and impacts upon GERD, CVA, and UACS. Citation: Sundar KM; Daly SE. Chronic cough and OSA: a new association? J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):669-677. PMID:22171209

  7. Approaching chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient’s daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker’s cough and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. A detailed history-taking and physical examination will provide a diagnosis in most patients, even at the primary care level. Some cases may need further investigations or specialist referral for diagnosis. PMID:26892615

  8. Phenotypic presentation of chronic cough in children

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chronic cough in children is increasingly defined as a cough that lasts more than four weeks. It is recognized as a different entity than cough in adults. As a result, the diagnostic approach and management of chronic cough in children are no longer extrapolated from adult guidelines. These differences are attributed to the various characteristics of the respiratory tract, immunological system and nervous system in children. Specific paediatric guidelines and algorithms for chronic cough are now widely applied. Post-infectious cough, asthma, bronchiectasis, malacia and protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) appear to be the major causes of cough in young children. By adolescence, the causes of cough are more likely to be similar to those in adults, namely, gastroesophageal reflux, asthma, and upper airway syndrome. In a primary setting, it is essential to investigate the underlying disease entity that initiates and sustains chronic cough. The use of cough management protocols or algorithms improves clinical outcomes and should differ depending on the associated characteristics of the cough and the child’s clinical history. Performing a thorough history and physical examination is crucial to starting an individualised approach. A correct interpretation of the phenotypic presentation can be translated into guidance for workup. This approach will be helpful for adequate management without the risk of inappropriate investigations or inadequate treatment. PMID:28523136

  9. Evidence-based Evaluation and Management of Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Chronic cough is common and has a significant impact on the wellbeing of patients and the use and cost of health care services. Traditionally the approach to chronic cough in patients who are nonsmokers and are not taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor has focused on the diagnosis and management of the upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, and reflux disease. The evaluation of patients with chronic cough frequently involves trials of empiric therapy for these 3 conditions. Chronic cough may be perpetuated by abnormalities of the cough reflex and sensitization of its afferent and central components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of Online Health Forums by Patients With Chronic Cough: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Tom; Wilson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Background Online health discussion forums are used by different patient groups for sharing advice and information. Chronic cough is a common problem, and people with chronic cough use online health forums alongside formal medical therapies. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how chronic cough sufferers use online health forums, including the treatment advice they share with one another and the possible clinical uses of online forums in chronic cough. Methods Three open-access health forums were searched for threads related to chronic cough. Identified threads were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria adapted from the British Thoracic Society (BTS) Guidelines related to chronic cough diagnosis. Included data were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. All study data were cross-validated by a second author and discrepancies were resolved. Results In total, 96 threads were included in the analysis, consisting of posts by 223 forum users. Three main themes were identified: the effect of chronic cough on the lives of patients, the treatment advice shared between users, and the provision of support within forums. Conclusions Chronic cough symptoms had impacts on multiple aspects of patients’ health and well-being. To try and combat these issues, forum users suggested a variety of treatments to one another, ranging from mainstream traditional therapies to odd alternative remedies. The provision of support and empathy were also prominent themes in discussion threads. Online forums themselves may provide increasing benefit to users through the addition of a moderator. PMID:29367181

  11. Analysis of bronchial biopsies in chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Patricia; Zhang, Qingling; Saito, Junpei; Liang, Zhike; Ffolkes, Lorrette; Nicholson, Andrew G; Chung, Kian Fan

    2017-06-01

    Chronic cough is commonly associated with asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and postnasal drip, but in a significant proportion, no associated cause can be found. We determined whether examination of bronchial biopsies would be useful in determining the cause associated with chronic cough. 100 consecutive patients referred to a specialist cough clinic underwent a systematic assessment including a fiberoptic bronchoscopy for bronchial biopsies. In 38 patients, treatment of associated causes led to amelioration of cough ('explained') and in 62, there was no association or improvement ('idiopathic'). The latter group had a longer duration of cough, a lower FeNO levels and a more sensitive capsaicin cough response, with an increase in basement membrane thickness with no differences in goblet cell hyperplasia and seromucinous hyperplasia, and in lymphocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil counts. The duration of cough was inversely correlated with the degree of neutrophil infiltration. We conclude that pathological examination of bronchial biopsies is unlikely to be useful in the diagnosis of chronic cough in non-smokers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of reflux-induced chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Herregods, Thomas V K; Pauwels, Ans; Jafari, Jafar; Sifrim, Daniel; Bredenoord, Albert J; Tack, Jan; Smout, André J P M

    2017-12-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is considered to be an important contributing factor in chronic unexplained cough. It remains unclear why some reflux episodes in the same patient causes cough while others do not. To understand more about the mechanism by which reflux induces cough, we aimed to identify factors which are important in triggering cough. In this multicentre study, 49 patients with reflux-associated chronic cough were analysed using 24-hour pH-impedance-pressure monitoring. The characteristics of reflux episodes that were followed by cough were compared with reflux episodes not associated with cough. The majority (72.4%) of the reflux episodes were acidic (pH<4). Compared with reflux episodes that were not followed by cough, reflux episodes that were followed by a cough burst were associated with a higher proximal extent (p=0.0001), a higher volume clearance time (p=0.002) and a higher acid burden in the preceding 15 min window (p=0.019) and higher reflux burden in the preceding 30 min window (p=0.044). No significant difference was found between the two groups when looking at the nadir pH, the pH drop, the acid clearance time or the percentage of reflux episodes which were acidic. The presence of a larger volume of refluxate and oesophageal exposure to reflux for a longer period of time seems to play an important role in inducing cough, while the acidity of the refluxate seems to be less relevant. This helps explain the observation that most patients with chronic cough tend not to benefit from acid inhibitory treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Analysis of the Literature on Chronic Cough in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bergamini, Marcello; Kantar, Ahmad; Cutrera, Renato; Interest Group, Italian Pediatric Cough

    2017-01-01

    Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology. The aim of this article is to provide thorough research and analysis of the medical literature published up to 2014 on chronic cough in children as a disease entity, including the epidemiologic, etiologic, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects. Our results demonstrate differences in the definition of chronic cough, the characteristics of diagnostic procedures, study settings, and prevalence of the main causes. However, few studies regarding epidemiology and the quality of life have been reported. Many therapeutic approaches that are considered effective in adults with chronic cough seem to be less efficient in children. Regardless of the setting, whether pediatric or non-pediatric, children with chronic cough should be carefully evaluated using child-specific protocols and algorithms. Awareness of the various pathophysiological conditions associated with chronic cough is vital for making a correct diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment. The prevalence of the different causes of chronic cough depends on various issues. Among these are the population under consideration and its age range, infectious disease control and prevention, the diagnostic procedures employed, disease definition criteria, and the local health system. Clinical guidelines for the management of children with chronic cough should take these components into consideration. Further clinical and basic research studies are still needed for better

  14. Analysis of the Literature on Chronic Cough in Children.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Marcello; Kantar, Ahmad; Cutrera, Renato; Interest Group, Italian Pediatric Cough

    2017-01-01

    Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology. The aim of this article is to provide thorough research and analysis of the medical literature published up to 2014 on chronic cough in children as a disease entity, including the epidemiologic, etiologic, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects. Our results demonstrate differences in the definition of chronic cough, the characteristics of diagnostic procedures, study settings, and prevalence of the main causes. However, few studies regarding epidemiology and the quality of life have been reported. Many therapeutic approaches that are considered effective in adults with chronic cough seem to be less efficient in children. Regardless of the setting, whether pediatric or non-pediatric, children with chronic cough should be carefully evaluated using child-specific protocols and algorithms. Awareness of the various pathophysiological conditions associated with chronic cough is vital for making a correct diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment. The prevalence of the different causes of chronic cough depends on various issues. Among these are the population under consideration and its age range, infectious disease control and prevention, the diagnostic procedures employed, disease definition criteria, and the local health system. Clinical guidelines for the management of children with chronic cough should take these components into consideration. Further clinical and basic research studies are still needed for better

  15. Prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm & associated factors in Mysore, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijayasimha, R

    2011-07-01

    Chronic cough and chronic phlegm are important indicators of respiratory morbidity, accelerated lung function decline, increased hospitalization and mortality. This study was planned to estimate the prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm in the absence of dyspneoa and wheezing and to study its associated factors in a representative population of Mysore district. A cross-sectional survey was planned in a representative population of Mysore taluk. Eight villages were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. Trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire carried out a house-to-house survey. A total of 4333 adult subjects were enrolled in the study with 2333 males and 2000 females. The prevalence of chronic cough in the community was 2.5 per cent and that of chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent. A significant association was observed between chronic cough and age, gender, occupation and smoking and chronic phlegm with age, gender, occupation, indoor animals and smoking. A multivariate analysis confirmed independent association of age, occupation and smoking for chronic cough and age and smoking for chronic phlegm. On sub-group analysis of males, heavy smokers had higher prevalence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm as compared to light smokers and non smokers. The prevalence of chronic cough was 2.5 per cent and chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent in the general population in Mysore which is lower than that observed in other studies. Heavy smoking was an important preventable risk factor identified in this study and efforts towards smoking cessation are crucial to achieve good respiratory health in the community.

  16. Efficacy of itraconazole in the treatment of patients with chronic cough whose sputa yield basidiomycetous fungi-fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2009-05-01

    This controlled study was performed to clarify the therapeutic benefit of itraconazole for the treatment of patients with chronic cough, wherein a sputum culture yielded basidiomycetous (BM) fungi. Of the 171 patients who visited our hospital for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough, BM was detected in the sputum of 39 patients. Informed consents were obtained from 21 patients who were subsequently enrolled in this trial. After the administration of the standard therapy, all the patients were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled study with 2 weeks of treatment with a low dose of itraconazole (50 mg/day) (n = 10) in comparison with a corresponding period of treatment with matched placebo (ambroxol hydrochloride 45 mg/day) (n = 11). Coughing was assessed using subjective cough symptom scale and capsaicin cough challenging. The treatment with itraconazole, but not placebo (p = 0.17), was associated with a significant improvement in the cough scale (p = 0.0051); moreover, the improvement achieved with itraconazole was significant (p < 0.001) when compared with that of the placebo. Low-dose itraconazole was shown to be an effective antitussive in patients with chronic cough in which sputum examination yielded BM fungi. The 21 patients described here entailed the following manifestations: (1) chronic cough; (2) the presence of environmental fungi, particularly basidiomycetous (BM) fungi, in the sputum; and (3) good clinical response to antifungal drugs. These clinical features may constitute a unique disease concept called fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC).

  17. Chronic cough and tonsillar hypertrophy: a case series.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Richard K; Brookes, James T; Weinberger, Miles M; Smith, Richard J

    2008-11-01

    Two patients with intractable chronic cough were found to have tonsillar tissue impinging on their epiglottis. In both case, tonsillectomy was curative. The observations in these patients are consistent with a previous report indicating chronic cough from the uvula in contact with the epiglottis with cough cessation following uvulectomy. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. On the definition of chronic cough and current treatment pathways: an international qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of chronic cough is not well understood and treatment options are limited. In this study we sought to explore the current understanding and management of chronic cough across an international group of specialists. Methods This was an international study of cross sectional qualitative design. In depth interviews were carried out with “Respiratory Specialists” experienced in treating treating Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), idiopathic chronic cough (ICC) and/or lung cancer patients and with “Disease Experts” in the field of Chronic Cough. Participants in the study were recruited from the USA, UK, Germany, Ireland, Australia and Japan. Interviews with specialists were held at research facilities and with DEs over the telephone. These were preceded by the specialists completing case records of patients recently seen. All interviews were conducted by native speaking trained moderators using a semi-structured interview guide script. This was designed to elicit the definition of chronic cough, explore the unmet needs for each disease state, define therapy goals, identify patient phenotypes and give an overview of the treatment pathway. Results 76 specialists and 10 experts took part in the study. Over two thirds (70%) of respondents defined chronic cough as “cough lasting more than 8/12 weeks” (range 2 weeks to 2 years). Physicians emphasised three interdependent aspects of clinical assessment: impact on quality of life, type of cough (productive versus non-productive) and the underlying pathology. Specialists emphasised treating the underlying cause rather than the cough, this being most prominent in Japan. Experts as a group focussed on chronic cough independently. Evaluation of the respiratory system, GI tract and upper airway (ENT) for establishing an underlying cause was recommended. Type of cough (productive vs non-productive) and impact on quality of life influenced

  19. [Thought and method of classic formulae in treatment of chronic cough].

    PubMed

    Su, Ke-Lei; Zhang, Ye-Qing

    2018-06-01

    Chronic cough is a common clinical disease with complex etiology, which is easily misdiagnosed and mistreated. Chronic cough guideline has been developed based on the modern anatomical etiology classification, and it may improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. Common causes of chronic cough are as follows: cough variant asthma, upper airway cough syndrome, eosinophilic bronchitis, gastroesophageal reflux-related cough, post-infectious cough, etc. There is a long history and rich experience in treatment of cough in traditional Chinese medicine which is characterized by syndrome differentiation. The four elements of pathogenesis for chronic cough include wind, phlegm, fire, and deficiency. Classic formula is widely used in the treatment of chronic cough, and the focus is on prescriptions corresponding to syndromes. This article attempts to explore the thought and method of classic formulae in treatment of chronic cough based on three perspectives: differentiation of etiology, pathogenesis and formula-syndrome. Three medical cases are selected at last in order to prove its correction. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Managing patients with chronic cough: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Perotin, Jeanne-Marie; Launois, Claire; Dewolf, Maxime; Dumazet, Antoine; Dury, Sandra; Lebargy, François; Dormoy, Valérian; Deslee, Gaëtan

    2018-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common complaint and a frequent cause of medical consultation. Its management can be difficult. We present here an overview of the current guidelines for the management of chronic cough. Different steps are detailed, including the initial research of an obvious etiology and alert signs that should lead to further investigation of underlying condition. The diagnosis of the most frequent causes: asthma, non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and upper airway cough syndrome should be considered, assessed and treated accordingly. Recent advances have been made in the comprehension of refractory chronic cough pathophysiology as well as its pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment, especially speech pathology therapy.

  1. Chronic cough postacute respiratory illness in children: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Drescher, Benjamin J; Goyal, Vikas; Phillips, Natalie; Acworth, Jason; Marchant, Julie M; Chang, Anne B

    2017-11-01

    Data on the aetiology of persistent cough at the transitional stage from subacute to chronic cough (>4 weeks duration) are scarce. We aimed to (1) identify the prevalence of chronic cough following acute respiratory illness (ARI) and (2) determine the diagnostic outcomes of children with chronic cough. Prospective cohort study. A paediatric emergency department (ED) in Brisbane, Australia. Children aged <15 years presenting with an ARI with cough. Children were followed weekly for 28 days;those with a persistent cough at day 28 were reviewed by a paediatric pulmonologist. Cough persistence at day 28 and pulmonologist diagnosis. 2586 children were screened and 776 (30%) were ineligible; 839 children (median age=2.3 years, range=0.5 months to 14.7 years, 60% male) were enrolled over 2 years. Most children (n=627, 74.8%) had cough duration of <7 days at enrolment. At day 28, 171/839 (20.4%, 95% CI 17.7 to 23.1) children had persistent cough irrespective of cough duration at enrolment. The cough was wet in 59/171 (34.5%), dry in 45/171 (26.4%) and variable in 28/171 (16.1%). Of these 117 children , 117 (68.4%) were reviewed by a paediatric pulmonologist. A new and serious chronic lung disease was diagnosed in 36/117 (30.8%) children; 55/117 (47.0%) were diagnosed with protracted bacterial bronchitis. When chronic cough develops post-ARI, clinical review is warranted, particularly if parents report a history of prolonged or recurrent cough. Parents of children presenting acutely to ED with cough should be counselled about the development of chronic cough, as an underlying respiratory condition is not uncommon. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. What is chronic cough in children?

    PubMed Central

    Ioan, Iulia; Poussel, Mathias; Coutier, Laurianne; Plevkova, Jana; Poliacek, Ivan; Bolser, Donald C.; Davenport, Paul W.; Derelle, Jocelyne; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos; Marchal, François; Schweitzer, Cyril; Fontana, Giovanni; Varechova, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The cough reflex is modulated throughout growth and development. Cough—but not expiration reflex—appears to be absent at birth, but increases with maturation. Thus, acute cough is the most frequent respiratory symptom during the first few years of life. Later on, the pubertal development seems to play a significant role in changing of the cough threshold during childhood and adolescence resulting in sex-related differences in cough reflex sensitivity in adulthood. Asthma is the major cause of chronic cough in children. Prolonged acute cough is usually related to the long-lasting effects of a previous viral airway infection or to the particular entity called protracted bacterial bronchitis. Cough pointers and type may orient toward specific etiologies, such as barking cough in croup or tracheomalacia, paroxystic whooping cough in Pertussis. Cough is productive in protracted bacterial bronchitis, sinusitis or bronchiectasis. Cough is usually associated with wheeze or dyspnea on exertion in asthma; however, it may be the sole symptom in cough variant asthma. Thus, pediatric cough has particularities differentiating it from adult cough, so the approach and management should be developmentally specific. PMID:25221517

  3. Causes of chronic productive cough: An approach to management.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew J; Harrison, Tim W

    2015-09-01

    A chronic 'productive' or 'wet' cough is a common presenting complaint for patients attending the adult respiratory clinic. Most reviews and guidelines suggest that the causes of a productive cough are the same as those of a non-productive cough and as such the same diagnostic pathway should be followed. We suggest a different diagnostic approach for patients with a productive cough, focussing on the conditions that are the most likely causes of this problem. This review is intended to briefly summarise the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment of a number of conditions which are often associated with chronic productive cough to aid decision making when encountering a patient with this often distressing symptom. The conditions discussed include bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis and immunodeficiency. We also propose an adult version of the paediatric diagnosis of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in patients with idiopathic chronic productive cough who appear to respond well to low dose macrolide therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Microaspiration in the Pathogenesis of Gastroesophageal Reflux-related Chronic Cough

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Pelin; Erdinç, Münevver; Vardar, Rukiye; Veral, Ali; Akyıldız, Serdar; Özdemir, Özer; Bor, Serhat

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the main causes of chronic cough. We evaluated the role of microaspiration in the pathogenesis of reflux-related cough by determining the amount of lipid-laden macrophages (LLMs) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. Methods A total of 161 cases of chronic cough were evaluated, and 36 patients (average age 48.2 years) were recruited for this single center prospective study. Patients with a history of smoking, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor usage, any abnormality on pulmonary function tests, abnormal chest X-rays, occupational or environmental exposures, or upper airway cough syndrome were excluded. GERD was evaluated by 24-hour esophageal impedance-pH monitoring. BAL specimens for LLM determination were obtained from 34 patients by flexible bronchoscopy. Results Patients with pathological intra-esophageal reflux according to multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring had higher LLM positivity in BAL specimens than patients without pathological reflux (8/14 in reflux positive group vs 1/22 in reflux negative group; P = 0.004). The BAL cell distribution was not different between the 2 groups (P = 0.574 for macrophages, P = 0.348 for lymphocytes, P = 0.873 for neutrophils and P = 0.450 for eosinophils). Conclusions Our results confirm the role of the microaspiration of refluxate in the pathogenetic mechanism of chronic cough. While bronchoscopy is indicated in patients with chronic cough, in addition to the routine airway evaluation, BAL and LLM detection should be performed. LLM can be used to diagnose aspiration in reflux-related chronic cough. Future studies are needed to evaluate the response to anti-reflux medications or surgery in patients with LLM positivity. PMID:27605525

  5. Impact of chronic cough on quality of life.

    PubMed

    French, C L; Irwin, R S; Curley, F J; Krikorian, C J

    Cough is the most common complaint for which adult patients seek medical care in the United States; however, the reason(s) for this is unknown. To determine whether chronic cough was associated with adverse psychosocial or physical effects on the quality of life and whether the elimination of chronic cough with specific therapy improved these adverse effects. The study design was a prospective before-and-after intervention trial with patients serving as their own controls. Study subjects were a convenience sample of 39 consecutive and unselected adult patients referred for evaluation and management of a chronic, persistently troublesome cough. Baseline data were available for 39 patients and follow-up for 28 patients (22 women and 6 men). At baseline, demographic, Adverse Cough Outcome Survey (ACOS), and Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) data were collected and patients were managed according to a validated, systematic protocol. Following specific therapy for cough, ACOS and SIP instruments were readministered. The ages, sex, duration, and spectra and frequencies of the causes of cough were similar to multiple other studies. At baseline, patients reported a mean +/- SD of 8.6 +/- 4.8 types of adverse occurrences related to cough. There were significant correlations between multiple ACOS items and total, physical, and psychosocial SIP scores. Psychosocial score correlated with total number of symptoms (P<.02). After cough disappeared with treatment, ACOS complaints decreased to a mean +/- SD of 1.9 +/- 3.2 (P<.0001) as did total (mean +/- SD, 4.8 +/- 4.5 to 1.8 +/- 2.2) (P= .004), psychosocial (mean +/- SD, 4.2 +/- 6.8 to 0.8 +/- 2.3) (P = .004), and physical (mean +/- SD, 2.2 +/- 2.9 to 0.9 +/- 1.8) (P = .05) SIP scores. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 54% of variability of the psychosocial SIP score was explained by 4 ACOS items while none of the physical score was explained. Chronic cough was associated with deterioration in patients' quality of life

  6. Towards understanding and managing chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Satia, Imran; Badri, Huda; Al-Sheklly, Bashar; Smith, Jaclyn Ann; Woodcock, Ashley A

    2016-12-01

    Chronic cough is a common and troublesome condition affecting approximately 12% of the general population. It is associated with poor quality of life with psychological, social and physical consequences. Patients typically complain of a dry irritating cough, driven by a strong urge to cough associated with a sensation or irritation located in the throat. Treatment of potential 'causes', ie asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and rhino-sinusitis, may produce a complete or partial response, but the response of some patients to opiates and alpha-2-delta ligand antagonists (gabapentin and pregabalin) supports the concept that this is primarily a neurological disorder, characterised by hyper-responsiveness of the nerves. Novel and highly effective neuronal treatments are in development and offer hope of better symptom control with fewer side effects within a few years. This review focuses on understanding the mechanism of chronic cough, current management approaches and research that may lead to novel therapies. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

  7. Symptom research on chronic cough: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Irwin, R S; Madison, J M

    2001-05-01

    This review provides a perspective on how research on the management of cough has evolved, looks at key methodologic lessons that have been learned from this research and how they may relate to the management of other symptoms, identifies important methodologic challenges that remain to be solved, and lists important questions that still need to be answered. Three important methodologic lessons have been learned. First, cough must be evaluated systematically and according to a neuroanatomic framework. Second, the response to specific therapy must be noted to determine the cause or causes of cough and to characterize the strengths and limitations of diagnostic testing. Third, multiple conditions can simultaneously cause cough. Among the three methodologic challenges that still need to be solved are 1) definitively determining the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and how best to interpret pH test results, 2) definitively determining the role of nonacid reflux in cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 3) developing reliable and reproducible subjective and objective methods with which to assess the efficacy of cough therapy. Numerous important clinical questions are still unanswered: What role do empirical therapeutic trials play in diagnosing the cause of chronic cough? What is the most cost-effective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough: empirical therapeutic trials or laboratory testing-directed therapeutic trials? How often is environmental air pollution, unrelated to allergies or smoking, responsible for chronic cough?

  8. Chronic productive cough in young adults is very often due to chronic rhino-sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Corsico, A G; Villani, S; Zoia, M C; Niniano, R; Ansaldo, E; Cervio, G; Quaresima, P M; Gatto, E; Crippa, E; Marinoni, A; Foresi, A; Pozzi, E; Cerveri, I

    2007-06-01

    Chronic productive cough is a common clinical problem; often potential causes outside the lower respiratory tract are forgotten or ignored. The aim of this study was to make a precise etiopathogenetic diagnosis of chronic productive cough in young adults. In a clinical setting, 212 subjects (mean age 41+/-5 years) who had reported chronic productive cough in a previous postal survey of a young adult population underwent within two years clinical and functional investigations following a rational diagnostic approach. Two pulmonologists independently established the diagnosis using a clinically structured interview on nasal and respiratory symptoms, spirometry and other tests when appropriate (bronchodilator test or methacholine bronchial challenge, chest radiography); if rhino-sinusitis was suspected, subjects underwent an ENT examination with nasal endoscopy and/or sinus computed tomography. At the end of the diagnostic procedure, 87 subjects (41%) no longer had chronic productive cough and had normal function. Fifty-eight subjects (27%) had chronic rhino-sinusitis; seventeen subjects (8%) had asthma, and of these fourteen also had chronic rhino-sinusitis; 50 subjects (24%) had COPD stage 0+, of these seven also had chronic rhino-sinusitis. Chronic rhino-sinusitis was more frequent in females than in males (p<0.05). Both in clinical practice and in epidemiological studies, it is important to consider that the origin of chronic productive cough could be frequently outside the lower respiratory tract; a consistent percentage of young adults with persistent productive cough has indeed chronic rhino-sinusitis.

  9. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H.; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3–8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough. The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities. This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the

  10. Validation of the Polish Version of the Chronic Cough Quality of Life Questionnaire (Leicester Cough Questionnaire).

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Marta; Krakowiak, Karolina; Radlińska, Olga; Rybka, Aleksandra; Grabczak, Elżbieta M; Maskey-Warzęchowska, Marta; Korczyński, Piotr; Birring, Surinder S; Krenke, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is one of the few specific quality-of-life questionnaires (QOLQ) dedicated to measuring the impact of chronic cough on patients' health/condition. The aim of the study was to validate the Polish version of the LCQ. The LCQ was translated forward and backward. The Polish version of the LCQ was tested on 35 patients suffering from chronic cough (23 women, median age 60 years, nonor ex-smokers, median cough duration of 23 weeks). Its validity was tested by comparison to a visual analogue scale (VAS) of cough intensity and other health questionnaires (hospital anxiety and depression scale - HADS, Euro-Quality of Life Questionnaire - EQ5D, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire - SGRQ). The internal reliability of the Polish version of the LCQ was determined using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and its repeatability by the intraclass consistency coefficient. The translation of the LCQ into Polish was accepted by the author of the original LCQ. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for total LCQ was 0.89, and reached 0.82, 0.86 and 0.78 for the physical, psychological and social domain, respectively. There were significant negative correlations between cough severity measured by VAS, the results of the EQ5D and SGRQ and the Polish version of the LCQ. The intraclass correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability was significant (0.99). The Polish version of the LCQ has been validated and is a reliable tool to measure the impact of chronic cough on quality of life of patients with chronic cough.

  11. A stepwise protocol for the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianghuai; Lv, Hanjing; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is difficult to manage. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a novel stepwise protocol for treating this condition. Methods A total of 103 consecutive patients with suspected refractory reflux-induced chronic cough failing to a standard anti-reflux therapy were treated with a stepwise therapy. Treatment commences with high-dose omeprazole and, if necessary, is escalated to subsequent sequential treatment with ranitidine and finally baclofen. The primary end-point was overall cough resolution, and the secondary end-point was cough resolution after each treatment step. Results High-dose omeprazole eliminated or improved cough in 28.1% of patients (n=29). Further stepwise of treatment with the addition of ranitide yielded a favorable response in an additional 12.6% (n=13) of patients, and subsequent escalation to baclofen provoked response in another 36.9% (n=38) of patients. Overall, this stepwise protocol was successful in 77.6% (n=80) of patients. The diurnal cough symptom score fell from 3 [1] to 1 [0] (Z=6.316, P=0.000), and the nocturnal cough symptom score decreased from 1 [1] to 0 [1] (Z=–4.511, P=0.000), with a corresponding reduction in the Gastroesophageal Reflux Diagnostic Questionnaire score from 8.6±1.7 to 6.8±0.7 (t=3.612, P=0.000). Conversely, the cough threshold C2 to capsaicin was increased from 0.49 (0.49) µmol/L to 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L (Z=–5.892, P=0.000), and the cough threshold C5 was increased from 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L to 7.8 (5.85) µmol/L (Z=–5.171, P=0.000). Conclusions Sequential stepwise anti-reflux therapy is a useful therapeutic strategy for refractory reflux-induced chronic cough. PMID:26904227

  12. Clinical Trial: High-Dose Acid Suppression for Chronic Cough: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Crockett, Seth D.; Bright, Stephanie D.; Madanick, Ryan D.; Buckmire, Robert; Couch, Marion; Dellon, Evan S.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Sharpless, Ginny; Morgan, Douglas R.; Spacek, Melissa B.; Heidt-Davis, Paris; Henke, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cough may be a manifestation of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The utility of acid suppression in GERD-related cough is uncertain. Aim To assess the impact of high-dose acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on chronic cough in subjects with rare or no heartburn. Methods Subjects were non-smokers without history of asthma, with chronic cough for > 8 weeks. All subjects underwent a baseline 24 hr pH/impedance study, methacholine challenge test (MCT), and laryngoscopy. Subjects were randomized to either 40 mg of esomeprazole twice daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Cough-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (CQLQ). Secondary outcomes were response on Fisman Cough Severity/Frequency scores, and change in laryngeal findings. Results 40 subjects were randomized (22 PPI, 18 placebo) and completed the study. There was no difference between PPI and placebo in CQLQ (mean improvement 9.8, vs. 5.9 in placebo, p = 0.3), or Fisman Cough Severity/Frequency scores. The proportion of patients who improved by >1 standard deviation on the CQLQ was 27.8% (5/18) and 31.8% (7/22) in the placebo and PPI groups respectively. Conclusions In subjects with chronic cough and rare or no heartburn, high-dose PPI did not improve cough-related quality of life or symptoms in this randomized controlled trial. PMID:21083673

  13. Pharyngeal swallowing phase and chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Drozdz, Daniela Rejane Constantino; Costa, Cintia Conceição; Jesus, Paulo Roberto de Oliveira; Trindade, Mateus Silva; Weiss, Guilherme; Neto, Abdias Baptista M.; da Silva, Ana Maria T.; Mancopes, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The act of swallowing depends on a complex and dynamic process which uses common structures to the act of breathing; respiratory problems can cause swallowing difficulties. Aim: To assess the swallowing pharyngeal phase in patients with chronic cough. Method: Retrospective study with 15 patients of both genders, patients with chronic cough and risk factors for aspiration defined by the pneumologic diagnosis. The patients were submitted to anamnesis on complaints related to swallowing, chewing and breathing, or related to food and to videofluoroscopic examination. Results: It was observed that 33.3% had normal and functional swallowing, being the last one of most prevalence. The mild dysphagia was observed in 20% of the patients, the mild to moderate dysphagia in 6.7% of them. In relation to the Rosenbek scale, 73.3% of patients presented degree 1, 6.7% presented degrees 2 and 3, and 13.3% presented degree 8. The most found pathology was the chronic cough with 40%, followed by asthma with 20%; 69.2% of patients presented stasis and of these, five used protection maneuvers, of these, seven were effective and only three were used in the presence of stasis. The most used maneuver was the multiple swallowing, being effective in 100%. Conclusion: There are peculiarities in the patients' swallowing with chronic cough that, although not presenting complaints relating to swallowing, it presents an important aspiration risk due to the presence of changes in breathing pattern that can intervene in the coordination between breathing and swallowing, which is essential to protect the lower airway. PMID:25991980

  14. The effect of pH on citric acid cough challenge: A randomised control trial in chronic cough and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Z L; Fowles, H E; Wright, C; Howard, Joseph; Morice, A H

    2018-03-06

    Citric acid has been used for over six decades to induce cough; however the mechanism of its pro-tussive effect is still not fully understood. We assessed the response to inhalation of citric acid at varying levels of acidity to determine if the pH of the solution plays a role in the induction of cough. Data was collected from both healthy volunteers and patients with chronic cough. 20 chronic cough patients and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent three cough challenges on separate days. Each visit involved 5 repeated one second inhalations of 300 mM citric acid solution. The concentration of the citrate cation remained constant, but the pH of the solution altered by the addition of sodium bicarbonate to 3, 5 and 6, representing the pK a values of the individual acid moieties. The total number of coughs elicited was recorded for each inhalation. Two subjects withdrew and were not included in the analysis. Participants were gender matched, each group consisting of 12 females. 74% of chronic coughers coughed at pH 3 (mean coughs 16), 89% coughed at pH 5 (18) and 63% coughed at pH 6 (7). In healthy volunteers, 60% of subjects coughed at pH 3 (9), 30% of subjects coughed at pH 5 (3), and 10% of subjects coughed at pH 6 (0). Thus chronic cough patients coughed more than healthy volunteers and did not exhibit a clear pH concentration response. There was also a greater variability in their response to individual challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining Chronic Cough: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Faruqi, Shoaib; Kang, Min-Koo; Kim, Ju-Young; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Sujeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Plevkova, Jana; Park, Heung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent evidence suggests a global burden of chronic cough in general populations. However, the definitions vary greatly among epidemiological studies, and none have been validated for clinical relevance. We aimed to examine previous epidemiological definitions in detail and explore the operational characteristics. Methods A systematic review was conducted for epidemiological surveys that reported the prevalence of chronic cough in general adult populations during the years 1980 to 2013. A literature search was performed on Pubmed and Embase without language restriction. Epidemiological definitions for chronic cough were classified according to their components, such as cutoff duration. Meta-analyses were performed for the male-to-female ratio of chronic cough prevalence to explore operational characteristics of epidemiological definitions. Results A total of 70 studies were included in the systematic review. The most common epidemiological definition was identified as 'cough ≥3 months' duration without specification of phlegm (n=50); however, it conflicted with the cutoff duration in current clinical guidelines (cough ≥8 weeks). Meta-analyses were performed for the male-to-female ratio of chronic cough among 28 studies that reported sex-specific prevalence using the most common definition. The pooled male-to-female odds ratio was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 0.92-1.73) with significant heterogeneity (I2=96%, P<0.001), which was in contrast to clinical observations of female predominance from specialist clinics. Subgroup analyses did not reverse the ratio or reduce the heterogeneity. Conclusions This study identified major issues in defining chronic cough in future epidemiological studies. The conflict between epidemiological and clinical diagnostic criteria needs to be resolved. The unexpected difference in the gender predominance between the community and clinics warrants further studies. Clinical validation of the existing definition is required

  16. Burden of asthma, dyspnea, and chronic cough in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Tang, Shangfeng; Yaya, Sanni; Feng, Zhanchun

    2017-01-01

    Asthma, dyspnea, and chronic cough are well-established risk factors of COPD and often associated with exacerbation of the disease, which is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in South Asian countries. The aims of this study were to, 1) measure the prevalence of asthma, dyspnea, and chronic cough, and 2) assess the relationship between these respiratory problems and self-reported health status among South Asians. Data for this research came from the World Health Survey (2002-2003) conducted by the World Health Organization. Subjects were 35,929 men and women, aged 18 years and older, selected from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Crude prevalence rates of asthma, dyspnea, and chronic cough were presented as percentages, and the results of their association with subjective health status were presented as odds ratios and corresponding 95% CIs. Prevalence of daily smoking was highest in Bangladesh (39.9%) and lowest in Sri Lanka (14.1%). Prevalence of asthma was highest in India (6.3%), while Nepal had the highest prevalence of dyspnea (11.3%) and chronic cough (15.3%). Overall prevalence of asthma and dyspnea was higher among women, while that of chronic cough was higher among men. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence rates of all the conditions among regular, occasional, and nonsmokers. A majority of the men and women who had asthma, dyspnea, and chronic cough had higher likelihood of reporting poor health status compared to those who did not have these diseases. Findings suggest that prevalence rates of asthma, dyspnea, and chronic cough were considerably high in all the countries and were significantly associated with poor subjective health. Being a high COPD-prone region, programs targeted to address these diseases could help reduce the burden of COPD and respiratory disease-related mortalities in South Asia.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough in China: an insight into the status quo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cough is a very common complaint in clinics throughout China. Clinical and basic science research on chronic cough started late, but in recent years the effort has yielded promising findings regarding the etiological diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis. We found that inflammation in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis has some similarities to cough variant asthma but also a number of distinct differences. Recent evidence has also suggested a mechanistic link between airway neurogenic inflammation and and gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC). Cough-related animal models have been developed, including models for esophageal reflux, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis. Normal reference values for differential cell counts in induced sputum, cough sensitivity and esophageal 24-h pH monitoring in Chinese healthy subjects have been established. By using a modified algorithm for the etiological diagnosis of chronic cough, the causes of chronic cough have been investigated across a number of cities in China. The most common causes of chronic cough are cough variant asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, upper airway cough symptoms, atopic cough and GERC, however, there are some regional variations. The Chinese National Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Cough were drafted in 2005, updated in 2009, and have been widely publicized and disseminated through many channels since their publication. PMID:22839528

  18. Use of Management Pathways or Algorithms in Children With Chronic Cough: Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne B; Oppenheimer, John J; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly; Rubin, Bruce K; Irwin, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Use of appropriate cough pathways or algorithms may reduce the morbidity of chronic cough, lead to earlier diagnosis of chronic underlying illness, and reduce unnecessary costs and medications. We undertook three systematic reviews to examine three related key questions (KQ): In children aged ?14 years with chronic cough (> 4 weeks' duration), KQ1, do cough management protocols (or algorithms) improve clinical outcomes? KQ2, should the cough management or testing algorithm differ depending on the duration and/or severity? KQ3, should the cough management or testing algorithm differ depending on the associated characteristics of the cough and clinical history? We used the CHEST expert cough panel's protocol. Two authors screened searches and selected and extracted data. Only systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and cohort studies published in English were included. Data were presented in Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses flowcharts and summary tabulated. Nine studies were included in KQ1 (RCT = 1; cohort studies = 7) and eight in KQ3 (RCT = 2; cohort = 6), but none in KQ2. There is high-quality evidence that in children aged ?14 years with chronic cough (> 4 weeks' duration), the use of cough management protocols (or algorithms) improves clinical outcomes and cough management or the testing algorithm should differ depending on the associated characteristics of the cough and clinical history. It remains uncertain whether the management or testing algorithm should depend on the duration or severity of chronic cough. Pending new data, chronic cough in children should be defined as > 4 weeks' duration and children should be systematically evaluated with treatment targeted to the underlying cause irrespective of the cough severity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  19. Etiologies of Chronic Cough in Pediatric Cohorts: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne B; Oppenheimer, John J; Weinberger, Miles; Grant, Cameron C; Rubin, Bruce K; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    There is no published systematic review on the etiologies of chronic cough or the relationship between OSA and chronic cough in children aged ≤ 14 years. We thus undertook a systematic review based on key questions (KQs) using the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome format. The KQs follow: Among children with chronic (> 4 weeks) cough (KQ 1) are the common etiologies different from those in adults? (KQ 2) Are the common etiologies age or setting dependent, or both? (KQ 3) Is OSA a cause of chronic cough in children? We used the CHEST Expert Cough Panel's protocol and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodological guidelines and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Data from the systematic reviews in conjunction with patients' values and preferences and the clinical context were used to form recommendations. Delphi methodology was used to obtain consensus. Combining KQs 1 and 2, we found moderate-level evidence from 10 prospective studies that the etiologies of cough in children are different from those in adults and are setting dependent. Data from three studies found that common etiologies of cough in young children were different from those in older children. However, data relating sleep abnormalities to chronic cough in children were found only in case studies. There is moderate-quality evidence that common etiologies of chronic cough in children are different from those in adults and are dependent on age and setting. As there are few data relating OSA and chronic cough in children, the panel suggested that these children should be managed in accordance with pediatric sleep guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Impact of cough across different chronic respiratory diseases: comparison of two cough-specific health-related quality of life questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Polley, Liam; Yaman, Nurman; Heaney, Liam; Cardwell, Chris; Murtagh, Eimear; Ramsey, John; MacMahon, Joseph; Costello, Richard W; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2008-08-01

    Cough is a prominent symptom across a range of common chronic respiratory diseases and impacts considerably on patient health status. We undertook a cross-sectional comparison of scores from two cough-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires, the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), and the Cough Quality of Life Questionnaire (CQLQ), together with a generic HRQoL measure, the EuroQol. Questionnaires were administered to and spirometry performed on 147 outpatients with chronic cough (n = 83), COPD (n = 18), asthma (n = 20), and bronchiectasis (n = 26). There was no significant difference in the LCQ and CQLQ total scores between groups (p = 0.24 and p = 0.26, respectively). Exploratory analyses of questionnaire subdomains revealed differences in psychosocial issues and functional impairment between the four groups (p = 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively). CQLQ scores indicated that chronic coughers have more psychosocial issues than patients with bronchiectasis (p = 0.03) but less functional impairment than COPD patients (p = 0.04). There was a significant difference in generic health status across the four disease groups (p = 0.04), with poorest health status in COPD patients. A significant inverse correlation was observed between CQLQ and LCQ in each disease group (chronic cough r = - 0.56, p < 0.001; COPD r = - 0.49, p = 0.04; asthma r = - 0.94, p < 0.001; and bronchiectasis r = - 0.88, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between cough questionnaire scores and FEV(1) in any group, although a significant correlation between EuroQol visual analog scale component and FEV(1) (r = 0.639, p = 0.004) was observed in COPD patients. Cough adversely affects health status across a range of common respiratory diseases. The LCQ and CQLQ can each provide important additional information concerning the impact of cough.

  1. Translating Cough Mechanisms Into Better Cough Suppressants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer A; McGovern, Alice E; Mazzone, Stuart B

    2017-10-01

    Chronic cough is a significant problem, and in many patients cough remains refractive to both disease-specific therapies and current cough-suppressing medicines, creating a need for improved antitussive therapies. Most patients with chronic cough also display heightened sensitivity so that they experience a persistent sense of the need to cough, and often innocuous stimuli can trigger their coughing. This hypersensitivity underpins the newly described concept of cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS), a term that encapsulates the notion of common underlying mechanisms producing neuronal activation, sensitization and/or dysfunction, which are at the core of excessive coughing. Understanding these mechanisms has been a focus of recent research efforts in the field in the hope that new therapies can be developed to selectively target sensitized unproductive cough while maintaining the reflexive cough essential for airway protection. However, efforts to achieve this have been slower than expected, in part because of some significant challenges and limitations translating current cough models. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the sensory circuits innervating the respiratory system that are important for cough, how cough sensory pathways become hypersensitive, and some of the recently described neural targets under development for treating chronic cough. We present the case that better use of current cough models or the development of new models, or both, is ultimately needed to advance our efforts to translate the discovery of basic cough mechanisms into effective medicines for treating patients with chronic cough. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Randomised controlled trial of amoxycillin clavulanate in children with chronic wet cough.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Julie; Masters, Ian Brent; Champion, Anita; Petsky, Helen; Chang, Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Despite guideline recommendations, there are no published randomised controlled trial data on the efficacy of antibiotics for chronic wet cough in children. The majority of children with chronic wet cough have protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), a recognised condition in multiple national guidelines. The authors conducted a parallel 1:1 placebo randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a 2-week course of amoxycillin clavulanate is efficacious in the treatment of children with chronic wet cough. 50 children (median age 1.9 years, IQR 0.9-5.1) with chronic (>3 weeks) wet cough were randomised to 2 weeks of twice daily oral amoxycillin clavulanate (22.5 mg/kg/dose) or placebo. The primary outcome was 'cough resolution' defined as a >75% reduction in the validated verbal category descriptive cough score within 14 days of treatment compared with baseline scores, or cessation of cough for >3 days. In selected children, flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were undertaken at baseline. Cough resolution rates (48%) were significantly higher in children who received amoxycillin clavulanate compared with those who received placebo (16%), p=0.016. The observed difference between proportions was 0.32 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.56). Post treatment, median verbal category descriptive score in the amoxycillin clavulanate group of 0.5 (IQR 0.0-2.0) was significantly lower than in the placebo group, 2.25 (IQR 1.15-2.9) (p=0.02). Pre-treatment BAL data were consistent with PBB in the majority of children, with no significant difference between groups. A 2-week course of amoxycillin clavulanate will achieve cough resolution in a significant number of children with chronic wet cough. BAL data support the diagnosis of PBB in the majority of these children. ACTRN 12605000533695.

  3. A child chronic cough-specific quality of life measure: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Peter A; Sheffield, Jeanie K; Petsky, Helen L; Marchant, Julie M; Willis, Carol; Chang, Anne B

    2016-08-01

    Quality of life (QoL) measures are an important patient-relevant outcome measure for clinical studies. Cough is the most common symptom that results in new medical consultations. Although adult and parent-proxy cough-specific QoL instruments have been shown to be a useful cough outcome measure, no suitable cough-specific QoL measure for children with chronic cough exists. We report on the statistical properties of a chronic cough-specific QoL (CC-QoL) questionnaire for children. 130 children (median age 10 years, IQR 8-12 years; 65 girls) participated. A preliminary 37-item version was developed from conversations with children with chronic cough (>4 weeks). Children also completed generic QoL questionnaires (Pediatric QoL Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4.0), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)) and cough diary scores. The clinical impact method of item reduction resulted in 16 items that had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.94) among these items and also within each domain. Evidence for construct and criterion validity was established with significant correlations between CC-QoL subscales with cough scores, PedsQL and SCAS scores. CC-QoL scores were sensitive to change following an intervention and significant differences were noted between those children coughing and those who had ceased coughing. Minimum important difference (MID) for overall and domain CC-QoL ranged from 0.37-1.36 (distribution-based approach) to 1.11-1.58 (anchor-based approach). Chronic cough significantly impacts the QoL of children. The CC-QoL is a reliable, valid and sensitive to change outcome measure that assesses QoL from the child's perspective. Pending data from a confirmatory cohort, a MID for the CC-QoL of 1.1 is recommended when evaluating health status change. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Neuroimmune interactions in itch: Do chronic itch, chronic pain, and chronic cough share similar mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Ji, Ru-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Itch and pain are closely related but also clearly distinct sensations. Pain is known to suppress itch, while analgesics such as morphine can provoke itch. However, in pathological and chronic conditions, pain and itch also have similarities. Dysfunction of the nervous system, as manifested by neural plastic changes in primary sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (peripheral sensitization) and spinal cord and brain stem neurons in the central nervous system (central sensitization) will result in chronic pain and itch. Importantly, these diseases also result from immune dysfunction, since inflammatory mediators can directly activate or sensitize nociceptive and pruriceptive neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system, leading to pain and itch hypersensitivity. In this mini-review, I discuss the roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel, and Nav1.7 sodium channel in regulating itch and inflammation, with special emphasis of neuronal TLR signaling and the interaction of TLR7 and TRPA1. Chronic pain and chronic itch are debilitating diseases and dramatically impact the life quality of patients. Targeting TLRs for the control of inflammation, neuroinflammation (inflammation restricted in the nervous system), and hyperexcitability of nociceptors and pruriceptors will lead to new therapeutics for the relief of chronic pain and chronic itch. Finally, given the shared mechanisms among chronic cough, chronic pain, and chronic itch and the demonstrated efficacy of the neuropathic pain drug gabapentin in treating chronic cough, novel therapeutics targeting TRPA1, Nav1.7, and TLRs may also help to alleviate refractory cough via modulating neuron-immune interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic-diagnostic Evaluation of Chronic Cough Amongst Adults: Causes, Symptoms and Management at the Primary Care Level, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nantha, Yogarabindranath Swarna

    2014-07-01

    Patients presenting with chronic cough pose a common diagnostic dilemma during routine consultations at public primary care clinics in Malaysia. To date, there has been little attempt at designing a standardized model or algorithm to facilitate an accurate diagnosis of chronic cough. This study proposes a clinical method to detect the causes of chronic cough in a primary care setting in Malaysia. A total of 117 patients aged above 18 at an urban primary care clinic were tracked over a span of 5 months to diagnose the cause of chronic cough. A therapeutic-diagnostic method was employed to help identify the causes of chronic cough. Subsequently, the demographic details of patients, the prevalence of the different causes of chronic cough and the relationship between history and diagnosis were analyzed statistically. Chronic cough had a slightly higher male preponderance (51.3% vs. 48.7%). Patients within the 'above 60' age category had the highest frequency of chronic cough. The most common cause of chronic cough was post-infectious cough (n = 42, 35.9%), followed closely by angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor related cough (n = 14, 12%). Majority of patients had the symptom of phlegm production (n = 41, 54%). 33 patients (29.2%) had recent upper respiratory tract infection (<2 weeks ago) prior to the diagnosis of chronic cough. There were poor association between symptoms and the various entities comprising chronic cough. The exceptions were the following associations: (1) Bronchial asthma and itchiness of throat (P = 0021), (2) gastroesophageal reflux disease and heartburn (P < 0.001), (3) upper airway cough syndrome and running nose (P = 0.016) and (4) pulmonary tuberculosis and absence of weight loss (P = 0.004). This study demonstrates that the effectiveness of a therapeutic-diagnostic technique in the diagnosis of chronic cough. Consistent with previous studies, there was poor association between most symptoms and the causes of chronic cough. A study

  6. Evaluation of Occupational and Environmental Factors in the Assessment of Chronic Cough in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, Susan M; Altman, Kenneth W; French, Cynthia T; Diekemper, Rebecca L; Irwin, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Several recent cough guidelines have advised consideration of occupational or environmental causes for chronic cough, but it is unclear how frequently this recommendation has been routinely applied. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to address this aspect. Cough guidelines and protocols were reviewed to identify recommendations for assessment of occupational and environmental aspects of chronic cough. The systematic search previously used to identify intervention fidelity to the use of protocols for diagnosis and management of chronic cough in adults was used for this review after extension to June 2015. PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the same search terms and inclusion criteria as previously. Papers that met our criteria were then reviewed to identify methods used to assess occupational and environmental aspects of chronic cough and the outcomes of these assessments. Among the 10 general chronic cough guidelines and protocols identified, only the three published since 2006 included details advising detailed occupational and environmental assessments. One additional cough statement focused entirely on occupational cough. Of the 28 cohort studies of patients with chronic cough that specifically noted that they followed guidelines or protocols, none provided details of occupational and environmental assessments. Despite published recommendations, it is not apparent that occupational and environmental causes for chronic cough are addressed in detail during assessments of patients with chronic cough. This leaves open to speculation whether lack of recognition of an occupational cause may delay important preventive measures, put additional workers at risk, and/or be the reason why a chronic cough may remain unexplained. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational and Environmental Contributions to Chronic Cough in Adults: Chest Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, Susan M; Altman, Kenneth W; Oppenheimer, John; Lim, Kaiser; Vertigan, Anne; Prezant, David; Irwin, Richard S

    2016-10-01

    In response to occupational and environmental exposures, cough can be an isolated symptom reflecting exposure to an irritant with little physiological consequence, or it can be a manifestation of more significant disease. This document reviews occupational and environmental contributions to chronic cough in adults, focusing on aspects not previously covered in the 2006 ACCP Cough Guideline or our more recent systematic review, and suggests an approach to investigation of these factors when suspected. MEDLINE and TOXLINE literature searches were supplemented by articles identified by the cough panel occupational and environmental subgroup members, to identify occupational and environmental aspects of chronic cough not previously covered in the 2006 ACCP Cough Guideline. Based on the literature reviews and the Delphi methodology, the cough panel occupational and environmental subgroup developed guideline suggestions that were approved after review and voting by the full cough panel. The literature review identified relevant articles regarding: mechanisms; allergic environmental causes; chronic cough and the recreational and involuntary inhalation of tobacco and marijuana smoke; nonallergic environmental triggers; laryngeal syndromes; and occupational diseases and exposures. Consensus-based statements were developed for the approach to diagnosis due to a lack of strong evidence from published literature. Despite increased understanding of cough related to occupational and environmental triggers, there remains a gap between the recommended assessment of occupational and environmental causes of cough and the reported systematic assessment of these factors. There is a need for further documentation of occupational and environmental causes of cough in the future. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Refractory chronic cough, or the need to focus on the relationship between the larynx and the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this review we question the current way of handling tackle a problem of chronic cough, especially by the excessive number of patients who can not find complete relief from your cough by anatomical diagnosis of universal use. From the field of Otolaryngology new perspectives arise now considering the larynx as a preferential afferent stimuli cough reflex arc. Also the constitution laryngopharyngeal reflux gas and new approaches to non-acid reflux and the local action of pepsin in laryngeal deserving of a joint review, which can illuminate new ways to handle the problem of chronic refractory cough. We believe that the chronic cough syndrome hpersensitivity as more precise label for chronic cough, should place particular emphasis on laryngeal sensory neuropathy as cough and reflux the influence that may have on their maintenance, and thereby causes definitely wide related to the syndrome if the larynx is incorporated, place greater number of afferent nerves of chronic cough, which are sure to cover much of the case of refractory cough remain without a satisfactory solution. The close collaboration between Otolaryngology, Gastroenterology and Pneumology in a patient with refractory chronic cough seems now an unavoidable necessity. PMID:23552099

  9. Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing helps your body heal or protect itself. Coughs can be either acute or chronic. Acute coughs begin suddenly and usually last no more than 2 to 3 weeks. Acute coughs are the kind you most often get with ...

  10. Chronic cough: clinical characteristics and etiologies of 510 cases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guiyuan; Huang, Xinying; Li, Tianlin; Xu, Dongping

    2016-12-20

    To investigate the clinical features and underlying etiologies of chronic cough (CC). Five hundred and ten CC patients were enrolled. The phases, characteristics and associated clinical manifestations of CC among the gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC), cough-variant asthma (CVA), and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) groups were compared, and the diagnostic values of each group were evaluated by multiple regression analysis. In the 510 patients, 404 had CC with single etiology-GERC (n = 175), CVA (n = 134), and UACS (n = 95). The characteristic features of GERC included gastric acid backflow symptoms such as sour-tasting regurgitation, heartburn, endoscopic esophagitis, poststimulation cough, frequent throat clearing, daytime mono-cough, and feelings of heaviness and pain in the chest. Patients with CVA typically exhibited sensitivity to smog and other irritants; the cough occurred mostly at night, and was associated with positive bronchodilator and provocation test results. The typical features of UACS included a history and/or symptoms of rhinitis, retropharyngeal postnasal drip, and wet cough occurring mostly during the daytime. The diagnostic specificities of above factors were >70%. The most common causes of CC include GERC, CVA, and UACS, and their diagnosis is based on the characteristics of the underlying disease.

  11. Efficacy of sequential three-step empirical therapy for chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Xu, Xianghuai; Hang, Jingqing; Cheng, Kewen; Jin, Xiaoyan; Chen, Qiang; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2017-06-01

    Empirical three-step therapy has been proved in just one hospital. This study aimed to demonstrate applicability of the sequential empirical three-step therapy for chronic cough in different clinical settings. Sequential empirical three-step therapy was given to patients with chronic cough in one tertiary and three secondary care respiratory clinics. Recruiters were initially treated with methoxyphenamine compound as the first-step therapy, followed by corticosteroids as the second-step therapy and the combination of a proton-pump inhibitor and a prokinetic agent as the third-step therapy. The efficacy of the therapy was verified according to the changes in cough symptom score between pre- and post-treatment, and compared among the different clinics. In total 155 patients in one tertiary clinic and 193 patients in secondary care clinics were recruited. The total dropout ratio is significantly higher in the secondary care clinics than that in the tertiary clinic (9.3% versus 3.2%, p = 0.023). The therapeutic success rate for cough was 38.7% at first-step therapy, 32.3% at second-step therapy and 20.0% at third-step therapy in the tertiary clinic, and comparable to corresponding 49.7%, 31.1% and 4.1% in secondary care clinics. Furthermore, the overall cough resolution rate was not significantly different (91.0% versus 85.0%, p = 0.091). However, the efficacy of the third-step therapy is much higher (20.0% versus 4.1%, p = 0.001) in the tertiary clinic than in the secondary care clinics. Sequential empirical three-step therapy is universally efficacious and useful for management of chronic cough in different clinical settings.

  12. Serum Vitamin D Levels in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Infections and Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Beril; Köksal, Burcu Tahire; Karakaş, Nazmi Mutlu; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah; Özbek, Özlem Yılmaz

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate serum vitamin D levels in cases of recurrent respiratory infections and chronic cough and to investigate the effect of vitamin D therapy on recurrence of the diseases. This prospective observational study was performed by comparing serum vitamin D levels in children with recurrent respiratory infections, chronic cough and healthy children. One-hundred-one children with chronic cough, ninety-eight children with recurrent respiratory infections and one-hundred-twenty-four healthy children were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire was completed to collect data on demography, diet, duration of breastfeeding, vitamin D supplementation and family history for allergic diseases. In patients with low serum vitamin D levels (<20 ng/ml), vitamin D therapy was administered in addition to conventional treatment for the diseases. Patients were followed up for 6 mo and their complaints were evaluated. Mean serum 25(OH) vitamin D level in the recurrent respiratory infections group was 11.97 ± 4.04 ng/ml, chronic cough group was 13.76 ± 4.81 ng/ml and control group was 31.91 ± 18.79 ng/ml. Comparison of serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels between the study groups revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). 25(OH)D deficiency in children was associated with increased frequency of recurrent respiratory infections and chronic cough. To conclude, administration of supplementary vitamin D may be useful in the treatment and preventation of recurrent respiratory infections and chronic cough.

  13. The Role of Microaspiration in the Pathogenesis of Gastroesophageal Reflux-related Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Pelin; Erdinç, Münevver; Vardar, Rukiye; Veral, Ali; Akyıldız, Serdar; Özdemir, Özer; Bor, Serhat

    2017-01-30

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the main causes of chronic cough. We evaluated the role of microaspiration in the pathogenesis of reflux-related cough by determining the amount of lipid-laden macrophages (LLMs) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. A total of 161 cases of chronic cough were evaluated, and 36 patients (average age 48.2 years) were recruited for this single center prospective study. Patients with a history of smoking, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor usage, any abnormality on pulmonary function tests, abnormal chest X-rays, occupational or environmental exposures, or upper airway cough syndrome were excluded. GERD was evaluated by 24-hour esophageal impedance-pH monitoring. BAL specimens for LLM determination were obtained from 34 patients by flexible bronchoscopy. Patients with pathological intra-esophageal reflux according to multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring had higher LLM positivity in BAL specimens than patients without pathological reflux (8/14 in reflux positive group vs 1/22 in reflux negative group; P = 0.004). The BAL cell distribution was not different between the 2 groups ( P = 0.574 for macrophages, P = 0.348 for lymphocytes, P = 0.873 for neutrophils and P = 0.450 for eosinophils). Our results confirm the role of the microaspiration of refluxate in the pathogenetic mechanism of chronic cough. While bronchoscopy is indicated in patients with chronic cough, in addition to the routine airway evaluation, BAL and LLM detection should be performed. LLM can be used to diagnose aspiration in reflux-related chronic cough. Future studies are needed to evaluate the response to anti-reflux medications or surgery in patients with LLM positivity.

  14. Treatment of Unexplained Chronic Cough: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter; Wang, Gang; McGarvey, Lorcan; Vertigan, Anne E; Altman, Kenneth W; Birring, Surinder S

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained chronic cough (UCC) causes significant impairments in quality of life. Effective assessment and treatment approaches are needed for UCC. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) asked: What is the efficacy of treatment compared with usual care for cough severity, cough frequency, and cough-related quality of life in patients with UCC? Studies of adults and adolescents aged > 12 years with a chronic cough of > 8 weeks' duration that was unexplained after systematic investigation and treatment were included and assessed for relevance and quality. Based on the systematic review, guideline suggestions were developed and voted on by using the American College of Chest Physicians organization methodology. Eleven RCTs and five systematic reviews were included. The 11 RCTs reported data on 570 participants with chronic cough who received a variety of interventions. Study quality was high in 10 RCTs. The studies used an assortment of descriptors and assessments to identify UCC. Although gabapentin and morphine exhibited positive effects on cough-related quality of life, only gabapentin was supported as a treatment recommendation. Studies of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were affected by intervention fidelity bias; when this factor was addressed, ICS were found to be ineffective for UCC. Esomeprazole was ineffective for UCC without features of gastroesophageal acid reflux. Studies addressing nonacid gastroesophageal reflux disease were not identified. A multimodality speech pathology intervention improved cough severity. The evidence supporting the diagnosis and management of UCC is limited. UCC requires further study to establish agreed terminology and the optimal methods of investigation using established criteria for intervention fidelity. Speech pathology-based cough suppression is suggested as a treatment option for UCC. This guideline presents suggestions for diagnosis and treatment based on the best available evidence and

  15. Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    The specific components of airborne particulates responsible for adverse health effects have not been conclusively identified. We conducted a longitudinal study on 88 adult patients with chronic cough to evaluate whether exposure to daily ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has relationship with cough occurrence. Study participants were recruited at Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan and were physician-diagnosed to at least have asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough during 4th January to 30th June 2011. Daily cough symptoms were collected by use of cough diaries and simultaneously, particulate PAH content in daily total suspended particles collected on glass fiber filters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Population averaged estimates of association between PAH exposure and cough occurrence for entire patients and subgroups according to doctor's diagnosis were performed using generalized estimating equations. Selected adjusted odds ratios for cough occurrence were 1.088 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.031, 1.147); 1.209 (95% CI: 1.060, 1.379) per 1 ng/m3 increase for 2-day lag and 6-day moving average PAH exposure respectively. Likewise, 5 ring PAH had higher odds in comparison to 4 ring PAH. On the basis of doctor's diagnosis, non-asthma group had slightly higher odds ratio 1.127 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.228) per 1 ng/m3 increase in 2-day lag PAH exposure. Our findings suggest that ambient PAH exposure is associated with cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients. The association may be stronger in non-asthma patients and even at low levels although there is need for further study with a larger sample size of respective diagnosis and inclusion of co-pollutants.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement in predicting cough-variant asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis in adults with chronic cough: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shim, Ji-Su; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Byung-Keun; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Sin; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Morice, Alyn H; Lee, Byung-Jae; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-09-01

    Individual studies have suggested the utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) measurement in detecting cough-variant asthma (CVA) and eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) in patients with chronic cough. We sought to obtain summary estimates of diagnostic test accuracy of Feno measurement in predicting CVA, EB, or both in adults with chronic cough. Electronic databases were searched for studies published until January 2016, without language restriction. Cross-sectional studies that reported the diagnostic accuracy of Feno measurement for detecting CVA or EB were included. Risk of bias was assessed with Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of Feno measurement. A total of 15 studies involving 2187 adults with chronic cough were identified. Feno measurement had a moderate diagnostic accuracy in predicting CVA in patients with chronic cough, showing the summary area under the curve to be 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.89). Specificity was higher and more consistent than sensitivity (0.85 [95% CI, 0.81-0.88] and 0.72 [95% CI, 0.61-0.81], respectively). However, in the nonasthmatic population with chronic cough, the diagnostic accuracy to predict EB was found to be relatively lower (summary area under the curve, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.77-0.84]), and specificity was inconsistent. The present meta-analyses indicated the diagnostic potential of Feno measurement as a rule-in test for detecting CVA in adult patients with chronic cough. However, Feno measurement may not be useful to predict EB in nonasthmatic subjects with chronic cough. These findings warrant further studies to validate the roles of Feno measurement in clinical practice of patients with chronic cough. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic Cough Due to Gastroesophageal Reflux in Adults: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Altman, Kenneth W; Chang, Anne B; Field, Stephen K; Harding, Susan M; Lane, Andrew P; Lim, Kaiser; McGarvey, Lorcan; Smith, Jaclyn; Irwin, Richard S

    2016-12-01

    We updated the 2006 ACCP clinical practice guidelines for management of reflux-cough syndrome. Two population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) questions were addressed by systematic review: (1) Can therapy for gastroesophageal reflux improve or eliminate cough in adults with chronic and persistently troublesome cough? and (2) Are there minimal clinical criteria to guide practice in determining that chronic cough is likely to respond to therapy for gastroesophageal reflux? We found no high-quality studies pertinent to either question. From available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing question #1, we concluded that (1) there was a strong placebo effect for cough improvement; (2) studies including diet modification and weight loss had better cough outcomes; (3) although lifestyle modifications and weight reduction may be beneficial in suspected reflux-cough syndrome, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) demonstrated no benefit when used in isolation; and (4) because of potential carryover effect, crossover studies using PPIs should be avoided. For question #2, we concluded from the available observational trials that (1) an algorithmic approach to management resolved chronic cough in 82% to 100% of instances; (2) cough variant asthma and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) (previously referred to as postnasal drip syndrome) from rhinosinus conditions were the most commonly reported causes; and (3) the reported prevalence of reflux-cough syndrome varied widely. The panelists (1) endorsed the use of a diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm addressing causes of common cough, including symptomatic reflux; (2) advised that although lifestyle modifications and weight reduction may be beneficial in suspected reflux-cough syndrome, PPIs demonstrated no benefit when used in isolation; and (3) suggested that physiological testing be reserved for refractory patients being considered for antireflux surgery or for those in whom there is strong clinical suspicion

  18. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Risk Factors for Chronic Cough Among 14,669 Individuals From the General Population.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Yunus; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Laursen, Lars C; Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter; Dahl, Morten

    2017-09-01

    Risk factors for chronic cough in the general population have not been described systematically. We identified and ranked chronic cough risk factors at the individual and community level using data from 14,669 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Severity of chronic cough was assessed using the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). We ranked chronic cough risk factors based on magnitude of age-adjusted ORs at the individual level and of the population attributable risks (PARs) at the community level. Prevalence of chronic cough in the general population was 4% overall and 3% in never smokers, 4% in former smokers, and 8% in current smokers. Median score of the LCQ was 5.8 (25th-75th percentile, 5.0-6.3) for physical domain, 5.6 (25th-75th percentile, 4.6-6.3) for psychologic domain, 6.3 (25th-75th percentile, 5.5-6.8) for social domain, and 17.3 (25th- 75th percentile, 15.4-18.9) in total. At the level of the individual, age-adjusted ORs for the three top-ranked risk factors were 5.0 (95% CI, 1.4-18) for bronchiectasis, 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7-3.9) for asthma and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5-3.4) for gastroesophageal reflux disease in never smokers, 7.1 (95% CI, 2.6-20) for bronchiectasis, 3.1 (95% CI, 2.2-4.4) for asthma and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.5-3.2) for occupational exposure to dust/fumes in former smokers, and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3-2.9) for airflow limitation in current smokers. At the level of the community, the three top-ranked risk factors were female sex (PAR, 19%), asthma (PAR, 10%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (PAR, 8%) in never smokers; abdominal obesity (PAR, 20%), low income (PAR, 20%), and asthma (PAR, 13%) in former smokers; and airflow limitation (PAR, 23%) in current smokers. Risk factors for chronic cough differ at the level of the individual and community, and by smoking status. Strategies to prevent and treat modifiable chronic cough risk factors should be tailored accordingly. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Gabapentin in the Treatment of Chronic Cough: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guanglin; Shen, Qin; Zhang, Caixin; Ma, Jun; Mohammed, Anaz; Zhao, Huan

    2018-06-19

    Despite recent clinical guidelines, the optimal therapeutic strategy for the management of refractory chronic cough is still a challenge. The present systematic review was designed to assess the evidence for efficacy and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of chronic cough. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, and publications cited in bibliographies was performed. Articles were searched by two reviewers with a priori criteria for study selection. Seven relevant articles were identified, including two randomized controlled trials, one prospective case-series designed with consecutive patients, one retrospective case series of consecutive patients, one retrospective case series with unknown consecutive status, and two case reports comprising six and two patients, respectively. Improvements were detected in cough-specific quality of life (Leicester Cough Questionnaire score) and cough severity (visual analogue scale score) following gabapentin treatment in randomized controlled trials. The results of prospective case-series showed that the rate of overall improvement of cough and sensory neuropathy with gabapentin was 68%. Gabapentin treatment of patients with chronic cough showed superior efficacy and a good safety record compared with placebo or standard medications. Additional randomized and controlled trials are needed. Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

  1. Cough in the Elderly Population: Relationships with Multiple Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Morice, Alyn H.; Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Seung-Eun; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Jang, Hak-Chul; Kim, Ki Woong; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of cough in the elderly population has not been studied comprehensively. The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of cough in a community elderly population, particularly in relation with their comorbidity. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed using a baseline dataset from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, a community-based elderly population cohort study. Three types of cough (frequent cough, chronic persistent cough, and nocturnal cough) were defined using questionnaires. Comorbidity was examined using a structured questionnaire. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Results The prevalence was 9.3% for frequent cough, 4.6% for chronic persistent cough, and 7.3% for nocturnal cough. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, smoking, asthma and allergic rhinitis were found to be risk factors for cough in the elderly. Interestingly, among comorbidities, constipation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (HbA1c ≥ 8%) were also found to have positive associations with elderly cough. In the Short Form 36 scores, chronic persistent cough was independently related to impairment of quality of life, predominantly in the mental component. Conclusions Cough has a high prevalence and is detrimental to quality of life in the elderly. Associations with smoking, asthma and rhinitis confirmed previous findings in younger populations. Previously unrecognised relationships with constipation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus suggested the multi-faceted nature of cough in the elderly. PMID:24205100

  2. Update on Pediatric Cough.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of cough in children, the topic has been poorly researched. Although pediatricians recognize that chronic cough in children is different from that in adults, this difference seems less recognizable to other health professionals. During childhood, the respiratory tract and nervous system undergo a series of anatomical and physiological maturation processes that influence the cough reflex. Additionally, immunological responses undergo developmental and memorial processes that make infection and congenital abnormalities the overwhelming cause of cough in children. The lack of comprehensive clinical data regarding chronic cough in children has initially required pediatricians to adopt an adult approach to the problem. In the last 10 years, however, research has led to the reconsideration of the etiology of chronic cough in children. Currently, attention has focused on protracted bacterial bronchitis as a major cause of chronic cough in preschool-aged children and as a possible precursor of bronchiectasis. New research horizons are emerging for both the treatment and prevention of particular causes of chronic cough in children.

  3. Bronchoconstriction-triggered cough in atopic cough: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Noriyuki; Hara, Johsuke; Sakai, Tamami; Okazaki, Akihito; Abo, Miki; Kasahara, Kazuo; Fujimura, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Atopic cough (AC) and cough variant asthma (CVA) were identified as major causes of chronic non-productive cough in a Japanese study. A characteristic feature of CVA is the presence of a heightened cough response to bronchoconstriction. On the other hand, the cough response to bronchoconstriction in AC remains unclear. Methacholine (Mch)-induced cough in AC was measured and compared with that in CVA. Diagnoses of AC and CVA were made based on patient history, physical examination, response to bronchodilator therapy, cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin, spirometry, and airway responsiveness to methacholine. Thirteen AC patients and 12 CVA patients in whom the criteria were met were recruited to the study. After inhalation of Mch at PC35-PEF40 that means milder bronchoconstriction than PC20-FEV1, cough was triggered a few times in AC. [cough number: 1/ 32 min (0-40)]. Conversely, significantly greater number of coughs was provoked in CVA, compared with AC [cough number: 35.5/ 32 min (25-125), p < 0.05]. The cough response to bronchoconstriction is reduced in AC compared to CVA. This feature may be useful in the diagnosis of chronic cough.

  4. Cough associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD): Japanese experience.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Akio

    2017-12-01

    Differences in the aetiology as well as patient background of chronic cough have been recognised among US, UK, and Japan. One of the marked differences has been the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), which has been one of the top three causes in Western countries. It was indeed uncommon or rare in Japan, but, with the increasing prevalence of GOR itself, chronic cough associated with GORD seems to have become more common. In this article, cough associated with GORD will be reviewed based on literature and our Japanese experience. Further, potentially broader relevance of GORD in chronic cough will also be mentioned, highlighting the potential importance of dysmotiliy/non-acid reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg-Kloft, Beatrix; Kraus, Thomas; Mark, Anke van; Wagner, Ulrich; Fischer, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3) and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough. PMID:16722555

  6. An objective evaluation of nocturnal cough count and cough pattern in children with psychogenic cough.

    PubMed

    Imai, Eri; Hirai, Kota; Mikami, Yoshiko; Nukaga, Mariko; Enseki, Mayumi; Tabata, Hideyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    Two patients with a chronic, barking cough were diagnosed with psychogenic cough. Using an original cough counter we studied the nocturnal cough count and pattern. While the number of coughs when awake was extremely high for both patients, the number of coughs was remarkably reduced during sleep, similar to an exacerbation of asthma. Moreover, the properties of the coughs when awake were clearly different from those of coughs during sleep. In conclusion, an objective examination using a cough counter was useful for the diagnosis, treatment and management of psychogenic cough. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is Bjerkandera adusta Important to fungus-associated chronic cough as an allergen? Eight cases' reports.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2009-10-01

    Recently, we have reported a new clinical disease concept called fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC), which entailed the following manifestations: (1) chronic cough; (2) the presence of environmental fungi, particularly basidiomycetous (BM) fungi, in the sputum; and (3) good clinical response to antifungal drugs. To clarify the relationship between the exposure to environmental fungi and the development of cough attacks, we reviewed the clinical records of patients with FACC and performed a molecular biological analysis of the BM fungi. We successfully selected 8 patients with chronic cough, wherein a sputum culture yielded B. adusta beforehand; moreover, we conducted allergological tests such as the immediate-type skin test, a serological test, bronchoprovocation test, and lymphocyte stimulation test (LST), using the antigenic solution of B. adusta. The efficacy of individualized therapy and the clinical manifestations in the eight patients were examined. All the eight patients were diagnosed with FACC. Although three patients who did not show a positive reaction to the bronchoprovocation test or LST showed excellent clinical response to anti-fungal drugs; other 5 patients who showed a positive reaction to the bronchoprovocation test and/or LST seemed to be more intractable because of taking a longer time for complete remission and more frequent recurrence of cough. It was suggested that so-called allergic fungal cough (AFC), which is characterized by sensitization to B. adusta, may be included in a part of chronic intractable cough.

  8. Coughing frequency in patients with persistent cough: assessment using a 24 hour ambulatory recorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J Y; Stone, R A; Logan-Sinclair, R B; Worsdell, M; Busst, C M; Chung, K F

    1994-07-01

    Cough is an important symptom of many respiratory disorders. We determined the frequency and diurnal variation of cough in normal subjects and in patients with asthma or with persistent cough of unknown cause. We used a portable, solid-state, multiple-channel recorder to record cough sounds over a 24 h period. The audio-signal was recorded from a unidirectional microphone strapped over the chest wall, and electromyographic (EMG) signals from the lower respiratory muscles were simultaneously registered with surface electrodes. The recorded digital data were examined on an IBM-compatible computer, and the typical signals induced by cough (as assessed by voluntary or experimentally-induced cough) were counted. In 12 normal subjects, only 0-16 coughs were recorded over 24 h. In 21 stable asthmatics with a history of chronic cough ("asthma") the median number was 282 (ranges: 45-1,577), and in 14 patients with the predominant symptom of daily dry coughs ("chronic coughers") the median number was 794 (64-3,639). In both groups of patients, there was a diurnal variation of coughs, such that the least numbers occurred between 2 and 5 a.m. (< 3% of total). In the asthma group, there was no significant correlation between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (% predicted) or diurnal variation of peak expiratory flow and cough frequency. In the chronic coughers, there was a significant correlation between daytime cough numbers and daytime cough symptoms scores but not for the night-time values. Our data show that cough frequency is not determined by the severity of asthma in relatively stable asthmatics on inhaled steroids, and is reduced during sleep in both asthmatics and chronic cough patients. This portable cough recorder may be useful in the assessment of drug therapy for chronic cough.

  9. Unilateral Laryngoscopic Findings Associated With Response to Gabapentin in Patients With Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Giliberto, John Paul; Dibildox, Daniel; Merati, Albert

    2017-11-01

    Chronic cough is a debilitating, often multifactorial problem. Vagal neuropathy has been proposed as a cause for a fraction of these cases. There are certain features that support the clinical diagnosis of vagal neuropathy. It is hypothesized that patients with neurogenic cough who have vocal fold motion asymmetry (VFMA) on laryngoscopy will be more likely to respond to gabapentin. To evaluate the association between the history, physical and videostroboscopic examinations, and clinical response to gabapentin. In a retrospective cohort study, patients with chronic cough visiting an academic tertiary laryngology clinic from January 1, 2013, to September 1, 2015, were identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Of those who had a chronic cough (>8 weeks), 27 patients who received a prescription for gabapentin were included. Patients without videostroboscopy, who did not complete voice therapy, or those without a follow-up examination more than 1 month from the initial evaluation were excluded. Initial history, physical and videostroboscopic examinations, and follow-up evaluations, were performed in a multidisciplinary laryngology clinic including a speech-language pathologist. Documented VFMA by a multidisciplinary team was decided by consensus after review of videostroboscopy recording at the time of the visit. Response to gabapentin was defined by physician-documented subjective patient report of improvement in cough symptoms. Follow-up data were available on 25 of the 27 patients (15 [60%] women; mean [SD] age, 57 [11.8] years). Therapy was initiated in patients with chronic cough with gabapentin, 100 mg twice daily, which was titrated to response or adverse effects. The maximum daily dose was 1800 mg. Partial or complete response to gabapentin was noted in 16 (64%) patients. Vocal fold motion asymmetry was noted in 20 (80%) patients. Fifteen of 16 (94%) responders had VFMA compared with 5 of 9 (56%) nonresponders. The difference

  10. The utility of ambulatory pH monitoring in patients presenting with chronic cough and asthma

    PubMed Central

    AlHabib, KF; Vedal, S; Champion, P; FitzGerald, JM

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients presenting with asthma and chronic cough. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The charts of 358 consecutive patients who were referred for ambulatory gastroesophageal pH monitoring to the Lung Centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, were reviewed, and the data of 108 (30%) patients with asthma and 134 (37%) patients with chronic cough were analyzed. The maintenance treatment for GERD was discontinued before patients underwent the pH monitoring study. One hundred eighteen (33%) patients were excluded. RESULTS: Reflux episodes identified reflux events as the percentage of time where the pH was less than four. For asthma patients, 70 (64.8%) had distal total reflux, 50 (46.3%) had distal upright reflux, 41 (38.3%) had distal supine reflux and 73 (67.6%) had other distal refluxes. Proximal total reflux in asthmatic patients was present in 56 (52%), proximal upright reflux in 55 (51%) and proximal supine reflux in 56 (52%) patients. For chronic cough patients, 70 (52.6%) had distal total reflux, 59 (44.4%) had distal upright reflux, 45 (34.4%) had distal supine reflux and 75 (56%) patients had other distal refluxes. In chronic cough patients, proximal total reflux was present in 70 (52%), proximal upright reflux in 80 (60%) and proximal supine reflux in 59 (44%). Presenting respiratory and/or reflux symptoms were absent in approximately 25% of patients with asthma and reflux, and in approximately 50% of patients with chronic cough and reflux. During pH monitoring, symptoms did not differ significantly between those with and without distal reflux in both study groups, except for more significant heartburn in patients with chronic cough and reflux (RR 2.0). CONCLUSIONS: The data of the present study support the observation that there is a high prevalence of GERD in patients with asthma or chronic cough. The use of different pH parameters for detecting acid reflux during 24 h ambulatory p

  11. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population.We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3-8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough.The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities.This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the epidemiology.

  12. Increasing Efficiency in Evaluation of Chronic Cough: A Multidisciplinary, Collaborative Approach.

    PubMed

    Patton, Cynthia M; Lim, Kaiser G; Ramlow, Luke W; White, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cough is the most common reason for medical office visits in the United States. The typical patient has coughed more than 8 years and seen many specialists. This quality improvement project is an ambulatory clinic redesign to deliver efficient, patient-centered care with interspecialty collaboration. Methodology included the Institute for Healthcare Improvement collaborative model focused on Lean/Six Sigma and ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement) Change Management. Interventions targeted education to referring providers, implementation of software changes, building a collaborative interdepartmental scheduling decision tree, and an interclinic dashboard enhancing communication and decision support. Outcome measures compare group resource utilization, evidenced by the total number of specialist referrals for same indication of chronic cough (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision: 786.2), and length of time to complete evaluation. A retrospective review of 165 medical records yielded 2 groups, "current care" (n = 67) and "intervention" (n = 68). The number of specialist referrals per patient was reduced in the intervention group (M = 1.22, SD = 0.48) compared with the current care group (M = 3.33, SD = 1.02). Length of itinerary was reduced in the intervention group (M = 11.90, SD = 12.13, GM = 6.82) compared with the current care group (M = 126.93, SD = 158.13, GM = 54.8). Multidisciplinary collaboration, communication, coordinating diagnosis, and management of multifactorial conditions, such as chronic cough, are associated with lower costs and decreased utilization of health care resources.

  13. Refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux: Definition, mechanism and management

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Han-Jing; Qiu, Zhong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux is a troublesome condition unresponsive to the standard medical anti-reflux therapy. Its underlying mechanisms may include incomplete acid suppression, non-acid reflux, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and esophageal hypersensitivity. The diagnosis of this disorder depends on both the findings of multi-channel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and the subsequent intensified anti-reflux therapy. The strategies of pharmacological treatment for refractory chronic cough due to reflux include the optimization of proton pump inhibitors and add-on therapies with histamine H2 receptor antagonists, baclofen and gabapentin. However, the further study is needed to satisfy its management. PMID:26413488

  14. The utility of oesophageal pH monitoring in diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease-related chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Rybka, Aleksandra; Malesa, Kamila; Radlińska, Olga; Krakowiak, Karolina; Grabczak, Elżbieta M; Dąbrowska, Marta; Chazan, Ryszarda

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common medical complaint, which may deteriorate patients' quality of life and cause many complications. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the frequent reasons for chronic cough. Oesophageal pH monitoring is one of the diagnostic methods performed to confirm diagnosis of GERD-related cough. The aim of the study was to analyse the utility of oesophageal pH monitoring in diagnosing GERD-related cough and to identify the most sensitive pH monitoring parameters for diagnosing GERD-related cough. 24-hour oesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 204 patients suffering from chronic cough. The group consisted of 65% females and the median age was 59 years. An acid reflux episode was defined as a rapid drop in pH to a value below 4 for at least 12 seconds. The diagnosis of GERD was based on total fraction time of pH < 4, upright or supine fraction time of pH < 4, or DeMeester score. The diagnosis of GERD-related cough was made if cough episodes, marked by the patients, appeared within 2 minutes after the reflux. The association between reflux episode and appearance of cough was analysed using two parameters: symptom index (SI ≥ 50%) and/or symptom association probability (SAP ≥ 95%). Based on results of pH monitoring, 135 patients (135/204, 66%) were diagnosed with GERD. Among them, 117 patients (117/135, 87%) were diagnosed based on DeMeester score. Among patients with GERD, 61 patients met the criteria of GERD-related cough (61/135, 45%), i.e. 30% of the group as a whole. Thirty-six patients (36/61, 59%) were diagnosed based on SAP, 12 patients (20%) based on SI, and 13 (21%) based on both parameters. Spearman rank correlation coefficient for SAP ≥ 95% and SI ≥ 50% was 0.46 (p < 0.05). Based on pH monitoring results, GERD was diagnosed twice as often as GERD-related cough. SAP index is more sensitive than SI for the diagnosis of GERD-related cough.

  15. Management of Children With Chronic Wet Cough and Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne B; Oppenheimer, John J; Weinberger, Miles M; Rubin, Bruce K; Grant, Cameron C; Weir, Kelly; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-04-01

    Wet or productive cough is common in children with chronic cough. We formulated recommendations based on systematic reviews related to the management of chronic wet cough in children (aged ≤ 14 years) based on two key questions: (1) how effective are antibiotics in improving the resolution of cough? If so, what antibiotic should be used and for how long? and (2) when should children be referred for further investigations? We used the CHEST expert cough panel's protocol for systematic reviews and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and GRADE framework (the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Data from the systematic reviews in conjunction with patients' values and preferences and the clinical context were used to form recommendations. Delphi methodology was used to obtain consensus for the recommendations/suggestions made. Combining data from the systematic reviews, we found high-quality evidence in children aged ≤ 14 years with chronic (> 4 weeks' duration) wet/productive cough that using appropriate antibiotics improves cough resolution, and further investigations (eg, flexible bronchoscopy, chest CT scans, immunity tests) should be undertaken when specific cough pointers (eg, digital clubbing) are present. When the wet cough does not improve following 4 weeks of antibiotic treatment, there is moderate-quality evidence that further investigations should be considered to look for an underlying disease. New recommendations include the recognition of the clinical diagnostic entity of protracted bacterial bronchitis. Compared with the 2006 Cough Guidelines, there is now high-quality evidence for some, but not all, aspects of the management of chronic wet cough in specialist settings. However, further studies (particularly in primary health) are required. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  16. Normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation improves chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Zhongchun; Cao, Yitan; Sun, Guangbin

    2017-03-01

    Upper airway inflammation is one of the most commonly identified causes of chronic cough, although the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study compared normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation (NSNPI) and fluticasone propionate nasal spray (FPNS) treatment for chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis (AR). Patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite were enrolled, and the symptom of cough was assessed by a cough symptom score and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, and cough response to capsaicin was evaluated. AR was assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Mini Juniper Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ). Mediators, including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, and the major basic protein from nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were examined. The patients were treated with NSNPI (the NSNPI group) or FPNS (the FPNS group) for 30 days, after which they were reassessed. Forty-five of 50 patients completed this study. The scores of the cough symptom and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, and the capsaicin cough threshold all improved statistically after NSNPI but did not change after FPNS. There were statistically significant changes in the evaluations of the MiniRQLQ and the mediators, including histamine and leukotriene C4, in the NLF in the NSNPI group. However, significant changes were found in the assessments of VAS, MiniRQLQ, and all above mediators including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, and the major basic protein in the NLF of the FPNS group. Furthermore, the assessments of VAS and all the mediators were reduced more in the FPNS group compared with those in the NSNPI group. The patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite reported a better relief of the cough symptom after 30 days of treatment with NSNPI compared with that after nasal corticosteroid.

  17. Effectiveness of a cough management algorithm at the transitional phase from acute to chronic cough in Australian children aged <15 years: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Grimwood, Keith; Toombs, Maree; Sloots, Theo P; Otim, Michael; Whiley, David; Anderson, Jennie; Rablin, Sheree; Torzillo, Paul J; Buntain, Helen; Connor, Anne; Adsett, Don; Meng Kar, Oon; Chang, Anne B

    2017-03-03

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are leading causes of hospitalisation in Australian children and, if recurrent, are associated with increased risk of chronic pulmonary disorders later in life. Chronic (>4 weeks) cough in children following ARI is associated with decreased quality-of-life scores and increased health and societal economic costs. We will determine whether a validated evidence-based cough algorithm, initiated when chronic cough is first diagnosed after presentation with ARI, improves clinical outcomes in children compared with usual care. A multicentre, parallel group, open-label, randomised controlled trial, nested within a prospective cohort study in Southeast Queensland, Australia, is underway. 750 children aged <15 years will be enrolled and followed weekly for 8 weeks after presenting with an ARI with cough. 214 children from this cohort with persistent cough at day 28 will be randomised to either early initiation of a cough management algorithm or usual care (107 per group). Randomisation is stratified by reason for presentation, site and total cough duration at day 28 (<6 and ≥6 weeks). Demographic details, risk factors, clinical histories, examination findings, cost-of-illness data, an anterior nasal swab and parent and child exhaled carbon monoxide levels (when age appropriate) are collected at enrolment. Weekly contacts will collect cough status and cost-of-illness data. Additional nasal swabs are collected at days 28 and 56. The primary outcome is time-to-cough resolution. Secondary outcomes include direct and indirect costs of illness and the predictors of chronic cough postpresentation. The Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/15) and the Queensland University of Technology University (1500000132) Research Ethics Committees have approved the study. The study will inform best-practice management of cough in children. ACTRN12615000132549. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  18. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  19. Exacerbation of daily cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough by Asian dust: A hospital-based study in Kanazawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    The health effects associated with Asian dust have attracted attention due to the rapid increase in the number of Asian dust events in East Asia in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Asian dust and daily cough, as well as allergic symptoms, in adult patients who suffer from chronic cough. We enrolled 86 adult patients from Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan, who were diagnosed with asthma, cough variant asthma, atopic cough or a combination of these conditions. From January to June 2011, subjects recorded their symptoms in a diary every day. Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods were defined according to the dust extinction coefficient, measured using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR). The daily levels of total suspended particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and coexisting factors related to allergies, such as the Japanese cedar pollen count, were measured. McNemar's test showed that there were significantly more cough-positive patients during Asian dust periods than during the non-Asian dust period (p = 0.022). In addition, during Asian dust periods when the daily levels of Japanese cedar pollen, Japanese cypress pollen and PAHs were elevated, there were significantly more patients who experienced itchy eyes than during the non-Asian dust period (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the allergic symptoms, including sneezing or a runny nose and nasal congestion. This is the first report to show that Asian dust triggers cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough.

  20. A portable automatic cough analyser in the ambulatory assessment of cough.

    PubMed

    Krajnik, Malgorzata; Damps-Konstanska, Iwona; Gorska, Lucyna; Jassem, Ewa

    2010-03-14

    Cough is one of the main symptoms of advanced lung disease. However, the efficacy of currently available treatment remains unsatisfactory. Research into the new antitussives requires an objective assessment of cough. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of a new automatic portable cough analyser and assess the correlation between subjective and objective evaluations of cough in 13 patients with chronic cough. The patients' individual histories, a cough symptom score and a numeric cough scale (1-10) were used as a subjective evaluation of cough and a computerized audio-timed recorder was used to measure the frequency of coughing. The pre-clinical validation has shown that an automated cough analyser is an accurate and reliable tool for the ambulatory assessment of chronic cough. In the clinical part of the experiment for the daytime, subjective cough scoring correlated with the number of all cough incidents recorded by the cough analyser (r = 0.63; p = 0.022) and the number of cough incidents per hour (r = 0.60; p = 0.03). However, there was no relation between cough score and the time spent coughing per hour (r = 0.48; p = 0.1). As assessed for the night-time period, no correlation was found between subjective cough scoring and the number of incidents per hour (r = 0.29; p = 0.34) or time spent coughing (r = 0.26; p = 0.4). An automated cough analyser seems to be a feasible tool for the ambulatory monitoring of cough. There is a moderate correlation between subjective and objective assessments of cough during the daytime, whereas the discrepancy in the evaluation of night-time coughing might suggest that subjective analysis is unreliable.

  1. Cough in children.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with nonacid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough, and chronic cough due to GER represents a subtype of GER-related diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) can be divided into two subgroups based on the pH of the GER. Nonacid GERC is less common than acid GERC, and its diagnosis and treatment strategy have not been standardized. However, nonacid GERC usually presents with its unique set of characteristics and features upon diagnosis and treatment in the clinic. Although the underlying molecular mechanism of nonacid GERC is not fully understood, it is considered to be associated with reflux theory, reflex theory and airway hypersensitivity. Multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring is a promising new technique that can detect both acid and nonacid reflux, and our findings as well as those of others have shown its usefulness in diagnosing nonacid GERC. Development of new diagnostic techniques has led to an increased rate of nonacid GERC diagnosis. We summarize our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of nonacid GERC and provide a guide for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:26759577

  3. The difficult coughing child: prolonged acute cough in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms that patients bring to the attention of primary care clinicians. Cough can be designated as acute (<3 weeks in duration), prolonged acute cough (3 to 8 weeks in duration) or chronic (> 8 weeks in duration). The use of the term ‘prolonged acute cough’ in a cough guideline allows a period of natural resolution to occur before further investigations are warranted. The common causes are in children with post viral or pertussis like illnesses causing the cough. Persistent bacterial bronchitis typically occurs when an initial dry acute cough due to a viral infection becomes a prolonged wet cough remaining long after the febrile illness has resolved. This cough responds to a completed course of appropriate antibiotics. PMID:23574624

  4. Physiotherapy, and speech and language therapy intervention for patients with refractory chronic cough: a multicentre randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain Mitchell, Sarah A F; Garrod, Rachel; Clark, Lynne; Douiri, Abdel; Parker, Sean M; Ellis, Jenny; Fowler, Stephen J; Ludlow, Siobhan; Hull, James H; Chung, Kian Fan; Lee, Kai K; Bellas, H; Pandyan, Anand; Birring, Surinder S

    2017-02-01

    Physiotherapy, and speech and language therapy are emerging non-pharmacological treatments for refractory chronic cough. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a physiotherapy, and speech and language therapy intervention (PSALTI) to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to reduce cough frequency in patients with refractory chronic cough. In this multicentre randomised controlled trial, patients with refractory chronic cough were randomised to four weekly 1:1 sessions of either PSALTI consisting of education, laryngeal hygiene and hydration, cough suppression techniques, breathing exercises and psychoeducational counselling or control intervention consisting of healthy lifestyle advice. We assessed the change in HRQoL at week 4 with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Secondary efficacy outcomes included 24-hour objective cough frequency (Leicester Cough Monitor) and cough reflex sensitivity. The primary analysis used an analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline measurements with the intention-to-treat population. This study was registered at UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN ID 10678). Between December 2011 and April 2014, we randomly assigned 75 participants who underwent baseline assessment (34 PSALTI and 41 controls). In the observed case analysis, HRQoL (LCQ) improved on average by 1.53 (95% CI 0.21 to 2.85) points more in PSALTI group than with control (p=0.024). Cough frequency decreased by 41% (95% CI 36% to 95%) in PSALTI group relative to control (p=0.030). The improvements within the PSALTI group were sustained up to 3 months. There was no significant difference between groups in the concentration of capsaicin causing five or more coughs. Greater improvements in HRQoL and cough frequency were observed with PSALTI intervention. Our findings support the use of PSALTI for patients with refractory chronic cough. UKCRN ID 10678 and ISRCTN 73039760; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  5. Epidemiology of cough in relation to China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common complaints for which patients seek medical attention. Misdiagnosis and mistreatment of cough exist commonly in China. The prevalence of acute cough caused by upper airway infection fluctuates between 9% and 64% in the community, for chronic cough, the prevalence >10% in most surveys, ranging from 7.2%-33%. The common causes of chronic cough are upper airway cough syndrome (previously called as post nasal drip syndrome [PNDS]), cough variant asthma (CVA), gastroesophageal reflux related cough (GERD) and eosinophilic bronchitis (EB). There is a regional discrepancy regarding the prevalence of common causes of cough and distribution of gender among China, UK, USA, the most common cause of chronic cough in China are CVA, followed by UACS, EB and atopic cough (AC), the male is almost equal to female in numbers in China. The risk factors for cough includes cold air, smoking, environmental pollutants, noxious substances and allergens, and unreasonable diet habits. PMID:23835047

  6. Effects of four antitussives on airway neurogenic inflammation in a guinea pig model of chronic cough induced by cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-long; Li, Pei-bo; Zhang, Chen-chen; Zheng, Yan-fang; Wang, Sheng; Nie, Yi-chu; Zhang, Ke-jian; Su, Wei-wei

    2013-12-01

    The effects of four antitussives, including codeine phosphate (CP), moguisteine, levodropropizine (LVDP) and naringin, on airway neurogenic inflammation and enhanced cough were investigated in guinea pig model of chronic cough. Guinea pigs were exposed to CS for 8 weeks. At the 7th and 8th week, the animals were treated with vehicle, CP (4.8 mg/kg), moguisteine (24 mg/kg), LVDP (14 mg/kg) and naringin (18.4 mg/kg) respectively. Then the cough and the time-enhanced pause area under the curve (Penh-AUC) during capsaicin challenge were recorded. The substance P (SP) content, NK-1 receptor expression and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity in lung were determined. Chronic CS exposure induced a bi-phase time course of cough responsiveness to capsaicin. Eight weeks of CS exposure significantly enhanced the airway neurogenic inflammation and cough response in guinea pigs. Two weeks of treatment with CP, moguisteine, LVDP or naringin effectively attenuated the chronic CS-exposure enhanced cough. Only naringin exerted significant effect on inhibiting Penh-AUC, SP content and NK-1 receptor expression, as well as preventing the declining of NEP activity in lung. Chronic CS-exposed guinea pig is suitable for studying chronic pathological cough, in which naringin is effective on inhibiting both airway neurogenic inflammation and enhanced cough.

  7. Use of Management Pathways or Algorithms in Children With Chronic Cough: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne B; Oppenheimer, John J; Weinberger, Miles M; Rubin, Bruce K; Weir, Kelly; Grant, Cameron C; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-04-01

    Using management algorithms or pathways potentially improves clinical outcomes. We undertook systematic reviews to examine various aspects in the generic approach (use of cough algorithms and tests) to the management of chronic cough in children (aged ≤ 14 years) based on key questions (KQs) using the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome format. We used the CHEST Expert Cough Panel's protocol for the systematic reviews and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodological guidelines and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Data from the systematic reviews in conjunction with patients' values and preferences and the clinical context were used to form recommendations. Delphi methodology was used to obtain the final grading. Combining data from systematic reviews addressing five KQs, we found high-quality evidence that a systematic approach to the management of chronic cough improves clinical outcomes. Although there was evidence from several pathways, the highest evidence was from the use of the CHEST approach. However, there was no or little evidence to address some of the KQs posed. Compared with the 2006 Cough Guidelines, there is now high-quality evidence that in children aged ≤ 14 years with chronic cough (> 4 weeks' duration), the use of cough management protocols (or algorithms) improves clinical outcomes, and cough management or testing algorithms should differ depending on the associated characteristics of the cough and clinical history. A chest radiograph and, when age appropriate, spirometry (pre- and post-β 2 agonist) should be undertaken. Other tests should not be routinely performed and undertaken in accordance with the clinical setting and the child's clinical symptoms and signs (eg, tests for tuberculosis when the child has been exposed). Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  8. Data reduction for cough studies using distribution of audio frequency content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that objectively quantifying coughing in audio recordings offers a novel means to understand coughing and assess treatments. Currently, manual cough counting is the most accurate method for quantifying coughing. However, the demand of manually counting cough records is substantial, demonstrating a need to reduce record lengths prior to counting whilst preserving the coughs within them. This study tested the performance of an algorithm developed for this purpose. Methods 20 subjects were recruited (5 healthy smokers and non-smokers, 5 chronic cough, 5 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 5 asthma), fitted with an ambulatory recording system and recorded for 24 hours. The recordings produced were divided into 15 min segments and counted. Periods of inactive audio in each segment were removed using the median frequency and power of the audio signal and the resulting files re-counted. Results The median resultant segment length was 13.9 s (IQR 56.4 s) and median 24 hr recording length 62.4 min (IQR 100.4). A median of 0.0 coughs/h (IQR 0.0-0.2) were erroneously removed and the variability in the resultant cough counts was comparable to that between manual cough counts. The largest error was seen in asthmatic patients, but still only 1.0% coughs/h were missed. Conclusions These data show that a system which measures signal activity using the median audio frequency can substantially reduce record lengths without significantly compromising the coughs contained within them. PMID:23231789

  9. Risks and Cough-Aggravating Factors in Prolonged Cough. Epidemiological Observations from the Nagahama Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisako; Izuhara, Yumi; Niimi, Akio; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nagasaki, Tadao; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Murase, Kimihiko; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Isao; Muro, Shigeo; Sekine, Akihiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Kosugi, Shinji; Nakayama, Takeo; Chin, Kazuo; Mishima, Michiaki

    2017-05-01

    Chronic cough hypersensitivity, a potentially important concept of chronic or prolonged cough, is featured by heightened cough response to low-intensity stimuli, which may be generated in the absence of airflow limitations or allergic conditions. However, there is little epidemiological evidence to support this. In this large-scale community survey, we aimed to determine risks and cough-aggravating factors of prolonged cough while focusing on serum IgE levels. Prevalence of prolonged cough, defined as cough lasting 3 weeks or longer, was determined in 9,804 residents from a baseline measurement of the Nagahama Cohort Study, conducted from 2008 to 2010. Risk assessment of prolonged cough was confined to subjects without asthma (n = 9,402). A follow-up measurement of the Nagahama Study was successively conducted from 2013 to 2015, recruiting the same residents living in Nagahama City, Japan (n = 8,292). Validation analysis was performed in the follow-up measurement. In a baseline measurement, prolonged cough was reported by 9.5% of subjects without asthma and 32.3% of subjects with asthma. In subjects without asthma, various cough-aggravating factors were associated with prolonged cough. On the multivariate analysis, several cough-aggravating factors, including nighttime or early morning, weather, pollen season, and common cold, were associated with prolonged cough, independent of female sex, younger age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, postnasal drip, daytime sputum, and lower serum total IgE. Serum-specific IgE levels against Japanese cedar pollen were significantly higher in subjects who responded "yes" to "cough in the pollen season" than in those who did not respond, whereas, among subjects who responded "yes" to "cough in the pollen season," prolonged coughers showed lower serum IgE levels against Japanese cedar pollen than temporal coughers. Validation analysis in a follow-up measurement confirmed the associations between prolonged cough and

  10. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose

    PubMed Central

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH<5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. PMID:26498387

  11. Cough Suppressant and Pharmacologic Protussive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cough-suppressant therapy, previously termed nonspecific antitussive therapy, incorporates the use of pharmacologic agents with mucolytic effects and/or inhibitory effects on the cough reflex itself. The intent of this type of therapy is to reduce the frequency and/or intensity of coughing on a short-term basis. Methods Data for this review were obtained from several National Library of Medicine (PubMed) searches (from 1960 to 2004), which were performed between May and September 2004, of the literature published in the English language, limited to human studies, using combinations of the search terms “cough,” “double-blind placebo-controlled,” “antitussive,” “mucolytic,” “cough clearance,” “common cold,” “protussive,” “guaifenesin,” “glycerol,” and “zinc.” Results Mucolytic agents are not consistently effective in ameliorating cough in patients with bronchitis, although they may be of benefit to this population in other ways. Peripheral and central antitussive agents can be useful in patients with chronic bronchitis, but can have little efficacy in patients with cough due to upper respiratory infection. Some protussive agents are effective in increasing cough clearance, but their long-term effectiveness has not been established. DNase is not effective as a protussive agent in patients with cystic fibrosis. Inhaled mannitol is acutely effective in this patient population, but its therapeutic potential must be investigated further. Conclusions These findings suggest that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Relatively few drugs are effective as cough suppressants. PMID:16428717

  12. Cough: an unmet clinical need

    PubMed Central

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    Cough is among the most common complaints for which patients worldwide seek medical attention. Thus, the evaluation and treatment of cough result in tremendous financial expenditure and consumption of health care resources. Yet, despite the clinical significance of cough, research efforts aimed at improving diagnostic capabilities and developing more effective therapeutic agents have been, to date, disappointing in their limited scope and outcomes. Acute cough due to the common cold represents the most common type of cough. Currently, available medications for the symptomatic management of acute cough are inadequate due to lack of proven efficacy and/or their association with undesirable or intolerable side effects at anti-tussive doses. Subacute cough, often representing a prolonged post-viral response, is typically refractory to standard anti-tussive therapy. Few clinical trials have evaluated therapeutic options for subacute cough. Diagnostic challenges facing the clinician in the management of chronic cough include the determination of whether symptoms of upper airway cough syndrome (formerly, postnasal drip syndrome) or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are indeed the underlying cause of cough. Chronic, refractory unexplained (formerly, idiopathic) cough must be distinguished from cough that has not been fully evaluated and treated according to current guideline recommendations. Eagerly awaited are new safe and effective anti-tussive agents for use when cough suppression is desired, regardless of underlying aetiology of cough, as well as practical, validated ambulatory cough counters to aid clinical assessment and future research in the field of cough. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Respiratory Pharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-1 PMID:21198555

  13. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Ikegami, Koji; Marumo, Satoshi; Tanabe, Naoya; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Kamei, Junzo; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough. PMID:26581078

  14. The Clinical Value of Deflation Cough in Chronic Coughers With Reflux Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lavorini, Federico; Chellini, Elisa; Bigazzi, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Fontana, Giovanni A

    2016-06-01

    Patients with deflation cough (DC), the cough-like expulsive effort(s) evoked by maximal lung emptying during a slow vital capacity maneuver, also present symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. DC can be inhibited by prior intake of antacids. We wished to assess DC prevalence and association between DC and chemical characteristics of refluxate in patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. A total of 157 consecutive outpatients underwent DC assessment and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance pH (MII-pH) monitoring; 93/157 also had chronic cough. Patients performed two to four slow vital capacity maneuvers and DC was detected aurally. Subsequently, they underwent 24-h MII-pH monitoring, the outcomes of which were defined as abnormal when acid or non-acid reflux events were > 73. DC occurred in 46/157 patients, 18 of whom had abnormal MII-pH outcomes; 28 of the remaining 111 patients without DC also had abnormal MII-pH findings. Thus, in the patients as a group, there was no association between DC and MII-pH outcomes. DC occurred in 40/93 of the chronic coughers; 15 of whom had acid reflux. All but 2 of the 53 patients without DC had normal MII-pH outcomes (P < .001), and the negative predictive value of DC for excluding acid reflux was 96.2%. At follow-up, 65% of coughers showed significant improvement after treatment. The overall prevalence of DC was 29%, increasing to 43% in chronic coughers in whom the absence of DC virtually excludes acid reflux. Therefore, DC assessment may represent a useful screening test for excluding acid reflux in chronic coughers with reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Survey on attitudes of Italian pediatricians toward cough

    PubMed Central

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Morcaldi, Luigi; Cazzato, Salvatore; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Lecchi, Marzia; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2017-01-01

    Context Children’s cough is a daily concern for most pediatricians. The management of both acute and chronic cough requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. Despite the approved protocols for management, the pediatric assessment of cough and the corresponding prescribing attitude frequently do not fit these protocols, which can be affected by parental suggestions – sometimes substantially. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate both the perception and the behavior of a representative sample of Italian pediatricians toward cough in real life. Methods A specific questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was prepared. The questionnaire was completed by 300 pediatricians (all members of PAIDOSS: Italian National Observatory on Health of Childhood and Adolescence) who represented ~300,000 children. Results A vast majority of children have cough throughout the year (99.3% of respondents have cough during autumn/winter and 64.7% in spring/summer). Allergic disease is the most frequent suspected cause of chronic cough in children (53%), and this is supported by the high demand for consultations: 73% seek the opinion of allergologists, 62% of otorhinolaryngologists and only 33% of pulmonologists. The majority of pediatricians (92%) reported that they prescribe therapy in acute cough regardless of cough guidelines. Moreover, the survey pointed out the abuse of aerosol therapy (26% in acute cough and 38% in chronic cough) and of antibiotics prescription (22% in acute cough and 42% in chronic cough). Conclusion Our survey suggests that some Italian pediatricians’ therapeutic attitudes should be substantially improved in order to achieve better management of cough in children and to minimize the burden of cough. PMID:28352199

  16. Diagnostic utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in prolonged and chronic cough according to atopic status.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takamitsu; Takemura, Masaya; Fukumitsu, Kensuke; Takeda, Norihisa; Ichikawa, Hiroya; Hijikata, Hisatoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Uemura, Takehiro; Takakuwa, Osamu; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Maeno, Ken; Ito, Yutaka; Oguri, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Atsushi; Niimi, Akio

    2017-04-01

    Cough-variant asthma (CVA) and cough-predominant asthma (CPA) are the major causes of persistent cough in Japan. The utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement in the differential diagnosis of persistent cough has been reported, but the influence of atopic status, which is associated with higher FeNO levels, on the diagnostic utility of FeNO has been unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 105 non-smoking patients with prolonged and chronic cough that were not treated with corticosteroids and anti-leukotrienes. CPA was diagnosed in 37 patients, CVA in 40, and non-asthmatic cough (NAC) in 28. FeNO levels were significantly higher in the CPA [35.8 (7.0-317.9) ppb] and CVA [24.9 (3.1-156.0) ppb] groups than in the NAC group [18.2 (6.9-49.0) ppb] (p < 0.01 by Kruskal-Wallis test). The optimal cut-off for distinguishing asthmatic cough (AC; CPA and CVA) from NAC was 29.2 ppb [area under the curve (AUC) 0.74, p < 0.01]. Ninety-one percent of subjects with FeNO levels ≥29.2 ppb had AC. Meanwhile, 40% of AC patients had FeNO levels <29.2 ppb. Stratified cut-off levels were 31.1 ppb (AUC 0.83) in atopic subjects vs. 19.9 ppb (AUC 0.65) in non-atopic subjects (p = 0.03 for AUC). Although high FeNO levels suggested the existence of AC, lower FeNO levels had limited diagnostic significance. Atopic status affects the utility of FeNO levels in the differential diagnosis of prolonged and chronic cough. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... Long-term Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-term Ankle Problems Breast Problems in Men Breast Problems in Women Chest Pain in Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea ...

  18. Cough: are children really different to adults?

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne B

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide paediatricians advocate that children should be managed differently from adults. In this article, similarities and differences between children and adults related to cough are presented. Physiologically, the cough pathway is closely linked to the control of breathing (the central respiratory pattern generator). As respiratory control and associated reflexes undergo a maturation process, it is expected that the cough would likewise undergo developmental stages as well. Clinically, the 'big three' causes of chronic cough in adults (asthma, post-nasal drip and gastroesophageal reflux) are far less common causes of chronic cough in children. This has been repeatedly shown by different groups in both clinical and epidemiological studies. Therapeutically, some medications used empirically for cough in adults have little role in paediatrics. For example, anti-histamines (in particular H1 antagonists) recommended as a front-line empirical treatment of chronic cough in adults have no effect in paediatric cough. Instead it is associated with adverse reactions and toxicity. Similarly, codeine and its derivatives used widely for cough in adults are not efficacious in children and are contraindicated in young children. Corticosteroids, the other front-line empirical therapy recommended for adults, are also minimally (if at all) efficacious for treating non-specific cough in children. In summary, current data support that management guidelines for paediatric cough should be different to those in adults as the aetiological factors and treatment in children significantly differ to those in adults. PMID:16270937

  19. Could Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Test be Useful in Predicting Inhaled Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Chronic Cough? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Moon, Sung-Do; Chung, Soo-Jie; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Keun; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Mi-Yeong; Yang, Min-Suk; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H; Cho, Sang-Heon

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) is a safe and convenient test for assessing T H 2 airway inflammation, which is potentially useful in the management of patients with chronic cough. To summarize the current evidence on the diagnostic usefulness of Feno for predicting inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) responsiveness in patients with chronic cough. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify articles published in peer-reviewed journals up to February 2015, without language restriction. We included studies that reported the usefulness of Feno (index test) for predicting ICS responsiveness (reference standard) in patients with chronic cough (target condition). The data were extracted to construct a 2 × 2 accuracy table. Study quality was assessed with Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. We identified 5 original studies (2 prospective and 3 retrospective studies). We identified considerable heterogeneities in study design and outcome definitions, and thus were unable to perform a meta-analysis. The proportion of ICS responders ranged from 44% to 59%. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 53% to 90%, and from 63% to 97%, respectively. The reported area under the curve ranged from about 0.60 to 0.87; however, studies with a prospective design and a lower prevalence of asthma had lower area under the curve values. None measured placebo effects or objective cough frequency. We did not find strong evidence to support the use of Feno tests for predicting ICS responsiveness in chronic cough. Further studies need to have a randomized, placebo-controlled design, and should use validated measurement tools for cough. Standardization would facilitate the development of clinical evidence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Dilated intercellular spaces and chronic cough as an extra-oesophageal manifestation of gastrooesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Roy C

    2011-06-01

    Chronic cough is one of the extra-oesophageal manifestations of gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GORD). It is presumed to occur either directly by microaspiration of acidic gastric contents into the airway or indirectly by a reflex triggered by contact of acidic refluxates with the oesophageal epithelium in GORD. How contact of the oesophageal epithelium with acidic refluxates promotes sensitization for chronic cough is unknown, but like heartburn, which is a necessary accompaniment, it requires acid activation of nociceptors within the oesophageal mucosa. Dilated intercellular spaces within the oesophageal epithelium, a reflection of an increase in paracellular permeability, is a histopathologic feature of both erosive and non-erosive forms of GORD. Since it correlates with the symptom of heartburn, it is hypothesized herein that the increase in paracellular permeability to acid reflected by dilated intercellular spaces in oesophageal epithelium also serves as mediator of the signals that produce the reflex-induced sensitization for cough--a sensitization that can occur centrally within the medullary Nucleus Tractus Solitarius or peripherally within the tracheobronchial tree. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. XEN-D0501, a Novel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Antagonist, Does Not Reduce Cough in Patients with Refractory Cough.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, Maria G; Birrell, Mark A; Wortley, Michael A; Maher, Sarah A; Satia, Imran; Badri, Huda; Holt, Kimberley; Round, Patrick; McGarvey, Lorcan; Ford, John; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2017-11-15

    Heightened cough responses to inhaled capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist, are characteristic of patients with chronic cough. However, previously, a TRPV1 antagonist (SB-705498) failed to improve spontaneous cough frequency in these patients, despite small reductions in capsaicin-evoked cough. XEN-D0501 (a potent TRPV1 antagonist) was compared with SB-705498 in preclinical studies to establish whether an improved efficacy profile would support a further clinical trial of XEN-D0501 in refractory chronic cough. XEN-D0501 and SB-705498 were profiled against capsaicin in a sensory nerve activation assay and in vivo potency established against capsaicin-induced cough in the guinea pig. Twenty patients with refractory chronic cough participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study evaluating the effect of 14 days of XEN-D0501 (oral, 4 mg twice daily) versus placebo on awake cough frequency (primary outcome), capsaicin-evoked cough, and patient-reported outcomes. XEN-D0501 was more efficacious and 1,000-fold more potent than SB-705498 at inhibiting capsaicin-induced depolarization of guinea pig and human isolated vagus nerve. In vivo XEN-D0501 completely inhibited capsaicin-induced cough, whereas 100 times more SB-705498 was required to achieve the same effect. In patients, XEN-D0501 substantially reduced maximal cough responses to capsaicin (mean change from baseline, XEN-D0501, -19.3 ± 16.4) coughs; placebo, -1.8 ± 5.8 coughs; P < 0.0001), but not spontaneous awake cough frequency (mean change from baseline, XEN-D0501, 6.7  ± 16.9 coughs/h; placebo, 0.4 ± 13.7 coughs/h; P = 0.41). XEN-D0501 demonstrated superior efficacy and potency in preclinical and clinical capsaicin challenge studies; despite this improved pharmacodynamic profile, spontaneous cough frequency did not improve, ruling out TRPV1 as an effective therapeutic target for refractory cough. Clinical trial registered

  2. Assessment of Intervention Fidelity and Recommendations for Researchers Conducting Studies on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Cough in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Irwin, Richard S.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Gould, Michael K.; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Vertigan, Anne E.; Wang, Gang; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Successful management of chronic cough has varied in the primary research studies in the reported literature. One of the potential reasons relates to a lack of intervention fidelity to the core elements of the diagnostic and/or therapeutic interventions that were meant to be used by the investigators. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence supporting intervention fidelity as an important methodologic consideration in assessing the effectiveness of clinical practice guidelines used for the diagnosis and management of chronic cough. We developed and used a tool to assess for five areas of intervention fidelity. Medline (PubMed), Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 1998 to May 2014. Guideline recommendations and suggestions for those conducting research using guidelines or protocols to diagnose and manage chronic cough in the adult were developed and voted upon using CHEST Organization methodology. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies (17 uncontrolled prospective observational, two randomized controlled, and four retrospective observational) met our inclusion criteria. These articles included 3,636 patients. Data could not be pooled for meta-analysis because of heterogeneity. Findings related to the five areas of intervention fidelity included three areas primarily related to the provider and two primarily related to the patients. In the area of study design, 11 of 23 studies appeared to be underpinned by a single guideline/protocol; for training of providers, two of 23 studies reported training, and zero of 23 reported the use of an intervention manual; and for the area of delivery of treatment, when assessing the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, three of 23 studies appeared consistent with the most recent guideline/protocol referenced by the authors. For receipt of treatment, zero of 23 studies mentioned measuring concordance of patient-interventionist understanding of the

  3. Change in Psychological, Physiological, and Situational Factors in Adults After Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    French, Cynthia L; Crawford, Sybil L; Bova, Carol; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesized that addressing anxiety and depressive mood disorders will improve chronic cough severity and cough quality of life (CQOL). Major tenets of the theory of unpleasant symptoms were examined in a longitudinal observational study of consecutive adults with cough of > 8 weeks' duration treated in our cough clinic. At baseline and 3 and 6 months, subjects completed 3 Punum Ladders rating cough severity, the CQOL Questionnaire, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21, and the Duke Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Cross-sectional baseline and longitudinal regression analyses were conducted. Eighty subjects (55 women) with a mean age of 58.5 ± 11.1 years and a cough duration of 86.0 ± 123.7 months were enrolled. At baseline, worse cough severity was significantly associated with less education and worse ability to speak bothered by cough and the urge to cough. Worse CQOL was significantly associated with worse depression symptoms, urinary incontinence, and ability to speak; use of self-prescribed remedies; and younger age. Significant improvements in depression and stress symptoms occurred at 3 and 6 months. Anxiety symptoms improved, particularly in the first 3 months. Improvement in cough severity was significantly associated with less education, male sex, and improvement in ability to speak and urge to cough. Improvement in CQOL was significantly associated with improvement in urinary incontinence, urge to cough, anxiety symptoms, and use of self-prescribed remedies. Using the theory of unpleasant symptoms, we have come to appreciate that managing psychological, physiological, and situational factors in addition to focusing on identifying the cause of cough is important to maximize improvement in CQOL. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Somatic Cough Syndrome (Previously Referred to as Psychogenic Cough) and Tic Cough (Previously Referred to as Habit Cough) in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Mohammad H.; Pringsheim, Tamara; Feinstein, Anthony; Chang, Anne B.; Newcombe, Peter A.; Rubin, Bruce K.; McGarvey, Lorcan P.; Weir, Kelly; Altman, Kenneth W.; Weinberger, Miles; Irwin, Richard S.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Gould, Michael K.; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Vertigan, Anne E.; Wang, Gang; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review on the management of psychogenic cough, habit cough, and tic cough to update the recommendations and suggestions of the 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: We followed the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the systematic review, patients’ values and preferences, and the clinical context. Final grading was reached by consensus according to Delphi methodology. RESULTS: The results of the systematic review revealed only low-quality evidence to support how to define or diagnose psychogenic or habit cough with no validated diagnostic criteria. With respect to treatment, low-quality evidence allowed the committee to only suggest therapy for children believed to have psychogenic cough. Such therapy might consist of nonpharmacologic trials of hypnosis or suggestion therapy, or combinations of reassurance, counseling, and referral to a psychologist, psychotherapy, and appropriate psychotropic medications. Based on multiple resources and contemporary psychologic, psychiatric, and neurologic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and tic disorder guidelines), the committee suggests that the terms psychogenic and habit cough are out of date and inaccurate. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 2006 CHEST Cough Guidelines, the major change in suggestions is that the terms psychogenic and habit cough be abandoned in favor of somatic cough syndrome and tic cough, respectively, even though the evidence to do so at this time is of low quality. PMID:25856777

  5. Exhaled breath condensate pH and cysteinyl leukotriens in patients with chronic cough secondary to acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Enrico; Crimi, Claudia; Brussino, Luisa; Nicola, Stefania; Sichili, Stefania; Dughera, Luca; Rolla, Giovanni; Crimi, Nunzio

    2016-12-22

    Chronic cough is one of the most common clinical problems and it may be secondary to different stimuli and diseases, including low-level physical and chemical stimulation of the esophageal-bronchial reflex, suggestive of cough-reflex hyperresponsiveness, in patients with gastroesophageal reflux; however, it is still debated whether gastroesophageal reflux could induce airway inflammation and acidification. The aim of this study was to investigate airway pH and cysteynil-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) concentration (a marker of airway inflammation) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Patients with chronic cough and for which all known causes, excluding gastroesophageal reflux, had been investigated and ruled out, were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 24 h pH monitoring, and EBC was collected to assess pH and Cys-LTs concentration. Forty-five patients were included in the study and those with gastroesophageal reflux had significantly lower EBC-pH and higher concentration of EBC-Cys-LTs. There was a linear inverse correlation between EBC-pH values and EBC-Cys-LTs logarithmically transformed, and a multivariate analysis confirmed that the only significant determinat variable of EBC-Cys-LTs was the presence of gastroesophageal reflux. This study adds knowledge on possible mechanisms related to chronic cough associated with gastroesophageal reflux, which seems to be strictly dependent on airway acidification and the production of Cys-LTs, therefore suggesting an underlying neurogenic inflammation with tachykinins involvement.

  6. Characterization of urge to cough and cough symptoms associated with the common cold: results of a US internet survey.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Ron; Dicpinigaitis, Peter; Turner, Ronald B; Druce, Howard M; Adeleke, Maryann; Mann, Ashley L

    2016-06-01

    Our knowledge of cough physiology is limited despite years of study. Even less is known about the sensation of urge to cough. Given that limited clinical data are available about urge to cough and cough attributes during a common cold, we sought to gain insights into experiences and perceptions related to these symptoms. An internet survey consisting of 51 questions was fielded in the United States. Eligible survey participants included men and women aged 18 years and older who had suffered from a cold with cough within the three months preceding the survey. Participants who confirmed suffering from recurrent cough, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, or gastrointestinal reflux were excluded. Of 19,530 initial respondents, 8011 had a cold in the past three months. Of these, 6484 (81%) had experienced cough symptoms; 2708 respondents with cough due to cold and no exclusionary condition made up the analysis sample. Most respondents (62%) reported that cough developed one to two days after the onset of cold symptoms, and 45% felt that cough worsened their other cold symptoms. In 69% of respondents, cough outlasted other cold symptoms. Urge to cough was reported by 98% of respondents, and among these respondents, 64% described it as uncontrollable and 65% rated severity as moderate. More than half of respondents (57%) considered the sensation of urge to cough and the act of coughing as equally bothersome. Although urge to cough and inability to control cough were the most bothersome aspects of cough due to cold, few (<20%) respondents asked healthcare providers for treatment recommendations. Symptoms of urge to cough and cough are common and have a significant impact on cold sufferers. Understanding attributes of these symptoms may provide insights for effective management and the development of novel treatment strategies.

  7. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and cough.

    PubMed

    Abdulqawi, Rayid; Houghton, Lesley A; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2013-05-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux, either singly or in association with postnasal drip and/or asthma is considered to be a cause of chronic cough. The amount and nature of gastro-oesophageal reflux however is often normal with acid suppression having very little, if any therapeutic effect in these patients. This review examines the challenges posed when exploring the reflux-cough link, and discusses the merits and limitations of the proposed mechanisms of reflux leading to cough.

  8. Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome: A Few More Steps Forward

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Cough reflex is a vital protective mechanism against aspiration, but when dysregulated, it can become hypersensitive. In fact, chronic cough is a significant medical problem with a high degree of morbidity. Recently, a unifying paradigm of cough hypersensitivity syndrome has been proposed. It represents a clinical entity in which chronic cough is a major presenting problem, regardless of the underlying condition. Although it remains a theoretical construct, emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neurophysiology is the common etiology of this syndrome. Recent success in randomized clinical trials using a P2X3 receptor antagonist is the first major advance in the therapeutics of cough in the past 30 years; it at last provides a strategy for treating intractable cough as well as an invaluable tool for dissecting the mechanism underpinning cough hypersensitivity. Additionally, several cough measurement tools have been validated for use and will help assess the clinical relevance of cough in various underlying conditions. Along with this paradigm shift, our understanding of cough mechanisms has improved during the past decades, allowing us to continue to take more steps forward in the future. PMID:28677352

  9. Cough-induced rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Hanak, Viktor; Hartman, Thomas E; Ryu, Jay H

    2005-07-01

    To define the demographic, clinical, and radiological features of patients with cough-induced rib fractures and to assess potential risk factors. For this retrospective, single-center study, we identified all cases of cough-induced rib fractures diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn, over a 9-year period between January 1, 1996, and January 31, 2005. Bone densitometry data from patients' medical records were analyzed, and T scores were used to classify patients into bone density categories. The mean +/- SD age of the 54 study patients at presentation was 55+/-17 years, and 42 patients (78%) were female. Patients presented with chest wall pain after onset of cough. Rib fracture was associated with chronic cough (> or =3 weeks' duration) in 85% of patients. Rib fractures were documented by chest radiography, rib radiography, computed tomography, or bone scan. Chest radiography had been performed in 52 patients and revealed rib fracture in 30 (58%). There were 112 fractured ribs in 54 patients. One half of patients had more than one fractured rib. Right-sided rib fractures alone were present in 17 patients (26 fractured ribs), left-sided in 23 patients (35 fractured ribs), and bilateral in 14 patients (51 fractured ribs). The most commonly fractured rib on both sides was rib 6. The fractures were most common at the lateral aspect of the rib cage. Bone densitometry was done in 26 patients and revealed osteopenia or osteoporosis in 17 (65%). Cough-induced rib fractures occur primarily in women with chronic cough. Middle ribs along the lateral aspect of the rib cage are affected most commonly. Although reduced bone density is likely a risk factor, cough-induced rib fractures can occur in the presence of normal bone density.

  10. Airway remodeling associated with cough hypersensitivity as a consequence of persistent cough: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Nakaji, Hitoshi; Niimi, Akio; Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Cui, Shilei; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ito, Isao; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Takeda, Tomoshi; Inoue, Hideki; Tajiri, Tomoko; Nagasaki, Tadao; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Chin, Kazuo; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-11-01

    Chronic cough involves airway remodeling associated with cough reflex hypersensitivity. Whether cough itself induces these features remains unknown. Guinea pigs were assigned to receive treatment with citric acid (CA), saline (SA), or CA+dextromethorphan (DEX). All animals were exposed to 0.5M CA on days 1 and 22. On days 4-20, the CA and CA+DEX groups were exposed to CA, and the SA group to saline thrice weekly, during which the CA+DEX group was administered DEX pretreatment to inhibit cough. The number of coughs was counted during each 10-min CA or SA exposure. Terbutaline premedication was started to prevent bronchoconstriction. Bronchoalveolar lavage and pathology were examined on day 25. Average cough number for 10 CA exposures was examined as "cough index" in the CA group, which was divided into frequent (cough index>5) and infrequent (<5) cough subgroups for lavage and pathology analysis. The number of coughs significantly increased in the CA group from day 13 onwards. In the CA+DEX and SA groups, the number of coughs did not differ between days 1 and 22, while average number of coughs during days 4-20 was significantly lower than at days 1 and 22. Bronchoalveolar cell profiles were similar among the four groups. The smooth muscle area of small airways was significantly greater in the frequent-cough subgroup than in the other groups (in which it was similar), and highly correlated with cough index in CA group. Repeated cough induces airway smooth muscle remodeling associated with cough reflex hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of clinical characteristics of chronic cough due to non-acid and acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yang, Zhongmin; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Li; Liang, Siwei; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about non-acid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC). The purpose of the study is to explore the clinical characteristics of non-acid GERC. Clinical symptoms, cough symptom score, capsaicin cough sensitivity, gastroesophageal reflux diagnostic questionnaire (GerdQ) score, findings of multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) and response to pharmacological anti-reflux therapy were retrospectively reviewed in 38 patients with non-acid GERC and compared with those of 49 patients with acid GERC. Non-acid GERC had the similar cough character, cough symptom score, and capsaicin cough sensitivity to acid GERC. However, non-acid GERC had less frequent regurgitation (15.8% vs 57.1%, χ(2)  = 13.346, P = 0.000) and heartburn (7.9% vs 32.7%, χ(2)  = 7.686, P  = 0.006), and lower GerdQ score (7.4 ± 1.4 vs 10.6 ± 2.1, t = -6.700, P = 0.003) than acid GERC. Moreover, MII-pH revealed more weakly acidic reflux episodes, gas reflux episodes and a higher symptom association probability (SAP) for non-acid reflux but lower DeMeester score, acidic reflux episodes and SAP for acid reflux in non-acid GERC than in acid GERC. Non-acid GERC usually responded to the standard anti-reflux therapy but with delayed cough resolution or attenuation when compared with acid GERC. Fewer patients with non-acid GERC needed an augmented acid suppressive therapy or treatment with baclofen. There are some differences in the clinical manifestations between non-acid and acid GERC, but MII-pH is essential to diagnose non-acid GERC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Unexplained cough: it is time to rule out Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koslow, Matthew; Kivity, Shaye; Vishnevskia-Dai, Vicktoria; Ben-Dov, Issahar

    2018-05-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is associated with chronic cough, but sicca symptoms are missing from cough evaluation guidelines. We evaluated patients with unexplained cough for undiagnosed Sjogren's syndrome. Patients referred to our pulmonary clinic (Sheba Medical Center, 2009 to 2012) with unexplained cough and concomitant dry eyes were selected for evaluation. Unexplained cough was defined as chronic cough of unknown etiology despite algorithm-based evaluation and treatment. Patients were evaluated in a dedicated clinic by a pulmonologist, rheumatologist, and ophthalmologist specializing in autoimmune disease. Patients completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, spirometry, antibody testing for anti Ro/La, ophthalmologic examination with visual acuity, eyelid, ocular surface fluorescein staining, tear break-up time and Schirmer's test, full slit lamp, and fundus examinations. Four-year follow-up was conducted by telephone questionnaire. We identified 24 patients among which 22 (21 females) agreed for evaluation. Eight patients (36%), seven initially, and one during follow-up were diagnosed with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) (six secondary and two primary SS). At 4-year follow-up, cough tended to persist and improve in only 37% with SS. These include 2 (Scl and RA) who received rituximab and 1 (stage 1 sarcoidosis) with spontaneous improvement. In contrast, cough improved in most (64%) patients without SS; the majority (eight/nine) report intensified disease-specific treatment (five allergic and three GERD). We describe patients in whom unexplained chronic cough was associated with dry eyes. Focused workup revealed undiagnosed Sjogren's syndrome in 36%. Dry eyes, with or without SS, is under-recognized and should be added to diagnostic algorithms for unexplained cough.

  13. Space-time acupuncture for intractable cough after lupus nephropathy: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Taipin; Chen, Zukun; Tai, Xiantao; Liu, Zili; Zhu, Miansheng

    2017-12-01

    Some intractable chronic cough remains a common complaint for seeking medical care. Unexplained cough in lupus nephropathy patient is rare and therapeutic options are limited. A 57 year-old woman with a 7-year history of lupus nephropathy. She has suffered from chronic cough for 3 years accompanied with chronic low back pain and fatigue, as the conventional therapy cannot relieve the symptoms. The woman is diagnosed as intractable cough after lupus nephropathy. 9 times space-time acupuncture (STA) treatment was performed. The cough, as well as other uncomfortable symptoms like chronic low-back pain and fatigue have resolved, and no relapse for one year follow-up. STA may be an effective therapy to treat intractable chronic cough. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Establishing a gold standard for manual cough counting: video versus digital audio recordings

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jaclyn A; Earis, John E; Woodcock, Ashley A

    2006-01-01

    Background Manual cough counting is time-consuming and laborious; however it is the standard to which automated cough monitoring devices must be compared. We have compared manual cough counting from video recordings with manual cough counting from digital audio recordings. Methods We studied 8 patients with chronic cough, overnight in laboratory conditions (diagnoses were 5 asthma, 1 rhinitis, 1 gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and 1 idiopathic cough). Coughs were recorded simultaneously using a video camera with infrared lighting and digital sound recording. The numbers of coughs in each 8 hour recording were counted manually, by a trained observer, in real time from the video recordings and using audio-editing software from the digital sound recordings. Results The median cough frequency was 17.8 (IQR 5.9–28.7) cough sounds per hour in the video recordings and 17.7 (6.0–29.4) coughs per hour in the digital sound recordings. There was excellent agreement between the video and digital audio cough rates; mean difference of -0.3 coughs per hour (SD ± 0.6), 95% limits of agreement -1.5 to +0.9 coughs per hour. Video recordings had poorer sound quality even in controlled conditions and can only be analysed in real time (8 hours per recording). Digital sound recordings required 2–4 hours of analysis per recording. Conclusion Manual counting of cough sounds from digital audio recordings has excellent agreement with simultaneous video recordings in laboratory conditions. We suggest that ambulatory digital audio recording is therefore ideal for validating future cough monitoring devices, as this as this can be performed in the patients own environment. PMID:16887019

  15. Cough management: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and pulmonologists. Cough is an important defensive reflex that enhances the clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects the lower airways from the aspiration of foreign materials. Therapeutic suppression of cough may be either disease-specific or symptom related. The potential benefits of an early treatment of cough could include the prevention of the vicious cycle of cough. There has been a long tradition in acute cough, which is frequently due to upper respiratory tract infections, to use symptom-related anti-tussives. Suppression of cough (during chronic cough) may be achieved by disease-specific therapies, but in many patients it is often necessary to use symptomatic anti-tussives, too. According to the current guidelines of the American College of Chest Physician on "Cough Suppressants and Pharmacologic Protussive Therapy" and additional clinical trials on the most frequent anti-tussive drugs, it should be possible to diagnose and treat cough successfully in a majority of cases. Among drugs used for the symptomatic treatment of cough, peripherally acting anti-tussives such as levodropropizine and moguisteine show the highest level of benefit and should be recommended especially in children. By improving our understanding of the specific effects of these anti-tussive agents, the therapeutic use of these drugs may be refined. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant anti-tussive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action. PMID:21985340

  16. Whooping Cough Alleviated by Homeopathic Medicines: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Youngran

    2017-10-02

    Context • Pertussis cough (whooping cough) is distressing due to the intensity and chronicity of its cough. No specific drugs are available that can alleviate the cough's intensity or significantly shorten its duration. Homeopathic medicines are used for a wide variety of medical conditions, including cough. Objective • The study investigated the benefits of homeopathic medicines for whooping cough, to alleviate the cough's intensity and to shorten its duration. Design • The current study was a case series of patients with whooping cough. Setting • The study took place at one of the suburban hospital clinics of the Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago (Chicago, IL, USA). Participants • Participants were 20 patients aged 21 mo to 20 y, of whom 11 were female and 18 were male, who visited the hospital clinic for treatment of the chronic cough that is characteristic of whooping cough. The details of the cases of 3 representative participants are highlighted in the text. Intervention • The 3 representative patients all received 1 dose weekly of a 30c dilution of homeopathic pertussinum and a 6c dilution of homeopathic Drosera 3 times daily. The homeopathic medicines most often used for the other participants were the same doses of pertussinum and Drosera. Outcome Measures • Verbal feedback from patient or family were obtained at the follow-up visits. Results • The intensity and duration of participant's coughs were alleviated within days to 1 wk in most cases. Conclusions • Homeopathic medicines can alleviate the intensity or reduce the duration of whooping cough, with no adverse effects.

  17. Abnormal white matter integrity in chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y-W; Su, H-H; Lv, X-F; Jiang, G-H

    2015-01-01

    Codeine-containing cough syrups have become one of the most popular drugs of abuse in young people in the world. Chronic codeine-containing cough syrup abuse is related to impairments in a broad range of cognitive functions. However, the potential brain white matter impairment caused by chronic codeine-containing cough syrup abuse has not been reported previously. Our aim was to investigate abnormalities in the microstructure of brain white matter in chronic users of codeine-containing syrups and to determine whether these WM abnormalities are related to the duration of the use these syrups and clinical impulsivity. Thirty chronic codeine-containing syrup users and 30 matched controls were evaluated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed by using a single-shot spin-echo-planar sequence. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of fractional anisotropy was performed by using tract-based spatial statistics to localize abnormal WM regions. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 was surveyed to assess participants' impulsivity. Volume-of-interest analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in regions with fractional anisotropy abnormalities. Abnormal fractional anisotropy was extracted and correlated with clinical impulsivity and the duration of codeine-containing syrup use. Chronic codeine-containing syrup users had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus of the bilateral temporo-occipital regions, right frontal region, and the right corona radiata WM than controls. There were significant negative correlations among fractional anisotropy values of the right frontal region of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the right superior corona radiata WM and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total scores, and between the right frontal region of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and nonplan impulsivity scores in chronic codeine-containing syrup users. There was also a significant negative correlation between fractional

  18. Cough-induced rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Sano, Atsushi; Tashiro, Ken; Fukuda, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    Occasionally, patients who complain of chest pain after the onset of coughing are diagnosed with rib fractures. We investigated the characteristics of cough-induced rib fractures. Between April 2008 and December 2013, 17 patients were referred to our hospital with chest pain after the onset of coughing. Rib radiography was performed, focusing on the location of the chest pain. When the patient had other signs and symptoms such as fever or persistent cough, computed tomography of the chest was carried out. We analyzed the data retrospectively. Rib fractures were found in 14 of the 17 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 86 years (median 39.5 years). Ten patients were female and 4 were male. Three patients had chronic lung disease. There was a single rib fracture in 9 patients, and 5 had two or more fractures. The middle and lower ribs were the most commonly involved; the 10th rib was fractured most frequently. Cough-induced rib fractures occur in every age group regardless of the presence or absence of underlying disease. Since rib fractures often occur in the lower and middle ribs, rib radiography is useful for diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Cough Due to TB and Other Chronic Infections: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Field, Stephen K; Escalante, Patricio; Fisher, Dina A; Ireland, Belinda; Irwin, Richard S

    2018-02-01

    Cough is common in pulmonary TB and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target appropriate individuals for rapid and cost-effective screening, potentially limiting disease progression and preventing transmission to others. A systematic literature search for individual studies to answer eight key questions (KQs) was conducted according to established Chest Organization methods by using the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 1, 1984, to April 2014. Searches for KQ 1 and KQ 3 were updated in February 2016. An updated KQ 2 search was undertaken in March 2017. Even where TB prevalence is greatest, most individuals with cough do not have pulmonary TB. There was no evidence that 1, 3, or 4 weeks' duration were better predictors than cough lasting ≥ 2 weeks to screen for pulmonary TB. In people living with HIV (PLWHIV), screening for fever, night sweats, hemoptysis, and/or weight loss in addition to cough (any World Health Organization [WHO]-endorsed symptom) increases the diagnostic sensitivity for TB. Although the diagnostic accuracy of symptom-based screening remains low, the negative predictive value of the WHO-endorsed symptom screen in PLWHIV may help to risk-stratify individuals who are not close TB contacts and who do not require further testing for pulmonary TB in resource-limited settings. However, pregnant PLWHIV are more likely to be asymptomatic, and the WHO-endorsed symptom screen is not sensitive enough to be reliable. Combined with passive case finding (PCF), active case finding (ACF) identifies pulmonary TB cases earlier and possibly when less advanced. Whether outcomes are improved or transmission is reduced is unclear. Screening asymptomatic patients is cost-effective only in populations with a very high TB prevalence. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay on sputum is more cost-effective than

  20. A causal relationship between cough and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been established: a pro/con debate.

    PubMed

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Smith, Jaclyn A; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2014-02-01

    Along with upper airway cough syndrome (formerly, postnasal drip syndrome) and eosinophilic airway inflammation (asthma, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is generally considered among the most common etiologies of chronic cough. Indeed, cough management guidelines published by numerous respiratory societies worldwide recommend evaluation and treatment of GERD as an integral component of the diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm for the management of chronic cough. However, a significant number of patients with chronic cough presumed due to GERD do not report improvement despite aggressive acid-suppressive therapy. Some of these refractory cases may be due to the recently appreciated entity of nonacid or weakly acidic reflux. Further contributing to the controversy are recent studies that demonstrate that patients with chronic cough do not have excessive reflux events relative to healthy volunteers. Although a temporal relationship between cough and reflux events has been suggested by studies utilizing impedance-pH monitoring of reflux events and objective cough recording, consensus is lacking in terms of whether this temporal relationship proves a causal link between reflux and cough. The fourth American Cough Conference (New York, June 2013) provided an ideal forum for the debate of this issue between two internationally recognized experts in the field of reflux and chronic cough.

  1. A Causal Relationship Between Cough and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Has Been Established: a Pro/Con Debate

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, Peter J.; Smith, Jaclyn A.; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Along with upper airway cough syndrome (formerly, postnasal drip syndrome) and eosinophilic airway inflammation (asthma, non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is generally considered among the most common etiologies of chronic cough. Indeed, cough management guidelines published by numerous respiratory societies worldwide recommend evaluation and treatment of GERD as an integral component of the diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm for the management of chronic cough. However, a significant number of patients with chronic cough presumed due to GERD do not report improvement despite aggressive acid-suppressive therapy. Some of these refractory cases may be due to the recently appreciated entity of non-acid or weakly acidic reflux. Further contributing to the controversy are recent studies demonstrating that patients with chronic cough do not have excessive reflux events relative to healthy volunteers. Although a temporal relationship between cough and reflux events has been suggested by studies utilizing impedance-pH monitoring of reflux events and objective cough recording, consensus is lacking in terms of whether this temporal relationship proves a causal link between reflux and cough. The 4th American Cough Conference, held in New York in June, 2013, provided an ideal forum for the debate of this issue between two internationally recognized experts in the field of reflux and chronic cough. PMID:24221340

  2. Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakai, Satoshi; Honda, Yasushi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Olando, Anyenda Enoch; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-01

    Asian dust, known as kosa in Japanese, is a major public health concern. In this panel study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to kosa on daily cough occurrence. The study subjects were 86 patients being treated for asthma, cough variant asthma, or atopic cough in Kanazawa University Hospital from January 2011 to June 2011. Daily mean concentrations of kosa and spherical particles were obtained from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements, and were categorized from Grade 1 (0 μg/m3) to 5 (over 100 μg/m3). The association between kosa and cough was analyzed by logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation. Kosa effects on cough were seen for all Grades with potential time lag effect. Particularly at Lag 0 (the day of exposure), a dose-response relationship was observed: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 above the referent (Grade 1) were 1.111 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.995-1.239), 1.171 (95% CI: 1.006-1.363), 1.357 (95% CI: 1.029-1.788), and 1.414 (95% CI: 0.983-2.036), respectively. Among the patients without asthma, the association was higher: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1.223 (95% CI: 0.999-1.497), 1.309 (95% CI: 0.987-1.737), 1.738 (95% CI: 1.029-2.935) and 2.403 (95% CI: 1.158-4.985), respectively. These associations remained after adjusting for the concentration of spherical particles or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Our findings demonstrate that kosa is an environmental factor which induces cough in a dose-response relationship.

  3. Face Masks and Cough Etiquette Reduce the Cough Aerosol Concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in People with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michelle E; Stockwell, Rebecca E; Johnson, Graham R; Ramsay, Kay A; Sherrard, Laura J; Jabbour, Nassib; Ballard, Emma; O'Rourke, Peter; Kidd, Timothy J; Wainwright, Claire E; Knibbs, Luke D; Sly, Peter D; Morawska, Lidia; Bell, Scott C

    2018-02-01

    People with cystic fibrosis (CF) generate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in droplet nuclei during coughing. The use of surgical masks has been recommended in healthcare settings to minimize pathogen transmission between patients with CF. To determine if face masks and cough etiquette reduce viable P. aeruginosa aerosolized during coughing. Twenty-five adults with CF and chronic P. aeruginosa infection were recruited. Participants performed six talking and coughing maneuvers, with or without face masks (surgical and N95) and hand covering the mouth when coughing (cough etiquette) in an aerosol-sampling device. An Andersen Cascade Impactor was used to sample the aerosol at 2 meters from each participant. Quantitative sputum and aerosol bacterial cultures were performed, and participants rated the mask comfort levels during the cough maneuvers. During uncovered coughing (reference maneuver), 19 of 25 (76%) participants produced aerosols containing P. aeruginosa, with a positive correlation found between sputum P. aeruginosa concentration (measured as cfu/ml) and aerosol P. aeruginosa colony-forming units. There was a reduction in aerosol P. aeruginosa load during coughing with a surgical mask, coughing with an N95 mask, and cough etiquette compared with uncovered coughing (P < 0.001). A similar reduction in total colony-forming units was observed for both masks during coughing; yet, participants rated the surgical masks as more comfortable (P = 0.013). Cough etiquette provided approximately half the reduction of viable aerosols of the mask interventions during voluntary coughing. Talking was a low viable aerosol-producing activity. Face masks reduce cough-generated P. aeruginosa aerosols, with the surgical mask providing enhanced comfort. Cough etiquette was less effective at reducing viable aerosols.

  4. Effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic cough affects more than 70 percent of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and causes significant morbidity. Gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of some cases of chronic cough; and also has a postulated role in the aetiology of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A high prevalence of acid; and more recently non-acid, reflux has been observed in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis cohorts. Therefore, gastroesophageal reflux may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cough in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Methods Eighteen subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis underwent 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after the careful exclusion of causes of chronic cough other than gastroesophageal reflux. All 18 were then treated with high dose acid suppression therapies. Fourteen subjects underwent repeat 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after eight weeks. Results Total reflux and acid reflux frequencies were within the normal range in the majority of this cohort. The frequencies of non-acid and proximal reflux events were above the normal range. Following high dose acid suppression therapy there was a significant decrease in the number of acid reflux events (p = 0.02), but an increase in the number of non-acid reflux events (p = 0.01). There was no change in cough frequency (p = 0.70). Conclusions This study confirms that non-acid reflux is prevalent; and that proximal oesophageal reflux occurs in the majority, of subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. It is the first study to investigate the effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. The observation that cough frequency does not improve despite verifiable reductions in oesophageal acid exposure challenges the role of acid reflux in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis associated cough. The finding that non-acid reflux is increased following the use of acid suppression

  5. Management of a rare case of arytenoid mucosa oedema inducing stridor and cough.

    PubMed

    De Corso, Eugenio; Pandolfini, Manlio; Battista, Maripina; Della Marca, Giacomo; Scarano, Emanuele

    2013-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend a multidisciplinary systematic integrated approach to patient with chronic cough in which nowadays otolaryngologists play an increasingly valuable role as new procedures are used for evaluation and treatment. Surgery has been never taken into consideration to treat refractory chronic cough. We present a rare case of arytenoid mucosa oedema inducing stridor and cough, lasting 8 months, that critically affected the quality of life of a 15-year-old adolescent arrived to our emergency department with prominent arytenoid oedema causing paroxysmal cough and laryngeal stridor and that was successfully treated by laryngeal debridement. In this case report we observed that prominent swelling of arytenoid mucosa might sustain a vicious cycle of cough persistence and that laryngeal surgical debridement might interrupt it resolving the particular clinical condition. The description of this case could be of some help for clinicians to draw new insight about diagnosis and therapy of rare selected cases of chronic refractory cough. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Laryngeal structure and function in dogs with cough.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and type of laryngeal abnormalities in dogs examined because of cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease and to compare the prevalence of those abnormalities among dogs with various respiratory tract diseases. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 138 dogs with cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease. PROCEDURES The study was conducted between July 2001 and October 2014 and included dogs examined for cough that had laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic examinations performed by 1 examiner. Laryngeal hyperemia and swelling were recorded, and laryngeal function was assessed before and after doxapram stimulation when indicated. Results were compared among dogs on the basis of cough duration (acute [< 2 weeks], subacute [2 weeks to 2 months], and chronic [> 2 months]) and disease diagnosed (inflammatory airway disease, airway collapse, lower respiratory tract infection, and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy). RESULTS Laryngeal hyperemia was detected in 73 of 134 (54%) dogs with cough of subacute or chronic duration, and its prevalence did not vary significantly among dogs with various diseases. Thirteen dogs had laryngeal paresis, and 13 dogs had laryngeal paralysis; dysphonia (n = 2) and stridor (1) were uncommon findings in those dogs. The prevalence of laryngeal dysfunction (paresis or paralysis) did not differ significantly among diseases. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that 26 of 138 (19%) dogs examined because of cough alone had laryngeal dysfunction, which suggested that a complete laryngoscopic examination should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with cough.

  7. Effects of macrolides on antigen-induced increases in cough reflex sensitivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Akira; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Furusho, Shiho; Abo, Miki; Katayama, Nobuyuki

    2010-02-01

    Macrolides are antibiotics that have anti-inflammatory activities. Hence, they are used for both acute and chronic inflammatory airway diseases. However, the effects of these agents on allergic airway disorders presenting with an isolated chronic cough, such as non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity (atopic cough), still remain to be elucidated. To determine if macrolides are effective in the management of chronic cough caused by eosinophilic airway inflammation. The cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was measured at 48h after challenge with an aerosolized antigen in actively sensitized guinea pigs. The 14-, 15- or 16-membered macrolides (erythromycin, azythromycin, or josamycin, respectively) were given intraperitoneally every 12h after the antigen challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage and the resection of the tracheal tissue were performed immediately after the measurement of the cough response to capsaicin. The antigen-induced increase in the number of coughs elicited by capsaicin inhalation was significantly reduced by treatments with erythromycin and azythromycin, but not with josamycin. Erythromycin dose-dependently inhibited the increases in the substance P, prostaglandin E(2) and leukotriene B(4) levels, but not the histamine levels, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, erythromycin did not influence the antigen-induced decrease in the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity in the tracheal tissue. Both 14- and 15-membered, but not 16-membered, macrolides could reduce the antigen-induced cough reflex hypersensitivity by inhibiting the antigen-induced release of the afferent sensory nerve sensitizers. These macrolides may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of isolated chronic cough based on cough reflex hypersensitivity in allergic airway diseases such as non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and atopic cough. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Upper airway viruses and bacteria and clinical outcomes in children with cough.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Grimwood, Keith; Sloots, Theo P; Whiley, David M; Acworth, Jason P; Phillips, Natalie; Marchant, Julie; Goyal, Vikas; Chang, Anne B

    2017-03-01

    Cough is symptomatic of a broad range of acute and chronic pediatric respiratory illnesses. No studies in children have tested for an extended panel of upper airway respiratory viruses and bacteria to identify whether they predict cough outcomes, irrespective of clinical diagnosis at the time of acute respiratory illness (ARI). We therefore determined whether upper airway microbes independently predicted hospitalization and persistent cough 28-days later in children presenting with an ARI, including cough as a symptom. A cohort study of children aged <15-years were followed for 28-days after presenting to a pediatric emergency department with an ARI where cough was also a symptom. Socio-demographic factors, presenting clinical features and a bilateral anterior nasal swab were collected at enrolment. Polymerase chain reaction assays tested for seven respiratory bacteria and 17 viruses. Predictors of hospitalization and persistent cough at day-28 were evaluated in logistic regression models. Eight hundred and seventeen children were included in the analysis; median age 27.7-months. 116 (14.2%, 95%CI 11.8, 16.6) children were hospitalized and 163 (20.0%, 95%CI 17.2, 22.7) had persistent cough at day-28. Hospitalized children were more likely to have RSV A or B detected on nasal swab than those not admitted (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.8, 95%CI 1.0, 3.3). M. catarrhalis was the only microbial difference between children with and without cough persistence (aRR for those with cough at day 28: 2.1, 95%CI 1.3, 3.1). An etiologic role for M. catarrhalis in the pathogenesis of persistent cough post-ARI is worth exploring, especially given the burden of chronic cough in children and its relationship with chronic lung disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:373-381. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Molecular signaling and targets from itch: lessons for cough

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Itch is described as an unpleasant sensation that elicits the desire to scratch, which results in the removal of the irritant from the skin. The cough reflex also results from irritation, with the purpose of removing said irritant from the airway. Could cough then be similar to itch? Anatomically, both pathways are mediated by small-diameter sensory fibers. These cough and itch sensory fibers release neuropeptides upon activation, which leads to inflammation of the nerves. Both cough and itch also involve mast cells and their mediators, which are released upon degranulation. This common inflammation and interaction with mast cells are involved in the development of chronic conditions of itch and cough. In this review, we examine the anatomy and molecular mechanisms of itch and compare them to known mechanisms for cough. Highlighting the common aspects of itch and cough could lead to new thoughts and perspectives in both fields. PMID:23497684

  10. Reprint of: Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakai, Satoshi; Honda, Yasushi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Olando, Anyenda Enoch; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Asian dust, known as kosa in Japanese, is a major public health concern. In this panel study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to kosa on daily cough occurrence. The study subjects were 86 patients being treated for asthma, cough variant asthma, or atopic cough in Kanazawa University Hospital from January 2011 to June 2011. Daily mean concentrations of kosa and spherical particles were obtained from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements, and were categorized from Grade 1 (0 μg/m3) to 5 (over 100 μg/m3). The association between kosa and cough was analyzed by logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation. Kosa effects on cough were seen for all Grades with potential time lag effect. Particularly at Lag 0 (the day of exposure), a dose-response relationship was observed: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 above the referent (Grade 1) were 1.111 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.995-1.239), 1.171 (95% CI: 1.006-1.363), 1.357 (95% CI: 1.029-1.788), and 1.414 (95% CI: 0.983-2.036), respectively. Among the patients without asthma, the association was higher: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1.223 (95% CI: 0.999-1.497), 1.309 (95% CI: 0.987-1.737), 1.738 (95% CI: 1.029-2.935) and 2.403 (95% CI: 1.158-4.985), respectively. These associations remained after adjusting for the concentration of spherical particles or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Our findings demonstrate that kosa is an environmental factor which induces cough in a dose-response relationship.

  11. Gastroesophageal dysmotility is associated with the impairment of cough-specific quality of life in patients with cough variant asthma.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hideki; Tajiri, Tomoko; Nagasaki, Tadao; Izuhara, Yumi; Petrova, Guergana; Birring, Surinder S; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is known as a common comorbidity of asthma and chronic cough. The impact of GERD symptoms on cough-specific quality of life (QoL) in patients with asthmatic cough is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to determine the association of GERD symptoms with cough-specific quality of life in patients with cough variant asthma (CVA) using the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). A total of 172 consecutive patients (121 females) with mean cough duration of 45.1 months (range 2-480 months) completed the Japanese version of the LCQ. The Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal reflux was administered to assess symptoms of acid-reflux and dysmotility. A range of clinical variables that may determine cough-specific QoL (LCQ) were estimated. The mean LCQ scores was 12.9 (SD 3.5), consistent with severe impairment in QoL. Female gender, symptoms of gastroesophageal dysmotility, sensitization to allergens (house dust and Japanese cedar pollen) and the number of sensitized allergens were associated with lower LCQ scores (i.e. impaired cough-specific QoL) in univariate regression analysis. Acid-reflux symptoms, airway hyperresponsiveness, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and sensitization to molds were unrelated to the LCQ score. After adjustment for gender, symptoms of gastroesophageal dysmotility was the only significant determinant of impaired cough-specific QoL accounting for 23% of the variance. Cough-specific QoL is severely impaired in patients with CVA. Symptoms of gastroesophageal dysmotility are an independent predictor of cough-specific QoL of patients with CVA. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional neuroanatomy of human voluntary cough and sniff production

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Kristina; Saad, Ziad S.; Loucks, Torrey M.J.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2007-01-01

    Cough and sniff are both spontaneous respiratory behaviors that can be initiated voluntarily in humans. Disturbances of cough may be life threatening, while inability to sniff impairs the sense of smell in neurological patients. Cortical mechanisms of voluntary cough and sniff production have been predicted to exist; however, the localization and function of supramedullary areas responsible for these behaviors are poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the central control of voluntary cough and sniff compared with breathing. We determined that both voluntary cough and sniff require a widespread pattern of sensorimotor activation along the Sylvian fissure convergent with voluntary breathing. Task-specific activation occurred in a ponto-mesencephalic region during voluntary coughing and in the hippocampus and piriform cortex during voluntary sniffing. Identification of the localization of cortical activation for cough control in humans may help potential drug development to target these regions in patients with chronic cough. Understanding the sensorimotor sniff control mechanisms may provide a new view on the cerebral functional reorganization of olfactory control in patients with neurological disorders. PMID:17574873

  13. Persistent cough in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Stein, M T; Harper, G; Chen, J

    1999-12-01

    Jessica, a 14-year-old girl with a history of asthma, went to her pediatrician's office because of a persistent cough. She had been coughing for at least 3 months with occasional cough-free periods of less than a few days. The cough was nonproductive and was not accompanied by fever, rhinorrhea, or facial or chest pain. Jessica and her mother observed that the cough increased with exercise and typically was not present during sleep. She has used two metered-dose inhalers--albuterol and cromolyn--without any change in the cough pattern. For the past 5 years, Jessica has had mild asthma responsive to albuterol. She enjoys running on the cross-country team, soccer, and dancing. She is an average student and denies any change in academic performance. She has never been hospitalized or had an emergency department visit for asthma or pneumonia. There has been no recent travel or exposure to a person with a chronic productive cough, tobacco smoke, or a live-in pet. Jessica lives with her mother and younger sister in a 10-year-old, carpeted apartment without any evidence of mold or recent renovation. In the process of taking the history, the pediatrician noticed that Jessica coughed intermittently, with two or three coughs during each episode. At times, the cough was harsh; at other times, it was a quiet cough, as if she were clearing her throat. She was cooperative, without overt anxiety or respiratory distress. After a complete physical examination with normal findings, the pediatrician interviewed Jessica and her mother alone. Jessica's parents had been divorced for the past 6 years. She lived with her mother but visited her father, and his new family with two young children, every weekend. She spoke about this arrangement comfortably and said that she loved her father and mother but didn't like the tension she experienced at her father's home. "I don't like adults arguing when kids are around." When asked why she thought the cough persisted so long, she commented in a

  14. Treatment of chronic neurogenic cough with in-office superior laryngeal nerve block.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C Blake; Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Loochtan, Michael J; Dominguez, Laura M

    2018-04-18

    Neurogenic cough is believed to result from a sensory neuropathy involving the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN). We present our outcomes for the treatment of neurogenic cough with localized blockade of the internal branch of the SLN. A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent in-office percutaneous SLN block for treatment of neurogenic cough between 2015 and 2017 was conducted. Patient demographics, indications for injection, and response to treatment were recorded and analyzed. Cough severity index (CSI) scores before and after treatment were compared. Twenty-three patients underwent percutaneous blockade of the internal branch of the SLN in the clinic setting, and five patients were excluded for incomplete records. The indication was neurogenic cough as a diagnosis of exclusion. The injectable substance used was a 1:1 mixture of a long-acting particulate corticosteroid and a local anesthetic. Unilateral injections were performed in 13 patients, and five patients underwent bilateral injections. Of the unilateral injections, 10 were left-sided. Patients underwent an average of 2.4 SLN block procedures (range 1-7). Mean follow-up time postinjection was 85.4 days (7-450 days). Cough severity index scores decreased significantly from an average of 26.8 pretreatment to 14.6 posttreatment (P < 0.0001). The SLN block is an effective treatment for neurogenic cough, with average CSI scores significantly improved following injection. Further study is necessary to determine the characteristics of patients' responses to treatment, long-term outcomes, and efficacy of the procedure when compared to placebo and other accepted treatments for neurogenic cough. 4. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Cough Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... secondary cough headaches may require surgery. Symptoms Primary cough headaches Begin suddenly with and just after coughing ... by a dull, aching pain for hours Secondary cough headaches Secondary cough headaches often have symptoms similar ...

  16. Selective Expression of a Sodium Pump Isozyme by Cough Receptors and Evidence for Its Essential Role in Regulating Cough

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Stuart B.; Reynolds, Sandra M.; Mori, Nanako; Kollarik, Marian; Farmer, David G.; Myers, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    We have identified a distinct subtype of airway vagal afferent nerve that plays an essential role in regulating the cough reflex. These afferents are exquisitely sensitive to punctate mechanical stimuli, acid, and decreases in extracellular chloride concentrations, but are insensitive to capsaicin, bradykinin, histamine, adenosine, serotonin, or changes in airway intraluminal pressures. In this study we used intravital imaging, retrograde neuronal tracing, and electrophysiological analyses to characterize the structural basis for their peculiar mechanical sensitivity and to further characterize the regulation of their excitability. In completing these experiments, we uncovered evidence for an essential role of an isozyme of Na+-K+ ATPase in regulating cough. These vagal sensory neurons arise bilaterally from the nodose ganglia and are selectively and brilliantly stained intravitally with the styryl dye FM2-10. Cough receptor terminations are confined and adherent to the extracellular matrix separating the airway epithelium and smooth muscle layers, a site of extensive remodeling in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The cough receptor terminals uniquely express the α3 subunit of Na+-K+ ATPase. Intravital staining of cough receptors by FM2-10, cough receptor excitability in vitro, and coughing in vivo are potently and selectively inhibited by the sodium pump inhibitor ouabain. These data provide the first detailed morphological description of the peripheral terminals of the sensory nerves regulating cough and identify a selective molecular target for their modulation. PMID:19864578

  17. Dietary intervention in the treatment of patients with cough and symptoms suggestive of airways reflux as determined by Hull airways Reflux Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cough is a common and distressing symptom. Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a common cause of chronic cough however the symptom complex in cough is not confined to classic peptic symptoms. Dyspeptic symptoms have previously been shown to respond to dietary modifications and weight loss. We hypothesised that weight reduction maybe a useful non-pharmacological strategy in reducing reflux cough in the obese. Methods Subjects with cough were recruited from Hull Cough Clinic. They were randomised to one of two open parallel groups; one receiving the traditional dietary modifications and the other weight reduction advice in the form of an Energy Prescription (EP). Cough symptoms, using the Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) and dietary intake were measured at the start and end of the study. Results Thirty-three patients were recruited and 20 patients completed the study. Mean weight loss was 3.1 kg (p < 0.001) and reported an improvement in the LCQ (mean improvement 3.1); which is greater than the clinically significant score of 1.3. . Moreover, secondary outcomes showed a significant association between baseline high calorie (r = -0.24; p < 0.001) and fat intake (r = -0.36; p = 0.001), and LCQ scores. Conclusion A high calorie and fat intake is strongly correlated with cough score. Irrespective of diet, weight loss is associated with a reduction in cough symptoms. Asking patients to lose weight by reducing fat and calorie intake may be a simple strategy to ameliorate this intractable condition. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local research ethics committee (South Humber Local Research Ethics Committee; REC04/Q1105/62). The study was registered with the Research and Development Department, Clinical Governance Directorate, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (reference number R0086). PMID:24380385

  18. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. These cough responses rapidly desensitized, consistent with reports of B2 receptor desensitization. Bradykinin-evoked cough was potentiated by inhibition of both neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (with thiorphan and captopril, respectively), but was largely unaffected by muscarinic or thromboxane receptor blockade (atropine and ICI 192605), cyclooxygenase, or nitric oxide synthase inhibition (meclofenamic acid and NG-nitro-L-arginine). Calcium influx studies in bronchopulmonary vagal afferent neurons dissociated from vagal sensory ganglia indicated that the tachykinin-containing C-fibers arising from the jugular ganglia mediate bradykinin-evoked coughing. Also implicating the jugular C-fibers was the observation that simultaneous blockade of neurokinin2 (NK2; SR48968) and NK3 (SR142801 or SB223412) receptors nearly abolished the bradykinin-evoked cough responses. The data suggest that bradykinin induces coughing in guinea pigs by activating B2 receptors on bronchopulmonary C-fibers. We speculate that therapeutics targeting the actions of bradykinin may prove useful in the treatment of cough. PMID:27000801

  19. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    PubMed Central

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords “cough” or “anti-cough”. Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children. PMID:25991944

  20. The description of cough sounds by healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jaclyn A; Ashurst, H Louise; Jack, Sandy; Woodcock, Ashley A; Earis, John E

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known of the language healthcare professionals use to describe cough sounds. We aimed to examine how they describe cough sounds and to assess whether these descriptions suggested they appreciate the basic sound qualities (as assessed by acoustic analysis) and the underlying diagnosis of the patient coughing. Methods 53 health professionals from two large respiratory tertiary referral centres were recruited; 22 doctors and 31 staff from professions allied to medicine. Participants listened to 9 sequences of spontaneous cough sounds from common respiratory diseases. For each cough they selected patient gender, the most appropriate descriptors and a diagnosis. Cluster analysis was performed to assess which cough sounds attracted similar descriptions. Results Gender was correctly identified in 93% of cases. The presence or absence of mucus was correct in 76.1% and wheeze in 39.3% of cases. However, identifying clinical diagnosis from cough was poor at 34.0%. Cluster analysis showed coughs with the same acoustics properties rather than the same diagnoses attracted the same descriptions. Conclusion These results suggest that healthcare professionals can recognise some of the qualities of cough sounds but are poor at making diagnoses from them. It remains to be seen whether in the future cough sound acoustics will provide useful clinical information and whether their study will lead to the development of useful new outcome measures in cough monitoring. PMID:16436200

  1. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Presenting as Chronic Cough in an Elderly Woman Without Previously Documented Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Richard; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A nonsmoking woman in her mid-70s presents to the allergist for consultation of a chronic cough of almost 3-years’ duration without a specific diagnosis as to etiology in spite of numerous diagnostic tests and therapeutic trials. This is a case report from a specialist point of view that includes a comprehensive review of her clinical course pre- and postconsultation along with a brief but pertinent review of the literature as it relates to this particular unusual and protracted case, which was ultimately successfully diagnosed and treated. PMID:23704852

  2. Prevalence of cough throughout childhood: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ramette, Alban; Dogaru, Cristian M.; Goutaki, Myrofora; Spycher, Ben D.; Latzin, Philipp; Gaillard, Erol A.; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cough in children is a common reason for medical consultations and affects quality of life. There are little population-based data on the epidemiology of recurrent cough in children and how this varies by age and sex, or between children with and without wheeze. We determined the prevalence of cough throughout childhood, comparing several standardised cough questions. We did this for the entire population and separately for girls and boys, and for children with and without wheeze. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort from Leicestershire, UK, we assessed prevalence of cough with repeated questionnaires from early childhood to adolescence. We asked whether the child usually coughed more than other children, with or without colds, had night-time cough or cough triggered by various factors (triggers, related to increased breathing effort, allergic or food triggers). We calculated prevalence from age 1 to 18 years using generalised estimating equations for all children, and for children with and without wheeze. Results Of 7670 children, 10% (95% CI 10–11%) coughed more than other children, 69% (69–70%) coughed usually with a cold, 34% to 55% age-dependently coughed without colds, and 25% (25–26%) had night-time cough. Prevalence of coughing more than peers, with colds, at night, and triggered by laughter varied little throughout childhood, while cough without colds and cough triggered by exercise, house dust or pollen became more frequent with age. Cough was more common in boys than in girls in the first decade of life, differences got smaller in early teens and reversed after the age of 14 years. All symptoms were more frequent in children with wheeze. Conclusions Prevalence of cough in children varies with age, sex and with the questions used to assess it, suggesting that comparisons between studies are only valid for similar questions and age groups. PMID:28542270

  3. Cough is less common and less severe in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease compared to other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jasmine Z; Wilcox, Pearce G; Glaspole, Ian; Corte, Tamera J; Murphy, Darra; Hague, Cameron J; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). Cough severity was measured in consecutive patients with IPF (n = 77), HP (n = 32) and SSc-ILD (n = 67) using a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Dyspnoea and quality of life were measured using established questionnaires. Cough severity was compared across ILD subtypes and predictors of cough severity were determined using multivariate analysis. Cough was more common in IPF and chronic HP compared to SSc-ILD (87% and 83% vs 68%, P = 0.02). The median (interquartile range) VAS score was 39 (17-65) in the IPF cohort, 29 (11-48) in HP and 18 (0-33) in SSc-ILD (P < 0.0001). Cough was more often productive in chronic HP and IPF (63% and 43% vs 21%, P < 0.001). Cough severity was independently predicted only by ILD diagnosis and higher dyspnoea score. Cough severity was not associated with other common causes of cough. Cough was a significant predictor of quality of life in IPF and SSc-ILD with adjustment for age, sex, dyspnoea and ILD severity; however, cough was not associated with quality of life in chronic HP. Cough is more frequent, more severe and more often productive in IPF and chronic HP compared to SSc-ILD, despite similar ILD severity in these cohorts. Cough severity is strongly and independently associated with dyspnoea and pulmonary function, and is a significant contributor to reduced quality of life in both IPF and SSc-ILD. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Prolonged Cough in Pediatric Population First Line Care, Belgian Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Leconte, Sophie; Valentin, Stéphanie; Dromelet, Estelle; De Jonghe, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Background: The clinical approach to a prolonged cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than three weeks, is challenging for general practitioners as well for primary care pediatricians. What the recommended clinical approach in primary care is, how cough duration or cough characteristics impact the diagnosis, and what the efficiency and safety of antibiotics or symptomatic treatments are remain in question for primary care physicians. Objective: The last Belgian guidelines were published in 2006 and needed to be reviewed. Those background questions were used to conduct our guideline updating procedure. Methods: We systematically performed a pyramidal literature search between the periods 2006-2014 in order to write evidence based guidelines. The data of the literature was summarized, discussed by the authors, experts and the Belgian primary care guidelines committee. Recommendations were formulated and scored following the GRADE classification. Results: The consultation history as well as the physical examination should be directed towards searching for warning signs (GRADE 1B) and towards the common etiologies depending on cough duration (GRADE 2C). If the cough lasts for more than eight weeks, chest radiography and spirometry should be considered (GRADE 2C). An antibiotic is recommended for a prolonged wet cough (over eight weeks) if prolonged bacterial bronchitis is suspected (GRADE 1B). In the absence of clinical signs of a specific etiology of a cough, no drug can be recommended (GRADE 1B). For all cases, it is initially suggested to avoid irritants (GRADE 1C) as well as to take into account the concerns of parents and inform them about the natural development of a cough. Conclusions: More research is needed to provide evidence on the clinical pathway on prolonged cough for primary care. Cough duration of more than eight weeks and prolonged wet cough are the most useful cough characteristics. Regarding a specific cough treatment, no medication has proved any effect

  5. Differential diagnosis of cough: focus on lung malignancy.

    PubMed

    Brashers, V L; Haden, K

    2000-01-01

    Evaluating cough in the primary care setting can be very difficult and requires a thorough look through a long list of potential differential diagnoses. The most worrisome diagnosis is that of a lung malignancy. Primary care providers must assess each patient carefully in a logical, precise manner to determine a working diagnosis for acute versus chronic cough in smokers and nonsmokers. Early detection leads to a diagnosis of lung cancer at earlier stages and may offer the only possibility of cure. This article provides primary care providers with an overview of the most common causes of cough, an algorithm to assist with the diagnosis, and a brief overview of the staging, diagnostic workup, treatment, and management of lung cancer.

  6. When is acute persistent cough in school-age children and adults whooping cough?

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Kathryn; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Grant, Cameron C; Chong, Angela; Turner, Nikki; Stewart, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background Pertussis is a vaccine modified disease in most age groups and hence subtle in its presentation. Current diagnostic approaches require relatively invasive sampling. Aim To determine the incidence of B. pertussis infection among people aged 5–49 years identified in primary care with acute persistent cough using an oral fluid based diagnostic test. Design and setting Active surveillance of acute persistent cough of 2 weeks duration or greater was established in Auckland, New Zealand from May to October 2011. The 15 participating primary care practices provided care for a socioeconomically diverse population. Method Recent B. pertussis infection was determined by measurement of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in an oral fluid sample. An IgG antibody titre to PT of ≥70 arbitrary units defined recent infection. Participants reported symptoms at presentation and kept a cough diary. Results A total of 226 participants were enrolled: 70 (31%) were children (5–16 years) and 156 (69%) were adults (17–49 years). Oral fluid samples were obtained from 225 participants. Ten per cent (23/225) had recent B. pertussis infection including a larger proportion of children than adults (17% versus 7%, P = 0.003). Neither cough duration nor any individual symptom discriminated between those with and without recent B. pertussis infection. Conclusion Pertussis is a frequent cause of acute persistent cough presenting to primary care. Clinical differentiation of pertussis from other causes of acute persistent cough is difficult. An oral fluid based diagnostic test, which is less invasive than other diagnostic approaches, has high acceptability in primary care. PMID:23972198

  7. A prospective study of frequency and characteristics of cough during ACE inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuhisa; Fukuda, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are reportedly effective, and positively indicated in patients with chronic heart failure with decreased contractility, after myocardial infarction, after cerebrovascular disorders, and in those with chronic kidney disease. However, the biggest challenge to continuous use of ACE inhibitors is the adverse reaction of cough. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated the present state and characteristics of ACE inhibitor-induced cough in patients with essential hypertension currently being treated with an ACE inhibitor for an average of 18 months, who could be regularly checked for cough. Subjects in this study were 176 patients overall (mean age 67 ± 11 years old), 90 men and 86 women. The adverse reaction of cough was observed in 20% of patients, and more frequently in women than in men. However, in 26 of the patients with cough, the cough either resolved naturally or completely disappeared while the treatment continued, after which patients could continue taking the medication. Specifically, ACE inhibitor treatment was eventually discontinued due to cough in 5.1% of patients. Cough occurred less frequently with concomitant calcium antagonists or diuretics than with ACE inhibitor monotherapy. Cough as an adverse reaction occurred at a low frequency when medication was taken at bedtime. We considered a number of measures to counteract cough, then in addition to starting the ACE inhibitor treatment as early as possible, it is important to devise ways for the ACE inhibitor treatment to be continued for as long as possible, through the adept use of these measures.

  8. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Matthew M; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J

    2016-06-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. These cough responses rapidly desensitized, consistent with reports of B2 receptor desensitization. Bradykinin-evoked cough was potentiated by inhibition of both neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (with thiorphan and captopril, respectively), but was largely unaffected by muscarinic or thromboxane receptor blockade (atropine and ICI 192605), cyclooxygenase, or nitric oxide synthase inhibition (meclofenamic acid and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine). Calcium influx studies in bronchopulmonary vagal afferent neurons dissociated from vagal sensory ganglia indicated that the tachykinin-containing C-fibers arising from the jugular ganglia mediate bradykinin-evoked coughing. Also implicating the jugular C-fibers was the observation that simultaneous blockade of neurokinin2 (NK2; SR48968) and NK3 (SR142801 or SB223412) receptors nearly abolished the bradykinin-evoked cough responses. The data suggest that bradykinin induces coughing in guinea pigs by activating B2 receptors on bronchopulmonary C-fibers. We speculate that therapeutics targeting the actions of bradykinin may prove useful in the treatment of cough. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Bettiol, Silvana; Thompson, Matthew J; Roberts, Nia Wyn; Perera, Rafael; Heneghan, Carl J; Harnden, Anthony

    2010-01-20

    The worldwide incidence of whooping cough (pertussis) has been estimated at 48.5 million cases and nearly 295,000 deaths per year. In low-income countries, the case-fatality rate among infants may be as high as 4%. Much of the morbidity of whooping cough in children and adults is due to the effects of the paroxysmal cough. Cough treatments proposed include corticosteroids, beta 2-adrenergic agonists, pertussis-specific immunoglobulin, antihistamines and possibly leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs). To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions to reduce the severity of paroxysmal cough in whooping cough in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, issue 1), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); MEDLINE (1950 to March 2009); EMBASE (1980 to March 2009); AMED (1985 to March 2009); CINAHL (1982 to March 2009) and LILACS (March 2009). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any intervention (excluding antibiotics and vaccines) to suppress the cough in whooping cough. Two review authors (SB, MT) independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial. The primary outcome was frequency of paroxysms of coughing. Secondary outcomes were frequency of vomiting, frequency of whoop, frequency of cyanosis (turning blue), development of serious complications, mortality from any cause, side effects due to medication, admission to hospital and duration of hospital stay. Ten trials were included of varying sample sizes (N = 9 to 135) from high-income countries. Study quality was generally poor. Included studies did not show a statistically significant benefit for any of the interventions. Diphenhydramine did not change coughing episodes; the mean difference of coughing spells per 24 hours was 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) - 4.7 to 8

  10. Description of nighttime cough epochs in patients with stable COPD GOLD II-IV.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Patrick; Gross, Volker; Kroenig, Johannes; Weissflog, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Sohrabi, Keywan; Koehler, Ulrich

    Chronic cough is one of the main symptoms of COPD. Ambulatory objective monitoring provides novel insights into the determinants and characteristics of nighttime cough in COPD. Nighttime cough was monitored objectively by LEOSound lung sound monitor in patients with stable COPD II-IV. In 30 patients, with 10 patients in each stage group, nighttime cough was analyzed for epoch frequency, epoch severity (epoch length and coughs per epoch), and pattern (productive or nonproductive). Cough was found in all patients ranging from 1 to 294 events over the recording period. In 29 patients, cough epochs were monitored, ranging from 1 to 75 epochs. The highest amount of cough epochs was found in patients with COPD stage III. Active smokers had significantly more productive cough epochs (61%) than nonsmokers (24%). We found a high rate of nighttime cough epochs in patients with COPD, especially in those in stage III. Productive cough was predominantly found in patients with persistent smoking. LEOSound lung sound monitor offers a practical and valuable opportunity to evaluate cough objectively.

  11. When is cough functional, and how should it be treated?

    PubMed Central

    Lockshin, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Key points Habit cough is most commonly characterised by a repetitive loud barking cough that persists for prolonged periods. The cough interferes with normal activity and substantially decreases the quality of life. The sine qua non is the total absence of this troublesome cough once asleep. The age distribution ranges from 4 years to late adolescence, with 85% of cases occurring from 8 to 14 years of age; similar cough in adults is much less common and poorly characterised. Pharmacological treatment is ineffective. A simple behavioural approach called suggestion therapy has been applied with success by many physicians. The natural history in the absence of treatment can result in persistence for months to years. Educational aims To increase awareness of functional cough as a non-organically caused symptom in children and adolescents. To provide the means of diagnosing a functional cough based on the distinguishing characteristics of this cause of chronic cough. To understand the principles of treating a functional cough with a simple behavioural technique called suggestion therapy. Summary Involuntary cough without an identified underlying organic reason has been given various names and recommended treatments. Current experience in children and adolescents suggests that “habit cough” best describes this entity, and suggestion therapy is a highly effective treatment that most physicians can learn. PMID:28289448

  12. Visit complexity, diagnostic uncertainty, and antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in primary care: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guidelines and performance measures recommend avoiding antibiotics for acute cough/acute bronchitis and presume visits are straightforward with simple diagnostic decision-making. We evaluated clinician-assigned diagnoses, diagnostic uncertainty, and antibiotic prescribing for acute cough visits in primary care. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of acute cough visits – cough lasting ≤21 days in adults 18–64 years old without chronic lung disease – in a primary care practice from March 2011 through June 2012. Results Of 56,301 visits, 962 (2%) were for acute cough. Clinicians diagnosed patients with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 cough-related diagnoses in 54%, 35%, and 11% of visits, respectively. The most common principal diagnoses were upper respiratory infection (46%), sinusitis (10%), acute bronchitis (9%), and pneumonia (8%). Clinicians prescribed antibiotics in 22% of all visits: 65% of visits with antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses and 4% of visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses. Clinicians expressed diagnostic uncertainty in 16% of all visits: 43% of visits with antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses and 5% of visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses. Clinicians expressed uncertainty more often when prescribing antibiotics than when not prescribing antibiotics (30% vs. 12%; p < 0.001). As the number of visit diagnoses increased from 1 to 2 to ≥ 3, clinicians were more likely to express diagnostic uncertainty (5%, 25%, 40%, respectively; p < 0.001) and prescribe antibiotics (16%, 25%, 41%, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions Acute cough may be more complex and have more diagnostic uncertainty than guidelines and performance measures presume. Efforts to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute cough should address diagnostic complexity and uncertainty that clinicians face. PMID:23957228

  13. Mechanical induction of cough in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) frequently develop a dry, irritating cough which often proves refractory to anti-tussive therapies. The precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for this cough are unknown. We hypothesised that changes in nerves modulating mechanical sensitivity in areas of interstitial fibrosis might lead to enhanced cough response to mechanical stimulation of the chest in IPF. Methods We studied 27 non-smoking subjects with IPF (63% male), mean (SD) age 71.7 (7) years and 30 healthy non-smokers. Quality of life (Leicester Cough Questionnaire), cough symptom scores and cough severity scores (visual analog scales) were recorded. Percussion stimulation was applied over the posterior lung base, upper anterior chest and manubrium sternum at sequential frequencies (20 Hertz (Hz), 40 Hz and 60 Hz) for up to 60 seconds and repeated twice at two minute intervals. The number of subjects achieving two and five-cough responses, total cough counts and cough latency were recorded. In separate experiments, the effect of mechanical stimulation on the pattern of breathing was determined in eight IPF subjects and five control subjects. Results In patients with IPF, we demonstrated strong correlations between subjective cough measurements, particularly the cough symptom score and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (r = -0.86; p < 0.001). Mechanical percussion induced a true cough reflex in 23/27 (85%) IPF subjects, but only 5/30 (17%) controls (p < 0.001). More patients with IPF reached the two-cough response at a lower frequency (20 Hz) posteriorly than at other positions. Highest mean cough totals were seen with stimulation at or above 40 Hz. Mechanical stimulation had no effect on respiratory rate but increased tidal volume in four (50%) subjects with IPF, particularly at higher frequencies. It was associated with increased urge to cough followed by a true cough reflex. Conclusions This study demonstrates that patients with IPF show

  14. The oesophagus and cough: laryngo-pharyngeal reflux, microaspiration and vagal reflexes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is generally considered to be one of the commonest causes of chronic cough, however randomised controlled trials of proton pump inhibitors have often failed to support this notion. This article reviews the most recent studies investigating the mechanisms thought to link reflux and cough, namely laryngo-pharyngeal reflux, micro-aspiration and neuronal cross-organ sensitisation. How recent evidence might shed light on the failure of acid suppressing therapies and suggest new approaches to treating reflux related cough are also discussed. PMID:23590893

  15. "Cold air" and/or "talking" as cough triggers, a sign for the diagnosis of cough variant asthma.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Osman, Nuriamina; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Nagasaki, Tadao; Izuhara, Yumi; Ito, Isao; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Niimi, Akio; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-11-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is considered an alternative marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and is sometimes incorporated in the diagnosis of asthma. However, many patients with cough variant asthma (CVA) demonstrate an FeNO in the normal range. Therefore, additional information is needed to confirm the diagnosis of CVA, particularly in patients with low FeNO levels. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using cough triggers to help diagnose CVA. We studied 163 patients presenting with prolonged/chronic cough alone (including 104 CVA patients) who underwent FeNO measurements and an airway responsiveness test, and answered a questionnaire listing 18 cough triggers. The sensitivity and specificity of FeNO levels and cough triggers for the diagnosis of CVA were determined. CVA patients showed higher FeNO levels than non-CVA patients. When the cut-off value of FeNO levels for the diagnosis of CVA was set at 22ppb, its sensitivity was 57%. CVA patients more frequently responded to "cold air" and "talking" as cough triggers than non-CVA patients. When the analysis was confined to those with a low FeNO (<22ppb) group, the sensitivity and positive predictive values of "cold air" and "talking" for the diagnosis of CVA were 36% and 70% for "cold air", and 44% and 74% for "talking", respectively. Their specificity was 81%. "Cold air" was associated with airway hyperresponsiveness in all patients with an emphasis on those with low FeNO levels. "Cold air" and/or "talking" as cough triggers could be signs for the diagnosis of CVA, particularly when FeNO levels are low. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Nocturnal spasmodic cough in the infant. Evolution after antireflux treatment].

    PubMed

    Dordal, M T; Baltazar, M A; Roca, I; Marques, L; Server, M T; Botoy, J

    1994-02-01

    Several studies have shown the relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux, bronchial asthma and chronic nocturnal cough and this should not be neglected, particularly in patients who present an unfavourable development in spite of conventional treatment. For diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux, amongst other investigations, esophageal gammagraphy of swallowing, that detects alterations in the mobility of the oesophagus, secondary to a possible oesophagitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical progress and gammagraphy of a group of children with chronic predominantly nocturnal cough (with or without bronchial asthma) with initially pathological esophageal gammagraphy, after three months of treatment with gastrokinetic drugs (cisapride against domperidone) and postural dietetic limits, in comparison with a reference group who, although having followed the limits in question had not received the pharmacological treatment. From the clinical viewpoint, cough disappeared in 64.5% of cases without significant statistical differences between the two groups. Gammagraphy became normal in 20/55 cases, improved in 10/55 cases and was unchanged in 25/55. Although there was no significant difference, gammagraphy development was better in children who received domperidone. The agreement between clinical progress and gammagraphy was 60% with a large number of false positives in the gammagraphy. We believe that the simple introduction of the postural-dietetic measures may improve the clinical control in the type of patients who present with a chronic nocturnally predominant cough that does not yield to conventional treatment.

  17. Inhibitory effect of cervical trachea and chest wall vibrations on cough reflex sensitivity and perception of urge-to-cough in healthy male never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-pharmacological options for symptomatic management of cough are desired. Although chest wall mechanical vibration is known to ameliorate cough reflex sensitivity, the effect of mechanical vibrations on perceptions of urge-to-cough has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mechanical vibration of cervical trachea, chest wall and femoral muscle on cough reflex sensitivity, perceptions of urge-to-cough as well as dyspnea. Methods Twenty-four healthy male never-smokers were investigated for cough reflex sensitivity, perceptions of the urge-to-cough and dyspnea with or without mechanical vibration. Cough reflex sensitivity and urge-to-cough were evaluated by the inhalation of citric acid. The perception of dyspnea was evaluated by Borg scores during applications of external inspiratory resistive loads. Mechanical vibration was applied by placing a vibrating tuning fork on the skin surface of cervical trachea, chest wall and femoral muscle. Results Cervical trachea vibration significantly increased cough reflex threshold, as expressed by the lowest concentration of citric acid that elicited five or more coughs (C5), and urge-to-cough threshold, as expressed by the lowest concentration of citric acid that elicited urge-to-cough (Cu), but did not significantly affect dypnea sensation during inspiratory resistive loading. On the other hand, the chest wall vibration not only significantly increased C5 and Cu but also significantly ameliorated the load-response curve of dyspnea sensation. Conclusions Both cervical and trachea vibrations significantly inhibited cough reflex sensitivity and perception of urge-to-cough. These vibration techniques might be options for symptomatic cough management. PMID:24088411

  18. Increase of weakly acidic gas esophagopharyngeal reflux (EPR) and swallowing-induced acidic/weakly acidic EPR in patients with chronic cough responding to proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, O; Shimoyama, Y; Hosaka, H; Kuribayashi, S; Maeda, M; Nagoshi, A; Zai, H; Kusano, M

    2011-05-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related chronic cough (CC) may have multifactorial causes. To clarify the characteristics of esophagopharyngeal reflux (EPR) events in CC patients whose cough was apparently influenced by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), we studied patients with CC clearly responding to full-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy (CC patients). Ten CC patients, 10 GERD patients, and 10 healthy controls underwent 24-h ambulatory pharyngo-esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. Weakly acidic reflux was defined as a decrease of pH by >1 unit with a nadir pH >4. In six CC patients, monitoring was repeated after 8 weeks of PPI therapy. The number of each EPR event and the symptom association probability (SAP) were calculated. Symptoms were evaluated by a validated GERD symptom questionnaire. Weakly acidic gas EPR and swallowing-induced acidic/weakly acidic EPR only occurred in CC patients, and the numbers of such events was significantly higher in the CC group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05, respectively). Symptom association probability analysis revealed a positive association between GER and cough in three CC patients. Proton pump inhibitor therapy abolished swallowing-induced acidic/weakly acidic EPR, reduced weakly acidic gas EPR, and improved symptoms (all P < 0.05). Most patients with CC responding to PPI therapy had weakly acidic gas EPR and swallowing-induced acidic/weakly acidic EPR. A direct effect of acidic mist or liquid refluxing into the pharynx may contribute to chronic cough, while cough may also arise indirectly from reflux via a vago-vagal reflex in some patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Chivima, Brenda

    2014-10-21

    Whooping cough or pertussis is a contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Whooping cough is transmitted via droplets in the air from sneezing or coughing and individuals are considered infectious from just before and up to 21 days after the onset of the cough. Usually it has an incubation period of seven to ten days, and the disease lasts six to eight weeks.

  20. Effects of pirfenidone on increased cough reflex sensitivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Akihito; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Katayama, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Pirfenidone, an antifibrotic drug with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, delays fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Patients with IPF have a greater cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin than healthy people, and cough is an independent predictor of IPF disease progression; however, the effects of pirfenidone on cough reflex sensitivity are unknown. After challenge with an aerosolized antigen in actively sensitized guinea pigs, pirfenidone was administered intraperitoneally, and the cough reflex sensitivity was measured at 48 h after the challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and the tracheal tissue was collected. Pirfenidone suppressed the capsaicin-induced increase in cough reflex sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, increased levels of prostaglandin E2, substance P, and leukotriene B4, but not histamine, in the BAL fluid were dose dependently suppressed by pirfenidone. The decrease in neutral endopeptidase activity in the tracheal tissue was also alleviated by pirfenidone treatment. The total number of cells and components in the BAL fluid was not influenced. These results suggest that pirfenidone ameliorates isolated cough based on increased cough reflex sensitivity associated with allergic airway diseases, and potentially relieve chronic cough in IPF patients who often have increased cough reflex sensitivity. Prospective studies on cough-relieving effects of pirfenidone in patients with IPF are therefore warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Bettiol, Silvana; Wang, Kay; Thompson, Matthew J; Roberts, Nia W; Perera, Rafael; Heneghan, Carl J; Harnden, Anthony

    2012-05-16

    The worldwide incidence of whooping cough (pertussis) has been estimated at 48.5 million cases and nearly 295,000 deaths per year. In low-income countries, the case-fatality rate among infants may be as high as 4%. Much of the morbidity of whooping cough in children and adults is due to the effects of the paroxysmal cough. Cough treatments proposed include corticosteroids, beta 2-adrenergic agonists, pertussis-specific immunoglobulin, antihistamines and possibly leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs). To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions to reduce the severity of paroxysmal cough in whooping cough in children and adults. We updated searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 2, 2012), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE Issue 2, 2012) accessed from The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (1980 to January 2012), AMED (1985 to January 2012), CINAHL (1980 to January 2012) and LILACS (January 2012). We searched Current Controlled Trials to identify trials in progress. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any intervention (excluding antibiotics and vaccines) to suppress the cough in whooping cough. Two review authors (SB, MT) independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial for this review in 2009. Two review authors (SB, KW) independently reviewed additional studies identified by the updated search in 2012. The primary outcome was frequency of paroxysms of coughing. Secondary outcomes were frequency of vomiting, frequency of whoop, frequency of cyanosis (turning blue), development of serious complications, mortality from any cause, side effects due to medication, admission to hospital and duration of hospital stay.  Ten trials were included of varying sample sizes (N = 9 to 135) from high-income countries. Study quality was

  2. Long term respiratory sequelae of whooping cough in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed Central

    Britten, N; Wadsworth, J

    1986-01-01

    The long term respiratory consequences of whooping cough in childhood were sought among members of the National Survey of Health and Development. Peak expiratory flow rate was measured when the survey members were 36 years old and seven respiratory symptoms were reported at the same time. Peak expiratory flow rate was slightly reduced in those who had had whooping cough as a child, and this difference became non-significant when other factors were taken into account. Unexpectedly, chronic cough was significantly less likely to be reported by those who had had whooping cough, and this difference remained significant only among men after other factors had been taken into account. This study failed to show a long term detrimental effect of whooping cough on the respiratory system. PMID:3081115

  3. WITHDRAWN: Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Pillay-Van Wyk, Victoria; Swingler, George H

    2008-10-08

    Whooping cough is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. There are 20 to 40 million cases of whooping cough annually world-wide, 90% of which occur in developing countries, resulting in an estimated 200 to 300,000 fatalities each year. Much of the morbidity is due to the effects of the paroxysmal cough. Corticosteroids, salbutamol (beta 2 - adrenergic stimulant), and pertussis-specific immunoglobulin have been proposed as standard treatment for the cough. Antihistamines have also been administered. No systematic review of the effectiveness of any of these interventions or others has been performed. To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions used to reduce the severity of the coughing paroxysms in whooping cough in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2003, issue 2); MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2003); EMBASE (1990 to June 2003) and LILACS (1982 to November 2001). Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of any intervention aimed at suppressing the cough in whooping cough; excluding antibiotics and vaccines. Two review authors independently selected studies and extracted data. Our primary outcome was frequency of paroxysms of coughing. Secondary outcomes were frequency of vomiting, frequency of whoop, frequency of cyanosis, development of serious complications, mortality from any cause, side effects due to medication, admission to hospital and duration of hospital stay. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Nine studies satisfied the inclusion criteria but four had insufficient data for meta - analysis of pre-specified outcomes. Studies were small and poorly reported. The largest study had a sample size of 49 and the smallest study 18. All studies were performed in industrialised settings.Eligible studies assessed diphenhyramine, pertussis immunoglobulin, dexamethasone and salbutamol. No statistically significant benefit was found for any of

  4. Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kay; Bettiol, Silvana; Thompson, Matthew J; Roberts, Nia W; Perera, Rafael; Heneghan, Carl J; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-09-22

    Around 16 million cases of whooping cough (pertussis) occur worldwide each year, mostly in low-income countries. Much of the morbidity of whooping cough in children and adults is due to the effects of the paroxysmal cough. Cough treatments proposed include corticosteroids, beta2-adrenergic agonists, pertussis-specific immunoglobulin, antihistamines and possibly leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs). To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions to reduce the severity of paroxysmal cough in whooping cough in children and adults. We updated our searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014, Issue 1), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE 2014, Issue 2), accessed from The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1950 to 30 January 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 30 January 2014), AMED (1985 to 30 January 2014), CINAHL (1980 to 30 January 2014) and LILACS (30 January 2014). We searched Current Controlled Trials to identify trials in progress. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any intervention (excluding antibiotics and vaccines) to suppress the cough in whooping cough. Two review authors (SB, MT) independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial for this review in 2009. Two review authors (SB, KW) independently reviewed additional studies identified by the updated searches in 2012 and 2014. The primary outcome was frequency of paroxysms of coughing. Secondary outcomes were frequency of vomiting, frequency of whoop, frequency of cyanosis (turning blue), development of serious complications, mortality from any cause, side effects due to medication, admission to hospital and duration of hospital stay.  We included 12 trials of varying sample sizes (N = 9 to 135), mainly from high-income countries, including a total of 578 participants. Ten trials recruited children (N = 448

  5. Decreased Cough Sensitivity and Aspiration in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Okun, Michael S.; Davenport, Paul W.; Hegland, Karen W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death in people with Parkinson disease (PD). The pathogenesis of these infections is largely attributed to the presence of dysphagia with silent aspiration or aspiration without an appropriate cough response. The goal of this study was to test reflex cough thresholds and associated urge-to-cough (UTC) ratings in participants with PD with and without dysphagia. METHODS: Twenty participants with PD were recruited for this study. They completed a capsaicin challenge with three randomized blocks of 0, 50, 100, and 200 μM capsaicin and rated their UTC by modified Borg scale. The concentration of capsaicin that elicited a two-cough response, total number of coughs, and sensitivity of the participant to the cough stimulus (UTC) were measured. The dysphagia severity of participants with PD was identified with the penetration-aspiration scale. RESULTS: Most participants with PD did not have a consistent two-cough response to 200 μM capsaicin. UTC ratings and total number of coughs produced at 200 μM capsaicin were significantly influenced by dysphagia severity but not by general PD severity, age, or disease duration. Increasing levels of dysphagia severity resulted in significantly blunted cough sensitivity (UTC). CONCLUSIONS: UTC ratings may be important in understanding the mechanism underlying morbidity related to aspiration pneumonia in people with PD and dysphagia. Further understanding of decreased UTC in people with PD and dysphagia will be essential for the development of strategies and treatments to address airway protection deficits in this population. PMID:24968148

  6. Coughing (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually don't prescribe antibiotics because these only work against bacteria. Unless a cough won't let your child sleep, cough medicines are not needed. They might help a child stop coughing, but they don't treat the cause of the cough. If you do use an ...

  7. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Effects of Antitussive Agents on Respiratory Center Output in Patients With Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Mannini, Claudia; Lavorini, Federico; Zanasi, Alessandro; Saibene, Federico; Lanata, Luigi; Fontana, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Cough is produced by the same neuronal pool implicated in respiratory rhythm generation, and antitussive drugs acting at the central level, such as opioids, may depress ventilation. Levodropropizine is classified as a nonopioid peripherally acting antitussive drug that acts at the level of airway sensory nerves. However, the lack of a central action by levodropropizine remains to be fully established. We set out to compare the effects of levodropropizine and the opioid antitussive agent dihydrocodeine on the respiratory responses to a conventional CO 2 rebreathing test in patients with chronic cough of any origin. Twenty-four outpatients (aged 39-70 years) with chronic cough were studied. On separate runs, each patient was randomly administered 60 mg levodropropizine, 15 mg dihydrocodeine, or a matching placebo. Subsequently, patients breathed a mixture of 93% oxygen and 7% CO 2 for 5 min. Fractional end-tidal CO 2 (Fetco 2 ) and inspiratory minute ventilation (V˙i) were continuously monitored. Changes in breathing pattern variables were also assessed. At variance with dihydrocodeine, levodropropizine and placebo did not affect respiratory responses to hypercapnia (P < .01). The ventilatory increases by hypercapnia were mainly accounted for by a rise in the volume components of the breathing pattern. The results are consistent with a peripheral action by levodropropizine; the assessment of ventilatory responses to CO 2 may represent a useful tool to investigate the central respiratory effects of antitussive agents. European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT No.: 2013-004735-68); URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Gastro-oesophageal reflux treatment for prolonged non-specific cough in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne B; Lasserson, Toby J; Gaffney, Justin; Connor, Frances L; Garske, Luke A

    2011-01-19

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is said to be the causative factor in up to 41% of adults with chronic cough. Treatment for GORD includes conservative measures (diet manipulation), pharmaceutical therapy (motility or prokinetic agents, H(2)-antagonist and proton pump inhibitors (PPI)) and fundoplication. To evaluate the efficacy of GORD treatment on chronic cough in children and adults with GORD and prolonged cough that is not related to an underlying respiratory disease, i.e. non-specific chronic cough. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, review articles and reference lists of relevant articles. The date of last search was 8 April 2010. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on GORD treatment for cough in children and adults without primary lung disease. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for further information. We included 19 studies (six paediatric, 13 adults). None of the paediatric studies could be combined for meta-analysis. A single RCT in infants found that PPI (compared to placebo) was not efficacious for cough outcomes (favouring placebo OR 1.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 4.55) but those on PPI had significantly increased adverse events (OR 5.56; 95% CI 1.18 to 26.25) (number needed to treat for harm in four weeks was 11 (95% CI 3 to 232)). In adults, analysis of H(2) antagonist, motility agents and conservative treatment for GORD was not possible (lack of data) and there were no controlled studies of fundoplication. We analysed nine adult studies comparing PPI (two to three months) to placebo for various outcomes in the meta-analysis. Using intention-to-treat, pooled data from studies resulted in no significant difference between treatment and placebo in total resolution of cough (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.19 to 1.15). Pooled data revealed no overall significant improvement in cough outcomes (end of

  9. Cough physiology in elderly women with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infections.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Fennelly, Kevin; Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Adams, Sherry; Condrey, Jillian; Hosford, Jennifer L; Davenport, Paul W

    2017-05-01

    Elderly white, thin, nonsmoking women appear to be more susceptible to lung infections with Mycobacterium avium complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It has been postulated that such disease in women is related to suppression of their cough. We hypothesized that patients with pulmonary NTM (pNTM) infections may have altered cough physiology compared with unaffected control subjects. We used capsaicin-induced cough to assess the cough reflex in pNTM subjects. Eight elderly white women with stable chronic pNTM infections and six unaffected age-matched control subjects were recruited. There was no significant difference between groups in capsaicin-elicited cough motor response, airflow pattern, or cough frequency. The urge-to-cough (UTC) score at the lowest capsaicin concentration was significantly lower in pNTM than control subjects ( P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the UTC score between pNTM and control subjects at >50 μM capsaicin. These results suggest lower UTC sensitivity to the lowest concentration of capsaicin in pNTM than control subjects. In other words, the pNTM subjects do not sense a UTC when the stimulus is relatively small. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study investigates the cough motor response and cough sensitivity in patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. In elderly white female pulmonary NTM subjects, we demonstrated a capacity to produce coughs similar to that of age-matched control subjects but decreased cough sensitivity in response to a low dose of capsaicin compared with control subjects. These findings are important to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms resulting in NTM disease in elderly white women and/or the syndrome developing in elderly white female NTM patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. [Butamirate citrate in control of cough in respiratory tract inflammation].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2017-08-21

    Cough is the reflex defense response of the respiratory tract to the present secretions in the throat, trachea and bronchi, and ongoing inflammation in the mucous membranes of the upper and lower respiratory tract. From a practical point of view, cough is dry (unproductive) and productive cough with expulsion of significant amounts of secretion. Drugs used to treat cough differ in both mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic activity. Butamirate citrate belongs to a new class of cough suppressants acting centrally through the receptors in the brainstem. In addition, it has a very beneficial effect, because it reduces the resistance in the airways by inhibiting bronchospasm and anti-inflammatory effect. It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and its therapeutic plasma concentration is determined after 5-10 minutes of administration, irrespective of the dose. Possible side effects are rarely seen in 0.5-1% of patients, mainly in the form of skin rash, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, which usually resolves during treatment. The cough effect of most cough suppressants is good, but their mechanisms are different and for that reason they should be individually selected. An important asset of this group of drugs is peripheral activity and effects on bronchodilator muscles, such as in the case of butamirate. Inclusion of this feature is particularly beneficial in chronic inflammatory bronchial diseases.

  11. Grading Severity of Productive Cough Based on Symptoms and Airflow Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Guillamet, Rodrigo; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Sood, Akshay; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2018-04-26

    The binary approach to the diagnosis of Chronic Bronchitis (CB) is a major barrier to the study of the disease. We investigated whether severity of productive cough can be graded using symptoms and presence of fixed airflow obstruction (FAO), and whether the severity correlates with health status, exposures injurious to the lung, biomarkers of inflammation, and measures of airway wall thickening. Findings from a cross-sectional sample of 1,422 participants from the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (LSC) were validated in 4,488 participants from the COPDGene cohort (COPDGene). Health status was based on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Circulating CC16 levels were quantified by ELISA (LSC), and airway wall thickening was measured using computed tomography (COPDGene). FAO was defined as postbronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC <0.7. The presence and duration of productive cough and presence of FAO or wheeze were graded into Healthy Smokers, Productive Cough (PC), Chronic PC, PC with Signs of Airflow Obstruction, and Chronic PC with Signs of Airflow Obstruction. In both cohorts, higher grade of severity correlated with lower health status, greater frequency of injurious exposures, greater airway wall thickening, and lower circulating CC16 levels. Further, longitudinal follow-up suggested that disease resolution can occur at every grade of severity but is more common in groups of lower severity and least common once airway remodeling develops. Therefore, severity of productive cough can be graded based on symptoms and FAO and early intervention may benefit patients by changing the natural history of disease.

  12. Unusual cause of chronic cough in a four-year-old cured by uvulectomy.

    PubMed

    Najada, Abdelhamid; Weinberger, Miles

    2002-08-01

    A 4-year-old boy had a history of persistent barking cough unresponsive to medical treatment since infancy. He described a feeling of something in his throat. When investigated by flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, the only abnormality was the uvula resting in contact with the epiglottis. The cough was no longer present after uvulectomy. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Classification of Cough as a Symptom in Adults and Management Algorithms: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Richard S; French, Cynthia L; Chang, Anne B; Altman, Kenneth W

    2018-01-01

    We performed systematic reviews using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) format to answer the following key clinical question: Are the CHEST 2006 classifications of acute, subacute and chronic cough and associated management algorithms in adults that were based on durations of cough useful? We used the CHEST Expert Cough Panel's protocol for the systematic reviews and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodological guidelines and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Data from the systematic reviews in conjunction with patient values and preferences and the clinical context were used to form recommendations or suggestions. Delphi methodology was used to obtain the final grading. With respect to acute cough (< 3 weeks), only three studies met our criteria for quality assessment, and all had a high risk of bias. As predicted by the 2006 CHEST Cough Guidelines, the most common causes were respiratory infections, most likely of viral cause, followed by exacerbations of underlying diseases such as asthma and COPD and pneumonia. The subjects resided on three continents: North America, Europe, and Asia. With respect to subacute cough (duration, 3-8 weeks), only two studies met our criteria for quality assessment, and both had a high risk of bias. As predicted by the 2006 guidelines, the most common causes were postinfectious cough and exacerbation of underlying diseases such as asthma, COPD, and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). The subjects resided in countries in Asia. With respect to chronic cough (> 8 weeks), 11 studies met our criteria for quality assessment, and all had a high risk of bias. As predicted by the 2006 guidelines, the most common causes were UACS from rhinosinus conditions, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, combinations of these four conditions, and, less commonly, a variety of miscellaneous conditions and atopic cough in Asian

  14. Detection of cough signals in continuous audio recordings using hidden Markov models.

    PubMed

    Matos, Sergio; Birring, Surinder S; Pavord, Ian D; Evans, David H

    2006-06-01

    Cough is a common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The evaluation of its intensity and frequency of occurrence could provide valuable clinical information in the assessment of patients with chronic cough. In this paper we propose the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) to automatically detect cough sounds from continuous ambulatory recordings. The recording system consists of a digital sound recorder and a microphone attached to the patient's chest. The recognition algorithm follows a keyword-spotting approach, with cough sounds representing the keywords. It was trained on 821 min selected from 10 ambulatory recordings, including 2473 manually labeled cough events, and tested on a database of nine recordings from separate patients with a total recording time of 3060 min and comprising 2155 cough events. The average detection rate was 82% at a false alarm rate of seven events/h, when considering only events above an energy threshold relative to each recording's average energy. These results suggest that HMMs can be applied to the detection of cough sounds from ambulatory patients. A postprocessing stage to perform a more detailed analysis on the detected events is under development, and could allow the rejection of some of the incorrectly detected events.

  15. Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-09

    Information on potential cough triggers including environmental irritants is vital for successful management of chronic cough in patients. We investigated the relationship between ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and sulphur dioxide (SO₂) exposures with cough prevalence. Eighty-three adult patients, who had been physician diagnosed with at least asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough, were divided into asthma and non-asthma groups. They recorded daily cough symptoms during 4 January-30 June 2011 study period while daily samples of total suspended particles were simultaneously collected by use of glass fiber filters and the particulate PAH content determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. Ambient concentrations of NO₂ and SO₂ were obtained from a local monitoring site. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine population-averaged estimates of association between cough prevalence and ambient pollutant exposures for the two groups. Fully adjusted odds ratios from single pollutant models were 1.083 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.029, 1.140) and 1.097 (95% CI: 1.016, 1.185) per 0.57 ng/m³ for lag2 PAH exposure, while only for asthma group had significant associations with NO₂ and SO₂ exposures for both lag2 and lag02. Similar associations were observed in multipollutant models. This finding suggests that ambient PAH, NO₂, and SO₂ exposure even at low levels is related to cough prevalence in adult chronic cough patients and may be considered as aggravating factor during clinical management of the condition.

  16. Pertussis-induced cough.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kay; Harnden, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) is one of the commonest vaccine preventable diseases in the UK, despite vaccination coverage being maintained for the last 15 years at over 90% among infants and the addition of a pre-school booster to the UK national immunisation programme in 2001. However, it is known that pertussis vaccine does not confer long-term immunity to clinical infection. Evidence of pertussis infection has been reported in 37% of children presenting in UK primary care and 20% of adolescents and adults presenting in Canadian health centres with persistent cough. In children and adults with persistent cough, paroxysmal coughing is the most sensitive indicator of pertussis, but has poor specificity and limited diagnostic value. Vomiting and whooping, particularly in combination, are stronger predictors of pertussis. Cough duration is longer in children than in adults with pertussis (median cough duration 112 days versus 42 days); individuals may take even longer to recover fully and regain previous levels of exercise tolerance. A diagnosis of pertussis may be confirmed by culture, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or serology. Single estimates of anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibody titres in blood or oral fluid samples are highly specific. There are currently no proven efficacious treatments for pertussis-induced cough. Treatment with macrolide antibiotics reduces the duration of an individual's infectious period, but does not alter the duration of cough. Further research is needed to re-examine the epidemiology of pertussis in countries with different vaccination schedules, find efficacious treatments and develop methods of measuring cough frequency and severity in patients with pertussis-induced cough. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Dilated intercellular space diameter as marker of reflux-related mucosal injury in children with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, O; Mancini, V; Thapar, N; Ribolsi, M; Emerenziani, S; de'Angelis, G; Bizzarri, B; Lindley, K J; Cicala, M

    2014-04-01

    The diagnostic corroboration of the relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic cough remains challenging. To compare oesophageal mucosal intercellular space diameter (ISD) in children with GERD, children with gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER)-related cough (GrC) and a control group, and to explore the relationship between baseline impedance levels and dilated ISD in children with GER-related cough. Forty children with GERD, 15 children with GrC and 12 controls prospectively underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with oesophageal biopsies taken 2-3 cm above squamocolumnar junction. ISD were quantified using transmission electron microscopy. Impedance-pH monitoring with evaluation of baseline impedance in the most distal impedance channel was performed in both patient groups. A significant difference in mean ISD values was found between GrC patients (0.9 ± 0.2 μm) and controls (0.5 ± 0.2 μm, P < 0.001), whereas there was no difference between GrC and GERD group (1 ± 0.3 μm, NS). No difference was found in the mean ISD between GrC children with or without pathological oesophageal acid exposure time (1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 μm), and there was no correlation between ISD and any reflux parameter. Finally, there was no correlation between ISD and distal baseline impedance values (r:-0.35; NS). In children with reflux-related cough, dilated intercellular space diameter appears to be an objective and useful marker of oesophageal mucosal injury regardless of acid exposure, and its evaluation should be considered for those patients where the diagnosis is uncertain. In children with reflux-related cough, baseline impedance levels have no role in identifying reflux-induced oesophageal mucosal ultrastructural changes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Claire E; Counter, Melanie J; Thomas, Gareth A; Harrison, Nicholas K; Hope-Gill, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cough affects more than 70 percent of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and causes significant morbidity. Gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of some cases of chronic cough; and also has a postulated role in the aetiology of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A high prevalence of acid; and more recently non-acid, reflux has been observed in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis cohorts. Therefore, gastroesophageal reflux may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cough in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Eighteen subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis underwent 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after the careful exclusion of causes of chronic cough other than gastroesophageal reflux. All 18 were then treated with high dose acid suppression therapies. Fourteen subjects underwent repeat 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after eight weeks. Total reflux and acid reflux frequencies were within the normal range in the majority of this cohort. The frequencies of non-acid and proximal reflux events were above the normal range. Following high dose acid suppression therapy there was a significant decrease in the number of acid reflux events (p = 0.02), but an increase in the number of non-acid reflux events (p = 0.01). There was no change in cough frequency (p = 0.70). This study confirms that non-acid reflux is prevalent; and that proximal oesophageal reflux occurs in the majority, of subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. It is the first study to investigate the effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. The observation that cough frequency does not improve despite verifiable reductions in oesophageal acid exposure challenges the role of acid reflux in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis associated cough. The finding that non-acid reflux is increased following the use of acid suppression therapies cautions against the widespread use

  19. Continuous Cough Monitoring Using Ambient Sound Recording During Convalescence from a COPD Exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Michael G; den Brinker, Albertus; Hayman, Yvette; Williamson, James D; Innes, Andrew; Wright, Caroline E; Hill, Peter; Morice, Alyn H

    2017-06-01

    Cough is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with frequent exacerbations and increased mortality. Cough increases during acute exacerbations (AE-COPD), representing a possible metric of clinical deterioration. Conventional cough monitors accurately report cough counts over short time periods. We describe a novel monitoring system which we used to record cough continuously for up to 45 days during AE-COPD convalescence. This is a longitudinal, observational study of cough monitoring in AE-COPD patients discharged from a single teaching hospital. Ambient sound was recorded from two sites in the domestic environment and analysed using novel cough classifier software. For comparison, the validated hybrid HACC/LCM cough monitoring system was used on days 1, 5, 20 and 45. Patients were asked to record symptoms daily using diaries. Cough monitoring data were available for 16 subjects with a total of 568 monitored days. Daily cough count fell significantly from mean ± SEM 272.7 ± 54.5 on day 1 to 110.9 ± 26.3 on day 9 (p < 0.01) before plateauing. The absolute cough count detected by the continuous monitoring system was significantly lower than detected by the hybrid HACC/LCM system but normalised counts strongly correlated (r = 0.88, p < 0.01) demonstrating an ability to detect trends. Objective cough count and subjective cough scores modestly correlated (r = 0.46). Cough frequency declines significantly following AE-COPD and the reducing trend can be detected using continuous ambient sound recording and novel cough classifier software. Objective measurement of cough frequency has the potential to enhance our ability to monitor the clinical state in patients with COPD.

  20. Dynamics of Cough Frequency in Adults Undergoing Treatment for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bravard, Marjory A.; López, José W.; Lee, Gwenyth O.; Bui, David; Datta, Sumona; Comina, Germán; Zimic, Mirko; Coronel, Jorge; Caviedes, Luz; Cabrera, José L.; Salas, Antonio; Ticona, Eduardo; Vu, Nancy M.; Kirwan, Daniela E.; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Friedland, Jon S.; Moore, David A. J.; Evans, Carlton A.; Tracey, Brian H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Cough is the major determinant of tuberculosis transmission. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding characteristics of cough frequency throughout the day and in response to tuberculosis therapy. Here we evaluate the circadian cycle of cough, cough frequency risk factors, and the impact of appropriate treatment on cough and bacillary load. Methods. We prospectively evaluated human immunodeficiency virus–negative adults (n = 64) with a new diagnosis of culture-proven, drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis immediately prior to treatment and repeatedly until treatment day 62. At each time point, participant cough was recorded (n = 670) and analyzed using the Cayetano Cough Monitor. Consecutive coughs at least 2 seconds apart were counted as separate cough episodes. Sputum samples (n = 426) were tested with microscopic-observation drug susceptibility broth culture, and in culture-positive samples (n = 252), the time to culture positivity was used to estimate bacillary load. Results. The highest cough frequency occurred from 1 pm to 2 pm, and the lowest from 1 am to 2 am (2.4 vs 1.1 cough episodes/hour, respectively). Cough frequency was higher among participants who had higher sputum bacillary load (P < .01). Pretreatment median cough episodes/hour was 2.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.2–4.1), which at 14 treatment days decreased to 0.48 (IQR, 0.0–1.4) and at the end of the study decreased to 0.18 (IQR, 0.0–0.59) (both reductions P < .001). By 14 treatment days, the probability of culture conversion was 29% (95% confidence interval, 19%–41%). Conclusions. Coughs were most frequent during daytime. Two weeks of appropriate treatment significantly reduced cough frequency and resulted in one-third of participants achieving culture conversion. Thus, treatment by 2 weeks considerably diminishes, but does not eliminate, the potential for airborne tuberculosis transmission. PMID:28329268

  1. Volitional control of reflex cough

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.; Davenport, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest a role for the cerebral cortex in the generation of reflex cough in awake humans. Reflex cough is preceded by detection of an urge to cough; strokes specifically within the cerebral cortex can affect parameters of reflex cough, and reflex cough can be voluntarily suppressed. However, it is not known to what extent healthy, awake humans can volitionally modulate the cough reflex, aside from suppression. The aims of this study were to determine whether conscious humans can volitionally modify their reflexive cough and, if so, to determine what parameters of the cough waveform and corresponding muscle activity can be modified. Twenty adults (18–40 yr, 4 men) volunteered for study participation and gave verbal and written informed consent. Participants were seated and outfitted with a facemask and pneumotacograph, and two surface EMG electrodes were positioned over expiratory muscles. Capsaicin (200 μM) was delivered via dosimeter and one-way (inspiratory) valve attached to a side port between the facemask and pneumotachograph. Cough airflow and surface EMG activity were recorded across tasks including 1) baseline, 2) small cough (cough smaller or softer than normal), 3) long cough (cough longer or louder than normal), and 4) not cough (alternative behavior). All participants coughed in response to 200 μM capsaicin and were able to modify the cough. Variables exhibiting changes include those related to the peak airflow during the expiratory phase. Results demonstrate that it is possible to volitionally modify cough motor output characteristics. PMID:22492938

  2. Cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) with chronic cough and preserved muscle stretch reflexes: evidence for selective sparing of afferent Ia fibres.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jon; García, Antonio; Serrano-Cárdenas, Karla M; González-Aguado, Rocío; Gazulla, José; de Lucas, Enrique M; Berciano, José

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe five patients with cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) with chronic cough and preserved limb muscle stretch reflexes. All five patients were in the seventh decade of age, their gait imbalance having been initiated in the fifth decade. In four patients cough antedated gait imbalance between 15 and 29 years; cough was spasmodic and triggered by variable factors. Established clinical picture included severe hypopallesthesia predominating in the lower limbs with postural imbalance, and variable degree of cerebellar axial and appendicular ataxia, dysarthria and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus. Upper- and lower-limb tendon jerks were preserved, whereas jaw jerk was absent. Vestibular function testing showed bilateral impairment of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated normal motor conduction parameters and absence or severe attenuation of sensory nerve action potentials. Somatosensory evoked potentials were absent or severely attenuated. Biceps and femoral T-reflex recordings were normal, while masseter reflex was absent or attenuated. Sympathetic skin responses were normal. Cranial MRI showed vermian and hemispheric cerebellar atrophy predominating in lobules VI, VII and VIIa. We conclude that spasmodic cough may be an integral part of the clinical picture in CANVAS, antedating the appearance of imbalance in several decades and that sparing of muscle spindle afferents (Ia fibres) is probably the pathophysiological basis of normoreflexia.

  3. Chronically Ill Children in America: Background and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nicholas; And Others

    The report examines chronic illness in children and considers issues and recommendations for change in public policies and programs affecting chronically ill children and their families. The background chapter notes the significance of the problem, reviews 11 diseases that are representative of the severe chronic illnesses of childhood: juvenile…

  4. Inhibition of cough-reflex sensitivity by benzonatate and guaifenesin in acute viral cough.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Gayle, Yvonne E; Solomon, Gail; Gilbert, Richard D

    2009-06-01

    Acute cough due to viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is the most common form of cough and accounts for tremendous expenditure on prescription and non-prescription cough products worldwide. However, few agents have been shown in properly conducted clinical trials to be effective for cough due to URI. The present study evaluated the effect of benzonatate 200mg (B), guaifenesin 600 mg (G), their combination (B+G), and placebo (P) on capsaicin-induced cough in 30 adult nonsmokers with acute URI. On 3 separate days within a 7-day period, 1h after ingesting randomly assigned study drug in a double-blind fashion, subjects underwent capsaicin cough challenge testing, which involved inhalation of incremental doubling concentrations of capsaicin until the concentration of capsaicin inducing 5 or more coughs (C(5)) was attained. Each subject received 3 of 4 possible study drugs. G (p=0.01) but not B (p=NS) inhibited cough-reflex sensitivity (log C(5)) relative to P. The combination of B+G suppressed capsaicin-induced cough to a greater degree than B alone (p<0.001) or G alone (p=0.008). The mechanism by which the combination of B+G causes a potentiation of antitussive effect remains to be elucidated. Our results suggest that B+G may be an effective therapy for acute cough due to the common cold (URI).

  5. Semantics and types of cough

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kian Fan; Bolser, Don; Davenport, Paul; Fontana, Giovanni; Morice, Alyn; Widdicombe, John

    2010-01-01

    The panel considered the different types of cough in terms of basic mechanisms and clinical manifestations; both experimentally and clinically cough could occur in single efforts and as ‘bouts’ or ‘epochs’. There were different definitions of cough but, provided the definition used was clear, this did not seem to be a major concern. The methods available for determining the nature or type of clinical cough were discussed, in particular automated cough counting in the clinic and more sophisticated methods available in the laboratory. With regard to semantics, there has been great variation in the names used; this applies to nervous sensors for cough, to cough reflexes and epochs, to clinical names for cough, and to cough sounds. Some simplification and uniformity of nomenclature seemed desirable although, provided the use of a name was clear, little confusion probably existed. The panel felt that the cough nomenclature would evolve with time and would prove to be useful for investigators, clinicians and coughers. PMID:19136069

  6. The impact of harmfulness information on citric acid induced cough and urge-to-cough.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Thomas; Brepoels, Sarah; Dupont, Lieven; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2015-04-01

    The cough reflex is an automatic protective reflex, which can be modulated by conscious effort or other forms of top-down control. In this experiment, we investigated whether information about harmfulness of a cough-inducing substance would augment cough reflex sensitivity and associated urge-to-cough. Healthy participants (N = 39) were randomized to receive information that they were to inhale a harmless substance (natural citric acid), or a potentially harmful substance (a potent agro-chemical acid). Using dosimeter-controlled inhalations, the dose of citric acid eliciting at least three coughs (C3) was determined. Next, participants received 4 blocks of randomized presentations of citric acid at the C3 dose, a sub-threshold dose of citric acid and saline control. C3 was reached for 27/39 participants, and C3 thresholds were not influenced by harmfulness information. During repeated citric acid presentations, framing the cough-inducing substance as a potentially harmful chemical resulted in a greater urge-to-cough compared to information framing it as natural citric acid (p < .01). The experimental manipulation did not influence cough frequencies. Our findings show that harmfulness information influences urge-to-cough, corroborating the role of cortical mechanisms in modulating the urge-to-cough and suggesting that cognitive manipulations may contribute to cough treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux evaluation in patients affected by chronic cough: Restech versus multichannel intraluminal impedance/pH metry.

    PubMed

    Ummarino, Dario; Vandermeulen, Liv; Roosens, Bart; Urbain, Daniel; Hauser, Bruno; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-04-01

    Oropharyngeal (OP) pH monitoring has been developed to detect supra-esophageal gastric reflux (SEGR). The results obtained with OP pH-metry and multichannel intraluminal impedance/pH monitoring (MII/pH) were compared. Diagnostic study. Ten patients (age 46.33 ± 9.86 years) presenting with chronic coughing underwent simultaneous OP and MII/pH recording. A 2-minute interval was allowed between events detected with both techniques to be considered simultaneous. A total of 515 reflux episodes were recorded with MII/pH (acid: 181; weakly acid: 310; weakly alkaline: 24); 180 (35%) reached the highest impedance channel (hypo-pharynx); 74/180 (41%) were not related to a change in pH, according to the antimony electrode of the MII/pH catheter located at the upper esophageal sphincter. The OP monitoring measured 39 acid events; 17 (43.6%) were swallows according to MII, and 15 (38.5%) were not associated with MII or pH change. Only seven episodes were detected simultaneously with both techniques (1.3% for MII vs. 18% for OP; P = 0.0002). We found 49 pH-only refluxes at the pH sensor in the hypo-pharynx with MII/pH; only three (6.1%) correlated with OP reflux. Correlation in time between cough and reflux events was positive in 5/10 patients for MII (symptom index 5/10, symptom association probability 4/10), but in 0/10 patients according to OP pH metry. OP pH metry detected less reflux episodes than MII/pH; 35% of the OP events were swallows according to impedance. Time correlation between cough and reflux could not be demonstrated with OP pH metry. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Efficacy of Face Shields Against Cough Aerosol Droplets from a Cough Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, William G.; Noti, John D.; Blachere, Francoise M.; Szalajda, Jonathan V.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are exposed to potentially infectious airborne particles while providing routine care to coughing patients. However, much is not understood about the behavior of these aerosols and the risks they pose. We used a coughing patient simulator and a breathing worker simulator to investigate the exposure of health care workers to cough aerosol droplets, and to examine the efficacy of face shields in reducing this exposure. Our results showed that 0.9% of the initial burst of aerosol from a cough can be inhaled by a worker 46 cm (18 inches) from the patient. During testing of an influenza-laden cough aerosol with a volume median diameter (VMD) of 8.5 μm, wearing a face shield reduced the inhalational exposure of the worker by 96% in the period immediately after a cough. The face shield also reduced the surface contamination of a respirator by 97%. When a smaller cough aerosol was used (VMD = 3.4 μm), the face shield was less effective, blocking only 68% of the cough and 76% of the surface contamination. In the period from 1 to 30 minutes after a cough, during which the aerosol had dispersed throughout the room and larger particles had settled, the face shield reduced aerosol inhalation by only 23%. Increasing the distance between the patient and worker to 183 cm (72 inches) reduced the exposure to influenza that occurred immediately after a cough by 92%. Our results show that health care workers can inhale infectious airborne particles while treating a coughing patient. Face shields can substantially reduce the short-term exposure of health care workers to large infectious aerosol particles, but smaller particles can remain airborne longer and flow around the face shield more easily to be inhaled. Thus, face shields provide a useful adjunct to respiratory protection for workers caring for patients with respiratory infections. However, they cannot be used as a substitute for respiratory protection when it is needed. PMID:24467190

  9. Analysis of Clinicians' Perceptual Cough Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Laciuga, Helena; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Troche, Michelle S; Hegland, Karen W

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between subjective descriptors and objective airflow measures of cough. We hypothesized that coughs with specific airflow characteristics would share common subjective perceptual descriptions. Thirty clinicians (speech-language pathologists, otolaryngologists, and neurologists) perceptually evaluated ten cough audio samples with specific airflow characteristics determined by peak expiratory flow rate, cough expired volume, cough duration, and number of coughs in the cough epoch. Participants rated coughs by strength, duration, quality, quantity, and overall potential effectiveness for airway protection. Perception of cough strength and effectiveness was determined by the combination of presence of pre-expulsive compression phase, short peak expiratory airflow rate rise time, high peak expiratory flow rates, and high cough volume acceleration. Perception of cough abnormality was defined predominantly by descriptors of breathiness and strain. Breathiness was characteristic for coughs with either absent compression phases and relatively high expiratory airflow rates or coughs with significantly low expired volumes and reduced peak flow rates. In contrast, excessive strain was associated with prolonged compression phases and low expiratory airflow rates or the absence of compression phase with high peak expiratory rates. The study participants reached greatest agreement in distinguishing between single and multiple coughs. Their assessment of cough strength and effectiveness was less consistent. Finally, the least agreement was shown in determining the quality categories. Modifications of cough airflow can influence perceptual cough evaluation outcomes. However, the inconsistency of cough ratings among our participants suggests that a uniform cough rating system is required.

  10. Cough-variant asthma: a diagnostic dilemma in the occupational setting.

    PubMed

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, A; Wiszniewska, M; Walusiak-Skorupa, J

    2015-03-01

    Cough-variant asthma (Corrao's syndrome) is defined as the presence of chronic non-productive cough in patients with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and response to bronchodilator therapy. This variant of asthma may present a diagnostic problem in occupational medicine. To describe additional evaluation of cough-variant asthma in a cyanoacrylate-exposed worker in whom standard diagnostic testing was negative. A female beautician was evaluated for suspected occupational allergic rhinitis and asthma. A specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) was performed with cyanoacrylate glues used for applying artificial eyelashes and nails. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were recorded hourly for 24h; methacholine challenge testing was performed and nasal lavage (NL) samples were analysed for eosinophilia. After SICT, the patient developed sneezing, nasal airflow obstruction and cough. Declines in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and PEF were not observed. Eosinophil proportions in NL fluid increased markedly at 4 and 24h after SICT. A significant increase in BHR also occurred 24h after SICT. Clinical symptoms, post-challenge BHR and increased NL eosinophil counts confirmed a positive response to SICT and validated the diagnosis of cough-variant occupational asthma. SICT may be useful in cases where history and clinical data suggest cough-variant asthma and spirometric indices are negative. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. New non-invasive automatic cough counting program based on 6 types of classified cough sounds.

    PubMed

    Murata, Akira; Ohota, Nao; Shibuya, Atsuo; Ono, Hiroshi; Kudoh, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    Cough consisting of an initial deep inspiration, glottal closure, and an explosive expiration accompanied by a sound is one of the most common symptoms of respiratory disease. Despite its clinical importance, standard methods for objective cough analysis have yet to be established. We investigated the characteristics of cough sounds acoustically, designed a program to discriminate cough sounds from other sounds, and finally developed a new objective method of non-invasive cough counting. In addition, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of that program. We recorded cough sounds using a memory stick IC recorder in free-field from 2 patients and analyzed the intensity of 534 recorded coughs acoustically according to time domain. First we squared the sound waveform of recorded cough sounds, which was then smoothed out over a 20 ms window. The 5 parameters and some definitions to discriminate the cough sounds from other noise were identified and the cough sounds were classified into 6 groups. Next, we applied this method to develop a new automatic cough count program. Finally, to evaluate the accuracy and clinical usefulness of this program, we counted cough sounds collected from another 10 patients using our program and conventional manual counting. And the sensitivity, specificity and discriminative rate of the program were analyzed. This program successfully discriminated recorded cough sounds out of 1902 sound events collected from 10 patients at a rate of 93.1%. The sensitivity was 90.2% and the specificity was 96.5%. Our new cough counting program can be sufficiently useful for clinical studies.

  12. Altitude-related cough

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Altitude-related cough is a troublesome condition of uncertain aetiology that affects many visitors to high altitude. The traditionally held belief that it was due solely to the inspiration of cold, dry air was refuted by observations and experiments in long duration hypobaric chamber studies. It is likely that altitude-related cough is a symptom of a number of possible perturbations in the cough reflex arc that may exist independently or together. These include loss of water from the respiratory tract; respiratory tract infections and sub-clinical high altitude pulmonary oedema. The published work on altitude-related cough is reviewed and possible aetiologies for the condition are discussed. PMID:24175933

  13. Temporal associations between coughing or wheezing and acid reflux in asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, B; Sonnenberg, A; Schnell, T; Sontag, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—The pulmonary symptoms of patients with lung disease may be ascribed to gastro-oesophageal reflux although a causal relationship between acid reflux and coughing or wheezing has not been proved. Does cough cause reflux or does reflux cause cough? The aim of this study was to evaluate 24 hour oesophageal pH tracings of asthmatics with gastro-oesophageal reflux to determine the temporal association between acid reflux and coughing or wheezing.
METHODS—The oesophageal tracings of 128 asthmatics from the outpatient clinics who underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, oesophageal manometry, and 24 hour oesophageal pH monitoring were analysed. Three possible temporal relationships between the occurrence of acid reflux and the occurrence of coughs or wheezes were evaluated: (1) pulmonary symptoms preceding reflux; (2) reflux preceding pulmonary symptoms; and (3) unrelated occurrence of both events.
RESULTS—Of 128 asthmatics, 53 recorded five or more coughs and 19 recorded three or more wheezes during the 24 hour recording period. Mean acid contact time was similar in asthmatics with and without pulmonary symptoms (12.2 (1.2)% v 10.4 (0.6)%). Of all coughs and wheezes, 46% and 48%, respectively, were associated with acid reflux. For the individual asthmatic, the likelihood of reflux induced coughing increased as the number of coughs increased.
CONCLUSIONS—Half of all coughs and wheezes in asthmatics are associated with acid reflux into the oesophagus. While an occasional coughing episode can lead to reflux, it is rather the reflux episode in the vast majority of instances that leads to cough.


Keywords: asthma; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; erosive oesophagitis; oesophageal pH monitoring; lung disease; pulmonary symptoms PMID:11709509

  14. Detecting Paroxysmal Coughing from Pertussis Cases Using Voice Recognition Technology

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Danny; Picone, Joseph; Harati, Amir; Lu, Shuang; Jenkyns, Marion H.; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pertussis is highly contagious; thus, prompt identification of cases is essential to control outbreaks. Clinicians experienced with the disease can easily identify classic cases, where patients have bursts of rapid coughing followed by gasps, and a characteristic whooping sound. However, many clinicians have never seen a case, and thus may miss initial cases during an outbreak. The purpose of this project was to use voice-recognition software to distinguish pertussis coughs from croup and other coughs. Methods We collected a series of recordings representing pertussis, croup and miscellaneous coughing by children. We manually categorized coughs as either pertussis or non-pertussis, and extracted features for each category. We used Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), a sampling rate of 16 KHz, a frame Duration of 25 msec, and a frame rate of 10 msec. The coughs were filtered. Each cough was divided into 3 sections of proportion 3-4-3. The average of the 13 MFCCs for each section was computed and made into a 39-element feature vector used for the classification. We used the following machine learning algorithms: Neural Networks, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and a 200 tree Random Forest (RF). Data were reserved for cross-validation of the KNN and RF. The Neural Network was trained 100 times, and the averaged results are presented. Results After categorization, we had 16 examples of non-pertussis coughs and 31 examples of pertussis coughs. Over 90% of all pertussis coughs were properly classified as pertussis. The error rates were: Type I errors of 7%, 12%, and 25% and Type II errors of 8%, 0%, and 0%, using the Neural Network, Random Forest, and KNN, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that we can build a robust classifier to assist clinicians and the public to help identify pertussis cases in children presenting with typical symptoms. PMID:24391730

  15. Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... whooping cough was one of the most common childhood diseases and a major cause of childhood deaths in the U.S. Now most cases are prevented by vaccines. If you have whooping cough, treatment with antibiotics may help if given early. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  16. Honey: An Effective Cough Remedy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough remedy? Is it true that honey calms coughs better than cough medicine does? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... throat. But honey alone may be an effective cough suppressant, too. In one study, children age 2 ...

  17. Woes of Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Whooping Cough KidsHealth / For Kids / Whooping Cough What's in this ... a hospital if they get it. How Is Whooping Cough Spread? Pertussis bacteria can live in saliva in ...

  18. Sequential Voluntary Cough and Aspiration or Aspiration Risk in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Okun, Michael S.; Troche, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is almost always present to some degree in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), either causing aspiration or greatly increasing the risk for aspiration during swallowing. This likely contributes to aspiration pneumonia, a leading cause of death in this patient population. Effective airway protection is dependent upon multiple behaviors, including cough and swallowing. Single voluntary cough function is disordered in people with PD and dysphagia. However, the appropriate response to aspirate material is more than one cough, or sequential cough. The goal of this study was to examine voluntary sequential coughing in people with PD, with and without dysphagia. Methods Forty adults diagnosed with idiopathic PD produced two trials of sequential voluntary cough. The cough airflows were obtained using pneumotachograph and facemask and subsequently digitized and recorded. All participants received a modified barium swallow study as part of their clinical care, and the worst penetration–aspiration score observed was used to determine whether the patient had dysphagia. Results There were significant differences in the compression phase duration, peak expiratory flow rates, and amount of air expired of the sequential cough produced by participants with and without dysphagia. Conclusions The presence of dysphagia in people with PD is associated with disordered cough function. Sequential cough, which is important in removing aspirate material from large- and smaller-diameter airways, is also impaired in people with PD and dysphagia compared with those without dysphagia. There may be common neuroanatomical substrates for cough and swallowing impairment in PD leading to the co-occurrence of these dysfunctions. PMID:24792231

  19. Respiratory kinematic and airflow differences between reflex and voluntary cough in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Troche, Michelle S.; Huber, Jessica E.; Hegland, Karen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cough is a defensive behavior that can be initiated in response to a stimulus in the airway (reflexively), or on command (voluntarily). There is evidence to suggest that physiological differences exist between reflex and voluntary cough; however, the output (mechanistic and airflow) differences between the cough types are not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the lung volume, respiratory kinematic, and airflow differences between reflex and voluntary cough in healthy young adults. Methods: Twenty-five participants (14 female; 18–29 years) were recruited for this study. Participants were evaluated using respiratory inductance plethysmography calibrated with spirometry. Experimental procedures included: (1) respiratory calibration, (2) three voluntary sequential cough trials, and (3) three reflex cough trials induced with 200 μM capsaicin. Results: Lung volume initiation (LVI; p = 0.003) and lung volume excursion (LVE; p < 0.001) were significantly greater for voluntary cough compared to reflex cough. The rib cage and abdomen significantly influenced LVI for voluntary cough (p < 0.001); however, only the rib cage significantly impacted LVI for reflex cough (p < 0.001). LVI significantly influenced peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) for voluntary cough (p = 0.029), but not reflex cough (p = 0.610). Discussion: Production of a reflex cough results in significant mechanistic and airflow differences compared to voluntary cough. These findings suggest that detection of a tussigenic stimulus modifies motor aspects of the reflex cough behavior. Further understanding of the differences between reflex and voluntary cough in older adults and in persons with dystussia (cough dysfunction) will be essential to facilitate the development of successful cough treatment paradigms. PMID:26500560

  20. Sex differences in cough reflex.

    PubMed

    Plevkova, J; Buday, T; Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, N; Ioan, I; Demoulin-Alexikova, S

    2017-11-01

    Majority of patients visiting cough clinics are postmenopausal women, who are affected by intractable cough for years. Why the cough reflex becomes exaggerated in women is not known. Basic research excludes females from the studies contributing to the sex bias which may be responsible for lack of understanding of "hypersensitive" cough in women. Biological and behavioural differences between women and men are the factors affecting cough physiology. Gender also shapes the patterns of behaviour and determines the character of environmental exposures which differs between sexes. The article offers an insight into the physiology of the cough, differences in the maturation of it and biological, social and behavioural factors contributing to the sex differences in cough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rectus sheath hematoma due to cough in an elderly patient under antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Çoşğun, I Güven; Ünal, Yılmaz; Çetin, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Abdominal rectus sheath hematoma (ARSH) is a rare clinical condition that can be confused with other causes of acute abdomen. We report an 83-year-old woman receiving antiplatelet medication who presented with ARSH following a cough episode. The patient was hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. During hospital stay, sudden onset abdominal pain was developed following a severe cough episode. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed ARSH. Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare and often misdiagnosed clinical condition. It is important to be considered for the diagnosis. ARSH should be considered in case of development of acute abdominal pain following cough in receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Cough induction by high-frequency chest percussion in healthy volunteers and patients with common cold].

    PubMed

    Lee, P C L; Eccles, R

    2004-08-01

    In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chest percussion is often used to facilitate the drainage of respiratory secretions which may be removed from the airway by coughing. The cough reflex is believed to be mediated by mechanically sensitive rapidly adapting receptors (RARs). Chest percussion stimulation may stimulate RAR cough receptors, but there is no evidence that mechanical airway stimulation in man induces cough. The aim of this study was to determine if cough can be induced by high-frequency chest percussion in healthy subjects and in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Two groups were studied: 15 healthy subjects and 29 subjects with URTI, mean age 22 years. Percussion stimulation (70 Hz) was applied to the chest. Cough frequency and latency were recorded. All subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about how they felt after the chest percussion by questionnaires. The results demonstrate that high-frequency chest percussion causes cough in human subjects with a recent history of URTI, but induces relatively little cough in healthy subjects. In URTI subjects there was a significant increase in the number of coughs after three periods of airway vibration, whereas in healthy subjects there was no change in cough. Furthermore, analysis of the questionnaires showed that more of the subjects with URTI felt an urge to cough compared to the healthy subjects in the subjective questionnaires. This study demonstrates that cough can be induced in subjects with URTI by chest percussion. This method of inducing cough in subjects with URTI may be useful for studies on the mechanism of cough and for studies on antitussive medicines.

  3. Capsaicin cough sensitivity in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Torrego, A; Haque, R A; Nguyen, L T; Hew, M; Carr, D H; Wilson, R; Chung, K F

    2006-08-01

    Bronchiectasis is a suppurative airway disease characterised by persistent cough and sputum production associated with bronchial dilatation. A study was undertaken to determine whether cough sensitivity is increased in bronchiectatic patients. Twenty two patients with bronchiectasis and 20 healthy non-smoking controls matched for age and sex were recruited into the study. Quality of life (Leicester Cough Questionnaire score), total cough symptom score, and extent of bronchiectasis on HRCT scans were recorded. Cough sensitivity was assessed using incremental inhalation of capsaicin concentrations; the concentration at which 5 or more coughs occurred (C5) was recorded. Patients with bronchiectasis had increased sensitivity to capsaicin compared with controls (mean (SE) log10 C5 1.22 (0.20) v 1.89 (0.21); p<0.03). Capsaicin sensitivity correlated positively with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire score (r = 0.64; p = 0.005) and inversely with the total cough symptom score (r = -0.58; p = 0.004), but not with the extent of the disease. It also correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in litres (r = 0.58; p = 0.005) but not with FEV1 % predicted. Capsaicin sensitivity was not related to the presence of infected sputum or to corticosteroid or bronchodilator use. : Patients with bronchiectasis have a sensitive cough reflex which reflects the severity of cough symptoms. A measure of cough severity could be part of health assessment for patients with bronchiectasis.

  4. Flow Field of a Human Cough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jean

    2005-11-01

    Cough generated infectious aerosols are of interest while developing strategies for the mitigation of disease risks ranging from the common cold to SARS. In this work, the velocity field of human cough was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The project subjects (total 29) coughed into an enclosure seeded with stage fog for most measurements. Cough flow speed profiles, average widths of the cough jet, waveform, and maximum cough speeds were measured. Maximum cough speeds ranged from 1.5 m/s to 28.8 m/s. No correlation was found for maximum cough flow speeds to height or gender. The slow growth of the width of the cough flow suggests that a cough may penetrate farther into a room than a steady jet of similar volume. The velocity profile was found to scale with the square root of downstream distance.

  5. Efficacy of face shields against cough aerosol droplets from a cough simulator.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, William G; Noti, John D; Blachere, Francoise M; Szalajda, Jonathan V; Beezhold, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    Health care workers are exposed to potentially infectious airborne particles while providing routine care to coughing patients. However, much is not understood about the behavior of these aerosols and the risks they pose. We used a coughing patient simulator and a breathing worker simulator to investigate the exposure of health care workers to cough aerosol droplets, and to examine the efficacy of face shields in reducing this exposure. Our results showed that 0.9% of the initial burst of aerosol from a cough can be inhaled by a worker 46 cm (18 inches) from the patient. During testing of an influenza-laden cough aerosol with a volume median diameter (VMD) of 8.5 μm, wearing a face shield reduced the inhalational exposure of the worker by 96% in the period immediately after a cough. The face shield also reduced the surface contamination of a respirator by 97%. When a smaller cough aerosol was used (VMD = 3.4 μm), the face shield was less effective, blocking only 68% of the cough and 76% of the surface contamination. In the period from 1 to 30 minutes after a cough, during which the aerosol had dispersed throughout the room and larger particles had settled, the face shield reduced aerosol inhalation by only 23%. Increasing the distance between the patient and worker to 183 cm (72 inches) reduced the exposure to influenza that occurred immediately after a cough by 92%. Our results show that health care workers can inhale infectious airborne particles while treating a coughing patient. Face shields can substantially reduce the short-term exposure of health care workers to large infectious aerosol particles, but smaller particles can remain airborne longer and flow around the face shield more easily to be inhaled. Thus, face shields provide a useful adjunct to respiratory protection for workers caring for patients with respiratory infections. However, they cannot be used as a substitute for respiratory protection when it is needed. [Supplementary materials are

  6. Cover Your Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... KB] Spanish [153 KB] Cover Your Cough, Flyer & Poster for Health Care Settings Flyer : English Portuguese [268 ... KB] Chinese [246 KB] Cover Your Cough, Flyer & Poster for Community and Public Settings Flyer : English Portuguese [ ...

  7. Capsaicin Cough Sensitivity and the Association with Clinical Parameters in Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Lin, Zhi-min; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2014-01-01

    Background Cough hypersensitivity has been common among respiratory diseases. Objective To determine associations of capsaicin cough sensitivity and clinical parameters in adults with clinically stable bronchiectasis. Methods We recruited 135 consecutive adult bronchiectasis patients and 22 healthy subjects. History inquiry, sputum culture, spirometry, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), Leicester Cough Questionnaire scoring, Bronchiectasis Severity Index (BSI) assessment and capsaicin inhalation challenge were performed. Cough sensitivity was measured as the capsaicin concentration eliciting at least 2 (C2) and 5 coughs (C5). Results Despite significant overlap between healthy subjects and bronchiectasis patients, both C2 and C5 were significantly lower in the latter group (all P<0.01). Lower levels of C5 were associated with a longer duration of bronchiectasis symptoms, worse HRCT score, higher 24-hour sputum volume, BSI and sputum purulence score, and sputum culture positive for P. aeruginosa. Determinants associated with increased capsaicin cough sensitivity, defined as C5 being 62.5 µmol/L or less, encompassed female gender (OR: 3.25, 95%CI: 1.35–7.83, P<0.01), HRCT total score between 7–12 (OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.07–6.173, P = 0.04), BSI between 5–8 (OR: 4.05, 95%CI: 1.48–11.06, P<0.01) and 9 or greater (OR: 4.38, 95%CI: 1.48–12.93, P<0.01). Conclusion Capsaicin cough sensitivity is heightened in a subgroup of bronchiectasis patients and associated with the disease severity. Gender and disease severity, but not sputum purulence, are independent determinants of heightened capsaicin cough sensitivity. Current testing for cough sensitivity diagnosis may be limited because of overlap with healthy subjects but might provide an objective index for assessment of cough in future clinical trials. PMID:25409316

  8. Air pollutants and cough.

    PubMed

    Joad, Jesse P; Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Chen, Chao-Yin; Bonham, Ann C

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms and decreases in lung function. This paper reviews recent literature showing that exposure to particulate matter, irritant gases, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mixed pollutants, and molds is associated with an increase in cough and wheeze. Some pollutants, like particulate matter and mixed pollutants, appear to increase cough at least as much as wheeze. Others, like irritant gases, appear to increase wheeze more than cough. For ETS, exposure during childhood is associated with cough and wheeze in adulthood, suggesting that the pollutant permanently alters some important aspect of the lungs, immune system or nervous system. We have shown in animal studies that pollutants change the neural control of airways and cough. Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure lengthened stimulated apnoea, increased the number of stimulated coughs, and augmented the degree of stimulated bronchoconstriction. The mechanisms included enhanced reactivity of the peripheral sensory neurones and second-order neurones in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). NTS effects were due to a substance P mechanism at least in part. Ozone and allergen increased the intrinsic excitability of second-order neurones in the NTS. The animal studies suggest that the cough and wheeze experienced by humans exposed to pollutants may involve plasticity in the nervous system.

  9. Comparison of cough reflex testing with videoendoscopy in recently extubated intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Kallesen, Molly; Psirides, Alex; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2016-06-01

    Orotracheal intubation is known to impair cough reflex, but the validity of cough reflex testing (CRT) as a screening tool for silent aspiration in this population is unknown. One hundred and six participants in a tertiary-level intensive care unit (ICU) underwent CRT and videoendoscopic evaluation of swallowing (VES) within 24 hours of extubation. Cough reflex threshold was established for each participant using nebulized citric acid. Thirty-nine (37%) participants had an absent cough to CRT. Thirteen (12%) participants aspirated on VES, 9 (69%) without a cough response. Sensitivity of CRT to identify silent aspiration was excellent, but specificity was poor. There was a significant correlation between intubation duration and presence of aspiration on VES (P= .0107). There was no significant correlation between silent aspiration on VES and length of intubation, age, sex, diagnosis at intensive care unit admission, indication for intubation, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, morphine equivalent dose, or time of testing postextubation. Intensive care unit patients are at increased risk of aspiration in the 24 hours following extubation, and an impaired cough reflex is common. However, CRT overidentifies risk of silent aspiration in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. To Cough or Not to Cough? Examining the Potential Utility of Cough Testing in the Clinical Evaluation of Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Stephanie A.; Tabor, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The clinical swallowing evaluation (CSE) represents a critical component of a comprehensive assessment of deglutition. Although universally utilized across clinical settings, the CSE demonstrates limitations in its ability to accurately identify all individuals with dysphagia. There exists a need to improve assessment and screening techniques to improve health outcomes, treatment recommendations and ultimately mortality in individuals at risk for dysphagia. The following narrative review provides a summary of currently used validated CSE’s and examines the potential role of cough testing and screening in the CSE. Recent findings Recent evidence highlights a relationship between objective physiologic measurements of both voluntarily and reflexively induced cough and swallowing safety status across several patient populations. Although more research is needed across a wider range of patient populations to validate these findings; emerging data supports the consideration of inclusion of cough testing during the CSE as an index of airway defense mechanisms and capabilities in individuals at risk for aspiration. Summary The sensorimotor processes of cough and swallowing share common neuroanatomical and functional substrates. Inclusion of voluntarily or reflexively induced cough testing in the CSE may aide in the identification of dysphagia and reduced airway protection capabilities. PMID:28529824

  11. Concordance and Discriminatory Power of Cough Measurement Devices for Individuals With Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carnaby-Mann, Giselle; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul; Okun, Michael S.; Sapienza, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia are two causes of morbidity in Parkinson disease (PD). In PD, impaired airway clearance can lead to penetration of foreign material, resulting in a high prevalence of aspiration pneumonia and death. This study examines three different devices for measurement of peak airflow during voluntary cough in healthy control subjects and those with PD. Two simple and low-cost devices for measuring peak cough airflow were compared with the “gold standard” pneumotachograph. Methods: Thirty-five healthy control subjects and 35 individuals with PD produced voluntary cough at three perceived strengths (weak, moderate, and strong cough) for each of the three devices. Results: A significant difference in mean peak cough airflow was demonstrated for disease (F[1,56] = 4.0, P < .05) and sex (F[1,56] = 9.59, P < .003) across devices. The digital and analog meters were comparable to the gold standard demonstrating no significant difference (statistical) by device (digital vs analog) in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Both devices were discriminative of the presence of PD. Conclusions: The analog and digital peak airflow meters are suitable alternatives to the gold standard pneumotachograph due to their low cost, portability, ease of use, and high sensitivity relative to normative peak cough airflows. Voluntary cough airflow measures may serve as a noninvasive means of screening for aspiration risk in target populations. Additionally, quantification of cough strength through use of predetermined limens for weak, moderate, and strong cough may assist clinicians in better describing and tracking cough strength as a contributing factor to aspiration risk. PMID:24264124

  12. Headache associated with cough: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected by coughing. The diagnosis of primary cough headache is made when headache is brought on and occurs only in association with coughing, straining or a Valsalva manoeuvre and in the absence of any abnormalities on neuro-imaging. In case an underlying pathology is identified as a cause of the headache, the diagnosis of symptomatic cough headache is made. The vast majority of these patients present with a Chiari malformation type I. Other frequently reported causes include miscellaneous posterior fossa pathology, carotid or vertebrobasilar disease and cerebral aneurysms. Consequently, diagnostic neuroimaging is key in the diagnosis of cough-related headache and guides treatment. Besides primary and symptomatic cough headache, several other both primary and secondary headache disorders exist where coughing acts as a trigger or aggravator of headache symptomatology. PMID:23687906

  13. Antitussive effect of carcainium chloride in patients with chronic cough and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lavorini, Federico; Spina, Domenico; Walker, Michael J; Franciosi, Lui; Page, Clive P; Fontana, Giovanni A

    2016-10-01

    Cough is a common presenting symptom in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP); it is often disabling, and lacks effective treatment. Studies in animals suggest that carcainium chloride, a quaternary derivative of the local anesthetic lidocaine, is able to inhibit experimentally induced cough by a mechanism of action distinct from that of lidocaine. To determine the effectiveness of aerosolised carcainium chloride (VRP700) in controlling cough in patients with IIP. Eight female patients (mean age 71 years) with IIP were investigated in a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled crossover, adaptive contingency study design (EudraCT Number 2010-021350-19). The study consisted of a screening visit to assess the eligibility of patients, and two separated (48-72 h) study days. On the two study days, patients were randomised to receive either nebulized VRP700 (1.0 mg/kg) on the first study visit followed by nebulised placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) on the second visit, or placebo on the first visit followed by VRP700 on the second visit. The primary endpoint was cough frequency over a 4-h assessment period; secondary endpoints were subjective cough-related level of discomfort as assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the subjective response to treatment as assessed by a quality of life question. Safety (ECG, spirometry, urine and blood tests) and adverse events occurring during the trial were also investigated. In all patients both VRP700 and placebo decreased cough frequency; however, mean decreases in cough frequency after treatment with VRP700 were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than with placebo. Similarly, mean reductions in VAS score were significantly (P < 0.001) higher after treatment with VRP 700 compared with placebo. All but one patient indicated that they felt better after receiving VRP700. No adverse events were reported during the study, nor were any changes in ECG variables, spirometry, urine and blood tests noted. The

  14. Anatomy and Neurophysiology of Cough

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Bolser, Donald C.; Smith, Jaclyn A.; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald, C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan; Chang, Anne Bernadette; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Turner, Ronald B.; Vertigan, Anne; Wang, Gang; Weir, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and a subset of mechanically sensitive, acid-sensitive myelinated sensory nerves play essential roles in regulating cough. These vagal sensory nerves terminate primarily in the larynx, trachea, carina, and large intrapulmonary bronchi. Other bronchopulmonary sensory nerves, sensory nerves innervating other viscera, as well as somatosensory nerves innervating the chest wall, diaphragm, and abdominal musculature regulate cough patterning and cough sensitivity. The responsiveness and morphology of the airway vagal sensory nerve subtypes and the extrapulmonary sensory nerves that regulate coughing are described. The brainstem and higher brain control systems that process this sensory information are complex, but our current understanding of them is considerable and increasing. The relevance of these neural systems to clinical phenomena, such as urge to cough and psychologic methods for treatment of dystussia, is high, and modern imaging methods have revealed potential neural substrates for some features of cough in the human. PMID:25188530

  15. Cough during infancy and subsequent childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Oren, E; Rothers, J; Stern, D A; Morgan, W J; Halonen, M; Wright, A L

    2015-09-01

    Wheezing in infancy has been associated with subsequent asthma, but whether cough similarly influences asthma risk has been little studied. We sought to determine whether prolonged cough and cough without cold in the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma. Participants in the Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort, were surveyed 7 times in the first 9 months of life regarding the presence of wheeze and cough. Cough for more than 28 days was defined as prolonged. Parents were asked at 1 year if the child ever coughed without a cold. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosis of asthma, with symptoms or medication use between 2 and 9 years. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds for asthma associated with cough characteristics. A total of 24% (97) of children experienced prolonged cough and 23% (95) cough without cold in the first 9 months, respectively. Prolonged cough was associated with increased risk of asthma relative to brief cough (OR 3.57, CI: 1.88, 6.76), with the risk being particularly high among children of asthmatic mothers. Cough without cold (OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.57) was also independently associated with risk of childhood asthma. Both relations persisted after adjustment for wheeze and total IgE at age 1. Prolonged cough in infancy and cough without cold are associated with childhood asthma, independent of infant wheeze. These findings suggest that characteristics of cough in infancy are early markers of asthma susceptibility, particularly among children with maternal asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cough During Infancy and Subsequent Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Eyal; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Halonen, Marilyn; Wright, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Wheezing in infancy has been associated with subsequent asthma, but whether cough similarly influences asthma risk has been little studied. We sought to determine whether prolonged cough and cough without cold in the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma. METHODS Participants in the Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort, were surveyed 7 times in the first 9 months of life regarding presence of wheeze and cough. Cough for more than 28 days was defined as prolonged. Parents were asked at 1 year if the child ever coughed without a cold. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosis of asthma, with symptoms or medication use between 2–9 years. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds for asthma associated with cough characteristics. RESULTS 24% (97) of children experienced prolonged cough and 23% (95) cough without cold in the first 9 months, respectively. Prolonged cough was associated with increased risk of asthma relative to brief cough (OR 3.57, CI: 1.88, 6.76), with the risk being particularly high among children of asthmatic mothers. Cough without cold (OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.57) was also independently associated with risk of childhood asthma. Both relations persisted after adjustment for wheeze and total IgE at age 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prolonged cough in infancy and cough without cold are associated with childhood asthma, independent of infant wheeze. These findings suggest that characteristics of cough in infancy are early markers of asthma susceptibility, particularly among children with maternal asthma. PMID:26011047

  17. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Adults with Chronic Cough in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Nliwasa, Marriott; MacPherson, Peter; Chisala, Palesa; Kamdolozi, Mercy; Khundi, McEwen; Kaswaswa, Kruger; Mwapasa, Mphatso; Msefula, Chisomo; Sohn, Hojoon; Flach, Clare; Corbett, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current tuberculosis diagnostics lack sensitivity, and are expensive. Highly accurate, rapid and cheaper diagnostic tests are required for point of care use in low resource settings with high HIV prevalence. Objective To investigate the sensitivity and specificity, and cost of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for tuberculosis diagnosis in adults with chronic cough compared to Xpert® MTB/RIF, fluorescence smear microscopy. Methods Between October 2013 and March 2014, consecutive adults at a primary care clinic were screened for cough, offered HIV testing and assessed for tuberculosis using LAMP, Xpert® MTB/RIF and fluorescence smear microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity (with culture as reference standard), and costs were estimated. Results Of 273 adults recruited, 44.3% (121/273) were HIV-positive and 19.4% (53/273) had bacteriogically confirmed tuberculosis. The sensitivity of LAMP compared to culture was 65.0% (95% CI: 48.3% to 79.4%) with 100% (95% CI: 98.0% to 100%) specificity. The sensitivity of Xpert® MTB/RIF (77.5%, 95% CI: 61.5% to 89.2%) was similar to that of LAMP, p = 0.132. The sensitivity of concentrated fluorescence smear microscopy with routine double reading (87.5%, 95% CI: 73.2% to 95.8%) was higher than that of LAMP, p = 0.020. All three tests had high specificity. The lowest cost per test of LAMP was at batch size of 14 samples (US$ 9.98); this was lower than Xpert® MTB/RIF (US$ 13.38) but higher than fluorescence smear microscopy (US$ 0.65). Conclusion The sensitivity of LAMP was similar to Xpert® MTB/RIF but lower than fluorescence smear microscopy; all three tests had high specificity. These findings support the Malawi policy that recommends a combination of fluorescence smear microscopy and Xpert® MTB/RIF prioritised for people living with HIV, already found to be smear-negative, or being considered for retreatment of tuberculosis. PMID:27171380

  18. Observational study on the dispensing of cough syrups to children with acute cough by community pharmacists in France.

    PubMed

    Allaert, François-André; Villet, Stéphanie; Vincent, Stéphane; Sauve, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Over-the-counter medicines may be proposed by pharmacists for children with acute cough. Study objectives were to describe the sociodemographic profile of children who were proposed a cough syrup by a pharmacist, the nature of the cough and type(s) of cough syrup proposed and to assess the evolution of the cough, tolerance and satisfaction with treatment. Observational, prospective, longitudinal, multicentre study with 157 pharmacies in France. Children who were proposed a cough syrup by a pharmacist were recruited. Questionnaires were completed by the pharmacists and/or parents at inclusion and by the parents after 5 days of treatment. Four hundred fourteen children were included (mean age: 6.0±2.9 years); 45.9% had a dry and 43.3% a productive cough. 30.4% were proposed an allopathic antitussive syrup, 28.3% an allopathic expectorant syrup and 23.7% a homeopathic syrup. Children with a dry cough were more likely to be given an allopathic antitussive (55.2%) or homeopathic (28.2%) syrup. Children with a productive cough or cough of several days duration were more likely to be given an allopathic expectorant syrup (70.1%). Cough disappearance was more frequent with homeopathic syrups compared to allopathic expectorants (P=0.002), or allopathic antitussives (P=0.042). Adverse events were most common with allopathic antitussive syrups (18.7%) (P<0.001). Two-thirds of parents were satisfied with the treatment their child received. Pharmacists play an important role in the management of acute cough in children. Homeopathic cough syrups may have an interest in terms of public health.

  19. Aging deteriorated perception of urge-to-cough without changing cough reflex threshold to citric acid in female never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Ebihara, Takae; Kanezaki, Masashi; Gui, Peijun; Yamasaki, Miyako; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2011-06-28

    The effect of aging on the cognitive aspect of cough has not been studied yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the aging effect on the perception of urge-to-cough in healthy individuals. Fourteen young, female, healthy never-smokers were recruited via public postings. Twelve elderly female healthy never-smokers were recruited from a nursing home residence. The cough reflex threshold and the urge-to-cough were evaluated by inhalation of citric acid. The cough reflex sensitivities were defined as the lowest concentration of citric acid that elicited two or more coughs (C2) and five or more coughs (C5). The urge-to-cough was evaluated using a modified the Borg scale. There was no significant difference in the cough reflex threshold to citric acid between young and elderly subjects. The urge-to-cough scores at the concentration of C2 and C5 were significantly smaller in the elderly than young subjects. The urge-to-cough log-log slope in elderly subjects (0.73 ± 0.71 point · L/g) was significantly gentler than those of young subjects (1.35 ± 0.53 point · L/g, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the urge-to-cough threshold estimated between young and elderly subjects. The cough reflex threshold did not differ between young and elderly subjects whereas cognition of urge-to-cough was significantly decreased in elderly subjects in female never-smokers. Objective monitoring of cough might be important in the elderly people.

  20. Cough aerosol in healthy participants: fundamental knowledge to optimize droplet-spread infectious respiratory disease management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Influenza A H1N1 virus can be transmitted via direct, indirect, and airborne route to non-infected subjects when an infected patient coughs, which expels a number of different sized droplets to the surrounding environment as an aerosol. The objective of the current study was to characterize the human cough aerosol pattern with the aim of developing a standard human cough bioaerosol model for Influenza Pandemic control. Method 45 healthy non-smokers participated in the open bench study by giving their best effort cough. A laser diffraction system was used to obtain accurate, time-dependent, quantitative measurements of the size and number of droplets expelled by the cough aerosol. Results Voluntary coughs generated droplets ranging from 0.1 - 900 microns in size. Droplets of less than one-micron size represent 97% of the total number of measured droplets contained in the cough aerosol. Age, sex, weight, height and corporal mass have no statistically significant effect on the aerosol composition in terms of size and number of droplets. Conclusions We have developed a standard human cough aerosol model. We have quantitatively characterized the pattern, size, and number of droplets present in the most important mode of person-to-person transmission of IRD: the cough bioaerosol. Small size droplets (< 1 μm) predominated the total number of droplets expelled when coughing. The cough aerosol is the single source of direct, indirect and/or airborne transmission of respiratory infections like the Influenza A H1N1 virus. Study design Open bench, Observational, Cough, Aerosol study PMID:22436202

  1. Workshop: Tuning the ‘cough center’

    PubMed Central

    Widdicombe, J.; Tatar, M.; Fontana, G.; Hanacek, J.; Davenport, P.; Lavorini, F.; Bolser, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Workshop considered the mechanisms whereby the ‘cough center’ could be tuned by various afferent inputs. There were particular presentations on the effects of inputs from the nose, mouth, respiratory tract and lungs, cerebral cortex, somatic tissues and the pharynx. From all these sites cough induced from the lungs could be increased or decreased in its strength or modified in its pattern. Thus ‘tuning’ of cough could be due to the interaction of afferent inputs, or to the sensitization or desensitization of brainstem neural pathways. The pattern of response depended on the ‘type’ of cough being studied and, in some instances, on the timing of the sensory input into the brainstem. Cough inputs could also affect various ‘non-cough’ motor outputs from the brain, although this was not the main theme of the Workshop. The main conclusion was that cough is not a stereotyped output from the medullary ‘cough center’, but that its pattern and strength depend on many afferent inputs acting on the ‘cough center’. PMID:21215322

  2. The relationship between cough-specific quality of life and abdominal muscle endurance, fatigue, and depression in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Hulya; Savci, Sema; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Saglam, Melda; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-01-01

    Cough is a prevalent symptom that impacts quality of life in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cough-specific quality of life, abdominal muscle endurance, fatigue, and depression in stable patients with COPD. Twenty-eight patients with COPD (mean age 60.6±8.7 years) referred for pulmonary rehabilitation participated in this cross-sectional study. Sit-ups test was used for assessing abdominal muscle endurance. Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to evaluate symptom-specific quality of life. Fatigue perception was evaluated with Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for assessing depression level. The LCQ total score was significantly associated with number of sit-ups; BDI score; FIS total; physical, cognitive, and psychosocial scores (P<0.05). Scores of the LCQ physical, social, and psychological domains were also significantly related with number of sit-ups, FIS total score, and BDI score (P<0.05). FIS total score and number of sit-ups explained 58% of the variance in LCQ total score (r=0.76, r (2)=0.577, F(2-20)=12.296, P<0.001). Chronic cough may adversely affect performance in daily life due to its negative effect on fatigue and decrease abdominal muscle endurance in patients with COPD. Decreased cough-related quality of life is related with increased level of depression in COPD patients. Effects of increased abdominal muscle endurance and decreased fatigue in COPD patients with chronic cough need further investigation.

  3. Fuzzy approach for improved recognition of citric acid induced piglet coughing from continuous registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    A natural acoustic indicator of animal welfare is the appearance (or absence) of coughing in the animal habitat. A sound-database of 5319 individual sounds including 2034 coughs was collected on six healthy piglets containing both animal vocalizations and background noises. Each of the test animals was repeatedly placed in a laboratory installation where coughing was induced by nebulization of citric acid. A two-class classification into 'cough' or 'other' was performed by the application of a distance function to a fast Fourier spectral sound analysis. This resulted in a positive cough recognition of 92%. For the whole sound-database however there was a misclassification of 21%. As spectral information up to 10000 Hz is available, an improved overall classification on the same database is obtained by applying the distance function to nine frequency ranges and combining the achieved distance-values in fuzzy rules. For each frequency range clustering threshold is determined by fuzzy c-means clustering.

  4. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... whooping cough vaccination for all babies and children, preteens and teens, and pregnant women. Adults who have ... recommends whooping cough vaccination for: Babies and children Preteens and teens Pregnant women Adults who have never ...

  5. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  6. A novel reflex cough testing device.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2017-01-18

    The reflex cough test is useful for detecting silent aspiration, a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. However, assessing the risk of aspiration pneumonia requires measuring not only the cough reflex but also cough strength. Currently, no reflex cough testing device is available that can directly measure reflex cough strength. We therefore developed a new testing device that can easily and simultaneously measure cough strength and the time until the cough reflex, and verified whether screening with this new instrument is feasible for evaluating the risk of aspiration pneumonia. This device consists of a special pipe with a double lumen, a nebulizer, and an electronic spirometer. We used a solution of prescription-grade L-tartaric acid to initiate the cough reflex. The solution was inhaled through a mouthpiece as a microaerosol produced by an ultrasonic nebulizer. The peak cough flow (PCF) of the induced cough was measured with the spirometer. The 70 patients who participated in this study comprised 49 patients without a history of pneumonia (group A), 21 patients with a history of pneumonia (group B), and 10 healthy volunteers (control group). With the novel device, PCF and time until cough reflex could be measured without adverse effects. The PCF values were 118.3 ± 64.0 L/min, 47.7 ± 38.5 L/min, and 254.9 ± 83.8 L/min in group A, group B, and the control group, respectively. The PCF of group B was significantly lower than that of group A and the control group (p < 0.0001), while that of group B was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.0001). The time until the cough reflex was 4.2 ± 5.9 s, 7.0 ± 7.0 s, and 1 s in group A, group B, and the control group, respectively. This duration was significantly longer for groups A and B than for the control group (A: p < 0.001, B: p < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between groups A and B (p = 0.0907). Our newly developed device can

  7. Whooping Cough - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Whooping Cough URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Whooping Cough - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Role of substance P in cough.

    PubMed

    Sekizawa, K; Jia, Y X; Ebihara, T; Hirose, Y; Hirayama, Y; Sasaki, H

    1996-01-01

    The sensory neuropeptide, substance P (SP), is present in human airway nerves, beneath and within the epithelium where the condensed localization of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), the major enzyme degrading SP, is observed. To test the hypothesis whether SP stimulates the cough reflex and NEP modifies the cough reflex, we studied the cough response to various stimuli in awake guinea-pigs. Inhibition of NEP with phosphoramidon caused cough, which was inhibited by systemic capsaicin treatment and by aerosols of a specific NK1 receptor antagonist FK 888. Aerosols of FK 888 also inhibited cough induced by bronchoconstricting agents such as acetylcholine and histamine in non-sensitized animals and by ovalbumin antigen in animals sensitized to ovalbumin. The number of coughs induced by histamine aerosols was inhibited by systemic capsaicin treatment and enhanced by pretreatment with a NEP inhibitor phosphoramidon. Likewise, FK 888 inhibited the augmented cough response to aerosolized capsaicin in female guinea-pigs treated with a long-term medication of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, cilazapril. In humans, aerosols of SP did not cause cough in normal subjects, whereas it did in patients with common colds. The SP fragment a major metabolite of SP produced by NEP, was less effective compared with SP in these patients, suggesting that damaged epithelium may facilitate the penetration of SP. These findings suggest that SP released from sensory nerves in response to stimuli may mediate cough and NEP may have a role in modulating SP-induced effects.

  9. Could patients' coughing have communicative significance?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Julia V

    2008-01-01

    Medical discourse positions patients with coughs and colds negatively, so consulting health services with 'minor' respiratory illness is therefore more accountable than for other medical problems. Patients face dilemmas since they must persuade doctors of the doctorability of their illness without being seen as hypochondriacal, and they risk losing face if doctors decide that there is nothing much wrong. It is known that the placement of non-lexical features of talk such as laughing or crying can have interactional meaning. Using a data set of video-recorded doctor-patient cough and cold consultations, this study explores whether patients' coughing could have communicative significance. The study is a qualitative analysis of 33 consultations drawing on a constructionist, sociolinguistic analytic approach. Coughing is co-ordinated with talk rather than occurring randomly. Coughing helps patients to demonstrate the doctorability of their symptoms and to legitimize their claims for medical attention. Coughing is also associated with resistance to 'no problem' diagnoses, resulting in changes in the trajectory of talk (for example, soliciting more explanation from doctors and/or re-negotiation of doctors' investigation or treatment plans). Coughing is undoubtedly a manifestation of respiratory illness, but also has communicative significance in consultations for coughs and colds.

  10. The Objective Assessment of Cough Frequency in Bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Spinou, Arietta; Lee, Kai K; Sinha, Aish; Elston, Caroline; Loebinger, Michael R; Wilson, Robert; Chung, Kian Fan; Yousaf, Nadia; Pavord, Ian D; Matos, Sergio; Garrod, Rachel; Birring, Surinder S

    2017-10-01

    Cough in bronchiectasis is associated with significant impairment in health status. This study aimed to quantify cough frequency objectively with a cough monitor and investigate its relationship with health status. A secondary aim was to identify clinical predictors of cough frequency. Fifty-four patients with bronchiectasis were compared with thirty-five healthy controls. Objective 24-h cough, health status (cough-specific: Leicester Cough Questionnaire LCQ and bronchiectasis specific: Bronchiectasis Health Questionnaire BHQ), cough severity and lung function were measured. The clinical predictors of cough frequency in bronchiectasis were determined in a multivariate analysis. Objective cough frequency was significantly raised in patients with bronchiectasis compared to healthy controls [geometric mean (standard deviation)] 184.5 (4.0) vs. 20.6 (3.2) coughs/24-h; mean fold-difference (95% confidence interval) 8.9 (5.2, 15.2); p < 0.001 and they had impaired health status. There was a significant correlation between objective cough frequency and subjective measures; LCQ r = -0.52 and BHQ r = -0.62, both p < 0.001. Sputum production, exacerbations (between past 2 weeks to 12 months) and age were significantly associated with objective cough frequency in multivariate analysis, explaining 52% of the variance (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant association between cough frequency and lung function. Cough is a common and significant symptom in patients with bronchiectasis. Sputum production, exacerbations and age, but not lung function, were independent predictors of cough frequency. Ambulatory objective cough monitoring provides novel insights and should be further investigated as an outcome measure in bronchiectasis.

  11. Therapeutic effects of naringin in a guinea pig model of ovalbumin-induced cough-variant asthma.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hao-yan; Su, Wei-wei; Li, Pei-bo; Liao, Yan; Zhou, Qian; Zhu, Na; He, Li-li

    2015-08-01

    Naringin, a well known component isolated from Exocarpium Citri Grandis, has significant antitussive effects. Recently, Naringin exhibited novel anti-inflammatory effect in chronic inflammatory diseases. In this work, we firstly evaluated the effects of naringin on enhanced cough, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), and airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced experimental cough-variant asthma (CVA) model in guinea pigs. We investigated the effect of naringin (18.4 mg/kg, per os, single dose or consecutively) on cough to inhaled capsaicin after challenge with an aerosolized antigen in actively sensitized guinea pigs. The effect of naringin on AHR to inhaled methacholine was evaluated 24 h after cough determination. Airway inflammation was assessed via bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and lung histopathology. Naringin, given consecutively, significantly reduced ovalbumin-induced enhanced cough and AHR, inhibited the increases in the leukocytes, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 in BALF compared with the model group. Moreover, the pathologic changes in lung tissues were clearly ameliorated by naringin treatment. These results suggest that naringin may be a beneficial agent for CVA treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlational study on atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter and children cough variant asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-X; Liu, Y; Xue, Y; Yang, L-Y; Song, G-D; Zhao, L

    2016-06-01

    We explored the relationship between atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter and children cough variant asthma. 48 children all diagnosed with cough variant asthma were placed in the cough asthma group while 50 children suffering from typical asthma were place in typical asthma group. We also had 50 cases of chronic pneumonia (the pneumonia group) and 50 cases of healthy children (the control group). We calculated the average PM 2.5 and temperature values during spring, summer, autumn and winter and monitored serum lymphocyte ratio, CD4+/CD8+T, immunoglobulin IgE, ventilatory index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Our results showed that PM 2.5 values in spring and winter were remarkably higher compared to other seasons. Correlated analysis demonstrated that the onset of cough asthma group was happening in spring. The onset of typical asthma group happened mostly in winter, followed by spring. We established a positive correlation between the onset of asthma of cough asthma group and PM 2.5 value (r = 0.623, p = 0.017), and there was also a positive correlation between the onset of asthma of typical asthma group and PM 2.5 value (r = 0.714, p = 0.015). Our results showed that lymphocyte ratio and IgE level in the cough asthma group and the typical asthma group were significantly higher. CD4+/CD8+T was significantly lower in the cough asthma group and the typical asthma group. The hs-CRP level in cough asthma, typical asthma and pneumonia groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. The FEV1/predicted value, FEV1/FVC and MMEF/predicted value in the cough asthma group and the typical asthma group were significantly lower than those in other groups, however when comparing between two groups respectively, the difference was not statistically significant. Our findings showed that PM2.5 was related to the onset of children cough variant asthma. PM2.5 reduced immune regulation and ventilatory function.

  13. Ineffective cough and mechanical mucociliary clearance techniques.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carmona, A; Olivencia-Peña, L; Yuste-Ossorio, M E; Peñas-Maldonado, L

    Cough is a fundamental defense mechanism for keeping the airway free of foreign elements. Life-threatening situations may arise when cough proves ineffective as a result of muscle weakness or altered mucociliary function. When a patient is unable to cough effectively, techniques are required to either reinforce or replace cough capacity. The use of mechanical systems that facilitate or substitute cough function is increasingly common in Intensive Care Units, where it is relatively frequent to find situations of ineffective cough due to different clinical causes. This review examines the current clinical practice recommendations referred to the indication and use of mechanical cough assist and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of cough throughout childhood: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jurca, Maja; Ramette, Alban; Dogaru, Cristian M; Goutaki, Myrofora; Spycher, Ben D; Latzin, Philipp; Gaillard, Erol A; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Cough in children is a common reason for medical consultations and affects quality of life. There are little population-based data on the epidemiology of recurrent cough in children and how this varies by age and sex, or between children with and without wheeze. We determined the prevalence of cough throughout childhood, comparing several standardised cough questions. We did this for the entire population and separately for girls and boys, and for children with and without wheeze. In a population-based prospective cohort from Leicestershire, UK, we assessed prevalence of cough with repeated questionnaires from early childhood to adolescence. We asked whether the child usually coughed more than other children, with or without colds, had night-time cough or cough triggered by various factors (triggers, related to increased breathing effort, allergic or food triggers). We calculated prevalence from age 1 to 18 years using generalised estimating equations for all children, and for children with and without wheeze. Of 7670 children, 10% (95% CI 10-11%) coughed more than other children, 69% (69-70%) coughed usually with a cold, 34% to 55% age-dependently coughed without colds, and 25% (25-26%) had night-time cough. Prevalence of coughing more than peers, with colds, at night, and triggered by laughter varied little throughout childhood, while cough without colds and cough triggered by exercise, house dust or pollen became more frequent with age. Cough was more common in boys than in girls in the first decade of life, differences got smaller in early teens and reversed after the age of 14 years. All symptoms were more frequent in children with wheeze. Prevalence of cough in children varies with age, sex and with the questions used to assess it, suggesting that comparisons between studies are only valid for similar questions and age groups.

  15. The course of lung inflation alters the central pattern of tracheobronchial cough in cat-The evidence for volume feedback during cough.

    PubMed

    Poliacek, Ivan; Simera, Michal; Veternik, Marcel; Kotmanova, Zuzana; Pitts, Teresa; Hanacek, Jan; Plevkova, Jana; Machac, Peter; Visnovcova, Nadezda; Misek, Jakub; Jakus, Jan

    2016-07-15

    The effect of volume-related feedback and output airflow resistance on the cough motor pattern was studied in 17 pentobarbital anesthetized spontaneously-breathing cats. Lung inflation during tracheobronchial cough was ventilator controlled and triggered by the diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) signal. Altered lung inflations during cough resulted in modified cough motor drive and temporal features of coughing. When tidal volume was delivered (via the ventilator) there was a significant increase in the inspiratory and expiratory cough drive (esophageal pressures and EMG amplitudes), inspiratory phase duration (CTI), total cough cycle duration, and the duration of all cough related EMGs (Tactive). When the cough volume was delivered (via the ventilator) during the first half of inspiratory period (at CTI/2-early over inflation), there was a significant reduction in the inspiratory and expiratory EMG amplitude, peak inspiratory esophageal pressure, CTI, and the overlap between inspiratory and expiratory EMG activity. Additionally, there was significant increase in the interval between the maximum inspiratory and expiratory EMG activity and the active portion of the expiratory phase (CTE1). Control inflations coughs and control coughs with additional expiratory resistance had increased maximum expiratory esophageal pressure and prolonged CTE1, the duration of cough abdominal activity, and Tactive. There was no significant difference in control coughing and/or control coughing when sham ventilation was employed. In conclusion, modified lung inflations during coughing and/or additional expiratory airflow resistance altered the spatio-temporal features of cough motor pattern via the volume related feedback mechanism similar to that in breathing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Measurement of Cough Aerodynamics in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Aaron J; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Chhetri, Dinesh K; Long, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Cough is a critical human reflex and also among the most frequent symptoms in medicine. Despite the prevalence of disordered cough in laryngeal pathologies, comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of cough in these patients is lacking. Herein we seek to establish normative values for cough aerodynamics to provide a population standard for reference in future studies. Healthy subjects were recruited from an outpatient clinic to perform voluntary cough. Subjects were instructed on the technique for maximal voluntary cough production with measurements recorded on pneumotachograph. Fifty-two subjects were studied, including 29 women and 23 men with a mean age of 51.6 and 52.3 years, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cough peak airflow, peak pressure, and expiratory rise time. Results were stratified by age, gender, and height. Peak airflow demonstrated significant differences across age, gender, and height, with flow increasing according to increasing height. Peak cough pressure also increased with height and was significantly greater in males versus females. Expiratory rise time, the time from glottal opening to peak airflow, did not vary with age or height but was statistically significantly longer in women. Cough aerodynamics can be readily measured objectively in the outpatient setting. Expiratory rise time, peak flow, and peak pressure are important aspects of each cough epoch. Normative data provided herein can be used for future studies of patients with laryngotracheal disorders, and these cough parameters may prove to be simple, accessible, and repeatable outcome measures.

  17. Pre-clinical studies in cough research: Role of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Megan S.; Dubuis, Eric; Birrell, Mark A.; Belvisi, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Cough is a protective reflex and defence mechanism in healthy individuals, which helps clear excessive secretions and foreign material from the lungs. Cough often presents as the first and most persistent symptom of many respiratory diseases and some non-respiratory disorders, but can also be idiopathic, and is a common respiratory complaint for which medical attention is sought. Chronic cough of various aetiologies is a regular presentation to specialist respiratory clinics, and is reported as a troublesome symptom by a significant proportion of the population. Despite this, the treatment options for cough are limited. The lack of effective anti-tussives likely stems from our incomplete understanding of how the tussive reflex is mediated. However, research over the last decade has begun to shed some light on the mechanisms which provoke cough, and may ultimately provide us with better anti-tussive therapies. This review will focus on the in vitro and in vivo models that are currently used to further our understanding of the sensory innervation of the respiratory tract, and how these nerves are involved in controlling the cough response. Central to this are the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels, a family of polymodal receptors that can be activated by such diverse stimuli as chemicals, temperature, osmotic stress, and mechanical perturbation. These ion channels are thought to be molecular pain integrators and targets for novel analgesic agents for the treatment of various pain disorders but some are also being developed as anti-tussives. PMID:23474212

  18. Subjects with COPD and productive cough have an increased risk for exacerbations and death.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Anne; Sawalha, Sami; Hedman, Linnea; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis is related to worse general health status, exacerbations and mortality among subjects with COPD. Also less longstanding cough and phlegm may be related to worse prognosis in COPD but this has rarely been evaluated in population-based studies. To evaluate the relationship between productive cough, exacerbations and mortality among subjects with and without COPD. All subjects with COPD (n = 993) were identified together with sex- and age matched reference subjects without obstructive lung function impairment from four population-based cohorts in 2002-04. Baseline spirometry and structured interview including data on exacerbations last 12 months were used in this study (n = 1986) together with mortality data collected until February 2012. Productive cough was more common in COPD than non-COPD (42.8 vs. 23.5%, p < 0.001), more common in men than women, but associated to exacerbations in both sexes. COPD-subjects with productive cough had the highest risk for exacerbations in both sexes and they had a significantly increased risk for death (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.94) also when adjusted for sex, age, BMI, smoking habits and heart disease. Productive cough was common and increased the risk for exacerbations in both sexes, in both COPD and non-COPD. COPD-subjects with productive cough had the highest risk for exacerbations and a significantly higher risk for death also after adjustment for common risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of the Management of Cough

    PubMed Central

    French, Cynthia T.; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Gold, Philip M.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan; Chang, Anne Bernadette; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; Gibson, Peter; Gould, Michael K.; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Turner, Ronald B.; Vertigan, Anne; Weir, Kelly; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2014-01-01

    This overview will demonstrate that cough is a common and potentially expensive health-care problem. Improvement in the quality of care of those with cough has been the focus of study for a variety of disciplines in medicine. The purpose of the Cough Guideline and Expert Panel is to synthesize current knowledge in a form that will aid clinical decision-making for the diagnosis and management of cough across disciplines and also identify gaps in knowledge and treatment options. PMID:25080295

  20. Effect of guaifenesin on cough reflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Gayle, Yvonne E

    2003-12-01

    Guaifenesin, a commonly used agent for the treatment of cough, is termed an expectorant since it is believed to alleviate cough discomfort by increasing sputum volume and decreasing its viscosity, thereby promoting effective cough. Despite its common usage, relatively few studies, yielding contrasting results, have been performed to investigate the action and efficacy of guaifenesin. To evaluate the effect of guaifenesin on cough reflex sensitivity. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Academic medical center. Fourteen subjects with acute viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and 14 healthy volunteers. On 2 separate days, subjects underwent capsaicin cough challenge 1 to 2 h after receiving a single, 400-mg dose (capsules) of guaifenesin or matched placebo. The concentration of capsaicin inducing five or more coughs (C(5)) was determined. Among subjects with URI, mean (+/- SEM) log C(5) after guaifenesin and placebo were 0.92 +/- 0.17 and 0.66 +/- 0.14, respectively (p = 0.028). No effect on cough sensitivity was observed in healthy volunteers. Our results demonstrate that guaifenesin inhibits cough reflex sensitivity in subjects with URI, whose cough receptors are transiently hypersensitive, but not in healthy volunteers. Possible mechanisms include a central antitussive effect, or a peripheral effect by increased sputum volume serving as a barrier shielding cough receptors within the respiratory epithelium from the tussive stimulus.

  1. The research of the possible mechanism and the treatment for capsaicin-induced cough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Sun, Tieying; Liu, Longteng; Wang, Lifang

    2018-04-01

    Unexplained chronic cough (UCC) affects millions of patients worldwide. New therapeutic approaches to this condition are urgently needed, since current treatment options provide only symptomatic relief. Cough reflex hypersensitivity has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of UCC. The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is present on peripheral terminals of airway sensory nerves and modulation of its activity represents a potential target for the pharmacological treatment of UCC. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and the possible mechanism of SB705498, a TRPV1 antagonist, for cough in a capsaicin-induced cough animal model (i.e. guinea pigs). Induction of cough by capsaicin was successfully implemented in the guinea pigs, and the animals that met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into four treatment groups: (1) Saline inhalation group (NSInh group, N = 10, negative control group), (2) Codeine phosphate intraperitoneal injection group (CPInp group, N = 10, positive control group), (3) SB705498 inhalation group (SBInh group, N = 10), (4) SB705498 intragastric administration group (SBIng group, N = 10). After treatment with above compounds, the capsaicin-induced cough experiment was performed again. The cough numbers and the cough incubation periods were recorded to evaluate the antitussive effect of SB705498. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and neurokinin A (NKA) expression in lung and brain tissues were performed as an indication of neurogenic inflammation. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) staining was used to observe the pathology morphology of lung and brain tissues. When the CPInp, SBInh and SBIng groups were compared to the NSInh group, the cough numbers were significantly reduced (p < .001), while the cough incubation periods were significantly prolonged (P < .001

  2. Severity of cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with MUC5 B genotype

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A polymorphism (rs35705950) in the promoter region of the mucin MUC5B is associated with both familial and sporadic forms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (IPF) We hypothesize that this common MUC5B variant will impact the expression of cough, a frequent disabling symptom seen in subjects with IPF. Methods We genotyped 136 subjects with IPF. All living subjects were provided with a Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) to measure cough severity. We assessed allele effects of the MUC5B polymorphism on the LCQ scores using SAS General Linear Models (GLM) in the patients with IPF. Results In the 68 of the total 136 IPF patients who returned the LCQ, MUC5B minor allele frequency (T) is consistent with prior published studies (31%). We found a significant independent effect of the T allele on the LCQ score (p = 0.002 for subjects with IPF). This effect is independent of other common causes of cough, including gastroesophogeal reflux disease and upper airway cough syndrome. Conclusions Cough severity, a common disabling phenotypic component of IPF, is significantly associated with the presence of the minor allele of a MUC5B promoter polymorphism. This study highlights a possible genetic mechanism for phenotypic heterogeneity in pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24667072

  3. Environmental exposure as an independent risk factor of chronic bronchitis in northwest Russia

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Pentti; Panychev, Dmitry; Lyalyushkin, Sergei; Komarov, German; Nikanov, Alexander; Borisenko, Mark; Kinnula, Vuokko L.; Toljamo, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    Background In some parts of the northwest Russia, Murmansk region, high exposures to heavy mining and refining industrial air pollution, especially sulphur dioxide, have been documented. Objective Our aim was to evaluate whether living in the mining area would be an independent risk factor of the respiratory symptoms. Design A cross-sectional survey of 200 Murmansk region adult citizens was performed. The main outcome variable was prolonged cough with sputum production that fulfilled the criteria of chronic bronchitis. Results Of the 200 participants, 53 (26.5%) stated that they had experienced chronic cough with phlegm during the last 2 years. The prevalence was higher among those subjects living in the mining area with its high pollution compared to those living outside this region (35% vs. 18%). Multivariable regression model confirmed that the risk for the chronic cough with sputum production was elevated in a statistical significant manner in the mining and refining area (adjusted OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.07–4.35) after adjustment for smoking status, age and sex. Conclusions The increased level of sulphur dioxide emitted during nickel mining and refining may explain these adverse health effects. This information is important for medical authorities when they make recommendations and issue guidelines regarding the relationship between environmental pollution and health outcomes. PMID:23440671

  4. Effectiveness of cough etiquette maneuvers in disrupting the chain of transmission of infectious respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of recommended measures, such as “cover your mouth when coughing”, in disrupting the chain of transmission of infectious respiratory diseases (IRD) has been questioned. The objective of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of simple primary respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette maneuvers in blocking droplets expelled as aerosol during coughing. Method In this study, 31 healthy non-smokers performed cough etiquette maneuvers in an effort to cover their voluntarily elicited best effort coughs in an open bench format. A laser diffraction system was used to obtain accurate, non-invasive, quantitative, real time measurements of the size and number of droplets emitted during the assessed cough etiquette maneuvers. Results Recommended cough etiquette maneuvers did not block the release and dispersion of a variety of different diameter droplets to the surrounding environment. Droplets smaller than one-micron size dominate the total number of droplets leaked when practicing assessed maneuvers. Conclusions All the assessed cough etiquette maneuvers, performed as recommended, do not block droplets expelled as aerosol when coughing. This aerosol can penetrate profound levels of the respiratory system. Practicing these assessed primary respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette maneuvers would still permit direct, indirect, and/or airborne transmission and spread of IRD, such as influenza and Tuberculosis. All the assessed cough etiquette maneuvers, as recommended, do not fully interrupt the chain of transmission of IRD. This knowledge urges us all to critically review recommended CE and to search for new evidence-based procedures that effectively disrupt the transmission of respiratory pathogens. Interrupting the chain of transmission of IRD will optimize the protection of first responders, paramedics, nurses, and doctors working in triage sites, emergency rooms, intensive care units, and the general public against cough

  5. Whooping cough: identification, assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Jackie; Pinfield, Jenny; Rouse, Jo

    Although there is a high uptake of vaccinations providing protection against Bordetella pertussis, the main cause of whooping cough, there has been an increase in the incidence of notifications of the disease in the UK and other developed countries in recent years. The increase in cases of whooping cough is mainly evident in older children and adults. While these individuals may experience persistent and unpleasant symptoms, most notably prolonged cough, symptoms may be mild, in part, because most older children and adults have been vaccinated against the disease. The most significant public health concern relating to whooping cough is that infected older children and adults may transmit the disease to unvaccinated infants who are most vulnerable to the symptoms. This article aims to develop the reader's understanding of whooping cough, including its prevention and management.

  6. Childhood habit cough treated with self-hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Ran D; Hall, Howard R

    2004-02-01

    To better understand factors associated with the development and persistence of habit cough and to report use of self-hypnosis for this condition. A retrospective chart review was performed for 56 children and adolescents with habit cough. Interested patients were instructed in self-hypnosis for relaxation and to help ignore the cough-triggering sensation. The patients' mean age was 10.7 years. The cough was triggered by upper respiratory infections in 59%, asthma in 13%, exercise in 5%, and eating in 4%. Onset of the cough occurred as early as 2 years, and its average duration was 13 months (range, 2 weeks to 7 years). There was a high incidence of abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in the 50% of the patients who missed more than 1 week of school because of their cough. Among the 51 patients who used hypnosis, the cough resolved during or immediately after the initial hypnosis instruction session in 78% and within 1 month in an additional 12%. Habit cough is triggered by various physiologic conditions, related frequently to other diagnoses, and it is associated with significant school absence. Self-hypnosis offers a safe efficient treatment.

  7. Severe Prolonged Cough as Presenting Manifestation of FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ Chronic Eosinophilic Leukaemia: A Widely Ignored Association.

    PubMed

    Roufosse, Florence; Heimann, Pierre; Lambert, Frédéric; Sidon, Pierre; Bron, Dominique; Cottin, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukaemia associated with the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene (F/P+ CEL) is a rare cause of marked persistent hypereosinophilia, arising almost exclusively in male patients. Clinical presentations are heterogeneous with a higher incidence of eosinophil-mediated cardiomyopathy than in other hypereosinophilic syndrome variants. Features of chronic myeloproliferative disease are often present, including splenomegaly and elevated serum vitamin B12 levels. The diagnosis is made by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showing the deletion of the CHIC2 locus and/or RT-PCR showing the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion transcript. Treatment with imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, results in rapid and complete resolution of hypereosinophilia and associated symptoms, except for those related to sub-endocardial fibrosis that may be irreversible. We report the case of a male patient in whom isolated intractable cough remained the only clinical manifestation of F/P+ CEL for 4 years. Furthermore, eosinophil autofluorescence, an as yet unreported artefact in this setting, precluded the detection of the CHIC2 deletion and further delayed diagnosis, underlining that both FISH and RT-PCR should be performed when this disease is suspected. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Recurrent wheeze and cough in young children: is it asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mark Chung Wai; How, Choon How

    2014-01-01

    A clinical diagnosis of asthma is often considered when a child presents with recurrent cough, wheeze and breathlessness. However, there are many other causes of wheeze in a young child. These range from recurrent viral infections to chronic suppurative lung disease, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and rare structural abnormalities. Arriving at a diagnosis includes taking into consideration the symptomatology, triggers, atopic features, family history, absence of red flags and therapeutic trial, where indicated. PMID:24862744

  9. Etiology and treatment of cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vigeland, Christine L; Hughes, Andrew H; Horton, Maureen R

    2017-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease of dysregulated wound healing leading to unremitting scarring and loss of lung function. The predominant symptoms are dyspnea on exertion and a persistent dry cough. For patients with IPF, cough is more than just bothersome; it has a significant negative impact on quality of life and is a marker of disease severity and progression. The etiology of cough in IPF is unclear but may be due to architectural distortion of the lungs, increased sensitivity of the cough reflex, airway inflammation, or changes in mucus production and clearance. There also may be an overlap between IPF cough and cough due to other common etiologies such as asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, upper airway cough syndrome, and medications. There are no approved therapies to specifically treat IPF cough, and recently approved medications for IPF have not been evaluated in cough. Few clinical trials have focused on treatments for IPF cough. To date, there is only one randomized, placebo control therapeutic study for IPF cough with thalidomide, which significantly reduced IPF cough and improved quality of life. Two additional cohort studies report that interferon-α and prednisolone also decrease IPF cough. However, no medication is approved to treat IPF cough. Currently, the mainstay of therapy for IPF cough is standard cough suppressants, which have limited efficacy and often intolerable side effects. Future studies are needed to determine an effective therapy to alleviate this particularly debilitating symptom and improve overall quality of life for patients suffering with IPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Honey for acute cough in children.

    PubMed

    Oduwole, Olabisi; Udoh, Ekong E; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Meremikwu, Martin M

    2018-04-10

    Cough causes concern for parents and is a major cause of outpatient visits. Cough can impact quality of life, cause anxiety, and affect sleep in children and their parents. Honey has been used to alleviate cough symptoms. This is an update of reviews previously published in 2014, 2012, and 2010. To evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings. We searched CENTRAL (2018, Issue 2), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (2014 to 8 February 2018), Embase (2014 to 8 February 2018), CINAHL (2014 to 8 February 2018), EBSCO (2014 to 8 February 2018), Web of Science (2014 to 8 February 2018), and LILACS (2014 to 8 February 2018). We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) on 12 February 2018. The 2014 review included searches of AMED and CAB Abstracts, but these were not searched for this update due to lack of institutional access. Randomised controlled trials comparing honey alone, or in combination with antibiotics, versus no treatment, placebo, honey-based cough syrup, or other over-the-counter cough medications for children aged 12 months to 18 years for acute cough in ambulatory settings. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included six randomised controlled trials involving 899 children; we added three studies (331 children) in this update.We assessed two studies as at high risk of performance and detection bias; three studies as at unclear risk of attrition bias; and three studies as at unclear risk of other bias.Studies compared honey with dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, salbutamol, bromelin (an enzyme from the Bromeliaceae (pineapple) family), no treatment, and placebo. Five studies used 7-point Likert scales to measure symptomatic relief of cough; one used an unclear 5-point scale. In all studies, low score indicated better cough symptom relief

  11. Whooping cough in nursery school children

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anne; Williams, W. O.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of whooping cough in a nursery school during a large epidemic in West Glamorgan. Explosive outbreaks of whooping cough occurred in nursery schools in the area when the majority of children had not been vaccinated. It is recommended that the period of quarantine for whooping cough should be four weeks. Imagesp472-a PMID:7328524

  12. Usefulness of laboratory methods in diagnosis of pertussis in adult with paroxysmal cough.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, Katarzyna; Rzeczkowska, Magdalena; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Dąbrowska-Iwanicka, Anna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is an acute, highly contagious bacterial infection of respiratory system caused by Bordetella pertussis. Principally, disease affects young children, however, recently it is also reported in adolescents and adults. Symptoms of pertussis in adults are non-specific, i.e. dry, paroxysmal and protracted cough. Thus, it is rarely diagnosed in this group. This paper aimed at evaluating the usefulness of the laboratory methods in diagnosis of pertussis in adults based on a case presenting with dry, paroxysmal and chronic cough. Sputum (collected on 25th January 2013) and paired serum samples (collected on 13th February and 19 April 2013) were tested. Pertussis diagnostics involved culture, in-house PCR, real-time PCR and ELISA. Sputum culture, using commercial medium Bordetella Selective Medium by Oxoid did not reveal the presence of B. pertussis. Real-time PCR and PCR, however, confirmed the presence of insertion sequence IS481 and pertussis toxin promoter sequence ptx-Pr, markers indicative of B. pertussis infection. Serological testing revealed the high titres of IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies to B. pertussis in the first sample. In the second sample, collected 2 months following the first one, a significant decrease in IgA antibodies was reported. These data suggest a high usefulness of the laboratory methods in the diagnosis of pertussis in adults with chronic cough. Application of such methods ensures adequate diagnosis of disease, quick introduction of proper treatment and implementation of procedures preventing the spread of infection.

  13. Post-infectious persistent cough: pathogenesis and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Capristo, Carlo; Rossi, Giovanni A

    2017-10-01

    Post-infectious cough is a common symptom associated with common colds and/or upper respiratory tract infection. This cough is expected to last for only for few days and resolve spontaneously, whilst when persists for longer than three weeks is defined "persistent" and is associated tickling or an irritating sensation in the throat which often leads to paroxysms of coughing. Persistent post-infectious cough can cause morbidity since it may interfere with usual living. Despite the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that regulate cough, in physiological and pathological conditions, current therapeutic options for post-infectious cough are little or only moderately effective.

  14. Plasma substance P levels in patients with persistent cough.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Kojiro; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ito, Isao; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Jinnai, Makiko; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Tomoshi; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Chin, Kazuo; Sasaki, Kazuhiko; Aoyama, Norihito; Mishima, Michiaki

    2011-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is involved in the pathogenesis of cough in animal models. However, few studies in humans have been reported and the roles of SP in clinical cough remain obscure. To clarify the relevance of plasma levels of SP in patients with persistent cough. We studied 82 patients with cough persisting for at least 3 weeks and 15 healthy controls. Patients were classified as having asthmatic cough (cough-variant asthma and cough-predominant asthma; n = 61) or nonasthmatic cough (n = 21; postinfectious cough, n = 6; gastroesophageal reflux disease, n = 5; idiopathic cough, n = 5, and others, n = 5). Correlations were evaluated between plasma SP levels as measured with ELISA and methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness (airway sensitivity and airway reactivity), capsaicin cough sensitivity, sputum eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and pulmonary function. Plasma SP levels were significantly elevated in patients with both asthmatic and nonasthmatic cough compared with controls [31.1 pg/ml (range 18.0-52.2) and 30.0 pg/ml (range 15.1-50.3) vs. 15.4 pg/ml (range 11.3-23.7); p = 0.003 and p = 0.038, respectively] but did not differ between the two patient groups (p = 0.90). Plasma SP levels correlated with airway sensitivity (threshold dose of methacholine) in the patients with asthmatic cough (r = -0.37, p = 0.005) but not with airway reactivity, cough sensitivity, FEV1 values, or sputum eosinophil and neutrophil counts in either group. Increased levels of SP in plasma are associated with persistent cough in humans and might be related to airway sensitivity in asthmatic cough. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Comorbid Trends in World Trade Center Cough Syndrome and Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Justin K.; Gustave, Jackson; Cohen, Hillel W.; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Kelly, Kerry J.; Glass, Lara; Prezant, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We describe the relationship between World Trade Center (WTC) cough syndrome symptoms, pulmonary function, and symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in WTC-exposed firefighters in the first year post-September 11, 2001 (baseline), and 3 to 4 years later (follow-up). Methods: Five thousand three hundred sixty-three firefighters completed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and questionnaires at both times. Relationships among WTC cough syndrome, probable PTSD, and PFTs were analyzed using simple and multivariable models. We also examined the effects of cofactors, including WTC exposure. Results: WTC cough syndrome was found in 1,561 firefighters (29.1%) at baseline and 1,186 (22.1%) at follow-up, including 559 with delayed onset (present only at follow-up). Probable PTSD was found in 458 firefighters (8.5%) at baseline and 548 (10.2%) at follow-up, including 343 with delayed onset. Baseline PTSD symptom counts and probable PTSD were associated with WTC cough syndrome at baseline, at follow-up, and in those with delayed-onset WTC cough syndrome. Similarly, WTC cough syndrome symptom counts and WTC cough syndrome at baseline were associated with probable PTSD at baseline, at follow-up, and in those with delayed-onset probable PTSD. WTC arrival time and work duration were cofactors of both outcomes. A small but consistent association existed between pulmonary function and WTC cough syndrome, but none with PTSD. Conclusions: The study showed a moderate association between WTC cough syndrome and probable PTSD. The presence of one contributed to the likelihood of the other, even after adjustment for shared cofactors such as WTC exposure. PMID:21546435

  16. Treatment of Neurogenic Cough with Tramadol: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Dion, Gregory R; Teng, Stephanie E; Achlatis, Efstratios; Fang, Yixin; Amin, Milan R

    2017-07-01

    This study employs validated cough assessment tools to prospectively determine the impact of tramadol on cough severity and quality of life in subjects with neurogenic cough. The study was a prospective case series with planned data collection at a tertiary care academic medical center laryngology practice. Sixteen consecutive collected subjects with neurogenic cough prospectively completed pre- and posttreatment validated cough assessment tools, the cough severity index (CSI) and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). All subjects in the study reported at least some improvement in their cough symptoms. In a Wilcoxon signed rank test that compared paired results, CSI scores improved from 23 to 14 and LCQ scores improved from 74 to 103 ( P = .003 and P = .005, respectively). This small preliminary assessment suggests that tramadol warrants additional evaluation as a treatment for neurogenic cough.

  17. Honey for acute cough in children.

    PubMed

    Oduwole, Olabisi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Udoh, Ekong E

    2014-12-23

    Cough causes concern for parents and is a major cause of outpatient visits. It can impact on quality of life, cause anxiety and affect sleep in parents and children. Several remedies, including honey, have been used to alleviate cough symptoms. To evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE (1950 to October week 4, 2014), EMBASE (1990 to November 2014), CINAHL (1981 to November 2014), Web of Science (2000 to November 2014), AMED (1985 to November 2014), LILACS (1982 to November 2014) and CAB abstracts (2009 to January 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing honey given alone, or in combination with antibiotics, versus nothing, placebo or other over-the-counter (OTC) cough medications to participants aged from one to 18 years for acute cough in ambulatory settings. Two review authors independently screened search results for eligible studies and extracted data on reported outcomes. We included three RCTs, two at high risk of bias and one at low risk of bias, involving 568 children. The studies compared honey with dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, 'no treatment' and placebo for the effect on symptomatic relief of cough using a seven-point Likert scale. The lower the score, the better the cough symptom being assessed.Moderate quality evidence showed that honey may be better than 'no treatment' in reducing the frequency of cough (mean difference (MD) -1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.48 to -0.62; I(2) statistic 23%; two studies, 154 participants). High quality evidence also suggests that honey may be better than placebo for reduction of cough frequency (MD -1.85; 95% Cl -3.36 to -0.33; one study, 300 participants). Moderate quality evidence suggests that honey does not differ significantly from dextromethorphan in reducing cough frequency (MD -0.07; 95% CI -1.07 to 0.94; two studies, 149 participants). Low quality evidence suggests that honey may be slightly

  18. Encoding of the cough reflex in anesthetized guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Nanako

    2011-01-01

    We have previously described the physiological and morphological properties of the cough receptors and their sites of termination in the airways and centrally in the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS). In the present study, we have addressed the hypothesis that the primary central synapses of the cough receptors subserve an essential role in the encoding of cough. We found that cough requires sustained, high-frequency (≥8-Hz) afferent nerve activation. We also found evidence for processes that both facilitate (summation, sensitization) and inhibit the initiation of cough. Sensitization of cough occurs with repetitive subthreshold activation of the cough receptors or by coincident activation of C-fibers and/or nTS neurokinin receptor activation. Desensitization of cough evoked by repetitive and/or continuous afferent nerve activation has a rapid onset (<60 s) and does not differentiate between tussive stimuli, suggesting a central nervous system-dependent process. The cough reflex can also be actively inhibited upon activation of other airway afferent nerve subtypes, including slowly adapting receptors and pulmonary C-fibers. The sensitization and desensitization of cough are likely attributable to the prominent, primary, and unique role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent signaling at the central synapses of the cough receptors. These attributes may have direct relevance to the presentation of cough in disease and for the effectiveness of antitussive therapies. PMID:20926760

  19. Remedy or cure? Lay beliefs about over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Gina; Helman, Cecil

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over 500 million is spent in the United Kingdom every year on over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds. Evidence for their pharmacological efficacy is lacking. AIM: To examine lay beliefs about over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds. To explore whether the distinction between symptom relief and cure has the same relevance to lay people as it does to medical professionals. DESIGN OF STUDY: Small pilot study using qualitative techniques. SETTING: Variety sample of 11 patients attending the National Health Service walk-in centre, Birmingham, England. METHOD: In-depth semi-structured interviews, including pile-sorting and fictional case histories, were used to explore participants' beliefs about the effects of over-the-counter medicines on coughs and colds. RESULTS: Eight of the 11 participants believed that at least one over the-counter cough medicine (most frequently Benylin for Chesty Coughs) could shorten, or "cure", an illness. Five participants thought that the majority of the medicines that they recognised would speed recovery rather than just relieve symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There is a common confusion in the lay person's mind between the ability of a medicine to relieve symptoms, and its ability to cure a disease or to hasten recovery. This misunderstanding may affect the demand for primary care consultations. PMID:14965387

  20. Design and characterization of a cough simulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Chao; Ji, Zhiming; Lin, Chao-Hsin

    2017-02-23

    Expiratory droplets from human coughing have always been considered as potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory infectious disease transmission. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing, a transient repeatable cough simulator has been designed and built. Cough droplets are generated by different mechanisms, such as the breaking of mucus, condensation and high-speed atomization from different depths of the respiratory tract. These mechanisms in coughing produce droplets of different sizes, represented by a bimodal distribution of 'fine' and 'coarse' droplets. A cough simulator is hence designed to generate transient sprays with such bimodal characteristics. It consists of a pressurized gas tank, a nebulizer and an ejector, connected in series, which are controlled by computerized solenoid valves. The bimodal droplet size distribution is characterized for the coarse droplets and fine droplets, by fibrous collection and laser diffraction, respectively. The measured size distributions of coarse and fine droplets are reasonably represented by the Rosin-Rammler and log-normal distributions in probability density function, which leads to a bimodal distribution. To assess the hydrodynamic consequences of coughing including droplet vaporization and polydispersion, a Lagrangian model of droplet trajectories is established, with its ambient flow field predetermined from a computational fluid dynamics simulation.

  1. A 68-Year-Old Man With Dyspnea on Exertion and Cough.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Koenig, Seth; Khanijo, Sameer

    2018-06-01

    A 68-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia well controlled on ibrutinib, hypertension, obesity, and a remote history of smoking (10 pack-years) presented with increasing dyspnea on exertion and cough. He had previously finished two courses of oral antibiotics for his symptoms without significant improvement. On presentation, he had no fevers or sputum production. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Honey for treatment of cough in children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question Cough is a very common presentation among sick children in my clinic. There is almost no day without a child being examined for upper respiratory tract infection and cough. While I understand that no medications are recommended for relief of cough—prescribed or over the counter—is it true that honey might help relieve cough symptoms in children? Answer Most prescribed and over-the-counter preparations for cough in children are not effective and might carry the risk of adverse events. A single dose of honey before bedtime was shown in recent studies to diminish cough and the discomfort experienced by children and their parents. Recent evidence also supports administering a few daily doses, but this practice will need further study to assess its effectiveness and safety. PMID:25642485

  3. Nocturnal cough in children with stable cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van der Giessen, Lianne; Loeve, Martine; de Jongste, Johan; Hop, Wim; Tiddens, Harm

    2009-09-01

    To date no studies have been published on nocturnal cough frequency in children with stable CF. Aim of the study was to assess nocturnal cough frequency in children with CF. In addition nocturnal cough frequency was correlated with parameters of disease severity. During two nights cough was recorded with a digital audio recorder in 25 patients (mean age 13 years; range 6-19) with clinically stable CF. In addition oxygen saturation was measured. The day following the recording spirometry was carried out. CT scores were obtained from the most recent routine CT scan. Cough was expressed in cough seconds (csec) and in cough seconds per hour (csec/hr). Data shown are median values and interquartile range (IQR). First night: 8 csec (IQR 3-52); 0.9 csec/hr (IQR 0.3-6.1) Second night: 6 csec (IQR 2-32); 0.6 csec/hr (IQR 0.1-3.4). Csec in the 1st night did not correlate significantly with csec in the 2nd night. Only for the 2nd night a strong correlation was found between csec/hr and the FEV1%pred (r(s) = -0.75, P < 0.001) and FEF(75) %pred (r(s) = -0.71, P < 0.001). Bronchiectasis score correlated borderline with the mean csec/hr of both nights (r(s) = 0.39, P = 0.08). During both nights cough was significantly higher in the first hour of sleep (P < or = 0.04). Frequency of nocturnal coughing in children with CF was higher than that described for normal children. Nocturnal cough tended to be more severe in children with more advanced CF lung disease. Nocturnal cough was more severe in the first hour of sleep and varied from night-to-night. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Dynamics of Voluntary Cough Maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naire, Shailesh

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.

  5. Methods of recording and analysing cough sounds.

    PubMed

    Subburaj, S; Parvez, L; Rajagopalan, T G

    1996-01-01

    Efforts have been directed to evolve a computerized system for acquisition and multi-dimensional analysis of the cough sound. The system consists of a PC-AT486 computer with an ADC board having 12 bit resolution. The audio cough sound is acquired using a sensitive miniature microphone at a sampling rate of 8 kHz in the computer and simultaneously recorded in real time using a digital audio tape recorder which also serves as a back up. Analysis of the cough sound is done in time and frequency domains using the digitized data which provide numerical values for key parameters like cough counts, bouts, their intensity and latency. In addition, the duration of each event and cough patterns provide a unique tool which allows objective evaluation of antitussive and expectorant drugs. Both on-line and off-line checks ensure error-free performance over long periods of time. The entire system has been evaluated for sensitivity, accuracy, precision and reliability. Successful use of this system in clinical studies has established what perhaps is the first integrated approach for the objective evaluation of cough.

  6. Cough Medicine: Understanding Your OTC Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... and expectorants. A common antitussive is dextromethorphan (some brand names: Triaminic Cold and Cough, Robitussin Cough, Vicks ... expectorant available in OTC products is guaifenesin (2 brand names: Mucinex, Robitussin Chest Congestion). How do OTC ...

  7. Honey for acute cough in children.

    PubMed

    Oduwole, Olabisi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Udoh, Ekong E

    2012-03-14

    Cough causes concern for parents and is a major cause of outpatient visits. It can impact on quality of life, cause anxiety and affect sleep in parents and children. Several remedies, including honey, have been used to alleviate cough symptoms. To evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2011) which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (1950 to December week 4, 2011); EMBASE (1990 to January 2012); CINAHL (1981 to January 2012); Web of Science (2000 to January 2012); AMED (1985 to January 2012); LILACS (1982 to January 2012); and CAB abstracts (2009 to January 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing honey given alone, or in combination with antibiotics, versus nothing, placebo or other over-the-counter (OTC) cough medications to participants aged from two to 18 years for acute cough in ambulatory settings. Two review authors independently screened search results for eligible studies and extracted data on reported outcomes. We included two RCTs of high risk of bias involving 265 children. The studies compared the effect of honey with dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine and 'no treatment' on symptomatic relief of cough using the 7-point Likert scale.Honey was better than 'no treatment' in reducing frequency of cough (mean difference (MD) -1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.53 to -0.60; two studies; 154 participants). Moderate quality evidence suggests honey did not differ significantly from dextromethorphan in reducing cough frequency (MD -0.07; 95% CI -1.07 to 0.94; two studies; 149 participants). Low quality evidence suggests honey may be slightly better than diphenhydramine in reducing cough frequency (MD -0.57; 95% CI -0.90 to -0.24; one study; 80 participants).Adverse events included mild reactions (nervousness, insomnia and hyperactivity

  8. Whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Danthis, Michael

    2014-05-13

    The CPD article was relevant to my practice because most upper respiratory tract infections exhibit similar symptoms initially. It is essential to be able to diagnose whooping cough because it is an acute and highly contagious disease.

  9. [Serological evaluation of Bordetella pertussis infection in adults with prolonged cough].

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Cemile; Çöplü, Nilay; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Ülkü; Bilekli, Selen; Demirci, Nilgün Yılmaz; Biber, Çiğdem; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Esen, Berrin; Çöplü, Lütfi

    2016-07-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that is transmitted from infected to susceptible individuals by respiratory route. Bordetella pertussis infection may occur at any age as neither vaccine nor natural infection induced immunity lasts life-long. This study was planned to demonstrate the serological evidence of infection among adults, to raise awareness among clinicians and to provide data for the development of strategies to protect vulnerable infants. A total of 538 patients (345 female, 193 male) ages between 18-87 years who had a complain of prolonged cough for more than two weeks were included in the study. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FH) IgG levels from single serum samples were measured by an in-house ELISA test which was standardized and shown to be efficient previously. Anti-PT IgG antibody levels of ≥ 100 EU/ml were considered as acute/recent infection with B.pertussis. In our study, 9.7% (52/538) of the patients had high levels of anti-PT IgG (≥ 100 EU/ml) and among those patients 43 (43/52; 82.7%) also had high (≥ 100 EU/ml) anti-FHA IgG levels. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age, gender, education level, DPT (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus) vaccination history, smoking history or average daily cigarette consumption (p> 0.05) between the cases with high antibody levels (n= 52). When the symptoms and the presence of cases with high antibody levels were evaluated, it was detected that no one parameter was significantly different from others, except that 24.1% of the cases with inspiratory whooping had high anti-PT levels. There was also no statistically significant difference between high anti-PT levels ≥ 100 EU/ml and the patients with risk factors [smoking (21/200; 10.5%), presence of disease that cause chronic cough and/or drug usage (19/171; %11.1), and whole factors which cause chronic cough (32/306; %10.5)] and without risk factors (p= 0.581; p= 0.357; p= 0

  10. Cough mixtures: rational or irrational prescribing in Hong Kong?

    PubMed

    Wong, William C W; Dickinson, James; Chan, Cynthia

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the extent and how cough mixtures are prescribed, and what conditions or specific groups of people would contribute to its prescription in Hong Kong. Using diagnosis and drug data obtained from logbooks submitted by participants in the diploma in family medicine course between 1999 and 2003, we selected and analysed all patients with a diagnosis of cough or cough-related illnesses as well as cough mixtures that were used to treat them. This study confirmed that cough-related illnesses were common in the Hong Kong primary care setting and cough mixtures were used quite liberally irrespective of the patients' age and sex. Combination preparations accounted for over half of the prescriptions and cough mixture was used less in severe cases when antibiotics were given. Private doctors working in the public sector. Given the current health care system, inappropriate and over-prescribing of cough mixtures can be improved by promoting health education and awareness among patients seeking medical help for this common medical condition.

  11. Comparison of voluntary and reflex cough effectiveness in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Troche, Michelle S.; Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Davenport, Paul W.; Okun, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple airway protective mechanisms are impacted with Parkinson’s disease (PD), including swallowing and cough. Cough serves to eject material from the lower airways, and can be produced voluntarily (on command) and reflexively in response to aspirate material or other airway irritants. Voluntary cough effectiveness is reduced in PD however it is not known whether reflex cough is affected as well. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness between voluntary and reflex cough in patients with idiopathic PD. Methods Twenty patients with idiopathic PD participated. Cough airflow data were recorded via facemask in line with a pneumotachograph. A side delivery port connected the nebulizer for delivery of capsaicin, which was used to induce cough. Three voluntary coughs and three reflex coughs were analyzed from each participant. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare voluntary versus reflex cough airflow parameters. Results Significant differences were found for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and cough expired volume (CEV) between voluntary and reflex cough. Specifically, both PEFR and CEV were reduced for reflex as compared to voluntary cough. Conclusion Cough PEFR and CEV are indicative of cough effectiveness in terms of the ability to remove material from the lower airways. Differences between these two cough types likely reflect differences in the coordination of the respiratory and laryngeal subsystems. Clinicians should be aware that evaluation of cough function using voluntary cough tasks overestimates the PEFR and CEV that would be achieved during reflex cough in patients with PD. PMID:25246315

  12. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p < 0.01), i.e., cough sensitivity was downregulated. With VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p < 0.01), a similar downregulation. With exercise and VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  13. Community prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms in rural Malawi: Implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Banda, Hastings T; Thomson, Rachael; Mortimer, Kevin; Bello, George A F; Mbera, Grace B; Malmborg, Rasmus; Faragher, Brian; Squire, S Bertel

    2017-01-01

    No community prevalence studies have been done on chronic respiratory symptoms of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath in adult rural populations in Malawi. Case detection rates of tuberculosis (TB) and chronic airways disease are low in resource-poor primary health care facilities. To understand the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and recorded diagnoses of TB in rural Malawian adults in order to improve case detection and management of these diseases. A population proportional, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of the population with chronic respiratory symptoms that had a diagnosis of tuberculosis or chronic airways disease in two rural communities in Malawi. Households were randomly selected using Google Earth Pro software. Smart phones loaded with Open Data Kit Essential software were used for data collection. Interviews were conducted with 15795 people aged 15 years and above to enquire about symptoms of chronic cough, wheeze and shortness of breath. Overall 3554 (22.5%) participants reported at least one of these respiratory symptoms. Cough was reported by 2933, of whom 1623 (55.3%) reported cough only and 1310 (44.7%) combined with wheeze and/or shortness of breath. Only 4.6% (164/3554) of participants with chronic respiratory symptoms had one or more of the following diagnoses in their health passports (patient held medical records): TB, asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms coupled with limited recorded diagnoses in patient-held medical records in these rural communities suggests a high chronic respiratory disease burden and unmet health need.

  14. Sputum colour for diagnosis of a bacterial infection in patients with acute cough.

    PubMed

    Altiner, Attila; Wilm, Stefan; Däubener, Walter; Bormann, Christiane; Pentzek, Michael; Abholz, Heinz-Harald; Scherer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Sputum colour plays an important role in the disease concepts for acute cough, both in the patients' and the doctors' view. However, it is unclear whether the sputum colour can be used for diagnosis of a bacterial infection. Cross-sectional study. A total of 42 GP practices in Dusseldorf, Germany. Sputum samples obtained from 241 patients suffering from an episode of acute cough seeing their doctor within a routine consultation. Relation of sputum colour and microbiological proof of bacterial infection defined as positive culture and at least a moderate number of leucocytes per low magnification field. In 28 samples (12%) a bacterial infection was proven. Yellowish or greenish colour of the sputum sample and bacterial infection showed a significant correlation (p = 0.014, Fisher's exact test). The sensitivity of yellowish or greenish sputum used as a test for a bacterial infection was 0.79 (95% CI 0.63-0.94); the specificity was 0.46 (95% CI 0.038-0.53). The positive likelihood-ratio (+LR) was 1.46 (95% CI 1.17-1.85). The sputum colour of patients with acute cough and no underlying chronic lung disease does not imply therapeutic consequences such as prescription of antibiotics.

  15. Voluntary cough production and swallow dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Teresa; Bolser, Donald; Rosenbek, John; Troche, Michelle; Sapienza, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Cough is important for airway clearance, particularly if penetration/aspiration of foreign material occurs during swallow. Measures of voluntary cough production from ten male participants with stage II-III Parkinson's disease (PD) who showed no videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 1) were examined and compared with those of ten male participants with stage II-III PD who showed videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 2). The degree of penetration/aspiration was expertly judged from the videofluorographic examinations of the participants' sequential swallow of a thin, 30-cc bolus. Measured cough parameters included inspiratory phase duration, inspiratory peak flow, compression phase duration, expiratory peak flow, expiratory rise time, and cough volume acceleration. Results indicated significant group differences for the majority of cough measures, except for inspiratory phase duration and inspiratory peak flow. A modest relationship existed between voluntary cough parameters and penetration/aspiration scores. Decreased ability to adequately clear material from the airway with voluntary cough may exacerbate symptoms resulting from penetration/aspiration, particularly for those with neurodegenerative disease. Measurement of voluntary cough may be useful for the evaluation of airway clearance ability.

  16. Cough reflex hypersensitivity: A role for neurotrophins.

    PubMed

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Jaffal, Sahar M

    2017-03-01

    Cough is one of the most common complaints for which sufferers seek medical assistance. However, currently available drugs are not very effective in treating cough, particularly that which follows an upper respiratory tract infection. Nonetheless, there has been a significant increase in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of the defensive cough as well as the hypersensitive/pathophysiological cough, both at airway and central nervous system (CNS) levels. Numerous molecules and signaling pathways have been identified as potential targets for antitussive drugs, including neurotrophins (NTs). NTs belong to a family of trophic factors and are critical for the development and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system including sympathetic efferents, sensory neuron afferents, and immune cells. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was the first member of the NT family to be discovered, with wide ranging actions associated with synapse formation, survival, proliferation, apoptosis, axonal and dendritic outgrowth, expression and activity of functionally important proteins such as ion channels, receptors, and neurotransmitters. In addition, NGF has been implicated in several disease states particularly neuropathic pain and most recently in the sensitization of the cough reflex. This review will briefly address the peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms of airway neurons and will then focus on NGF signaling and its role in cough hypersensitivity.

  17. Influence of background music on work attention in clients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Chen, Chi-Sheng; Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Chien-Hsiou

    2015-01-01

    Work attention in persons with chronic schizophrenia is an important issue in vocational rehabilitation. Some of the research literature indicates that background music may influence visual attention performance. Based on the theory of occupational therapy, environmental sounds, colors and decorations may affect individual performance, this study thus examined the influence of music on work attention in persons with schizophrenia. Participants were recruited from a halfway house in Taipei. Forty-nine (49) patients with chronic schizophrenia volunteered. They had been accepted into vocational rehabilitation and a work-seeking program. The sample included 20 females and 29 males. The participant ages ranged between 29 and 63 years old, and their average age was 47 years old. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study, the participants were assigned to one of three conditions: quiet environment as the control group (n= 16), classical light music as background music (n= 16), and popular music as background music (n= 17). For Group 1 (control group/quiet environment), there was no significant variance (sig = 0.172). For Group 2 (Classical light music), the intervention revealed significant variance (sig = 0.071*). For Group 3 (popular music), the intervention had significant variance (sig = 0.048**). The introduction of background music tended to increase attention test scores of persons with schizophrenia. Moreover, the increase in test attention scores was statistically significant when popular music was played in the background. This result suggested that background music may improve attention performance of persons with chronic schizophrenia. Future research is required with a larger sample size to support the study results.

  18. Whooping Cough in Adults: A Series of Severe Cases.

    PubMed

    Zycinska, K; Cieplak, M; Chmielewska, M; Nitsch-Osuch, A; Klaczkow, A; Hadzik-Blaszczyk, M; Kur, Z; Wardyn, K A

    2017-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative aerobic coccobacillus causing contagious respiratory tract disease called whooping cough. The virulence factors consist of pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae, lipooligosaccharide, and adenylate cyclase toxin. The disease causes a worldwide threat to public health despite a high vaccination coverage. The course of whooping cough in adults is frequently atypical, causing difficulty in diagnosis. In this report we present five patients hospitalized with Bordetella pertussis infection manifesting atypical and severe symptoms. The diagnosis was based on serological tests: serum concentration of specific antibodies against pertussis toxin and sputum cultures. We observed a wide spectrum of symptoms, from benign (sinus pain - 80 %, headaches - 20 %), through moderate (hemoptysis - 40 %; chest pain 60 %) to severe symptoms (cardiac arrhythmia - 40 %; syncope - 60 %). Bordetella pertussis infection can cause life-threatening complications and exacerbation of concomitant chronic diseases. Most vaccination programs cover only the first few months of life. Booster doses should be considered in adults, especially those immunocompromised or with pulmonary complications, but also in healthcare workers who are exposed to the contagion and also may spread the infection.

  19. Cough event classification by pretrained deep neural network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; You, Mingyu; Wang, Zheng; Li, Guo-Zheng; Xu, Xianghuai; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Cough is an essential symptom in respiratory diseases. In the measurement of cough severity, an accurate and objective cough monitor is expected by respiratory disease society. This paper aims to introduce a better performed algorithm, pretrained deep neural network (DNN), to the cough classification problem, which is a key step in the cough monitor. The deep neural network models are built from two steps, pretrain and fine-tuning, followed by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) decoder to capture tamporal information of the audio signals. By unsupervised pretraining a deep belief network, a good initialization for a deep neural network is learned. Then the fine-tuning step is a back propogation tuning the neural network so that it can predict the observation probability associated with each HMM states, where the HMM states are originally achieved by force-alignment with a Gaussian Mixture Model Hidden Markov Model (GMM-HMM) on the training samples. Three cough HMMs and one noncough HMM are employed to model coughs and noncoughs respectively. The final decision is made based on viterbi decoding algorihtm that generates the most likely HMM sequence for each sample. A sample is labeled as cough if a cough HMM is found in the sequence. The experiments were conducted on a dataset that was collected from 22 patients with respiratory diseases. Patient dependent (PD) and patient independent (PI) experimental settings were used to evaluate the models. Five criteria, sensitivity, specificity, F1, macro average and micro average are shown to depict different aspects of the models. From overall evaluation criteria, the DNN based methods are superior to traditional GMM-HMM based method on F1 and micro average with maximal 14% and 11% error reduction in PD and 7% and 10% in PI, meanwhile keep similar performances on macro average. They also surpass GMM-HMM model on specificity with maximal 14% error reduction on both PD and PI. In this paper, we tried pretrained deep neural network in

  20. Cough in the Athlete: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Turmel, Julie; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-02-01

    Cough is a common symptom experienced by athletes, particularly after exercise. We performed a systematic review to assess the following in this population: (1) the main causes of acute and recurrent cough, either exercise-induced or not, (2) how cough is assessed, and (3) how cough is treated in this population. From the systematic review, suggestions for management were developed. This review was performed according to the CHEST methodological guidelines and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework until April 2015. To be included, studies had to meet the following criteria: participants had to be athletes and adults and adolescents aged ≥ 12 years and had to complain of cough, regardless of its duration or relationship to exercise. The Expert Cough Panel based their suggestions on the data extracted from the review and final grading by consensus according to a Delphi process. Only 60 reports fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the results of our analysis revealed only low-quality evidence on the causes of cough and how to assess and treat cough specifically in athletes. Although there was no formal evaluation of causes of cough in the athletic population, the most common causes reported were asthma, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, respiratory tract infection (RTI), upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) (mostly from rhinitis), and environmental exposures. Cough was also reported to be related to exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction among a variety of less common causes. Although gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is frequent in athletes, we found no publication on cough and GERD in this population. Assessment of the causes of cough was performed mainly with bronchoprovocation tests and suspected disease-specific investigations. The evidence to guide treatment of cough in the athlete was weak or nonexistent, depending on the cause. As data on cough in athletes were hidden in a set of other data (respiratory

  1. High Humidity Leads to Loss of Infectious Influenza Virus from Simulated Coughs

    PubMed Central

    Noti, John D.; Blachere, Francoise M.; McMillen, Cynthia M.; Lindsley, William G.; Kashon, Michael L.; Slaughter, Denzil R.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of relative humidity in the aerosol transmission of influenza was examined in a simulated examination room containing coughing and breathing manikins. Methods Nebulized influenza was coughed into the examination room and Bioaerosol samplers collected size-fractionated aerosols (<1 µM, 1–4 µM, and >4 µM aerodynamic diameters) adjacent to the breathing manikin’s mouth and also at other locations within the room. At constant temperature, the RH was varied from 7–73% and infectivity was assessed by the viral plaque assay. Results Total virus collected for 60 minutes retained 70.6–77.3% infectivity at relative humidity ≤23% but only 14.6–22.2% at relative humidity ≥43%. Analysis of the individual aerosol fractions showed a similar loss in infectivity among the fractions. Time interval analysis showed that most of the loss in infectivity within each aerosol fraction occurred 0–15 minutes after coughing. Thereafter, losses in infectivity continued up to 5 hours after coughing, however, the rate of decline at 45% relative humidity was not statistically different than that at 20% regardless of the aerosol fraction analyzed. Conclusion At low relative humidity, influenza retains maximal infectivity and inactivation of the virus at higher relative humidity occurs rapidly after coughing. Although virus carried on aerosol particles <4 µM have the potential for remaining suspended in air currents longer and traveling further distances than those on larger particles, their rapid inactivation at high humidity tempers this concern. Maintaining indoor relative humidity >40% will significantly reduce the infectivity of aerosolized virus. PMID:23460865

  2. Theobromine for the treatment of persistent cough: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    McGarvey, Lorcan; Pavord, Ian D.; Higgins, Bernard; Chung, Kian Fan; Birring, Surinder S.

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of BC1036 on health-related quality of life (QOL) in subjects with persistent cough. The secondary objective was to investigate the effect of BC1036 on subjective cough severity. Methods This was a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 289 subjects with persistent cough. Subjects received BC1036 or placebo twice daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint comprised cough-related QOL assessed using the validated Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) at Day 14. Secondary endpoints comprised the LCQ scores at Day 7 and Day 28, cough severity VAS scores at each visit and pulmonary function tests. Results At baseline, mean total LCQ score in the BC1036 group was lower (i.e., worse QOL) than placebo (P<0.001), indicating significant between-group heterogeneity. Mean baseline-adjusted change in LCQ score at Day 14 was greater for BC1036 [mean (SD) 2.4±3.5] compared to placebo [mean (SD) score 2.2±3.0], but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.60). Mean cough severity VAS score decreased to a greater extent in the BC1036 group compared to placebo, but again the results were not statistically significant (−12.2±23.28 in BC1036 group and −11.0±21.34 in placebo group at Day 14, P=0.688). There was no significant change in pulmonary function measurements. The adverse event (AE) profile was similar in both groups. Conclusions This study showed that BC1036 was well tolerated and, although the primary endpoint did not achieve statistical significance, the magnitude of improvement was greater with BC1036 compared to placebo with respect to improving QOL and reducing cough severity. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01656668. PMID:28839984

  3. The "Silent Cough" Method for Vocal Hyperfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwitman, Daniel H.; Calcaterra, Thomas C.

    1973-01-01

    A method of silent coughing is recommended as an alternative to coughing and throat clearing which are described as vocally abusive activities that can be directly related to laryngeal disease. (Author/GW)

  4. Cough Culprits: What's the Difference Between Bronchitis and Pneumonia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cough Culprits What’s the Difference Between Bronchitis and Pneumonia? En español Send us your comments Coughs help ... cough from your chest may signal bronchitis or pneumonia. Although they may have different underlying causes, their ...

  5. First Aid: Coughing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asthma Center Flu Center Whooping Cough Your Lungs & Respiratory System Flu Center Bronchitis Why Should I Care About Germs? Lungs and Respiratory System View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  6. Whooping cough in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Garbiras, M; Shabaka, A; Calvo, N; Martin, L; Moreno, M A; Lopez de la Manzanara, V; Sanchez-Fructuoso, A I

    2016-04-01

    Whooping cough is a respiratory infection with a severity that varies with age, immune status, and probably with other factors such as the degree of exposure and the virulence of the organism. The most frequent microorganism responsible for whooping cough is Bordetella pertussis. We present the case of a 62-year-old renal transplant recipient presenting with typical and severe manifestations of whooping cough caused by B. pertussis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Brainstem mechanisms underlying the cough reflex and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Mutolo, Donatella

    2017-09-01

    Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG). Drugs microinjected into these medullary structures caused downregulation or upregulation of the cough reflex. The results suggest that inhibition and disinhibition are prominent regulatory mechanisms of this reflex and that both the cNTS and the cVRG are essential in the generation of the entire cough motor pattern. Studies on the basic neural mechanisms subserving the cough reflex may provide hints for novel therapeutic approaches. Different proposals for further investigations are advanced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B Hib Measles Mumps Polio Pneumococcal Rotavirus Rubella Tetanus Whooping Cough (Pertussis) For Parents of ... A Hepatitis B Hib Measles Mumps Polio Pneumococcal Rotavirus Rubella Tetanus Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Top of Page ...

  9. Cough induced by mechanical stimulation of the upper airway in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Patrick; Eccles, Ronald

    2004-08-01

    Cough has previously been induced in animals by means of mechanical stimulation of the upper airway but this method has not previously been applied to humans. The aims of this study were to determine if cough could be induced in humans on mechanical stimulation of the upper airway and to see if this mechanically induced cough was reproducible. We also wished to investigate if there was any difference in cough sensitivity between healthy subjects and those with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). In the first investigation, 2 groups were studied: 15 healthy subjects and 30 subjects with URTI with a mean age of 20 years. Cough was induced by vibration of the airway at the level of the trachea using a modified men's shaver. In the second investigation to determine the reproducibility of this mechanically induced cough, two groups from a different population were studied: 15 healthy subjects and 29 subjects with URTI with a mean age of 20.3 years. Cough was induced by airway vibration before and after a 90-min rest period. In the first investigation it was demonstrated that cough can be induced within 2 s of vibration; subjects with URTI are more sensitive to cough induction and cough approximately five times more than healthy subjects; cough increases with repeated stimulation and reaches a maximum after three periods of vibration; the cough response may be mediated by rapidly adapting airway sensory receptors. In the second investigation there was no significant difference in mean cough counts before and after a 90-min rest period in both groups, which demonstrates that the mechanically induced cough is reproducible. This is the first study to elicit cough in humans by mechanical stimulation of the upper airway. This new method of inducing cough in subjects with URTI may be useful for studying both the mechanism of cough and the effects of antitussive medicines.

  10. Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24.

    PubMed

    Spring, Penelope J; Kok, Cindy; Nicholson, Garth A; Ing, Alvin J; Spies, Judith M; Bassett, Mark L; Cameron, John; Kerlin, Paul; Bowler, Simon; Tuck, Roger; Pollard, John D

    2005-12-01

    Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals provided clinical information and blood for genetic analysis. Affected individuals had an adult onset of paroxysmal cough, GOR and distal sensory loss. Cough could be triggered by noxious odours or by pressure in the external auditory canal (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Other features included throat clearing, hoarse voice, cough syncope and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurophysiological and pathological studies demonstrated a sensory axonal neuropathy. Gastric emptying studies were normal, and autonomic function and sweat tests were either normal or showed distal hypohidrosis. Cough was likely to be due to a combination of denervation hypersensitivity of the upper airways and oesophagus, and prominent GOR. Most affected individuals were shown on 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring to have multiple episodes of GOR, closely temporally associated with coughing. Hoarse voice was probably attributable to acid-induced laryngeal damage, and there was no evidence of vocal cord palsy. No other cause for cough was found on most respiratory or otorhinological studies. Linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 has been found in both families, with no evidence of linkage to loci for known HSN I, autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, hereditary GOR or triple A syndrome. These families represent a genetically novel variant of HSN I, with a distinctive cough owing to involvement of the upper aerodigestive tract.

  11. Sputum colour for diagnosis of a bacterial infection in patients with acute cough

    PubMed Central

    Altiner, Attila; Wilm, Stefan; Däubener, Walter; Bormann, Christiane; Pentzek, Michael; Abholz, Heinz-Harald; Scherer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objective Sputum colour plays an important role in the disease concepts for acute cough, both in the patients’ and the doctors’ view. However, it is unclear whether the sputum colour can be used for diagnosis of a bacterial infection. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 42 GP practices in Düsseldorf, Germany. Subjects Sputum samples obtained from 241 patients suffering from an episode of acute cough seeing their doctor within a routine consultation. Main outcome measures Relation of sputum colour and microbiological proof of bacterial infection defined as positive culture and at least a moderate number of leucocytes per low magnification field. Results In 28 samples (12%) a bacterial infection was proven. Yellowish or greenish colour of the sputum sample and bacterial infection showed a significant correlation (p = 0.014, Fisher's exact test). The sensitivity of yellowish or greenish sputum used as a test for a bacterial infection was 0.79 (95% CI 0.63–0.94); the specificity was 0.46 (95% CI 0.038–0.53). The positive likelihood-ratio (+LR) was 1.46 (95% CI 1.17-1.85). Conclusions The sputum colour of patients with acute cough and no underlying chronic lung disease does not imply therapeutic consequences such as prescription of antibiotics. PMID:19242860

  12. Summary of papers presented at the 2012 seventh international cough symposium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Twenty six papers were presented as posters in the Seventh International Symposium on Cough; 12 papers were presented in the Basic Science of Cough session, and 14 papers presented in the Clinical Science of Cough session. These papers explored a wide spectrum of cough-related areas including pathophysiological mechanisms, treatment and detection of cough, and symptom assessment and perception, and were grouped into several general themes for facilitate the discussion. Studies presented in these posters have provided new information that should improve our knowledge on the basic physiology and pharmacology of cough, and the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in the generation of the cough motor pattern. In addition, in the clinical science section, studies reporting potential new anti-tussive agents and further characterisation of cough symptoms and perception have provided a base for the fruitful strategies for the development of novel anti-tussive therapies and cough management. PMID:23639195

  13. Dynamics of Cough Frequency in Adults Undergoing Treatment for Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Proaño, Alvaro; Bravard, Marjory A; López, José W; Lee, Gwenyth O; Bui, David; Datta, Sumona; Comina, Germán; Zimic, Mirko; Coronel, Jorge; Caviedes, Luz; Cabrera, José L; Salas, Antonio; Ticona, Eduardo; Vu, Nancy M; Kirwan, Daniela E; Loader, Maria-Cristina I; Friedland, Jon S; Moore, David A J; Evans, Carlton A; Tracey, Brian H; Gilman, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    Cough is the major determinant of tuberculosis transmission. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding characteristics of cough frequency throughout the day and in response to tuberculosis therapy. Here we evaluate the circadian cycle of cough, cough frequency risk factors, and the impact of appropriate treatment on cough and bacillary load. We prospectively evaluated human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults (n = 64) with a new diagnosis of culture-proven, drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis immediately prior to treatment and repeatedly until treatment day 62. At each time point, participant cough was recorded (n = 670) and analyzed using the Cayetano Cough Monitor. Consecutive coughs at least 2 seconds apart were counted as separate cough episodes. Sputum samples (n = 426) were tested with microscopic-observation drug susceptibility broth culture, and in culture-positive samples (n = 252), the time to culture positivity was used to estimate bacillary load. The highest cough frequency occurred from 1 pm to 2 pm, and the lowest from 1 am to 2 am (2.4 vs 1.1 cough episodes/hour, respectively). Cough frequency was higher among participants who had higher sputum bacillary load (P < .01). Pretreatment median cough episodes/hour was 2.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.2-4.1), which at 14 treatment days decreased to 0.48 (IQR, 0.0-1.4) and at the end of the study decreased to 0.18 (IQR, 0.0-0.59) (both reductions P < .001). By 14 treatment days, the probability of culture conversion was 29% (95% confidence interval, 19%-41%). Coughs were most frequent during daytime. Two weeks of appropriate treatment significantly reduced cough frequency and resulted in one-third of participants achieving culture conversion. Thus, treatment by 2 weeks considerably diminishes, but does not eliminate, the potential for airborne tuberculosis transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  15. When is acute persistent cough in school-age children and adults whooping cough? A prospective case series study.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Kathryn; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Grant, Cameron C; Chong, Angela; Turner, Nikki; Stewart, Joanna

    2013-08-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine modified disease in most age groups and hence subtle in its presentation. Current diagnostic approaches require relatively invasive sampling. To determine the incidence of B. pertussis infection among people aged 5-49 years identified in primary care with acute persistent cough using an oral fluid based diagnostic test. Active surveillance of acute persistent cough of 2 weeks duration or greater was established in Auckland, New Zealand from May to October 2011. The 15 participating primary care practices provided care for a socioeconomically diverse population. Recent B. pertussis infection was determined by measurement of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in an oral fluid sample. An IgG antibody titre to PT of ≥70 arbitrary units defined recent infection. Participants reported symptoms at presentation and kept a cough diary. A total of 226 participants were enrolled: 70 (31%) were children (5-16 years) and 156 (69%) were adults (17-49 years). Oral fluid samples were obtained from 225 participants. Ten per cent (23/225) had recent B. pertussis infection including a larger proportion of children than adults (17% versus 7%, P = 0.003). Neither cough duration nor any individual symptom discriminated between those with and without recent B. pertussis infection. Pertussis is a frequent cause of acute persistent cough presenting to primary care. Clinical differentiation of pertussis from other causes of acute persistent cough is difficult. An oral fluid based diagnostic test, which is less invasive than other diagnostic approaches, has high acceptability in primary care.

  16. Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and kids 11 to 18 years old whose immunity has started to fade. Whooping cough causes severe ... child's sixth birthday. For additional protection in case immunity fades, experts recommend that kids ages 11-18 ...

  17. A Whooping Cough Education Module for WIC Clients in Utah.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Anderson, Alicia; Macintosh, Janelle; Beckstrand, Renea L; Eden, Lacey M; Amy, Ryan; Macintosh, Christopher I

    Clients in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are required to complete education modules quarterly to maintain eligibility. The purposes of this project were to: (1) create a whooping cough vaccination education module for WIC clients; (2) evaluate baseline perceptions of WIC clients on the whooping cough vaccine and disease; and (3) evaluate whooping cough knowledge following completion of the module. A decline in vaccination rates among infants and children using WIC services was reported by a local WIC program director who requested whooping cough vaccination education materials. This quality improvement project included development of a whooping cough education module and evaluation of learning. Learning was evaluated using a pre- and posttest design. Client feedback was solicited via open-ended questions. Quantitative analysis was performed on visual analog-type questions with paired t-tests and a Cohen's d. Content analysis was conducted on open-ended items. The module was designed by a team of vaccination experts and included general definitions, signs and symptoms during the three stages of disease, recommendations to prevent whooping cough, and vaccination recommendations. Learning of users of the module was then evaluated. After using the module, clients indicated they were significantly more likely to vaccinate themselves and their child against whooping cough, and to recommend the vaccination to their family members. The greatest concern of participants about whooping cough was how it affected infants. Participants reported they learned new information on disease seriousness, recognition of symptoms, and treatment options but still requested additional information on the whooping cough disease and vaccine. A whooping cough education module is an effective strategy to improve whooping cough knowledge and promote the whooping cough vaccine.

  18. [Pertussis (Whooping cough)--an update].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease which is caused predominantly by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Further Bordetella species such as B. parapertussis and the recently discovered species B. holmesii are also involved in whooping cough-like diseases. Depending on age, vaccination status and distance to pre-infection with B. pertussis, whooping cough shows a wide range of symptoms. The disease occurs at any age, leaving only short time immunity. During the last 15 years, in industrialized countries the number of reported pertussis cases has been increased markedly. The reason for this observation is still unclear Macrolides such as azithromycin and clarithromycin are regarded as antibiotics of first choice. In Germany, combination vaccines containing acellular pertussis vaccines is the most important strategy of prevention. To ensure the best possible protection against pertussis, booster doses at determined times should be given after primary vaccination in infancy.

  19. Coughing up blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Editorial team. Bleeding Read more Cough Read more Esophageal Cancer Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  20. Importance of placebo effect in cough clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Cough is a unique symptom because, unlike sneeze and other symptoms, it can be under voluntary control and this complicates clinical trials on cough medicines. All over-the-counter cough medicines (OTC) are very effective treatments because of their placebo effect. The placebo effect is enhanced by expectancy related to advertising, brand, packaging, and formulation. This placebo effect creates a problem for the conduct of clinical trials on OTC cough medicines that attempt to demonstrate the efficacy of a pharmacological agent above that of any placebo effect. Up to 85% of the efficacy of some cough medicines can be attributed to a placebo effect. The placebo effect apparent in clinical trials consists of several components: natural recovery, regression of cough response toward mean, demulcent effect, effect of sweetness, voluntary control, and effects related to expectancy and meaning of the treatment. The placebo effect has been studied most in the pain model, and placebo analgesia is reported to depend on the activation of endogenous opioid systems in the brain; this model may be applicable to cough. A balanced placebo design may help to control for the placebo effect, but this trial design may not be acceptable due to deception of patients. The placebo effect in clinical trials may be controlled by use of a crossover design, where feasible, and the changes in the magnitude of the placebo effect in this study design are discussed.

  1. Modified Valsalva test differentiates primary from secondary cough headache.

    PubMed

    Lane, Russell J M; Davies, Paul T G

    2013-03-28

    The current definition of cough headache includes provocation of the symptom by Valsalva manoeuvre, and it is generally believed that all cough headache results from a sudden increase in intracranial pressure. We sought to question that presumption and to determine whether the Valsalva test might distinguish primary from secondary cough headache. We examined 16 consecutive cough headache patients using a modified Valsalva test (exhalation into the connecting tube of a standard anaeroid sphygmomanometer to 60 mm Hg for 10 seconds). A positive response was recorded if the manoeuvre provoked headache. All patients subsequently underwent brain MRI. None of the patients had neurological signs. Eleven had positive modified Valsalva tests. Ten were found subsequently to have posterior fossa pathologies (secondary cough headache: 8 Chiari Type 1 malformations, 2 posterior fossa meningiomas). The cough headache was relieved following surgery in all cases. One patient with a positive Valsalva test had an apparently normal brain MRI but measurements of hindbrain and posterior fossa dimensions were consistent with 'posterior fossa crowdedness'. The remaining 5 patients had negative (4 patients) or equivocal (1 patient) Valsalva tests and normal MRI scans (primary cough headache). These findings suggest that secondary cough headache results from a transient increase in intracranial CSF pressure during exertion in the presence of obstruction to normal cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. The modified Valsalva test can also determine whether tonsillar herniation found on brain MRI is symptomatic. Primary cough headache appears to be caused by a different mechanism, possibly through congestion of the orbital venous plexus in the presence of jugular venous incompetence and a reduced threshold for trigeminal sensory activation.

  2. Voluntary Cough Production and Swallow Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald; Rosenbek, John; Troche, Michelle; Sapienza, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Cough is important for airway clearance, particularly if penetration/aspiration of foreign material occurs during swallow. Measures of voluntary cough production from ten male participants with stage II–III Parkinson’s disease (PD) who showed no videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 1) were examined and compared with those of ten male participants with stage II–III PD who showed videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 2). The degree of penetration/ aspiration was expertly judged from the videofluorographic examinations of the participants’ sequential swallow of a thin, 30-cc bolus. Measured cough parameters included inspiratory phase duration, inspiratory peak flow, compression phase duration, expiratory peak flow, expiratory rise time, and cough volume acceleration. Results indicated significant group differences for the majority of cough measures, except for inspiratory phase duration and inspiratory peak flow. A modest relationship existed between voluntary cough parameters and penetration/aspiration scores. Decreased ability to adequately clear material from the airway with voluntary cough may exacerbate symptoms resulting from penetration/aspiration, particularly for those with neurodegenerative disease. Measurement of voluntary cough may be useful for the evaluation of airway clearance ability. PMID:18483823

  3. Cough in Ambulatory Immunocompromised Adults: CHEST Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Mark J; Ireland, Belinda; Narasimhan, Mangala; French, Cynthia; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-11-01

    Cough is a common symptom prompting patients to seek medical care. Like patients in the general population, patients with compromised immune systems also seek care for cough. However, it is unclear whether the causes of cough in immunocompromised patients who are deemed unlikely to have a life-threating condition and a normal or unchanged chest radiograph are similar to those in persons with cough and normal immune systems. We conducted a systematic review to answer the question: What are the most common causes of cough in ambulatory immunodeficient adults with normal chest radiographs? Studies of patients ≥ 18 years of age with immune deficiency, cough of any duration, and normal or unchanged chest radiographs were included and assessed for relevance and quality. Based on the systematic review, suggestions were developed and voted on using the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodology framework. The results of the systematic review revealed no high-quality evidence to guide the clinician in determining the likely causes of cough specifically in immunocompromised ambulatory patients with normal chest radiographs. Based on a systematic review, we found no evidence to assess whether or not the proper initial evaluation of cough in immunocompromised patients is different from that in immunocompetent persons. A consensus of the panel suggested that the initial diagnostic algorithm should be similar to that for immunocompetent persons but that the context of the type and severity of the immune defect, geographic location, and social determinants be considered. The major modifications to the 2006 CHEST Cough Guidelines are the suggestions that TB should be part of the initial evaluation of patients with cough and HIV infection who reside in regions with a high prevalence of TB, regardless of the radiographic findings, and that specific causes and immune defects be considered in all patients in whom the initial evaluation is unrevealing. Copyright

  4. Effect of e-Cigarette Use on Cough Reflex Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Lee Chang, Alfredo; Dicpinigaitis, Alis J; Negassa, Abdissa

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes (e-cigs) have attained widespread popularity, yet knowledge of their physiologic effects remains minimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single exposure to e-cig vapor on cough reflex sensitivity. Thirty healthy nonsmokers underwent cough reflex sensitivity measurement using capsaicin cough challenge at baseline, 15 min, and 24 h after e-cig exposure (30 puffs 30 s apart). The end point of cough challenge is the concentration of capsaicin inducing five or more coughs (C5). The number of coughs induced by each e-cig inhalation was counted. A subgroup of subjects (n = 8) subsequently underwent an identical protocol with a non-nicotine-containing e-cig. Cough reflex sensitivity was significantly inhibited (C5 increased) 15 min after e-cig use (?0.29; 95% CI, ?0.43 to ?0.15; P < .0001); 24 h later, C5 returned to baseline (0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.38; P = .0002 vs post-15-min value). A subgroup of eight subjects demonstrating the largest degree of cough reflex inhibition had no suppression after exposure to a non-nicotine-containing e-cig (P = .0078 for comparison of ?C5 after nicotine vs non-nicotine device). Furthermore, more coughing was induced by the nicotine-containing vs non-nicotine-containing device (P = .0156). A single session of e-cig use, approximating nicotine exposure of one tobacco cigarette, induces significant inhibition of cough reflex sensitivity. Exploratory analysis of a subgroup of subjects suggests that nicotine is responsible for this observation. Our data, consistent with previous studies of nicotine effect, suggest a dual action of nicotine: an immediate, peripheral protussive effect and a delayed central antitussive effect. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02203162; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cough: impact, beliefs, and expectations from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Turco, Paola; Zanasi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common discomforts affecting general population, which can disrupt subjects' quality of life due to its physical, social, and psychological effects. Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of cough and related beliefs of general population. A cross-sectional telephone survey was carried out by means of a specific, validated questionnaire on a representative sample of Italian general population. All the interviews were carried out according to the Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) methodology by expert, professional interviewers. Distributions of all answers were calculated in the overall sample. A total of 1,251 subjects (mean age: 49 years; females 44.2 %) completed the interviews. The overall number of telephone calls was 5362, and the corresponding redemption rate was 1/4.3 (23.%). The sample was representative of national population in terms of geographical distribution, age, gender, and smoking habit. The majority of respondents was convinced that cough is merely a symptom of several different diseases, but 46.4 % of respondents affirmed that cough should be regarded as "a disease" per se. Only 29.1 % of subjects say that they usually do not complain of any cough over the year, while 18.4 % reported ≥ 3 episodes of cough/year. These episodes have a duration ranging 10-30 days in 19.9 % of subjects, and > 30 days in 6.9 % of subjects. The majority of respondents is worried about their cough only after 1 week, but 76.9 % of subjects is much more worried if cough affects a child. After a few days of cough, 23.1 % of subjects use domestic remedies; 20.9 % ask their pharmacist, and 33.4 % their doctor, being GPs (69.6 %) and lung physicians (16.2 %) the most asked professionals. The occurrence of bronchitis, pneumonia, upper airway infections, and allergic troubles are the most feared events. The majority of respondents are convinced that antibiotics and steroids should not be regarded as the gold

  6. [The endpoint detection of cough signal in continuous speech].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guoqing; Mo, Hongqiang; Li, Wen; Lian, Lianfang; Zheng, Zeguang

    2010-06-01

    The endpoint detection of cough signal in continuous speech has been researched in order to improve the efficiency and veracity of manual recognition or computer-based automatic recognition. First, using the short time zero crossing ratio(ZCR) for identifying the suspicious coughs and getting the threshold of short time energy based on acoustic characteristics of cough. Then, the short time energy is combined with short time ZCR in order to implement the endpoint detection of cough in continuous speech. To evaluate the effect of the method, first, the virtual number of coughs in each recording was identified by two experienced doctors using the graphical user interface (GUI). Second, the recordings were analyzed by automatic endpoint detection program under Matlab7.0. Finally, the comparison between these two results showed: The error rate of undetected cough is 2.18%, and 98.13% of noise, silence and speech were removed. The way of setting short time energy threshold is robust. The endpoint detection program can remove most speech and noise, thus maintaining a lower rate of error.

  7. Geographical differences in whooping cough in Catalonia, Spain, from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Whooping cough is a communicable disease whose incidence has increased in recent years in some countries with vaccination. Since 1981, in Catalonia (Spain), cases must be reported to the Public Health Department. In 1997, surveillance changed from aggregated counts to individual report and the surveillance system was improved after 2002. Catalan public health is universal with equal coverage geographically. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in whooping cough incidence in rural and urban counties. Methods Cases in 1990–2010 were classified as rural or urban. Incidences and risk ratios (RR) between urban and rural counties and 95% CI were calculated. Associations between rural and urban counties and structural changes during the study period were analysed. Results Twelve years of the whole study period showed differences in incidence between rural and urban counties. The incidence was higher in urban counties in seven years and rural counties in five years. There was a positive association of whooping cough incidence in rural and urban counties in four-week periods. Structural changes were detected in the following four-week periods: 4th in 1993, 7th in 1996 and 3rd 2005 in rural counties and 5th 1993, 9th in 1996 and 8th in 2007 in urban counties. Conclusions Differences in whooping cough between rural and urban counties were found. In most years, the incidence was higher in urban than in rural counties. Rural and urban counties show similar cyclic behaviour when four-week periods were considered. PMID:24649975

  8. The Chronic Bronchitic Phenotype of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Han, MeiLan K.; Vance, Gwendolyn B.; Make, Barry J.; Newell, John D.; Hokanson, John E.; Hersh, Craig P.; Stinson, Douglas; Silverman, Edwin K.; Criner, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic bronchitis (CB) in patients with COPD is associated with an accelerated lung function decline and an increased risk of respiratory infections. Despite its clinical significance, the chronic bronchitic phenotype in COPD remains poorly defined. Methods: We analyzed data from subjects enrolled in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study. A total of 1,061 subjects with GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stage II to IV were divided into two groups: CB (CB+) if subjects noted chronic cough and phlegm production for ≥ 3 mo/y for 2 consecutive years, and no CB (CB−) if they did not. Results: There were 290 and 771 subjects in the CB+ and CB− groups, respectively. Despite similar lung function, the CB+ group was younger (62.8 ± 8.4 vs 64.6 ± 8.4 years, P = .002), smoked more (57 ± 30 vs 52 ± 25 pack-years, P = .006), and had more current smokers (48% vs 27%, P < .0001). A greater percentage of the CB+ group reported nasal and ocular symptoms, wheezing, and nocturnal awakenings secondary to cough and dyspnea. History of exacerbations was higher in the CB+ group (1.21 ± 1.62 vs 0.63 ± 1.12 per patient, P < .027), and more patients in the CB+ group reported a history of severe exacerbations (26.6% vs 20.0%, P = .024). There was no difference in percent emphysema or percent gas trapping, but the CB+ group had a higher mean percent segmental airway wall area (63.2% ± 2.9% vs 62.6% ± 3.1%, P = .013). Conclusions: CB in patients with COPD is associated with worse respiratory symptoms and higher risk of exacerbations. This group may need more directed therapy targeting chronic mucus production and smoking cessation not only to improve symptoms but also to reduce risk, improve quality of life, and improve outcomes. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00608764; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21474571

  9. Respiratory diseases and the impact of cough in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Cahill, Camilla L; Hamrosi, Kim K; Wang, De Yun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) study was a cross-sectional, observational study which examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across Asia-Pacific using 1 standard protocol. Here we report symptoms, healthcare resource use (HCRU), work impairment, and associated cost in Taiwan. Consecutive participants aged ≥ 18 years presenting to a physician with symptoms meeting the diagnostic criteria for a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants and their treating physician completed surveys detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity, and activity impairment. Costs including direct medical costs and indirect costs associated with lost work productivity were calculated. The study enrolled 1001 patients. AR was the most frequent primary diagnosis (31.2%). A quarter of patients presented with a combination of respiratory diseases, with AR and asthma being the most frequent combination (14.1%). Cough or coughing up phlegm was the primary reason for the medical visit for patients with asthma and COPD, whereas nasal symptoms (watery runny nose, blocked nose, and congestion) were the primary reasons for AR and rhinosinusitis. Specialists were the most frequently used healthcare resource by patients with AR (26.1%), asthma (26.4%), COPD (26.6%), and rhinosinusitis (47.3%). The mean annual cost per patient with a respiratory disease was US$4511 (SD 5395). The cost was almost double for employed patients (US$8047, SD 6175), with the majority attributable to lost productivity. Respiratory diseases have a significant impact on disease burden in Taiwan. Treatment strategies that prevent lost work productivity could greatly reduce the economic burden of these

  10. Severity of notified whooping cough.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C L; Fletcher, W B

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the severity of over 8000 cases of whooping cough notified from October 1974 to March 1975. Ten per cent of these patients were admitted to hospital and there were 10 deaths. Severity was directly related to age, the disease being most severe in children under 1 year, especially those under 6 months. There was some evidence that previous vaccination reduced the severity of the disease, but the vaccination programme does not cover very young children, and for them whooping cough is a dangerous disease. PMID:1247740

  11. The relationship between the Leicester cough questionnaire, eosinophilic airway inflammation and asthma patient related outcomes in severe adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Sushiladevi; Free, Robert C; Bradding, Peter; McGarvey, Lorcan; Siddiqui, Salman

    2017-03-04

    Severe asthma is characterised by a variety of symptoms, which include chronic cough, however the mechanisms responsible for cough reflex hypersensitivity in asthma remain poorly elucidated. Current asthma patient-related outcome instruments such as the six-point Juniper Asthma Control Score (ACQ-6) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) were not primarily designed to capture cough and its related morbidity in asthma. The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a patient-related outcome instrument designed to capture the health-related quality of life associated with cough. To date the LCQ has not been evaluated in a severe asthma population. We evaluated 262 extensively characterised adult patients with severe asthma attending the Leicester Severe Asthma Service. All patients had a clinician diagnosis of asthma and objective physiological evidence and met the ATS/ERS criterion for servere asthma. In all patients we evaluated a) the LCQ distribution and b) the relationships between the LCQ and ACQ-6, AQLQ, airway inflammation in sputum. The LCQ demonstrated the following properties; mean: 15.0, standard deviation: 4.54, median: 15.48, and range: 11.6-19.2. We found a moderate correlation between LCQ and ACQ-6 (r = - 0.605, p < 0.0001) and a LCQ and AQLQ (r = 0.710, p < 0.0001). There was no relationship between LCQ and log 10 sputum percentage eosinophils (%). A proportion of patients with severe asthma have a significant degree of cough-related morbidity that appears independent of eosinophilic airway inflammation and is not captured fully by existing asthma patient-reported outcome instruments. Our preliminary findings suggest that further research is now required to validate the LCQ and its responsiveness in severe asthma populations to capture cough-related morbidity and response to specific interventions.

  12. Correlation between voluntary cough and laryngeal cough reflex flows in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Chul; Kang, Seong-Woong; Kim, Min Tae; Kim, Yong Kyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Im, Sang Hee

    2013-08-01

    To correlate voluntary cough and laryngeal cough reflex (LCR) flows in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional study. University rehabilitation hospital. Patients with TBI (n=25) and healthy controls (n=48). Not applicable. Peak cough flows (PCFs) and LCR flows were measured using a peak flow meter at the oral-nasal interface. The largest value of 3 attempts was recorded for PCF and LCR, respectively. LCR was elicited by 20% solution of pharmaceutic-grade citric acid dissolved in sterile .15M NaCl solution that was inhaled from a nebulizer. PCF was 447.4 ± 99.0 L/min in the control group and 211.7 ± 58.2 L/min in the patient group. LCR was 209.2 ± 63.8L/min in the control group and 170.0 ± 59.7 L/min in the patient group. Both PCF (P=.000) and LCR (P=.013) were significantly reduced in patients with TBI compared to that of the control group. LCR was strongly related to the PCF in both control (R=.645; P=.000) and patient (R=.711; P=.000) groups. As LCR can be measured as a numerical value and significantly correlates with PCF, LCR can be used to estimate cough ability of patients with TBI who cannot cooperate with PCF measurement. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequential voluntary cough and aspiration or aspiration risk in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Okun, Michael S; Troche, Michelle S

    2014-08-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is almost always present to some degree in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), either causing aspiration or greatly increasing the risk for aspiration during swallowing. This likely contributes to aspiration pneumonia, a leading cause of death in this patient population. Effective airway protection is dependent upon multiple behaviors, including cough and swallowing. Single voluntary cough function is disordered in people with PD and dysphagia. However, the appropriate response to aspirate material is more than one cough, or sequential cough. The goal of this study was to examine voluntary sequential coughing in people with PD, with and without dysphagia. Forty adults diagnosed with idiopathic PD produced two trials of sequential voluntary cough. The cough airflows were obtained using pneumotachograph and facemask and subsequently digitized and recorded. All participants received a modified barium swallow study as part of their clinical care, and the worst penetration-aspiration score observed was used to determine whether the patient had dysphagia. There were significant differences in the compression phase duration, peak expiratory flow rates, and amount of air expired of the sequential cough produced by participants with and without dysphagia. The presence of dysphagia in people with PD is associated with disordered cough function. Sequential cough, which is important in removing aspirate material from large- and smaller-diameter airways, is also impaired in people with PD and dysphagia compared with those without dysphagia. There may be common neuroanatomical substrates for cough and swallowing impairment in PD leading to the co-occurrence of these dysfunctions.

  14. Protocol for studying cough frequency in people with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Proaño, Alvaro; Bravard, Marjory A; Tracey, Brian H; López, José W; Comina, German; Zimic, Mirko; Coronel, Jorge; Lee, Gwenyth O'Neil; Caviedes, Luz; Cabrera, Jose Luis; Salas, Antonio; Ticona, Eduardo; Kirwan, Daniela E; Friedland, Jon S; Evans, Carlton A; Moore, David A; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-04-22

    Cough is a key symptom of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the main cause of transmission. However, a recent literature review found that cough frequency (number of coughs per hour) in patients with TB has only been studied once, in 1969. The main aim of this study is to describe cough frequency patterns before and after the start of TB treatment and to determine baseline factors that affect cough frequency in these patients. Secondarily, we will evaluate the correlation between cough frequency and TB microbiological resolution. This study will select participants with culture confirmed TB from 2 tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. We estimated that a sample size of 107 patients was sufficient to detect clinically significant changes in cough frequency. Participants will initially be evaluated through questionnaires, radiology, microscopic observation drug susceptibility broth TB-culture, auramine smear microscopy and cough recordings. This cohort will be followed for the initial 60 days of anti-TB treatment, and throughout the study several microbiological samples as well as 24 h recordings will be collected. We will describe the variability of cough episodes and determine its association with baseline laboratory parameters of pulmonary TB. In addition, we will analyse the reduction of cough frequency in predicting TB cure, adjusted for potential confounders. Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at each participating hospital in Lima, Peru, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA in Lima, Peru, the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA. We aim to publish and disseminate our findings in peer-reviewed journals. We also expect to create and maintain an online repository for TB cough sounds as well as the statistical analysis employed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Objective Cough Frequency, Airway Inflammation, and Disease Control in Asthma.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Paul A; Satia, Imran; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Woodcock, Ashley; Yates, Lucy; Donnelly, Iona; Jolly, Lisa; Thomson, Neil C; Fowler, Stephen J; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2016-06-01

    Cough is recognized as an important troublesome symptom in the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Asthma control is thought to be determined by the degree of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness but how these factors relate to cough frequency is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective cough frequency, disease control, airflow obstruction, and airway inflammation in asthma. Participants with asthma underwent 24-h ambulatory cough monitoring and assessment of exhaled nitric oxide, spirometry, methacholine challenge, and sputum induction (cell counts and inflammatory mediator levels). Asthma control was assessed by using the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). The number of cough sounds was manually counted and expressed as coughs per hour (c/h). Eighty-nine subjects with asthma (mean ± SD age, 57 ± 12 years; 57% female) were recruited. According to GINA criteria, 18 (20.2%) patients were classified as controlled, 39 (43.8%) partly controlled, and 32 (36%) uncontrolled; the median ACQ score was 1 (range, 0.0-4.4). The 6-item ACQ correlated with 24-h cough frequency (r = 0.40; P < .001), and patients with uncontrolled asthma (per GINA criteria) had higher median 24-h cough frequency (4.2 c/h; range, 0.3-27.6) compared with partially controlled asthma (1.8 c/h; range, 0.2-25.3; P = .01) and controlled asthma (1.7 c/h; range, 0.3-6.7; P = .002). Measures of airway inflammation were not significantly different between GINA categories and were not correlated with ACQ. In multivariate analyses, increasing cough frequency and worsening FEV1 independently predicted measures of asthma control. Ambulatory cough frequency monitoring provides an objective assessment of asthma symptoms that correlates with standard measures of asthma control but not airflow obstruction or airway inflammation. Moreover, cough frequency and airflow obstruction represent

  16. Detecting paroxysmal coughing from pertussis cases using voice recognition technology.

    PubMed

    Parker, Danny; Picone, Joseph; Harati, Amir; Lu, Shuang; Jenkyns, Marion H; Polgreen, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Pertussis is highly contagious; thus, prompt identification of cases is essential to control outbreaks. Clinicians experienced with the disease can easily identify classic cases, where patients have bursts of rapid coughing followed by gasps, and a characteristic whooping sound. However, many clinicians have never seen a case, and thus may miss initial cases during an outbreak. The purpose of this project was to use voice-recognition software to distinguish pertussis coughs from croup and other coughs. We collected a series of recordings representing pertussis, croup and miscellaneous coughing by children. We manually categorized coughs as either pertussis or non-pertussis, and extracted features for each category. We used Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), a sampling rate of 16 KHz, a frame Duration of 25 msec, and a frame rate of 10 msec. The coughs were filtered. Each cough was divided into 3 sections of proportion 3-4-3. The average of the 13 MFCCs for each section was computed and made into a 39-element feature vector used for the classification. We used the following machine learning algorithms: Neural Networks, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and a 200 tree Random Forest (RF). Data were reserved for cross-validation of the KNN and RF. The Neural Network was trained 100 times, and the averaged results are presented. After categorization, we had 16 examples of non-pertussis coughs and 31 examples of pertussis coughs. Over 90% of all pertussis coughs were properly classified as pertussis. The error rates were: Type I errors of 7%, 12%, and 25% and Type II errors of 8%, 0%, and 0%, using the Neural Network, Random Forest, and KNN, respectively. Our results suggest that we can build a robust classifier to assist clinicians and the public to help identify pertussis cases in children presenting with typical symptoms.

  17. Experiments on the fluid dynamics of the human cough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary

    2011-11-01

    Human coughing is studied non-intrusively by high-speed schlieren videography, revealing a turbulent jet lasting up to 1 sec with a total expelled air volume of about 2 L. Velocimetry of eddy motion reveals a jet centerline airspeed of at least 8 m/sec. With Re roughly 18,000 the cough jet is inertia-driven and buoyancy is negligible. It shows typical round-turbulent-jet behavior, including a conical spreading angle of 24 deg, despite irregular initial conditions. The cough jet is projected several m into the surrounding air before it mixes out. It is well known that a cough can transmit infectious agents, and we are advised to cover our mouths in an apparent attempt to thwart the jet formation. Present experiments have shown that wearing a surgical mask or respirator designed to prevent the inhalation of infectious agents also interferes with the cough-jet formation, redirecting it into the person's rising thermal plume. (Tang et al., J. Royal. Soc. Interface 6, S727, 2009.)

  18. Coughing and fever after surfing in Central America.

    PubMed

    Pongratz, Peter; Laferl, Hermann; Strau, Günther; Stanek, Gerold; Wenisch, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old surfer, returning from Central America, who presented with chronic cough. The X-ray and full blood count, which had been performed in Costa Rica, were without pathology; laboratory parameters showed slightly increased C-reactive protein (59 mg/l). Malaria was excluded by thick smear. Immune serological tests for typhus, paratyphus, brucellosis, rickettsioses, leptospirosis and dengue fever were negative. An ambulant antimicrobial treatment was without any clinical effect. A computer tomography of the thorax showed a solid lesion (30 × 20 mm, middle lobe of the right lung). The patient rejected a bronchoscopic examination. He decided to be treated after his return to Austria. Here, we could substantiate a pulmonal histoplasmosis by a positive immune diffusion test. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole.

  19. [Whooping cough--an increasing problem in Norway].

    PubMed

    Dudman, Susanne Gjeruldsen; Trøseid, Marius; Jonassen, Tom Øystein; Steinbakk, Martin

    2006-01-26

    The incidence of whooping cough has increased in recent years in Norway, especially amongst older children and adults; in 2004 it was 168/100,000. This article is based on our own experience and a review of available literature, identified on Medline with the search word "pertussis". Whooping cough, a disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, is transmitted via respiratory droplets. Sources of infection for infants are often their parents and siblings. Older children and adolescents contract whooping cough mostly in school, whereas adults usually get the disease from children or colleagues. The typical symptoms are bouts of violent coughing with the classic whoop and post-tussive vomiting. A milder clinical picture can be seen in vaccinated persons, reinfected patients, and in persons above the age of 15. Infants are most at risk of developing serious disease and have the highest numbers of hospitalizations, complications and mortality. But complications are also seen in adolescents and adults, including urinary incontinence, rib fractures and pneumonia. The diagnosis is made by culture or PCR in nasopharyngeal secretions, as well as by detection of antibodies to B. pertussis in serum. If treatment is indicated, macrolides are the drugs of choice; these shorten the duration of symptoms and the period of contagiousness if given in the early stages of the disease. To help combat whooping cough in Norway, from 2006 an extra vaccine booster dose will be given to children at the age of seven.

  20. Cough Augmentation Techniques in the Critically Ill: A Canadian National Survey.

    PubMed

    Rose, Louise; Adhikari, Neill K; Poon, Joseph; Leasa, David; McKim, Douglas A

    2016-10-01

    Critically ill mechanically ventilated patients experience impaired airway clearance due to ineffective cough and impaired secretion mobilization. Cough augmentation techniques, including mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E), manually assisted cough, and lung volume recruitment, improve cough efficiency. Our objective was to describe use, indications, contraindications, interfaces, settings, complications, and barriers to use across Canada. An e-mail survey was sent to nominated local survey champions in eligible Canadian units (ICUs, weaning centers, and intermediate care units) with 4 telephone/e-mail reminders. The survey response rate was 157 of 238 (66%); 78 of 157 units (50%) used cough augmentation, with 50 (64%) using MI-E, 53 (68%) using manually assisted cough, and 62 (79%) using lung volume recruitment. Secretion clearance was the most common indication (MI-E, 92%; manually assisted cough, 88%; lung volume recruitment, 76%), although the most common units (44%) used it <50% of the time. Use during weaning from invasive (MI-E, 21%; manually assisted cough, 39%; lung volume recruitment, 3%) and noninvasive ventilation (MI-E, 21%; manually assisted cough, 33%; lung volume recruitment, 21%) was infrequent. The most common diagnoses were neuromuscular disease (97%) and spinal cord injury (83%). Pneumothorax was the most frequently identified absolute contraindication for MI-E (93%) and lung volume recruitment (83%); rib fracture was most frequently identified for manually assisted cough (69%). MI-E mean inspiratory pressure was 31 cm H2O, and expiratory pressure was -32 cm H2O. Mucus plugging requiring tracheostomy inner change was the most frequent complication for MI-E (23%), chest pain for manually assisted cough (36%), and hypotension for lung volume recruitment (17%). The most commonly cited barriers were lack of expertise (70%), knowledge (65%), and resources (52%). We found moderate adoption of cough augmentation techniques, particularly for

  1. [Parental representations of children's cough and expectations on its management].

    PubMed

    Ventaja, G; Steyer, E; Machu, J-L; Boivin, J-M

    2016-04-01

    Providing medications for the management of acute cough in infants less than 24 months, a frequent reason for medical consultation, has recently been reduced by the contraindication of various antitussive specialties in France. The objective of this study was to assess the expectations and fears of coughing infants' parents, to determine their representations of coughing, and to quantify the use of self-medication and the risk of a deferral requests to prescribe other drug classes. An opinion and cross-survey was carried out with parents of infants under 24 months of age. A multiple-choice questionnaire was proposed to them in day care centers and Mother and Infant Welfare centers. The data collected were analyzed descriptively and using the Chi(2) test. Logistic regression enabled us to interpret some of the results. Sixty-four percent of parents expect an antitussive treatment from the doctor. For most parents, lifestyle modifications are well integrated (nasal irrigation, considered effective cough relief, hydration, smoking cessation). For 33 % of parents, corticosteroids are an alternative therapy to stop cough. Nearly half (43 %) of parents have sought treatment from their doctor, usually nasal suspensions, corticosteroids, and saline irrigation. Regarding self-medication, 30 % of parents have already given cough syrup or an antitussive suppository without a prescription, in order to stop the cough rapidly for 66 % of them. These parents seem more worried by coughing than other parents (P=0.0110, CI: 0.217; 1.751) as did those who had only one child (P=0.0029, CI: 0.120; 0.582). This study suggests that a large majority of parents understand and accept the new recommendations. But one-third of parents are still worried, not knowing what to do without prescribed medications, which led them to give nonprescription cough syrups and ask for inappropriate treatments. It seems essential to inform parents about the natural history of infant coughing and educate them

  2. Consumer attitudes on cough and cold: US (ACHOO) survey results.

    PubMed

    Blaiss, M S; Dicpinigaitis, P V; Eccles, R; Wingertzahn, M A

    2015-08-01

    The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N = 3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least one cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were 'bad enough' (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate

  3. Cough Recognition Based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and Dynamic Time Warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Liu, Baojun; Li, Ping

    Cough recognition provides important clinical information for the treatment of many respiratory diseases, but the assessment of cough frequency over a long period of time remains unsatisfied for either clinical or research purpose. In this paper, according to the advantage of dynamic time warping (DTW) and the characteristic of cough recognition, an attempt is made to adapt DTW as the recognition algorithm for cough recognition. The process of cough recognition based on mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and DTW is introduced. Experiment results of testing samples from 3 subjects show that acceptable performances of cough recognition are obtained by DTW with a small training set.

  4. Whooping cough: are health-care workers putting children at risk?

    PubMed

    Peadon, Elizabeth; Cooper, Carolyn

    2007-05-01

    To explore the attitudes and knowledge of health-care workers (HCW) towards whooping cough and an adult whooping cough booster for HCW. HCW at Fairfield Health Service, who had clinical contact with infants or children, were sent a self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed by 135 staff, giving a response rate of 74%. Thirty-five per cent were not known to be immunised against whooping cough. Fifty-nine per cent of doctors were known to be immunised, 33% of allied health staff and 28% of nurses. The rates of immunisation between the professional groups were significantly different (chi2 = 8.2 with 2 degrees of freedom; P = 0.017). Thirty-nine per cent of HCW did not know that primary immunisation did not provide lifelong protection. Twenty-seven per cent did not agree that HCW should be offered an adult whooping cough booster. Staff who felt at risk of contracting whooping cough were more likely to recommend that a booster should be offered (OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.22-6.04; P = 0.019). Doctors were less likely to recommend that a booster should be offered (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.15-0.87; P = 0.028). HCW have low rates of immunity to whooping cough and misconceptions about whooping cough infection and immunisation. Over a quarter of HCW did not agree that a booster should be offered. An ongoing education programme addressing the attitudes and misconceptions identified in this study is a crucial component of the campaign to increase the uptake of adult whooping cough booster immunisation by HCW.

  5. Pregnancy and Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For Pregnant Women Whooping cough (pertussis) is a very contagious disease ... Getting Reimbursed for Tdap Vaccination Rationale: Why Vaccinate Pregnant Women? Vaccine Safety Vaccine Effectiveness Research Stay up to ...

  6. Determinants of Chronic Respiratory Symptoms among Pharmaceutical Factory Workers

    PubMed Central

    Enquselassie, Fikre; Tefera, Yifokire; Gizaw, Muluken; Wakuma, Samson; Woldemariam, Messay

    2018-01-01

    Background Chronic respiratory symptoms including chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain are manifestations of respiratory problems which are mainly evolved as a result of occupational exposures. This study aims to assess determinants of chronic respiratory symptoms among pharmaceutical factory workers. Methods A case control study was carried out among 453 pharmaceutical factory workers with 151 cases and 302 controls. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analysis. Result Previous history of chronic respiratory diseases (AOR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.85–6.12), family history of chronic respiratory diseases (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.51–4.32), previous dusty working environment (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.07–4.78), ever smoking (AOR = 3.66, 95% CI = 1.05–12.72), and service years (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.16–2.99) showed statistically significant association with chronic respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Previous history of respiratory diseases, family history of chronic respiratory diseases, previous dusty working environment, smoking, and service years were determinants of chronic respiratory symptoms. Public health endeavors to prevent the burden of chronic respiratory symptoms among pharmaceutical factory workers should target the reduction of adverse workplace exposures and discouragement of smoking. PMID:29666655

  7. Nerve growth factor enhances cough via a central mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Jaffal, Sahar M; Al-Rashidi, Fatma T; Luqmani, Yunus A; Akhtar, Saghir

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in enhanced cough induced by central and inhaled NGF in guinea pigs were investigated. Cough and airway function were assessed by plethysmography following inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) NGF treatment. Expression of TrkA and/or TRPV1 was determined in bronchi and/or brainstem by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. I.c.v. and inhaled NGF enhanced citric acid induced-cough and airway obstruction. Pretreatment (i.c.v.) with antagonists of TrkA (K252a) or TRPV1 (IRTX) significantly reduced both the NGF (i.c.v.) enhanced cough and airway obstruction whereas the NK1 antagonist (FK888) inhibited only cough. The H1 antagonist (cetirizine) did not affect either. Inhaled NGF increased phosphorylation of TrkA receptors in the bronchi but not the brainstem at 0.5h post-treatment. TrkA mRNA was elevated at 0.5h in the bronchi and at 24h in the brainstem while TRPV1 mRNA was elevated from 0.5h to 24h in brainstem and at 24h in the bronchi. Pretreatment (i.c.v.) with IRTX, but not K252a, significantly inhibited the inhaled NGF-enhanced cough. Central NGF administration enhances cough and airway obstruction by mechanisms dependent on central activation of TrkA, TRPV1 and NK1 receptors while inhaled NGF enhances cough via a mechanism dependent on central TRPV1 and not TrkA receptors. These data show that NGF, in addition to its effects on the airways, has an important central mechanism of action in the enhancement of cough. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting NGF signaling in both the airways and CNS may be more effective in the management of cough. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Desensitization of the cough reflex by exercise and voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea.

    PubMed

    Lavorini, Federico; Fontana, Giovanni A; Chellini, Elisa; Magni, Chiara; Duranti, Roberto; Widdicombe, John

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing nebulizer outputs of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), an index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in twelve healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise and during voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) at the same ventilatory level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge to cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was recorded throughout the trials on a linear scale. The relationships between inhaled fog nebulizer outputs and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, were also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the median cough threshold was increased from a control value of 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (P<0.01), i.e., cough sensitivity was downregulated. With VIH, the threshold increased from 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (P<0.01), a similar downregulation. With exercise and VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were unchanged, i.e., control, 3.83 cm; exercise, 3.12 cm; VIH, 4.08 cm. The relationship of the fog nebulizer output/UTC value was linear in control conditions and logarithmic during both exercise and VIH. The perception of the magnitude of the UTC seems to be influenced by signals or sensations arising from exercising limb and thoracic muscles and/or by higher nervous (cortical) mechanisms. The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperpnea exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  9. Interpretation of positive results of a methacholine inhalation challenge and 1 week of inhaled bronchodilator use in diagnosing and treating cough-variant asthma.

    PubMed

    Irwin, R S; French, C T; Smyrnios, N A; Curley, F J

    1997-09-22

    In diagnosing cough due to asthma, methacholine chloride inhalation challenge (MIC) interpreted in a traditional fashion has been shown to have positive predictive values from 60% to 82%. To determine whether any features of positive results of an MIC or the results of a 1-week trial of inhaled beta-agonist therapy were helpful in predicting when the cough was due to asthma. The study design was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover format performed in adult, nonsmoking subjects, who were referred for diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough. The subjects had no other respiratory complaints or medical conditions for which they were taking medications, the results of baseline spirometry and chest roentgenograms were normal, and the results of MIC were positive. After obtaining baseline data, including MICs on 2 separate days, objective cough counting, and self-assessment of cough severity using a visual analog scale, subjects were randomized to receive 2 inhalations (1.3 mg) of metaproterenol sulfate or placebo by metered dose inhaler attached to a spacer device every 4 hours while awake. At 1 week, data identical to baseline were collected, and subjects received the other metered dose inhaler for 7 days. At 1 week, data identical to baseline were collected. After completion of the protocol, subjects were followed up in the clinic to observe the final response of the cough to specific therapy. Based on the disappearance of the cough with specific therapy, the cough was due to asthma in 9 of 15 subjects and nonasthma in 6 of 15 subjects. Baseline data were similar between groups. With respect to MICs, there were no significant differences between groups in the cumulative dose of methacholine that provoked a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second from the postsaline baseline value (PD20 values), slopes of dose-response curves, and maximal-response plateaus. Cough severity significantly improved after 1 week of

  10. Effectiveness of assisted and unassisted cough capacity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Jesús; Servera, Emilio; Bañuls, Pilar; Marín, Julio

    2017-11-01

    Decreased cough capacity during a respiratory infection is one of the main causes of acute respiratory failure and hospitalisation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether a respiratory measurement could identify the effectiveness of cough capacity in ALS during a respiratory infection. This was a prospective study of all ALS patients who were treated at a respiratory care unit due to a respiratory infection from 2012 to 2016. The effectiveness of unassisted and assisted coughing was evaluated and respiratory function tests were performed during the acute episode. Forty-eight ALS patients were enrolled, with only four having an effective unassisted cough. The variable which predicted unassisted cough effectiveness was peak cough flow (PCF) (OR 4499.27; 95%CI 3.60-3219086.19; p = 0.022) with a cut-off point of 2.77 L/s (166 L/min). For manually assisted coughing, the predictor of cough effectiveness was manually assisted PCF (cut-off point of 2.82-169 L/min) (OR 2198.602; 95% CI 3.750-1351691.42; p = 0.019). Mechanically assisted PCF (cut-off point of 2.95-177 L/min) was found to be the predictor of mechanically assisted coughing effectiveness (OR 23.40; 95% CI 2.11-258.96; p = 0.010). During a respiratory infection in ALS patients, the effectiveness of assisted and unassisted cough capacity depends on the PCF generated.

  11. WeChat Public Account Use Improves Clinical Control of Cough-Variant Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Lin, Shi-Hua; Zhu, Ding; Xu, Feng; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao; Li, Wen

    2018-03-14

    BACKGROUND WeChat is a convenient and popular social medium, and it seems to be an appropriate platform for education and management of patients. This study sought to identify usefulness in clinical control of cough-variant asthma (CVA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 CVA patients. After being assigned to either the traditional group (TG) or the WeChat group (WG), they received the same inhalation therapy, but patients in WG received additional education and instruction via our public account on the WeChat application. Questionnaires on asthma and chronic cough, data on pulmonary function, blood-related items, follow-up adherence, and Emergency Department (ED) visits were collected at the initial visit and at 3 months. RESULTS A total of 67 participants completed the trial for analysis. FEV1/predicted and FEV1/FVC were significantly increased in WG (p<0.001; p=0.012) after 3 months. PD20-FEV1 was increased in both groups compared with baseline, but more pronounced in WG (p=0.004). ACQ-7 scores were improved in both groups (p=0.024; p<0.001). Participants allocated to WG experienced a greater improvement in AQLQ and LCQ scores, and between-group differences were significant at 3 months (p=0.040; p=0.001). Furthermore, we observed decreases in blood eosinophil count and FeNO in WG (p=0.048; p=0.014), and WG presented better follow-up compliance (p=0.034). CONCLUSIONS Using WeChat as part of treatment and management of CVA can help patients learn about their disease and medications, as well as improve disease control and therapy outcomes.

  12. WeChat Public Account Use Improves Clinical Control of Cough-Variant Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuan; Lin, Shi-Hua; Zhu, Ding; Xu, Feng; Chen, Zhi-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Background WeChat is a convenient and popular social medium, and it seems to be an appropriate platform for education and management of patients. This study sought to identify usefulness in clinical control of cough-variant asthma (CVA). Material/Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 CVA patients. After being assigned to either the traditional group (TG) or the WeChat group (WG), they received the same inhalation therapy, but patients in WG received additional education and instruction via our public account on the WeChat application. Questionnaires on asthma and chronic cough, data on pulmonary function, blood-related items, follow-up adherence, and Emergency Department (ED) visits were collected at the initial visit and at 3 months. Results A total of 67 participants completed the trial for analysis. FEV1/predicted and FEV1/FVC were significantly increased in WG (p<0.001; p=0.012) after 3 months. PD20-FEV1 was increased in both groups compared with baseline, but more pronounced in WG (p=0.004). ACQ-7 scores were improved in both groups (p=0.024; p<0.001). Participants allocated to WG experienced a greater improvement in AQLQ and LCQ scores, and between-group differences were significant at 3 months (p=0.040; p=0.001). Furthermore, we observed decreases in blood eosinophil count and FeNO in WG (p=0.048; p=0.014), and WG presented better follow-up compliance (p=0.034). Conclusions Using WeChat as part of treatment and management of CVA can help patients learn about their disease and medications, as well as improve disease control and therapy outcomes. PMID:29536984

  13. Long-term follow-up of amitriptyline treatment for idiopathic cough.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Marisa A; Cohen, Seth M

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate short- and long-term treatment outcomes of amitriptyline for idiopathic cough. Retrospective chart review and anonymous survey of a patient cohort. We evaluated a cohort of adults treated for cough at the Duke Voice Care Center with amitriptyline over a 2- to 3-year period. We characterized demographics, symptoms, treatment variability, and treatment effects from chart review and survey responses. We performed univariate analysis comparing cough improvement to age, gender, symptoms of throat irritation, cough duration, concurrent speech therapy, and dosage. Eighty-nine percent were taking the medication at the first clinical follow-up at a mean 2.6 months, and overall, 67% reported ≥50% improvement. No statistically significant predictors of cough improvement with medication were identified. At follow-up 2 to 3 years later, overall, 53% reported ≥50% improvement, with only 34% of patients still taking amitriptyline. After 2 to 3 years, 65% of patients had titrated the medication to effect, and 33% restarted the medication. Occurrence of side effects was the most frequent reason for stopping the medication. Amitriptyline can be an effective and well-tolerated part of short- and long-term management of idiopathic cough in adults. Titrating the dose and restarting are often necessary. Larger studies and randomized control trials are needed to better understand the outcomes of using amitriptyline to treat idiopathic cough. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2758-2763, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Discharge Identity of Medullary Inspiratory Neurons is Altered during Repetitive Fictive Cough

    PubMed Central

    Segers, L. S.; Nuding, S. C.; Vovk, A.; Pitts, T.; Baekey, D. M.; O’Connor, R.; Morris, K. F.; Lindsey, B. G.; Shannon, R.; Bolser, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of the discharge identity of inspiratory decrementing (I-Dec) and augmenting (I-Aug) neurons in the caudal (cVRC) and rostral (rVRC) ventral respiratory column during repetitive fictive cough in the cat. Inspiratory neurons in the cVRC (n = 23) and rVRC (n = 17) were recorded with microelectrodes. Fictive cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic trachea. Approximately 43% (10 of 23) of I-Dec neurons shifted to an augmenting discharge pattern during the first cough cycle (C1). By the second cough cycle (C2), half of these returned to a decrementing pattern. Approximately 94% (16 of 17) of I-Aug neurons retained an augmenting pattern during C1 of a multi-cough response episode. Phrenic burst amplitude and inspiratory duration increased during C1, but decreased with each subsequent cough in a series of repetitive coughs. As a step in evaluating the model-driven hypothesis that VRC I-Dec neurons contribute to the augmentation of inspiratory drive during cough via inhibition of VRC tonic expiratory neurons that inhibit premotor inspiratory neurons, cross-correlation analysis was used to assess relationships of tonic expiratory cells with simultaneously recorded inspiratory neurons. Our results suggest that reconfiguration of inspiratory-related sub-networks of the respiratory pattern generator occurs on a cycle-by-cycle basis during repetitive coughing. PMID:22754536

  15. Neutral endopeptidase inhibitors potentiate substance P- and capsaicin-induced cough in awake guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kohrogi, H; Graf, P D; Sekizawa, K; Borson, D B; Nadel, J A

    1988-12-01

    To study the roles of substance P and endogenous neutral endopeptidase in mediating cough, we measured cough responses in awake guinea pigs in response to exogenous substance P and capsaicin aerosols in the presence and absence of the neutral endopeptidase inhibitors leucine-thiorphan and phosphoramidon. Substance P stimulated cough in very low concentrations (10(-17)-10(-16) M). In a second study where the investigator did not know whether substance P or diluent alone was aerosolized, substance P (10(-16) M) caused cough. Leucine-thiorphan (10(-5) M) and phosphoramidon (10(-5) M) potentiated substance P-induced cough; NEP inhibitors also potentiated capsaicin-induced cough significantly. These findings suggest that substance P is a potent stimulator of cough responses, that capsaicin-induced cough is mediated by substance P or another similar neuropeptide, and that cough responses are modulated by endogenous neutral endopeptidase.

  16. Whooping cough in school age children presenting with persistent cough in UK primary care after introduction of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kay; Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-06-24

    To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). General practices in Thames Valley, UK. 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks' duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the need for an adolescent pertussis booster vaccination in the United Kingdom. UK

  17. Whooping cough in school age children presenting with persistent cough in UK primary care after introduction of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Design Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). Setting General practices in Thames Valley, UK. Participants 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks’ duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Main outcome measures Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. Results 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Conclusions Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the

  18. Voluntary upregulation of reflex cough is possible in healthy older adults and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brandimore, Alexandra E; Hegland, Karen W; Okun, Michael S; Davenport, Paul W; Troche, Michelle S

    2017-07-01

    Cough is an airway-protective mechanism that serves to detect and forcefully eject aspirate material. Existing research has identified the ability of healthy young adults to suppress or modify cough motor output based on external cueing. However, no study has evaluated the ability of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy older adults (HOAs) to upregulate cough motor output. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of people with PD and healthy age-matched controls (HOAs) to upregulate reflex and voluntary cough function volitionally with verbal instruction and visual biofeedback of airflow targets. Sixteen participants with PD and twenty-eight HOAs (56-83 yr old) were recruited for this study. Experimental procedures used spirometry to evaluate 1 ) baseline reflex cough (evoked with capsaicin) and voluntary sequential cough and 2 ) reflex and voluntary cough with upregulation biofeedback. Cough airflow was recorded and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze differences in cough airflow parameters. Cough peak expiratory airflow rate and cough expired volume were significantly greater in the cueing condition for both induced reflex ( P < 0.001) and voluntary cough ( P < 0.001) compared with baseline measures. This is the first study to demonstrate the ability of people with PD and HOAs to upregulate induced reflex and voluntary cough motor output volitionally. These results support the development of studies targeting improved cough effectiveness in patients with airway-protective deficits. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death in Parkinson's disease (PD) and results from concurrent dysphagia and dystussia (cough dysfunction). This is the first study to demonstrate that people with PD and healthy age-matched controls can volitionally upregulate induced reflex and voluntary cough effectiveness when presented with novel cueing strategies. Thus targeting upregulation of cough effectiveness via biofeedback may be a

  19. Propofol-induced violent coughing in a patient with Becker's muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Propofol anesthesia is often associated with decreased incidence of gagging, coughing or laryngospasm, and provides intense suppression on airway reflex during tracheal intubation and laryngeal mask airway insertion. Propofol pretreatment is also effective in reducing the occurrence of opioid-induced coughing. These benefits are often attributed to bronchodilator and sedative effects of propofol. However, severe coughing following sedative doses of 1% propofol has not been reported so far. We report a rare case of violent coughing following low-dose propofol infusion in a patient with Becker's muscular dystrophy. PMID:21845012

  20. Neutral endopeptidase inhibitors potentiate substance P- and capsaicin-induced cough in awake guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Kohrogi, H; Graf, P D; Sekizawa, K; Borson, D B; Nadel, J A

    1988-01-01

    To study the roles of substance P and endogenous neutral endopeptidase in mediating cough, we measured cough responses in awake guinea pigs in response to exogenous substance P and capsaicin aerosols in the presence and absence of the neutral endopeptidase inhibitors leucine-thiorphan and phosphoramidon. Substance P stimulated cough in very low concentrations (10(-17)-10(-16) M). In a second study where the investigator did not know whether substance P or diluent alone was aerosolized, substance P (10(-16) M) caused cough. Leucine-thiorphan (10(-5) M) and phosphoramidon (10(-5) M) potentiated substance P-induced cough; NEP inhibitors also potentiated capsaicin-induced cough significantly. These findings suggest that substance P is a potent stimulator of cough responses, that capsaicin-induced cough is mediated by substance P or another similar neuropeptide, and that cough responses are modulated by endogenous neutral endopeptidase. PMID:2461967

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Two Kinds of Iranian Honey and Diphenhydramine on Nocturnal Cough and the Sleep Quality in Coughing Children and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Yousef-Zanjani, Mahdieh; Allami, Abbas; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Beyhaghi, Taraneh

    2017-01-01

    Coughing in a child induced by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) can be a problem, both for the child and its parents. Current studies show a lack of proven efficacy for over-the counter (OTC) medications, but promising data support the use of honey for children. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two kinds of Iranian honey with diphenhydramine (DPH) on nocturnal pediatric coughs and the sleep quality of children and their parents. This was a clinical trial (registered in IRCT; No.: 28.20.7932, 15 October 2013). The study consisted of 87 patients. All the parents completed a standard previously validated questionnaire. The children were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1, Honey type 1 (Kimia Company, Iran) (n = 42), Group 2, Honey type 2 (Shahde-Golha, Iran) (n = 25), and Group 3, DPH (n = 20). Each group received double doses of the respective treatments on two successive nights. A second survey was then administered via a telephone interview in which the parents were asked the same questions. The mean scores for all aspects of coughs were significantly decreased in each group before and after the treatment. All three treatments improved the cough and sleep scores. Honey type 1 was superior to DPH in improving all aspects of coughs, except the frequency, and Honey type 2 was more effective than DPH in improving all aspects of coughs, except the sleep quality of the child. There was no significant difference between Honey type 1 and 2 in any aspects of cough relief in the present study. The results suggest that honey may provide better cough relief than DPH in children and improve the sleep quality of children and their parents. PMID:28103276

  2. Efficacy of Grintuss® pediatric syrup in treating cough in children: a randomized, multicenter, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cough is an extremely common problem in pediatrics, mostly triggered and perpetuated by inflammatory processes or mechanical irritation leading to viscous mucous production and increased sensitivity of the cough receptors. Protecting the mucosa might be very useful in limiting the contact with micro-organisms and irritants thus decreasing the inflammation and mucus production. Natural molecular complexes can act as a mechanical barrier limiting cough stimuli with a non pharmacological approach but with an indirect anti-inflammatory action. Objective Aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a medical device containing natural functional components in the treatment of cough persisting more than 7 days. Methods In this randomized, parallel groups, double-blind vs. placebo study, children with cough persisting more than 7 days were enrolled. The clinical efficacy of the study product was assessed evaluating changes in day- and night-time cough scores after 4 and 8 days (t4 and t8) of product administration. Results In the inter-group analysis, in the study product group compared with the placebo group, a significant difference (t4 study treatment vs. t4 placebo, p = 0.03) was observed at t4 in night-time cough score. Considering the intra-group analysis, only the study product group registered a significant improvement from t0 to t4 in both day-time (t0 vs. t4, p = 0.04) and night-time (t0 vs. t4, p = 0.003) cough scores. A significant difference, considering the study product, was also found in the following intra-group analyses: day-time scores at t4 vs. t8 (p =0.01) and at t0 vs. t8 (p = 0.001); night-time scores at t4 vs. t8 (p = 0.05), and at t0 vs. t8 (p = 0.005). Considering a subgroup of patients with higher cough (≥3) scores, 92.9% of them in the study product group improved at t0 vs. t4 day-time. Conclusions Grintuss® pediatric syrup showed to possess an interesting profile of efficacy and safety in the treatment

  3. [Experimental whooping cough of nonhuman primate].

    PubMed

    Kubrava, D T; Medkova, A Iu; Siniashina, L N; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzharia, I G; Barkaia, V S; Elistratova, Zh V; Karataev, G I; Mikvabia, Z Ia; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable success in study of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors, pathogenesis of whooping cough, duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence, types and mechanisms of immune response are still keep underinvestigated. It can be explained by the absence ofadequate experimental animal model for pertussis study. Our study estimates clinical and laboratory parameters of whooping cough in non-human primates of the Old World in the process of intranasan infection by virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Also the duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence in animals was investigated. 14 animal units of 4 species of non-human primates of the Old World were used for intranasal infection. The examination of infect animals included: visual exploration of nasopharynx, thermometry, clinical and biochemical blood analyses, identification ofB. pertussis, using microbiologic and molecular genetic analyses, estimation of innate and adoptive immune factors. The development of infectious process was accompanied by generation of B. pertussis bacteria, catarrhal inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa, leucocytosis, hypoglycemia specific for pertussis, and activation of innate and adaptive immunity for all primates regardless of specie were seen. While repeated experimental infection in primates single bacterial colonies were registered during only first week after challenge. It occurs like the absence of inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa and the lack of laboratory marks of whooping cough, recorded after first challenge. The evident booster effect of humoral immunity was observed. As a model for investigation of B. pertussis bacteria persistence and immune response against whooping cough we suggest the usage of rhesus macaque as more available to experiments.

  4. Does diurnal variation in cough reflex testing exist in healthy young adults?

    PubMed

    Perry, Sarah; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diurnal variation in cough reflex sensitivity exists in healthy young adults when a tidal-breathing method is used. Fifty-three participants (19-37 years) underwent cough reflex testing on two occasions: once in the morning (between 9 am - midday) and once in the afternoon (between 2-5 pm). The order of testing was counter-balanced. Within each assessment, participants inhaled successively higher citric acid concentrations via a facemask, with saline solution randomly interspersed to control for a placebo response. The lowest concentration that elicited a reflexive cough response was recorded. Morning cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L) were not different from afternoon cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L), p=0.16, T=101, r=-0.14. We found no evidence of diurnal variability in cough reflex testing. There was, however, an order effect irrespective of time of day, confirming that healthy participants are able to volitionally modulate their cough response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Whooping cough and unrecognised postperinatal mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, A; Gardner, A

    1988-01-01

    Trends in postperinatal infant mortality from respiratory causes and the sudden infant death syndrome in England and Wales for 1968 to 1984 were examined. These were compared by time series analysis with changes in the incidence of specific infective diseases and organisms for the same period. Discontinuity was found in association with the occurrence of whooping cough between 1977 and 1982. Associations with the general incidence of respiratory infections and other specific organisms were less evident. An estimate of excess mortality is 460 to 700 deaths, a substantial increase over the certified mortality from whooping cough. PMID:3126714

  6. Rehabilitation of Swallowing and Cough Functions Following Stroke: An Expiratory Muscle Strength Training Trial.

    PubMed

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Davenport, Paul W; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Singletary, Floris F; Troche, Michelle S

    2016-08-01

    To determine the effect of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on both cough and swallow function in stroke patients. Prospective pre-post intervention trial with 1 participant group. Two outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Adults (N=14) with a history of ischemic stroke in the preceding 3 to 24 months. EMST. The training program was completed at home and consisted of 25 repetitions per day, 5 days per week, for 5 weeks. Baseline and posttraining measures were maximum expiratory pressure, voluntary cough airflows, reflex cough challenge to 200μmol/L of capsaicin, sensory perception of urge to cough, and fluoroscopic swallow evaluation. Repeated measures and 1-way analyses of variance were used to determine significant differences pre- and posttraining. Maximum expiratory pressure increased in all participants by an average of 30cmH2O posttraining. At baseline, all participants demonstrated a blunted reflex cough response to 200μmol/L of capsaicin. After 5 weeks of training, measures of urge to cough and cough effectiveness increased for reflex cough; however, voluntary cough effectiveness did not increase. Swallow function was minimally impaired at baseline, and there were no significant changes in the measures of swallow function posttraining. EMST improves expiratory muscle strength, reflex cough strength, and urge to cough. Voluntary cough and swallow measures were not significantly different posttraining. It may be that stroke patients benefit from the training for upregulation of reflex cough and thus improved airway protection. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Adults with Chronic Cough in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Nliwasa, Marriott; MacPherson, Peter; Chisala, Palesa; Kamdolozi, Mercy; Khundi, McEwen; Kaswaswa, Kruger; Mwapasa, Mphatso; Msefula, Chisomo; Sohn, Hojoon; Flach, Clare; Corbett, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    Current tuberculosis diagnostics lack sensitivity, and are expensive. Highly accurate, rapid and cheaper diagnostic tests are required for point of care use in low resource settings with high HIV prevalence. To investigate the sensitivity and specificity, and cost of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for tuberculosis diagnosis in adults with chronic cough compared to Xpert® MTB/RIF, fluorescence smear microscopy. Between October 2013 and March 2014, consecutive adults at a primary care clinic were screened for cough, offered HIV testing and assessed for tuberculosis using LAMP, Xpert® MTB/RIF and fluorescence smear microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity (with culture as reference standard), and costs were estimated. Of 273 adults recruited, 44.3% (121/273) were HIV-positive and 19.4% (53/273) had bacteriogically confirmed tuberculosis. The sensitivity of LAMP compared to culture was 65.0% (95% CI: 48.3% to 79.4%) with 100% (95% CI: 98.0% to 100%) specificity. The sensitivity of Xpert® MTB/RIF (77.5%, 95% CI: 61.5% to 89.2%) was similar to that of LAMP, p = 0.132. The sensitivity of concentrated fluorescence smear microscopy with routine double reading (87.5%, 95% CI: 73.2% to 95.8%) was higher than that of LAMP, p = 0.020. All three tests had high specificity. The lowest cost per test of LAMP was at batch size of 14 samples (US$ 9.98); this was lower than Xpert® MTB/RIF (US$ 13.38) but higher than fluorescence smear microscopy (US$ 0.65). The sensitivity of LAMP was similar to Xpert® MTB/RIF but lower than fluorescence smear microscopy; all three tests had high specificity. These findings support the Malawi policy that recommends a combination of fluorescence smear microscopy and Xpert® MTB/RIF prioritised for people living with HIV, already found to be smear-negative, or being considered for retreatment of tuberculosis.

  8. High frequency analysis of cough sounds in pediatric patients with respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kosasih, K; Abeyratne, U R; Swarnkar, V

    2012-01-01

    Cough is a common symptom in a range of respiratory diseases and is considered a natural defense mechanism of the body. Despite its critical importance in the diagnosis of illness, there are no golden methods to objectively assess cough. In a typical consultation session, a physician may briefly listen to the cough sounds using a stethoscope placed against the chest. The physician may also listen to spontaneous cough sounds via naked ears, as they naturally propagate through air. Cough sounds carry vital information on the state of the respiratory system but the field of cough analysis in clinical medicine is in its infancy. All existing cough analysis approaches are severely handicapped by the limitations of the human hearing range and simplified analysis techniques. In this paper, we address these problems, and explore the use of frequencies covering a range well beyond the human perception (up to 90 kHz) and use wavelet analysis to extract diagnostically important information from coughs. Our data set comes from a pediatric respiratory ward in Indonesia, from subjects diagnosed with asthma, pneumonia and rhinopharyngitis. We analyzed over 90 cough samples from 4 patients and explored if high frequencies carried useful information in separating these disease groups. Multiple regression analysis resulted in coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 77-82% at high frequencies (15 kHz-90 kHz) indicating that they carry useful information. When the high frequencies were combined with frequencies below 15kHz, the R(2) performance increased to 85-90%.

  9. Development of improved vaccines against whooping cough: current status.

    PubMed

    Marzouqi, Ibrahim; Richmond, Peter; Fry, Scott; Wetherall, John; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2010-07-01

    Prior to the introduction of killed whole cell pertussis vaccine [wP] in the 1940s, whooping cough was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children with this vaccine caused a significant reduction in mortality. However in the 1990s and now more recently, there has been a resurgence of pertussis in several countries even in populations previously vaccinated with an acellular pertussis vaccine [aP]. In this review, we describe the epidemiology of whooping cough, the vast array of virulence factors produced by this pathogen potentially contributing to the resurgence of pertussis even in previously vaccinated populations of infants and children, history of whooping cough prophylaxis, possible mechanisms of immunity, lack of availability of a suitable non-toxic adjuvant capable of inducing both arms of the immune response, and the current status of development of improved vaccines with potential to induce longer-lasting protection, than is currently possible with the wP or aP vaccines, against whooping cough.

  10. Substance P-immunoreactive nerves in endobronchial biopsies in cough-variant asthma and classic asthma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Min Kyung; Shin, Chol; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kim, Han Kyeom; Kang, Kyung Ho; Yoo, Se Hwa; In, Kwang Ho

    2003-01-01

    Unlike classic asthma, cough-variant asthma does not show any evidence of airway obstruction. The main symptom is a dry cough with little known pathophysiology. Hypersensitivity of the cough receptors in cough-variant asthma and an increase in the sensory nerve density of the airway epithelium in persistent dry cough patients have been reported. Therefore, it is possible that there is a higher sensory nerve density in cough-variant asthma patients than in classic asthma patients. This study was undertaken to compare the substance P (SP)-immunoreactive nerve density in mucosal biopsies of cough-variant asthma patients, classic asthma patients, and in control subjects. Bronchoscopic biopsies were performed in 6 cough-variant asthma patients, 14 classic asthma patients, and 5 normal controls. The tissues obtained were stained immunohistochemically. The SP-immunoreactive nerve density was measured in the bronchial epithelium using a light microscope at 400 x magnification. SP- immunoreactive nerve density for the cough-variant asthma group was significantly higher than that of the classic asthma group (p = 0.001), and of the normal control group (p = 0.006). It is possible that a sensory nerve abnormality within the airway may be related to hypersensitivity of the cough receptor, and that this may be one of the pathophysiologies of cough-variant asthma. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Improved Cough and Cough-Specific Quality of Life in Patients Treated for Scleroderma-Related Interstitial Lung Disease: Results of Scleroderma Lung Study II.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Volkmann, Elizabeth R; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Roth, Michael D; Khanna, Dinesh; Furst, Daniel E; Clements, Philip J; Theodore, Arthur; Kafaja, Suzanne; Kim, Grace Hyun; Goldin, Jonathan; Ariolla, Edgar; Elashoff, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    Cough is a common symptom of scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), but its relationship to other characteristics of SSc-ILD, impact on cough-specific quality of life (QoL), and response to therapy for SSc-ILD have not been well studied. We investigated frequent cough (FC) in patients with SSc-ILD (N = 142) enrolled in the Scleroderma Lung Study II, a randomized controlled trial comparing mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and oral cyclophosphamide (CYC) as treatments for interstitial lung disease (ILD). We determined the impact of FC on QoL (Leicester Cough Questionnaire [LCQ]), evaluated the change in FC in response to treatment for SSc-ILD, and examined the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cough during the trial. Study participants who reported FC at baseline (61.3%) reported significantly more dyspnea, exhibited more extensive ILD on high-resolution CT, had a lower diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and reported more GERD symptoms than did those without FC. Cough-specific QoL was modestly impaired in patients with FC (total LCQ score, 15.4 ± 3.7; normal range, 3-21 [higher scores indicate worse QoL]). The proportion of patients with FC at baseline declined by 44% and 41% over 2 years in the CYC and MMF treatment arms, respectively, and this decline was significantly related to changes in GERD and ILD severity. FC occurs commonly in SSc-ILD, correlates with both the presence and severity of GERD and ILD at baseline, and declines in parallel with improvements in both ILD and GERD over a 2-year course of therapy. Frequent cough might serve as a useful surrogate marker of treatment response in SSc-ILD trials. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00883129; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of antitussive efficacy of dextromethorphan in smoking related cough: objective vs. subjective measures

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, James; Wright, Caroline; Thompson, Rachel; Hull, David; Morice, Alyn H

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Using an established model of smokers cough we measured the antitussive effects of dextromethorphan compared with placebo. METHODS The study was a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled, crossover comparison of 22 mg 0.8 ml−1 dextromethorphan delivered pregastrically with matched placebo. Objective and subjective measurements of cough were recorded. Subjective measures included a daily diary record of cough symptoms and the Leicester quality of life questionnaire. Cough frequency was recorded using a manual cough counter. The objective measure of cough reflex sensitivity was the citric acid, dose–response cough challenge. RESULTS Dextromethorphan was significantly associated with an increase in the concentration of citric acid eliciting an average of two coughs/inhalation (C2) when compared with placebo, 1 h post dose by 0.49 mM (95% CI 0.05, 0.45, geometric mean 3.09) compared with placebo 0.24 mM (geometric mean 1.74) P < 0.05 and at 2 h 0.57 mM (95% CI 0.01, 0.43, geometric mean 3.75) compared with placebo 0.34 mM (geometric mean 2.19) P < 0.05). There was a highly significant improvement in the subjective data when compared with baseline. However, there was no significant difference between placebo and active treatment. No correlation was seen between cough sensitivity to citric acid and recorded cough counts or symptoms. When both subjective and objective data were compared with screening data there was evidence of a marked ‘placebo’ effect. CONCLUSIONS The objective measure of cough sensitivity demonstrates dextromethorphan effectively diminishes the cough reflex sensitivity. However, subjective measures do not support this. Other studies support these findings, which may represent a profound sensitivity of the cough reflex to higher influences. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Dextromethorphan is widely used as a cough suppressant in over the counter medications. Its efficacy in altering cough reflex sensitivity has been shown in

  13. Emergence of whooping cough: notes from three early epidemics in Persia.

    PubMed

    Aslanabadi, Arash; Ghabili, Kamyar; Shad, Kaveh; Khalili, Majid; Sajadi, Mohammad M

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a relatively new infectious disease afflicting human beings, compared with other infectious diseases, and is undergoing a resurgence despite decades of vaccination. The oldest known epidemic is thought to be the Paris outbreak of 1578. In this Historical Review, we describe three epidemics of whooping cough in Persia, which although arising roughly one century before the Paris outbreak, have not been examined in detail. A great amount of epidemiological detail was reported that not only distinguishes the various stages and complications of whooping cough, but also reveals unique immunological aspects of this disease. The first of these epidemics is the oldest recorded whooping cough epidemic. On the basis of epidemiological features, we propose that this whooping cough epidemic was the first to have taken place in Persia and might have been part of the first pandemic. This theory pushes back the date of first documented emergence of whooping cough by almost a century, which matches molecular data about its spread. Here, we discuss features of these early epidemics in relation to their initial emergence, potential origins, and spread to Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Health Promotion Materials Campaigns Fact Sheets Podcasts Posters Presentations Social Media Stickers Videos/TV Newsroom, Features, ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This vintage British poster from World War II shows that coughing and ...

  15. TRPV4 antagonist GSK2193874 does not modulate cough response to osmotic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Buday, Tomas; Kovacikova, Lea; Ruzinak, Robert; Plevkova, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Osmolarity changes of airway superficial fluid are associated with cough and are used in research. TRPV4 is calcium channel initially described as osmosensor. In the airways, it can play role in increasing cough reflex sensitivity. The aim of our study was to test whether cough to osmotic stimuli is mediated via TRPV4 channel. Cough response was measured in 12 male guinea pigs by inhalation of saline, distilled water, hypertonic solution and citric acid for 10min in whole-body plethysmograph. Data were obtained in naïve animals and after pre-treatment with selective TRPV4 antagonist GSK2193874 in doses 300μg/kg (GSK300) and 900μg/kg (GSK900). Cough response to all tested aerosols was significantly higher than to saline. Pre-treatment with GSK300 did not influence response to osmotic stimuli - only reduced cough to citric acid. GSK900 reduced cough response to hypotonic stimuli and citric acid. TRPV4 mediated activation of airway afferents does not seem to be the exclusive mechanism responsible for cough to osmotic stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Concordance and discriminatory power of cough measurement devices for individuals with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Erin P; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul; Okun, Michael S; Sapienza, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia are two causes of morbidity in Parkinson disease (PD). In PD, impaired airway clearance can lead to penetration of foreign material, resulting in a high prevalence of aspiration pneumonia and death. This study examines three different devices for measurement of peak airflow during voluntary cough in healthy control subjects and those with PD. Two simple and low-cost devices for measuring peak cough airflow were compared with the "gold standard" pneumotachograph. Thirty-five healthy control subjects and 35 individuals with PD produced voluntary cough at three perceived strengths (weak, moderate, and strong cough) for each of the three devices. A significant difference in mean peak cough airflow was demonstrated for disease (F[1,56] = 4.0, P < .05) and sex (F[1,56] = 9.59, P < .003) across devices. The digital and analog meters were comparable to the gold standard demonstrating no significant difference (statistical) by device (digital vs analog) in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Both devices were discriminative of the presence of PD. The analog and digital peak airflow meters are suitable alternatives to the gold standard pneumotachograph due to their low cost, portability, ease of use, and high sensitivity relative to normative peak cough airflows. Voluntary cough airflow measures may serve as a noninvasive means of screening for aspiration risk in target populations. Additionally, quantification of cough strength through use of predetermined limens for weak, moderate, and strong cough may assist clinicians in better describing and tracking cough strength as a contributing factor to aspiration risk.

  17. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults.

    PubMed

    Potts, James F; Rona, Roberto J; Oyarzun, Manuel J; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semirural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  18. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with drymore » cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.« less

  19. Detection of Mouse Cough Based on Sound Monitoring and Respiratory Airflow Waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyan; Lai, Kefang; Lomask, Joseph Mark; Jiang, Bert; Zhong, Nanshan

    2013-01-01

    Detection for cough in mice has never yielded clearly audible sounds, so there is still a great deal of debates as to whether mice can cough in response to tussive stimuli. Here we introduce an approach for detection of mouse cough based on sound monitoring and airflow signals. 40 Female BALB/c mice were pretreated with normal saline, codeine, capasazepine or desensitized with capsaicin. Single mouse was put in a plethysmograph, exposed to aerosolized 100 µmol/L capsaicin for 3 min, followed by continuous observation for 3 min. Airflow signals of total 6 min were recorded and analyzed to detect coughs. Simultaneously, mouse cough sounds were sensed by a mini-microphone, monitored manually by an operator. When manual and automatic detection coincided, the cough was positively identified. Sound and sound waveforms were also recorded and filtered for further analysis. Body movements were observed by operator. Manual versus automated counts were compared. Seven types of airflow signals were identified by integrating manual and automated monitoring. Observation of mouse movements and analysis of sound waveforms alone did not produce meaningful data. Mouse cough numbers decreased significantly after all above drugs treatment. The Bland-Altman and consistency analysis between automatic and manual counts was 0.968 and 0.956. The study suggests that the mouse is able to present with cough, which could be detected by sound monitoring and respiratory airflow waveform changes. PMID:23555643

  20. Mast cells in citric acid-induced cough of guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Y.-L.; Lin, T.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    It was demonstrated previously that mast cells play an important role in citric acid (CA)-induced airway constriction. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced cough, three experiments were carried out in this study. In the first experiment, 59 guinea pigs were employed and we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit leukotriene synthesis, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H{sub 1} receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, 56 compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into two parts; the first one was used tomore » test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C{sub 4}, while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine in CA-induced cough. Each animal with one of the above pretreatments was exposed sequentially to saline (baseline) and CA (0.6 M) aerosol, each for 3 min. Then, cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining arterial plasma histamine concentration in 17 animals. Exposure to CA induced a marked increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced cough. Injection of LTC{sub 4} or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in plasma histamine concentration, which was blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced cough via perhaps mediators LTs and histamine.« less

  1. Human Cough as a Two-Stage Jet and Its Role in Particle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-01

    The human cough is a significant vector in the transmission of respiratory diseases in indoor environments. The cough flow is characterized as a two-stage jet; specifically, the starting jet (when the cough starts and flow is released) and interrupted jet (after the source supply is terminated). During the starting-jet stage, the flow rate is a function of time; three temporal profiles of the exit velocity (pulsation, sinusoidal and real-cough) were investigated in this study, and our results showed that the cough flow’s maximum penetration distance was in the range of a 50.6–85.5 opening diameter (D) under our experimental conditions. The real-cough and sinusoidal cases exhibited greater penetration ability than the pulsation cases under the same characteristic Reynolds number (Rec) and normalized cough expired volume (Q/AD, with Q as the cough expired volume and A as the opening area). However, the effects of Rec and Q/AD on the maximum penetration distances proved to be more significant; larger values of Rec and Q/AD reflected cough flows with greater penetration distances. A protocol was developed to scale the particle experiments between the prototype in air, and the model in water. The water tank experiments revealed that although medium and large particles deposit readily, their maximum spread distance is similar to that of small particles. Moreover, the leading vortex plays an important role in enhancing particle transport. PMID:28046084

  2. Latent class analysis of diagnostic tests for adenovirus, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus infections in German adults with longer lasting coughs.

    PubMed

    Sobotzki, C; Riffelmann, M; Kennerknecht, N; Hülsse, C; Littmann, M; White, A; Von Kries, R; Wirsing VON König, C H

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory tests in adult outpatients with longer lasting coughs to identify a potential causal pathogen are rarely performed, and there is no gold standard for these diagnostic tests. While the diagnostic validity of serological tests for pertussis is well established their potential contribution for diagnosing adenovirus and influenza virus A and B infections is unclear. A sentinel study into the population-based incidence of longer lasting coughs in adults was done in Rostock (former East Germany) and Krefeld (former West Germany). A total of 971 outpatients who consulted general practitioners or internists were included. Inclusion criteria were coughing for ⩾1 week and no chronic respiratory diseases. We evaluated the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as IgG and IgA serology, applying a latent class model for diagnosing infections with adenovirus, B. pertussis, and influenza virus A and B. The adult outpatients first sought medical attention when they had been coughing for a median of 3 weeks. In this situation, direct detection of infectious agents by PCR had a low sensitivity. Modelling showed that additional serological tests equally improved sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis for adenovirus, B. pertussis and influenza virus A and B infections. The combination of serology and PCR may improve the overall performance of diagnostic tests for B. pertussis and also for adenovirus, and influenza virus A and B infections.

  3. Self-medication for cough and the common cold: information needs of consumers.

    PubMed

    Kloosterboer, Sanne Maartje; McGuire, Treasure; Deckx, Laura; Moses, Geraldine; Verheij, Theo; van Driel, Mieke L

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high use of over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicines, little is known about Australia's cough and cold medicines information needs. The aim of this study was to identify gaps in consumers' perceived knowledge and concerns, to better target consumer medicines information and improve quality use of medicines. We analysed cough-and-cold related enquiries from consumers who contacted an Australian national medicine call centre between September 2002 and June 2010. Of 5503 cough and cold calls, female callers made up 86% of the calls and 33% were related to children. Questions most frequently related to drug-drug interactions (29%). An analysis of narratives over an 18-month period (248 calls) revealed 20% of the calls concerned potentially clinically relevant interactions, particularly those involving psychotropic agents. The potential for interactions with cough and cold medicines purchased OTC is recognised by consumers. Patient information should address their concerns. Doctors should be aware of the common cough and cold interactions and communicate likely clinical symptoms to patients when prescribing medication to prevent potential harm.

  4. Prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of pertussis in adults with acute cough: a prospective, observational study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teepe, Jolien; Broekhuizen, Berna DL; Ieven, Margareta; Loens, Katherine; Huygen, Kris; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; de Melker, Hester; Butler, Chris C; Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Coenen, Samuel; Goossens, Herman; Verheij, Theo JM

    2015-01-01

    Background Most cases of adult pertussis probably remain undiagnosed. Aim To explore the prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of acute pertussis infection in adult patients presenting with acute cough. Design and setting Prospective observational study between 2007 and 2010 in primary care in 12 European countries. Method Adults presenting with acute cough (duration of ≤28 days) were included. Bordetella pertussis infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (from nasopharyngeal flocked swabs and sputa) and by measurement of immunoglobulin G antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in venous blood at day 28. An antibody titre to PT of ≥125 IU/ml or PCR positive result in a respiratory sample defined recent infection. Patients completed a symptom diary for 28 days. Results Serum and/or respiratory samples were obtained in 3074 patients. Three per cent (93/3074) had recent B. pertussis infection. Prior cough duration >2 weeks discriminated to some extent between those with and without pertussis (adjusted odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.17 to 3.07; P = 0.010). Median cough duration after presentation was 17 and 12 days in patients with and without pertussis, respectively (P = 0.008). Patients with pertussis had longer duration of phlegm production (P = 0.010), shortness of breath (P = 0.037), disturbed sleep (P = 0.013) and interference with normal activities or work (P = 0.033) after presentation. Conclusion Pertussis infection plays a limited role among adults presenting with acute cough in primary care, but GPs should acknowledge the possibility of pertussis in uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infection. As in children, pertussis also causes prolonged symptoms in adults. However, pertussis is difficult to discern from other acute cough syndromes in adults at first presentation. PMID:26412843

  5. Predictors of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette in a large community in Korea: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong Sil; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the level of knowledge about and practice of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette among the general population of Korea and to identify the factors that may influence the practice of respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. The mean correct answer rate for knowledge of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette was 56.1%. Predictors of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette practice were carrying a handkerchief or tissues, prior education on respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, awareness level of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, daily frequency of handwashing, and knowledge level of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of acute cough by Zataria multiflora Boiss as an alternative treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2018-01-01

    Cough, as a defensive reflux mechanism, removes foreign objects and secretions from bronchi and bronchioles of airways. Zataria multiflora is a popular plant for treatment of cough in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this review was to evaluate the potency of Z. multiflora as an alternative treatment in management of acute cough and its possible mechanisms of action. Here the authors compiled information about Z. multiflora in the treatment of cough from all accessible resources and books. The results of this investigation showed that there were five clinical studies that evaluated the efficacy of Z. multiflora essential oil or extract alone (n = 1), in combination with Althaea officinalis (n = 2) or Foeniculum vulgare essential oil (n = 1), in the form of syrup (n = 3), oral drop (n = 1) and soft capsule (n = 1), for the treatment of acute cough in comparison with placebo or synthetic drugs (bromhexine, dextromethorphan and clobutinol). All clinical studies confirmed the efficacy of Z. multiflora in the amelioration of acute cough in pediatric (n = 1) and adult patients (n = 4) without any adverse effects. Different mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, relaxant and immune-enhancement, may be responsible for the efficacy of Z. multiflora in cough relief. Other clinical trials can be performed with Z. multiflora in combination with ivy leaf extract or primrose root extract on patients with cough. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Considering the influence of artificial environmental noise to study cough time-frequency features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    In general the study of the cough mechanism and sound in both animal and human is performed by eliciting coughing in a reproducible way by nebulization of an irritating substance. Due to ventilation the controlled evaporation-protocol causes artificial noises from a mechanical origin. The resulting environmental low-frequency noises complicate cough time-frequency features. In order to optimize the study of the cough-sound the research described in this paper attempts on the one hand to characterize and model the environmental noises and on the other hand to evaluate the influence of the noise on the time-frequency representation for the intended cough sounds by comparing different de-noising approaches. Free field acoustic sound is continuously registered during 30 min citric acid cough-challenges on individual Belgian Landrace piglets and during respiratory infection experiments, with a duration of about 10 days, where room-ventilation was present.

  8. Synergistic interactions between airway afferent nerve subtypes regulating the cough reflex in guinea-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Canning, Brendan J

    2005-01-01

    Cough initiated from the trachea and larynx in anaesthetized guinea-pigs is mediated by capsaicin-insensitive, mechanically sensitive vagal afferent neurones. Tachykinin-containing, capsaicin-sensitive C-fibres also innervate the airways and have been implicated in the cough reflex. Capsaicin-sensitive nerves act centrally and synergistically to modify reflex bronchospasm initiated by airway mechanoreceptor stimulation. The hypothesis that polymodal mechanoreceptors and capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves similarly interact centrally to regulate coughing was addressed in this study. Cough was evoked from the tracheal mucosa either electrically (16 Hz, 10 s trains, 1–10 V) or by citric acid (0.001–2 m). Neither capsaicin nor bradykinin evoked a cough when applied to the trachea of anaesthetized guinea-pigs, but they substantially reduced the electrical threshold for initiating the cough reflex. The TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine prevented the increased cough sensitivity induced by capsaicin. These effects of topically applied capsaicin and bradykinin were not due to interactions between afferent nerve subtypes within the tracheal wall or a direct effect on the cough receptors, as they were mimicked by nebulizing 1 mg ml−1 bradykinin into the lower airways and by microinjecting 0.5 nmol capsaicin into nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). Citric acid-induced coughing was also potentiated by inhalation of bradykinin. The effects of tracheal capsaicin challenge on cough were mimicked by microinjecting substance P (0.5–5 nmol) into the nTS and prevented by intracerebroventricular administration (20 nmol h−1) of the neurokinin receptor antagonists CP99994 or SB223412. Tracheal application of these antagonists was without effect. C-fibre activation may thus sensitize the cough reflex via central mechanisms. PMID:16051625

  9. Cough aerosol in healthy participants: fundamental knowledge to optimize droplet-spread infectious respiratory disease management.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Gustavo; Chiang, Ming C; Wong, Eric; MacDonald, Fred; Lange, Carlos F; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; King, Malcolm

    2012-03-21

    The Influenza A H1N1 virus can be transmitted via direct, indirect, and airborne route to non-infected subjects when an infected patient coughs, which expels a number of different sized droplets to the surrounding environment as an aerosol. The objective of the current study was to characterize the human cough aerosol pattern with the aim of developing a standard human cough bioaerosol model for Influenza Pandemic control. 45 healthy non-smokers participated in the open bench study by giving their best effort cough. A laser diffraction system was used to obtain accurate, time-dependent, quantitative measurements of the size and number of droplets expelled by the cough aerosol. Voluntary coughs generated droplets ranging from 0.1 - 900 microns in size. Droplets of less than one-micron size represent 97% of the total number of measured droplets contained in the cough aerosol. Age, sex, weight, height and corporal mass have no statistically significant effect on the aerosol composition in terms of size and number of droplets. We have developed a standard human cough aerosol model. We have quantitatively characterized the pattern, size, and number of droplets present in the most important mode of person-to-person transmission of IRD: the cough bioaerosol. Small size droplets (< 1 μm) predominated the total number of droplets expelled when coughing. The cough aerosol is the single source of direct, indirect and/or airborne transmission of respiratory infections like the Influenza A H1N1 virus. Open bench, Observational, Cough, Aerosol study. © 2012 Zayas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Classification of voluntary coughs applied to the screening of respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Infante, Christian; Chamberlain, Daniel B; Kodgule, Rahul; Fletcher, Richard Ribon

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary and respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma, COPD, allergies, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc.) represent a large proportion of the global disease burden, mortality, and disability. In this context of creating automated diagnostic tools, we explore how the analysis of voluntary cough sounds may be used to screen for pulmonary disease. As a clinical study, voluntary coughs were recorded using a custom mobile phone stethoscope from 54 patients, of which 7 had COPD, 15 had asthma, 11 had allergic rhinitis, 17 had both asthma and allergic rhinitis, and four had both COPD and allergic rhinitis. Data were also collected from 33 healthy subjects. These patients also received full auscultation at 11 sites, given a clinical questionnaire, and underwent full pulmonary function testing (spirometer, body plethysmograph, DLCO) which culminated in a diagnosis provided by an experienced pulmonologist. From machine learning analysis of these data, we show that it is possible to achieve good classification of cough sounds in terms of Wet vs Dry, yielding an ROC curve with AUC of 0.94, and show that voluntary coughs can serve as an effective test for determining Healthy vs Unhealthy (sensitivity=35.7% specificity=100%). We also show that the use of cough sounds can enhance the performance of other diagnostic tools such as a patient questionnaire and peak flow meter; however voluntary coughs alone provide relatively little value in determining specific disease diagnosis.

  11. Barriers to accessing TB diagnosis for rural-to-urban migrants with chronic cough in Chongqing, China: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qian; Li, Ying; Wang, Yang; Yue, Yong; Tang, Cheng; Tang, Shenglan; Squire, S Bertel; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Background China is facing a significant tuberculosis epidemic among rural-to-urban migrants, which poses a threat to TB control. This study aimed to understand the health seeking behaviour of and health systems responses to migrants and permanent urban residents suffering from chronic cough, in order to identify the factors influencing delays for both groups in receiving a TB diagnosis in urban China. Methods Combining a prospective cohort study of adult suspect TB patients and a qualitative study, the Piot model was used to analyze the health seeking behaviour of TB suspects among migrants and permanent urban residents, the factors influencing their decision and the responses by general health providers. Methods included a patient survey, focus group discussions with migrants in the general population, qualitative interviews with migrant and permanent resident TB suspects and TB patients as well as key stakeholders related to TB control and the management of migrants. Results Sixty eight percent of migrants delayed for more than two weeks before seeking care for symptoms suggestive of TB, compared to 54% of residents (p < 0.01). When they first decided to seek professional care, migrants were 1.5 times more likely than residents to use less expensive, community-level health services. Only 5% were ultimately referred to a TB dispensary. Major reasons for both patient and provider delay included lack of knowledge and mistrust of the TB control programme, lack of knowledge about TB (patients), and profit-seeking behaviour (providers). In the follow up survey, 61% of the migrants and 41% of the residents who still had symptoms gave up continuing to seek professional care, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Rural-to-urban migrants are more likely than permanent residents to delay in seeking care for symptoms suggestive of TB in urban Chongqing. 'Patient-' and 'provider-' related factors interact to pose barriers

  12. Whooping cough in South-East Romania: a 1-year study.

    PubMed

    Dinu, Sorin; Guillot, Sophie; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Brun, Delphine; Lazăr, Stefan; Vancea, Geta; Ionescu, Biatrice Mariana; Gherman, Mariana Felicia; Bjerkestrand, Andreea-Florina-Dana; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Guiso, Nicole; Damian, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of whooping cough in Romania is substantially underestimated, and, as noted by the health authorities, this is mostly due to the lack of both awareness and biological diagnosis. We conducted a 1-year study in Bucharest in order to assess the circulation of Bordetella pertussis, the main etiological agent of whooping cough. Fifty-one subjects suspected of whooping cough were enrolled. Culture, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for laboratory diagnosis. Whooping cough patients (63%) were distributed among all age groups, and most were unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or had been vaccinated more than 5 years previously. Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 22% of the bordetellosis cases; these patients included adults; teenagers; and, surprisingly, young children. B. pertussis isolates were similar to the clinical isolates currently circulating elsewhere in Europe. One isolate does not express pertactin, an antigen included in some acellular pertussis vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A search for subclinical infection during a small outbreak of whooping cough: implications for clinical diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Douglas; Pepper, Jacqueline D.

    1986-01-01

    The transmission of whooping cough in a general practice community was followed after the identification of the first case for nearly three years. Intensive case-finding was undertaken to detect contacts of known cases of whooping cough and to take pernasal swabs from those with any cough; 102 swabs were taken. In three months 39 cases of whooping cough were clinically diagnosed, 17 (44%) of which were confirmed bacteriologically. All had a prolonged paroxysmal cough, one-third reported a catarrhal phase, 18 (46%) vomited with paroxysms and nine (23%) whooped. No isolations of Bordetella pertussis were obtained from the 84 contacts with non-paroxysmal coughs. There was no evidence that subclinical bordetella infection (showing none of the signs of whooping cough) is a common occurrence. It is probable that many recognizable cases of whooping cough are missed because it can be a milder illness than is often realized and commonly exhibits neither whooping, vomiting nor a catarrhal phase. Paroxysms may be infrequent. The diagnosis of whooping cough should be suspected from a prolonged paroxysmal cough alone. PMID:3668903

  14. Cough sound analysis - a new tool for diagnosing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Abeyratne, U R; Swarnkar, V; Triasih, Rina; Setyati, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia kills over 1,800,000 children annually throughout the world. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are essential to prevent these unnecessary deaths. Reliable diagnosis of childhood pneumonia in remote regions is fraught with difficulties arising from the lack of field-deployable imaging and laboratory facilities as well as the scarcity of trained community healthcare workers. In this paper, we present a pioneering class of enabling technology addressing both of these problems. Our approach is centered on automated analysis of cough and respiratory sounds, collected via microphones that do not require physical contact with subjects. We collected cough sounds from 91 patients suspected of acute respiratory illness such as pneumonia, bronchiolitis and asthma. We extracted mathematical features from cough sounds and used them to train a Logistic Regression classifier. We used the clinical diagnosis provided by the paediatric respiratory clinician as the gold standard to train and validate our classifier against. The methods proposed in this paper could separate pneumonia from other diseases at a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 75% respectively, based on parameters extracted from cough sounds alone. Our method has the potential to revolutionize the management of childhood pneumonia in remote regions of the world.

  15. Capsaicin-evoked cough responses in asthmatic patients: Evidence for airway neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Satia, Imran; Tsamandouras, Nikolaos; Holt, Kimberley; Badri, Huda; Woodhead, Mark; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Felton, Timothy W; O'Byrne, Paul M; Fowler, Stephen J; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2017-03-01

    Cough in asthmatic patients is a common and troublesome symptom. It is generally assumed coughing occurs as a consequence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, but the possibility that airway nerves are dysfunctional has not been fully explored. We sought to investigate capsaicin-evoked cough responses in a group of patients with well-characterized mild-to-moderate asthma compared with healthy volunteers and assess the influences of sex, atopy, lung physiology, inflammation, and asthma control on these responses. Capsaicin inhalational challenge was performed, and cough responses were analyzed by using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to estimate the maximum cough response evoked by any concentration of capsaicin (E max ) and the capsaicin dose inducing half-maximal response (ED 50 ). Ninety-seven patients with stable asthma (median age, 23 years [interquartile range, 21-27 years]; 60% female) and 47 healthy volunteers (median age, 38 years [interquartile range, 29-47 years]; 64% female) were recruited. Asthmatic patients had higher E max and lower ED 50 values than healthy volunteers. E max values were 27% higher in female subjects (P = .006) and 46% higher in patients with nonatopic asthma (P = .003) compared with healthy volunteers. Also, patients with atopic asthma had a 21% lower E max value than nonatopic asthmatic patients (P = .04). The ED 50 value was 65% lower in female patients (P = .0001) and 71% lower in all asthmatic patients (P = .0008). ED 50 values were also influenced by asthma control and serum IgE levels, whereas E max values were related to 24-hour cough frequency. Age, body mass index, FEV 1 , PC 20 , fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, blood eosinophil counts, and inhaled steroid treatment did not influence cough parameters. Patients with stable asthma exhibited exaggerated capsaicin-evoked cough responses consistent with neuronal dysfunction. Nonatopic asthmatic patients had the highest cough responses, suggesting

  16. Behavioral Treatment of Hysterical Coughing and Mutism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munford, Paul R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the value of conceptualizing functional somatic disorders as operants. The subject, an adolescent girl, diagnosed as having a "hysterical neurosis," manifested the symptoms of incessant coughing and mutism. The cough and mutism were treated by extinction and shaping, respectively. Positive results were obtained.…

  17. Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jürgen; Halbach, Hans

    1969-01-01

    This report—the third of a series on codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief—presents a detailed review of the physiology and pathophysiology of cough, the methods for the experimental and clinical measurement of the antitussive action of drugs, possible mechanisms of action of antitussive agents, and includes a compilation of experimental results and clinical experience with codeine as an antitussive. PMID:4896168

  18. Dynamics of male pelvic floor muscle contraction observed with transperineal ultrasound imaging differ between voluntary and evoked coughs.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Ryan E; Mazzone, Stuart; Ashton-Miller, James A; Constantinou, Christos; Hodges, Paul W

    2014-04-15

    Coughing provokes stress urinary incontinence, and voluntary coughs are employed clinically to assess pelvic floor dysfunction. Understanding urethral dynamics during coughing in men is limited, and it is unclear whether voluntary coughs are an appropriate surrogate for spontaneous coughs. We aimed to investigate the dynamics of urethral motion in continent men during voluntary and evoked coughs. Thirteen men (28-42 years) with no history of urological disorders volunteered to participate. Transperineal ultrasound (US) images were recorded and synchronized with measures of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), airflow, and abdominal/chest wall electromyography during voluntary coughs and coughs evoked by inhalation of nebulized capsaicin. Temporal and spatial aspects of urethral movement induced by contraction of the striated urethral sphincter (SUS), levator ani (LA), and bulbocavernosus (BC) muscles and mechanical aspects of cough generation were investigated. Results showed coughing involved complex urethral dynamics. Urethral motion implied SUS and BC shortening and LA lengthening during preparatory and expulsion phases. Evoked coughs resulted in greater IAP, greater bladder base descent (LA lengthening), and greater midurethral displacement (SUS shortening). The preparatory inspiration cough phase was shorter during evoked coughs, as was the latency between onset of midurethral displacement and expulsion. Maximum midurethral displacement coincided with maximal bladder base descent during voluntary cough, but followed it during evoked cough. The data revealed complex interaction between muscles involved in continence in men. Spatial and temporal differences in urethral dynamics and cough mechanics between cough types suggest that voluntary coughing may not adequately assess capacity of the continence mechanism.

  19. Velocity Field Measurements of Human Coughing Using Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, T.; Marr, D. R.; Higuchi, H.; Glauser, M. N.

    2003-11-01

    Quantitative fluid mechanics analysis of human coughing has been carried out using new Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV). The study involves measurement of velocity vector time-histories and velocity profiles. It is focused on the average normal human coughing. Some work in the past on cough mechanics has involved measurement of flow rates, tidal volumes and sub-glottis pressure. However, data of unsteady velocity vector field of the exiting highly time-dependent jets is not available. In this study, human cough waveform data are first acquired in vivo using conventional respiratory instrumentation for various volunteers of different gender/age groups. The representative waveform is then reproduced with a coughing/breathing simulator (with or without a manikin) for TRPIV measurements and analysis. The results of this study would be useful not only for designing of indoor air quality and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, but also for devising means of protection against infectious diseases.

  20. Cough-Anal Reflex May Be the Expression of a Pre-Programmed Postural Action

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Paolo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Esposti, Roberto; Bruttini, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    When coughing, an involuntary contraction of the external anal sphincter occurs, in order to prevent unwanted leakages or sagging of the pelvis muscular wall. Literature originally described such cough-anal response as a reflex elicited by cough, therefore identifying a precise cause-effect relationship. However, recent studies report that the anal contraction actually precedes the rise in abdominal pressure during cough expiratory effort, so that the sphincter activity should be pre-programmed. In recent years, an important family of pre-programmed muscle activities has been well documented to precede voluntary movements: these anticipatory actions play a fundamental role in whole body and segmental postural control, hence they are referred to as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). On these basis, we searched in literature for similarities between APAs and the cough-anal response, observing that both follow the same predictive homeostatic principle, namely that anticipatory collateral actions are needed to prevent the unwanted mechanical consequences induced by the primary movement. We thus propose that the cough-anal response also belongs to the family of pre-programmed actions, as it may be interpreted as an APA acting on the abdominal-thoracic compartment; in other words, the cough-anal response may actually be an Anticipatory Sphincter Adjustment, the visceral counterpart of APAs. PMID:29021750

  1. Cough-Anal Reflex May Be the Expression of a Pre-Programmed Postural Action.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Paolo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Esposti, Roberto; Bruttini, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    When coughing, an involuntary contraction of the external anal sphincter occurs, in order to prevent unwanted leakages or sagging of the pelvis muscular wall. Literature originally described such cough-anal response as a reflex elicited by cough, therefore identifying a precise cause-effect relationship. However, recent studies report that the anal contraction actually precedes the rise in abdominal pressure during cough expiratory effort, so that the sphincter activity should be pre-programmed . In recent years, an important family of pre-programmed muscle activities has been well documented to precede voluntary movements: these anticipatory actions play a fundamental role in whole body and segmental postural control, hence they are referred to as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). On these basis, we searched in literature for similarities between APAs and the cough-anal response, observing that both follow the same predictive homeostatic principle , namely that anticipatory collateral actions are needed to prevent the unwanted mechanical consequences induced by the primary movement. We thus propose that the cough-anal response also belongs to the family of pre-programmed actions, as it may be interpreted as an APA acting on the abdominal-thoracic compartment; in other words, the cough-anal response may actually be an Anticipatory Sphincter Adjustment , the visceral counterpart of APAs .

  2. [A case study of BRON (cough suppressant) tablet dependence--its social psychiatric and biological aspects].

    PubMed

    Kitabayashi, Y; Ueda, H; Narumoto, J; Kita, H; Nakamura, K; Tsuchida, H; Tani, N; Fukui, K

    2000-10-01

    A case of BRON tablet dependence is demonstrated. BRON is an over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant, which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine. He took BRON tablet for the first time at the age of 16. In progress, he developed psychomotor excitement twice and finally manifested amotivational syndrome 3 years later from his first use. Longitudinal 123I-IMP SPECT (autoradiography method) findings demonstrated diffuse cerebral blood flow (CBF) decrease and relative hyperactivity in the lower frontal lobe. Diffuse decreased regional CBF, which was unchanged through its course for about 4 months, may show irreversible brain damage due to chronic BRON abuse. The findings of relative hyperactivity in the lower frontal lobe (orbitofrontal lobe) may reflect "craving for BRON" based on abnormal dopaminergic neural system activity. Based on the evidence that orbitofrontal hyperactivity is also seen in cases of cocaine abuse, methylephedrine, which is a cocaine-like central nervous system stimulant, may play the main role in BRON dependence formation. In Japan, BRON syrup abuse and dependence were in fashion for youth in 1980s. After the legal regulation of the market in 1988, it has gone out of fashion. While it is still easy to acquire OTC cough suppressant, reports of BRON tablet abuse and dependence are quite rare through 1980s and 1990s. This case suggests that BRON tablet abuse also could lead to dependence and come into new vogue for youth in the future. We should pay attention to the trend of OTC cough suppressant abuse and may need to regulate the market by law more severely.

  3. Pilot of an Elementary School Cough Etiquette Intervention: Acceptability, Feasibility, and Potential for Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Farhana; Nizame, Fosiul A; Southern, Dorothy L; Unicomb, Leanne; Winch, Peter J; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-12-01

    Schools convene many people together for a prolonged time, facilitating spread of respiratory pathogens and amplifying epidemics. Crowded Bangladeshi schools lack the infrastructure to support optimal cough etiquette behaviors. We collected formative data on current practices from four elementary schools, and developed and piloted a low-cost cough etiquette intervention, promoting coughing and sneezing into upper sleeves at four additional schools. We trained teachers to lead behavior change sessions during regular hygiene classes for 4 weeks. We evaluated intervention acceptability, feasibility, and potential for sustainability at 1 month and at 14 months after the intervention commenced. At baseline, among 63 observed students, 58 (92%) coughed/sneezed into open air, five (8%) covered coughs/sneezes with their hands, which were not subsequently washed with soap and water as they judged this infeasible. After 4 weeks, among 70 observed students, 27 (39%) coughed/sneezed into upper sleeves, 33 (47%) into open air, and 10 (12%) covered with hands. After 14 months, among 230 observed students, 13 (6%) used upper sleeves, 154 (67%) coughed/sneezed into open air, and 59 (26%) covered with hands. Students reported that coughing/sneezing into upper sleeves was simple and protected them and their classmates from germs. This school-based intervention was acceptable and feasible, and resulted in short-term reductions in coughing/sneezing into open air, but these habits of comparatively new behavior were not sustained as teachers ceased behavior change session delivery. Strategies to support longer-term adoption of habits should be considered.

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: deceptive information from the Physicians' Desk Reference.

    PubMed

    Bangalore, Sripal; Kumar, Sunil; Messerli, Franz H

    2010-11-01

    Dry cough is a common, annoying adverse effect of all angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The present study was designed to compare the rate of coughs reported in the literature with reported rates in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)/drug label. We searched MEDLINE/EMBASE/CENTRAL for articles published from 1990 to the present about randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ACE inhibitors with a sample size of at least 100 patients in the ACE inhibitors arm with follow-up for at least 3 months and reporting the incidence or withdrawal rates due to cough. Baseline characteristics, cohort enrolled, metrics used to assess cough, incidence, and withdrawal rates due to cough were abstracted. One hundred twenty-five studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria enrolled 198,130 patients. The pooled weighted incidence of cough for enalapril was 11.48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.54% to 13.41%), which was ninefold greater compared to the reported rate in the PDR/drug label (1.3%). The pooled weighted withdrawal rate due to cough for enalapril was 2.57% (95% CI, 2.40-2.74), which was 31-fold greater compared to the reported rate in the PDR/drug label (0.1%). The incidence of cough has increased progressively over the last 2 decades with accumulating data, but it has been reported consistently several-fold less in the PDR compared to the RCTs. The results were similar for most other ACE inhibitors. The incidence of ACE inhibitor-associated cough and the withdrawal rate (the more objective metric) due to cough is significantly greater in the literature than reported in the PDR/drug label and is likely to be even greater in the real world when compared with the data from RCTs. There exists a gap between the data available from the literature and that which is presented to the consumers (prescribing physicians and patients). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Clinical characteristics of whooping cough in neonates and antimicrobial resistance of the pathogenic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Hui-Xin; Yuan, Lin; Gu, Song; Jiang, Min; Ding, Yi-Jun; Guo, Dan; Yao, Kai-Hu; Wang, Ya-Juan

    2014-10-01

    To study the clinical characteristics of whooping cough in neonates and the antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial isolates. Clinical information of 7 neonates with whooping cough confirmed by bacterial culture was collected. The antimirobial resistance of the isolates was tested using E-test and disk diffusion methods. The children′s mothers or other family members had cough for more than 10 days in 6 neonates, in which four neonates contacted with 3 or more family members with cough. All the neonates had rhinobyon and slight cough at the beginning of the disease. Five cases presented typical spasmodic cough after 4-7 days of the onset. Five cases displayed cyanosis, four cases occurred apnea, three cases suffered breath holding, and only two cases had fever. Nares flaring and three depression signs were found in the physical examination. No bacteriostatic ring around the erythromycin disks were found for five bacterial isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and clindamycin were all >256 mg/L against the five isolates. Whooping cough should be considered for neonates with respiratory symptoms and a history of close contact with respiratory infection patients. Macrolide-resistant Bordetella pertussis is common in children with whooping cough.

  6. Role of guaifenesin in the management of chronic bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Helmut H; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Guenin, Eric P

    2017-01-01

    Guaifenesin, a mucoactive drug, acts by loosening mucus in the airways and making coughs more productive. It is used for relief of wet cough and chest congestion due to the common cold, and remains the only legally marketed expectorant in the US (per OTC Monograph). An ingredient in numerous over-the-counter (OTC) cough/cold medications, guaifenesin has a secondary indication for use in stable chronic bronchitis (professional indication). Clinical pharmacology and patient studies support the clinical utility of guaifenesin in respiratory conditions where mucus hypersecretion is prevalent: acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), stable chronic bronchitis, and possibly rhinosinusitis. Guaifenesin has a well-established and favorable safety and tolerability profile in adult and pediatric populations. Its dosing range (200-400 mg 4-hourly, up to 6× daily) allows flexible dose titration to allow an increase of plasma concentrations. Multiple daily doses are needed to maintain 24-h therapeutic effect with immediate-release formulations. Extended-release guaifenesin tablet formulations are available, providing convenience with 12-hourly dosing and portability compared to liquids. Guaifenesin is considered as a safe and effective expectorant for the treatment of mucus-related symptoms in acute URTIs and stable chronic bronchitis. Its clinical efficacy has been demonstrated most widely in chronic respiratory conditions, where excess mucus production and cough are more stable symptoms. Progress is being made to establish clinical models and measures that are more appropriate for studying symptomatic relief with guaifenesin in acute respiratory infections. This will help generate the up-to-date and high-quality data needed to optimize guaifenesin's effectiveness in established uses, and in new respiratory indications associated with mucus hypersecretion.

  7. Effect of preoperative incentive spirometry on fentanyl-induced cough: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Suresh Kumar; Baj, Birbal

    2017-01-01

    Background Fentanyl-induced cough (FIC) has a reported incidence of 13–65% on induction of anesthesia. Incentive spirometry (IS) creates forceful inspiration, while stretching pulmonary receptors. We postulated that spirometry just before the fentanyl (F) bolus would decrease the incidence and severity of FIC. Methods This study enrolled 200 patients aged 18–60 years and with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I or II. The patients were allocated to two groups of 100 patients each depending on whether they received preoperative incentive spirometry before fentanyl administration. Patients in the F+IS group performed incentive spirometry 10 times just before an intravenous bolus of 3 µg/kg fentanyl in the operating room. The onset time and number of coughs after fentanyl injection were recorded as primary outcomes. Any significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, or adverse effects of the drug were recorded as secondary outcomes. Results Patients in the F+IS group had a significantly lower incidence of FIC than in the F group (6% vs. 26%) (P < 0.05). The severity of cough in the F+IS group was also significantly lower than that in group F (mild, 5 vs. 17; moderate 1 vs. 7; severe, 0 vs. 2) (P < 0.05). The median onset time was comparable in both groups (9 s [range: 6–12 s] in both groups). Conclusions Preoperative incentive spirometry significantly reduces the incidence and severity of FIC when performed just before fentanyl administration. PMID:29046775

  8. Active case finding of undetected tuberculosis among chronic coughers in a slum setting in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sekandi, J. N.; Neuhauser, D.; Smyth, K.; Whalen, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Kisenyi slum in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVES Using chronic cough (≥2 weeks) inquiry as a screening tool to identify undetected smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases and to describe the characteristics of smear-positive TB cases detected by active case finding. DESIGN A house-to-house survey was conducted in five randomly selected villages in Kampala between June and August 2005. A sample of households was visited; adults aged ≥15 years were consecutively interviewed to identify those with chronic cough. Three sputum specimens were collected and examined by smear microscopy. RESULTS Among 930 individuals, we identified 189 (20%) chronic coughers. Of these, we found 33 (18%) undiagnosed smear-positive cases. The newly detected cases had an even sex distribution (P = 0.47), a median age of 30 years, a median cough duration of 1 month and 55% had acid-fast bacilli 1+ sputum smear grade. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that active case finding could supplement DOTS to yield additional smear-positive TB cases, lead to early diagnosis and thus shorten the duration of infectiousness before effective chemotherapy is initiated. In communities such as Kisenyi, this is a feasible strategy that may prove useful for TB control, but its cost-effectiveness needs to be evaluated. Early health care seeking for cough should be emphasized. PMID:19335958

  9. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially

  10. Cross-sectional associations between air pollution and chronic bronchitis: an ESCAPE meta-analysis across five cohorts.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yutong; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Buschka, Anna; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Marcon, Alessandro; Sanchez, Margaux; Vierkötter, Andrea; Al-Kanaani, Zaina; Beelen, Rob; Birk, Matthias; Brunekreef, Bert; Cirach, Marta; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Declercq, Christophe; de Hoogh, Kees; de Nazelle, Audrey; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Valeria Ferretti, Virginia; Forsberg, Bertil; Gerbase, Margaret W; Hardy, Rebecca; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoek, Gerard; Jarvis, Debbie; Keidel, Dirk; Kuh, Diana; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Ragettli, Martina S; Ranzi, Andrea; Rochat, Thierry; Schindler, Christian; Sugiri, Dorothea; Temam, Sofia; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Kauffmann, Francine; Krämer, Ursula; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Hansell, Anna L

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess associations of outdoor air pollution on prevalence of chronic bronchitis symptoms in adults in five cohort studies (Asthma-E3N, ECRHS, NSHD, SALIA, SAPALDIA) participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) project. Annual average particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(absorbance), PM(coarse)), NO(2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and road traffic measures modelled from ESCAPE measurement campaigns 2008-2011 were assigned to home address at most recent assessments (1998-2011). Symptoms examined were chronic bronchitis (cough and phlegm for ≥3 months of the year for ≥2 years), chronic cough (with/without phlegm) and chronic phlegm (with/without cough). Cohort-specific cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using common confounder sets (age, sex, smoking, interview season, education), followed by meta-analysis. 15 279 and 10 537 participants respectively were included in the main NO(2) and PM analyses at assessments in 1998-2011. Overall, there were no statistically significant associations with any air pollutant or traffic exposure. Sensitivity analyses including in asthmatics only, females only or using back-extrapolated NO(2) and PM10 for assessments in 1985-2002 (ECRHS, NSHD, SALIA, SAPALDIA) did not alter conclusions. In never-smokers, all associations were positive, but reached statistical significance only for chronic phlegm with PM(coarse) OR 1.31 (1.05 to 1.64) per 5 µg/m(3) increase and PM(10) with similar effect size. Sensitivity analyses of older cohorts showed increased risk of chronic cough with PM(2.5abs) (black carbon) exposures. Results do not show consistent associations between chronic bronchitis symptoms and current traffic-related air pollution in adult European populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Intraesophageal pressure recording improves the detection of cough during multichannel intraluminal impedance testing in children.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Rachel; Amirault, Janine; Giligan, Emily; Khatwa, Umakanth; Nurko, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary reasons for referral for reflux testing is to correlate reflux events with symptoms such as cough. Adult studies have suggested that symptom recording is flawed and pediatricians feel this is an even more significant problem because there may be errors in both parental and patient reports. We hypothesize that intraesophageal pressure recording (IEPR) provides an objective method to identify coughs during reflux testing in children. We recruited 20 children undergoing multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH (pH-MII) testing for the evaluation of cough. We placed simultaneous intraesophageal pressure and pH-MII catheters. Tracings were blindly scored by 2 observers without knowledge of patient/parent symptom report. After the blinded scoring, patient/parent report of symptoms was recorded. Ninety-four percent of all coughs were detected by IEPR and only 48% of all coughs were reported by patients/parents. The mean time from the IEPR cough to the patient/parent cough was 11±16 seconds. Using IEPR as the criterion standard for the detection of cough, the sensitivity of patient report for the detection of cough is 46%. Using varying symptom windows because of the increased precision of IEPR, the number of patients with a positive symptom index could be reduced from 30% to 0%, preventing children from being falsely categorized as having reflux-related lung disease. Parental and patient symptom recording in children is inadequate for making the diagnosis of reflux-related lung disease. If patients undergo pH-MII testing for reflux-related cough, IEPR should become the new standard by which to correlate reflux with cough.

  12. Mechanisms of Pelvic Floor Muscle Function and the Effect on the Urethra during a Cough

    PubMed Central

    Lovegrove Jones, Ruth C.; Peng, Qiyu; Stokes, Maria; Humphrey, Victor F.; Payne, Christopher; Constantinou, Christos E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Current measurement tools have difficulty identifying the automatic physiologic processes maintaining continence, and many questions still remain about pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function during automatic events. Objective To perform a feasibility study to characterise the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the PFM and the urethra during a cough. Design, setting, and participants A volunteer convenience sample of 23 continent women and 9 women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from the general community of San Francisco Bay Area was studied. Measurements Methods included perineal ultrasound imaging, motion tracking of the urogenital structures, and digital vaginal examination. Statistical analysis used one-tailedunpaired student t tests, and Welch’s correction was applied when variances were unequal. Results and limitations The cough reflex activated the PFM of continent women to compress the urogenital structures towards the pubic symphysis, which was absent in women with SUI. The maximum accelerations that acted on the PFM during a cough were generally more similar than the velocities and displacements. The urethras of women with SUI were exposed to uncontrolled transverse acceleration and were displaced more than twice as far (p = 0.0002), with almost twice the velocity (p = 0.0015) of the urethras of continent women. Caution regarding the generalisability of this study is warranted due to the small number of women in the SUI group and the significant difference in parity between groups. Conclusions During a cough, normal PFM function produces timely compression of the pelvic floor and additional external support to the urethra, reducing displacement, velocity, and acceleration. In women with SUI, who have weaker urethral attachments, this shortening contraction does not occur; consequently, the urethras of women with SUI move further and faster for a longer duration. PMID:19560261

  13. High frequency of pertussis in older children and adolescents with prolonged cough in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Aslı; Kurugöl, Zafer; Aydemir, Şöhret; Gürsel, Derya; Koturoğlu, Güldane

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of B. pertussis infection among Turkish children with prolonged cough. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 7-18 year old children, presenting with prolonged cough of two to four weeks' duration. Specimens were examined for B. pertussis by PCR. Of 101 children with prolonged cough, 20 (19.8%) had a positive PCR testing for B. pertussis. Children who were vaccinated ≥5 years previously had a 6.13-fold higher risk of PCR-confirmed pertussis than those who were vaccinated < 5 years before. The classic symptoms of pertussis (paroxysmal cough, whooping and post-tussive vomiting) were seen in 30%, 15% and 25% of the patients with positive PCR, respectively; 55% of them had only a prolonged cough without any classic symptoms. Pertussis is common among Turkish children with prolonged cough, even after implementation of a fifth dose of pertussis vaccination and despite high vaccination coverage.

  14. Identification of the tracheal and laryngeal afferent neurones mediating cough in anaesthetized guinea-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J; Mazzone, Stuart B; Meeker, Sonya N; Mori, Nanako; Reynolds, Sandra M; Undem, Bradley J

    2004-01-01

    We have identified the tracheal and laryngeal afferent nerves regulating cough in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Cough was evoked by electrical or mechanical stimulation of the tracheal or laryngeal mucosa, or by citric acid applied topically to the trachea or larynx. By contrast, neither capsaicin nor bradykinin challenges to the trachea or larynx evoked cough. Bradykinin and histamine administered intravenously also failed to evoke cough. Electrophysiological studies revealed that the majority of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurones (both Aδ- and C-fibres) innervating the rostral trachea and larynx have their cell bodies in the jugular ganglia and project to the airways via the superior laryngeal nerves. Capsaicin-insensitive afferent neurones with cell bodies in the nodose ganglia projected to the rostral trachea and larynx via the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Severing the recurrent nerves abolished coughing evoked from the trachea and larynx whereas severing the superior laryngeal nerves was without effect on coughing. The data indicate that the tracheal and laryngeal afferent neurones regulating cough are polymodal Aδ-fibres that arise from the nodose ganglia. These afferent neurones are activated by punctate mechanical stimulation and acid but are unresponsive to capsaicin, bradykinin, smooth muscle contraction, longitudinal or transverse stretching of the airways, or distension. Comparing these physiological properties with those of intrapulmonary mechanoreceptors indicates that the afferent neurones mediating cough are quite distinct from the well-defined rapidly and slowly adapting stretch receptors innervating the airways and lungs. We propose that these airway afferent neurones represent a distinct subtype and that their primary function is regulation of the cough reflex. PMID:15004208

  15. [The effectiveness of cevimeline hydrochloride on dry cough in Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nishinarita, Makoto; Hanzawa, Midori; Iikuni, Noriko; Ota, Syuji

    2004-04-01

    Dry cough in Sjögren syndrome (SS) is not an uncommon symptom observed in clinical fields. However, effective treatments for the cough have not been established. The recently introduced cevimeline hydrochloride, a muscarinic receptor stimulant, has been confirmed to be definitely effective for xerostomia of SS. In the present study, the effectiveness of cevimeline hydrochloride on dry cough was studied in 9 Sjögren patients and evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and face scale. Improvement of dry cough was observed in 8 out of the 9 patients, suggesting the effectiveness of cevimeline hydrochloride. Although the detailed etiology of dry cough in SS is unknown, the result of the study suggested the mechanism that cevimeline hydrochloride increased the secretion in the airway mucus, improving dry bronchial conditions. Further studies are needed with more subjects.

  16. efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in the treatment of productive cough.

    PubMed

    Schönknecht, Karina; Fal, Andrzej M; Mastalerz-Migas, Agnieszka; Joachimiak, Monika; Doniec, Zbigniew

    Introduction: Coughing is a physiological, spontaneous defense mechanism against irritants that stimulate respiratory mucosa. Productive cough should be not suppressed; instead, mucus-dissolving agents are recommended. One of the expectorants, which increases the excretion volume, is the herbal medicine derived from ivy leaves. The ivy extract contains triterpene saponins, which have secretory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of the treatment with the medicinal product Hedussin®, containing dry ivy extract, in the therapy of productive cough in the course of the respiratory tract infection. Material and methods:This was a non-randomized, non-interventional, multicenter, open-label, post-authorization effectiveness study (PAES). The study group consisted of 464 patients aged 2-12 years with productive cough. The study was supported by a questionnaire that included: the type of cough etiological factor, Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS), temperature, and prescription of antibiotic therapy. Effectiveness and safety of the therapy with Hedussin® was assessed at the follow-up visit. Results and conclusion: Improvement in cough was reported in 93.3% subjects; improvement in chest pain on coughing was reported in 84.7%, in wheezing - in 90.0%, in dyspnoea - in 88.7%, and in auscultation changes - in 94.8%. In addition, decline or normalization of body temperature was found in 96.0% of subjects. No adverse drug reactions were reported in the study population. The non-antibiotic treated group showed similar proportions. The results of this study support the efficacy of Hedussin® prescribed for the treatment of productive cough in the course of respiratory tract infections. Hedussin® was well tolerated by sick children aged 2-12 years.

  17. Patient education about cough: effect on the consulting behaviour of general practice patients.

    PubMed

    Rutten, G; Van Eijk, J; Beek, M; Van der Velden, H

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this general practice study was to examine how the consulting behaviour of patients with a cough was affected when the tasks and responsibilities of patients, practice nurses and general practitioners were reorganized. In four 'average' single-handed general practices the effects on the consulting behaviour of patients of a rational practice policy on cough and the provision of systematic patient education on cough were compared with patient behaviour in four matched control practices. Changes of behaviour were measured in 548 patients who consulted for cough at least twice, in two successive autumn-winter periods. Significantly more patients in the experimental practice changed their behaviour to follow the practice guidelines than did patients in the control practices (56% versus 30%, P less than 0.001). The proportion of patients who continued to consult in the approved manner was greater among patients receiving intervention (66% versus 29%, P less than 0.001). This was equally true for patients who had suffered less than four episodes of cough or more than four episodes. The more often the patients received the education, the more effective it was. All patients who consulted the general practitioner for cough during the first autumn-winter period filled in a cough diary during the second period. From this it appeared that the intervention did not result in patients delaying consultation when they had a cough lasting longer than three weeks or one with 'serious' symptoms. It would appear that a rational practice policy and the provision of patient education can stimulate patients to modify their consulting behaviour. This could result in a reduction in the costs of health care.

  18. Adenosine bronchial provocation with computerized wheeze detection in young infants with prolonged cough: correlation with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bentur, Lea; Beck, Raphael; Berkowitz, Drora; Hasanin, Jamal; Berger, Irit; Elias, Nael; Gavriely, Noam

    2004-10-01

    Chronic cough in babies is often associated with bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). The objective documentation of BHR in babies is difficult, and acoustic methods have been described (provocative concentration of a substance causing wheeze) for conducting bronchial provocation tests (BPTs). We conducted a study to evaluate automatic computerized wheeze detection (CWD) in determining BHR in young infants with prolonged cough, and its correlation with the subsequent development of wheezing. Infants aged < 24 months with prolonged cough (ie, > 2 months) underwent acoustic BPTs with the response determined by CWD and auscultation by a physician. Telephone interviews with parents were conducted after 1 month and yearly for the next 3 years. A total of 28 infants who were 4 to 24 months old with prolonged cough were included in the study. Twenty of these infants (71.4%) had BHR as determined by a positive acoustic BPT result. In 11 of these 20 tests, the CWD occurred earlier, and in 9 tests it occurred at the same step as auscultation by a physician. Rhonchi or whistles often preceded wheezes. Seventeen of the 20 patients with BHR completed 3 years of follow-up. Of these, 14 had recurrent episodes of wheezing and shortness of breath, and 3 were well. Six of the eight adenosine-negative patients completed 3 years of follow-up and had no symptoms of BHR. Acoustic BPT is a technically feasible test for the detection of BHR in young infants. CWD provides an earlier detection of wheeze than stethoscope auscultation. In our group of infants, a positive acoustic BPT result had high correlation with symptoms compatible with BHR over the next 3 years.

  19. The effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough: a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Zakir; Çalık, Eyup Serhat; Kaplan, Bekir; Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral

    2016-01-01

    There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.0007 and p=0.0188, respectively). There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.4325). Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p<0.0001 and p=0.009, respectively). There was no significant change in cough severity between pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p=0.856). Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of honey associated with Ananas comosus (Bromelin) in the treatment of acute irritative cough

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Décio Medeiros; Rizzo, José Angelo; Schor, Deborah; Silva, Almerinda Rêgo; de Oliveira, Dinaldo Cavalcanti; Solé, Dirceu; Sarinho, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the immediate improvement rate of irritative cough in patients treated with the combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin®) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). Methods: Pragmatic, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study with children aged between 2 and 15 years, with irritative cough for at least 24hours. The double-blind assessment of cough was through the number of observed coughing episodes and intensity score for a period of 10minutes of observation. The decrease of one point in the mean total score was considered as a therapeutic effect. Results: There was a reduction in coughing episodes in both groups, as well as in the cough score after 30minutes of drug or honey administration. The change in clinical score above two points, which could indicate marked improvement, occurred in five patients in the bromelin group and only in one in the placebo group, but without significant difference. There were no adverse events. Conclusions: The immediate improvement rate of irritative cough was similar in patients treated with combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin®) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). It is possible that honey has a therapeutic effect on mucus and cough characteristics (Clinical Trials: NCT01356693). PMID:27181342

  1. Antibiotics for whooping cough (pertussis).

    PubMed

    Altunaiji, S; Kukuruzovic, R; Curtis, N; Massie, J

    2007-07-18

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease. Infants are at highest risk of severe disease and death. Erythromycin for 14 days is currently recommended for treatment and contact prophylaxis, but is of uncertain benefit. To study the benefits and risks of antibiotic treatment of and contact prophylaxis against whooping cough. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2007); MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2007); EMBASE (January 1974 to March 2007). All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotics for treatment of, and contact prophylaxis against, whooping cough. Three to four review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial. Thirteen trials with 2197 participants met the inclusion criteria: 11 trials investigated treatment regimens; 2 investigated prophylaxis regimens. The quality of the trials was variable.Short-term antibiotics (azithromycin for three to five days, or clarithromycin or erythromycin for seven days) were as effective as long-term (erythromycin for 10 to 14 days) in eradicating Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) from the nasopharynx (relative risk (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.05), but had fewer side effects (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for seven days was also effective. Nor were there differences in clinical outcomes or microbiological relapse between short and long-term antibiotics. Contact prophylaxis of contacts older than six months of age with antibiotics did not significantly improve clinical symptoms or the number of cases developing culture-positive B. pertussis. Although antibiotics were effective in eliminating B. pertussis, they did not alter the subsequent clinical course of the illness. There is insufficient evidence to determine the benefit of prophylactic treatment of pertussis contacts.

  2. Cough augmentation techniques for extubation or weaning critically ill patients from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Louise; Adhikari, Neill Kj; Leasa, David; Fergusson, Dean A; McKim, Douglas

    2017-01-11

    There are various reasons why weaning and extubation failure occur, but ineffective cough and secretion retention can play a significant role. Cough augmentation techniques, such as lung volume recruitment or manually- and mechanically-assisted cough, are used to prevent and manage respiratory complications associated with chronic conditions, particularly neuromuscular disease, and may improve short- and long-term outcomes for people with acute respiratory failure. However, the role of cough augmentation to facilitate extubation and prevent post-extubation respiratory failure is unclear. Our primary objective was to determine extubation success using cough augmentation techniques compared to no cough augmentation for critically-ill adults and children with acute respiratory failure admitted to a high-intensity care setting capable of managing mechanically-ventilated people (such as an intensive care unit, specialized weaning centre, respiratory intermediate care unit, or high-dependency unit).Secondary objectives were to determine the effect of cough augmentation techniques on reintubation, weaning success, mechanical ventilation and weaning duration, length of stay (high-intensity care setting and hospital), pneumonia, tracheostomy placement and tracheostomy decannulation, and mortality (high-intensity care setting, hospital, and after hospital discharge). We evaluated harms associated with use of cough augmentation techniques when applied via an artificial airway (or non-invasive mask once extubated/decannulated), including haemodynamic compromise, arrhythmias, pneumothorax, haemoptysis, and mucus plugging requiring airway change and the type of person (such as those with neuromuscular disorders or weakness and spinal cord injury) for whom these techniques may be efficacious. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 4, 2016), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to April 2016), Embase (OvidSP) (1980 to April 2016), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) (1982

  3. A breath sound analysis in children with cough variant asthma.

    PubMed

    Enseki, Mayumi; Nukaga, Mariko; Tadaki, Hiromi; Tabata, Hideyuki; Hirai, Kota; Kato, Masahiko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-29

    Cough variant asthma (CVA) is characterized by a chronic cough and bronchial hyperresponsiveness without confirmation of wheezing. Using a breath sound analyzer, we evaluate the characteristics of breath sound in children with CVA. Nine children with CVA (median age, 7.0 years) participated. The existence of breath sounds was confirmed by sound spectrogram. Breath sound parameters, the frequency limiting 50% and 99% of the power spectrum (F 50 and F 99 ), the roll-off from 600 to 1200 Hz (Slope) and spectrum curve indices, the ratio of the third and fourth area to the total area of the power spectrum (P 3 /P T and P 4 /P T ) and the ratio of power and frequency at 50% and 75% of the highest frequency of the power spectrum (RPF 75 and RPF 50 ) were calculated before and after β 2 agonist inhalation. A spirogram and/or forced oscillation technique were performed in all subjects. On a sound spectrogram, wheezing was confirmed in seven of nine patients. All wheezing on the image was polyphonic, and they almost disappeared after β 2 agonist inhalation. An analysis of the breath sound spectrum showed that P T , P 3 /P T , P 4 /P T , RPF 50 and RPF 75 were significantly increased after β 2 agonist inhalation. Children with CVA showed a high rate of inaudible wheezing that disappeared after β 2 agonist inhalation. Changes in the spectrum curve indices also indicated the bronchial reversibility. These results may suggest the characteristics of CVA in children. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of artificially induced cough in man by bronchodilators.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R; Higenbottam, T; Johnson, T; Godden, D

    1987-01-01

    1. The antitussive properties of bronchodilators were evaluated in a total of 47 normal volunteers. 2. Cough was induced by inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized solutions of distilled water and hypotonic saline. 3. Inhaled fenoterol hydrobromide (360 micrograms; 20 volunteers) and inhaled ipratropium bromide (72 micrograms; 14 volunteers) both significantly reduced couch compared with placebo (P less than 0.01). Oral salbutamol sulphate (4 mg; 11 volunteers) and oral pirenzepine hydrochloride (50 mg; 14 volunteers) had lesser effects. 4. Cough inhibition correlated with a small but statistically significant degree of bronchodilatation as measured by specific airway conductance (sGaw) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in six normal subjects studied with each treatment in a placebo controlled, double blind study (r = 0.67, P less than 0.001). 5. Small reductions in airway tone are associated with a reduced cough response elicited by inhaled ultrasonically nebulized distilled water. PMID:3689630

  5. Use of honey associated with Ananas comosus (Bromelin) in the treatment of acute irritative cough.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Décio Medeiros; Rizzo, José Angelo; Schor, Deborah; Silva, Almerinda Rêgo; Oliveira, Dinaldo Cavalcanti de; Solé, Dirceu; Sarinho, Emanuel

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the immediate improvement rate of irritative cough in patients treated with the combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin ® ) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). Pragmatic, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study with children aged between 2 and 15 years, with irritative cough for at least 24hours. The double-blind assessment of cough was through the number of observed coughing episodes and intensity score for a period of 10minutes of observation. The decrease of one point in the mean total score was considered as a therapeutic effect. There was a reduction in coughing episodes in both groups, as well as in the cough score after 30minutes of drug or honey administration. The change in clinical score above two points, which could indicate marked improvement, occurred in five patients in the bromelin group and only in one in the placebo group, but without significant difference. There were no adverse events. The immediate improvement rate of irritative cough was similar in patients treated with combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin ® ) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). It is possible that honey has a therapeutic effect on mucus and cough characteristics (Clinical Trials: NCT01356693). Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets.

    PubMed

    Pantelic, J; Tham, K W; Licina, D

    2015-12-01

    The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal manikin at distances between 1 and 4 m. Cough droplet concentration was measured with an aerosol spectrometer in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone. Desktop personalized ventilation substantially reduced the inhalation intake fraction compared to mixing ventilation for all investigated distances and orientations of the cough release. The results point out that the orientation between the cough source and the breathing zone of the exposed occupant is an important factor that substantially influences exposure. Exposure to cough droplets was reduced with increasing distance between cough source and exposed occupant. The results from this study show that an advanced air distribution system such as personalized ventilation reduces exposure to cough-released droplets better than commonly applied overhead mixing ventilation. This work can inform HVAC engineers about different aspects of air distribution systems’ performance and can serve as an aid in making critical design decisions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Use of cough and cold preparations during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J L

    1999-12-01

    Adverse reactions in infants from maternal drug ingestion depend largely on the amount of milk consumed by the infant, timing of breastfeeding in relation to dosing, dose of the medication, dosing interval, and duration of therapy. When taking medications, breastfeeding mothers should be instructed to take their medication after breastfeeding, at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration. Overall, there are few data from human studies on the use of antihistamines, decongestants, and cough products during breastfeeding. Studies of pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and loratadine in humans conclude that low levels of each drug would reach a breastfed infant. Since triprolidine and pseudoephedrine are also considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, these 2 drugs should be the first-line choices. Codeine is considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, and would be an acceptable choice for short-term use as a cough suppressant. It is important to note that many of the liquid cough and cold products contain alcohol. In addition, many of the combination products are a mixture of an antihistamine and a decongestant and may also contain aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or caffeine. It is preferable for nursing mothers to only take medications that are necessary and to avoid such combination products. The AAP considers alcohol, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and caffeine compatible with breastfeeding. Aspirin has been associated with significant negative effects on some nursing infants, and the AAP recommends giving aspirin to nursing mothers with caution. Mothers taking cough and cold products should watch for adverse events in their breastfed infants. Infants may experience paradoxical central nervous stimulation from antihistamines and irritability and insomnia from decongestants.

  8. Forced expiratory technique, directed cough, and autogenic drainage.

    PubMed

    Fink, James B

    2007-09-01

    In health, secretions produced in the respiratory tract are cleared by mucociliary transport, cephalad airflow bias, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce secretion clearance, leading to increased risk of infection. In obstructive lung disease these conditions are further complicated by early collapse of airways, due to airway compression, which traps both gas and secretions. Techniques have been developed to optimize expiratory flow and promote airway clearance. Directed cough, forced expiratory technique, active cycle of breathing, and autogenic drainage are all more effective than placebo and comparable in therapeutic effects to postural drainage; they require no special equipment or care-provider assistance for routine use. Researchers have suggested that standard chest physical therapy with active cycle of breathing and forced expiratory technique is more effective than chest physical therapy alone. Evidence-based reviews have suggested that, though successful adoption of techniques such as autogenic drainage may require greater control and training, patients with long-term secretion management problems should be taught as many of these techniques as they can master for adoption in their therapeutic routines.

  9. A Cough-Based Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious respiratory disease which mainly affects young children and can be fatal if left untreated. The World Health Organization estimates 16 million pertussis cases annually worldwide resulting in over 200,000 deaths. It is prevalent mainly in developing countries where it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of healthcare facilities and medical professionals. Hence, a low-cost, quick and easily accessible solution is needed to provide pertussis diagnosis in such areas to contain an outbreak. In this paper we present an algorithm for automated diagnosis of pertussis using audio signals by analyzing cough and whoop sounds. The algorithm consists of three main blocks to perform automatic cough detection, cough classification and whooping sound detection. Each of these extract relevant features from the audio signal and subsequently classify them using a logistic regression model. The output from these blocks is collated to provide a pertussis likelihood diagnosis. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using audio recordings from 38 patients. The algorithm is able to diagnose all pertussis successfully from all audio recordings without any false diagnosis. It can also automatically detect individual cough sounds with 92% accuracy and PPV of 97%. The low complexity of the proposed algorithm coupled with its high accuracy demonstrates that it can be readily deployed using smartphones and can be extremely useful for quick identification or early screening of pertussis and for infection outbreaks control.

  10. A Cough-Based Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious respiratory disease which mainly affects young children and can be fatal if left untreated. The World Health Organization estimates 16 million pertussis cases annually worldwide resulting in over 200,000 deaths. It is prevalent mainly in developing countries where it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of healthcare facilities and medical professionals. Hence, a low-cost, quick and easily accessible solution is needed to provide pertussis diagnosis in such areas to contain an outbreak. In this paper we present an algorithm for automated diagnosis of pertussis using audio signals by analyzing cough and whoop sounds. The algorithm consists of three main blocks to perform automatic cough detection, cough classification and whooping sound detection. Each of these extract relevant features from the audio signal and subsequently classify them using a logistic regression model. The output from these blocks is collated to provide a pertussis likelihood diagnosis. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using audio recordings from 38 patients. The algorithm is able to diagnose all pertussis successfully from all audio recordings without any false diagnosis. It can also automatically detect individual cough sounds with 92% accuracy and PPV of 97%. The low complexity of the proposed algorithm coupled with its high accuracy demonstrates that it can be readily deployed using smartphones and can be extremely useful for quick identification or early screening of pertussis and for infection outbreaks control. PMID:27583523

  11. Comparison of Two Methods for Inducing Reflex Cough in Patients With Parkinson's Disease, With and Without Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Hegland, Karen W; Troche, Michelle S; Brandimore, Alexandra; Okun, Michael S; Davenport, Paul W

    2016-02-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysfunctional swallowing occurs in the majority of people with PD, and research has shown that cough function is also impaired. Previous studies suggest that testing reflex cough by having participants inhale a cough-inducing stimulus through a nebulizer may be a reliable indicator of swallowing dysfunction, or dysphagia. The primary goal of this study was to determine the cough response to two different cough-inducing stimuli in people with and without PD. The second goal of this study was to compare the cough response to the two different stimuli in people with PD, with and without swallowing dysfunction. Seventy adults (49 healthy and 21 with PD) participated in the study. Aerosolized water (fog) and 200 μM capsaicin were used to induce cough. Each substance was placed in a small, hand-held nebulizer, and presented to the participant. Each cough stimulus was presented three times. The total number of coughs produced to each stimulus trial was recorded. All participants coughed more to capsaicin versus fog (p < 0.001). A categorical 'responder' and 'non-responder' variable for the fog stimulus, defined as whether or not the participant coughed at least two times to two of three presentations of the stimulus, yields sensitivity of 77.8 % and a specificity of 90.9 % for identifying PD participants with and without dysphagia. The data show a differential response of the PD participants to the capsaicin versus fog stimuli. Clinically, this finding may allow for earlier identification of people with PD who are in need of a swallowing evaluation. As well, there are implications for the neural control of cough in this patient population.

  12. An acute cough-specific quality-of-life questionnaire for children: Development and validation.

    PubMed

    Anderson-James, Sophie; Newcombe, Peter A; Marchant, Julie M; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Acworth, Jason P; Stone, D Grant; Turner, Catherine T; Chang, Anne B

    2015-05-01

    Patient-relevant outcome measures are essential for high-quality clinical research, and quality-of-life (QoL) tools are the current standard. Currently, there is no validated children's acute cough-specific QoL questionnaire. The objective of this study was to develop and validate the Parent-proxy Children's Acute Cough-specific QoL Questionnaire (PAC-QoL). Using focus groups, a 48-item PAC-QoL questionnaire was developed and later reduced to 16 items by using the clinical impact method. Parents of children with a current acute cough (<2 weeks) at enrollment completed 2 validated cough score measures, the preliminary 48-item PAC-QoL, and 3 other questionnaires (the State Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI], the Short-Form 8-item 24-hour recall Health Survey [SF-8], and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress 21-item Scale [DASS21]). All measures were repeated on days 3 and 14. The median age of the 155 children enrolled was 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.3-4.6). Median cough duration at enrollment was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-5). The reduced 16-item scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.95). Evidence for repeatability and criterion validity was shown by significant correlations between the domains and total PAC-QoL scores and the SF-8 (r = -0.36 and -0.51), STAI (r = -0.27 and -0.39), and DASS21 (r = -0.32 and -0.41) scales on days 0 and 3, respectively. The final PAC-QoL questionnaire was sensitive to change over time, with changes significantly relating to changes in cough score measures (P < .001). The 16-item PAC-QoL is a reliable and valid outcome measure that assesses QoL related to childhood acute cough at a given time point and reflects changes in acute cough-specific QoL over time. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Assessment of Cough in a Sarcoidosis Clinic Using a Validated instrument and a Visual Analog Scale.

    PubMed

    Judson, Marc A; Chopra, Amit; Conuel, Edward; Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Schafer, Christopher; Austin, Adam; Zhang, Robert; Cao, Kerry; Berry, Rani; Khan, Malik M H S; Modi, Aakash; Modi, Ritu; Jou, Stephanie; Ilyas, Furqan; Yucel, Recai M

    2017-10-01

    Cough is a common symptom of