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  1. Hyperammonemic syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Fenves, Andrew Z; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Mehta, Ankit

    2015-04-01

    Hyperammonemic encephalopathy is an uncommon but severe complication of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for obesity. Mechanisms underlying this complication are incompletely understood, resulting in delayed recognition and management. This study evaluated common laboratory findings and possible etiology of hyperammonemic encephalopathy after successful Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. A retrospective review of 20 patients identified through our own clinical practice was conducted, with the addition of similar cases from other institutions identified through the review of literature. Patients presenting with hyperammonemic encephalopathy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery presented with overlapping clinical and laboratory findings. Common features included: (1) weight loss following successful Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for obesity; (2) hyperammonemic encephalopathy accompanied by elevated plasma glutamine levels; (3) absence of cirrhosis; (4) hypoalbuminemia; and (5) low plasma zinc levels. The mortality rate was 50%. Ninety-five percent of patients were women. Three patients were diagnosed with proximal urea cycle disorders. One patient experienced improvement in the hyperammonemia after surgical correction of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is a newly recognized, potentially fatal syndrome with diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms encompassing genetic and nongenetic causes. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Abdominal Pain After Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mala, Tom; Høgestøl, Ingvild

    2018-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is widely used as treatment of morbid obesity. Weight loss, effects on obesity-related co-morbidities and quality of life are well documented post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Other outcome measures are less well studied. This review explores aspects of prevalence, diagnostic evaluations, etiology, and treatment of abdominal pain specific to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The review is based on PubMed searches and clinical experience with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Symptoms in the early postoperative phase (<30 days) were not included. Based on limited evidence, up to about 30% of the patients may perceive recurrent abdominal pain post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the long term. A substantial subset of patients will need health-care evaluation for acute abdominal pain and hospital admission. The etiology of abdominal pain is heterogeneous and includes gallstone-related disease, intestinal obstruction, anastomotic ulcerations and strictures, intestinal dysmotility, dysfunctional eating, and food intolerance. Surgical treatment and guidance on diet and eating habits may allow symptom relief. The cause of pain remains undefined for a subset of patients. Impact of abdominal pain post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the perception of well-being, quality of life, and patient satisfaction with the procedure needs to be further evaluated and may be influenced by complex interactions between new symptoms post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and relief of pre-existing symptoms. Abdominal pain should be part of follow-up consultations post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Future studies should focus on combined evaluations before and after surgery to enlighten potential casual relationships between abdominal pain and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  3. Elevated fasting and postprandial C-terminal telopeptide after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodi, Negar; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Cross, Gemma F; Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Docherty, Neil G; Olbers, Torsten; Dew, Tracy; Sherwood, Roy A; Vincent, Royce P; le Roux, Carel W

    2017-07-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases circulating bile acid concentrations, known mediators of postprandial suppression of markers of bone resorption. Long-term data, however, indicate that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass confers an increased risk of bone loss on recipients. Methods Thirty-six obese individuals, median age 44 (26-64) with median body mass index at baseline of 42.5 (40.4-46) were studied before and 15 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. After an overnight fast, patients received a 400 kcal mixed meal. Blood samples were collected premeal then at 30-min periods for 120 min. Pre and postmeal samples were analysed for total bile acids, parathyroid hormone and C-terminal telopeptide. Results Body weight loss post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was associated with a median 4.9-fold increase in peak postprandial total bile acid concentration, and a median 2.4-fold increase in cumulative food evoked bile acid response. Median fasting parathyroid hormone, postprandial reduction in parathyroid hormone and total parathyroid hormone release over 120 min remained unchanged after surgery. After surgery, median fasting C-terminal telopeptide increased 2.3-fold, peak postprandial concentrations increased 3.8-fold and total release was increased 1.9-fold. Conclusions Fasting and postprandial total bile acids and C-terminal telopeptide are increased above reference range after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These changes occur in spite of improved vitamin D status with supplementation. These results suggest that post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases in total bile acids do not effectively oppose an ongoing resorptive signal operative along the gut-bone axis. Serial measurement of C-terminal telopeptide may be of value as a risk marker for long-term skeletal pathology in patients post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  4. Roux limb volvulus in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass due to Roux limb stabilization suture: case series.

    PubMed

    Marr, Brendan; Yenumula, Panduranga

    2012-01-01

    Complications after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery may be related to the type of surgical technique employed. One technique, the placement of a Roux limb stabilization suture, presumably prevents kink at the gastrojejunal anastomosis. However, it can have an adverse effect and we studied a series of cases presenting with intestinal obstruction secondary to this stitch. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass cases who had reoperations for Roux limb volvulus was performed at a single bariatric center by a single surgeon. Out of 199 patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass with placement of Roux limb stabilization suture, 4 patients (2.01%) presented with Roux limb volvulus postoperatively. BMI was 45.35 ± 2.95. The postoperative time to presentation was 11 ± 10.6 months. All four patients required surgical exploration to reduce the volvulus. In all cases, the Roux limb volvulus was directly attributable to the presence of the stabilization suture. In subsequent 250 cases where this suture was eliminated, there was no volvulus of Roux limb seen. The use of a stabilization suture can result in volvulus of the Roux limb causing intestinal obstruction and this complication can be prevented by avoiding this suture.

  5. The effect of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Saber, Alan A; Boros, Michael J; Mancl, Tara; Elgamal, Mohamed H; Song, Susrap; Wisadrattanapong, Therawat

    2008-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic debilitating disorder affecting 3-5% of the US population. Treatment of this disorder is a challenge. The incidental finding of improvement of fibromyalgia following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass stimulated us to study this phenomenon. A retrospective chart review of patients with fibromyalgia who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Postoperative decrease in median of BMI from 49.4 to 29.7 was significant (p value = 0.0010). This was associated with statistically significant improvement in median of pain score (p value = 0.0010) and median points of tenderness (p value = 0.0010). Significant weight loss following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with resolution or improvement of fibromyalgia. Consequently, the bariatric surgeon should be a member of the multidisciplinary team approach for treating fibromyalgia.

  6. Gastric bypass: why Roux-en-Y? A review of experimental data.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brendan J; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Schweitzer, Michael; Magnuson, Thomas; Harmon, John W

    2007-10-01

    To highlight the clinical and experimental rationales that support why the Roux-en-Y limb is an important surgical principle for bariatric gastric bypass. We reviewed PubMed citations for open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), laparoscopic RYGBP, loop gastric bypass, chronic alkaline reflux gastritis, and duodenoesophageal reflux. We reviewed clinical and experimental articles. Clinical articles included prospective, retrospective, and case series of patients undergoing RYGBP, laparoscopic RYGBP, or loop gastric bypass. Experimental articles that were reviewed included in vivo and in vitro models of chronic duodenoesophageal reflux and its effect on carcinogenesis. No formal data extraction was performed. We reviewed published operative times, lengths of stay, and anastomotic leak rates for laparoscopic RYGBP and loop gastric bypass. For in vivo and in vitro experimental models of duodenoesophageal reflux, we reviewed the kinetics and potential molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Recent data suggest that laparoscopic loop gastric bypass, performed without the creation of a Roux-en-Y gastroenterostomy, is a faster surgical technique that confers similarly robust weight loss compared with RYGBP or laparoscopic RYGBP. In the absence of a Roux limb, the long-term effects of chronic alkaline reflux are unknown. Animal models and in vitro analyses of chronic alkaline reflux suggest a carcinogenic effect.

  7. Three trocar laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass: a novel technique en route to the single-incision laparoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Saber, Alan A; Elgamal, Mohamed H; El-Ghazaly, Tarek H; Elian, Alain R; Dewoolkar, Aditya V; Akl, Abir Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold standard bariatric procedure. Typically, the procedure necessitates five to seven small skin incisions for trocar placement. The senior author (AA Saber) has developed a three-trocar approach for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Sixteen patients underwent triple-incision laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between May 2009 and August 2009. The same surgeon performed all surgical interventions. The umbilicus was the main point of entry for all patients and the same operative technique and perioperative protocol were used in all patients. A total of sixteen triple-incision laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses were performed. The procedures were successfully performed in all patients. Mean operating time was 145.4 min. None of the patients required conversion to an open procedure. There were no mortalities or post-operative technical complications noted during the immediate post-operative period. Three trocar laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is safe, technically feasible and reproducible. This technique may be considered a "precursor" to single-incision laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Copyright 2009 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laparoscopic Conversion of One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass to a Standard Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Amor, Imed Ben; Petrucciani, Niccolo; Kassir, Radwan; Al Munifi, Abdullah; Piche, Thierry; Debs, Tarek; Gugenheim, Jean

    2017-05-01

    One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) demonstrated results similar to traditional Roux-en-Y procedures [1-3], in terms of weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. The main controversy regarding OAGB is the concern for an association between biliary alkaline gastritis and esophageal or gastric cancer raised by some studies [4]. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman with a BMI of 41 kg/m2 who underwent a laparoscopic OAGB in 2014. One year later, she consulted for recurrent heartburns. An upper GI endoscopy showed pouchitis and bile reflux in the esophagus. Medical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was ineffective. We decided to convert the OAGB to a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). In this video, we show how to revise an OAGB to treat chronic bile reflux, by converting the procedure to a standard RYGB. The intervention starts by restoring the normal anatomy of the small bowel, with the resection of the gastrojejunal anastomosis, which was located at 250-cm du Treitz's ligament. Then, the gastric pouch is created. A standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is performed. The resection of the gastrojejunal anastomosis allows fashioning the Roux-en-Y limb with the classical measures. This technique allows a conversion to a standard RYGB and is effective in treating the biliary reflux.

  9. Outcomes of Mini vs Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Gang; Yan, Wen-Mao; Yan, Ming; Song, Mao-Min

    2018-05-10

    Mini gastric bypass has been proved to be capable of achieving excellent metabolic results by numerous published studies. Compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, mini gastric bypass is a technically simpler and reversible procedure. However, comparative outcomes of the effectiveness between Mini gastric bypass and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass remain unclear. A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library from inception to February 9, 2018. For assessment of method quality, NOS (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) and Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias were used for cohort study and randomized controlled trials, respectively. The meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software. 10 cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled trial was included in our meta-analysis. The method quality of the 10 cohort studies was proved as high quality according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The randomized controlled trial was proved to have a low risk of bias according to Cochrane Collaboration's assessment. Patients receiving mini-gastric bypass had multiple advantageous indexes as compared with patients receiving Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Examples include: a higher 1-year EWL% (P < 0.05), higher 2-year EWL% (P < 0.05), higher type 2 diabetes mellitus remission rate, as well as a shorter operation time (P < 0.05). No significant statistical difference was observed in hypertension remission rate, mortality, leakage rate, GERD rate, or hospital stay between mini gastric bypass and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Mini gastric bypass seems to be a simpler procedure with a better weight reduction effect. This seems to also be the case regarding remission rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus when using Mini gastric bypass in comparison to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A small sample size and biased data may have influenced the stability of our results. In light of this, surgeons should treat our results in a conservative way. Larger sample size and

  10. To Roux or not to Roux: a comparison between Roux-en-Y and Billroth II reconstruction following partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Worhunsky, David J; Squires, Malcolm H; Jin, Linda X; Spolverato, Gaya; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Cho, Clifford S; Weber, Sharon M; Schmidt, Carl; Levine, Edward A; Bloomston, Mark; Fields, Ryan C; Pawlik, Timothy M; Maithel, Shishir K; Norton, Jeffrey A; Poultsides, George A

    2016-07-01

    Although the extent of resection frequently dictates the method of reconstruction following distal subtotal gastrectomy, it is unclear whether Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy compared with Billroth II gastrojejunostomy is associated with superior perioperative outcomes. Patients who underwent resection for gastric cancer with Roux-en-Y or Billroth II reconstruction between 2000 and 2012 in seven academic institutions (US Gastric Cancer Collaborative) were identified. Patients who underwent total gastrectomy, gastric wedge, or palliative resections (metastatic disease or R2 resections) were excluded. Of a total of 965 patients, 447 met the inclusion criteria. A comparison between the Roux-en-Y (n = 257) and Billroth II (n = 190) groups demonstrated no differences in patient and tumor characteristics, except for Billroth II patients having a higher proportion of antral tumors (71 % vs. 50 %, p < 0.001). Roux-en-Y operations were slightly longer (244 min vs. 212 min, p < 0.001) and associated with somewhat higher blood loss (243 ml vs. 205 ml, p = 0.033). However, there were no significant differences in the length of hospital stay (8 days vs. 7 days), readmission rate (17 % vs. 18 %), 90-day mortality (5.1 % vs. 4.7 %), incidence (39 % vs. 41 %) and severity of complications, dependency on jejunostomy tube feeding at discharge (13 % vs. 12 %), same-patient decrease in serum albumin level from the preoperative to the postoperative value at 30, 60, and 90 days, receipt of adjuvant therapy (50 % vs. 53 %), or 5-year survival (44 % vs. 41 %). Although long-term quality-of-life parameters were not compared, this study did not show an advantage of Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy over Billroth II gastrojejunostomy in short-term perioperative outcomes. Both techniques should be regarded as equally acceptable reconstructive options following partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

  11. Nutrient deficiency and obstetrical outcomes in pregnant women following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A retrospective Danish cohort study with a matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hammeken, Lianna Hede; Betsagoo, Ramsina; Jensen, Ann Nygaard; Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2017-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and small-for-gestational-age births are known to be associated although the etiology is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate pregnancy outcomes and maternal nutritional status among pregnant women with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using maternal anemia and gestational weight gain as indicators of micronutrient and macronutrient deficiency in pregnancy. The study was designed as a retrospective matched cohort study. All Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated pregnant women (n=151) who were followed in the outpatient obstetric clinic at Aalborg University Hospital in Denmark and gave birth between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 were included. Each Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated woman was closely matched with a non-Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated woman. Primary outcomes were small-for-gestational-age birth, maternal anemia and gestational weight gain. The two groups (matched 1:1) were compared by paired tests on all measures, conditional logistic regression for paired binary data and the paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired continuous data. The risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (odds ratio (OR)=2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.04-6.82) and maternal anemia (OR=3.0, 95% CI; 1.09-8.25) were significantly increased for the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group compared to the non-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group. No significant difference was found in gestational weight gain (p=0.169) between women with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (11.51kg±8.97 standard deviation (SD)) and non- Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated women (12.18kg±6.28 SD). A history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery increases the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and anemia, while a finding of differences in gestational weight gain is uncorroborated. Our findings suggest a role of micronutrient deficiency rather than reduced gestational weight gain in the etiology of small-for-gestational-age birth among

  12. [Comparative effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures preserving different gastric volume on blood glucose in Goto-Kakizaki rats].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong-dong; Jiao, Ya-bin; Wang, Yi-bo; Wang, Chang; Liu, Bin; Wang, Yu; Huang, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP)procedures preserving different gastric volume on blood glucose of rats with non-obese type 2 diabetes. A total of 36 Goto-Kakizaki rats randomly underwent one of the following procedures: gastric bypass with different types of anastomosis including the Roux-en-Y of total stomach excision(n=12), the Roux-en-Y of partial stomach excision(n=12) and the Roux-en-Y of stomach preservation(n=12). Rats were observed for 24 weeks after surgery. Body weight, food intake and fasting blood glucose level were tested at 0(preoperative), 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 weeks. Hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) level was measured at 0, 12, 24 weeks and glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in conscious rats before (baseline) and then 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Change of blood glucose over time was depicted. Area under curve(AUC) of glucose tolerance were calculated. Compared with preoperative levels, the weight and food intake of all the rats were significantly decreased at 1 week after surgery(P<0.01). At 3 weeks after operation, the weight and food intake were significantly increased compared with 1 week after operation in the Roux-en-Y of partial stomach excision and the Roux-en-Y of stomach retention(P<0.01). In the Roux-en-Y of total stomach excision, the weight and food intake were significantly lower compared with other two groups(P<0.05). At 24 weeks after operation, the levels of fasting blood glucose were (7.3 ± 1.5), (7.5 ± 2.0) and (8.3 ± 1.3) mmol/L, which were lower than the preoperative levels [(13.2 ± 1.6), (13.6 ± 2.5) and (12.9 ± 2.0) mmol/L, P<0.01] in the three groups. There were no significant differences among the three groups(P>0.05). At 24 weeks after operation, the HbA1c levels were(6.3 ± 1.3)%, (6.4 ± 2.0)% and (7.0 ± 1.3)%, which were lower than the preoperative level[(10.2 ± 2.6)%, (9.6 ± 2.5) and (9.9 ± 2.0)%, P<0.01]. There were no significant differences among the three groups(P>0.05). The trend of

  13. Linitis plastica of the bypassed stomach 7 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haenen, Filip Wn; Gys, Ben; Moreels, Tom; Michielsen, Maartje; Gys, Tobie; Lafullarde, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is currently the preferred surgical procedure to treat morbid obesity. It has proven its effects on excess weight loss and its positive effect on comorbidities. One of the main issues, however, is the post-operative evaluation of the bypassed gastric remnant. In literature, cancer of the excluded stomach after RYGB is rare. We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with gastric linitis plastica in the bypassed stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, diagnosed by means of laparoscopy and Single-Balloon enteroscopy, and it is clinical importance. Linitis plastica of the excluded stomach after RYGB is a very rare entity. This case report shows the importance of long-term post-operative follow-up, and the importance of single-balloon enteroscopy for visualization of the bypassed stomach remnant, when other investigations remain without results. This case report is only the second report of a linitis plastica in the bypassed stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  14. Laparoscopic Conversion of One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Chronic Bile Reflux.

    PubMed

    Facchiano, Enrico; Leuratti, Luca; Veltri, Marco; Lucchese, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) demonstrated similar results to traditional Roux-en-Y procedures. A possible concern is how to manage a chronic bile reflux when medical therapy results ineffective. Revision of the gastro-jejunal anastomosis, obtaining a Roux-en-Y reconstruction, has already been proposed, but technical details have not been elucidated yet. This video shows how to revise a 200-cm OAGB to treat chronic bile reflux, by converting the procedure to Roux-en-Y, having a short gastric pouch and a long efferent limb. A 51-year-old patient complained of recurrent heartburns 2 months after OAGB. A gastroscopy witnessed the presence of a 6-cm long gastric pouch with pouchitis and bile reflux in esophagus. Specific medications were ineffective. He underwent a revisional laparoscopic procedure. The efferent limb was measured and consisted of 650 cm. The afferent limb was then divided next to the previous gastro-jejunal anastomosis and a jejuno-jejunal anastomosis was performed distally at 70 cm on the alimentary limb. Total operative time was 50 min. The postoperative stay was uneventful and the patient was discharged in postoperative day four. At 6 months follow-up he is still free of medications without symptoms. The ideal scenario for the presented technique is the finding of a long efferent limb, in order to fashion a Roux-en-Y limb without the risk of postoperative malabsorption. To reach this goal, we suggest the measurement of the whole small bowel intra-operatively, in order to assess the length of the common channel left in place.

  15. Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy vs Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Weight Loss in Patients With Morbid Obesity: The SM-BOSS Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Peterli, Ralph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina Karin; Peters, Thomas; Vetter, Diana; Kröll, Dino; Borbély, Yves; Schultes, Bernd; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Jürgen; Schiesser, Marc; Nett, Philipp; Bueter, Marco

    2018-01-16

    Sleeve gastrectomy is increasingly used in the treatment of morbid obesity, but its long-term outcome vs the standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure is unknown. To determine whether there are differences between sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in terms of weight loss, changes in comorbidities, increase in quality of life, and adverse events. The Swiss Multicenter Bypass or Sleeve Study (SM-BOSS), a 2-group randomized trial, was conducted from January 2007 until November 2011 (last follow-up in March 2017). Of 3971 morbidly obese patients evaluated for bariatric surgery at 4 Swiss bariatric centers, 217 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a 5-year follow-up period. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (n = 107) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 110). The primary end point was weight loss, expressed as percentage excess body mass index (BMI) loss. Exploratory end points were changes in comorbidities and adverse events. Among the 217 patients (mean age, 45.5 years; 72% women; mean BMI, 43.9) 205 (94.5%) completed the trial. Excess BMI loss was not significantly different at 5 years: for sleeve gastrectomy, 61.1%, vs Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 68.3% (absolute difference, -7.18%; 95% CI, -14.30% to -0.06%; P = .22 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). Gastric reflux remission was observed more frequently after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (60.4%) than after sleeve gastrectomy (25.0%). Gastric reflux worsened (more symptoms or increase in therapy) more often after sleeve gastrectomy (31.8%) than after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (6.3%). The number of patients with reoperations or interventions was 16/101 (15.8%) after sleeve gastrectomy and 23/104 (22.1%) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Among patients with morbid obesity, there was no significant difference in excess BMI loss between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y

  16. Omentectomy added to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Troy H; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Smith, Mark D; Raum, William; Hong, Dennis; Laut, Jamie; Patterson, Emma J

    2013-01-01

    Excess visceral adipose tissue predicts for incipient diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Human data are mixed regarding the benefits of selective visceral adipose tissue reduction. We investigated the effects of omentectomy added to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose homeostasis and lipids, inflammatory markers, and adipokines 90 days postoperatively in nondiabetic patients at the Legacy Good Samaritan Hospital and Oregon Health and Science University (Portland, OR). A single-blind, randomized study of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass plus omentectomy versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone in 28 subjects (7 men and 21 women). The groups were matched at baseline for gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). The eligibility criteria included age ≥18 years, BMI ≥40 and <50 kg/m(2) without co-morbid conditions or BMI ≥35 and <50 kg/m(2) with co-morbid conditions. The primary outcome measures were changes in the fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. The secondary measures were BMI and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin, total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. After surgery, the BMI decreased significantly in both groups and was not different at the follow-up point. Although many outcome parameters improved with weight loss in both groups postoperatively, only the omentectomy group experienced statistically significant decreases in fasting glucose (P < .05), total (P = .004) and very-low-density lipoprotein (P = .001) cholesterol, and an increase in the high-molecular-weight/total adiponectin ratio (P = .013). Omentectomy added to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass results in favorable changes in glucose homeostasis, lipid levels, and adipokine profile at 90 days postoperatively. These data support the hypothesis that selective ablation of visceral adipose tissue

  17. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS IN ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    STOLL, Aluisio; ROSIN, Leandro; DIAS, Mariana Fernandes; MARQUIOTTI, Bruna; GUGELMIN, Giovana; STOLL, Gabriela Fanezzi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most common bariatric surgery and leads to considerable weight loss in the first months. Aim: To quantify the main early postoperative complications in patients submitted to the gastric bypass. Method: Observational retrospective cohort. Data of 1051 patients with class II obesity associated with comorbidities or class III obesity submitted to the gastric bypass with 30 days of follow-up starting from the date of the surgery. Results: The age average was 36 years with a predominance of females (81.1%). The mean preoperative body mass index was 43 kg/m². The major complication was fistula (2.3%), followed by intestinal obstruction (0.5%) and pulmonary embolism (0.5%). Death occurred in 0.6% of the cases. Conclusion: In the period of 30 days after surgery the overall complication rate was 3.8%; reoperation was necessary in 2.6% and death occurred in 0.6%. Fistula was the main complication and the leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit, reoperation and death. PMID:27683781

  18. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass augments the feeding responses evoked by gastrin releasing peptides

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Martha C.; Mhalhal, Thaer R.; Berger, Tanisha Johnson-Rouse Jose; Heath, John; Seeley, Randy; Sayegh, Ayman I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective method for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may reduce body weight by altering the feeding responses evoked by the short term satiety peptides. Materials and Methods Here, we measured meal size (MS, chow), intermeal interval (IMI) length and satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS; food consumed per a unit of time) by the small and the large forms of gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) in rats, GRP-10 and GRP-29 (0, 0.1, 0.5 nmol/kg) infused in the celiac artery (CA, supplies stomach and upper duodenum) and the cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, supplies small and large intestine) in a RYGB rat model. Results GRP-10 reduced MS, prolonged the IMI and increased the SR only in the RYGB group, whereas GRP-29 evoked these responses by both routes and in both groups. Conclusion The RYGB procedure augments the feeding responses evoked by exogenous GRP, possibly by decreasing total food intake, increasing latency to the first meal, decreasing number of meals or altering the sites of action regulating MS and IMI length by the two peptides. PMID:27884350

  19. Manometry of the Upper Gut Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Indicates That the Gastric Pouch and Roux Limb Act as a Common Cavity.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Per; Lönroth, Hans; Fändriks, Lars

    2015-10-01

    The motility of the upper gut after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is underexplored. We aimed to investigate the oesophago-gastro-Roux limb motor activity during fasting and after food intake. Eighteen morbidly obese patients were examined at least 2 years after RYGBP. A high-resolution manometry catheter was positioned to straddle the oesophagogastric junction, the gastric pouch and the proximal Roux limb using transmucosal potential difference measurements. Three patients with vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) were also studied. During the fasting state, the gastric pouch had low or no activity whereas the Roux limb exhibited regular migrating motility complexes (MMCs) being initiated just distal to gastroenteroanastomosis. Median cycle duration was 72 min, and the median propagating velocity of the phase III MMC phase was 2.7 cm/min (n = 8). When patients were asked to eat until they felt comfortably full, intraluminal pressure increased by 6 to 8 cmH₂O without any significant difference between gastric pouch and the Roux limb (n = 9). The increased intraluminal pressure following food intake correlated neither to weight loss nor to meal size or rate of eating. A successful RYGBP is associated with MMC in the Roux limb during fasting. The gastric pouch and the Roux limb behaved as a common cavity during food ingestion. Data do not support the hypothesis that the alimentary limb pressure in response to food intake influences either meal size or weight loss.

  20. Nutrient re-routing and altered gut-islet cell crosstalk may explain early relief of severe postprandial hypoglycaemia after reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Svane, M S; Toft-Nielsen, M B; Kristiansen, V B; Hartmann, B; Holst, J J; Madsbad, S; Bojsen-Møller, K N

    2017-12-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with an increased risk of postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, but the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore examined the effect of re-routing of nutrient delivery on gut-islet cell crosstalk in a person with severe postprandial hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A person with severe postprandial hypoglycaemia, who underwent surgical reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, was studied before reversal and at 2 weeks and 3 months after reversal surgery using liquid mixed meal tests and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps. The nadir of postprandial plasma glucose rose from 2.8 mmol/l to 4.1 mmol/l at 2 weeks and to 4.4 mmol/l at 3 months after reversal. Concomitant insulin- and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion (peak concentrations and area under the curve) clearly decreased after reversal, while concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and ghrelin increased. Insulin clearance declined after reversal, whereas clamp-estimated peripheral insulin sensitivity was unchanged. The person remained without symptoms of hypoglycaemia, but had experienced significant weight gain at 15-month follow-up. Accelerated nutrient absorption may be a driving force behind postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Re-routing of nutrients by reversal of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass diminished postprandial plasma glucose excursions, alleviated postprandial insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 hypersecretion and eliminated postprandial hypoglycaemia, which emphasizes the importance of altered gut-islet cell crosstalk for glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms, motility, and transit after the Roux-en-Y operation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Perino, L.E.; Adcock, K.A.; Goff, J.S.

    1988-04-01

    Roux-en-Y patients have symptoms that vary from almost none to inability to tolerate oral feedings. This study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between a patient's symptoms and the function of the gastric remnant or the Roux-limb. Gastric remnant and Roux-limb emptying were studied in eight patients with technetium-99m-labeled oatmeal and Roux-limb motor activity was measured with a water-perfused manometry system. We found that gastric emptying was rarely significantly slowed, but emptying of the Roux-limb was delayed in several patients. We also found that there was a rough correlation between the patient's symptoms and the degree ofmore » abnormal motility found in the Roux-limb. There is no known reason for these abnormalities in Roux-limb function in some patients after a Roux-en-Y, but our finding of worse abnormalities in those who had multiple previous gastric surgeries suggests that the symptoms and dysfunction may be related to the number of surgeries, as well as to the type of surgery.« less

  2. The gut hormone response following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: cross-sectional and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pournaras, Dimitrios J; Osborne, Alan; Hawkins, Simon C; Mahon, David; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Steve R; Welbourn, Richard; le Roux, Carel W

    2010-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment option for obesity, and gut hormones are implicated in the reduction of appetite and weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Although there is increasing interest in the gut hormone changes after gastric bypass, the long-term changes have not been fully elucidated. Thirty-four participants were studied cross-sectionally at four different time points, pre-operatively (n = 17) and 12 (n = 6), 18 (n = 5) and 24 months (n = 6) after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Another group of patients (n = 6) were studied prospectively (18-24 months). All participants were given a standard 400 kcal meal after a 12-h fast, and plasma levels of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were correlated with changes in appetite over 3 h using visual analogue scores. The post-operative groups at 12, 18 and 24 months had a higher post-prandial PYY response compared to pre-operative (p < 0.05). This finding was confirmed in the prospective study at 18 and 24 months. There was a trend for increasing GLP-1 response at 18 and 24 months, but this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.189) in the prospective study. Satiety was significantly reduced in the post-operative groups at 12, 18 and 24 months compared to pre-operative levels (p < 0.05). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass causes an enhanced gut hormone response and increased satiety following a meal. This response is sustained over a 24-month period and may partly explain why weight loss is maintained.

  3. Solo Single-Incision Laparoscopic Resectional Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, So Hyun; Lee, Yoontaek; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2017-12-01

    With the advancement of laparoscopic devices and surgical technology, the era of minimal invasive surgery has progressed to reduced-port surgery, and finally to single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Several reports show successful application of SILS to various types of bariatric surgery. Oftentimes, this requires a skilled and experienced scopist to perform the procedure. To overcome the technical difficulties of single-incision Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a manual scope holder was used instead of an assistant scopist, greatly stabilizing the field of view. This allows the surgery to be performed at any time without being influenced by the need of a highly experienced scopist. In this report, we describe in detail the world's first solo single-incision laparoscopic resectional Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  4. Bleeding duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: the value of laparoscopic gastroduodenoscopy.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hussain; Al-Saif, Osama; Al-Momen, Sami; Bseiso, Bahaa; Al-Salem, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a common surgical procedure used to treat patients with morbid obesity. One of the rare, but potentially fatal complications of gastric bypass is upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which can pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. This report describes a 39-year-old male with morbid obesity who underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Three months postoperatively, he sustained repeated and severe upper attacks of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. He received multiple blood transfusions, and had repeated upper and lower endoscopies with no diagnostic yield. Finally, he underwent laparoscopic endoscopy which revealed a bleeding duodenal ulcer. About 5 ml of saline with adrenaline was injected, followed by electrocoagulation to seal the overlying cleft and blood vessel. He was also treated with a course of a proton pump inhibitor and given treatment for H pylori eradication with no further attacks of bleeding. Taking in consideration the difficulties in accessing the bypassed stomach endoscopically, laparoscopic endoscopy is a feasible and valuable diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in patients who had gastric bypass.

  5. Routine postoperative upper gastrointestinal series after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: determination of whether it is necessary.

    PubMed

    Kolakowski, Stephen; Kirkland, Matt L; Schuricht, Alan L

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of the routine use of postoperative barium swallow to diagnose postoperative complications in patients undergoing open or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A total of 417 consecutive patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at our institution between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2002, were included. We performed 341 open procedures and 76 laparoscopic gastric bypasses. All patients received a limited postoperative fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal series, except for the patients who exceeded the weight limitation of the radiologic equipment. Radiologic findings of anastomotic complications were anastomotic leak, delayed gastric emptying, gastric outlet obstruction, and gastrogastric fistula. We evaluated clinical signs and symptoms to obtain a list of criteria suggesting these complications. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: those with and those without radiographic anastomotic complications. Clinical and radiologic criteria were compared using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We noted 42 radiologic abnormalities during a routine postoperative barium swallow evaluation. Among our 417 patients, we documented 12 leaks (2.9%), 19 cases of delayed gastric emptying (4.6%), 4 gastric outlet obstructions (1.0%), and 7 gastrogastric fistulas (1.7%). The combination of fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea was the most specific indicator of a leak, at 0.99 (95% confidence limit, 0.99, 1.01). Nausea with vomiting was the most predictive indicator of delayed gastric emptying and gastric outlet obstruction, with a specificity of 0.99 (95% confidence limit, 0.98, 0.99) and 0.97 (95% confidence limit, 0.96, 0.99), respectively. Postoperative complications after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are predictable based on the patient's symptoms. The use of routine postoperative fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal series is unnecessary in asymptomatic patients.

  6. A Retrospective Comparative Study of Primary Versus Revisional Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Dardamanis, Dimitrios; Navez, Julie; Coubeau, Laurent; Navez, Benoit

    2018-03-09

    To compare the perioperative parameters and excess weight loss between patients operated by laporoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), as a primary operation or a revisional, for insufficient weight loss after vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) or adjustable gastric banding (AGB). A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent a LRYGB was performed for the period 2004-2011. Demographics, preoperative body mass index (BMI), co-morbidities, operation time, conversion rate, perioperative complications, hospitalization period, and % of excess BMI loss (%EBMIL) were investigated and compared between groups. Three hundred forty-two laparoscopic gastric bypass operations were performed, 245 were primary, and 97 revisional. Median follow-up was 30 months (range 0-108 months). Mean BMI (kg/m 2 ) before bypass was 45.2 for primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (pLRYGB) and 41.1 for revisional laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (rLRYGB). Median operative time and length of stay were longer for rLRYGB 157.5 versus 235 min (p < 0.001) and 6 versus 6.5 days (p = 0.05). Conversion to laparotomy was performed in eight patients, 0.4% of primary and 7.2% of revisional. Morbidity rate was 6.5% in pLRYGB versus 10% in rLRYGB (NS). There was one death in the primary group. Percentage of EBMIL was significantly lower in the revisional group at 12, 18, and 24 months of follow-up. Revisional and primary gastric bypass have no statistical differences in terms of morbidity. The % of excess BMI loss is lower after revisional gastric bypass during the first 2 years of follow-up. The trend of weight loss or weight regain was similar in both groups.

  7. CLINICAL AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS IN OBESE WOMEN DURING THE FIRST YEAR AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    dos SANTOS, Tiago Dália; BURGOS, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo; de LEMOS, Maria da Conceição Chaves; CABRAL, Poliana Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinic care for morbid obesity is not very effective. Bariatric surgery is being considered the best way of intervention for this kind of obesity. Aim : Evaluate the clinical and nutritional evolution during the first year of obese women submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method : Retrospective series non-concurrent with 61 women. The variables were weight, BMI, weight loss percentage, loss of excessive weight percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference, lipid profile, daily use of supplements, practice of physical exercise, occurrence of sickness, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, asthenia, alopecia, dry skin, cramps and brittle nails. Results : They presented significant weight and IMC reduction as well as improvement in their lipid profile, in all consultations. After one year they presented 36,6% loss of the initial weight and 75% loss of excessive weight. The waist circumference also presented a considerable reduction on all the moments, decreasing from 122,1±13,4 cm to 94,1±10,6 cm. Regarding the intercurrences, the most frequent were alopecia, asthenia, dry skin and cramps. Conclusion : The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was effective in promoting and maintenance weight loss during the period of the first postoperative year. PMID:26537276

  8. Small-bowel volvulus in late pregnancy due to internal hernia after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Naef, Markus; Mouton, Wolfgang G; Wagner, Hans E

    2010-12-01

    Internal hernias are a specific cause of acute abdominal pain and are a well-known complication after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Although internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, they may evolve towards serious complications, such as extensive bowel ischemia and gangrene, with the need for bowel resection and sometimes for a challenging reconstruction of intestinal continuity. The antecolic position of the Roux limb is associated with a decrease in the incidence of small-bowel obstruction and internal hernias. The best prevention of the formation of these hernias is probably by closure of potential mesenteric defects at the initial operation with a non-absorbable running suture. We present a patient in late pregnancy with a small-bowel volvulus following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity and discuss the available literature. For a favorable obstetric and neonatal outcome, it is crucial not to delay surgical exploration and an emergency operation usually is mandatory.

  9. Uncut Roux-en-Y reconstruction after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuqin; Wang, Sen; Shi, Youquan; Tang, Dong; Wang, Wei; Chong, Yang; Zhou, Huaicheng; Xiong, Qingquan; Wang, Jie; Wang, Daorong

    2016-12-01

    Uncut Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy is a modification of the Billroth II procedure with Braun anastomosis, in which a jejunal occlusion is fashioned to avoid the Roux Stasis Syndrome. This review aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis operation, so that surgeons may be able to make informed decisions about its clinical application. Additionally, we hope that our findings will guide future research on this topic. Areas covered: The original uncut technique was associated with dehiscence or recanalization of the jejunal occlusion, and was therefore not widely applied. However, with recent improvements in the method of jejunal occlusion, the uncut Roux-en-Y reconstruction may be an appropriate alternative for digestive tract reconstruction after distal gastrectomy. This review summarizes the basic research on and clinical applications of uncut Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy from the following several aspects: origin of the uncut reconstruction technique, rationale for uncut reconstruction based on data from animal experiments, clinical results of the uncut reconstruction, recanalization and its countermeasures, and so on. Expert commentary: The uncut Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy is a controversial yet promising method of gastrointestinal reconstruction after distal gastrectomy. Prospective randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up outcomes are required to support the modified technique in the future.

  10. Transumbilical laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with hand-sewn gastrojejunal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, José Ignacio; Ovalle, Cristian; Farias, Carlos; de la Maza, Jaime; Cabrera, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Single-port laparoscopic surgery has undergone significant development over the past 5 years. Single port is used in various procedures, including bariatric surgery. The aim of this paper is to describe a surgical technique for gastric bypass with a transumbilical approach (transumbilical gastric bypass-TUGB) with hand-sewn gastrojejunostomy, in selected patients who may be benefited by a better cosmetic result. The procedure begins with a transumbilical vertical incision. We use the GelPOINT single-port device and a 5-mm assistant trocar in the left flank (in the first two cases, a 2-mm subxiphoid liver retractor was used). A gastric pouch is made and calibrated with a 36-Fr bougie. The gastrojejunal anastomosis is performed by hand-sewing in two layers. A Roux-en-Y with a biliary limb of 50 cm and an alimentary limb of 120 cm is performed with a stapler. Three women were subjected to TUGB. The women were aged 28, 31, and 42 years; they had body mass indexes of 40.3, 33, and 38.2; and the operating times were 150, 200, and 150 min, respectively. The first two women underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and the last woman underwent a RYGB with a resection of the stomach remnant. There were no conversions to open or multitrocar techniques. No complications or deaths occurred. The three patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. The technique described for TUGB is a feasible procedure for surgeons who have previous experience with the transumbilical approach.

  11. H. PYLORI INFECTION, ENDOSCOPIC, HISTOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND CELL PROLIFERATION IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA OF PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS WITH CONTENTION RING: a cross sectional endoscopic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Thiago De Bortoli; Artigiani, Ricardo; Herani, Benedito; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Morbid obesity treatment through vertical gastroplasty Roux-en-Y gastric bypass initially used a contention ring. However, this technique may create conditions to the development of potentially malign alterations in the gastric mucosa. Although effective and previously performed in large scale, this technique needs to be better evaluated in long-term studies regarding alterations caused in the gastric mucosa. To analyze the preoperative and postoperative endoscopic, histological and cell proliferation findings in the gastric antrum and body mucosa of patients submitted to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a contention ring. We retrospectively evaluated all patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a contention ring with more than 60 months of postoperative follow-up. We compared the preoperative (gastric antrum and body) and postoperative (gastric pouch) gastric mucosa endoscopic findings, cell proliferation index and H. pylori prevalence. We evaluated cell proliferation through Ki-67 antibody immunohistochemical expression. In the study period, 33 patients were operated with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using a contention ring. We found a chronic gastritis rate of 69.7% in the preoperative period (gastric antrum and body) and 84.8% in the postoperative (gastric pouch). H. pylori was present in 18.2% of patients in the preoperative period (gastric antrum and body) and in 57.5% in the postoperative (gastric pouch). Preoperative cell proliferation index was 18.1% in the gastric antrum and 16.2% in the gastric body, and 23.8% in the postoperative gastric pouch. The postoperative cell proliferation index in the gastric pouch was significantly higher (P=0.001) than in the preoperative gastric antrum and body. Higher cell proliferation index and chronic gastritis intensity were significantly associated to H. pylori presence (P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively). After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with contention ring, there was a higher chronic gastritis incidence and

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus remission eighteen months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Girundi, Marcelo Gomes

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the effectiveness of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in improving the glycemic profile of obese patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) after 18 months of follow-up. four hundred sixty-eight pacients with DM2 and BMI ≥35 were submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, from 1998 to 2010. All patients were submitted to glycemic control analysis in the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 18th postoperative months. We considered: type 2 diabetic patients, the ones with fasting glucose ≥126mg/dl and HbA1C ≥6.5 in two dosages; high risk patients for diabetes, those who presented fasting glucose ≥ 100 to 125 mg/dl and HbA1C between 5.7%-6.4%; and normal patients, those presenting glucose <100mg/dl and HbA1C <5.7%. Such diagnostic criteria were based on the official position of Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes, published in July, 2011. The remission of DM2 was seen in 410 (87.6%) out of 468 patients 18 months after the surgery, that being a meaningful difference, with p<0.001. Fourty-eight (10.3%) patients sustained criteria for the disease and ten (2.1%) continued at high risk for DM2. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was effective in the promotion and maintaince of long-term glycemic control. There are evidences showing that the remission of DM2 is not only related to weight loss and that other enteroinsular axis mechanisms must be involved. avaliar a eficácia da gastroplastia com derivação em Y-de-Roux, em pacientes obesos e portadores de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), na melhoria do perfil glicêmico após 18 meses de seguimento. foram submetidos à derivação gástrica em Y-de-Roux 468 pacientes com IMC ≥35 e portadores de DM2, no período de 1998 a 2010. Todos os pacientes tiveram a análise do controle glicêmico realizadas no terceiro, sexto, nono, 12o e 18o meses de pós-operatório. Os critérios diagnósticos de diabetes foram baseados no Posicionamento Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes, publicado em julho de 2011. observou-se a remissão do DM2 em

  13. The effects of bariatric surgical procedures on the improvement of metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients: Comparison of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Kafalı, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Şahin, Mustafa; Ece, İlhan; Acar, Fahrettin; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Alptekin, Hüsnü; Ateş, Leyla

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in terms of weight loss, metabolic parameters, and postoperative complications. Data on patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with a diagnosis of morbid obesity between January 2012 and June 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were compared in terms of age, sex, body mass index, duration of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, perioperative complications, length of hospital stay, and long term follow-up results. During the study period, 91 patients (45 laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 46 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy) underwent bariatric surgery. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of preoperative patient characteristics. Both groups showed statistically significant weight loss and improvement in co-morbidities when compared with the preoperative period. Weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters were similar in both groups. The duration of operation and hospital stay was longer in the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group. Furthermore, the rate of total complications was significantly lower in the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy group. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective method with a significantly lower complication rate and length of hospital stay than laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, with similar improvement rates in metabolic syndrome.

  14. VERTICAL GASTRECTOMY AND GASTRIC BYPASS IN ROUX-EN-Y INDUCE POSTOPERATIVE GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE?

    PubMed Central

    NASSIF, Paulo Afonso Nunes; MALAFAIA, Osvaldo; RIBAS-FILHO, Jurandir Marcondes; CZECZKO, Nicolau Gregori; GARCIA, Rodrigo Ferreira; ARIEDE, Bruno Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease has a high incidence and may be present in half of obese patients with surgical indication. Bariatric operations can also induce reflux alone - differently from BMI factors - and its mechanisms are dependent on the type of procedure performed. Objective To perform a literature review comparing the two procedures currently most used for surgical treatment of obesity and analyze their relationship with the advent of pre-existing reflux disease or its appearance only in postoperative period. Method The literature was reviewed in virtual database Medline/PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs, Embase and Cochrane crossing the following MeSH descriptors: gastric bypass AND / OR anastomosis, Roux-en-Y AND / OR gastroesophageal reflux AND / OR gastroenterostomy AND / OR gastrectomy AND / OR obesity AND / OR bariatric surgery AND / OR postoperative period. A total of 135 relevant references were considered but only 30 were used in this article. Also was added the experience of the authors of this article in handling these techniques on this field. Conclusion The structural changes caused by surgical technique in vertical gastrectomy shows greater commitment of antireflux mechanisms predisposing the induction of GERD postoperatively compared to the surgical technique performed in the gastrointestinal Bypass Roux-en-Y. PMID:25409970

  15. Jejunogastric intussusception after distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Fumiaki; Tashiro, Kousei; Nakao, Hironobu; Fujii, Yoshirou; Ikeda, Takuto; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Kunihide; Nanashima, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Jejunogastric intussusception is a rare complication after gastric operation. Intussusception after gastric operation occurs mostly at the gastrojejunal anastomosis site and Braun anastomosis site of Billroth II reconstruction, and at the Y anastomosis site of Roux-en-Y reconstruction. However, jejunogastric intussusception after distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction is very rare. We report a surgical case of jejunogastric intussusception after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer treatment. An 82-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer treatment. Reconstruction was performed using Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Oral intake was started on postoperative day 4, however vomiting and high-grade fever occurred on postoperative day 12, after which oral intake became difficult. Anastomotic stenosis of the gastrojejunostomy was suspected, and various examinations were performed. Gastroendoscopy and computed tomography revealed an elevated lesion with ring-like folds protruding through the anastomosis site into the remnant stomach. Reoperation was performed on postoperative day 28 after a diagnosis of jejunogastric intussusception was made. It failed to reduce the intussusception, so partial resection of the gastrojejunal anastomosis was performed and Roux-en-Y reconstruction was repeated. Reconstruction was conducted after taking into consideration the recurrence of intussusception. Jejunogastric intussusceptions after distal gastrectomy is a rare complication; however, when it occurs, early diagnosis and appropriate management are necessary. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass improves glucose homeostasis, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in livers of obese rats and in Kupffer cells via an AMPK-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yanhua; Li, James Zongyu; You, Min; Murr, Michel M

    2017-07-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. We hypothesize that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver of obese rats via activation of AMPK-α. Obese Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent either sham operation or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Hepatic TNF-α, NF-κB, IRS-2, PI3 kinase, PKC-ζ, NOX2, and AMPK-α were measured. Mechanistic studies were done in a rat Kupffer cell line (RKC1) that was treated with free fatty acids to mimic lipotoxicity and then transfected with AMPK-α siRNA. Reactive oxygen species, TNF-α, NF-κB, AMPK-α, p-AMPK-α, PPAR-γ, and NOX2 were measured. A t test was used. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass lowered nonfasting serum glucose, improved the glucose tolerance test, and induced IRS2/PI3 kinase interaction. Additionally, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass decreased hepatic NOX2, PKC-ζ, TNF-α expression and activation of NF-κB. Free fatty acids increased reactive oxygen species, TNF-α protein, NOX2 protein, and activated NF-κB. Rosiglitazone attenuated the free fatty acids-induced increase in reactive oxygen species, TNF-α, NOX2, and NF-κB; blocking AMPK-α by siRNA abolished the effects of rosiglitazone. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass exhibits antidiabetic properties and is associated with downregulation of proinflammation genes and oxidative stress in the liver and within Kupffer cells via activation of AMPK-α. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alimentary Limb Ischemia During Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and its Management.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Tarun; Dey, Ashish; Nali, Abhilash; Taha Mustafa, Sheikh Mohammad; Malik, Vinod K

    2018-05-01

    Ischemia of the tip of the alimentary limb involving the gastrojejunostomy (GJ) is an unusual complication during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Revision of the GJ may be needed to manage this complication. We present a case of inadvertent perforation of the jejunum by a gastric calibration tube, which was recognized on the table and appropriate measures are then taken. Repair of this enterotomy however then led to ischemia of the tip of alimentary limb extending to a portion of the GJ anastomosis. We present its subsequent management. Our patient is a morbidly obese female patient with a BMI value of 44.6 kg/msq undergoing RYGB. We performed an antecolic, antegastric linear-stapled gastrojejunostomy of 2.5 cm. After hand-sewn closure of the common enterotomy, we tried passing a 38-F Bougie through the anastomosis into the Roux limb. During this maneuver, the Bougie inadvertently perforated the Roux limb at the mesenteric border. Following the repair of this jejunal rent, the distal part of the Roux limb became dusky and involved a portion of the gastrojejunal anastomosis. The gastrojejunostomy was therefore completely revised. Intraoperatively, methylene blue dye test was done which showed no leak. Post-operative gastrografin study revealed no leak and liquids were started on POD1. Inadvertent injury by a Bougie is a rare but known complication in laparoscopic RYGB. Intraoperative recognition of the complication is essential to prompt the necessary repair. Revision of the gastrojejunostomy is necessary if the Roux limb or the anastomosis itself is ischemic and can be accomplished with good results.

  18. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversal: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shoar, Saeed; Nguyen, Thu; Ona, Mel A; Reddy, Madhavi; Anand, Sury; Alkuwari, Mohammed J; Saber, Alan A

    2016-08-01

    Due to the large number of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries performed over the last decade, reversal of the bypass to normal anatomy has been increasingly reported. University affiliated Teaching Hospital, United States. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the literature data regarding the indications, technical considerations, and outcomes of gastric bypass reversal. PubMed/MEDLINE search was conducted for articles reporting reversal of gastric bypass to normal anatomy. Patients' demographic characteristics, primary reason for reversal, reversal technique, and postreversal events were retrieved and categorized from each eligible paper. Thirty-five articles encompassing a total of 100 patients were eligible. Malnutrition was the most common indication for reversal (12.3%), followed by severe dumping syndrome (9.4%), postprandial hypoglycemia (8.5%), and excessive weight loss (8.5%). Techniques for gastrogastrostomy were available in 42 patients, with the hand-sewn technique as the most common (67.4%) followed by the linear stapler (23.2%) and the end-to-end anastomosis stapler used in 3 patients (6.9%). The reversal technique was performed endoscopically and described in 3 studies (3 patients). Techniques for handling the Roux limb were described in 56 patients (56%); the limb was reconnected in 32 patients (57.2%) and resected in 24 patients (42.8%). Weight regain was the most prevalent postreversal event (28.8%), followed by severe gastroesophageal reflux diseases (10.2%) and persistent abdominal pain (6.8%). There was no reported mortality. Gastric bypass reversal is indicated for excessive weight loss, dumping syndrome, and postprandial hypoglycemia. The procedure is well tolerated and feasible when performed laparoscopically and has no reported mortality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation in rats.

    PubMed

    Bueter, Marco; Abegg, Kathrin; Seyfried, Florian; Lutz, Thomas A; le Roux, Carel W

    2012-06-11

    Currently, the most effective therapy for the treatment of morbid obesity to induce significant and maintained body weight loss with a proven mortality benefit is bariatric surgery. Consequently, there has been a steady rise in the number of bariatric operations done worldwide in recent years with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) being the most commonly performed operation. Against this background, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms by which gastric bypass induces and maintains body weight loss. These mechanisms are yet not fully understood, but may include reduced hunger and increased satiation, increased energy expenditure, altered preference for food high in fat and sugar, altered salt and water handling of the kidney as well as alterations in gut microbiota. Such changes seen after gastric bypass may at least partly stem from how the surgery alters the hormonal milieu because gastric bypass increases the postprandial release of peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), hormones that are released by the gut in the presence of nutrients and that reduce eating. During the last two decades numerous studies using rats have been carried out to further investigate physiological changes after gastric bypass. The gastric bypass rat model has proven to be a valuable experimental tool not least as it closely mimics the time profile and magnitude of human weight loss, but also allows researchers to control and manipulate critical anatomic and physiologic factors including the use of appropriate controls. Consequently, there is a wide array of rat gastric bypass models available in the literature reviewed elsewhere in more detail. The description of the exact surgical technique of these models varies widely and differs e.g. in terms of pouch size, limb lengths, and the preservation of the vagal nerve. If reported, mortality rates seem to range from 0 to 35%. Furthermore, surgery has been carried out almost exclusively in male

  20. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in adolescents with severe obesity (AMOS): a prospective, 5-year, Swedish nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Olbers, Torsten; Beamish, Andrew J; Gronowitz, Eva; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Bruze, Gustaf; Ekbom, Kerstin; Friberg, Peter; Göthberg, Gunnar; Järvholm, Kajsa; Karlsson, Jan; Mårild, Staffan; Neovius, Martin; Peltonen, Markku; Marcus, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Severe obesity in adolescence is associated with reduced life expectancy and impaired quality of life. Long-term benefits of conservative treatments in adolescents are known to be modest, whereas short-term outcomes of adolescent bariatric surgery are promising. We aimed to compare 5-year outcomes of adolescent surgical patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with those of conservatively treated adolescents and of adults undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in the Adolescent Morbid Obesity Surgery (AMOS) study. We did a nationwide, prospective, non-randomised controlled study of adolescents (aged 13-18 years) with severe obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at three specialised paediatric obesity treatment centres in Sweden. We compared clinical outcomes in adolescent surgical patients with those of matched adolescent controls undergoing conservative treatment and of adult controls undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The primary outcome measure was change in BMI over 5 years. We used multilevel mixed-effect regression models to assess longitudinal changes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00289705. Between April, 2006, and May, 2009, 100 adolescents were recruited to the study, of whom 81 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (mean age 16·5 years [SD 1·2], bodyweight 132·8 kg [22·1], and BMI 45·5 kg/m 2 [SD 6·1]). 80 matched adolescent controls and 81 matched adult controls were enrolled for comparison of outcomes. The change in bodyweight in adolescent surgical patients over 5 years was -36·8 kg (95% CI -40·9 to -32·8), resulting in a reduction in BMI of -13·1 kg/m 2 (95% CI -14·5 to -11·8), although weight loss less than 10% occurred in nine (11%). Mean BMI rose in adolescent controls (3·3 kg/m 2 , 95% CI 1·1-4·8) over the 5-year study period, whereas the BMI change in adult controls was similar to that in adolescent surgical patients (mean change -12·3 kg/m 2 , 95% CI -13·7 to -10·9). Comorbidities and

  1. [Advantage investigation of totally laparoscopic modified Roux-en-Y reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianzhou; Ma, Zhiming; Sun, Pengda; Li, Jinlong; Fang, Xuedong; Tong, Ti; Zhu, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical advantage of the application of modified Roux-en-Y reconstruction after totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy. Clinical data of 36 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction by one medical team for gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2014 and December 2014 in the Second Hospital of Jilin University were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into classic Roux-en-Y group (CRY, 16 cases) and modified Roux-en-Y group (MRY, 20 cases) according to reconstructive methods. The data concerning the intraoperative and postoperative situation in two groups were compared. Operation was successfully completed in all the cases without conversion to laparotomy. Compared to CRY group, MRY group had shorter mean operative time [(260.9 ± 21.2) min vs. (287.9 ± 19.0) min, P=0.000], shorter mean reconstruction duration [(32.4 ± 9.2] min vs. (45.4 ± 13.2) min, P=0.001] and less intraoperative bleeding [(50.9 ± 23.5) ml vs. (67.0 ± 20.5) ml, P=0.000]. Jejunum mesentery dissection and jejunum resection were not necessary in MRY group. However, there were no significant differences in lymph nodes harvested, time to flatus, hospital stay and postoperative complications between two groups. As compared to classic Roux-en-Y reconstruction, the modified Roux-en-Y reconstruction can simplify the surgical procedures and achieve similar efficacy. It is feasible and safe, and worth further promotion in clinical practice.

  2. Outcomes of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and Sphincterotomy for Suspected Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD) Post Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chin Hong; Jahansouz, Cyrus; Freeman, Martin L; Leslie, Daniel B; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Amateau, Stuart K

    2017-10-01

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is thought to be a cause of chronic abdominal pain post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and current practice of performing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with or without sphincterotomy is not supported by evidence. In addition to the complexity and risks of the procedure in patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy, the outcomes are uncertain and debatable. We performed a retrospective review and analysis of post-gastric bypass patients who had undergone ERCP with sphincterotomy to determine the effectiveness in patients with suspected SOD. Over a period of 5 years at the University of Minnesota, we retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database of a cohort of patients whom had a previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and whom had a subsequent ERCP for suspected SOD. Patients were categorized by modified Milwaukee classification, and outcomes were evaluated by patients' self-reporting of symptoms at follow-up. We identified 50 patients who underwent laparoscopic-assisted gastrostomy for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass over the study period. Within this group, 35 patients (70%) were suspected to have SOD. Nine patients (25.7%) were classified as type I, 19 patients (54.3%) type II, and seven patients (20%) type III. Thirty-four patients (97.1%) had biliary sphincterotomy, and 17 patients (48.6%) had both biliary and pancreatic sphincterotomy. Fourteen (40%) had repeated ERCP. At median follow-up of 11.5 months, type I SOD had two responders (25%), type II had nine responders (52.9%), and type III had one responder (14.3%). A subgroup analysis did not show significant differences in improvement of symptoms between patients whom had single versus repeated ERCP or biliary sphincterotomy alone versus both biliary and pancreatic sphincterotomy. Three patients (9%) had post-ERCP pancreatitis. SOD in patients post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is complex due to multiple confounding

  3. Laparoscopic diagnosis of retrograde peristalsis and intussusception in Roux-en-Y limb after laparoscopic gastrectomy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Shigeyuki; Toiyama, Yuji; Ichikawa, Takashi; Shimura, Tadanobu; Yasuda, Hiromi; Hiro, Jun-Ichiro; Ohi, Masaki; Araki, Toshimitsu; Kusunoki, Masato

    2018-06-05

    The cause of jejunojejunal intussusception, a rare complication after Roux-en-Y gastric surgery, remains unclear. Here, we present a case of retrograde jejunojejunal intussusception that occurred after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. A 51-year-old woman who had undergone laparoscopic distal gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for early gastric cancer 6 years previously was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain. Abdominal CT revealed the "target sign," and she was diagnosed as having small bowel intussusception. Laparoscopic surgery resulted in a diagnosis of retrograde intussusception of the distal jejunum of the Roux-en-Y anastomosis with retrograde peristalsis in the same area. The Roux-en-Y anastomosis site and intussuscepted segment were resected laparoscopically. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic diagnosis of retrograde peristalsis in the distal jejunum of a Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Additionally, relevant published reports concerning this unusual condition are discussed. © 2018 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Operation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bueter, Marco; Abegg, Kathrin; Seyfried, Florian; Lutz, Thomas A.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the most effective therapy for the treatment of morbid obesity to induce significant and maintained body weight loss with a proven mortality benefit is bariatric surgery1,2. Consequently, there has been a steady rise in the number of bariatric operations done worldwide in recent years with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) being the most commonly performed operation3. Against this background, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms by which gastric bypass induces and maintains body weight loss. These mechanisms are yet not fully understood, but may include reduced hunger and increased satiation4,5, increased energy expenditure6,7, altered preference for food high in fat and sugar8,9, altered salt and water handling of the kidney10 as well as alterations in gut microbiota11. Such changes seen after gastric bypass may at least partly stem from how the surgery alters the hormonal milieu because gastric bypass increases the postprandial release of peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), hormones that are released by the gut in the presence of nutrients and that reduce eating12. During the last two decades numerous studies using rats have been carried out to further investigate physiological changes after gastric bypass. The gastric bypass rat model has proven to be a valuable experimental tool not least as it closely mimics the time profile and magnitude of human weight loss, but also allows researchers to control and manipulate critical anatomic and physiologic factors including the use of appropriate controls. Consequently, there is a wide array of rat gastric bypass models available in the literature reviewed elsewhere in more detail 13-15. The description of the exact surgical technique of these models varies widely and differs e.g. in terms of pouch size, limb lengths, and the preservation of the vagal nerve. If reported, mortality rates seem to range from 0 to 35%15. Furthermore, surgery has been carried out

  5. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Urbain, J L; Penninckx, F; Siegel, J A; Vandenborre, P; Van Cutsem, E; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V; De Roo, M

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  6. Revision Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass to Biliopancreatic Long-Limb Gastric Bypass for Inadequate Weight Response: Case Series and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Henry; Oien, Danette M

    2017-09-01

    The long-limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LLRYGB) was introduced in 1987 as a salvage operation for inadequate weight loss after a standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We report on 53 consecutive patients (44 females) with conversion of a failed RYGB to a LLRYGB performed by a single surgeon between 2002 and 2014. No patient had an ascertainable anatomic abnormality to explain his/her weight regain. LLRYGB revision consisted of a 75-cm to 100-cm alimentary Roux limb and a 75-cm to 100-cm common channel; after 2011, in suitable patients, the Roux limb was lengthened to greater than 250 cm. Average values for weight (lbs) were as follows: pre-original RYGB = 329; lowest measured after RYGB = 196; at time of LLRYGB = 285; and at 1, 2, 3, 4, >5 years post LLRYGB = 225, 207, 199, 197, 195, for a sustained weight loss >90 lbs. Average values for BMI (kg/m 2 ) were as follows: pre-original RYGB = 54.3; lowest measured after RYGB = 32.3; at time of LLRYGB = 47.2; and at 1, 2, 3, 4, >5 years post LLRYGB = 37.1, 34.4, 33.0, 32.8, 31.4, for a sustained BMI reduction >16.5 kg/m 2 . Zero operative mortality; 3 (5.7%) late deaths; 7 (13.2%) 30-day complications; 33 (62.3%) long-term complications with 23 (43.4%) needing TPN; and 14 (26.4%) requiring operative revision. A salvage LLRYGB procedure can be performed safely and is weight successful, but fraught with long-term nutritional problems and a high necessity for revision. A Roux segment over 250 cm may improve outcomes.

  7. The tethered bezoar as a delayed complication of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Janey S A; Van Noord, Michael; Christison-Lagay, Emily

    2007-05-01

    Known complications of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass causing abdominal pain and obstructive symptoms include biliary colic, anastomotic ulcer, anastomotic stenosis, or internal hernia. This case report describes a new complication in a patient 15 months post-bypass: a bezoar at the gastrojejunal anastomosis, the nidus of which was a length of permanent suture material which had eroded through the gastric wall. We include endoscopic images of the bezoar, a review of the related gastric bypass literature, and describe the changes made in our practice as a result of this complication.

  8. Reconstruction Options for Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Patients with Prior Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mihir M; Martin, Benjamin M; Stetler, Jamil L; Patel, Ankit D; Davis, S Scott; Sarmiento, Juan M; Lin, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Patients with prior Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) operations for weight loss present reconstruction challenges during a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). With over 60,000 RYGB performed annually, the increasing odds of encountering such patients during a PD make it imperative to understand the RYGB anatomy and anticipate reconstruction options. This article describes the possible reconstruction options and their rationale. We reviewed our PD reconstruction options, compared them to what have been described in the literature, and derived a consensus from internal conferences comprising bariatric and hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons to describe known reconstruction options. In general, reconstruction options can include one of three options: (1) remnant gastrectomy, (2) preservation of gastric remnant, or (3) reversal of gastric bypass. This article describes individualized reconstruction options for RYGB patients undergoing PD. The reconstruction options can be tailored to the needs of the patient.

  9. A modified uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis in totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy: preliminary results and initial experience.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun-Jun; Zang, Lu; Yang, Annie; Hu, Wei-Guo; Feng, Bo; Dong, Feng; Wang, Ming-Liang; Lu, Ai-Guo; Li, Jian-Wen; Zheng, Min-Hua

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the safety and feasibility of totally laparoscopic uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis in the distal gastrectomy with D2 dissection for gastric cancer. We also summarized the preliminary experience of totally laparoscopic uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis. A retrospective analysis was done in 51 cases of total laparoscopic uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis in the distant gastrectomy with D2 dissection for gastric cancer in our hospital from September 2014 to December 2015. All of 51 cases underwent total laparoscopic uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis. All the procedures were performed successfully. There were neither conversions to open surgery nor intraoperative complications in all 51 cases. In this study, the median operative time was 170 (135-210) min and the median time of anastomosis was 27 (24-41) min. The blood loss was 60 (30-110) ml. The time to flatus and length of postoperative hospital stay were 2 (1-3) days, and 8 (7-12) days, respectively. The mean lymph node harvest was 34 (18-49). One anastomotic bleeding occurred postoperatively which was cured by conservative treatment. No major postoperative complication occurred, such as anastomotic leak, anastomotic stenosis, and Roux stasis syndrome. After a short-term follow-up, no recanalization or reflux gastritis was encountered by endoscopy. The totally laparoscopic uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis in distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection for gastric cancer is safe and feasible, with a very low rate of recanalization and reflux gastritis.

  10. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: effects on feeding behavior and underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Sean; Pucci, Andrea; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, producing marked sustained weight loss with associated reduced morbidity and mortality. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP), the most commonly performed procedure, was initially viewed as a hybrid restrictive-malabsorptive procedure. However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that alternative physiologic mechanisms underlie its beneficial effects. RYGBP-induced altered feeding behavior, including reduced appetite and changes in taste/food preferences, is now recognized as a key driver of the sustained postoperative weight loss. The brain ultimately determines feeding behavior, and here we review the mechanisms by which RYGBP may affect central appetite-regulating pathways. PMID:25729850

  11. Laparoscopic proximal Roux-en-Y gastrojejunal diversion in children: preliminary experience from a single center.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Girolamo; Buffa, Piero; Gandullia, Paolo; Schiaffino, Maria Cristina; Avanzini, Stefano; Rapuzzi, Giovanni; Pini Prato, Alessio; Guida, Edoardo; Costanzo, Sara; Rossi, Valentina; Basile, Angelina; Montobbio, Giovanni; DellaRocca, Mirta; Mameli, Leila; Disma, Nicola; Pessagno, Alice; Tomà, Paolo; Jasonni, Vincenzo

    2009-12-01

    Neurologically impaired children (NIC) have a high risk of recurrence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) following fundoplication. A postpyloric feeding tube may be useful when gastric emptying disorders occur; however, dislocation and difficulty in feeding management often require more aggressive procedures. Total esophagogastric dissociation (Bianchi's TEGD) is an alternative to the classic fundoplication procedure, whereas laparoscopic gastric bypass is a frequently performed procedure in morbid obesity, improving gastric outlet. The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary experience on the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastrojejunal bypass, associated with Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy, to treat and prevent GER in NIC with gastric emptying disorders. Eight neurologically impaired children underwent surgical treatment because of feeding problems and pulmonary complications. The procedure included: 1) hiatoplasty, 2) Nissen fundoplication, 3) 20-cm Roux-en-Y gastrojejunal anastomosis and jejuno-jejunal anastomosis, and 4) gastrostomy. All cases were fed on postoperative day 3 without any intraoperative complications. One case developed an obstruction of the distal anastomosis due to adhesion and needed reoperation. Outcome was clinically evaluated with serial upper gastrointestinal contrast studies and endoscopies. Laparoscopic proximal Roux-en-Y gastrojejunal diversion, without gastric resection, is a safe, feasible procedure that improves gastric emptying and reduces the risk of GER recurrence. Yet, long-term results still have to be evaluated.

  12. Small intestinal volvulus following laparotomy for endometrial clear cell carcinoma in a woman with a past history of total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chin, Georgiana S M; Heng, Robert; Neesham, Deborah E; Petersen, Rodney W

    2002-12-01

    Small intestinal volvulus is a rare complication following Roux-en-Y anastomosis. A 63-year-old woman was diagnosed with small intestinal volvulus following laparotomy for clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Her past medical history included a total gastrectomy and antecolic Roux-en-Y anastomosis for Duke's B gastric carcinoma. Operative findings were of transmesenteric herniation of the ileum through the Roux-en-Y small intestinal mesenteric window, with metastatic deposits fixing the hernia at its base to create a volvulus. The proximal transverse colon was very dilated and thin due to partial obstruction by the volvulus. Her treatment involved adhesiolysis and unraveling of the small intestinal volvulus. This is the first case report of a small intestinal volvulus following a Roux-en-Y anastomosis involving a metastatic gynacological malignancy.

  13. In vitro motility changes in Roux limb after Roux-en-Y reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dogan, N; Gokakin, A K; Koyuncu, A; Bagcivan, I; Aydin, C; Topcu, O; Yildirim, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the motility of Roux limb with that of normal segment. Rats were divided into 3 equal groups as control, Roux-en-Y (Group A) and Roux-en-Y with vagotomy (Group B). Only midline incision and manipulations were applied in control group. Following distal gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y reconstruction was applied in Group A, while vagotomy Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy was applied in Group B. Rats were sacrificed 1 month later by cervical dislocations under anesthesia. The obtained jejunal segments were cut into four equal parts. The bath was 37 °C warm while 95 % O2 and 5 % CO2 gases were supplied in 10 ml bicarbonate Krebs' solution. KCl responses were similar in all three groups. Acetylcholine contraction responses in the vagotomy and non-vagotomy Roux-en-Y groups was higher than in those in control group significantly (p < 0.05). This response in vagotomy Roux-en-Y group was also higher than that in non-vagotomy group (p < 0.05). The induced electrical field stimulation contraction response in the vagotomy + Roux-en-Y group was lower than those in control group and non-vagotomy group (p < 0.05). These results show that muscarinic receptor density and/or function may increase after vagotomy and non-vagotomy group operation, and vagotomy may contribute to this increase. The decrease in electrical signal response in vagotomy Roux-en-Y group may depend on the decrease in acetylcholine oscillation from the cholinergic nerve ending (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 25).

  14. Comparison Between Billroth-II with Braun and Roux-en-Y Reconstruction After Laparoscopic Distal Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    In Choi, Chang; Baek, Dong Hoon; Lee, Si Hak; Hwang, Sun Hwi; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Kwang Ha; Jeon, Tae Yong; Kim, Dong Heon

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to compare the effectiveness of Billroth-II with Braun and Roux-en-Y reconstruction after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. From April 2010 to August 2012, 66 patients underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (Billroth-II with Braun reconstruction, 26; Roux-en-Y, 40). The patients' data were collected prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. The mean operation and reconstruction times were statistically shorter for Billroth-II with Braun reconstruction than Roux-en-Y (198.1 ± 33.0 vs. 242.3 ± 58.1 min, p = 0.001). One case of postoperative stricture was observed in each group. One case each of intra-abdominal abscess and delayed gastric emptying occurred in the Billroth-II with Braun group. At 1 year postoperatively, gastric residue and reflux esophagitis were not significantly different between the groups. Gastritis and bile reflux were more frequently observed in the Billroth-II with Braun group (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). At 2 years postoperatively, gastric residue was not significantly different, but gastritis, bile reflux, and esophagitis were more frequent in the Billroth-II with Braun group (p = 0.029, p < 0.001, and p = 0.036, respectively). The postoperative effectiveness of Roux-en-Y reconstruction may be superior to Billroth-II with Braun reconstruction after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy.

  15. Routine upper gastrointestinal Gastrografin swallow after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Sims, Thomas L; Mullican, Mary A; Hamilton, Elizabeth C; Provost, David A; Jones, Daniel B

    2003-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) swallow radiographs following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) may detect an obstruction or an anastomotic leak. The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of routine imaging following LRYGBP. Radiograph reports were reviewed for 201 consecutive LRYGBP operations between April 1999 and June 2001. UGI swallow used Gastrografin, static films, fluoroscopic video, and a delayed image at 10 minutes. Mean values with one standard deviation were tested for significance (P < 0.05) using the Mann-Whitney U test statistic. Of 198 available reports, UGI detected jejunal efferent (Roux) limb narrowing (n = 17), partial obstruction (n = 12), anastomotic leak (n = 3), complete bowel obstruction (n = 3), diverticulum (n = 1), hiatal hernia (n = 1), and proximal Roux limb narrowing (n = 1). A normal study was reported in 160 cases (81%). Partial obstruction resolved without intervention. Complete obstruction required re-operation. Compared to 6 patients who developed delayed leaks, early identification of a leak by routine UGI swallow resulted in a shorter hospital stay (mean 7.7 +/- 1.5 days vs 40.2 +/- 12.3 days, P < 0.03). Early intervention after UGI swallow may lessen morbidity. Routine UGI swallow following LRYGBP does not obviate the importance of close clinical follow-up.

  16. Hedonic Changes in Food Choices Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thea Toft; Jakobsen, Tine Anette; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Sjödin, Anders; Le Roux, Carel W; Schmidt, Julie Berg

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that a shift in food choices leading to a diet with a lower energy density plays an important role in successful weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. A decreased hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods may explain these changes in eating behavior. Here, we review the literature examining postoperative changes in mechanisms contributing to hedonic drive (food preferences, reinforcing value of food, dopamine signaling, and activity reward-related brain regions). The majority of studies reviewed support that RYGB decrease the hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods. Still, in order to fully understand the complexity of these changes, we need studies combining sociological and psychological approaches with objective measures of actual food choices examining different measures of hedonic drive.

  17. Improvements in the metabolic milieu following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the arrest of diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Neil G; le Roux, Carel W

    2014-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an efficacious intervention for morbid obesity and has a diabetes-remitting effect in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occurs prior to significant weight loss. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is also associated with early and sustained reductions in the risk factor profile for the progression of diabetic complications. Attention is therefore now being placed on RYGB as a metabolic intervention with the capacity to yield therapeutic benefit in relation to the progression of diabetic complications, such as diabetic kidney disease. As alterations in gut anatomy following RYGB coincide with attendant shifts in downstream enteroendocrine signals with direct and indirect resolutionary effects on the kidney, the concept of an endocrine gut-kidney axis post-RYGB is growing. With the model of a gut-kidney axis in mind, this article summarizes emerging data on the effects of RYGB on risk factors for diabetic kidney disease (hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension), highlighting a potential role for glucagon-like peptide 1 in risk factor reduction. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  18. Addictive Disorders after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; Steffen, Kristine; Engel, Scott; King, Wendy C.; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Winters, Ken; Sogg, Stephanie; Sondag, Cindy; Kalarchian, Melissa; Elder, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent literature suggests that some patients may develop addictive disorders after bariatric surgery, in particular following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These may include traditional addictions and so called “behavioral addictions”, although prevalence data on the latter have not been published. Objectives To establish prevalence of addictive behaviors in adults following RYGB. Setting 2 university hospitals and 1 not-for-profit research institute in the U.S. Methods Participants from a large observational study of bariatric surgery who had undergone RYGB were recruited to complete additional measures. Of 241 consented participants, 201 provided data (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I [SCID], additional Impulsive Control Disorder Modules, and various self-report measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT]) to assess status prior to surgery and in the first three post-operative years.). Results Based on the SCID, 16 (8.0%) developed alcohol use disorder [AUD] within three years post-RYGB, 7 (43.8%) of whom had no history of AUD. When both the SCID and AUDIT were used to identify AUD, the corresponding numbers/percentages were 32 (18.4%) and 13 (40.6%). Data on other behavioral addictive disorders indicated 19 (9.5%) had a post-surgery disorder, 6 (31.6%) of whom had no history. Conclusions These data add to a growing literature suggesting there is a substantial risk for the development of AUD after bariatric surgery. Understanding the risk for non-drug related addictive disorders requires more data from larger studies before clear conclusions can be drawn. PMID:25862182

  19. Outcomes for jejunal interposition reconstruction compared with Roux-en-Y anastomosis: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kai-Xi; Xu, Zhong-Fa; Wang, Mei-Rong; Li, Dao-Tang; Yang, Xiang-Shan; Guo, Jing

    2015-03-14

    To compare the clinical outcomes between jejunal interposition reconstruction and Roux-en-Y anastomosis after total gastrostomy in patients with gastric cancer. A systematic literature search was conducted by two independent researchers on PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and other English literature databases, as well as the Chinese Academic Journal, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and other Chinese literature databases using "Gastrostomy", "Roux-en-Y", and "Interposition" as keywords. Data extraction and verification were performed on the literature included in this study. RevMan 5.2 software was used for data processing. A fixed-effects model was applied in the absence of heterogeneity between studies. A random effects model was applied in the presence of heterogeneity between studies. Ten studies with a total of 762 gastric cancer patients who underwent total gastrostomy were included in this study. Among them, 357 received jejunal interposition reconstruction after total gastrostomy, and 405 received Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Compared with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, jejunal interposition reconstruction significantly decreased the incidence of dumping syndrome (OR = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.10-0.31; P < 0.001), increased the prognostic nutritional index [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 6.02, 95%CI: 1.82-10.22; P < 0.001], and improved the degree of postoperative weight loss [WMD = 2.47, 95%CI: -3.19-(-1.75); P < 0.001]. However, there is no statistically significant difference in operative time, hospital stay, or incidence of reflux esophagitis. Compared with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, patients who underwent jejunal interposition reconstruction after total gastrostomy had a lower risk of postoperative long-term complications and improved life quality.

  20. A new approach for Roux-en-Y reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Min; Zhu, Feng; Tian, Rui; Shi, Cheng-Jian; Wang, Xin; Shen, Ming; Qin, Ren-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula remains the most common complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and is potentially lethal. It contributes significantly to prolonged hospitalization and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new technical approach, a modified Roux-en-Y reconstruction and evaluated its safety and feasibility. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who had undergone PD with the modified Roux-en-Y reconstructive technique for periampullary malignancies from January 2011 to June 2012. The data on complications, hospital stay and outcomes after the modified Roux-en-Y reconstruction were analyzed. The reconstruction was performed in 171 patients, of whom 92 received pancreaticogastrostomy and 79 received pancreaticojejunostomy. The median duration of surgery was 4.0 hours (range 3.1-6.9) in all patients, and the median blood loss was 530 mL (range 200-2000). Sixty-nine patients were subjected to transfusions, with a median transfusion volume of 430 mL (range 200-1400). The median hospital stay of the patients was 14 days (range 11-38). Their operative mortality was zero and overall morbidity was 18.1% (31 patients). Only four patients (2.3%) developed pancreatic fistulas (grade A fistulas in two patients and grade B in two patients); no patients developed grade C fistula. None of the patients developed bile reflux gastritis. The modified Roux-en-Y reconstruction, which isolates biliary anastomosis from pancreatic, gastric or jejunal anastomosis, is a safe, reliable, and favorable technique. But it needs further investigation in randomized controlled trials.

  1. A Simple Technique for Jejunojejunal Revision in Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Hadar

    2015-12-01

    The lengths of the bypassed segments in the initial laparoscopic roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are usually a matter of the individual surgeon's routine. The literature is inconclusive about the association between the Roux limbs' length and weight-loss or malabsorption (Stefanidis et al. Obes Surg. 21(1):119-24, 2011); (Rawlins et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 7(1):45-9, 2011). However, jejunojejunal anastomosis (JJ) "redo" and Roux limb length revision could be considered for patients with a very short Roux limb and weight loss failure or for short common channel and malabsorption. Complications of JJ may also require revision. In over 1000 LRYGBs since 2001, eight patients required JJ revision for failure to lose enough weight (n = 6), malabsorption (n = 1), and stricture (n = 1). Instead of completely taking down the JJ, a simple technique was evolved to keep the enteric limb continuity. In a following step, the biliopancreatic limbs have been transected from the JJ and reconnected proximal (for malabsorption) or distal (for weight loss failure). In this video, a step-by-step the laparoscopic technique for JJ revision and relocating the biliopancreatic limb is presented. Procedure takes 40-60 min to perform using four trocars and the hospital stay was 1-2 nights. No complications occurred during the procedures or postoperative period. Laparoscopic revision of JJ is feasible and safe and should be part of surgeons' options on the long-term management of patients post LRYGB.

  2. Physical Fitness and Body Composition Two Years after Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brissman, Markus; Ekbom, Kerstin; Hagman, Emilia; Mårild, Staffan; Gronowitz, Eva; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Olbers, Torsten; Marcus, Claude

    2017-02-01

    We have previously shown promising results 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, within the Adolescence Morbid Obesity Surgery study (AMOS). The aim of the current study was to describe the 2-year outcome in cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and functional capacity in the Stockholm subset of the AMOS study. Forty-one adolescents (10 male, 31 female, age 14-18 years, body mass index 35-69 kg·m -2 ) were included. In addition to anthropometric measurements, participants performed a submaximal bicycle test, 6-min walk test, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and a short interview at baseline, 1 and 2 years after surgery. Relative improvements in maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) per kilogram body mass (+62 %) and per kilogram fat-free mass (+21 %), as well as walking distance (+13 %) were observed after 1 year, and persisted 2 years after surgery. Despite a reduction of fat-free mass (-15 %), absolute VO 2 max was maintained across the full group (+8 %, p = ns) and significantly increased in non-smokers. Body mass and fat mass were significantly decreased (-45.4 and -33.3 kg, respectively). Self-reported physical activity was significantly increased, and pain associated with movement was reduced. In adolescents with obesity, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass improved VO 2 max more than could be explained by fat mass loss alone. In combination with improved functional capacity and body composition, these results suggest that surgery in adolescence might add specific benefits of importance for future health.

  3. Successful Treatment of an Unusual Case of FPLD2: The Role of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass-Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Grundfest-Broniatowski, Sharon; Yan, JingLiang; Kroh, Matthew; Kilim, Holly; Stephenson, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2) is a rare disorder associated with LMNA gene mutations. It is usually marked by loss of subcutaneous fat on the limbs and trunk and severe insulin resistance. Scattered reports have indicated that Roux-en-Y bypass helps to control the diabetes mellitus in these patients. We present here a very unusual patient with FPLD2 who had life-threatening retroperitoneal and renal fat accumulation accompanied by bilateral renal cancers. Following cryotherapy of one renal cancer and a contralateral nephrectomy with debulking of the retroperitoneal fat, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has successfully controlled the disease for 3 years. The clinical presentations and causes of FPLD are reviewed and the role of RYGB is discussed.

  4. Does Robotic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Provide Outcome Advantages over Standard Laparoscopic Approaches?

    PubMed

    Rogula, Tomasz; Koprivanac, Marijan; Janik, Michał Robert; Petrosky, Jacob A; Nowacki, Amy S; Dombrowska, Agnieszka; Kroh, Matthew; Brethauer, Stacy; Aminian, Ali; Schauer, Philip

    2018-04-10

    The aim was to compare clinical outcomes of patients treated with totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (TRRYGB) with those treated with the different laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) techniques. The clinical benefit of the robotic approach to bariatric surgery compared to the standard laparoscopic approach is unclear. There are no studies directly comparing outcomes of TRRYGB with different LRYGB techniques. Outcomes of 578 obese patients who underwent RYGB between 2011 and 2014 at an academic center were assessed. Multivariable analysis and propensity matching were used for comparing TRRYGB to different LRYGB techniques, including 21-mm EEA circular-stapled gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA, LRYGB-21CS), linear-stapled GJA (LRYGB-LS), and hand-sewn GJA (LRYGB-HS). The TRRYGB technique required a longer mean operative time compared to the other groups, respectively 204 ± 46 vs. 139 ± 30 min (LRYGB-21CS), 206 ± 37 vs. 158 ± 30 min (LRYGB-LS), and 210 ± 36 vs. 167 ± 30 min (LRYGB-HS). TRRYGB experienced a lower stricture rate (2 vs. 17%, P = 0.003), shorter hospital stay (2.6 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 5.5 days, P = 0.008), and lower readmission rate (12 vs. 28%, P = 0.009). No significant differences in outcomes were observed when comparing RRYGB to LRYGB-LS or LRYGB-HS. TRRYGB increases operative time compared to all LRYGB techniques. TRRYGB was superior to LRYGB-21CS in terms of significantly shorter hospital stay, lower readmission rate, and less frequent GJA stricture formation. TRRYGB provides no clinical advantages over the LRYGB-LS and LRYGB-HS techniques.

  5. Randomized clinical trial comparing long-term quality of life for Billroth I versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Nakamori, M; Ojima, T; Iwahashi, M; Horiuchi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamade, N; Shimada, K; Oka, M; Yamaue, H

    2016-03-01

    Patients' quality of life (QoL) deteriorates remarkably after gastrectomy. Billroth I reconstruction following distal gastrectomy has the physiological advantage of allowing food to pass through the duodenum. It was hypothesized that Billroth I reconstruction would be superior to Roux-en-Y reconstruction in terms of long-term QoL after distal gastrectomy. This study compared two reconstructions in a multicentre prospective randomized clinical trial to identify the optimal reconstruction procedure. Between January 2009 and September 2010, patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer were randomized during surgery to Billroth I or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The primary endpoint was assessment of QoL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Gastric (FACT-Ga) questionnaire 36 months after surgery. A total of 122 patients were enrolled in the study, 60 to Billroth I and 62 to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of postoperative complications or mortality, and no significant differences in FACT-Ga total score (P = 0·496). Symptom scales such as epigastric fullness (heaviness), diarrhoea and fatigue were significantly better in the Billroth I group at 36 months after gastrectomy (heaviness, P = 0·040; diarrhoea, P = 0·046; fatigue, P = 0·029). The rate of weight loss in the third year was lower for patients in the Billroth I group (P = 0·046). The choice of anastomotic reconstruction after distal gastrectomy resulted in no difference in long-term QoL in patients with gastric cancer. NCT01065688 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Alterations of sucrose preference after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Bueter, M; Miras, A D; Chichger, H; Fenske, W; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Unwin, R J; Lutz, T A; Spector, A C; le Roux, C W

    2011-10-24

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) patients reportedly have changes in perception and consumption of sweet-tasting foods. This study aimed to further investigate alterations in sweet food intake in rats and sucrose detection in humans after gastric bypass. Wistar rats were randomized to gastric bypass or sham-operations and preference for sucrose (sweet), sodium chloride (salty), citric acid (sour) and quinine hydrochloride (bitter) was assessed with standard two-bottle intake tests (vs. water). Intestinal T1R2 and T1R3 expression and plasma levels of glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were measured. Furthermore, obese patients and normal weight controls were tested for sucrose taste detection thresholds pre- and postoperatively. Visual analogue scales measuring hedonic perception were used to determine the sucrose concentration considered by patients and controls as "just about right" pre- and postoperatively. Gastric bypass reduced the sucrose intake relative to water in rats (p<0.001). Preoperative sucrose exposure reduced this effect. Preference or aversion for compounds representative of other taste qualities in naïve rats remained unaffected. Intestinal T1R2 and T1R3 expression was significantly decreased in the alimentary limb while plasma levels of GLP-1 and PYY were elevated after bypass in rats (p=0.01). Bypass patients showed increased taste sensitivity to low sucrose concentrations compared with controls (p<0.05), but both groups considered the same sucrose concentration as "just about right" postoperatively. In conclusion, gastric bypass reduces sucrose intake relative to water in sucrose-naïve rats, but preoperative sucrose experience attenuates this effect. Changes in sucrose taste detection do not predict hedonic taste ratings of sucrose in bypass patients which remain unchanged. Thus, factors other than the unconditional affective value of the taste may also play a role in determining food preferences after gastric bypass

  7. Late intestinal obstruction due to an intestinal volvulus in a pregnant patient with a previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Gazzalle, Anajara; Braun, Débora; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti; Wendt, Luiz Roberto; Navarini, Daniel; Fauri, Marcelo de Azevedo; Vitola, Santo Pascual

    2010-12-01

    This is a case of a 33 weeks pregnant woman, presented 2 years after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, with abdominal pain for 2 days. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed 1 day earlier in another hospital, without improving the pain. She presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain and clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, undergoing an exploratory laparotomy that revealed a volvulus and necrosis of the jejunum from the gastroenteroanastomosis through the lateral enteroenterostomy, which was resected with the reconstruction of the Roux-en-Y limb performed at the same operation. Patient and neonate presented with improvement after surgery and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 15. Internal hernias after bariatric surgery have been reported as the cause of acute abdomen problems during pregnancy, which may progress to necrosis and perforation. The delay of surgical intervention could have brought a tragic outcome for mother and neonate.

  8. The physiology of altered eating behaviour after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Carel W; Bueter, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Obesity and its related comorbidities can be detrimental for the affected individual, as well as constituting a major challenge to public health systems worldwide. Currently, the most effective treatment option leading to clinically significant and maintained body weight loss and reduction in obesity-related morbidity and mortality is obesity surgery, which is recommended for patients with a body mass index of >40 kg m(-2), or >35 kg m(-2) if obesity-associated comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, are present. This report focuses on the altered eating behaviour after the most common of these operations, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Animal and human experiments designed to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms of altered taste and appetite are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a retrospective, single-center study of early perioperative outcomes at a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Arif; Carleton, Jared D; Ahmad, Zoha F; Agarwala, Ashish

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the operative and early perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures performed in a community hospital setting. The study was a chart review and analysis of the early perioperative outcomes of a total of 345 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures performed by a single surgeon in a community hospital setting from January 2011 to October 2014. Of these, 173 procedures were performed laparoscopically and 172 were performed with robotic assistance utilizing the daVinci(®) surgical platform. Factors such as baseline patient characteristics, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), conversions to open procedure, complication rates, adverse events, length of stay (LOS), and return to the operating room for the two groups were retrospectively analyzed from a prospectively maintained database. Student's t test with unequal variances was used for statistical analysis, and a p value <0.05 was used for significance. There were no statistically significant differences in complication rates, EBL, or LOS between the two groups. There was a significant difference between the total operative times (135.30 ± 37.60 min for the laparoscopic procedure versus 154.84 ± 38.44 min for the robotic procedure, p < 0.05). There were no adverse intraoperative events, conversions to open procedures, leaks, strictures, returns to the operating room within 30 days, or mortalities in either group. Our study, which is the first of its kind to analyze the operative and early perioperative outcomes between laparoscopic and robotic-assisted Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures in the US community hospital setting, indicates that both are comparable in terms of safety, efficacy, and operative and early perioperative outcomes.

  10. Giant perforated marginal ulcer after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Edward; Blackham, Ruth; Tan, Jeremy; Hamdorf, Jeffrey

    2017-04-11

    Perforation of a marginal ulcer (MU) is a complication of Roux -en-Y gastric bypass that can be life-threatening. We report a case of a perforated MU that presented 7 months after surgery with several interesting points for discussion. Firstly, the presentation of the ulcer was cryptic with unreliable investigations. Secondly, the ulcer presented again even after anastomotic revision surgery. Finally, the ulcer and the sepsis associated with perforation presented after months of poor nutritional intake with profound hypoalbuminaemia. Perforated MUs causing malnutrition pose clinicians with the difficult decision of which operation to offer; patch repair, revision of the anastomosis or reversal surgery. This case illustrates that primary reversal surgery for a perforated recurrent MU may be the most appropriate surgical management in this clinical situation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Uncut Roux-en-Y reconstruction after totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for early stage gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua; Long, Ziwen; Xuan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Roux Stasis Syndrome is a well-known complication after Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Uncut Roux-en-Y technique, would preserve unidirectional intestinal myoelectrical activity and diminish Roux Stasis Syndrome. A 61 years old woman with moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of antrum who was diagnosed by gastroscopy and histological test, underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG) with D2 lymph node dissection and uncut Roux-en-Y reconstruction (URYR). The length of operation was 190 min with bleeding of about 40 mL. The patient recovers well postoperation and discharged from hospital on the 7 th day. TLDG with intracorporeal uncut Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomies using laparoscopic linear staplers was safe and feasible with minimal invasiveness.

  12. The physiology underlying Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a status report

    PubMed Central

    Bueter, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its related comorbidities can be detrimental for the affected individual and challenge public health systems worldwide. Currently, the only available treatment options leading to clinically significant and maintained body weight loss and reduction in obesity-related morbidity and mortality are based on surgical interventions. This review will focus on two main clinical effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), namely body weight loss and change in eating behavior. Animal experiments designed to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms of these post-gastric bypass effects will be discussed. Where appropriate, reference will also be made to vertical sleeve gastrectomy. While caloric malabsorption and mechanical restriction seem not to be major factors in this respect, alterations in gut hormone levels are invariably found after RYGB. However, their causal role in RYGB effects on eating and body weight has recently been challenged. Other potential factors contributing to the RYGB effects include increased bile acid concentrations and an altered composition of gut microbiota. RYGB is further associated with remarkable changes in preference for different dietary components, such as a decrease in the preference for high fat or sugar. It needs to be noted, however, that in many cases, the question about the necessity of these alterations for the success of bariatric surgery procedures remains unanswered. PMID:25253084

  13. Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy in the treatment of Bouveret syndrome.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Michael D; Kim, Anthony W; Richter, Harry M; Myers, Jonathan A

    2009-09-01

    Bouveret syndrome is a rare complication of cholelithiasis occurring when a gallstone passes through a cholecystoduodenal or choledochoduodenal fistula and lodges in the pylorus or proximal duodenum causing a gastric outlet obstruction. The case of a 70-year-old male who developed Bouveret syndrome is presented, and the management of this presentation of gallstone ileus by Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy is discussed in detail.

  14. Down-Regulation of Renal Gluconeogenesis in Type II Diabetic Rats Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Potential Mechanism in Hypoglycemic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Lin, Ning; Yan, Hong-Tao; Luo, Hao; Chen, Guang-Yu; Cui, Jian-Feng; Shi, Li; Chen, Tao; Wang, Tao; Tang, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on renal gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetic rats and its relationship with hormonal parameters. Methods Diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 35 mg/kg) combined with a high-fat diet. They were then randomly divided into three groups: diabetes model group (DM group, n = 8), sham Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group (SRYGB group, n = 8), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group (RYGB group, n = 14). Another 8 normal rats comprised the normal control group (NC group, n = 8). Body weight, glucose, serum lipid, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, and adiponectin were measured pre- and postoperatively. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), insulin receptor-α (IR-α), insulin receptor-β (IR-β), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (Gsk3b) were measured in renal cortex by using RT-PCR and Western immune-blot analyses on the 4th week after operation. Results Following RYGB surgery, surgery-treated rats showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance as well as increased post-gavage insulin levels and serum circulating levels of GLP-1 and adiponectin. RT-PCR and Western immune-blot analyses showed PEPCK and G6Pase protein and mRNA to be significantly decreased in the renal cortex in the RYGB group (p < 0.05 vs. DM or SRYGB group); in addition, IR-α and Gsk3b phosphorylation levels increased in the RYGB group (p < 0.05 vs. DM or SRYGB group). Conclusion Down-regulation of renal gluconeogenic enzymes might be a potential mechanism in hypoglycemia. An improved insulin signal pathway in the renal cortex and increased circulating adiponectin concentrations may contribute to the decline of renal gluconeogenesis following RYGB surgery. PMID:25832593

  15. The Sleeping Remnant. Effect of Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass on Plasma Levels of Gastric Biomarkers in Morbidly Obese Women: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Federico; Tartamella, Francesco; De Sario, Giuseppina; Forlini, Clarissa; Caleffi, Alberta; Riccò, Matteo; Di Mario, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Morpho-functional modifications of the gastric remnant after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) have not been completely defined, due to its inaccessibility for bioptic mapping. The aim of the study is to evaluate such modifications using Gastropanel®, a non-invasive blood test cross-checking four gastric biomarkers, able to provide a snapshot of mucosa conditions. Twenty-four women undergoing RYGB were prospectively enrolled. Gastropanel® parameters (pepsinogens, Gastrin-17 and immunoglobulins against Helicobacter pylori), biometrical/clinical data were collected preoperatively and at 6-months follow-up. All parameters showed significant reduction (p < 0.05). Pepsinogen I reduction correlated with BMI percent decrease. The exclusion of food transit is responsible for significant drop in gastric output, hardly representing a risk factor in the remnant carcinogenesis, being unexposed to alimentary carcinogenic agents.

  16. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in mice--surgical technique and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, F; Lannoo, M; Gsell, W; Tremoleda, J L; Bueter, M; Olbers, T; Jurowich, C; Germer, C-T; le Roux, C W

    2012-07-01

    A reproducible Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) model in mice is needed to study the physiological alterations after surgery. Male C57BL6 mice weighing 29.0 ± 0.8 g underwent either RYGB (n = 14) or sham operations (n = 6). RYGB surgery consisted of a small gastric pouch (~2 % of the initial stomach size), a biliopancreatic and alimentary limb of 10 cm each and a common channel of 15 cm. Animals had free access to standard chow in the postoperative period. Body mass and food intake were recorded for 60 days. Bomb calorimetry was used for faecal analysis. Anatomical rearrangement was assessed using planar X-ray fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) after oral Gastrografin® injection. RYGB surgery led to a sustained reduction in body weight compared to sham-operated mice (postoperative week 1: sham 27.8 ± 0.7 g vs. RYGB 26.5 ± 1.0 g, p = 0.008; postoperative week 8: sham 30.7 ± 0.8 g vs. RYGB 28.4 ± 1.1 g, p = 0.003). RYGB mice ate less compared to shams (sham 4.6 ± 0.2 g/day vs. RYGB 4.3 ± 0.4 g/day, p < 0.001). There were no differences in faecal mass (p = 0.13) and faecal energy content (p = 0.44) between RYGB and shams. CT scan demonstrated the expected anatomical rearrangement without leakage or stenosis. Fluoroscopy revealed rapid pouch emptying. RYGB with a small gastric pouch is technically feasible in mice. With this model in place, genetically manipulated mouse models could be used to study the physiological mechanisms involved with metabolic changes after gastric bypass.

  17. Adipocyte Size and Leptin Receptor Expression in Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Tamez, Martha; Ramos-Barragan, Victoria; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Arrieta-Joffe, Pablo; López-Martínez, Sergio; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín E; Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Frigolet, María E

    2017-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms implicated in pronounced weight loss and metabolic benefits after bariatric surgery are still unknown. Adipocyte phenotype and metabolism have not been entirely explored. However, some features of adipocyte function have been studied, such as adipocyte size and inflammation, which are both reduced after bariatric surgery. Adipocyte fat metabolism, which is partly regulated by leptin, is likely modified, since adipocyte area is decreased. Here, we show that leptin receptor expression is increased, while adipocyte size is decreased 8 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Thus, adipocyte function is possibly modified by improved leptin signaling after bariatric surgery.

  18. Internal hernia in late pregnancy after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Gruetter, Florian; Kraljević, Marko; Nebiker, Christian A; Delko, Tarik

    2014-12-23

    A 27-year-old patient in late pregnancy presented to the department of obstetrics with crampy abdominal pain located in the right flank, 3 years after a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Clinical investigation showed tenderness on palpation in the upper abdomen without signs of peritonitis. The cardiotocogram and blood tests were normal. The ultrasound showed a hydronephrosis on the right side, and a pigtail catheter was inserted. The abdominal symptoms did not abate and the abdominal surgeon was consulted 36 hours after admission. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed promptly because of high suspicion of internal hernia (IH). Laparoscopy showed IH at the mesojejunal intermesenteric defect with a herniated common channel and volvulus of the anastomosis. Conversion to open reduction and complete closure with non-absorbable interrupted sutures was performed. Small bowel resection was avoided. The patient was discharged 10 days after the operation and a healthy boy was born 4 weeks later. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Biliary reconstruction options for bile duct stricture in patients with prior Roux-en-Y reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mihir M; Martin, Benjamin M; Stetler, Jamil L; Patel, Ankit D; Davis, S Scott; Lin, Edward; Sarmiento, Juan M

    2017-09-01

    Comprehensive description with illustrations of the 4 biliary reconstruction options for bile duct injury in patients with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal sweet-sensing pathways and metabolic changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Hina Y.; Deelman, Tara E.; le Roux, Carel W.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Rhoads, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that improvements in type 2 diabetes (T2D) post- Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are attributable to decreased intestinal glucose absorption capacity mediated by exclusion of sweet taste-sensing pathways in isolated proximal bowel. We probed these pathways in rat models that had undergone RYGB with catheter placement in the biliopancreatic (BP) limb to permit post-RYGB exposure of isolated bowel to sweet taste stimulants. Lean Sprague Dawley (n = 13) and obese Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 15) underwent RYGB with BP catheter placement. On postoperative day 11 (POD 11), rats received catheter infusions of saccharin [sweet taste receptor (T1R2/3) agonist] or saline (control). Jejunum was analyzed for changes in glucose transporter/sensor mRNA expression and functional sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated glucose uptake. Saccharin infusion did not alter glucose uptake in the Roux limb of RYGB rats. Intestinal expression of the glucose sensor T1R2 and transporters (SGLT1, glucose transporter 2) was similar in saccharin- vs. saline-infused rats of both strains. However, the abundance of SGLT3b mRNA, a putative glucose sensor, was higher in the common limb vs. BP/Roux limb in both strains of bypassed rats and was significantly decreased in the Roux limb after saccharin infusion. We concluded that failure of BP limb exposure to saccharin to increase Roux limb glucose uptake suggests that isolation of T1R2/3 is unlikely to be involved in metabolic benefits of RYGB, as restimulation failed to reverse changes in intestinal glucose absorption capacity. The altered expression pattern of SGLT3 after RYGB warrants further investigation of its potential involvement in resolution of T2D after RYGB. PMID:24994857

  1. Intestinal sweet-sensing pathways and metabolic changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Hina Y; Deelman, Tara E; le Roux, Carel W; Ashley, Stanley W; Rhoads, David B; Tavakkoli, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Studies suggest that improvements in type 2 diabetes (T2D) post- Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are attributable to decreased intestinal glucose absorption capacity mediated by exclusion of sweet taste-sensing pathways in isolated proximal bowel. We probed these pathways in rat models that had undergone RYGB with catheter placement in the biliopancreatic (BP) limb to permit post-RYGB exposure of isolated bowel to sweet taste stimulants. Lean Sprague Dawley (n = 13) and obese Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 15) underwent RYGB with BP catheter placement. On postoperative day 11 (POD 11), rats received catheter infusions of saccharin [sweet taste receptor (T1R2/3) agonist] or saline (control). Jejunum was analyzed for changes in glucose transporter/sensor mRNA expression and functional sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated glucose uptake. Saccharin infusion did not alter glucose uptake in the Roux limb of RYGB rats. Intestinal expression of the glucose sensor T1R2 and transporters (SGLT1, glucose transporter 2) was similar in saccharin- vs. saline-infused rats of both strains. However, the abundance of SGLT3b mRNA, a putative glucose sensor, was higher in the common limb vs. BP/Roux limb in both strains of bypassed rats and was significantly decreased in the Roux limb after saccharin infusion. We concluded that failure of BP limb exposure to saccharin to increase Roux limb glucose uptake suggests that isolation of T1R2/3 is unlikely to be involved in metabolic benefits of RYGB, as restimulation failed to reverse changes in intestinal glucose absorption capacity. The altered expression pattern of SGLT3 after RYGB warrants further investigation of its potential involvement in resolution of T2D after RYGB. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Spiral assisted ERCP is equivalent to single balloon assisted ERCP in patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Anne Marie; Kapoor, Sumit; Khashab, Mouen; Corless, Erin; Amateau, Stuart; Dunbar, Kerry; Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Singh, Vikesh; Okolo, Patrick I

    2012-05-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is often unsuccessful in patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy. Augmented enteroscopy allows deep insertion into the small bowel and can be useful in patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy. The aim of this study was to compare single balloon assisted ERCP (SBE-ERCP) and spiral assisted ERCP (SE-ERCP) in patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic yield, procedure time, and complications. This is a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy who underwent SBE-ERCP or SE-ERCP between October 2007 and March 2011. Diagnostic yield was defined as successful duct cannulation. Therapeutic yield was defined as the ability to successfully carry out endoscopic therapy in those cannulated. Procedure time and complications were assessed. Thirty-four consecutive patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy underwent 54 ERCP procedures. The overall diagnostic yield was 44.4% with no significant difference between the diagnostic yield of SBE-ERCP (48.3%) and SE-ERCP (40%). The diagnostic yield was lower in patients with gastric by-pass (38.9%) compared with other types of Roux-en-Y anatomy (47.2%) but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.772). The overall therapeutic yield was 93.8%, with a therapeutic yield of 100% for SBE-ERCP and 87.5% for SE-ERCP (P = 1.0). There was one perforation during SBE-ERCP, giving a complication rate of 3.5%. The mean procedure time did not differ between the two techniques. Diagnostic and therapeutic yields are similar with SBE-ERCP and SE-ERCP in patients with Roux-en-Y anatomy with no significant difference in procedure time or complication rates.

  3. Factors associated with complications or failure of endoscopic balloon dilation of anastomotic stricture secondary to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Eduardo G H; Orso, Ivan R B; Aurélio, Eduardo F; de Moura, Eduardo T H; de Moura, Diogo T H; Santo, Marco A

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a commonly used technique of bariatric surgery. One of the most important complications is gastrojejunal anastomotic stricture. Endoscopic balloon dilation appears to be well tolerated and effective, but well-designed randomized, controlled trials have not yet been conducted. Identify factors associated with complications or failure of endoscopic balloon dilation of anastomotic stricture secondary to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Gastrointestinal endoscopy service, university hospital, Brazil. The records of 64 patients with anastomotic stricture submitted to endoscopic dilation with hydrostatic balloon dilation were reviewed. Information was collected on gastric pouch length, anastomosis diameter before dilation, number of dilation sessions, balloon diameter at each session, anastomosis diameter after the last dilation session, presence of postsurgical complications, endoscopic complications, and outcome of dilation. Comparisons were made among postsurgical and endoscopic complications; number of dilations, balloon diameter; anastomosis diameter before dilation; and dilation outcome. Success of dilation treatment was 95%. Perforation was positively and significantly associated with the number of dilation sessions (P = .03). Highly significant associations were found between ischemic segment and perforation (P<.001) and between ischemic segment and bleeding (P = .047). Ischemic segment (P = .02) and fistula (P = .032) were also associated with dilation failure. Ischemic segment and fistula were found to be important risk factors for balloon dilation failure. The greater the number of dilation sessions, the greater the number of endoscopic complications. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trans-Gastric ERCP After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aiolfi, Alberto; Asti, Emanuele; Rausa, Emanuele; Bernardi, Daniele; Bonitta, Gianluca; Bonavina, Luigi

    2018-04-23

    Trans-oral endoscopic access to the pancreaticobiliary system is challenging after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Trans-gastric ERCP (TG-ERCP) has emerged as a viable option to manage patients with symptomatic post-RYBG choledocolithiasis. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the outcomes of TG-ERCP to better define the risk-benefit ratio of this procedure and to guide clinical decision-making. A literature search was conducted to identify all reports on ERCP after RYGB. Pubmed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were thoroughly consulted matching the terms "ERCP" AND "gastric bypass." Pooled prevalence of ERCP success rate, ERCP-related morbidity, post-procedural infectious complications, and overall morbidity were calculated using Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation and DerSimonian-Laird estimator in random effect meta-analysis. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using I 2 -index and Cochrane Q test. Meta-regression was used to address the effect of potential confounders. Thirteen papers published between 2009 and 2017 matched the inclusion criteria. Eight hundred fifty patients undergoing 931 procedures were included. The most common clinical indications for TG-ERCP were biliary (90%) and pancreatic (10%). The majority of patients underwent an initial laparoscopic approach (90%). Same-day ERCP was successfully achieved in 703 cases (75.5%). Pooled prevalence of ERCP success rate, ERCP-related morbidity, post-procedural infectious complications, and overall morbidity were 99% (95% CI = 98-100%), 3.1% (95% CI = 1.0-5.8%), 3.4% (95% CI = 1.7-5.5%), and 14.2% (95% CI = 8.5-20.8%), respectively. TG-ERCP is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with symptomatic post-RYGB choledocolithiasis.

  5. Addictive disorders after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, James E; Steffen, Kristine; Engel, Scott; King, Wendy C; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Winters, Ken; Sogg, Stephanie; Sondag, Cindy; Kalarchian, Melissa; Elder, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that some patients may develop addictive disorders after bariatric surgery, in particular after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These may include traditional addictions and so called "behavioral addictions," although prevalence data on the latter have not been published. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of addictive behaviors in adults after RYGB. Participants from a large observational study of bariatric surgery who had undergone RYGB were recruited to complete additional measures. Of 241 consented participants, 201 provided data (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I [SCID], additional Impulsive Control Disorder Modules, and various self-report measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT]) to assess status before surgery and in the first 3 postoperative years. Based on the SCID, 16 (8.0%) developed alcohol use disorder [AUD] within 3 years post-RYGB, 7 (43.8%) of whom had no history of AUD. When both the SCID and AUDIT were used to identify AUD, the corresponding numbers/percentages were 32 (18.4%) and 13 (40.6%). Data on other behavioral addictive disorders indicated 19 (9.5%) had a postsurgery disorder, 6 (31.6%) of whom had no history. These data add to a growing literature suggesting there is a substantial risk for the development of AUD after bariatric surgery. Understanding the risk for nondrug-related addictive disorders requires more data from larger studies before clear conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy vs Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Weight Loss at 5 Years Among Patients With Morbid Obesity: The SLEEVEPASS Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Paulina; Helmiö, Mika; Ovaska, Jari; Juuti, Anne; Leivonen, Marja; Peromaa-Haavisto, Pipsa; Hurme, Saija; Soinio, Minna; Nuutila, Pirjo; Victorzon, Mikael

    2018-01-16

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for treatment of morbid obesity has increased substantially despite the lack of long-term results compared with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. To determine whether laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are equivalent for weight loss at 5 years in patients with morbid obesity. The Sleeve vs Bypass (SLEEVEPASS) multicenter, multisurgeon, open-label, randomized clinical equivalence trial was conducted from March 2008 until June 2010 in Finland. The trial enrolled 240 morbidly obese patients aged 18 to 60 years, who were randomly assigned to sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass with a 5-year follow-up period (last follow-up, October 14, 2015). Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (n = 121) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 119). The primary end point was weight loss evaluated by percentage excess weight loss. Prespecified equivalence margins for the clinical significance of weight loss differences between gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy were -9% to +9% excess weight loss. Secondary end points included resolution of comorbidities, improvement of quality of life (QOL), all adverse events (overall morbidity), and mortality. Among 240 patients randomized (mean age, 48 [SD, 9] years; mean baseline body mass index, 45.9, [SD, 6.0]; 69.6% women), 80.4% completed the 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 42.1% had type 2 diabetes, 34.6% dyslipidemia, and 70.8% hypertension. The estimated mean percentage excess weight loss at 5 years was 49% (95% CI, 45%-52%) after sleeve gastrectomy and 57% (95% CI, 53%-61%) after gastric bypass (difference, 8.2 percentage units [95% CI, 3.2%-13.2%], higher in the gastric bypass group) and did not meet criteria for equivalence. Complete or partial remission of type 2 diabetes was seen in 37% (n = 15/41) after sleeve gastrectomy and in 45% (n = 18/40) after gastric bypass (P > .99). Medication for dyslipidemia was discontinued in 47% (n

  7. Surgical Elimination of the Gastric Digestion by Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Impacts on Food Sensitisation-a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Shakeri-Leidenmühler, Soheila; Lukschal, Anna; Schultz, Cornelia; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix; Birsan, Tudor; Diesner, Susanne C; Greisenegger, Elli K; Scheiner, Otto; Kopp, Tamara; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Prager, Gerhard; Untersmayr, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of gastric digestion due to pH elevation increases the risk for food allergy induction. As patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery have lower gastric acidity and less gastric gland secretion, we aimed to analyse in a prospective study the effect of limiting gastric digestion capacity by surgical intervention on the immune response towards allergens. Nine patients undergoing RYGB surgery for morbid obesity and one control patient having undergone surgery for treatment of an incisional hernia were enrolled in the study. Before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery, blood was collected for analysis of specific IgE antibodies, and patients were subjected to skin prick testing with 16 food and 18 aeroallergens. Skin prick test results revealed an increase of positive reactions indicating sensitisations towards the tested food and aeroallergens in 77.8 and 88.9 % of the patients, respectively, after surgical elimination of gastric digestion. These results were in line with elevated titers of food- and aeroallergen-specific IgE antibodies in 7 out of 9 (7/9) and 5/9 patients, respectively, after RYGB surgery. Serum cytokine levels revealed a mixed response for IFN-γ and were mostly beneath detection limit for IL-4. A change of IgE reactivity pattern occurred after impairment of gastric digestion due to surgical elimination underlining the important gastric gatekeeping function during oral sensitisation. Even though this study indicates an increased allergy risk for gastric bypass patients, further studies are needed to investigate in-depth the immunological changes associated with RYGB surgery.

  8. Comparison of Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems for the assessment of nutrient intake before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Marques da Silva, Mariane; Sala, Priscila Campos; Cardinelli, Camila Siqueira; Torrinhas, Raquel Suzana; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The assessment of nutritional intake before and after bariatric surgery assists in identifying eating disorders, nutritional deficiencies and weight loss/maintenance. The 7-day record is the gold standard for such an assessment and is interpreted using specialized software. This study sought to compare the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems in assessing nutrient intake in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS: Nutritional intake was assessed in 10 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and 3 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The 7-day record was used to assess food intake and then, the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems were used to calculate calorie, macronutrient and micronutrient intake based on validated food chemical composition databases. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01251016. RESULTS: During the preoperative period, deficits in the ingestion of total fiber and 15 out of 22 estimated micronutrients were observed when using the Virtual Nutri Plus®, compared to deficiencies in total fiber and 4 micronutrients when using the Dietpro 5i®. During the postoperative period, both the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® systems detected deficits in the ingestion of total fiber, carbohydrates and 19 micronutrients, but only the Virtual Nutri Plus® detected deficits in complex B vitamins (except B12) and minerals. CONCLUSION: Virtual Nutri Plus® was more sensitive than Dietpro 5i® for the identification of deficits in nutrient intake in obese, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID:25518027

  9. Pancreatic and Intestinal Function Post Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Stephen J D; Rakitt, Tina; Ou, Junhai; El Hajj, Ihab I; Blaney, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Holst, Jens-Jules; Rehlfeld, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the fact that the most effective treatment for morbid obesity today is gastric bypass surgery, some patients develop life-threatening nutritional complications associated with their weight loss. Methods: Here we examine the influence of the altered anatomy and digestive physiology on pancreatic secretion and fat absorption. Thirteen post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients who had lost >100 lbs in the first year following surgery and who gave variable histories of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, were selected for study. Food-stimulated pancreatic enzyme secretion and GI hormone responses were measured during 2 h perfusions of the Roux limb with a standard polymeric liquid formula diet and polyethylene glycol marker, with collections of secretions from the common channel distal to the anastomosis and blood testing. Fat absorption was then measured during a 72 h balance study when a normal diet was given containing ~100 g fat/d. Results: Result showed that all patients had some fat malabsorption, but eight had coefficients of fat absorption <80%, indicative of steatorrhea. This was associated with significantly lower feed-stimulated secretion rates of trypsin, amylase, and lipase, and higher plasma peptide-YY concentrations compared with healthy controls. Five steatorrhea patients were subsequently treated with low quantities of pancreatic enzyme supplements for 3 months, and then retested. The supplements were well tolerated, and fat absorption improved in four of five patients accompanied by an increase in lipase secretion, but body weight increased in only three. Postprandial breath hydrogen concentrations were elevated with some improvement following enzyme supplementation suggesting persistent bacterial overgrowth and decreased colonic fermentation. Conclusions: Our investigations revealed a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal abnormalities, including fat malabsorption, impaired food stimulated pancreatic secretion, ileal brake

  10. Revision with Totally Hand-Sewn Gastrojejunostomy and Vagotomy for Refractory Marginal Ulcer after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Chih; Huang, Chih-Kun; Rajan, Mahendra; Hsin, Ming-Che

    2016-05-01

    Marginal ulcer is not infrequent after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and could result in undesirable complications, such as intractability, bleeding, or perforation. Those patients who failed medical therapy, regarded as refractory marginal ulcers, may be considered as candidates for revisional surgery. Herein, we make a video presentation of a laparoscopic revisional procedure for refractory marginal ulcer. A 29-year-old morbidly obese woman (initial body mass index 37.1 kg/m(2)), a non-smoker, presented with persistent epigastric pain 3 months after initial laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at another institution. After an exhaustive work-up there, only the gastroendoscopy revealed a marginal ulcer and she underwent medical treatment (proton pump inhibitor and sucralfate) for 3 months, but the patient's symptom aggravated and the serial gastroendoscopies still confirmed the marginal ulcer without obvious resolution after a total of 4 months proton pump inhibitor therapy, suggesting failure of medical treatment and intractability. Laparoscopic revisional procedure with totally hand-sewn gastrojejunostomy and vagotomy was performed to relieve her intractable condition. The procedure took 130 min, without any intra-operative complications. Blood loss was 80 mL. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and the postoperative hospital stay was 3 days. She was relieved of her symptoms after this revisional surgery, and a subsequent gastroendoscopy 15 months later showed no marginal ulcers. Though long-term follow-up is needed to draw a definite conclusion, totally hand-sewn gastrojejunostomy and vagotomy remains a practicable revisional procedure to relieve refractory marginal ulcers.

  11. Assessment of routine elimination of postoperative nasogastric decompression after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Sergio; Arteaga, James R; Sawicki, Mark P; Liu, Carson D; Livingston, Edward H

    2002-11-01

    Anastomotic disruption after surgical intervention is an infrequent complication, but may lead to severe morbidity and mortality when it occurs. Of the various gastric procedures, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has one of the highest risks for anastomotic leakage. Consequently, a nasogastric tube (NGT) is frequently placed when these operations are performed. Most studies examining the outcomes for patients without postoperative NGTs have been relatively small with groups of patients undergoing a variety of operations. Assessing the incidence of anastomotic leaks by routine elimination of postoperative NGTs requires a large number of patients. In this study, we assessed the safety and efficacy of routine elimination of NGTs in a large cohort of patients undergoing a single operation. We reviewed our experience with 1067 patients who underwent RYGB at the UCLA medical center. Fifty-six patients had NGTs routinely placed before the implementation of a standard protocol, which eliminated postoperative NGT decompression. The complication rate for the RYGB patient cohort with and without postoperative NGT was compared. We found no difference in the complication rates between the 2 groups (Fisher exact test; P =.21). Our findings suggest that routine placement of an NGT after RYGB is unnecessary.

  12. Percentage of excess BMI lost correlates better with improvement of metabolic syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese subjects: anthropometric indexes and gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marçal; Serpa Neto, Ary; Rossi, Felipe Martin Bianco; Amarante, Rodrigo Dal Moro; Alcântara, Geraldo Chaves; da Silva, Renato Barretto Ferreira; Regina, Paulo Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex disorder characterized by a number of cardiovascular risk factors usually associated with central fat deposition and insulin resistance. Many different medical treatments are available for MS, including bariatric surgery, which improves all risk factors. The present study aimed to evaluate, at the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Obesity Surgery (Brazil), the accuracy of different anthropometric indexes and their correlation with improvement of the MS factors in the postoperative (6-month) period. This was a retrospective study of 140 patients who had undergone gastric bypass. Most of the patients were women (79.3%). The mean body mass index was 44.17 kg/m(2). We evaluated the weight of the subjects, the presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as co-morbidities, and the biochemical parameters. The anthropometric indexes tested included the percentage of excess weight loss, amount lost in kilograms, difference in the body mass index, percentage of initial weight lost, percentage of excess body mass index lost (%EBL), and percentage of initial fat mass lost. The %EBL had a Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.55 (P <.0001) for the difference between the MS factors before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The receiver operating characteristic curve for the %EBL resulted in an area under the curve of 0.846 (P = 0.0001) and a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 61.29%, respectively, for a cutoff value of 64.55%. The %EBL was the best method to report weight loss and the improvement in MS in morbidly obese subjects after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  13. [A Case of Laparoscopic Repair of Internal Hernia after Laparoscope-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy with Antecolic Roux-en-Y Reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Maezawa, Yukio; Cho, Haruhiko; Kano, Kazuki; Nakajima, Tetsushi; Ikeda, Kousuke; Yamada, Takanobu; Sato, Tsutomu; Ohshima, Takashi; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Ogata, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2017-10-01

    A 72-year-old woman had undergone laparoscope-assisted distal gastrectomy with D1 plus lymph node dissection and antecolic Roux-en-Y reconstruction for early gastric cancer. She visited our department outpatient clinic with left upper abdominal pain 1 year and 9 months after the surgery. CT revealed a spiral sign of the superior mesenteric arteriovenous branch. An internal hernia was suspected on hospitalization. Although abdominal symptoms were relieved by conservative treatment, the hernia persisted. Laparoscopic surgery was performed and revealed that almost entire small intestine had been affected due to Petersen's defect. Since no ischemic changes were observed, the defect was repaired laparoscopically with suture closure. There has been no recurrence of internal hernia after the laparoscopic surgery. Internal hernia after distal gastrectomy is relatively rare. However, the risk of internal hernia is high due to the gap between the elevated jejunum and transverse colon mesentery in Roux-en-Y reconstruction and can lead to intestinal necrosis. Since an internal hernia can occur in patients who have undergone gastric resection with Roux-en-Y reconstruction, suture closure of Petersen's defect should be performed to prevent this occurrence.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of uncut Roux-en-Y vs Billroth II reconstruction after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: Which technique is better for avoiding biliary reflux and gastritis?

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; He, Liang; Tong, Wei-Hua; Jia, Zhi-Fang; Su, Tong-Rong; Wang, Quan

    2017-09-14

    To identify which technique is better for avoiding biliary reflux and gastritis between uncut Roux-en-Y and Billroth II reconstruction. A total of 158 patients who underwent laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer at the First Hospital of Jilin University (Changchun, China) between February 2015 and February 2016 were randomized into two groups: uncut Roux-en-Y (group U) and Billroth II group (group B). Postoperative complications and relevant clinical data were compared between the two groups. According to the randomization table, each group included 79 patients. There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between groups U and B (7.6% vs 10.1%, P = 0.576). During the postoperative period, group U stomach pH values were lower than 7 and group B pH values were higher than 7. After 1 year of follow-up, group B presented a higher incidence of biliary reflux and alkaline gastritis. However, histopathology did not show a significant difference in gastritis diagnosis ( P = 0.278), and the amount of residual food and gain of weight between the groups were also not significantly different. At 3 mo there was no evidence of partial recanalization of uncut staple line, but at 1 year the incidence was 13%. Compared with Billroth II reconstruction, uncut Roux-en-Y reconstruction is secure and feasible, and can effectively reduce the incidence of alkaline reflux, residual gastritis, and heartburn. Despite the incidence of recanalization, uncut Roux-en-Y should be widely applied.

  15. [Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Experience at the Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Romero-Lbargüengoitia, María Elena; Lerman-Garber, Israel; Herrera-Hernández, Miguel Francisco; Pablo-Pantoja, Juan; Sierra-Salazar, Mauricio; López-Rosales, Federico; Zamora-Barrón, Margarita; Vargas-Martínez, Angeles; García-García, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a serious health problem associated to a significant reduction in life expectancy. To evaluate the anthropometric and metabolic changes observed in obese patients, 3, 6 and 12 months after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and the complications associated with the procedure. Retrospective study that included 128 consecutive obese patients submitted for bariatric surgery at the INCMNSZ (2004-2006). Their mean age was 38 +/- 10 years, 83% were women with a BMI of 48 +/- 6 Kg/m2. 65% were hypertensives, 55% had hypertriglyceridemia and 34% diabetes. A year after surgery all patients had at least reduced 20% their body weight and the percentage of excess body weight loss was 73%. The prevalence of hypertension, hypertrigliceridemia and diabetes was reduced to 24%, 17% and 12%, respectively (p < 0.001). Four patients died (3%), all of them had a leak of the anastomosis and intra-abdominal abscess. One died because pulmonary embolism, another with a myocardial infarction (after surgical reinterventions) and the other two with sepsis. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in morbid obese patients favors significant reductions in body weight and associated co morbidities. This surgery is not free of complications and mortality, reason why it must be done only by surgical and interdisciplinary groups with experience in these procedures.

  16. Optimal Roux-en-Y reconstruction after distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer as assessed using the newly developed PGSAS-45 scale.

    PubMed

    Kawahira, Hiroshi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Hiki, Naoki; Takahashi, Masazumi; Itoh, Seiji; Mitsumori, Norio; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Inada, Takao; Nakada, Koji

    2015-10-01

    The optimal surgical procedure for distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction (DGRY) remains to be determined. Recently, a self-report assessment instrument, the Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale-45 (PGSAS-45), was compiled to evaluate symptoms, the living status and the quality of life of patients who have undergone gastrectomy. We used this scale to evaluate procedures used for DGRY. The subjects included 475 patients who underwent DGRY for stage IA/IB gastric cancer. We evaluated whether the size of the remnant stomach, length of the Roux limb, reconstruction route and anastomotic procedure affected the patients' symptoms, living status and quality of life assessed using the PGSAS-45. Patients with a residual stomach of more than half had significantly worse esophageal reflux scores than the patients with a smaller residual stomach (P = 0.0462); a residual stomach of one-third or one-fourth was favorable. A shorter length of the Roux limb was shown to be preferable to a longer Roux limb based on the results of the PGSAS-45. In addition, antecolic reconstruction and the anastomotic procedure using a linear stapler were found to be more favorable. The size of the remnant stomach and the length and route of the Roux limb significantly influence the patient-reported DGRY outcomes.

  17. Metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. I: energy balance, metabolic changes, and fat loss.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Lagoy, A; Discenza, I; Papineau, G; Lewis, E; Braden, G; Romanelli, J; Braun, B; Silva, J E

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. Effective treatment requires understanding the homeostatic responses to caloric restriction. The aim was to study Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients longitudinally for 6 months after surgery to identify major factors modulating fat loss. We studied 13 patients (11 females and two males) aged 41.2 ± 2 yr. Mean body mass index was 44.6 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), with 50 ± 1% body fat (58.3 kg). Selection excluded patients with confounding comorbidities or treatments. Caloric intake was reduced 742 ± 82 kcal/d by 1 month and 450 kcal/d between 2 and 4 months postoperatively. By 6 months, relative to baseline, body mass index decreased 24.8 ± 1.1%; percentage body fat, 37.3 ± 3.2% (21.7 kg); fat free mass (FFM), 9.7 ± 1.2%; and resting metabolic rate (RMR), 18.1 ± 4.3%. RMR correlated with FFM at all times (r = 0.71; P < 0.0001), but FFM explained no more than 50% of RMR variance. Exercise capacity (treadmill walking, 53 m/min with increasing grade) improved with time. Mean nonexercise physical activity level was low (1.2, or 20% of RMR), with considerable variance among individuals. Fat loss did not correlate with the aggregate energy deficit or its individual components. Resting or postexercise respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lowest, whereas plasma β-OH-butyrate and glycerol were highest, between 1 and 2 months after surgery. RER increased linearly with mild exercise, and fat loss correlated positively with physical activity level and RER. Although the ultimate cause for weight loss is the energy deficit, the variance in fat loss correlated with glucose oxidation, suggesting that glucose partition between oxidation (muscle) and storage (adipose tissue) is an important factor affecting fat loss in individuals submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  18. Repeated Duodenal Stump Perforation Using a Stapling Device Following Subtotal Gastrectomy With Roux-en-Y Reconstruction for Advanced Gastric Cancer: Lessons From a Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Tadashi; Furihata, Makoto; Satoh, Naoki; Kosaka, Masato; Ishikawa, Kunibumi; Kubota, Keiichi

    2015-04-01

    Closure of the duodenal stump using a stapling device is commonly applied in Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy. However, serious and possibly fatal duodenal stump perforation can develop in extremely rare cases. We describe a case of subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction followed by repeated duodenal stump perforations. A 79-year-old man with a long history of diabetes and hypertension was admitted to our institution with epigastralgia and right hypochondralgia. Computed tomography and an upper gastrointestinal imaging series revealed remarkable wall thickening of the gastric antrum and corpus. Upper endoscopy also showed a giant ulcerative lesion in the same area. The lesion was confirmed by histology to be poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent open subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. However, duodenal stump perforation occurred repeatedly on postoperative days 1, 3, and 19, which caused peritonitis. The patient was kept alive through duodenal stump repair, an additional resection using a stapling device, and repeated drainage treatments; but he suffered considerable morbidity due to these complications. We report a case of a life-threatening duodenal stump perforation after subtotal gastrectomy, highlighting lessons learned from the profile and clinical course. Abdominal surgeons should be aware of the possibility of this serious complication of duodenal stump perforation, and be able to perform immediate interventions, including life-saving reoperation.

  19. A patient-centered electronic tool for weight loss outcomes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Wood, G Craig; Benotti, Peter; Gerhard, Glenn S; Miller, Elaina K; Zhang, Yushan; Zaccone, Richard J; Argyropoulos, George A; Petrick, Anthony T; Still, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Current patient education and informed consent regarding weight loss expectations for bariatric surgery candidates are largely based on averages from large patient cohorts. The variation in weight loss outcomes illustrates the need for establishing more realistic weight loss goals for individual patients. This study was designed to develop a simple web-based tool which provides patient-specific weight loss expectations. METHODS. Postoperative weight measurements after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were collected and analyzed with patient characteristics known to influence weight loss outcomes. Quantile regression was used to create expected weight loss curves (25th, 50th, and 75th %tile) for the 24 months after RYGB. The resulting equations were validated and used to develop web-based tool for predicting weight loss outcomes. RESULTS. Weight loss data from 2986 patients (2608 in the primary cohort and 378 in the validation cohort) were included. Preoperative body mass index (BMI) and age were found to have a high correlation with weight loss accomplishment (P < 0.0001 for each). An electronic tool was created that provides easy access to patient-specific, 24-month weight loss trajectories based on initial BMI and age. CONCLUSIONS. This validated, patient-centered electronic tool will assist patients and providers in patient teaching, informed consent, and postoperative weight loss management.

  20. Estradiol increases body weight loss and gut-peptide satiation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Asarian, Lori; Abegg, Kathrin; Geary, Nori; Schiesser, Marc; Lutz, Thomas A; Bueter, Marco

    2012-08-01

    Despite the fact that ∼85% of bariatric operations are performed in women, the effects of the reproductive axis function on outcome of bariatric surgery remain to be determined. Here we developed the first published model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in female rats. We show in ovariectomized rats receiving estradiol or control treatment that (1) RYGB-induced body weight loss and (2) the satiating efficacy of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin satiation were significantly increased in estradiol-treated rats. These data are relevant to the care of obese women, in particular perimenopausal women, undergoing bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Outcomes on quality of life, weight loss, and comorbidities after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Coelho Netto da Cunha; Yamaguchi, Nagamassa; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Riccioppo, Daniel; Pinto-Junior, Paulo Engler

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has become the most effective method for producing weight loss in obese patients. The evaluation of improvement of comorbidities and changes in the quality of life are important outcome factors; however, it is necessary to investigate whether they persist over the long term. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 143 obese patients from our institution from February 2007 to February 2008. These patients were divided into five independent groups, one being a control group, plus four other groups with 1, 2, 3, 4 or more years following surgical Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a silicon ring banded. quality of life forms and anthropometric measurements were performed and its scores correlated with social factors, weight loss success, and status of obesity-related conditions. For the group that was 1 year postoperative, a significant percentage of excess body weight loss (EBWL%) of 81.7% was observed. The groups with 2, 3, 4 or more years of post-surgical follow-up showed a EBWL decline, but without significant difference. The main comorbidity percentages in all patients who had the surgery was as follows: 69.7% for hypertension; 88.2% for diabetes mellitus; and 27.5% for arthropathy. There was a significant decrease in the rate for diabetes resolution (P = 0.035) observed by evolutionary assessment of the comorbidity resolution. The results obtained by BAROS were good, very good, or excellent in more than 96% of patients in all evaluations that were performed. The use of the Moorehead-Ardelt Questionnaire (M/A) demonstrated improvement in the quality of life. Moreover, the quality of life, when evaluated through SF-36, also showed improvement in all related areas after 1 year; however, after 4 years, improvement remained elevated only in the areas of general state of health and functional capacity. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure was able to achieve EBWL of 81.7% after 1 year following surgery, remaining steady with little decline after this

  2. Effect of Billroth II or Roux-en-Y Reconstruction for the Gastrojejunostomy After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji; Wang, Chao; Huang, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to compare Billroth II with Roux-en-Y reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). A literature search was carried out to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing postoperative complications of Billroth II versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction following PD published from 1 January 1990 to 31 August 2014. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed effects or random effects models In total, three RCTs with 470 patients were included. Using International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definitions, incidences of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) [grades B and C (3.9 versus 12.9 %; RR 0.30, 95 % CI 0.11-0.79; P = 0.01), DGE grade C (0.7 versus 9.6 %; RR 0.11, 95 % CI 0.02-0.61; P = 0.01)] were significantly lower in the Billroth II group than in the Roux-en-Y group, as was the length of hospital stay (weighted mean difference -4.72, 95 % CI -8.91, -0.53; P = 0.03). Meta-analysis revealed that the incidence of DGE (grades B and C) after PD can be decreased by using Billroth II rather than Roux-en-Y reconstruction.

  3. Single versus double Roux-en-Y reconstruction techniques in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a comparative single-center study.

    PubMed

    Uzunoglu, Faik G; Reeh, Matthias; Wollstein, Romy; Melling, Nathaniel; Perez, Daniel; Vashist, Yogesh K; Bogoevski, Dean; Izbicki, Jakob R; Bockhorn, Maximilian

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of single Roux-en-Y reconstruction (RYR) and double Roux-en-Y reconstruction (dRYR) on intraoperative outcome and postoperative morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) or pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). All patients who underwent surgery between 2000 and 2005 for dRYR and RYR after PD or PPPD at the study hospital were evaluated for inclusion. Comparison of categorical patient characteristics was performed using the χ (2) test. Data were reported as median and range. Differences were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Postoperative complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification scheme and the recommendations of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS). A total of 319 patients were included in final analysis. The median time of surgery was significantly shorter when performing a single Roux-en-Y loop reconstruction (55 min in PD and 50 min in PPPD) (p < 0.001). Saved time had a significant effect on the cost of surgery (p < 0.001). No impact on postoperative outcome according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, the ISGPS definitions of pancreatic fistulas, and delayed gastric emptying was evident. The relaparotomy rate due to severe postoperative hemorrhage was significantly higher in the dRYR PD cohort (2.2 vs. 11.9 %, p < 0.001). Double Roux-en-Y reconstruction of the alimentary tract is not beneficial in terms of surgical outcome and postoperative morbidity and mortality and should be avoided due to unnecessarily prolonged surgery.

  4. A case of retrograde intussusception at Roux-en-Y anastomosis 10 years after total gastrectomy: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kitasato, Yuhei; Midorikawa, Ryuta; Uchino, Yoshihiro; Saku, Shuko; Minami, Taizan; Shirahama, Takahisa; Kiyomatsu, Kazumitsu; Okuda, Koji; Akagi, Yoshito; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    A 63-year-old man, who had undergone total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for gastric cancer 10 years previously, was admitted to our hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, palpable abdominal tumor, and hematemesis. On admission, the abdominal tenderness was improving and no abdominal tumor was palpable. Mild inflammatory changes and anemia were noted on blood examination. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor with a layered structure in the left abdomen. The patient was diagnosed with intestinal obstruction secondary to intussusception, and surgery was performed. Retrograde intussusception was found at the site of the Y anastomosis. We conducted manual reduction using the Hutchinson procedure. The intestinal color after the reduction was good, and no intestinal resection was required. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 12 days after surgery. Reports of jejunal intussusception after total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction are relatively rare. Here, we report a case of jejunal intussusception after total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction.

  5. Outcomes of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Game, Philip; Bessell, Justin; Debreceni, Tamara L; Neo, Melissa; Burgstad, Carly M; Taylor, Pennie; Wittert, Gary A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate weight loss and surgical outcomes of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB). METHODS: Data relating to changes in body mass index (BMI) and procedural complications after RYGB (1995-2009; n = 609; 116M: 493F; 42.4 ± 0.4 years) or LAGB (2004-2009; n = 686; 131M: 555F; 37.2 ± 0.4 years) were extracted from prospective databases. RESULTS: Pre-operative BMI was higher in RYGB than LAGB patients (46.8 ± 7.1 kg/m2 vs 40.4 ± 4.2 kg/m2, P < 001); more patients with BMI < 35 kg/m2 underwent LAGB than RYGB (17.1% vs 4.1%, P < 0.0001). BMI decrease was greater after RYGB. There were direct relationships between weight loss and pre-operative BMI (P < 0.001). Although there was no difference in weight loss between genders during the first 3-year post-surgery, male LAGB patients had greater BMI reduction than females (-8.2 ± 4.3 kg/m2 vs -3.9 ± 1.9 kg/m2, P = 0.02). Peri-operative complications occurred more frequently following RYGB than LAGB (8.0% vs 0.5%, P < 0.001); majority related to wound infection. LAGB had more long-term complications requiring corrective procedures than RYGB (8.9% vs 2.1%, P < 0.001). Conversion to RYGB resulted in greater BMI reduction (-9.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2) compared to removal and replacement of the band (-6.0 ± 3.0 kg/m2). Twelve months post-surgery, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels were significantly lower with the magnitude of reduction greater in RYGB patients. CONCLUSION: RYGB produces substantially greater weight loss than LAGB. Whilst peri-operative complications are greater after RYGB, long-term complication rate is higher following LAGB. PMID:24106404

  6. Hybrid laparoscopic-robotic management of type IVa choledochal cyst in the setting of prior Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: video case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Julietta; Walsh, R Matthew; El-Hayek, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare congenital disease of the biliary system. The recommended treatment of these lesions is surgical excision with biliary enteric reconstruction. In patients with normal anatomy, Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is preferred. However, different options in biliary reconstruction must be entertained in those with abnormal anatomy. Our patient is a 39-year-old female, who during workup for bariatric surgery two years prior to presentation, was found to have a 6 cm dilation of her common bile duct. She underwent a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in 2011 at an outside facility, with no planned intervention on her biliary tree. Ultimately, she developed right upper quadrant pain two years following her RYGB. Upon further workup including right upper quadrant ultrasound, an extrahepatic choledochal cyst was confirmed and she was referred to our institution for definitive care. The patient was taken to the operating room for resection of the choledochal cyst with hepatoenteric reconstruction. The dissection and resection of the cyst commenced laparoscopically. After performing a generous Kocher maneuver, we demonstrated that there was adequate mobilization of the duodenum to perform a tension free hepaticoduodenostomy, which was performed robotically. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged home on postoperative day 3. At one month follow up, the patient was doing well with symptom resolution. Her final pathology revealed a choledochal cyst which was negative for dysplasia or carcinoma. Long-term follow up has been recommended with yearly alkaline phosphatase levels. Here we present a video of the technical considerations during a robot-assisted laparoscopic biliary reconstruction in a patient with a prior Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a type IVA choledochal cyst.

  7. Dietary assessment of adolescents undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: macro- and micronutrient, fiber, and supplement intake.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Renee M; Hrovat, Kathleen; Woo, Jessica G; Schmidt, Marcia; Inge, Thomas H; Xanthakos, Stavra A

    2012-01-01

    Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, as yet, no data are available describing the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient's diet pre- and postoperatively. Our objective was to assess the 1-year change in the dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery at a tertiary care children's hospital. A total of 27 subjects (67% female, 77% white, age 16.7 ± 1.4 yr, baseline body mass index 60.1 ± 14.1 kg/m(2)) were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study 1 month before undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from August 2005 to March 2008. The 3-day dietary intake was recorded at baseline (n = 24) and 2 weeks (n = 16), 3 months (n = 11), and 1 year (n = 9) postoperatively. The dietary record data were verified by structured interview and compared with the Dietary Reference Intake values for ages 14-18 years. By 1 year after surgery, the mean caloric intake, adjusted for body mass index was 1015 ± 182 kcal/d, a 35% reduction from baseline. The proportion of fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake did not differ from baseline. However, the protein intake was lower than recommended postoperatively. The calcium and fiber intake was also persistently lower than recommended. Calcium and vitamin B(12) supplementation increased the likelihood of meeting the daily minimal recommendations (P ≤ .02). At 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the adolescents' caloric intake remained restricted, with satisfactory macronutrient composition but a lower than desirable intake of calcium, fiber, and protein. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevention of gastroduodenal content reflux and delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy: gastric tube reconstruction with duodenal diversion plus Roux-en-Y anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Yano, M; Motoori, M; Tanaka, K; Kishi, K; Miyashiro, I; Shingai, T; Gotoh, K; Noura, S; Takahashi, H; Yamada, T; Ohue, M; Ohigashi, H; Ishikawa, O

    2012-04-01

    Reflux of gastroduodenal contents and delayed gastric emptying are the most common and serious problems after esophagectomy with gastric reconstruction. However, attempts to reduce the above symptoms, surgically as well as non-surgically, had no or limited effect. To address this issue, we performed retrosternal gastric reconstruction with duodenal diversion plus Roux-en-Y anastomosis (RY) in eight patients with thoracic esophageal cancer and compared the outcomes with control patients who underwent standard reconstruction. The procedure is simple, safe, and not associated with any postoperative complications. The pancreatic amylase concentrations in the gastric juice samples on postoperative day 2 were slightly lower in the non-RY group than in the RY group (1884 ± 2152 vs. 25,790 ± 23,542IU/mL, respectively, P= 0.07). Postoperative endoscopic examination showed neither reflux esophagitis nor residual gastric content in the RY group. Quality of life assessed by the Dysfunction After Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery-32 questionnaire postoperatively was significantly better in the RY group than in the non-RY group for 'decreased physical activity,''symptoms of reflux,''nausea and vomiting,' and 'pain.' The results of this pilot study suggest that gastric reconstruction with duodenal diversion plus RY seems effective in improving both the reflux and delayed gastric emptying. The benefits of this procedure need to be further assessed in a large-scale, randomized controlled trial. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  9. Antireflux Status Post Roux-en-Y anastomosis: An Experimental Study for Optimal Antireflux Technique.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay Kumar; Purbey, Om Prakash; Kureel, Shiv Narain; Gupta, Archika; Pandey, Anand; Sunil, Kanoujia; Chaubey, Digamber

    2018-01-01

    Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy has been a gold standard to establish biliary-enteric anastomosis for various surgical indications, but associated with variable incidences of cholangitis. This experimental study was conducted to report a modification in Roux-en-Y anastomosis for possible better alternative to provide antireflux procedure after Roux-en-Y biliary-enteric anastomosis with the aim to minimize the possibility of reflux and its consequences. For experimental study, the required fresh segment of Lamb's small intestine was procured. Three sets of Roux-en-Y anastomosis were created for each experiment. In set 1, there was simple Roux-en-Y anastomosis. In set 2, Roux-en-Y anastomosis along with 4-5 cm long spur between the hepatic and duodenal limbs was created. In set 3, in addition to Roux-en-Y with creation of spur, additional antireflux mechanism was created at the junction of upper two-third and lower one-third of the hepatic limb. Saline mixed contrast was infused by infusion pump to raise the intraluminal pressure to more than 10 cm of H 2 O. X-ray was taken at that time. In set 1, all preparations demonstrated reflux of contrast in the hepatic limb. The set 2 also demonstrated the same findings of 100% reflux in the hepatic limb. In set 3, No reflux was observed in 8 (80%) preparations while remaining 2 (20%) preparations reveal partial reflux. This experimental study suggests that the provision of spur and additional valve may be able to decrease the possibility of reflux in Roux-en-Y biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  10. Failure of mesenteric defect closure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Hope, William W; Sing, Ronald F; Chen, Albert Y; Lincourt, Amy E; Gersin, Keith S; Kuwada, Timothy S; Heniford, B Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bowel obstructions following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are a significant issue often caused by internal herniation. Controversy continues as to whether mesenteric defect closure is necessary to decrease the incidence of internal hernias after RYGB. Our purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of closing the mesenteric defect at the jejunojejunostomy in patients who underwent RYGB by examining this potential space at reoperation for any reason. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients undergoing surgery after RYGB from August 1999 to October 2008 to determine the status of the mesentery at the jejunojejunostomy. Eighteen patients underwent surgery 2 to 19 months after open (n=8) or laparoscopic (n=10) RYGB. All patients had documented suture closure of their jejunojejunostomy at the time of RYGB. Permanent (n=12) or absorbable (n=6) sutures were used for closures. Patients lost 23.6 kg to 62.1 kg before a reoperation was required for a ventral hernia (n=8), cholecystectomy (n=4), abdominal pain (n=4), or small bowel obstruction (n=2). Fifteen of the 18 patients had open mesenteric defects at the jejunojejunostomy despite previous closure; none were the cause for reoperation. Routine suture closure of mesenteric defects after RYGB may not be an effective permanent closure likely due to the extensive fat loss and weight loss within the mesentery.

  11. Gastrojejunal Anastomosis Complications and Their Management after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Fringeli, Yannick; Worreth, Marc; Langer, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Complications at the gastrojejunal anastomosis after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are challenging in terms of diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. This study aims at identifying these complications and discussing their management. Data of 228 patients who underwent a LRYGB between October 2008 and December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the frequency and treatment of complications such as stenoses, marginal ulcers, perforated marginal ulcers, or anastomotic leaks related to the operation. Follow-up information was available for 209 patients (91.7%) with a median follow-up of 38 months (range 24-62 months). Of these patients 16 patients (7.7%) experienced complications at the gastrojejunostomy. Four patients (1.9%) had stenoses and 12 patients (5.7%) marginal ulcers, one of them with perforation (0.5%). No anastomotic leaks were reported. One case with perforated ulcer and one with recurrent ulcers required surgical revision. Gastrojejunal anastomotic complications are frequent and occur within the first few days or up to several years after surgery. Stenoses or marginal ulcers are usually successfully treated nonoperatively. Laparoscopic repair, meanwhile, is an appropriate therapeutic option for perforated ulcers.

  12. Physiological adaptations following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the identification of targets for bariatric mimetic pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Neil G; Le Roux, Carel W

    2015-12-01

    The present opinion article provides an overview of the key improvements in metabolic and cardiovascular health following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). Some clinically important long-term complications of RYGB are also briefly described to contextualise the potential value of finding selective non-surgical means of replicating only the beneficial aspects of RYGB. Three biological responses linked to changes in gastrointestinal tract structure and function post-RYGB, that are implicated in the clinical efficacy of RYGB and that have actual or potential applications as non-surgical mimetic based approaches are addressed. These are (1) exaggerated post-prandial gut hormone responses; (2) local increases in undiluted bile in the gut lumen and augmented circulating bile acid and FGF19 concentrations and (3) compositional changes in the gut microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endoluminal Revision (OverStitch (TM) , Apollo Endosurgery) of the Dilated Gastroenterostomy in Patients with Late Dumping Syndrome After Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Stier, Christine; Chiappetta, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Dumping syndrome is a long-term postoperative complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures. Morphologically, dumping syndrome usually correlates with a dilatation of the gastroenterostomy with accelerated pouch emptying. Conservative therapy includes diet changes, complementary pharmacotherapy and, if symptoms persist, surgical revision. Surgical options include endoscopic, endoluminal surgery to constrict the gastrojejunostomy using a novel endoscopic suturing device (OverStitch(TM), Apollo). In our study, we aimed to assess the viability, safety and efficacy of this procedure in patients with late dumping; 14 patients who had developed late dumping syndrome underwent surgery using an endoscopic suturing technique (OverStitch(TM), Apollo). Late dumping was confirmed by Sigstad score and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Prior to surgery, objective analysis of pouch emptying speed was assessed by gastric scintigraphy. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia. None of the 14 patients suffered intra- or postoperative complications. No postsurgical increase in inflammation parameters was observed. The postinterventional pain scale (visual analogue scale) showed a mean score of 0.5 (range 0-10). In 13 of the 14 patients, no dumping was observed 1-month postsurgery. The postoperative Sigstad score (3.07 ± 2.06; range 1-9) showed an impressive reduction compared with the preoperative score (12.71 ± 4.18; range 7-24) (p < 0.001). Postoperative upper gastrointestinal gastrografin swallow revealed regular emptying in all the patients. The endoluminal endoscopic suturing technique-applied here for surgical revision of gastroenterostomy following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-represents a promising, novel therapeutic option in late dumping syndrome involving minimal trauma and offering rapid reconvalescence.

  14. Surgical Models of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery and Sleeve Gastrectomy in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bruinsma, Bote G.; Uygun, Korkut; Yarmush, Martin L.; Saeidi, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is the only definitive solution currently available for the present obesity pandemic. These operations typically involve reconfiguration of gastrointestinal tract anatomy and impose profound metabolic and physiological benefits, such as substantially reducing body weight and ameliorating type II diabetes. Therefore, animal models of these surgeries offer unique and exciting opportunities to delineate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the resolution of obesity and diabetes. Here we describe a standardized procedure for mouse and rat models of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (80–90 minutes operative time) and sleeve gastrectomy (30–45 minutes operative time), which, to a high degree resemble operations in human. We also provide detailed protocols for both pre- and post-operative techniques that ensure a high success rate in the operations. These protocols provide the opportunity to mechanistically investigate the systemic effects of the surgical interventions, such as regulation of body weight, glucose homeostasis, and gut microbiome. PMID:25719268

  15. Predictive factors of weight regain following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Keith, Charles J; Gullick, Allison A; Feng, Katey; Richman, Joshua; Stahl, Richard; Grams, Jayleen

    2018-05-01

    Strategies to address weight recidivism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) could be developed if patients at risk were identified in advance. This study aimed to determine factors that predict weight regain. Retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent laparoscopic RYGB at a single institution over 10 years. Group-based modeling was used to estimate trajectories of weight regain after nadir and stratify patients based on percent weight change (%WC). Three trajectories were identified from 586 patients: 121 had ongoing weight loss, 343 were weight stable, and 122 regained weight. Male sex (p = 0.020) and white race (p < 0.001) were associated with stable weight or weight regain. Being from a neighborhood of socioeconomic advantage (p = 0.035) was associated with weight regain. Patients with weight regain experienced improved percent weight loss (%WL) at nadir (p < 0.001) and ΔBMI (p = 0.002), yet they had higher weight and BMI and lower %WL and ΔBMI than the other two groups during long-term follow-up. On multivariate analyses, those who regained weight were more likely from socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods (OR 1.82, CI 1.18-2.79). Several patient-related characteristics predicted an increased likelihood of weight regain. Further studies are needed to elucidate how these factors contribute to weight recidivism following bariatric surgery.

  16. Technical factors associated with anastomotic leak after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark D; Adeniji, Abidemi; Wahed, Abdus S; Patterson, Emma; Chapman, William; Courcoulas, Anita P; Dakin, Gregory; Flum, David; McCloskey, Carol; Mitchell, James E; Pomp, Alfons; Staten, Myrlene; Wolfe, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Anastomotic leak is one of the most serious complications after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Our objective was to examine the relationship between technical factors and incidence of clinically relevant anastomotic leak after RYGB in longitudinal assessment of bariatric surgery (LABS). The setting of the study was 11 bariatric centers in the United States, university, and private practice. Patient characteristics, technical factors of surgery, and postoperative outcomes were assessed by trained researchers using standardized protocols. Correlation of surgical factors of patients undergoing RYGB (n = 4444) with the incidence of postoperative anastomotic leak was assessed by univariate χ(2) analysis. Forty-four participants (1.0%, 95% CI .7%-1.3%) experienced a clinically relevant anastomotic leak. Of these, 39 (89%) underwent abdominal reoperation and 3 (7%) died. Technical factors associated with anastomotic leak were open surgery (P<.0001), revision surgery (P<.0001), and use of an abdominal drain (P = .02). Provocative leak testing, method of gastrojejunostomy, and use of fibrin sealant were not associated with anastomotic leak. Anastomotic leak after RYGB was rare (1.0%). Most cases required reintervention; however, the majority (93%) recovered from this event. Open surgery, revision surgery, and routine drain placement were associated with increased leak rate. Some of these findings may be due to differences in preoperative patient risk. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. [Clinical research progress of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengrong; Guo, Wenjun

    2017-03-25

    Postoperative internal hernia is a rare clinical complication which often occurs after digestive tract reconstruction. Roux-en-Y anastomosis is a common type of digestive tract reconstruction. Internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction, which occurs mainly in the mesenteric defect caused by incomplete closure of mesenteric gaps in the process of digestive tract reconstruction, is systematically called, in our research, as mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Such internal hernia can be divided, according to the different structures of mesentric defect, into 3 types: the type of mesenteric defect at the jejunojejunostomy (J type), the type of Petersen's defect (P type), and the type of mesenteric defect in the transverse mesocolon (M type). Because of huge differences in the number of cases and follow-up time among existing research reports, the morbidity of internal hernia after LRYGB fluctuates wildly between 0.2% and 9.0%. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux- en-Y reconstruction may result in disastrous consequences such as intestinal necrosis. Clinical manifestations of internal hernia vary from person to person: some, in mild cases, may have no symptoms at all while others in severe cases may experience acute intestinal obstruction. Despite the difference, one common manifestation of internal hernia is abdominal pain. Surgical treatment should be recommended for those diagnosed as internal hernia. A safer and more feasible way to conduct the manual reduction of the incarcerated hernia is to start from the distal normal empty bowel and trace back to the hernia ring mouth, enabling a faster identification of hernia ring and its track. The prevention of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction is related to the initial surgical approach and the technique of mesenteric closure. Significant controversy remains on whether or not the mesenteric defect should be closed in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y

  18. Weight loss, weight regain, and conversions to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: 10-year results of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Felsenreich, Daniel M; Langer, Felix B; Kefurt, Ronald; Panhofer, Peter; Schermann, Martin; Beckerhinn, Philipp; Sperker, Christoph; Prager, Gerhard

    2016-11-01

    With promising short-term results, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become the second most frequently performed bariatric procedure worldwide. Aside from a growing number of reports covering up to 10 years of follow-up, only limited data have been published so far on long-term results. The aim of the study was to present a 10-year follow-up for SG. University hospital setting, Austria. We present the first complete 10-year follow-up of 53 consecutive patients who underwent SG before 2006. In this multicenter study, weight loss success, weight regain, and revisional surgery were analyzed beside Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) scores. A mean maximum percent excess weight loss of 71±25% (percent total weight loss: 28±15%) was reached at a median of 12 (range 12-120) months after SG. At 10 years, a mean percent excess weight loss of 53±25% was achieved by 32 patients, corresponding to a percent total weight loss of 26.3±13.4%. Nineteen of the 53 patients (36%) were converted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 18) or duodenal switch (n = 1) due to significant weight regain (n = 11), reflux (n = 6), or acute revision (n = 2) at a median of 36 months. Two patients died at 3 and 101 months postoperatively, unrelated to SG. A total of 31 patients (59%) suffered from weight regain of 10 kg or more, among them 24 patients (45%) with 15 kg or more, 16 patients (30%) with 20 kg or more, and 7 patients (13%) with 25 kg or more weight regain from nadir. Mean BAROS score was 2.4±2.2 at 10 years follow-up, classifying SG as "fairly efficient." Within a long-term follow-up of 10 years or more after SG, a high incidence of both significant weight regain and intractable reflux was observed, leading to conversion, most commonly to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes and Physical Fitness on Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L.; Lund, Michael T.; Hansen, Merethe; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the predictive value of type 2 diabetes and lack of physical activity for mental health and health-related quality of life after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method. Forty severely obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included in the GASMITO study. Information about physiological and psychological factors was prospectively assessed at four time points, two times prior to surgery and two times after surgery. Measures included oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, VO2max test, Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), Body Image Questionnaire, and a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic factors and medical status. Results. Mean % excess weight loss was 65% (±12) at 18-month follow-up and 50% of the participants with diabetes experienced total remission. Also, significant improvements were observed with regard to physical fitness, mental distress, health-related quality of life, and weight-related body image (p < 0.05). The interaction between follow-up time and type 2 diabetes at baseline significantly predicted six of the thirteen psychological subscales (p < 0.05) and, across the follow-ups, physical fitness level made modest contributions to variations in mental symptoms and HRQOL but not weight-related body image. Conclusion. The results suggest that baseline difference in mental symptoms and physical HRQOL between diabetic and nondiabetic patients declines across follow-ups and resolves around the time of surgery. PMID:27379183

  20. [Study of the antireflux action of the Roux-en-Y jejunal loop in reconstruction after gastrectomy and nutritional status in the follow-up].

    PubMed

    Rea, Teresa; Bartolacci, Mauro; Leombruni, Edoardo; Brizzi, Felice; Picardi, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    The Roux-en-Y recostruction after total or subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer is frequently performed to prevent esophageal alkaline reflux. Also after total gastrectomy and end-to-side gastrojejunal anastomosis, as usual in former experience, the alkaline reflux can be efficaciously treated by conversion in an esophago-jejunal Roux-en-Y procedure. The main factor preventing reflux is the length of jejunal loop, at least of 35-40 cm. The recostruction with a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop offers the advantage to meet together two primary requirements: the restoration of digestive travel from esophagus to intestine, and the prevention of on alcaline reflux esophagitis, both with relevant simplicity and without a time-consuming surgical technique. Also as a consequence the postoperative morbidity is decreased. The obvious suitable requirement is a sufficient lenght of the jejunal loop for a reservoir of the ingested food and to oppose the antiperistaltic jejunal movements thanks to the effects of the new activated jejunal pace-maker.

  1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass stands the test of time: 5-year results in low body mass index (30-35 kg/m(2)) Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lakdawala, Muffazal; Shaikh, Shehla; Bandukwala, Saifee; Remedios, Carlyne; Shah, Miloni; Bhasker, Aparna Govil

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the long-term results of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on excess weight loss, remission of the metabolic syndrome, and complications in Indian patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with a body mass index of 30-35 kg/m(2). The setting was a corporate hospital in Mumbai, India. The present prospective observational study was begun in January 2006. A total of 52 patients with uncontrolled T2DM and a body mass index of 30-35 kg/m(2) elected to undergo laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The duration of T2DM was 3.5-14.5 years (median 8.4). Of the 52 patients, 61.5% had hypertension and 59.6% had dyslipidemia. Remission of T2DM and other components of the metabolic syndrome were assessed. All patients were followed up for 5 years. The median percentage of excess weight loss was 72.2% at 1 year and 67.8% at 5 years. Of the 52 patients, 84.6% had achieved euglycemia and 73.1% had achieved complete remission, 23.1% partial remission, and 3.84% no remission at 1 year. Weight regain occurred in 8 patients. They required antihypertensive drugs and statins, decreasing the complete remission rate to 57.7% and partial remission rate to 38.5% at 5 years. However, 96.2% improvement in metabolic status was found at the end of 5 years. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective treatment for uncontrolled T2DM in patients with a body mass index of 30-35 kg/m(2). Early-onset T2DM, better weight loss, and greater C-peptide levels were predictors of success after surgery. The improvement after surgery in hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia could help in controlling the occurrence of micro- and macrovascular complications and decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with T2DM. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stricture Rate after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass with a 21-mm Circular Stapler versus a 25-mm Linear Stapler

    PubMed Central

    Vunnamadala, Kalyan; Sakharpe, Aniket; Wilhelm, B. Jakub; Aksade, Artun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is estimated to affect more than one and a half billion adults. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has become one of the preferred weight loss procedures. However, complications can occur. Strictures at the gastrojejunal anastomosis lead to clinical symptoms such as vomiting, dysphagia, and patient discomfort. The stricture rate has been correlated with the size and type of stapler used. Methods: A retrospective review of the clinical records of patients who underwent LRYGB was performed between 2003 and 2010. A comparison was made between a 21-mm circular stapler technique and a 25-mm linear stapler technique. Results: The stricture rate for the 21-mm circular stapler group was 7.12% and comparable to the national average. Using the 25-mm linear stapler, this complication rate significantly decreased to 1.09% (p<0.0004; odds ratio 6.5; [95% confidence interval 1.96–33.83]). Conclusions: Stricture after LRYGB is a serious complication. This study found that with a change in technique, this complication can be decreased considerably. PMID:25830078

  3. Stricture Rate after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass with a 21-mm Circular Stapler versus a 25-mm Linear Stapler.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Leopoldo M; Vunnamadala, Kalyan; Sakharpe, Aniket; Wilhelm, B Jakub; Aksade, Artun

    2015-03-01

    Background: Obesity is estimated to affect more than one and a half billion adults. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has become one of the preferred weight loss procedures. However, complications can occur. Strictures at the gastrojejunal anastomosis lead to clinical symptoms such as vomiting, dysphagia, and patient discomfort. The stricture rate has been correlated with the size and type of stapler used. Methods: A retrospective review of the clinical records of patients who underwent LRYGB was performed between 2003 and 2010. A comparison was made between a 21-mm circular stapler technique and a 25-mm linear stapler technique. Results: The stricture rate for the 21-mm circular stapler group was 7.12% and comparable to the national average. Using the 25-mm linear stapler, this complication rate significantly decreased to 1.09% ( p <0.0004; odds ratio 6.5; [95% confidence interval 1.96-33.83]). Conclusions: Stricture after LRYGB is a serious complication. This study found that with a change in technique, this complication can be decreased considerably.

  4. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reverses the effects of diet-induced obesity to inhibit the responsiveness of central vagal motoneurones.

    PubMed

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Fortna, Samuel R; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been shown to alter the biophysical properties and pharmacological responsiveness of vagal afferent neurones and fibres, although the effects of DIO on central vagal neurones or vagal efferent functions have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate whether high-fat diet-induced DIO also affects the properties of vagal efferent motoneurones, and to investigate whether these effects were reversed following weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones in thin brainstem slices. The DMV neurones from rats exposed to high-fat diet for 12-14 weeks were less excitable, with a decreased membrane input resistance and decreased ability to fire action potentials in response to direct current pulse injection. The DMV neurones were also less responsive to superfusion with the satiety neuropeptides cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversed all of these DIO-induced effects. Diet-induced obesity also affected the morphological properties of DMV neurones, increasing their size and dendritic arborization; RYGB did not reverse these morphological alterations. Remarkably, independent of diet, RYGB also reversed age-related changes of membrane properties and occurrence of charybdotoxin-sensitive (BK) calcium-dependent potassium current. These results demonstrate that DIO also affects the properties of central autonomic neurones by decreasing the membrane excitability and pharmacological responsiveness of central vagal motoneurones and that these changes were reversed following RYGB. In contrast, DIO-induced changes in morphological properties of DMV neurones were not reversed following gastric bypass surgery, suggesting that they may be due to diet, rather than obesity. These findings represent the first direct evidence for the plausible effect of RYGB to improve vagal

  5. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reverses the effects of diet-induced obesity to inhibit the responsiveness of central vagal motoneurones

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Fortna, Samuel R; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been shown to alter the biophysical properties and pharmacological responsiveness of vagal afferent neurones and fibres, although the effects of DIO on central vagal neurones or vagal efferent functions have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate whether high-fat diet-induced DIO also affects the properties of vagal efferent motoneurones, and to investigate whether these effects were reversed following weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones in thin brainstem slices. The DMV neurones from rats exposed to high-fat diet for 12–14 weeks were less excitable, with a decreased membrane input resistance and decreased ability to fire action potentials in response to direct current pulse injection. The DMV neurones were also less responsive to superfusion with the satiety neuropeptides cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversed all of these DIO-induced effects. Diet-induced obesity also affected the morphological properties of DMV neurones, increasing their size and dendritic arborization; RYGB did not reverse these morphological alterations. Remarkably, independent of diet, RYGB also reversed age-related changes of membrane properties and occurrence of charybdotoxin-sensitive (BK) calcium-dependent potassium current. These results demonstrate that DIO also affects the properties of central autonomic neurones by decreasing the membrane excitability and pharmacological responsiveness of central vagal motoneurones and that these changes were reversed following RYGB. In contrast, DIO-induced changes in morphological properties of DMV neurones were not reversed following gastric bypass surgery, suggesting that they may be due to diet, rather than obesity. These findings represent the first direct evidence for the plausible effect of RYGB to improve vagal

  6. Appetite, Glycemia, and Entero-Insular Hormone Responses Differ Between Oral, Gastric-Remnant, and Duodenal Administration of a Mixed-Meal Test After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Gero, Daniel; Steinert, Robert E; Hosa, Hanna; Cummings, David E; Bueter, Marco

    2018-06-01

    To examine the effect of different feeding routes on appetite and metabolic responses after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A standard liquid meal was administered either orally, into the gastric remnant, or intraduodenally 6 months after RYGB. Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY), and appetite were measured pre- and postprandially. Postprandial GLP-1 and PYY responses were similar, whereas glucose, insulin, and GIP levels differed markedly after oral versus intraduodenal feeding. Intraduodenal feeding prompted an intermediate appetite response (i.e., between oral and intragastric). For postprandial glucose, insulin, and GIP levels, the intraduodenal route was more similar to the intragastric than the oral route. Intragastric administration did not evoke changes in appetite, glucose, or insulin; however, it slightly increased GLP-1 and PYY and moderately increased GIP. Appetite and metabolic responses after RYGB depend on the route by which nutrients enter the gastrointestinal tract. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. Altered ghrelin secretion in mice in response to diet-induced obesity and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Aki; Zechner, Juliet F.; Mani, Bharath K.; Park, Won-mee; Aguirre, Vincent; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined potential mechanisms for altered circulating ghrelin levels observed in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and following weight loss resulting from Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We hypothesized that circulating ghrelin levels were altered in obesity and after weight loss through changes in ghrelin cell responsiveness to physiological cues. We confirmed lower ghrelin levels in DIO mice and demonstrated elevated ghrelin levels in mice 6 weeks post-RYGB. In both DIO and RYGB settings, these changes in ghrelin levels were associated with altered ghrelin cell responsiveness to two key physiological modulators of ghrelin secretion – glucose and norepinephrine. In DIO mice, increases in ghrelin cell density within both the stomach and duodenum and in somatostatin-immunoreactive D cell density in the duodenum were observed. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of ghrelin secretion and its relation to circulating ghrelin within the contexts of obesity and weight loss. PMID:25353000

  8. Delayed gastric emptying following pancreatoduodenectomy with alimentary reconstruction according to Roux-en-Y or Billroth-II.

    PubMed

    Glowka, Tim R; Webler, Markus; Matthaei, Hanno; Schäfer, Nico; Schmitz, Volker; Kalff, Jörg C; Standop, Jens; Manekeller, Steffen

    2017-03-20

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) remains the most frequent complication following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with published incidences as high as 61%. The present study investigates the impact of bowel reconstruction techniques on DGE following classic PD (Whipple-Kausch procedure) with pancreatogastrostomy (PG). We included 168 consecutive patients who underwent PD with PG with either Billroth II type (BII, n = 78) or Roux-en-Y type reconstruction (ReY, n = 90) between 2004 and 2015. Excluded were patients with conventional single loop reconstruction after pylorus preserving procedures. DGE was classified according to the 2007 International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery definition. Patients were analyzed regarding severity of DGE, morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay and demographic factors. No difference was observed between BII and ReY regarding frequency of DGE. Overall rate for clinically relevant DGE was 30% (ReY) and 26% (BII). BII and ReY did not differ in terms of demographics, morbidity or mortality. DGE significantly prolongs ICU (four vs. two days) and hospital stay (20.5 vs. 14.5 days). Risk factors for DGE development are advanced age, retrocolic reconstruction, postoperative hemorrhage and major complications. The occurrence of DGE can not be influenced by the type of alimentary reconstruction (ReY vs. BII) following classic PD with PG. Old age and major complications could be identified as important risk factors in multivariate analysis. German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00011860 . Registered 14 March 2017.

  9. Outcomes associated with preoperative weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Camille; Graham, Laura A.; Gullick, Allison A.; Richman, Joshua; Stahl, Richard; Grams, Jayleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is an effective treatment for achieving and maintaining weight loss and for improving obesity-related comorbidities. As part of the approval process for bariatric surgery, many insurance companies require patients to have documented recent participation in a supervised weight loss program. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship of preoperative weight changes with outcomes following LRYGB. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of adult patients undergoing LRYGB between 2008 and 2012 at a single institution. Patients were stratified into quartiles based on % excess weight gain (0–4.99 % and ≥5 % EWG) and % excess weight loss (0–4.99 % and ≥5 % EWL). Generalized linear models were used to examine differences in postoperative weight outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months. Covariates included in the final adjusted models were determined using backwards stepwise selection. Results Of the 300 patients included in the study, there were no significant demographic differences among the quartiles. However, there was an increased time to operation for patients who gained or lost ≥5 % excess body weight (p < 0.001). Although there was no statistical significance in postoperative complications, there was a higher rate of complications in patients with ≥5 % EWG compared to those with ≥5 % EWL (12.5 vs. 4.8 %, respectively; p = 0.29). Unadjusted and adjusted generalized linear models showed no statistically significant association between preoperative % excess weight change and weight loss outcomes at 24 months. Conclusion Patients with the greatest % preoperative excess weight change had the longest intervals from initial visit to operation. No significant differences were seen in perioperative and postoperative outcomes. This study suggests preoperative weight loss requirements may delay the time to operation without improving postoperative outcomes or weight loss. PMID:26969666

  10. Changes in Gastrointestinal Hormones and Leptin After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Lauren M.; Beckman, Tiffany R.; Sibley, Shalamar D.; Thomas, William; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Kellogg, Todd A.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; le Roux, Carel W.; Earthman, Carrie P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) imparts long-term weight loss, the mechanisms for which are not well understood. Changes in leptin and gastrointestinal (GI) hormones, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin, may contribute to the relative success of RYGB compared with conventional weight loss methods. This study evaluated changes in GI hormones and leptin post-RYGB. The study also evaluated whether GI hormones differed after a short-term dose of protein or fat. Methods GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, and leptin were assessed in 16 women before RYGB and up to 1 year after RYGB. Plasma was collected before and at several times after a short-term equicaloric dose of protein or fat. Results GLP-1 area under the curve (AUC) increased at week 6 and 1 year in the fat beverage (FAT-BEV) group compared with baseline. PYY AUC remained elevated at 1 year in the FAT-BEV group. Ghrelin AUC decreased at week 2, week 6, and 1 year in the protein beverage (PRO-BEV) group compared with baseline. Ghrelin AUC was lower in the PRO-BEV group compared with the FAT-BEV group at week 6. Fasted leptin decreased at all visits in both groups and was lower in the FAT-BEV group compared with the PRO-BEV group at 1 year. Conclusions Changes from baseline were evident for all GI hormones and leptin; some differences were evident soon after surgery (ghrelin, leptin), whereas others were maintained long term (GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, leptin). In response to a short-term stimulus, protein suppressed ghrelin and fat potently stimulated GLP-1 and PYY. Future work in this area is warranted. PMID:21378246

  11. Results of The Comparative Study of 200 Cases: One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass vs Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Salvador; Leyba, José Luis; Ll, Salvador Navarrete; Borjas, Guillermo; Tapia, José León; Alcázar, Ruben

    2018-05-01

    Obesity has experienced worldwide increase and surgery has become the treatment that has achieved the best results. Several techniques have been described; the most popular are vertical gastrectomy (GV) and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, mini-gastric bypass/one anastomosis gastric bypass (MGB/OAGB) has gained popularity due to its simplicity and good results. To comparatively evaluate the results of MGB/OAGB with those of RYGB with 1-year follow-up. The paper presents a comparative case and control study of 100 patients that underwent MGB/OAGB surgery and another 100 with RYGB surgery, operated between 2008 and 2016. Patients were not submitted to revision surgery and had the following pre-operative variables: age 40.46 ± 12.4 vs. 39.43 ± 10.33 years; sex 64 and 54 women, 36 and 46 men; BMI 44.8 ± 12.06 and 45.29 ± 8.82 kg/m 2 ; 50 and 54 cases with comorbidities, respectively, these being non-significant differences. The surgical time was 69.01 ± 4.62 (OAGB) vs. 88.98 ± 3.44 min; the time of hospitalization was 2 days, reaching a BMI of 27.7 ± 7.85 and 29 ± 4.52 kg/m 2 , with an excess weight loss 1 year after surgery of 89.4 vs. 85.9%, respectively. The morbidity rates are 9% for OAGB and 11% for the RYGB. There was a comorbidity resolution of 84.4 and 83.7% respectively, without mortality. The results show the benefits of both techniques, OAGB being the easiest to perform and with less surgical time.

  12. The contribution of malabsorption to the reduction in net energy absorption after long-limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Odstrcil, Elizabeth A; Martinez, Juan G; Santa Ana, Carol A; Xue, Beiqi; Schneider, Reva E; Steffer, Karen J; Porter, Jack L; Asplin, John; Kuhn, Joseph A; Fordtran, John S

    2010-10-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) restricts food intake, and when the Roux limb is elongated to 150 cm, the procedure is believed to induce malabsorption. Our objective was to measure total reduction in intestinal absorption of combustible energy after RYGB and the extent to which this was due to restriction of food intake or malabsorption of ingested macronutrients. Long-limb RYGB was performed in 9 severely obese patients. Dietary intake and intestinal absorption of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and combustible energy were measured before and at 2 intervals after bypass. By using coefficients of absorption to measure absorptive function, equations were developed to calculate the daily gram and kilocalorie quantities of ingested macronutrients that were not absorbed because of malabsorption or restricted food intake. Coefficients of fat absorption were 92 ± 1.3% before bypass, 72 ± 5.5% 5 mo after bypass, and 68 ± 8.7% 14 mo after bypass. There were no statistically significant effects of RYGB on protein or carbohydrate absorption coefficients, although protein coefficients decreased substantially in some patients. Five months after bypass, malabsorption reduced absorption of combustible energy by 124 ± 57 kcal/d, whereas restriction of food intake reduced energy absorption by 2062 ± 271 kcal/d. Fourteen months after bypass, malabsorption reduced energy absorption by 172 ± 60 kcal/d compared with 1418 ± 171 kcal/d caused by restricted food intake. On average, malabsorption accounted for ≈6% and 11% of the total reduction in combustible energy absorption at 5 and 14 mo, respectively, after this gastric bypass procedure.

  13. Reconfiguration of the small intestine and diabetes remitting effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Neil G; le Roux, Carel W

    2016-03-01

    Alterations in small intestinal physiology are proposed to play a causative role in the beneficial impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present article describes the key proposed mechanisms implicated with an emphasis on some of the newer findings in the field. Augmented incretin and diminished anti-incretin effects postsurgery are explored and a model proposed that reconciles the hindgut and foregut hypotheses of improved glycaemic control as being complementary rather than mutually exclusive. Synthesis of recent findings on postbypass changes in intestinal glucose handling then follows. Finally an updated view of the role of distal bile diversion and changes in the microbiota on enteroendocrine signalling is presented. A series of nonmutually exclusive changes in small intestinal physiology likely make a significant contribution to improved glycaemic control postgastric bypass. Longitudinal data indicate that these effects do not translate into a long-term cure. A number of surgery-induced changes, however, are amenable to device-based and pharmacology-based mimicry, and this is an area for prioritization of future research focus.

  14. Pancreaticoduodenectomy following gastrectomy reconstructed with Billroth II or Roux-en-Y method: Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yusuke; Ome, Yusuke; Kouda, Yusuke; Saga, Kennichi; Park, Taebum; Kawamoto, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The ideal reconstruction method for pancreaticoduodenectomy following a gastrectomy with Billroth II or Roux-en-Y reconstruction is unclear. We reviewed a series of seven pancreaticoduodenectomies performed after gastrectomy with the Billroth II or Roux-en-Y method. While preserving the existing gastrojejunostomy or esophagojejunostomy, pancreaticojejunostomy and hepaticojejunostomy were performed by the Roux-en-Y method using a new Roux limb in all cases. Four patients experienced postoperative complications, although the specific complications varied. A review of the literature revealed 13 cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy following gastrectomy with Billroth II or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Three patients out of six (50%) in whom the past afferent limb was used for the reconstruction of the pancreaticojejunostomy and hepaticojejunostomy experienced afferent loop syndrome, while 14 previous and current patients in whom a new jejeunal limb was used did not experience this complication. The Roux-en-Y method, using the distal intestine of previous gastrojejunostomy or jejunojejunostomy as a new jejunal limb for pancreaticojejunostomy and hepaticojejunostomy, may be a better reconstruction method to avoid the complication of afferent loop syndrome after previous gastrectomy with Billroth II or Roux-en-Y reconstruction if the afferent limb is less than 40cm. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Endoscopic treatment of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-related gastrocutaneous fistulas using a novel biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Hondo, Fabio; Halwan, Bhawna; de Lima, Marcelo Simas; Giordano-Nappi, José Humberto; Sakai, Paulo

    2009-07-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is amongst the commonest surgical intervention for weight loss in obese patients. Gastrocutaneous fistula, which usually occurs along the vertical staple line of the pouch, is amongst its most alarming complications. Medical management comprised of wound drainage, nutritional support, acid suppression, and antibiotics may be ineffective in as many as a third of patients with this complication. We present outcomes after endoscopic application of SurgiSIS, which is a novel biomaterial for the treatment of this complication. A case series of 25 patients. Twenty-five patients who had failed conservative medical management of gastrocutaneous fistula after RYGB underwent endoscopic application of SurgiSIS--an acellular fibrogenic matrix biomaterial to help fistula healing. Fistula closure as assessed by upper gastrointestinal imaging and endoscopic examination. In patients who had failed medical management lasting 4-25 (median, 7) weeks, closure of the fistulous tract was successful after one application in six patients (30%), two applications in 11 patients (55%), and three applications in three patients (15%). There were no procedure-related complications. Endoscopic application of SurgiSIS-an acellular fibrogenic matrix--is safe and effective for the treatment of gastrocutaneous fistula after RYGB.

  16. Biliary reconstruction in liver transplant patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, duct-to-duct or Roux-en-Y?

    PubMed

    Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Shafiee, Mohammad; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Kazemi, Kourosh; Mansorian, Mohsenreza; Motazedian, Nasrin; Afshinnia, Farsad; Geramizadeh, Bita; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy and duct-to-duct (D-D) anastomosis are biliary reconstruction methods for liver transplantation. However, there is a controversy over which method produces better results. We have compared the outcome of D-D anastomosis vs. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis who had undergone liver transplant in Shiraz Organ Transplant Center. The medical records of 405 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) who had undergone liver transplant from 1996 to 2015 were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Roux-en-Y group and D-D group. Morbidity, disease recurrence, and graft and patient survival rates were compared between the two groups. Total of 143 patients underwent a D-D biliary reconstruction, and 260 patients had a Roux-en-Y loop. Biliary complication involved 4.2% of patients from the D-D group, and 3.9% from the Roux-en-Y group (P=. 863). Actuarial 1-, 3-, and 5-year patient survival for D-D and Roux-en-Y group was 92%, 85%, and 74%; and 87%, 83%, and 79%, respectively (P=.384). The corresponding 1-, 3-, and 5-year probability of biliary complication was 97%, 95%, and 92%; and 98%, 97%, and 94%, respectively (P=.61). Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction in liver transplantation for selected patients with PSC is a good alternative instead of Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Weight Regain After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Thompson, Christopher C

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin is a gut hormone that induces hunger, gastric acid secretion, and gastrointestinal motility. A number of studies have previously demonstrated a possible correlation between a decrease in ghrelin level and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study aimed to assess if there was a relationship between ghrelin level and weight regain after RYGB nadir weight had been achieved. Sixty-three consecutive RYGB patients who were referred for an upper endoscopy were enrolled. Weight and responses to the 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were collected. Ghrelin levels were measured. Upper endoscopy was performed to evaluate pouch length and stoma diameter. Multivariate linear regression was performed to assess an association between ghrelin level, TFEQ-R21 score, pouch length, stoma diameter, and percentage of weight regained. Subjects were 47 ± 10 years old and had a BMI of 38 ± 7.7 kg/m 2 . Out of 63 patients, 76 % had weight regain (gaining of ≥20 % of maximal weight lost after the RYGB) and 24 % did not. Average pouch length was 44 ± 13 mm, stoma diameter 20 ± 6.6 mm, and ghrelin levels 125 ± 99 ng/ml. Ghrelin level was not associated with weight regain (β = 0.17, p = 0.2). GJ stoma diameter was associated with weight regain (β = 0.39, p < 0.01) and the uncontrolled eating domain of the TFEQ-R21 (β = 0.45, p < 0.01). Ghrelin levels do not appear to correlate with weight change after RYGB nadir weight has been achieved. A dilated GJ stoma diameter is a risk factor for weight regain and uncontrolled eating behavior after RYGB.

  18. Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation of Laparotomy versus Laparoscopy for Patients Submitted to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Sussenbach, Samanta Pereira; Silva, Everton Nunes; Pufal, Milene Amarante; Casagrande, Daniela Shan; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2014-01-01

    Background Because of the high prevalence of obesity, there is a growing demand for bariatric surgery worldwide. The objective of this systematic review was to analyze the difference in relation to cost-effectiveness of access route by laparoscopy versus laparotomy of Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Methods A systematic review was conducted in the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane and Lilacs in order to identify economic evaluation studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic and laparotomic routes in RYGB. Results In a total of 494 articles, only 6 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. All studies were published between 2001 and 2008 in the United States (USA). Three studies fulfilled less than half of the items that evaluated the results quality; two satisfied 5 of the required items, and only 1 study fulfilled 7 of 10 items. The economic evaluation of studies alternated between cost-effectiveness and cost-consequence. Five studies considered the surgery by laparoscopy the dominant strategy, because it showed greater clinical benefit (less probability of post-surgical complications, less hospitalization time) and lower total cost. Conclusion This review indicates that laparoscopy is a safe and well-tolerated technique, despite the costs of surgery being higher when compared with laparotomy. However, the additional costs are compensated by the lower probability of complications after surgery and, consequently, avoiding their costs. PMID:24945704

  19. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in super obese Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Vegge, Andreas; Støckel, Mikael; Gögenur, Ismail; Thymann, Thomas; Hammelev, Karsten P; Sangild, Per T; Hansen, Axel K; Raun, Kirsten; von Voss, Pia; Eriksen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The specific mechanisms behind weight loss and comorbidity improvements in obese patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate the feasibility of a long-term survival RYGBP model in super obese Göttingen minipigs in order to improve the translational potential relative to current animal models. Eleven Göttingen minipigs with diet-induced obesity underwent laparoscopic RYGBP and were followed up to 9 months after surgery. Intra- and post-operative complications, body weight (BW), food intake and necropsy data were recorded. Five minipigs survived without complications to the end of the study. Four minipigs developed surgical related complications and were euthanized while two minipigs died due to central venous catheter related complications. BW and food intake is reported for the six minipigs surviving longer than 4.5 months post-surgery. Weight loss and reduced food intake was seen in all minipigs. After 2-3 months of weight loss, weight regain was evident in all but two minipigs which seemed to continue losing weight. Necropsy revealed some variation in the length of the alimentary, biliary and common limb between minipigs. The use of obese Göttingen minipigs as a translational RYGBP model is feasible and has potential for the study of RYGBP-related changes in gut function, type-2 diabetes and appetite regulation. Still, the surgical procedure is technically highly demanding in obese Göttingen minipigs and the peri-operative animal care and follow up requires close monitoring.

  20. Upper gastrointestinal series after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: effectiveness in leakage detection. a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Quartararo, Giovanni; Facchiano, Enrico; Scaringi, Stefano; Liscia, Gadiel; Lucchese, Marcello

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of routine and selective postoperative upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for morbid obesity in different published series to assessing its utility and cost-effectiveness. A search in PubMed's MEDLINE was performed for English-spoken articles published from January 2002 to December 2012. Keywords used were upper GI series, RYGB, and obesity. Only cases of anastomotic leaks were considered. A total of 22 studies have been evaluated, 15 recommended a selective use of postoperative UGIS. No differences in leakage detection or in clinical benefit between routine and selective approaches were found. Tachycardia and respiratory distress represent the best criteria to perform UGIS for early diagnosis of anastomotic leak after a RYGB.

  1. Patients' reasons for and against undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, and vertical sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Opozda, Melissa; Wittert, Gary; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2017-11-01

    The most common bariatric procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), generally induce significant weight loss and health improvements. However, little is known about how patients decide which procedure to undergo. Investigate patients' reasons for and against undergoing RYGB, LAGB, and SG. Online questionnaire. Data were analyzed from 236 Australian adults with current RYGB (15.7%), LAGB (22.0%), or SG (62.3%) who completed a questionnaire including an open-ended question about why they underwent their procedure. Data were coded for content and analyzed. Patients most often underwent RYGB because of its evidence base and success rate and the patient's characteristics, whereas the most common reason for SG was a medical practitioner's recommendation, preference, or choice, followed by the patients' evaluation of information gathered from their own research and observations of others' success. The most common reasons for undergoing LAGB related to characteristics of the procedure, including its reversibility and a perception of LAGB as less invasive. The most common reason against undergoing both RYGB and SG was a desire to avoid postsurgical complications and risks such as leaks or malabsorption, whereas the most common reason against LAGB was information and evidence from other people's unsuccessful experiences and failure rates. Patients' reasons for and against procedures differed by procedure. In addition to the surgeon's influence, patients demonstrated clear procedure preferences based on their own research, knowledge, and experiences. Preferences should be understood to assist patients to select the most appropriate procedure for their circumstances. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation of radiographic and endoscopic evaluation of gastrojejunal anastomosis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Szomstein, Samuel; Kaidar-Person, Orit; Naberezny, Kristoff; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Rosenthal, Raul

    2006-01-01

    Anastomotic stenosis presents as one of the most common late complications in the postoperative period after bariatric surgery. It is often diagnosed by upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) and/or upper endoscopy (UE). The aim of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between the Gastrografin UGIS and UE findings in the determination of gastrojejunal anastomotic strictures after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Between July 2001 and October 2003, all medical records of patients who underwent RYGB at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. The medical records of patients who underwent UE because of symptoms suggestive of gastric outlet obstruction and those of patients who were initially evaluated by Gastrografin UGIS before UE were evaluated further. Of 535 morbidly obese patients who underwent RYGB, 52 (9.7%) had UE and were included in this study. The mean number of UEs performed per patient was 2.67. Of these 52 patients, 30 underwent Gastrografin UGIS before UE. The mean diameter of the anastomosis on the first UE was 5.97 mm and on Gastrografin UGIS was 6.83 mm. A good correlation was found between the Gastrografin UGIS and UE findings using Pearson's correlation coefficient (0.44, P = .02) and single linear regression analysis using the endoscopic diameter as the outcome and radiographic findings as the predictor (beta = 0.27, P = .025, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.49). In our study, the Gastrografin UGIS findings correlated positively with the endoscopic gastrojejunal anastomosis findings in patients with anastomotic stricture who had undergone RYGB.

  3. Preoperative β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes is important for the outcome of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Hansen, Merethe; Skaaby, Stinna; Dalby, Sina; Støckel, Mikael; Floyd, Andrea Karen; Bech, Karsten; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Holst, Jens Juul; Dela, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) show remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This is the result of increased postoperative insulin sensitivity and β-cell secretion. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of the preoperative β-cell function in T2DM for the chance of remission after RYGB. Fifteen patients with and 18 without T2DM had 25 g oral (OGTT) and intravenous (IVGTT) glucose tolerance tests performed at inclusion, after a diet-induced weight loss, and 4 and 18 months after RYGB. Postoperative first phase insulin secretion rate (ISR) during the IVGTT and β-cell glucose sensitivity during the OGTT increased in T2DM. Postoperative insulin sensitivity and the disposition index (DI) markedly increased in both groups. By stratifying the T2DM into two groups according to highest (T2DMhigh) and lowest (T2DMlow) baseline DI, a restoration of first phase ISR and β-cell glucose sensitivity were seen only in T2DMhigh. Remission of type 2 diabetes was 71 and 38% in T2DMhigh and T2DMlow, respectively. Postoperative postprandial GLP-1 concentrations increased markedly, but did not differ between the groups. Our findings emphasize the importance of the preoperative of β-cell function for remission of diabetes after RYGB. Key points Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery leads to remission of type 2 diabetes in the majority of patients suffering from the disease. The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 is believed to be of major importance for the remission process. The present project demonstrates a marked difference in the chance of remission of type 2 diabetes in patients with low or high preoperative β-cell function in spite of a similar post-surgery increase in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 release. Furthermore, post-surgery intravenous glucose administration, which does not stimulate release of glucagon-like peptide-1, leads to increased insulin secretion in the patients with the best preoperative

  4. The impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on normal metabolism in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Andreas; Ekelund, Mikael; Garcia-Vaz, Eliana; Ståhlman, Marcus; Pierzynowski, Stefan; Gomez, Maria F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Groop, Leif; Hedenbro, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) has generated inconclusive results on the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects on weight loss and glycaemia, partially due to the problems of designing clinical studies with the appropriate controls. Moreover, RYGB is only performed in obese individuals, in whom metabolism is perturbed and not completely understood. Methods In an attempt to isolate the effects of RYGB and its effects on normal metabolism, we investigated the effect of RYGB in lean pigs, using sham-operated pair-fed pigs as controls. Two weeks post-surgery, pigs were subjected to an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and circulating metabolites, hormones and lipids measured. Bile acid composition was profiled after extraction from blood, faeces and the gallbladder. Results A similar weight development in both groups of pigs validated our experimental model. Despite similar changes in fasting insulin, RYGB-pigs had lower fasting glucose levels. During an IVGTT RYGB-pigs had higher insulin and lower glucose levels. VLDL and IDL were lower in RYGB- than in sham-pigs. RYGB-pigs had increased levels of most amino acids, including branched-chain amino acids, but these were more efficiently suppressed by glucose. Levels of bile acids in the gallbladder were higher, whereas plasma and faecal bile acid levels were lower in RYGB- than in sham-pigs. Conclusion In a lean model RYGB caused lower plasma lipid and bile acid levels, which were compensated for by increased plasma amino acids, suggesting a switch from lipid to protein metabolism during fasting in the immediate postoperative period. PMID:28257455

  5. Improvement of hypothyroidism after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Raftopoulos, Yannis; Gagné, Daniel J; Papasavas, Pavlos; Hayetian, Fernando; Maurer, Julie; Bononi, Patricia; Caushaj, Philip F

    2004-04-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) has been very effective in managing a broad range of morbid obesity-related co-morbidities. We report a beneficial effect of LRYGBP that has not been previously observed. Between December 1999 and September 2002, 224 patients underwent LRYGBP. Preoperative assessment for hypothyroidism and follow-up data were prospectively collected in our database. Improved thyroid function (ITF) or unchanged thyroid function (UTF) was determined by comparison of preoperative and postoperative thyroxine requirements. 23 of 224 patients (10.3%) were treated preoperatively for hypothyroidism. During a median follow-up of 17 months, hypothyroidism was improved in 10/23 patients (43.5%). 2 patients had complete resolution, and the remaining 8 had reduction (14%-50%) of their thyroxine requirements. ITF occurred at a mean follow-up of 8.9 months and at a mean excess weight loss (EWL) of 57%. 6 of the 8 patients (75%) with ITF >or= 25% had EWL >90% at last follow-up, compared to 1 out of 15 patients (6.6%) with UTF or <25% improvement (P =0.001). Comparison of patients with ITF and UTF over time during a 20-month follow-up, showed no significant difference in mean body mass index (BMI) and mean percentage of EWL. Improvement of hypothyroidism may be an additional benefit of bariatric surgery that has not been previously reported. Reduction of thyroxine requirements is most likely the result of the decrease in the BMI.

  6. Early experience with totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Theodoros; Alexandrou, Andreas; Gouzis, Kostas; Alchanatis, Manos; Giannopoulos, Athanasios

    2010-12-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) for morbid obesity is a challenging operation. The application of robotic techniques has been shown to ease the technical difficulties and reduce perioperative morbidity, mainly because it facilitates the construction of the gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJ). Robotic laparoscopic RYGBP (LRYGBP) has been reported either as totally robotic with manual suturing of the GJ or as robotically assisted with the use of the robot only for the construction of the GJ. A totally robotic LRYGBP with a combined stapled and manual GJ has never been reported. Nine consecutive patients underwent totally robotic LRYGBP. The GJ was fashioned with a combination of the linear stapler and manual suturing. Mean preoperative body mass index was 45.3 ± 4.7 kg/m(2). In 1 case, we had to undock the Da Vinci Surgical System at the time of the jejunojejunostomy due to unfavorable ergonomics. Mean time to dock the robot was 16.3 ± 3.3 minutes, whereas mean total operative time was 197.2 ± 12.3 minutes. Immediate postoperative morbidity and mortality equaled zero. One patient developed a stenosis of the GJ amenable to endoscopic dilatation. The mean excess weight loss rate 1-year postoperative was 79% ± 15%. Totally robotic LRYGBP can duplicate precisely any conventional technique without any compromise in operative time, short- or long-term results.

  7. [Comparison of the safety and the costs between laparoscopic assisted or totally laparoscopic uncut Roux-en-Y and BillrothII(+Braun reconstruction--a single center prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinkui; Li, Ziyu; Shan, Fei; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Shuangxi; Jia, Yongning; Chen, Yufan; Xue, Kan; Miao, Rulin; Li, Zhemin; Gao, Xiangyu; Yan, Chao; Li, Shen; Wu, Zhouqiao; Ji, Jiafu

    2018-03-25

    To compare the short-term safety and costs between laparoscopic assisted or totally laparoscopic uncut Roux-en-Y and Billroth II((BII() + Braun reconstruction after radical gastrectomy of distal gastric cancer. Clinical data from our prospective database of radical gastrectomy were systematically analyzed. The patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy with uncut Roux-en-Y or BII(+ Braun reconstruction between March 1st, 2015 and June 30th, 2017 were screened out for further analysis. Both the reconstructions were completed by linear staplers. Uncut Roux-en-Y reconstruction was performed with a 45 mm no-knife linear stapler (ATS45NK) on the afferent loop below the gastrojejunostomy. Continuous variables were compared using independent samples t test or Mann-Whitney U. The frequencies of categorical variables were compared using Chi-squared or Fisher exact test. Eighty-one patients were in uncut Roux-en-Y group and 58 patients were in BII(+Braun group. There were no significant differences between uncut Roux-en-Y group and BII(+Braun group in median age (56.0 years vs. 56.5 years, P=0.757), gender (male/female, 52/29 vs. 46/12, P=0.054), history of abdominal surgery (yes/no, 10/71 vs. 4/54, P=0.293), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (yes/no, 21/60 vs. 11/47, P=0.336), BMI (thin/normal/overweight/obesity, 2/49/26/3 vs. 3/39/14/2, P=0.591), NRS 2002 score (1/2/3/4, 58/15/5/3 vs. 47/5/3/3, P=0.403), pathological stage (0/I(/II(/III(, 3/41/20/17 vs. 1/28/13/16, P=0.755), median tumor diameter in long axis (2.5 cm vs. 3.0 cm, P=0.278), median tumor diameter in short axis (2.0 cm vs. 2.0 cm, P=0.126) and some other clinical and pathological characteristics. There were no significant differences between uncut Roux-en-Y group and BII(+Braun group in morbidity of postoperative complication more severe than grade I([12.3% (10/81) vs. 17.2% (10/58), P=0.417], morbidity of anastomotic complication [1.2%(1/81) vs. 0, P=1.000] or hospitalization costs [(94000±14000) yuan vs.(95000

  8. Mechanism Underlying the Weight Loss and Complications of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Review.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, G; le Roux, C W

    2016-02-01

    Various bariatric surgical procedures are effective at improving health in patients with obesity associated co-morbidities, but the aim of this review is to specifically describe the mechanisms through which Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery enables weight loss for obese patients using observations from both human and animal studies. Perhaps most but not all clinicians would agree that the beneficial effects outweigh the harm of RYGB; however, the mechanisms for both the beneficial and deleterious (for example postprandial hypoglycaemia, vitamin deficiency and bone loss) effects are ill understood. The exaggerated release of the satiety gut hormones, such as GLP-1 and PYY, with their central and peripheral effects on food intake has given new insight into the physiological changes that happen after surgery. The initial enthusiasm after the discovery of the role of the gut hormones following RYGB may need to be tempered as the magnitude of the effects of these hormonal responses on weight loss may have been overestimated. The physiological changes after RYGB are unlikely to be due to a single hormone, or single mechanism, but most likely involve complex gut-brain signalling. Understanding the mechanisms involved with the beneficial and deleterious effects of RYGB will speed up the development of effective, cheaper and safer surgical and non-surgical treatments for obesity.

  9. Activation of natriuretic peptides and the sympathetic nervous system following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with gonadal adipose tissues browning

    PubMed Central

    Neinast, Michael D.; Frank, Aaron P.; Zechner, Juliet F.; Li, Quanlin; Vishvanath, Lavanya; Palmer, Biff F.; Aguirre, Vincent; Gupta, Rana K.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective method of weight loss and remediation of type-2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms leading to these improvements are unclear. Additionally, adipocytes within white adipose tissue (WAT) depots can manifest characteristics of brown adipocytes. These ‘BRITE/beige’ adipocytes express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are associated with improvements in glucose homeostasis and protection from obesity. Interestingly, atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote BRITE/beige adipocyte enrichment of WAT depots, an effect known as “browning.” Here, we investigate the effect of RYGB surgery on NP, NP receptors, and browning in the gonadal adipose tissues of female mice. We propose that such changes may lead to improvements in metabolic homeostasis commonly observed following RYGB. Methods Wild type, female, C57/Bl6 mice were fed a 60% fat diet ad libitum for six months. Mice were divided into three groups: Sham operated (SO), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and Weight matched, sham operated (WM-SO). Mice were sacrificed six weeks following surgery and evaluated for differences in body weight, glucose homeostasis, adipocyte morphology, and adipose tissue gene expression. Results RYGB and calorie restriction induced similar weight loss and improved glucose metabolism without decreasing food intake. β3-adrenergic receptor expression increased in gonadal adipose tissue, in addition to Nppb (BNP), and NP receptors, Npr1, and Npr2. The ratio of Npr1:Npr3 and Npr2:Npr3 increased in RYGB, but not WM-SO groups. Ucp1 protein and mRNA, as well as additional markers of BRITE/beige adipose tissue and lipolytic genes increased in RYGB mice to a greater extent than calorie-restricted mice. Conclusions Upregulation of Nppb, Npr1, Npr2, and β3-adrenergic receptors in gonadal adipose tissue following RYGB was associated with increased markers of browning. This browning of gonadal adipose tissue may underpin the positive

  10. Beyond weight loss: evaluating the multiple benefits of bariatric surgery after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and adjustable gastric band.

    PubMed

    Neff, Karl J; Chuah, Ling Ling; Aasheim, Erlend T; Jackson, Sabrina; Dubb, Sukhpreet S; Radhakrishnan, Shiva T; Sood, Arvinder S; Olbers, Torsten; Godsland, Ian F; Miras, Alexander D; le Roux, Carel W

    2014-05-01

    Despite the evidence for benefits beyond weight loss following bariatric surgery, assessments of surgical outcomes are often limited to changes in weight and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To address this shortfall in assessment, the King's Obesity Staging System was developed. This system evaluates the individual in severity stages of physical, psychological, socio-economic and functional disease. These are categorised into disease domains arranged so as to allow an alphabetic mnemonic as Airways, Body Mass Index (BMI), Cardiovascular, Diabetes, Economic, Functional, Gonadal, Health Status (perceived) and (body) Image. In this cohort study, patients were assessed before and 12 months after surgery using the modified King's Obesity Staging Score. We studied 217 consecutive patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; N = 148) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB; N = 69) using the modified King's Obesity Staging System to determine health benefits after bariatric surgery. Preoperatively, the groups had similar BMI, but the RYGB group had worse Airways, Cardiovascular, and Diabetes scores (p < 0.05). After surgery, RYGB and LAGB produced improvements in all scores. In a subgroup paired analysis matched for preoperative Airways, BMI, Cardiovascular, and Diabetes scores, both procedures showed similar improvements in all scores, except for BMI where RYGB had a greater reduction than LAGB (p < 0.05). Both RYGB and LAGB deliver multiple benefits to patients as evaluated by the modified King's Obesity Staging System beyond BMI and glycaemic markers. A validated staging score such as the modified King's Obesity Staging System can be used to quantify these benefits.

  11. A novel technique of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversal for postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Qvigstad, E; Gulseth, H L; Risstad, H; le Roux, C W; Berg, T J; Mala, T; Kristinsson, J A

    2016-01-01

    We describe an evaluation of the effects of partial Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reversal on postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin and GLP-1 levels. A 37 year old man was admitted with neuroglycopenia (plasma-glucose 1.6mmol/l) 18 months after RYGB, with normal 72h fasting test and abdominal CT. Despite dietary modifications and medical treatment, the hypoglycaemic episodes escalated in frequency. Feeding by a gastrostomy tube positioned in the gastric remnant did not prevent severe episodes of hypoglycaemia. A modified reversal of the RYGB was performed. Mixed meal tests were done perorally (PO), through the gastrostomy tube 1 (GT1), 4 weeks (GT2) after placement and 4 weeks after reversal (POr), with assessment of glucose, insulin and GLP-1 levels. Plasma-glucose increased to a maximum of 9.6, 5.4, 6.5 and 5.8mmol/l at the PO, GT1, GT2 and POr tests respectively. The corresponding insulin levels were 2939, 731, 725 and 463pmol/l. A decrease of plasma-glucose followed: 2.2, 3.0, 3.9 and 2.9mmol/l respectively and insulin levels were suppressed at 150min: 45, 22, 21 and 14pmol/l, respectively. GLP-1 levels increased in the PO test (60min: 122pmol/l, 21 fold of basal), but was attenuated in the two latter tests (12-23pmol/l at 60min). Reduction of plasma-glucose, insulin and GLP-1 excursions and symptoms were seen after gastric tube placement and partial RYGB reversal. This attenuation of GLP-1 response to feeding could reflect an adaptation to nutrients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Comparison of the Absorption of Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Citrate after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tondapu, P.; Provost, D.; Adams-Huet, B.; Sims, T.; Chang, C.; Sakhaee, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) restricts food intake. Consequently, patients consume less calcium. In addition, food no longer passes through the duodenum, the main site of calcium absorption. Therefore, calcium absorption is significantly impaired. The goal of this study is to compare two common calcium supplements in gastric bypass patients. Method Nineteen patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover study comparing the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate and calcium citrate salts. Serum and urine calcium levels were assessed for peak values (Cmax) and cumulative calcium increment (area under the curve [AUC]). Serum PTH was assessed for minimum values (PTHmin) and cumulative PTH decrement (AUC). Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated analysis of variance model. Results Eighteen subjects completed the study. Calcium citrate resulted in a significantly higher serum Cmax (9.4+0.4 mg/dl vs. 9.2+0.3 mg/dl, p=0.02) and serum AUC (55+2 mg/dl vs. 54+2 mg/dl, p=0.02). Calcium citrate resulted in a significantly lower PTHmin (24+11 pg/ml vs. 30+13 pg/ml, p=0.01) and a higher AUC (−32+51 pg/ml vs. −3+56 pg/ml, p=0.04). There was a non-significant trend for higher urinary AUC in the calcium citrate group (76.13+36.39 mg/6 h vs. 66.04+40.82, p=0.17). Conclusion Calcium citrate has superior bioavailability than calcium carbonate in RYGB patients. PMID:19437082

  13. Longitudinal trends in hedonic hunger after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Christopher C; Benoit, Stephen C; Peugh, James L; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Inge, Thomas H; Zeller, Meg H

    2014-01-01

    Initial outcome studies have reported that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is safe and efficacious for adolescents with extreme obesity. Although rapid weight loss is seen initially, data also show that modest weight regain typically occurs as early as the second postoperative year. The contribution of various psychological factors, including hedonic hunger, to postoperative weight regain has not previously been studied in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the variability in hedonic hunger and body mass index (BMI) over the initial 2-year period of weight loss and modest weight regain in adolescent RYGB recipients. A total of 16 adolescents completed the Power of Food Scale before surgery and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. Height and weight were measured at each time point, from which BMI was calculated. Nonlinear trends were observed for time on both overall hedonic hunger and hedonic hunger specifically related to food available in the adolescent's environment. The BMI reduction during the first 18 months postoperatively was paralleled by reduction in hedonic hunger; increases in hedonic hunger also paralleled the modest BMI increase at 24 months. In growth analysis, significant power gains are available to models using 4 or more points of data. However, only large effect sizes that are>.85 were detectable with a sample of 16 patients. These data provide preliminary evidence that hedonic hunger is in need of further study in adolescent patients receiving RYGB both preoperatively and postoperatively. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Capacity for Physical Activity Predicts Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Hatoum, Ida J.; Stein, Heather K.; Merrifield, Benjamin F.; Kaplan, Lee M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its overall excellent outcomes, weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly variable. We conducted this study to identify clinical predictors of weight loss after RYGB. We reviewed charts from 300 consecutive patients who underwent RYGB from August 1999 to November 2002. Data collected included patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and diet history. Of the 20 variables selected for univariate analysis, 9 with univariate P values ≤ 0.15 were entered into a multivariable regression analysis. Using backward selection, covariates with P < 0.05 were retained. Potential confounders were added back into the model and assessed for effect on all model variables. Complete records were available for 246 of the 300 patients (82%). The patient characteristics were 75% female, 93% white, mean age of 45 years, and mean initial BMI of 52.3 kg/m2. One year after surgery, patients lost an average of 64.8% of their excess weight (s.d. = 20.5%). The multivariable regression analysis revealed that limited physical activity, higher initial BMI, lower educational level, diabetes, and decreased attendance at postoperative appointments had an adverse effect on weight loss after RYGB. A model including these five factors accounts for 41% of the observed variability in weight loss (adjusted r2 = 0.41). In this cohort, higher initial BMI and limited physical activity were the strongest predictors of decreased excess weight loss following RYGB. Limited physical activity may be particularly important because it represents an opportunity for potentially meaningful pre- and postsurgical intervention to maximize weight loss following RYGB. PMID:18997674

  15. Laparoscopic Reversal of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Technique and Utility for Treatment of Endocrine Complications

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Guilherme M.; Ziemelis, Martynas; Paparodis, Rodis; Ahmed, Muhammed; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2018-01-01

    Background The anatomical and physiological changes with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may lead to uncommon but occasionally difficult to treat complications such as hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia and recalcitrant hypocalcemia associated to hypoparathyroidism. Medical management of these complications is challenging. Laparoscopic reversal of RYGB anatomy with restoration of pyloric function and duodenal continuity is a potential treatment. Objective To present the indications, surgical technique and clinical outcomes of laparoscopic reversal of RYGB. Setting Tertiary Academic Medical Center, United States. Methods Prospective study of consecutive patients offered laparoscopic reversal of RYGB. Results Five patients with remote laparoscopic RYGB underwent laparoscopic reversal of RYGB to normal anatomy (n=2) or modified sleeve gastrectomy (n=3). Indications were medically refractory hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia (n=3), recalcitrant hypocalcemia with hypoparathyroidism (n=1) and both conditions simultaneously (n=1). Prior to reversal all patients had a gastrostomy tube placed in the excluded stomach to document improvement of symptoms. Laparoscopic reversal was accomplished successfully in all patients. Three post-operative complications occurred; bleeding that required transfusion, gallstone pancreatitis and a superficial trocar site infection. Average length of stay was 3 days. At a mean follow-up of 12 months (range 3 to 22), no additional episodes of neuroglycopenia occurred, average number of hypoglycemic episodes per week decreased from 18.5±12.4 to 1.5±1.9 (p=0.05) and hypocalcemia became responsive to oral replacement therapy in both patients. Conclusions Laparoscopic reversal of RYGB to normal anatomy or modified sleeve gastrectomy is feasible and may be a therapeutic option for selected patients with medically refractory hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and/or recalcitrant hypocalcemia associated to

  16. [Anisoperistaltic Roux-en-Y reconstruction: rare cause for recurrent cholangitis after hepatic jejunostomy].

    PubMed

    Böhm, S A; Beckurts, K T; Landwehr, P; Hölscher, A H

    1999-07-01

    Stenosis of the hepatico-intestinal anastomosis after hepaticojejunostomy is a common cause for recurrent cholangitis. In the following report a patient's history of recurrent cholangitis after hepaticojejunostomy performed because of bile duct injury is presented. Preoperative imaging revealed a stricture of the hepatico-intestinal anastomosis and a massive dilatation of the Roux-en-Y loop, so that a draining disorder was assumed. Laparotomy showed an anisoperistaltic Roux-en-Y loop. When assessing the differential diagnosis of recurrent cholangitis after hepaticojejunostomy, anisoperistaltic reconstruction should be considered.

  17. Diagnosis and Management of Perforated Duodenal Ulcers following Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass: A Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Chory, Fiona M; Goodman, Elliot R; Surick, Burton G

    2015-01-01

    Perforated duodenal ulcers are rare complications seen after roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGP). They often present as a diagnostic dilemma as they rarely present with pneumoperitoneum on radiologic evaluation. There is no consensus as to the pathophysiology of these ulcers; however expeditious treatment is necessary. We present two patients with perforated duodenal ulcers and a distant history of RYGP who were successfully treated. Their individual surgical management is discussed as well as a literature review. We conclude that, in patients who present with acute abdominal pain and a history of RYGB, perforated ulcer needs to be very high in the differential diagnosis even in the absence of pneumoperitoneum. In these patients an early surgical exploration is paramount to help diagnose and treat these patients.

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Perforated Duodenal Ulcers following Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass: A Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Mazen E.; Chory, Fiona M.; Goodman, Elliot R.; Surick, Burton G.

    2015-01-01

    Perforated duodenal ulcers are rare complications seen after roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGP). They often present as a diagnostic dilemma as they rarely present with pneumoperitoneum on radiologic evaluation. There is no consensus as to the pathophysiology of these ulcers; however expeditious treatment is necessary. We present two patients with perforated duodenal ulcers and a distant history of RYGP who were successfully treated. Their individual surgical management is discussed as well as a literature review. We conclude that, in patients who present with acute abdominal pain and a history of RYGB, perforated ulcer needs to be very high in the differential diagnosis even in the absence of pneumoperitoneum. In these patients an early surgical exploration is paramount to help diagnose and treat these patients. PMID:25949843

  19. Roux-en-Y or Billroth II Reconstruction After Radical Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    So, Jimmy Bok-Yan; Rao, Jaideepraj; Wong, Andrew Siang-Yih; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Pang, Ning Qi; Tay, Amy Yuh Ling; Yung, Man Yee; Su, Zheng; Phua, Janelle Niam Sin; Shabbir, Asim; Ng, Enders Kwok Wai

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical symptoms between Billroth II (B-II) and Roux-en-Y (R-Y) reconstruction after distal subtotal gastrectomy (DG) for gastric cancer. Surgery is the mainstay of curative treatment for gastric cancer. The technique for reconstruction after DG remains controversial. Both B-II and R-Y are popular methods. This is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial. From October 2008 to October 2014, 162 patients who underwent DG were randomly allocated to B-II (n = 81) and R-Y (n = 81) groups. The primary endpoint is Gastrointestinal (GI) Symptoms Score 1 year after surgery. We also compared the nutritional status, extent of gastritis on endoscopy, and quality of life after surgery between the 2 procedures at 1 year. Operative time was significantly shorter for B-II than for R-Y [mean difference 21.5 minutes, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.8-39.3, P = 0.019]. The B-II and R-Y groups had a peri-operative morbidity of 28.4% and 33.8%, respectively (P = 0.500) and a 30-day mortality of 2.5% and 1.2%, respectively (P = 0.500). GI symptoms score did not differ between R-Y versus B-II reconstruction (mean difference -0.45, 95% CI -1.21 to 0.31, P = 0.232). R-Y resulted in a lower median endoscopic grade for gastritis versus B-II (mean difference -1.32, 95% CI -1.67 to -0.98, P < 0.001). We noted no difference in nutritional status (R-Y versus B-II mean difference -0.31, 95% CI -3.27 to 2.65, P = 0.837) and quality of life at 1 year between the 2 groups too. Although BII is associated with a higher incidence of heartburn symptom and higher median endoscopic grade for gastritis, BII and RY are similar in terms of overall GI symptom score and nutritional status at 1 year after distal gastrectomy.

  20. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and diet-induced weight loss on diabetic kidney disease in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    PubMed

    Neff, Karl J; Elliott, Jessie A; Corteville, Caroline; Abegg, Kathrin; Boza, Camilo; Lutz, Thomas A; Docherty, Neil G; le Roux, Carel W

    2017-01-01

    Reductions in urinary protein excretion after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in patients with diabetic kidney disease have been reported in multiple studies. To determine the weight loss dependence of the effect of RYGB on urinary protein excretion by comparing renal outcomes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats undergoing either gastric bypass surgery or a sham operation with or without weight matching. University laboratories. Zucker diabetic fatty rats underwent surgery at 18 weeks of age. A subgroup of sham operated rats were weight matched to RYGB operated rats by restricting food intake. Urinary protein excretion was assessed at baseline and at postoperative weeks 4 and 12. Renal histology and macrophage-associated inflammation were assessed at postoperative week 12. Progressive urinary protein excretion was attenuated by both RYGB and diet-induced weight loss, albeit to a lesser extent by the latter. Both weight loss interventions produced equivalent reductions in glomerulomegaly, glomerulosclerosis, and evidence of renal macrophage infiltration. Weight loss per se improves renal structure and attenuates renal inflammatory responses in an experimental animal model of diabetic kidney disease. Better glycemic control post-RYGB may in part explain the greater reductions in urinary protein excretion after gastric bypass surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tier 3 multidisciplinary medical weight management improves outcome of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, P; Hartland, A; Hollis, A; Ali, R; Elshaw, A; Jain, S; Khan, A; Mirza, S

    2015-04-01

    In 2013 the Department of Health specified eligibility for bariatric surgery funded by the National Health Service. This included a mandatory specification that patients first complete a Tier 3 medical weight management programme. The clinical effectiveness of this recommendation has not been evaluated previously. Our bariatric centre has provided a Tier 3 programme six months prior to bariatric surgery since 2009. The aim of our retrospective study was to compare weight loss in two cohorts: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass only (RYGB only cohort) versus Tier 3 weight management followed by RYGB (Tier 3 cohort). A total of 110 patients were selected for the study: 66 in the RYGB only cohort and 44 in the Tier 3 cohort. Patients in both cohorts were matched for age, sex, preoperative body mass index and pre-existing co-morbidities. The principal variable was therefore whether they undertook the weight management programme prior to RYGB. Patients from both cohorts were followed up at 6 and 12 months to assess weight loss. The mean weight loss at 6 months for the Tier 3 cohort was 31% (range: 18-69%, standard deviation [SD]: 0.10 percentage points) compared with 23% (range: 4-93%, SD: 0.12 percentage points) for the RYGB only cohort (p=0.0002). The mean weight loss at 12 months for the Tier 3 cohort was 34% (range: 17-51%, SD: 0.09 percentage points) compared with 27% (range: 14-48%, SD: 0.87 percentage points) in the RYGB only cohort (p=0.0037). Our study revealed that in our matched cohorts, patients receiving Tier 3 specialist medical weight management input prior to RYGB lost significantly more weight at 6 and 12 months than RYGB only patients. This confirms the clinical efficacy of such a weight management programme prior to gastric bypass surgery and supports its inclusion in eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery.

  2. A Peterson's hernia and subsequent small bowel volvulus: surgical reconstruction utilizing transverse colon as a new Roux-en-Y limb - 1 case.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Seong; Shin, Dong Gue

    2013-12-01

    Peterson's hernia is an internal hernia that can occur after Roux-en-Y anastomosis. It often accompanies small bowel volvulus and is prone to strangulation. Reconstruction of intestinal continuity after massive small bowel resection in a patient who undergoes near total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y anastomosis can be difficult. A 74-year-old man who had undergone a near total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy for stomach cancer presented with abdominal pain. The preoperative computed tomography showed strangulated small bowel volvulus. During the emergent laparotomy, we found a strangulated Peterson's hernia with small bowel volvulus. After resection of the necrotized intestine, we made a new Roux-en-Y anastomosis connecting the remnant stomach and the jejunum with a transverse colon segment. We were safely able to connect the remnant stomach and the jejunum by making a new Roux-en-Y anastomosis utilizing a transverse colon segment as a new Roux-limb by two stage operation.

  3. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on morbidly obese patients with hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Fazylov, Rafael; Soto, Eliana; Cohen, Steve; Merola, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    It is well known that obesity is accompanied by changes in thyroid function. Hypothyroidism is associated with increased body weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the operative outcomes, weight loss, and the effect of weight loss on thyroid function in morbidly obese patients with hypothyroidism who undergo laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. A retrospective review of 20 morbidly obese female patients with hypothyroidism and on thyroid replacement therapy who underwent LRYGB between January 2003 and August 2006. Mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 47.6 kg/m2 (range 38-58.5 kg/m2). Average patient age was 44.5 years (range 21-66 years). There was one early complication (pneumonia). Late complications included one death, three anastomotic strictures, and one small bowel obstruction. The patients were followed for a mean of 13.5 months (range 3-24 months). Their mean excess body weight loss was 13 kg (22%), 24.4 kg (39.4%), 33.2 kg (63.3%), 38.4 kg (65%), 41.7 kg (70%), and 43 kg (73%) at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Change in a mean BMI was the same regardless of the patient preoperative and postoperative thyroxine dose. Hypothyroidism resolved in 5(25%) patients, improved in 2(10%) patients, unchanged in 8(40%) patients, and worsened in 5 (25%) patients. Most of the five whose hypothyroidism worsened had thyroid autoimmune disease. Hypothyroidism appears to improve in the vast majority of morbidly obese patients who undergo LRYGB, except for those whose thyroid disease is autoimmune in nature.

  4. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial).

    PubMed

    Zonča, Pavel; Malý, Tomáš; Ihnát, Peter; Peteja, Matus; Kraft, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604). With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with 99m Tc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the "J-pouch" group; the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.001). Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant ( P =0.0016). There were no important adverse events. After total gastrectomy, a J-pouch reconstruction empties more slowly and is associated with higher quality of life compared to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Whether these two observations have a direct causative link remains unanswered.

  5. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity gastric bypass discharge; Weight loss - gastric bypass discharge ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  6. Pancrelipase treatment in a patient with the history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation that developed resistant hypocalcemia secondary to total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Baldane, S; Ipekci, S H; Kebapcilar, L

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an independent risk factor for moderate hypocalcaemia and may lead to the development of resistant hypocalcaemia following thyroid surgery. Subject and Results. A 35-year old female patient was referred to our hospital by her family physician for treatment of resistant hypocalcaemia. The patient underwent RYGB three years ago and a total thyroidectomy for a benign thyroid nodule one year ago. Calcitriol, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and ergocalciferol therapeutic dosages were incremented. Despite dosage increments, the desired calcium levels were not achieved. In the sixth month after admission to our hospital, pancrelipase was added to patient's treatment scheme. On the following visit, a good calcium increase had been achieved. This report presents a case history of RYGB and resistant hypocalcaemia, which developed after thyroid surgery and positively responded to pancrelipase treatment.

  7. EUS-directed Transgastric ERCP (EDGE) Versus Laparoscopy-assisted ERCP (LA-ERCP) for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) Anatomy: A Multicenter Early Comparative Experience of Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Prashant; Tarnasky, Paul R; Nieto, Jose; Steele, Stephen L; Siddiqui, Ali; Xu, Ming-Ming; Tyberg, Amy; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2018-04-17

    The standard of care for managing pancreaticobiliary disease in altered Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients is laparoscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (LA-ERCP), but is limited by cost and adverse events. Recently a minimally invasive, completely endoscopic approach using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) directed transgastric ERCP (EDGE) has been described. We aim to compare EDGE to LA-ERCP in this study. Patients from May 2005 to June 2017 with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass anatomy having undergone LA-ERCP or EDGE at 4 tertiary centers were captured in a registry. Patient demographics, procedural details, and clinical outcomes were measured for each group. Seventy-two patients (n=29 EDGE, n=43 LA-ERCP) were included in this study. There was no significant difference in the technical success of EDGE gastrogastric fistula (96.5%) versus LA-gastrostomy creation (100%). The success rate of achieving therapeutic ERCP (EDGE 96.5% vs. LA-ERCP 97.7%) and number of ERCP (EDGE 1.2 vs. LA-ERCP 1.02) needed to achieve clinical resolution was similar between both groups. Adverse event rate for EDGE, 24% (7/29) and LA-ERCP, 19% (8/43) was similar. The total procedure time (73 vs. 184 min) and length of hospital stay (0.8 vs. 2.65 d) was significantly shorter for EDGE compared to LA-ERCP. The overall weight change after EDGE was -6.6 lbs at an average 28-week follow-up. This study suggests that the EDGE procedure has similar technical success and adverse events compared with LA-ERCP with the benefit of significantly shorter procedure times and hospital stay. EDGE may offer a minimally invasive, effective option, with less resource utilization, and without significant weight gain.

  8. Leptin Is Required for Glucose Homeostasis after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mokadem, Mohamad; Zechner, Juliet F; Uchida, Aki; Aguirre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake, thereby promoting weight reduction. Leptin also regulates glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity via hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons in mice. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces weight loss that is substantial and sustained despite reducing plasma leptin levels. In addition, patients who fail to undergo diabetes remission after RYGB are hypoletinemic compared to those who do and to lean controls. We have previously demonstrated that the beneficial effects of RYGB in mice require the melanocortin-4 receptor, a downstream effector of leptin action. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that leptin is required for sustained weight reduction and improved glucose homeostasis observed after RYGB. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed RYGB or sham operations on leptin-deficient ob/ob mice maintained on regular chow. To investigate whether leptin is involved in post-RYGB weight maintenance, we challenged post-surgical mice with high fat diet. RYGB reduced total body weight, fat and lean mass and caused reduction in calorie intake in ob/ob mice. However, it failed to improve glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated plasma insulin, insulin tolerance, and fasting plasma insulin. High fat diet eliminated the reduction in calorie intake observed after RYGB in ob/ob mice and promoted weight regain, although not to the same extent as in sham-operated mice. We conclude that leptin is required for the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis but not body weight or composition in mice. Our data also suggest that leptin may play a role in post-RYGB weight maintenance.

  9. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass vs. Sleeve Gastrectomy vs. Gastric Banding: The First Multicenter Retrospective Comparative Cohort Study in Obese Korean Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Kuon; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Joong Min; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Seong Min; Park, Do Joong; Han, Sang Moon; Shim, Kyung Won; Lee, Yeon Ji; Lee, Ja Youn; Kwon, Jin Won

    2016-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is relatively new in Korea, and studies comparing different bariatric procedures in Koreans are lacking. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) for treating morbidly obese Korean adults. In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of 261 obese patients who underwent different bariatric procedures. Clinical outcomes were measured in terms of weight loss and resolution of comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Safety profiles for the procedures were also evaluated. In terms of weight loss, the three procedures showed similar results at 18 months (weight loss in 52.1% for SG, 61.0% for LAGB, and 69.2% for RYGB). Remission of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was more frequent in patients who underwent RYGB (65.9%, 63.6%, and 100% of patients, respectively). Safety profiles were similar among groups. Early complications occurred in 26 patients (9.9%) and late complications in 32 (12.3%). In the LAGB group, five bands (6.9%) were removed. Among all patients, one death (1/261=0.38%) occurred in the RYGB group due to aspiration pneumonia. The three bariatric procedures were comparable in regards to weight-loss outcomes; nevertheless, RYGB showed a higher rate of comorbidity resolution. Bariatric surgery is effective and relatively safe; however, due to complications, some bands had to be removed in the LAGB group and a relatively high rate of reoperations was observed in the RYGB group.

  10. Effect of carbohydrate restriction in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Botros, Nadia; Rijnaarts, Iris; Brandts, Hans; Bleumink, Gysele; Janssen, Ignace; de Boer, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is a rare complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Meals with a high carbohydrate (carb) content and high glycemic index (GI) may provoke these hypoglycemic attacks. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of reducing meal carb content and GI on glycemic responses in patients with post-RYGB hypoglycemia. Fourteen patients with post-RYGB hypoglycemia underwent two meal tests: a mixed meal test (MMT) with a carb content of 30 g and a meal test with the low GI supplement, Glucerna SR 1.5® (Glucerna meal test (GMT)). Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were measured for a period of 6 h. Peak glucose levels were reached at T 30 during GMT and at T 60 during MMT, and they were 1.5 ± 0.3 mmol/L lower during GMT than during MMT (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 9.0 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P < 0.005). GMT induced the most rapid rise in plasma insulin: at T 30 plasma, insulin was 30.7 ± 8.5 mU/L higher during GMT than during MMT (P < 0.005). None of the carb-restricted meals induced post-prandial hypoglycemia. A 30-g carb-restricted meal may help to prevent post-prandial hypoglycemia in patients with post-RYGB hypoglycemia. The use of a liquid, low GI, supplement offers no additional advantage.

  11. Diabetes-associated microbiota in fa/fa rats is modified by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Arora, Tulika; Seyfried, Florian; Docherty, Neil G; Tremaroli, Valentina; le Roux, Carel W; Perkins, Rosie; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and duodenal jejunal bypass (DJB), two different forms of bariatric surgery, are associated with improved glucose tolerance, but it is not clear whether the gut microbiota contributes to this effect. Here we used fa/fa rats as a model of impaired glucose tolerance to investigate whether (i) the microbiota varies between fa/fa and nondiabetic fa/+ rats; (ii) the microbiota of fa/fa rats is affected by RYGB and/or DJB; and (iii) surgically induced microbiota alterations contribute to glucose metabolism. We observed a profound expansion of Firmicutes (specifically, Lactobacillus animalis and Lactobacillus reuteri) in the small intestine of diabetic fa/fa compared with nondiabetic fa/+ rats. RYGB-, but not DJB-, treated fa/fa rats exhibited greater microbiota diversity in the ileum and lower L. animalis and L. reuteri abundance compared with sham-operated fa/fa rats in all intestinal segments, and their microbiota composition resembled that of unoperated fa/+ rats. To investigate the functional role of RYGB-associated microbiota alterations, we transferred microbiota from sham- and RYGB-treated fa/fa rats to germ-free mice. The metabolic phenotype of RYGB-treated rats was not transferred by the transplant of ileal microbiota. In contrast, postprandial peak glucose levels were lower in mice that received cecal microbiota from RYGB- versus sham-operated rats. Thus, diabetes-associated microbiota alterations in fa/fa rats can be modified by RYGB, and modifications in the cecal microbiota may partially contribute to improved glucose tolerance after RYGB.

  12. Protocol for a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: the BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study.

    PubMed

    Jassil, Friedrich C; Carnemolla, Alisia; Kingett, Helen; Paton, Bruce; O'Keeffe, Aidan G; Doyle, Jacqueline; Morris, Stephen; Lewis, Neville; Kirk, Amy; Pucci, Andrea; Chaiyasoot, Kusuma; Batterham, Rachel L

    2018-03-16

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the two most common bariatric surgery performed in the UK that result in comparable weight loss and remission of obesity-associated comorbidities. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the impact of these procedures on body composition, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life and costs. The BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study is a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study within a real-world routine clinical care setting aiming to recruit 100 patients with severe obesity undergoing either primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy from two bariatric centres in London, UK. Participants will be followed up four times during the study period; presurgery baseline (T0) and at 3 (T1), 6 (T2) and 12 months (T3) postsurgery. In addition to the standard follow-up investigations, assessments including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, bioelectric impedance analysis, 6 min walk test, sit-to-stand test and handgrip test will be undertaken together with completion of questionnaires. Physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using accelerometer, and dietary intake will be recorded using a 3-day food diary. Outcome measures will include body weight, body fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mineral density, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life, remission of comorbidities, healthcare resource utilisation and costs. This study has been reviewed and given a favourable ethical opinion by London-Dulwich Research Ethics Committee (17/LO/0950). The results will be presented to stakeholder groups locally, nationally and internationally and published in peer-reviewed medical journals. The lay-person summary of the findings will be published on the Centre for Obesity Research, University College London website (http

  13. Protocol for a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: the BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study

    PubMed Central

    Jassil, Friedrich C; Carnemolla, Alisia; Kingett, Helen; Paton, Bruce; O’Keeffe, Aidan G; Doyle, Jacqueline; Morris, Stephen; Lewis, Neville; Kirk, Amy; Pucci, Andrea; Chaiyasoot, Kusuma; Batterham, Rachel L

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the two most common bariatric surgery performed in the UK that result in comparable weight loss and remission of obesity-associated comorbidities. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the impact of these procedures on body composition, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life and costs. Methods and analysis The BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study is a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study within a real-world routine clinical care setting aiming to recruit 100 patients with severe obesity undergoing either primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy from two bariatric centres in London, UK. Participants will be followed up four times during the study period; presurgery baseline (T0) and at 3 (T1), 6 (T2) and 12 months (T3) postsurgery. In addition to the standard follow-up investigations, assessments including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, bioelectric impedance analysis, 6 min walk test, sit-to-stand test and handgrip test will be undertaken together with completion of questionnaires. Physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using accelerometer, and dietary intake will be recorded using a 3-day food diary. Outcome measures will include body weight, body fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mineral density, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life, remission of comorbidities, healthcare resource utilisation and costs. Ethics and dissemination This study has been reviewed and given a favourable ethical opinion by London-Dulwich Research Ethics Committee (17/LO/0950). The results will be presented to stakeholder groups locally, nationally and internationally and published in peer-reviewed medical journals. The lay-person summary of the findings will be published on the Centre for

  14. Outcomes associated with preoperative weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Camille; Graham, Laura A; Gullick, Allison A; Richman, Joshua; Stahl, Richard; Grams, Jayleen

    2016-11-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is an effective treatment for achieving and maintaining weight loss and for improving obesity-related comorbidities. As part of the approval process for bariatric surgery, many insurance companies require patients to have documented recent participation in a supervised weight loss program. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship of preoperative weight changes with outcomes following LRYGB. A retrospective review was conducted of adult patients undergoing LRYGB between 2008 and 2012 at a single institution. Patients were stratified into quartiles based on % excess weight gain (0-4.99 % and ≥5 % EWG) and % excess weight loss (0-4.99 % and ≥5 % EWL). Generalized linear models were used to examine differences in postoperative weight outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months. Covariates included in the final adjusted models were determined using backwards stepwise selection. Of the 300 patients included in the study, there were no significant demographic differences among the quartiles. However, there was an increased time to operation for patients who gained or lost ≥5 % excess body weight (p < 0.001). Although there was no statistical significance in postoperative complications, there was a higher rate of complications in patients with ≥5 % EWG compared to those with ≥5 % EWL (12.5 vs. 4.8 %, respectively; p = 0.29). Unadjusted and adjusted generalized linear models showed no statistically significant association between preoperative % excess weight change and weight loss outcomes at 24 months. Patients with the greatest % preoperative excess weight change had the longest intervals from initial visit to operation. No significant differences were seen in perioperative and postoperative outcomes. This study suggests preoperative weight loss requirements may delay the time to operation without improving postoperative outcomes or weight loss.

  15. Metabolic responses to exogenous ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in humans.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Robyn A; Antoun, Joseph; Sidani, Reem M; Clements, Austin; Harmata, Emily E; Marks-Shulman, Pam; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Williams, Brandon; Clements, Ronald H; Albaugh, Vance L; Abumrad, Naji N

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and has a multi-faceted role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, including glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are modulated in response to nutritional status, but responses to ghrelin in altered metabolic states are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic effects of ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We assessed central and peripheral metabolic responses to acyl ghrelin infusion (1 pmol kg -1  min -1 ) in healthy, lean subjects (n = 9) and non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 9) before and 2 weeks after RYGB. Central responses were assessed by GH and pancreatic polypeptide (surrogate for vagal activity) secretion. Peripheral responses were assessed by hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Ghrelin-stimulated GH secretion was attenuated in obese subjects, but was restored by RYGB to a response similar to that of lean subjects. The heightened pancreatic polypeptide response to ghrelin infusion in the obese was attenuated after RYGB. Hepatic glucose production and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not altered by ghrelin infusion in RYGB subjects. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was impaired to a similar degree in lean, obese and post-RYGB individuals in response to ghrelin infusion. These data suggest that obesity is characterized by abnormal central, but not peripheral, responsiveness to ghrelin that can be restored early after RYGB before significant weight loss. Further work is necessary to fully elucidate the role of ghrelin in the metabolic changes that occur in obesity and following RYGB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dietary assessment of adolescents undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: macro- and micronutrient, fiber and supplement intake

    PubMed Central

    Jeffreys, Renee M.; Hrovat, Kathleen; Woo, Jessica G.; Schmidt, Marcia; Inge, Thomas H.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, there are as yet no data available which describe the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient’s diet pre- and post-operatively. Objective Assess the 1-year change in dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Setting Tertiary care children’s hospital Methods Twenty-seven subjects [67% female, 77% white, age 16.7 ± 1.4 years, baseline body mass index (BMI) 60.1 ± 14.1 kg/m2] were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study one month prior to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) between August 2005 and March 2008. Three-day dietary intake was recorded at baseline (n=24), at 2 weeks (n=16), 3 months (n=11), and 1 year (n=9) post-operatively. Dietary record data were verified by structured interview and compared with Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for ages 14–18. Results By 1 year post-surgery, mean caloric intake adjusted for BMI was 1015 ± 182 kcal/day, a 35% reduction from baseline. The proportion of fat, protein and carbohydrate intake did not differ from baseline. However, protein intake was lower than recommended postoperatively. Calcium and fiber intake was also persistently lower than recommended. Calcium and vitamin B12 supplementation increased the likelihood of meeting daily minimal recommendations (p≤0.02). Conclusions One year after RYGB, adolescents’ caloric intake remained restricted with satisfactory macronutrient composition, but with lower than desirable intake of calcium, fiber and protein. PMID:22260884

  17. Comparison of quality of life between Billroth-І and Roux-en-Y anastomosis after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2017-09-12

    Studies comparing Billroth-I (B-I) with Roux-en-Y (R-Y) anastomosis are still lacking and inconsistent. The aim of this trial was to compare the quality of life (QoL) of B-I with R-Y reconstruction after curative distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. A total of 140 patients were randomly assigned to the B-I group (N = 70) and R-Y group (N = 70) with the comparable baseline characteristics. The overall postoperative morbidity rates were 18.6% and 25.7% in the B-I group and R-Y group without significant difference. More estimated blood loss and longer surgical duration were found in the R-Y group. At the postoperative 1 year time point, the B-I group had a higher score in pain, but lower score in global health. However, the R-Y anastomosis was associated with lower incidence of reflux symptoms at postoperative 6 months (P = 0.002) and postoperative 9 months (P = 0.007). The multivariable analyses of variance did not show any interactions between the time trend and grouping. For the results of endoscopic examination, the degree and extent of remnant gastritis were milder significantly in the R-Y group. The stronger anti-reflux capability of R-Y anastomosis contributes to the higher QoL by reducing the reflux related gastritis and pain symptoms, and promotes a better global health.

  18. A single-centre experience of Roux-en-Y enteric drainage for pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Irum; Butler, Andrew J; Defries, Gail; Russell, Neil K; Harper, Simon J F; Jah, Asif; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Pettigrew, Gavin J; Watson, Christopher J E

    2017-04-01

    Exocrine drainage following pancreas transplantation can be achieved by drainage into the bladder or bowel, the latter typically by direct duodeno-jejunostomy; the use of Roux-en-Y enteric drainage is uncommon. We report a retrospective analysis of a single-centre experience of Roux-en-Y enteric drainage following pancreas transplantation. Over a 14-year period (2001-2015), 204 consecutive adult pancreas transplants were performed (96.6% simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplants), of which 26.0% were from donors after circulatory death (DCD). During a median follow-up of 67 months (range 13-183 months), 14 (6.9%) recipients experienced complications related to their enteric drainage. Complications during follow-up included early enteric anastomotic haemorrhage (five patients), non-anastomotic enteric bleeding (one patient), small bowel obstruction (four patients) and graft duodenal perforation (two within 6 weeks, five beyond 12 months). No recipient lost their graft as a direct result of complications related to enteric drainage. Patient and pancreas graft survival at 1 year was 99.0% and 94.0% and at 5 years 91.3% and 84.9%, respectively. We conclude that Roux-en-Y enteric drainage following pancreas transplantation is a safe and effective procedure and facilitates graft salvage in the event of graft duodenal perforation. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  19. Comparison of the effects of Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy and LRYGB with small stomach pouch on type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with BMI<35 kg/m(2).

    PubMed

    Yi, Bo; Jiang, Juan; Zhu, Liyong; Li, Pengzhou; Im, Ibrahim; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-01-01

    Based on distinct epidemiologic features of Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, who tend to have abdominal fat deposition, but with normal or mildly overweight epidemiologic features, our center initially had treated T2DM with body mass index (BMI)<35 kg/m² by performing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy since 2008. This procedure is successful in treating abnormal glucose metabolism but not in improving abdominal visceral obesity. However, since 2011, laparoscopic Roux-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) with a small stomach pouch has been performed at our center, with prominent resolution of abdominal visceral obesity and lower incidences of postoperative complications. The purpose of the present study was to formally compare these different procedures. From 2011 to 2013, 60 patients who met the NIH criteria were recruited and randomly assigned to undergo either laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy (n = 30) or LRYGB with a small stomach pouch (n = 30). All of the patients were followed for 12 months, and pre- and postoperative changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), the body fat rate and major complications were recorded. Both procedures were successful in reducing HbA1c, FPG, and PBG levels and HOMA-IR scores. However, LRYGB with a small stomach pouch resulted in a greater reduction in FPG, PBG, and HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR scores compared with Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy. In addition, the reductions in BMI, body fat content, waist circumference, and the incidence of postoperative marginal ulcers in the small-stomach-pouch LRYGB were significant. Both procedures are effective treatments for T2DM patients with BMI<35 kg/m². However, the advantages of resolved abnormal glucose metabolism and abdominal visceral obesity and decreased incidences of surgical complications are more obvious for LRYGB with a small gastric

  20. Alcohol and substance abuse, depression and suicide attempts after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Backman, O; Stockeld, D; Rasmussen, F; Näslund, E; Marsk, R

    2016-09-01

    Small studies suggest that subjects who have undergone bariatric surgery are at increased risk of suicide, alcohol and substance use disorders. This population-based cohort study aimed to assess the incidence of treatment for alcohol and substance use disorders, depression and attempted suicide after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). All patients who underwent primary RYGB in Sweden between 2001 and 2010 were included. Incidence of hospital admission for alcohol and substance use disorders, depression and suicide attempt was measured, along with the number of drugs prescribed. This cohort was compared with a large age-matched, non-obese reference cohort based on the Swedish population. Inpatient care and prescribed drugs registers were used. Before RYGB surgery, women, but not men, were at higher risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use disorder compared with the reference cohort. After surgery, this was the case for both sexes. The risk of being diagnosed and treated for depression remained raised after surgery. Suicide attempts were significantly increased after RYGB. The adjusted hazard ratio for attempted suicide in the RYGB cohort after surgery compared with the general non-obese population was 2·85 (95 per cent c.i. 2·40 to 3·39). Patients who have undergone RYGB are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use, with an increased rate of attempted suicide compared with a non-obese general population cohort. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Recalcitrant hypocalcaemia in a patient with post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Allo Miguel, Gonzalo; García Fernández, Elena; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Valero Zanuy, María Ángeles; Pérez Zapata, Ana; de la Cruz Vigo, Felipe; Hawkins Carranza, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) places patients at an increased risk of hypocalcaemia due to the reduction in calcium absorption (because the procedure bypasses the duodenum and jejunum) and vitamin D deficiency. Subsequent thyroid surgery increases the risk of severe hypocalcaemia due to potential post-operative hypoparathyroidism. Only a few cases have been published before of this type of treatment-challenging hypocalcaemia. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with a previous RYGB, who suffered severe and symptomatic chronic hypocalcaemia after total thyroidectomy. She required aggressive therapy with oral calcium and calcitriol and frequent calcium infusions, but there was no improvement in serum calcium level. Due to the lack of response to standard therapy, teriparatide treatment was started (first with subcutaneous injections and thereafter with a multipulse subcutaneous infusor) but the results were disappointing. As there was no response to different medical treatments, reversal of RYGB was performed with no complications and a subsequent sustained increase in serum calcium level. This case shows that patients with postoperative hypoparathyroidism and RYGB have increased risk of severe recalcitrant symptomatic hypocalcaemia. In our case teriparatide was ineffective but, as this is the first patient reported, more results are needed to evaluate properly the effect of teriparatide in this multifactorial hypocalcaemia. Reversal of RYGB should be considered when medical therapy has failed, because surgery restores an adequate absorption of calcium and vitamin D from previously bypassed duodenum and proximal jejunum. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diabetes-associated microbiota in fa/fa rats is modified by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Tulika; Seyfried, Florian; Docherty, Neil G; Tremaroli, Valentina; le Roux, Carel W; Perkins, Rosie; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and duodenal jejunal bypass (DJB), two different forms of bariatric surgery, are associated with improved glucose tolerance, but it is not clear whether the gut microbiota contributes to this effect. Here we used fa/fa rats as a model of impaired glucose tolerance to investigate whether (i) the microbiota varies between fa/fa and nondiabetic fa/+ rats; (ii) the microbiota of fa/fa rats is affected by RYGB and/or DJB; and (iii) surgically induced microbiota alterations contribute to glucose metabolism. We observed a profound expansion of Firmicutes (specifically, Lactobacillus animalis and Lactobacillus reuteri) in the small intestine of diabetic fa/fa compared with nondiabetic fa/+ rats. RYGB-, but not DJB-, treated fa/fa rats exhibited greater microbiota diversity in the ileum and lower L. animalis and L. reuteri abundance compared with sham-operated fa/fa rats in all intestinal segments, and their microbiota composition resembled that of unoperated fa/+ rats. To investigate the functional role of RYGB-associated microbiota alterations, we transferred microbiota from sham- and RYGB-treated fa/fa rats to germ-free mice. The metabolic phenotype of RYGB-treated rats was not transferred by the transplant of ileal microbiota. In contrast, postprandial peak glucose levels were lower in mice that received cecal microbiota from RYGB- versus sham-operated rats. Thus, diabetes-associated microbiota alterations in fa/fa rats can be modified by RYGB, and modifications in the cecal microbiota may partially contribute to improved glucose tolerance after RYGB. PMID:28524868

  3. Comparison of marginal ulcer rates between antecolic and retrocolic laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Parenti, Lara; Arapis, Konstantinos; Chosidow, Denis; Marmuse, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Marginal ulcer can be a serious complication after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of marginal ulcer between the antecolic and the retrocolic technique, in a large cohort of patients. Over a near 10-year period, 1,142 patients underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. The antecolic and the retrocolic technique were used in respectively 572 and 570 consecutive patients. All procedures were performed using a circular stapled gastrojejunostomy. Patients were followed for 18 to 99 months (mean 48.8 months). During follow-up, 46 patients developed a marginal ulcer (4 %), 32 in the antecolic group (5.6 %) and 14 in the retrocolic group (2.5 %). Nineteen patients (3.3 %) in the antecolic group and eight patients in the retrocolic group (1.4 %) developed early marginal ulcer (i.e., within 3 months after surgery). The mean time to onset of anastomotic ulcer symptoms after surgery was 11 months (range 0.25-72). Forty-four patients were submitted to medical treatment, and 35 patients (79.5 %) had complete resolution of their symptoms. Patients with an antecolic Roux limb develop significantly more marginal ulcers (p = 0.007) and early marginal ulcer (p = 0.033) than the patients with a retrocolic Roux limb. The antecolic technique seems to be a risk factor for appearance of marginal ulcer.

  4. WEIGHT LOSS AND NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS ON USE OF VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS, Natalia Maria Coutinho Pinheiro de Jesus; MAGNO, Fernanda Cristina Carvalho Mattos; COHEN, Larissa; ROSADO, Eliane Lopes; CARNEIRO, João Régis Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic disease with high growth in population and bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment for weight reduction; on the other hand, nutritional deficiencies are observed after this procedure. Aim To analyze weight loss progression and nutritional anemia in patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on use of vitamin and mineral supplementation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 137 patients of both sexes, aged between 18-60 years, using supplemental multivitamins and minerals, were included; personal information, anthropometric and laboratory data in the preoperative, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months postoperatively were collected. Results Postoperatively, in both sexes, occurred weight loss compared to the pre-operative weight gain at 48 months and maintenance of body mass index. There was a decrease in the percentage of excess weight loss at 48 months postoperatively compared to the time of 12, 24 and 36 months in men and decreased at 48 postoperative months compared to the time of 24 months in females. There was a decreased in serum ferritin in both sexes and increased serum iron at 48 months postoperatively in males. There was a decreased in vitamin B12 and folic acid increased serum at 48 postoperative months in females. Conclusions Surgical treatment was effective for reducing weight, body mass index reduction and achievement of success in the late postoperative period along with multivitamin and mineral supplementation on prevention of serious nutritional deficiencies and anemia. PMID:25861069

  5. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Vertical Banded Gastroplasty Induce Long-Term Changes on the Human Gut Microbiome Contributing to Fat Mass Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tremaroli, Valentina; Karlsson, Fredrik; Werling, Malin; Ståhlman, Marcus; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Olbers, Torsten; Fändriks, Lars; le Roux, Carel W.; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective procedure for the treatment of obesity. Given the role of the gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism and adiposity, we investigated the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on the microbiome of patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or vertical banded gastroplasty and matched for weight and fat mass loss. The two surgical procedures induced similar and durable changes on the gut microbiome that were not dependent on body mass index and resulted in altered levels of fecal and circulating metabolites compared with obese controls. By colonizing germ-free mice with stools from the patients, we demonstrated that the surgically altered microbiota promoted reduced fat deposition in recipient mice. These mice also had a lower respiratory quotient, indicating decreased utilization of carbohydrates as fuel. Our results suggest that the gut microbiota may play a direct role in the reduction of adiposity observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:26244932

  6. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Vertical Banded Gastroplasty Induce Long-Term Changes on the Human Gut Microbiome Contributing to Fat Mass Regulation.

    PubMed

    Tremaroli, Valentina; Karlsson, Fredrik; Werling, Malin; Ståhlman, Marcus; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Olbers, Torsten; Fändriks, Lars; le Roux, Carel W; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2015-08-04

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective procedure for the treatment of obesity. Given the role of the gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism and adiposity, we investigated the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on the microbiome of patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or vertical banded gastroplasty and matched for weight and fat mass loss. The two surgical procedures induced similar and durable changes on the gut microbiome that were not dependent on body mass index and resulted in altered levels of fecal and circulating metabolites compared with obese controls. By colonizing germ-free mice with stools from the patients, we demonstrated that the surgically altered microbiota promoted reduced fat deposition in recipient mice. These mice also had a lower respiratory quotient, indicating decreased utilization of carbohydrates as fuel. Our results suggest that the gut microbiota may play a direct role in the reduction of adiposity observed after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Meal patterns, satiety, and food choice in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiyuan; Shin, Andrew C; Lenard, Natalie R; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Sigalet, David L; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    Gastric bypass surgery efficiently and lastingly reduces excess body weight and reverses type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Although increased energy expenditure may also play a role, decreased energy intake is thought to be the main reason for weight loss, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the changes in ingestive behavior in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). Obese (24% body fat compared with 18% in chow-fed controls), male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained for 15 wk before and 4 mo after RYGB or sham-surgery on a two-choice low-fat/high-fat diet, were subjected to a series of tests assessing energy intake, meal patterning, and food choice. Although sham-operated rats gained an additional 100 g body wt during the postoperative period, RYGB rats lost approximately 100 g. Intake of a nutritionally complete and palatable liquid diet (Ensure) was significantly reduced by approximately 50% during the first 2 wk after RYGB compared with sham surgery. Decreased intake was the result of greatly reduced meal size with only partial compensation by meal frequency, and a corresponding increase in the satiety ratio. Similar results were obtained with solid food (regular or high-fat chow) 6 wk after surgery. In 12- to 24-h two-choice liquid or solid diet paradigms with nutritionally complete low- and high-fat diets, RYGB rats preferred the low-fat choice (solid) or showed decreased acceptance for the high-fat choice (liquid), whereas sham-operated rats preferred the high-fat choices. A separate group of rats offered chow only before surgery completely avoided the solid high-fat diet in a choice paradigm. The results confirm anecdotal reports of "nibbling" behavior and fat avoidance in RYGB patients and provide a basis for more mechanistic studies in this rat model.

  8. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass does not affect daily water intake or the drinking response to dipsogenic stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Anikó; Santollo, Jessica; Corteville, Caroline; Lutz, Thomas A; Daniels, Derek

    2014-07-15

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common approach in the United States and worldwide. Many studies have documented the changes in body weight, food intake, and glycemic control associated with the procedure. Although dehydration is commonly listed as a postoperative complication, little focus has been directed to testing the response to dipsogenic treatments after RYGB. Accordingly, we used a rat model of RYGB to test for procedure-induced changes in daily water intake and in the response to three dipsogenic treatments: central administration of ANG II, peripheral injection of hypertonic saline, and overnight water deprivation. We did not find any systematic differences in daily water intake of sham-operated and RYGB rats, nor did we find any differences in the response to the dipsogenic treatments. The results of these experiments suggest that RYGB does not impair thirst responses and does not enhance any satiating effect of water intake. Furthermore, these data support the current view that feedback from the stomach is unnecessary for the termination of drinking behavior and are consistent with a role of orosensory or postgastric feedback.

  9. Comparison of double-balloon and single-balloon enteroscope for therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography after Roux-en-Y small bowel surgery.

    PubMed

    De Koning, Michael; Moreels, Tom G

    2016-08-22

    Roux-en-Y reconstructive surgery excludes the biliopancreatic system from conventional endoscopic access. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy allows therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in these patients, avoiding rescue surgery. The objective of the current study is to compare success and complication rate of double-balloon (DBE) and single-balloon enteroscope (SBE) to perform ERCP in Roux-en-Y patients. Seventy three Roux-en-Y patients with suspected biliary tract pathology underwent balloon-assisted enteroscopy in a tertiary-care center. Retrospective analysis of 95 consecutive therapeutic ERCP procedures was performed to define and compare success and complication rate of DBE and SBE. Male-female ratio was 28/45 with a mean age of 58 ± 2 years. 30 (32 %) procedures were performed with DBE and 65 (68 %) with SBE. Overall ERCP success rate was 73 % for DBE and 75 % for SBE (P = 0.831). Failure was due to inability to reach or cannulate the intact papilla or bilioenteric anastomosis. Success rate was significantly higher when performed at the bilioenteric anastomosis (80 % success in 56 procedures) or at the intact papilla in short-limb Roux-en-Y (80 % in 15 procedures) as compared to the intact papilla in long-limb (58 % in 24 procedures; P = 0.040). Adverse event rates were 10 % (DBE) and 8 % (SBE) (P = 0.707) and mostly dealt with conservatively. ERCP after Roux-en-Y altered small bowel anatomy is feasible and safe using both DBE and SBE. Both techniques are equally competent with high success rates and acceptable adverse events rates. ERCP at the level of the intact papilla in long limb Roux-en-Y is less successful as compared to short-limb or bilioenteric anastomosis.

  10. Variable reliability of surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Svane, Maria S; Jørgensen, Nils B; Holst, Jens J; Richter, Erik A; Madsbad, Sten

    2017-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces weight loss and improves insulin sensitivity when evaluated by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity calculated from insulin and glucose concentrations at fasting or after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) are frequently used, but have not been validated after RYGB. Our aim was to evaluate whether surrogate indices reliably estimate changes in insulin sensitivity after RYGB. Four fasting surrogates (inverse-HOMA-IR, HOMA2-%S, QUICKI, revised-QUICKI) and three OGTT-derived surrogates (Matsuda, Gutt, OGIS) were compared with HEC-estimated peripheral insulin sensitivity ( R d or R d /I, depending on how the index was originally validated) and the tracer-determined hepatic insulin sensitivity index (HISI) in patients with preoperative type 2 diabetes ( n = 10) and normal glucose tolerance ( n = 10) 1 wk, 3 mo, and 1 yr postoperatively. Post-RYGB changes in inverse-HOMA-IR and HOMA2-%S did not correlate with changes in R d at any visit, but were comparable to changes in HISI at 1 wk. Changes in QUICKI and revised-QUICKI correlated with R d /I after surgery. Changes in the Matsuda and Gutt indices did not correlate with changes in R d /I and R d , respectively, whereas OGIS changes correlated with R d changes at 1 yr post-RYGB. In conclusion, surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity may not reflect results obtained with gold standard methodology after RYGB, underscoring the importance of critical reflection when surrogate endpoints are used. Fasting surrogate indices may be particularly affected by post-RYGB changes in insulin clearance, whereas the validity of OGTT-derived surrogates may be compromised by surgical rearrangements of the gut. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Long-term outcomes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: 10- to 13-year data.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nabeel R; Malick, Waqas; Concors, Seth J; Fielding, George A; Kurian, Marina S; Ren-Fielding, Christine J

    2016-01-01

    Short- and mid-term data on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) indicate sustained weight loss and improvement in co-morbidities. Few long-term studies exist, some of which are outdated, based on open procedures or different techniques. To investigate long-term weight loss, co-morbidity remission, nutritional status, and complication rates among patients undergoing RYGB. An academic, university hospital in the United States. Between October 2000 and January 2004, patients who underwent RYGB≥10 years before study onset were eligible for chart review, office visits, and telephone interviews. Revisional surgery was an endpoint, ceasing eligibility for study follow-up. Outcomes included weight loss measures and rates of co-morbidity remission, complications, and nutritional deficiencies. RYGB was performed in 328 patients with a mean preoperative body mass index of 47.5 kg/m(2). Of 294 eligible patients, 134 (46%) were contacted for follow-up at ≥ 10 years (10+Year follow-up). Mean percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) was 58.9% at 10+Year. Higher %EWL was achieved by non-super-obese versus super-obese (61.3% versus 52.9%, P = .034). Blood pressure, lipid panel, and hemoglobin A1c improved significantly. At 10 years, remission of co-morbidities was 46% for hypertension and hyperlipidemia and 58% for diabetes mellitus. Thirty patients (9%) had revisional surgery for weight regain. Sixty-four patients (19.5%) had long-term complications requiring surgery. All-cause mortality was 2.7%. Nutritional deficiencies were seen in 87% of patients. Weight loss after RYGB appears to be significant and sustainable, especially in the non-super-obese. Co-morbidities are improved, with a substantial number in remission a decade later. Nutritional deficiencies are almost universal. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early results after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: effect of the learning curve

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Christopher G.; Hanna, Wael; Look, Didier; McLean, Alexander P.H.; Christou, Nicolas V.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This study was performed to evaluate the safety and short-term efficacy of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for morbid obesity and to describe the relation between learning curve and short-term outcomes. Methods We collected a prospective database on the first 201 consecutive patients who underwent LRYGB by a single university-based, experienced bariatric surgeon over 24 months. We divided patients into 3 consecutive groups of 67 patients for analysis (Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3). Results The mean patient age was 37 (standard deviation [SD] 9) years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 49.2 (SD 8.3) kg/m2. BMI was similar in Groups 1 and 2 (mean 47.1, SD 5.9 and mean 48.7, SD 8.9 kg/m2) but increased in Group 3 (mean 52, SD 9.7 kg/m2, p < 0.01). Operative time decreased from 145 (SD 30) minutes in Group 1 to 114 (SD 24) minutes in Group 2 (p < 0.01) and was maintained at 119 (SD 23) minutes in Group 3. Early and late complication rates were 14.9% and 12.4%, respectively. Leak rates decreased from 6.0% in the first group to 1.5% in Groups 2 and 3, but they did not reach statistical significance. Anastomotic stricture rates decreased from 11.9% in Group 1 to 3.0% in Group 2 (p < 0.01). Overall excess weight loss for the entire series was 31.5% (SD 11.9%), 54.5% (SD 14.1%), 77.1% (SD 18.5%) and 82.1% (SD 17.5%) at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. Conclusion LRYGB can be performed with acceptable morbidity and short-term results during the learning curve. In our series, operative time and anastomotic stricture rates decreased with experience, despite an increase in mean BMI. PMID:17234071

  13. Metabolic phenotype-microRNA data fusion analysis of the systemic consequences of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q; Li, J V; Seyfried, F; le Roux, C W; Ashrafian, H; Athanasiou, T; Fenske, W; Darzi, A; Nicholson, J K; Holmes, E; Gooderham, N J

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Bariatric surgery offers sustained marked weight loss and often remission of type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms of establishment of these health benefits are not clear. Subjects/Methods: We mapped the coordinated systemic responses of gut hormones, the circulating miRNAome and the metabolome in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Results: The response of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) to RYGB was striking and selective. Analysis of 14 significantly altered circulating miRNAs within a pathway context was suggestive of modulation of signaling pathways including G protein signaling, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and growth and apoptosis responses. Concomitant alterations in the metabolome indicated increased glucose transport, accelerated glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis in the liver. Of particular significance, we show significantly decreased circulating miRNA-122 levels and a more modest decline in hepatic levels, following surgery. In mechanistic studies, manipulation of miRNA-122 levels in a cell model induced changes in the activity of key enzymes involved in hepatic energy metabolism, glucose transport, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty-acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis, consistent with the findings of the in vivo surgery-mediated responses, indicating the powerful homeostatic activity of the miRNAs. Conclusions: The close association between energy metabolism, neuronal signaling and gut microbial metabolites derived from the circulating miRNA, plasma, urine and liver metabolite and gut hormone correlations further supports an enhanced gut-brain signaling, which we suggest is hormonally mediated by both traditional gut hormones and miRNAs. This transomic approach to map the crosstalk between the circulating miRNAome and metabolome offers opportunities to understand complex systems biology within a disease and interventional treatment setting. PMID:25783038

  14. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery suppresses hypothalamic PTP1B protein level and alleviates leptin resistance in obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia-Yu; Mu, Song; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei; Li, Qi-Fu; Xiao, Xiao-Qiu; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression levels and leptin activity in hypothalami of obese rats. Obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) that underwent RYGB (n=11) or sham operation (SO, n=9), as well as an obese control cohort (Obese, n=10) and an additional normal-diet group (ND, n=10) were used. Food efficiency was measured at 8 weeks post-operation. Plasma leptin levels were evaluated and hypothalamic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) levels and leptin signaling activity were examined at the genetic and protein levels. The results indicated that food efficiency was typically lower in RYGB rats compared with that in the Obese and SO rats. In the RYGB group, leptin receptor expression and proopiomelanocortin was significantly higher, while Neuropeptide Y levels were lower than those in the Obese and SO groups. Furthermore, the gene and protein expression levels of PTP1B in the RYGB group were lower, while levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein were much higher compared with those in the Obese and SO groups. In conclusion, RYGB surgery significantly suppressed hypothalamic PTP1B protein expression. PTP1B regulation may partially alleviate leptin resistance. PMID:28947917

  15. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery suppresses hypothalamic PTP1B protein level and alleviates leptin resistance in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Yu; Mu, Song; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei; Li, Qi-Fu; Xiao, Xiao-Qiu; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hong

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression levels and leptin activity in hypothalami of obese rats. Obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) that underwent RYGB (n=11) or sham operation (SO, n=9), as well as an obese control cohort (Obese, n=10) and an additional normal-diet group (ND, n=10) were used. Food efficiency was measured at 8 weeks post-operation. Plasma leptin levels were evaluated and hypothalamic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) levels and leptin signaling activity were examined at the genetic and protein levels. The results indicated that food efficiency was typically lower in RYGB rats compared with that in the Obese and SO rats. In the RYGB group, leptin receptor expression and proopiomelanocortin was significantly higher, while Neuropeptide Y levels were lower than those in the Obese and SO groups. Furthermore, the gene and protein expression levels of PTP1B in the RYGB group were lower, while levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein were much higher compared with those in the Obese and SO groups. In conclusion, RYGB surgery significantly suppressed hypothalamic PTP1B protein expression. PTP1B regulation may partially alleviate leptin resistance.

  16. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the treatment of non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kalani, Amir; Thomas, Nithin; Sacerdote, Alan; Bahtiyar, Gül

    2013-03-18

    Non-classic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) has been associated with insulin resistance (IR). Therapies such as metformin, thiazolidinediones and lifestyle alterations improve IR and also ameliorate the biochemical and clinical abnormalities of NCAH, much as they do in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). More recently, bariatric surgery, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), has also been associated with improvement in IR and amelioration of PCOS and may, therefore, be beneficial in NCAH. We report a case of a 39-year-old, deaf-mute, obese woman with NCAH due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency who underwent RYGBP followed by improvement of NCAH manifestations. She was initially treated with metformin and pioglitazone, which lowered serum 11-deoxycortisol from 198 ng/dl (<51) to 26 ng/dl. Five weeks after undergoing RYGBP her body mass index fell from 44.18 kg/m(2) to 39.54 kg/m(2) and, despite not taking metformin or pioglitazone, serum 11-deoxycortisol remained normal at <40 ng/dl. Concurrently and subsequently, her NCAH symptoms, for example, alopecia, hirsutism and irregular menses normalised as well. We conclude that RYGBP, like other interventions that reduce IR, may be another way of treating non-classic 11-hydroxylase deficiency in selected patients.

  17. Enhanced glucose metabolism in cultured human skeletal muscle after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Emmani B M; Riedl, Isabelle; Jiang, Lake Qunfeng; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Näslund, Erik; Krook, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery rapidly increases whole body insulin sensitivity, with changes in several organs including skeletal muscle. Objectives were to determine whether improvements in insulin action in skeletal muscle may occur directly at the level of the myocyte or secondarily from changes in systemic factors associated with weight loss. Myotubes were derived before and after RYGB surgery. The setting was Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Eight patients (body mass index (BMI) 41.8 kg/m(2); age 41 yr) underwent RYGB surgery. Before and 6 months after RYGB surgery, skeletal muscle biopsies were collected from vastus lateralis muscle. Satellite cells derived from skeletal muscle biopsies were propagated in vitro as myoblasts and differentiated into myotubes. Expression of myogenic markers is increased in myoblasts derived from biopsies taken 6 months after bypass surgery, compared with their respective presurgery condition. Furthermore, glycogen synthesis, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IRS)-1-Tyr612 and Interleukin (IL)-8 secretion were increased, while fatty acid oxidation and circulating IL8 levels remain unaltered. Myotubes derived from muscle biopsies obtained after RYGB surgery displayed increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB)-Thr308 and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40)-Thr246. RYGB surgery is accompanied by enhanced glucose metabolism and insulin signaling, altered IL8 secretion and changes in mRNA levels and myogenic markers in cultured skeletal muscle cells. Thus, RYGB surgery involves intrinsic reprogramming of skeletal muscle to increase peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Increases Respiratory Quotient and Energy Expenditure during Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten; Bueter, Marco; Sjöström, Lars; Lönroth, Hans; Wallenius, Ville; Stenlöf, Kaj; le Roux, Carel W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE) may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE. Design Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA) using high sensitivity accelerometers. Results Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8) at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3) after 20 months (p<0.05). Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3) to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9) kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6) to 27 (range 12-34.3) kg (both p<0.05). PA over 24h did not change after surgery whereas 24h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05). After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient) had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24h and after food intake (p<0.05). Conclusion RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24h when corrected for total tissue. PMID:26098889

  19. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Increases Respiratory Quotient and Energy Expenditure during Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten; Bueter, Marco; Sjöström, Lars; Lönroth, Hans; Wallenius, Ville; Stenlöf, Kaj; le Roux, Carel W

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE) may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE. Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24 h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA) using high sensitivity accelerometers. Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8) at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3) after 20 months (p<0.05). Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3) to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9) kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6) to 27 (range 12-34.3) kg (both p<0.05). PA over 24 h did not change after surgery whereas 24 h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05). After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient) had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24 h and after food intake (p<0.05). RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24 h when corrected for total tissue.

  20. Metabolic Parameters, Weight Loss, and Comorbidities 4 Years After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lager, Corey J; Esfandiari, Nazanene H; Luo, Yingying; Subauste, Angela R; Kraftson, Andrew T; Brown, Morton B; Varban, Oliver A; Meral, Rasimcan; Cassidy, Ruth B; Nay, Catherine K; Lockwood, Amy L; Bellers, Darlene; Buda, Colleen M; Oral, Elif A

    2018-06-16

    Sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is now the predominant bariatric surgery performed, yet there is limited long-term data comparing important outcomes between LSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study compares weight loss and impact on comorbidities of the two procedures. We retrospectively evaluated weight, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, and medication use for hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia at 1-4 years post-operatively in 380 patients who underwent RYGB and 334 patients who underwent LSG at the University of Michigan from January 2008 to November 2013. Follow-up rates from 714 patients initially were 657 (92%), 556 (78%), 507 (71%), and 498 (70%) at 1-4 years post-operatively. Baseline characteristics were similar except for higher weight and BMI in LSG. There was greater weight loss with RYGB vs. LSG at all points. Hemoglobin A1c and total cholesterol improved more in RYGB vs. LSG at 4 years. There was greater remission of hypertension and discontinuation of all medications for hypertension and diabetes with RYGB at 4 years. Weight loss, reduction in medications for hypertension and diabetes, improvements in markers of diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and remission rates of hypertension were superior with RYGB vs. LSG 4 years post-operatively. Choice of bariatric procedures should be tailored to surgical risk, comorbidities, and weight loss goals.

  1. Differential effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on brown and beige adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Bronisch, Felix; Hintschich, Constantin; Krügel, Ute; Seyfried, Florian; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous reports of increased energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in humans and rodent models but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study we assessed at the gene expression level whether RYGB leads to recruitment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and/or beige adipose tissue (BeAT) as a means of enhanced facultative thermogenesis and increased energy expenditure after surgery. Diet-induced obese male Wistar rats were randomized into RYGB-operated (n=10), sham-operated ad libitum fed (Sham) (n=7) or sham-operated body weight matched (BWM) to RYGB groups (n=7). At a stage of postoperatively stabilized weight reduction, BAT (interscapular), subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (epididymal and perirenal) white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were collected in the fasted state. Expression of thermoregulatory genes (UCP1, CIDEA and PRDM16) in BAT and WAT as well as specific markers of BeAT (Ear2 and TMEM26) in WAT was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Compared to Sham rats, UCP1 mRNA expression in BAT was significantly reduced in BWM, but not in RYGB rats. No differences in mRNA expression were found for thermoregulatory proteins or for markers of BeAT in subcutaneous or visceral WAT depots between RYGB and Sham groups. The compensatory decrease in BAT thermogenic gene expression typically associated with body weight loss is attenuated after RYGB which, as opposed to recruitment of BeAT, may contribute to overall increases in energy expenditure and weight loss maintenance after surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal Hernia Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Prevention and Tips for Intra-operative Management.

    PubMed

    Nimeri, Abdelrahman A; Maasher, Ahmed; Al Shaban, Talat; Salim, Elnazeer; Gamaleldin, Maysoon M

    2016-09-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is considered the golden standard for bariatric surgery. However, the potential risk for internal hernia after LRYGB remains a significant concern to both patients and surgeons. In addition, patients presenting with abdominal pain after LRYGB warrant careful attention to avoid missing or delaying the diagnosis of internal hernia. The aim of this study was to describe our technique to prevent internal hernia after LRYGB, intra-operative findings, and our management strategies for patients with internal hernia after LRYGB. In this video, we review different technical tips and tricks to explore patients with suspected internal hernia after RYGB, how to reduce obstructed small bowel, and effectively close mesenteric defects to prevent internal hernia after LRYGB. A high index of suspicion and evaluation of the CT scan of the patient by an experienced bariatric surgeon is essential to avoid missing cases of internal hernia after LRYGB. In addition, patients presenting with incarcerated small bowel due to an internal hernia are best managed by standing on the left side of the patient with the left arm tucked and starting at the ileocecal valve and running the small bowel backwards towards the ligament of Treitz. Furthermore, patients with bowel obstruction due to internal hernia may need to have a gastrostomy placed at the remnant of the stomach. Recurrent abdominal pain is not uncommon after LRYGB. Systematic closure of mesenteric defects, the use of diagnostic laparoscopy, and high index of suspicion are all necessary to avoid delay in diagnosis.

  3. Impact of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery on Pharmacokinetics of Administered Drugs: Implications and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    Obesity epidemic has grown out of proportion with increased heath cost because of comorbidity associated with obesity. Due to mediocre benefit from pharmacological interventions, bariatric surgery popularly known as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been increasingly practiced. Although RYGB significantly reduces body mass index, it also alters the local gut environment leading to significant changes in the drug absorption and bioavailability. The focus of the review is to present and critically evaluate case studies pertaining to pharmacokinetic data gathered till date on subjects after RYGB. A large portion of the reviewed examples showed reduced area under the concentration versus time curve [area under curve (AUC)] of drugs after RYGB (44%), whereas equal number of investigations showed increased (26%) or unaltered AUC (26%) after RYGB. There was one instance (4%), where the AUC was highly variable and individual subject dependent. Examination of drugs that showed reduced bioavailability suggested that a complex interplay of various factors such as solubility, permeability, metabolic enzymes, and transporters may have contributed for the observed effect. The increased bioavailability seemed to be related to permeability enhancement and generally in drug classes that have reduced metabolism. Based on the review, there is a significant risk of therapy failure for certain drugs because of subtherapeutic plasma levels. The need to readjust doses immediately after RYGB may be considered based on the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) findings. It seems prudent to initiate TDM for certain disease areas or drug classes until stable doses are established after RYGB through the appropriate pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamics surrogate, as appropriate.

  4. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems ameliorate the oral delivery of silymarin in rats with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Cheng-Chih; Shih, Tsung-Hsien; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a popular surgery to reduce the body weight of obese patients. Although food intake is restricted by RYGB, drug absorption is also decreased. The purpose of this study was to develop novel self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for enhancing the oral delivery of silymarin, which has poor water solubility. The SNEDDS were characterized by size, zeta potential, droplet number, and morphology. A technique of RYGB was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. SNEDDS were administered at a silymarin dose of 600 mg/kg in normal and RYGB rats for comparison with silymarin aqueous suspension and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 solution. Plasma silibinin, the main active ingredient in silymarin, was chosen for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters. SNEDDS diluted in simulated gastric fluid exhibited a droplet size of 190 nm with a spherical shape. The nanocarriers promoted silibinin availability via oral ingestion in RYGB rats by 2.5-fold and 1.5-fold compared to the suspension and PEG 400 solution, respectively. A significant double-peak concentration of silibinin was detected for RYGB rats receiving SNEDDS. Fluorescence imaging showed a deeper and broader penetration of Nile red, the fluorescence dye, into the gastrointestinal mucosa from SNEDDS than from PEG 400 solution. Histological examination showed that SNEDDS caused more minor inflammation at the gastrointestinal membrane as compared with that caused by PEG 400 solution, indicating a shielding of direct silymarin contact with the mucosa by the nanodroplets. SNEDDS generally showed low-level or negligible irritation in the gastrointestinal tract. Silymarin-loaded SNEDDS were successfully developed to improve the dissolution, permeability, and oral bioavailability of silymarin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation reporting the usefulness of SNEDDS for improving drug malabsorption elicited by gastric bypass surgery. PMID:25848259

  5. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems ameliorate the oral delivery of silymarin in rats with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Cheng-Chih; Shih, Tsung-Hsien; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a popular surgery to reduce the body weight of obese patients. Although food intake is restricted by RYGB, drug absorption is also decreased. The purpose of this study was to develop novel self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for enhancing the oral delivery of silymarin, which has poor water solubility. The SNEDDS were characterized by size, zeta potential, droplet number, and morphology. A technique of RYGB was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. SNEDDS were administered at a silymarin dose of 600 mg/kg in normal and RYGB rats for comparison with silymarin aqueous suspension and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 solution. Plasma silibinin, the main active ingredient in silymarin, was chosen for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters. SNEDDS diluted in simulated gastric fluid exhibited a droplet size of 190 nm with a spherical shape. The nanocarriers promoted silibinin availability via oral ingestion in RYGB rats by 2.5-fold and 1.5-fold compared to the suspension and PEG 400 solution, respectively. A significant double-peak concentration of silibinin was detected for RYGB rats receiving SNEDDS. Fluorescence imaging showed a deeper and broader penetration of Nile red, the fluorescence dye, into the gastrointestinal mucosa from SNEDDS than from PEG 400 solution. Histological examination showed that SNEDDS caused more minor inflammation at the gastrointestinal membrane as compared with that caused by PEG 400 solution, indicating a shielding of direct silymarin contact with the mucosa by the nanodroplets. SNEDDS generally showed low-level or negligible irritation in the gastrointestinal tract. Silymarin-loaded SNEDDS were successfully developed to improve the dissolution, permeability, and oral bioavailability of silymarin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation reporting the usefulness of SNEDDS for improving drug malabsorption elicited by gastric bypass surgery.

  6. Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy vs. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Eating Behavior and Sweet Taste Perception in Subjects with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Nance, Katie; Eagon, J Christopher; Klein, Samuel; Pepino, Marta Yanina

    2017-12-24

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB ( n = 23) or SG ( n = 8): (1) sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2) the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3) sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4) eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. We found that neither RYGB nor SG affected sweetness or saltiness sensitivity. However, weight loss induced by either RYGB or SG caused the same decrease in: (1) frequency of cravings for foods; (2) influence of emotions and external food cues on eating behavior; and (3) shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (all p -values ≤ 0.01). Therefore, when matched on weight loss, SG and RYGB cause the same beneficial effects on key factors involved in the regulation of eating behavior and hedonic component of taste perception.

  7. Roux-En Y Gastric Bypass Results in Long-Term Remission of Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Hepatic Histological Features of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Anty, Rodolphe; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Bonnafous, Stéphanie; Rousseau, Déborah; Lebeaupin, Cynthia; Bailly-Maitre, Beatrice; Sans, Arnaud; Tran, Albert; Gugenheim, Jean; Iannelli, Antonio; Gual, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of bariatric surgery on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), focusing on liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, are not well-established. We here performed a longitudinal study with paired liver biopsies of nine morbidly obese women (median BMI: 42 [38.7; 45.1] kg/m(2)) with NASH with a median follow-up of 55 [44; 75] months after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. LRYGB surgery was associated with significant weight loss (median BMI loss -13.7 [-16.4; -9.5] kg/m(2)), improved hepatic steatosis in all patients (55.5% with total resolution), and resolution of hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte ballooning in 100 and 88.8% of cases, respectively. Alanine aminotransferase levels dropped to normal values while hepatic activated cleaved caspase-3 levels strongly decreased after a median follow-up of 55 months. Hepatocyte apoptosis, as evaluated by serum caspase-generated keratin-18 fragment, improved within the first year following LRYGB and these improvements persisted for at least 55 months. LRYGB in morbidly obese patients with NASH is thus associated with a long-lasting beneficial impact on hepatic steatohepatitis and hepatocyte death.

  8. Effect of sleeve gastrectomy on type 2 diabetes as an alternative treatment modality to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun-Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lo Menzo, Emanuele; Park, Sungsoo; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Raul J

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was the most frequently performed procedure in bariatric surgery. In the last decade, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has emerged as a more popular, simpler, and less morbid form of bariatric surgery. This study compares the efficacy of SG and RYGB for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Systemic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for entries up to December 2013. Search terms included "Sleeve gastrectomy," "Gastric bypass," and "Type 2 diabetes mellitus." The chosen articles described both "Sleeve gastrectomy" and "Gastric bypass" and included over 1 year of follow-up data. Data analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.2 and SPSS version 20. The data set is comprised of 3 retrospective clinical studies, 6 prospective clinical studies, and 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which involved 429 patients in the SG group and 428 patients in the RYGB group. In nonrandomized clinical studies, SG displayed similar efficacy in remission of T2D compared with the standard RYGB. In the RCTs, SG had a lower effect than that of RYGB. T2D remission was not correlated with the percent of excess weight loss for either procedure. Based on the current evidence, SG has a similar effect on T2D remission as RYGB. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Choledochoscopic high-frequency needle-knife electrotomy for treatment of anastomotic strictures after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Ping; Ma, Yue-Feng; Li, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Shi, Li-Jun; Lin, Mei-Ju; Yu, Ying

    2016-05-06

    Anastomotic stricture is a complex and substantial complication following Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Initially, endoscopic and percutaneous approaches are often attempted, but the gold standard remains surgical biliary reconstruction, especially for refractory stricture. However, this solution leaves much room for improvement, due to the challenging nature of the biliary reconstruction procedure, in which anastomotic stricture may still occur. To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of choledochoscopic high-frequency needle-knife electrotomy as an intervention in the treatment of anastomotic strictures following Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. From February 2010 to October 2014, clinical data was collected and retrospectively compared for patients who underwent balloon dilation or/and choledochoscopic high-frequency needle-knife electrotomy for the treatment of anastomotic strictures after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. A total of 38 patients underwent successful choledochoscopic treatment and all the anastomotic strictures were removed successfully, 19 of which were treated with electrotomy, 7 with balloon dilation, and 12 with both electrotomy and balloon dilation. Among these groups,the average operating times were 6.9 ± 2.4 min,10.1 ± 6.8 min, and 20.2 ± 13.5 min, respectively. The average stent supporting times were 6.3 ± 0.7 months, 6.5 ± 0.6 months, and 6.1 ± 0.4 respectively. The mean follow-up after stent removal was 42.1 ± 27.4 months, and in 26.3 % (5/19), 28.5 % (2/7) and 16.7 % (2/12) of cases, recurrent anastomotic stricture occurred. Of these 9 total patients with recurrent anastomotic, two patients were successfully rescued by full-covered self-expanding removable metal stents and 7 patients by electrotomy combined with balloon dilation. Choledochoscopic high-frequency needle-knife electrotomy is both feasible and safe in the treatment of anastomotic stricture after Roux-en-Y

  10. Effect of weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, on renal function and blood pressure in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Bianco Rossi, Felipe Martin; Dal Moro Amarante, Rodrigo; Alves Buriti, Nara; Cunha Barbosa Saheb, Gabriel; Rossi, Marçal

    2009-01-01

    Morbid obesity (MO) is associated with increased renal plasma flow (RPL) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This type of obesity usually does not respond to medical treatment, with bariatric surgery being the current treatment of choice. The present study aimed to evaluate whether weight loss may reverse the glomerular hyperfiltration of MO patients. This was a retrospective study of 140 patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (31.5% men, mean body mass index 46.17 +/- 5). Renal glomerular function and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were studied in patients before and 8 months after the surgery. GFR was determined by 24-hour urine samples. In the obese group, GFR before surgery was 148.7 +/- 35.2 ml/min. After the weight loss, GFR decreased to 113.8 +/- 31.7 ml/min (p<0.0001). Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and glycosylated hemoglobin values were higher in MO with hyperfiltration. Weight loss was associated with reduction in blood pressure and GFR. It was found that the variation in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was a predictor of change in GFR. This study shows that obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration ameliorates after weight loss. The improvement in hyperfiltration may prevent the development.

  11. Dose response of exercise training following roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Woodlief, Tracey L; Carnero, Elvis A; Standley, Robert A; Distefano, Giovanna; Anthony, Steve J; Dubis, Gabe S; Jakicic, John M; Houmard, Joseph A; Coen, Paul M; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2015-12-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery can cause profound weight loss and improve overall cardiometabolic risk factors. Exercise (EX) training following RYGB can provide additional improvements in insulin sensitivity (SI ) and cardiorespiratory fitness. However, it remains unknown whether a specific amount of EX post-RYGB is required to achieve additional benefits. We performed a post hoc analysis of participants who were randomized into either a 6-month structured EX program or a health education control (CON). The EX group (n = 56) was divided into tertiles according to the amount of weekly exercise performed, compared with CON (n = 42): low-EX = 54 ± 8; middle-EX = 129 ± 4; and high-EX = 286 ± 40 min per week. The high-EX lost a significantly greater amount of body weight, total fat mass, and abdominal deep subcutaneous abdominal fat compared with CON (P < 0.005). SI improved to a greater extent in both the middle-EX and high-EX compared with CON (P < 0.04). Physical fitness (VO2 max) significantly improved in the high-EX (9.3% ± 4.2%) compared with CON (-6.0 ± 2.4%) (P < 0.001). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial State 4 (P < 0.002) and 3 (P < 0.04) respiration was significantly higher in the high-EX compared with CON. A modest volume of structured exercise provides additional improvements in insulin sensitivity following RYGB, but higher volumes of exercise are required to induce additional weight loss, changes in body composition, and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador.

  13. Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery reduces hedonic hunger and improves dietary habits in severely obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Jennifer; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Many obese subjects suffer from an increased hedonic drive to consume palatable foods, i.e., hedonic hunger, and often show unfavorable dietary habits. Here, we investigated changes in the hedonic hunger and dietary habits after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Forty-four severely obese patients were examined before and on average 15.9 ± 0.9 months after RYGB surgery with the Power of Food Scale (PFS), a questionnaire that reliably measures an individual's motivation to consume highly palatable foods but not actual consumptive behavior. Dietary habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. After the RYGB procedure, patients showed markedly lower aggregated PFS scores and sub-domain scores related to generally available, physically present, as well as tasted foods than before the surgery (all P < 0.001). Changes in dietary habits after the surgery were characterized by a more frequent consumption of poultry, fish, eggs, and cooked vegetables (P < 0.008) and a less frequent consumption of chocolate (P < 0.048), cakes/biscuits/cookies (P = 0.09), and fruit juice/soft drinks (P = 0.08). Data show a marked reduction of the hedonic drive to consume palatable food and beneficial changes in dietary habits characterized by an increased intake of protein-rich foods and vegetables and a reduced consumption of sugar-containing snacks and beverages after RYGB surgery. Based on these findings, it can be speculated that the reduction of the hedonic drive to consume palatable foods induced by RYGB surgery helps severely obese patients to establish healthier dietary habits.

  14. Roles of increased glycaemic variability, GLP-1 and glucagon in hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tharakan, George; Behary, Preeshila; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Chahal, Harvinder; Kenkre, Julia; Miras, Alexander D; Ahmed, Ahmed R; Holst, Jens J; Bloom, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is currently the most effective treatment for diabetes and obesity. An increasingly recognized and highly disabling complication of RYGB is postprandial hypoglycaemia (PPH). The pathophysiology of PPH remains unclear with multiple mechanisms suggested including nesidioblastosis, altered insulin clearance and increased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Whilst many PPH patients respond to dietary modification, some have severely disabling symptoms. Multiple treatments are proposed, including dietary modification, GLP-1 antagonism, GLP-1 analogues and even surgical reversal, with none showing a more decided advantage over the others. A greater understanding of the pathophysiology of PPH could guide the development of new therapeutic strategies. Methods We studied a cohort of PPH patients at the Imperial Weight Center. We performed continuous glucose monitoring to characterize their altered glycaemic variability. We also performed a mixed meal test (MMT) and measured gut hormone concentrations. Results We found increased glycaemic variability in our cohort of PPH patients, specifically a higher mean amplitude glucose excursion (MAGE) score of 4.9. We observed significantly greater and earlier increases in insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon in patients who had hypoglycaemia in response to an MMT (MMT Hypo) relative to those that did not (MMT Non-Hypo). No significant differences in oxyntomodulin, GIP or peptide YY secretion were seen between these two groups. Conclusion An early peak in GLP-1 and glucagon may together trigger an exaggerated insulinotropic response to eating and consequent hypoglycaemia in patients with PPH. PMID:28855269

  15. Duodenum-preserving resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy in benign pancreatic head tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Hui; Tao, Ming; Jia, Yi-Mu; Xiong, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Tong-Lin; Xiu, Dian-Rong

    2014-11-28

    This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of partial pancreatic head resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy for the treatment of benign tumors of the pancreatic head (BTPH). From November 2006 to February 2009, four patients (three female and one male) with a mean age of 34.3 years (range: 21-48 years) underwent partial pancreatic head resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy for the treatment of BTPH (diameters of 3.2-4.5 cm) using small incisions (5.1-7.2 cm). Preoperative symptoms include one case of repeated upper abdominal pain, one case of drowsiness and two cases with no obvious preoperative symptoms. All four surgeries were successfully performed. The mean operative time was 196.8 min (range 165-226 min), and average blood loss was 138.0 mL (range: 82-210 mL). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.5 d (range: 7-8 d). In one case, the main pancreatic duct was injured. Pathological examination confirmed that one patient suffered from mucinous cystadenoma, one exhibited insulinoma, and two patients had solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms. There were no deaths or complications observed during the perioperative period. All patients had no signs of recurrence of the BTPH within a follow-up period of 48-76 mo and had good quality of life without diabetes. Partial pancreatic head resection with Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy is feasible in selected patients with BTPH.

  16. Laparoscopic Roux En Y Esophago-Jejunostomy for Chronic Leak/Fistula After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Maysoon; Maasher, Ahmed; Al Hadad, Mohamed; Salim, Elnazeer; Nimeri, Abdelrahman A

    2016-03-01

    Leak following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most serious and devastating complications. Endoscopic stents can treat most early LSG leaks, but is not as effective for chronic LSG leaks/fistulae. The surgical options to treat a chronic leak/fistula after LSG are laparoscopic Roux en Y esophago-jejunostomy (LRYEJ) or laparoscopic Roux en Y fistulo-jejunostomy. We reviewed our prospective database for all patients with leak after LSG treated with LRYEJ. We have described our algorithm for managing LSG previously. We prefer to optimize the nutritional status of patients with enteral rather than parenteral nutrition and drain all collections prior to LRYEJ. We have treated four patients utilizing our technique of LRYEJ. Initial endoscopic stent placement was attempted in all four patients (two failed to resolve (50 %) and two had distal stenosis at the incisura not amenable to endoscopic stenting). We utilized enteral feeding through either naso-jejunal (NJ) or jejunostomy tube feeding in 3/4 (75 %) of patients, and in one patient with stenosis, we could not introduce a NJ tube endoscopically due to tight stricture. This patient was placed on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and went on to develop pulmonary embolism. None of the patient developed leak after LRYEJ. The only patient with stenosis (25 %) had antecolic LRYEJ. In contrast, all patients who had retrocolic LRYGB laparoscopically did not develop stenosis. Laparoscopic Roux en Y esophago-jejunostomy for chronic leak/fistula after is safe and effective. Preoperative enteral nutrition is important.

  17. Predictors of metabolic syndrome persistence 1 year after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Martini, Francesco; Anty, Rodolphe; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Casanova, Vincent; Iannelli, Antonio; Gugenheim, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is effective in reversing the metabolic syndrome (MS) in up to 90% of patients. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of MS persistence 1 year after LRYGB. University Hospital, France. Ninety-one patients with a mean age of 44.4 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.1 kg/m² meeting the criteria for MS were enrolled in this prospective study. Anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory biological parameters were assessed before and 1 year after LRYGB. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the persistence (MS nonresponders) or resolution of MS (MS responders) 1 year after LRYGB and a comparison was performed at baseline and 1 year after surgery. Sixty-nine patients (75.8%) underwent remission, while 22 (24.2%) showed persistence of MS 1 year after LRYGB. At baseline the MS nonresponders group presented significantly higher values of fasting plasma glucose (7.8 versus 5.3 mmol/L, P = .004), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, 7.3% versus 5.9%, P = .0004), triglycerides (TG, 2.37 versus 1.33 mmol/L, P = .006), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, 442.5 versus 256, P = .006). The rate of diabetes was significantly higher in this group (68.2% versus 36.8%, P = .0086), as well as the number of MS components per patient. One year after LRYGB, the MS nonresponders showed a significantly lower excess BMI lost (EBMIL) (56.1% versus 82.4%, P = .00008). On multivariate analysis, baseline levels of TG, glucose metabolism markers and EBMIL were associated with the persistence of MS. Baseline levels of TG, plasma fasting glucose, and HbA1c, as well as history of type 2 diabetes and EBMIL, represent predictors of MS persistence 1 year after LRYGB. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Omental patch repair effectively treats perforated marginal ulcer following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Mark R; Linn, John G; Keplinger, Kara M; Mikami, Dean J; Perry, Kyle A; Melvin, W Scott; Needleman, Bradley J

    2013-02-01

    Marginal ulcer formation remains a significant complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Up to 1 % of all RYGB patients will develop free perforation of a marginal ulcer. Classically, this complication has required anastomotic revision; however, this approach is associated with significant morbidity. Several small series have suggested that omental patch repair may be effective. The aim of this study was to examine the management of perforated marginal ulcers following RYGB. All patients who underwent operative intervention for perforated ulcers between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed. Those with a history of RYGB with perforation of a marginal ulcer were included in the analysis. Data collected included operative approach, operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, complications, smoking history, and steroid or NSAID use. From January 2003 to December 2011, a total of 1,760 patients underwent RYGB at our institution. Eighteen (0.85 %) developed perforation of a marginal ulcer. Three patients' original procedure was performed at another institution. Eight patients (44 %) had at least one risk factor for ulcer formation. Treatment included omental patch repair (laparoscopic, n = 7; open, n = 9) or anastomotic revision (n = 2). Compared to anastomotic revision, omental patch repair had shorter OR time (101 ± 57 vs. 138 ± 2 min), decreased estimated blood loss (70 ± 72 vs. 250 ± 71 mL), and shorter total length of stay (5.6 ± 1.4 vs. 11.0 ± 5.7 days). Perforated marginal ulcer represents a significant complication of RYGB. Patients should be educated to reduce risk factors for perforation, as prolonged proton pump inhibitor therapy may not prevent this complication in a patient with even just one risk factor. In our sample population we found laparoscopic or open omental patch repair to be a safe and effective treatment for this condition and it was associated with decreased operative time, blood loss, and length of stay.

  19. How to train surgical residents to perform laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass safely.

    PubMed

    Iordens, Gijs I T; Klaassen, René A; van Lieshout, Esther M M; Cleffken, Berry I; van der Harst, Erwin

    2012-09-01

    As a result of increasing numbers of patients with morbid obesity there is a worldwide demand for bariatric surgeons. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, nowadays performed mostly laparoscopically (LRYGB), has been proven to be a highly effective surgical treatment for morbid obesity. This procedure is technically demanding and requires a long learning curve. Little is known about implementing these demanding techniques in the training of the surgical resident. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the introduction of LRYGB into the training of surgical residents. All patients who underwent LRYGB between March 2006 and July 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The procedure was performed by a surgical resident under strict supervision of a bariatric surgeon (group I) or by a bariatric surgeon (group II). The primary end point was the occurrence of complications. Secondary end points included operative time, days of hospitalization, rate of readmission, and reappearance in the emergency department (ED) within 30 days. A total of 409 patients were found eligible for inclusion in the study: 83 patients in group I and 326 in group II. There was a significant difference in operating time (129 min in group I vs. 116 min in group II; p < 0.001) and days of hospitalization. Postoperative complication rate, reappearance in the ED, and rate of readmission did not differ between the two groups. Our data suggest that under stringent supervision and with sufficient laparoscopic practice, implementation of LRYGB as part of surgical training is safe and results in only a slightly longer operating time. Complication rates, days of hospitalization, and the rates of readmission and reappearance in the ED within 30 days were similar between the both groups. These results should be interpreted by remembering that all procedures in group I were performed in a training environment so occasional intervention by a bariatric surgeon, when necessary, was inevitable.

  20. Single Balloon Enteroscopy-Assisted Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients Who Underwent a Gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y Anastomosis: Six Cases from a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jae Seung; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Seohyun; Bae, Jungho; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2015-09-01

    Patients with altered anatomy such as a Roux-en-Y anastomosis often present with various pancreaticobiliary problems requiring therapeutic intervention. However, a conventional endoscopic approach to the papilla is very difficult owing to the long afferent limb and acute angle of a Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy can be used for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with altered anatomy. We experienced six cases of Roux-en-Y anastomosis with biliary problems, and attempted ERCP using single balloon enteroscopy (SBE). SBE insertion followed by replacement with a conventional endoscope was attempted in five of six patients. The papilla was successfully approached using SBE in all cases. However, therapeutic intervention was completed in only three cases because of poor maneuverability caused by postoperative adhesion. We conclude that in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, the ampulla can be readily accessed with SBE, but longer dedicated accessories are necessary to improve this therapeutic intervention.

  1. Transection versus preservation of the neurovascular bundle of the lesser omentum in primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    van Wezenbeek, Martin R; van Oudheusden, Thijs R; Smulders, J Frans; Nienhuijs, Simon W; Luyer, Misha D

    2016-02-01

    A gastric pouch in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery can be created after transection of the perigastric neurovascular bundle or by preserving these structures. Some surgeons choose to transect the neurovascular bundle (NBT), containing branches of the vagus nerve, because this might be related to additional weight loss, whereas others advocate preservation (NBP) to reduce postoperative complications. This study assessed the effect of both techniques after primary RYGB. All patients undergoing primary RYGB in a large bariatric center in the Netherlands between January 2010 and December 2013 were included. Patient demographic characteristics, operative details, postoperative complications and weight loss after 1 year were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 773 consecutive patients were included (85.5% female). NBT was performed in 407 patients (52.7%), whereas NBP was performed in 366 patients. There were no missing data and 81.2% of patients completed the 1-year follow-up. Postoperative complications were found in 66 patients (8.5%). A total of 49 patients (6.3%) either had an anastomotic leakage, postoperative bleeding, or intraabdominal abscess (NBT 8.8% versus NBP 3.6%, P = .003). Percentage total weight loss (NBT 34.5%±6.9% versus NBP 33.4%±6.9%; P = .011) differed to a lesser extent between groups, although this was significant. Neurovascular bundle transection was identified as independent factor among others for occurrence of leakage, bleeding, and abscess development (OR 2.886; 95% CI [1.466-5.683]; P = .002). Transection of the neurovascular bundle in RYGB is associated with more complications. Furthermore, weight loss is not relevantly increased. Further research is necessitated to substantiate these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Symptomatic marginal ulcer disease after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: incidence, risk factors and management.

    PubMed

    Coblijn, Usha K; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; de Castro, Steve M M; Kuiken, Sjoerd D; van Wagensveld, Bart A

    2015-05-01

    One of the long-term complications of laparoscopic Roux-and-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is the development of marginal ulcers (MU). The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence, risk factors, symptomatology and management of patients with symptomatic MU after LRYGB surgery. A consecutive series of patients who underwent a LRYGB from 2006 until 2011 were evaluated in this study. Signs of abdominal pain, pyrosis, nausea or other symptoms of ulcer disease were analysed. Acute symptoms of (perforated) MU such as severe abdominal pain, vomiting, melena and haematemesis were also collected. Patient baseline characteristics, medication and intoxications were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with MU. A total of 350 patients underwent a LRYGB. Minimal follow-up was 24 months. Twenty-three patients (6.6%) developed a symptomatic MU of which four (1.1%) presented with perforation. Smoking, the use of corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was significantly associated with the development of MU. Five out of 23 patients (22%) underwent surgery. All other patients could be treated conservatively. Marginal ulcers occurred in 6.6% of the patients after a LRYGB. Smoking, the use of corticosteroids and the use of NSAIDs were associated with an increased risk of MU. Most patients were managed conservatively.

  3. Efficacy and safety of transoral outlet reduction via endoscopic suturing in patients with weight regain after a surgical Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Espinet Coll, Eduardo; Nebreda Durán, Javier; López-Nava Breviere, Gontrand; Galvao Neto, Manoel; Gómez Valero, José Antonio; Bacchiddu, Silvia; Vila Lolo, Carmen; Díaz Galán, Patricia; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Juan-Creix Comamala, Antonio

    2018-05-09

    many patients that undergo bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB]) may regain some of their weight lost over time. A transoral outlet reduction (TORe) with endoscopic suture could be a valid alternative in these patients. this was a retrospective initial series of 13 consecutive patients with weight regain after RYGB and a dilated gastro-jejunal anastomosis (> 15 mm). TORe was performed using an endoscopic transmural suture device (OverStitch-Apollo®), which was used to reduce the anastomosis aperture and also to treat the gastric pouch. The initial data of feasibility, safety and weight loss are described with a limited follow-up of six months. there was a mean maximum weight loss of 37.69 kg after RYGB and a subsequent average regain of 21.62 kg. The mean anastomosis diameter was 36 mm (range 20-45) which was reduced to 9 mm (range 5-12) (75% reduction), with an average of 2.5 sutures. The mean pouch size was 7.2 cm (range 2-10), which decreased to 4.7 cm (range 4-5) (34.72% reduction), with an average of 2.7 sutures. The mean weight loss six months after TORe was 12.29 kg, a weight loss of 56.85% of the weight regained after RYGB. No complications related to the procedure were recorded. endoscopic suture reduction of the dilated gastro-jejunal anastomosis and the gastric pouch seems a feasible and safe option in our limited initial experience. With a multidisciplinary approach and a short term follow-up, this seems to be a minimally invasive and effective option to control weight regain after RYGB.

  4. Should Roux-en-Y gastric bypass biliopancreatic limb length be tailored to achieve improved diabetes outcomes?

    PubMed

    Nora, Mário; Morais, Tiago; Almeida, Rui; Guimarães, Marta; Monteiro, Mariana P

    2017-12-01

    The objective is to access the role of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) biliopancreatic limb (BPL) length in type 2 diabetes (T2D) outcomes.RYGB is more effective than medical intervention for T2D treatment in obese patients. Despite the scarcity of available data, previous reports suggest that modifications of the RYGB limb lengths could improve the antidiabetic effects of the surgery.A cohort of obese T2D patients (n = 114) were submitted to laparoscopic RYGB, either with a standard BPL (SBPL) (n = 41; BPL 84 ± 2 cm) or long BPL (LBPL) (n = 73; BPL = 200 cm) and routinely monitored for weight loss and diabetic status up to 5 years after surgery.Baseline clinical features in the 2 patient subgroups were similar. After surgery, there was a significant reduction of body mass index (BMI) in both the groups, although the percentage of excess BMI loss (%EBMIL) after 5 years was higher for LBPL (75.50 ± 2.63 LBPL vs 65.90 ± 3.61 SBPL, P = .04). T2D remission rate was also higher (73% vs 55%, P < .05), while disease relapse rate (13.0% vs 32.5%; P < .05) and antidiabetic drug requirement in patients with persistent diabetes were lower after LBPL. Preoperative T2D duration predicted disease remission, but only for SBPL.RYGB with a longer BPL improves %EBMIL, T2D remission, and glycemic control in those with persistent disease, while it decreases diabetes relapse rate over time. The antidiabetic effects of LBPL RYGB also are less influenced by the preoperative disease duration. These data suggest the RYGB procedure could be tailored to improve T2D outcomes.

  5. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: what are the preoperative predictors of weight loss?

    PubMed

    Adams, Simon T; Salhab, Mohammed; Hussain, Zeiad I; Miller, Glenn V; Leveson, Stephen H

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has become an increasingly important health problem over the past 30 years. Presently around a quarter of the UK adult population are obese and this figure is set to increase further in the coming decades. The health consequences of obesity on multiple body systems have been well established as has the financial cost of the condition to both the individuals affected as well as to society as a whole. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the only long term effective solution in terms of sustained weight loss and comorbidity resolution. The commonest bariatric procedure in the UK is the Roux-en-y gastric bypass which consistently results in the loss of 70%-80% of excess bodyweight. Results however are variable and in order to optimise resource allocation and avoid exposing patients unlikely to benefit from surgery to its inherent risks, much research has been done to try to identify those patients most likely to obtain a good result. The only factor which has been subjected to meta-analysis is that of preoperative weight loss which shows a positive association with postoperative weight loss following bypass surgery. Although the remaining data are not based on level 1 evidence those other preoperatively identifiable factors which are associated with an improved outcome include Caucasian or Hispanic ethnicity, higher educational status, non-shift-work working patterns, female gender and divorced or single marital status. Similarly increased levels of preoperative physical activity and an absence of binge eating behaviour are consistent with a favourable result whereas increased age, smoking and other socioeconomic factors have not been shown to have a significant impact. Conversely diabetes mellitus seems to have a slight negative correlation with postoperative weight loss; however, a history of sexual abuse or psychiatric illness has not been shown to have a lasting influence.

  6. Biliopancreatic Diversion is associated with greater increases in energy expenditure than Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten; Mala, Tom; Kristinsson, Jon; Stenlöf, Kaj; Wallenius, Ville; Docherty, Neil G; le Roux, Carel W

    2018-01-01

    The greater weight loss achieved following Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPDS) versus Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) has been attributed to the malabsorptive effects of BPDS. Increased weight loss after BPDS could also be underpinned by larger increases in energy expenditure. Hypothetically, the more radical reconfiguration of the small intestine in BPDS could result in an accentuated increase in meal associated thermogenesis (MAT). Female subjects (baseline mean age 40 years, mean BMI-55kg/m2) were assessed four years after randomization to BPDS (n = 6) or RYGB (n = 6). Energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured by indirect calorimetry over 24 hours. A detailed protocol allowed for discrimination of basal metabolic rate (BMR), fasting EE and MAT as components of total energy expenditure (TEE) normalised for total and lean tissue by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Median weight loss at follow-up was 1.5-fold higher following BPDS relative to RYGB, resulting in respective median BMIs of 29.5 kg/m2 (21.7 to 36.7) after BPDS and 37.8 kg/m2 (34.1 to 45.7) after RYGB (p = 0.015). The BPDS group had a lower fat:lean ratio compared to the RYGB group (p = 0.009). Overall 24-hour TEE adjusted for total tissue was higher in the BPDS group, as were BMR, fasting EE and MAT (all p<0.05). Differences between RYGB and BPDS in BMR and TEE were nullified when normalised for lean mass. Postprandial RQ increased significantly but to a similar extent in both groups. Enhanced and prolonged MAT and lower fat:lean mass ratios after BPDS may explain relative increases in total energy expenditure as compared to RYGB.

  7. Biliopancreatic Diversion is associated with greater increases in energy expenditure than Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten; Mala, Tom; Kristinsson, Jon; Stenlöf, Kaj; Wallenius, Ville; le Roux, Carel W.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The greater weight loss achieved following Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPDS) versus Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) has been attributed to the malabsorptive effects of BPDS. Increased weight loss after BPDS could also be underpinned by larger increases in energy expenditure. Hypothetically, the more radical reconfiguration of the small intestine in BPDS could result in an accentuated increase in meal associated thermogenesis (MAT). Design Female subjects (baseline mean age 40 years, mean BMI-55kg/m2) were assessed four years after randomization to BPDS (n = 6) or RYGB (n = 6). Energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured by indirect calorimetry over 24 hours. A detailed protocol allowed for discrimination of basal metabolic rate (BMR), fasting EE and MAT as components of total energy expenditure (TEE) normalised for total and lean tissue by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median weight loss at follow-up was 1.5-fold higher following BPDS relative to RYGB, resulting in respective median BMIs of 29.5 kg/m2 (21.7 to 36.7) after BPDS and 37.8 kg/m2 (34.1 to 45.7) after RYGB (p = 0.015). The BPDS group had a lower fat:lean ratio compared to the RYGB group (p = 0.009). Overall 24-hour TEE adjusted for total tissue was higher in the BPDS group, as were BMR, fasting EE and MAT (all p<0.05). Differences between RYGB and BPDS in BMR and TEE were nullified when normalised for lean mass. Postprandial RQ increased significantly but to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Enhanced and prolonged MAT and lower fat:lean mass ratios after BPDS may explain relative increases in total energy expenditure as compared to RYGB. PMID:29617391

  8. Effects of two variants of Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass on metabolism behaviour: focus on plasma ghrelin concentrations over a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Romero, Noelia; Serra, Assumpta; Granada, Maria Luisa; Rull, Miquel; Alastrué, Antonio; Navarro-Díaz, Maruja; Romero, Ramón; Fernández-Llamazares, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    To study the effects of two variants of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) on plasma ghrelin concentrations according to different exposure of gastric fundus to the nutrient pathway. A prospective longitudinal 2-year follow-up study was conducted. Ninety-six morbidly obese (MO) patients (age range: 41.6 +/- 9.6 years, body mass index: 53 +/- 9.5 kg/m(2)) were assigned to two bariatric surgical (BS) procedures: one that preserves food contact with gastric fundus (ringed RYGBP, n = 50) and the other that avoids it (modified RYGBP, n = 46). Different anthropometric and biochemical parameters were studied, focusing on ghrelin concentrations at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months post-BS. At 24 months post-BS, all metabolic parameters studied had improved in all patients compared with those at 1-year follow-up and baseline (p < 0.05). However, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations took 2 years to normalise in 80% of patients, interleukin-6 decreased significantly in relation to baseline only after 2 years from BS (p < 0.001), and tumour necrosis factor alpha concentrations did not significantly decrease during the 2 years of follow-up. Plasma ghrelin concentrations increased in both surgical groups compare to baseline during the first year (24.6% in modified RYGBP and 36.62% in ringed RYGBP) and remained stable at the second year of follow-up, with no statistical differences between groups. In the second year of follow-up after BS, morbidity continued to improve in MO patients despite a lesser weight loss in relation to the first year. An increase in plasma ghrelin concentrations was found, regardless of nutrient contact with gastric fundus. Furthermore, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations appeared to be independent of weight loss.

  9. The impact of temperament and character inventory personality traits on long-term outcome of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Pedro Caldana; Sallet, José Afonso; Sallet, Paulo Clemente

    2014-10-01

    A significant proportion of patients who undergo bariatric surgery fail to achieve enduring weight loss. Previous studies suggest that psychosocial variables affect postoperative outcome, although this subject is still considered unclear. The purpose of this study is to further investigate the impact of psychosocial variables on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) outcomes over long-term follow-up. Individuals eligible for bariatric surgery were evaluated using validated psychopathological scales and the Temperament and Character Inventory in a specialized clinic for bariatric treatment. Adult patients who had RYGB were selected for the study. Percent of excess weight loss (%EWL) was measured after surgery at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and on the last clinical observation. This study included 333 subjects who had RYGB. Before surgery, mean age was 35.4 years (±9.5) and mean BMI was 43.3 kg/m(2) (±4.8). Higher baseline age and BMI were associated with lower %EWL across endpoints, although this association diminished over time. Follow up at 2 years and on the last clinical observation demonstrated that lower scores on the persistence personality variable and lower body dissatisfaction before surgery predicted lower %EWL. Psychosocial variables and personality traits assessed during preoperative evaluation significantly predicted weight loss after bariatric surgery. Greater impact was observed in long-term follow-up at 2 years. These findings provide guidance in identifying patients at risk for worse outcomes and designing interventions to improve long-term weight loss.

  10. Gastric pouch emptying of solid food in patients with successful and unsuccessful weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Deden, Laura N; Cooiman, Mellody I; Aarts, Edo O; Janssen, Ignace M C; Gotthardt, Martin; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W; Berends, Frits J

    2017-11-01

    After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), approximately 10% of patients have insufficient weight loss (excess body mass index loss<50%). Gastric pouch emptying may have a role in weight loss. To compare pouch emptying of patients with poor weight loss and patients with successful weight loss after RYGB. A research-intensive nonacademic hospital and center of expertise in bariatric surgery in the Netherlands METHODS: Female patients were included from among patients with the least (poor weight loss group [P-WL]) and the most weight loss (successful weight loss group [S-WL]) in our center 2 years after RYGB. Pouch emptying scintigraphy was performed after ingestion of a radiolabeled solid meal. Emptying curves, intestinal content (IC) at meal completion and after 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, half emptying time, and maximal pouch emptying rate were compared. Five individuals were included in P-WL and 5 in S-WL, on average 2.5 ± .3 years after RYGB. Total weight loss was 18 ± 4.1% in P-WL and 44 ± 5.7% in S-WL (P<.001). In P-WL, a fast initial pouch emptying and exponential emptying curve was observed, compared with a slower initial emptying and more linear curve in S-WL. Faster emptying in P-WL was also shown by a larger IC meal (42 ± 18% versus 4.0 ± 3.3%,), IC 15 (76 ± 15% versus 35 ± 22%), and IC 30 (85 ± 12% versus 54 ± 25%), and a greater maximal pouch emptying rate (17 ± 4.7 versus 5.6 ± 3.4%/min) compared with S-WL (P<.05). A linear correlation was found between total weight loss and maximal pouch emptying rate (Pearson R = .82, P = .004). Pouch emptying for solid food was faster in patients with the least weight loss compared with patients with the most weight loss after RYGB. If pouch emptying is an important mechanism in weight loss, altering the pouch outlet may improve poor weight loss management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher plasma motilin levels in obese patients decrease after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and regulate hunger.

    PubMed

    Deloose, E; Janssen, P; Lannoo, M; Van der Schueren, B; Depoortere, I; Tack, J

    2016-07-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions of the migrating motor complex (MMC) signal hunger in healthy volunteers. The current aim was to study the role of motilin as a hunger-inducing factor in obese patients and to evaluate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on plasma motilin levels and hunger scores. Motilin and ghrelin plasma levels were determined during a complete MMC cycle in controls and obese patients selected for RYGB before, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 20 min after the end of the second phase III, obese patients received an intravenous infusion of 40 mg erythromycin. Hunger was scored every 5 min. Hedonic hunger was assessed in obese patients with the Power of Food Scale questionnaire. Obesity caused a switch in the origin of phase III from antrum to duodenum. Obese patients had significantly higher motilin levels compared with controls during the MMC but tended to lack the motilin peak prior to phase III necessary to trigger hunger. Hunger scores during phase III were significantly lower in obese patients, but could be restored to control levels through the administration of a low dose of the motilin agonist, erythromycin. After RYGB surgery motilin, but not ghrelin, levels decreased in parallel with hedonic hunger scores. Motilin may be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Racial differences in weight loss, payment method, and complications following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bayham, Brooke E; Bellanger, Drake E; Hargroder, Andrew G; Johnson, William D; Greenway, Frank L

    2012-11-01

    Obesity affects approximately one-third of the US adult population. Although more black adults are considered to be obese compared to white adults, black adults are less likely to undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss. Black adults typically lose less weight and are more prone to adverse events following bariatric surgery than white adults. The objectives of this study were to compare weight loss, payment methods, and early postoperative complications between black and white adults. A retrospective chart review of 420 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients and 454 sleeve gastrectomy (SG) patients (all female) was conducted. A mixed-model analysis was used to assess statistical significance of differences in weight loss between surgeries and races. A Chi-square test was used to assess racial differences in payment method (insurance or private pay) and postoperative complications by operation. Statistical significance was set as P > 0.05. RYGB patients lost significantly more weight at 26, 52, 78, and 104 weeks postoperatively compared to SG patients. White females (WF) lost significantly more weight than black females (BF) at 26, 52, 78, and 104 weeks postoperatively. WF experienced more minor and major complications in the perioperative period than BF, but BF experienced more minor and overall complications in the postoperative period than WF. A greater percentage of black patients had insurance coverage compared to white patients for both surgeries. WF appear to lose more weight than BF regardless of surgery, but both races experience surgical complications. Black patients may be less likely to undergo bariatric surgery without insurance coverage.

  13. [Two cases of afferent loop syndrome caused by obstruction at the jejuno-jejunostomy site in the Roux-en-Y loop that were successfully treated by endoscopic balloon dilatation].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Atsushi; Imamoto, Haruhiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Imano, Motohiro; Yasuda, Takushi; Okuno, Kiyokata

    2014-11-01

    We report 2 rare cases of afferent loop syndrome caused by obstruction at the jejuno-jejunostomy site in the Roux-en-Y loop after total gastrectomy, which was successfully treated by endoscopic balloon dilatation of the anastomotic stenosis. Case 1: A 62-year-old woman presented with malaise and lower abdominal distension 6 months after laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. She was diagnosed with afferent loop syndrome; CT imaging indicated marked dilatation of the afferent loop, with membranous obstruction at the jejuno-jejunostomy site in the Roux-en-Y loop. Although almost complete occlusion was noted at the jejuno-jejunostomy site, the obstruction was successfully relieved by endoscopic balloon dilation using TandemTM XL Triple Lumen ERCP Cannula (Boston Scientific)®. Case 2: A 70-year-old man presented with malaise and lower abdominal distension 3 years after laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. He was diagnosed with afferent loop syndrome; CT imaging indicated complete obstruction at the jejuno-jejunostomy site in the Roux-en-Y loop. As in case 1, the obstruction was successfully treated by endoscopic balloon dilatation of the occluded anastomosis.

  14. The surgical treatment of chronic gastric atony following Roux-Y diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vogel, S.B.; Woodward, E.R.

    1989-06-01

    Symptoms of severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and frequent bezoars, as well as objective gastric retention, can occur following Roux-Y biliary diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis. Medical therapy and prokinetic drugs have proven ineffective. This review evaluates 37 patients who underwent further gastric resection from 1979 to 1987 to improve gastric emptying and resolve symptoms. Fifteen patients underwent perioperative radionuclide solid-food gastric emptying studies. Seventy-three per cent (27 of 37 patients) of the patients who underwent further gastric resection (70% to 95%) had a satisfactory postoperative response. Twenty patients were graded Visick 1 or 2 and 7 Visick-3 patients, althoughmore » much improved, still had some symptoms of gastroparesis. Twenty-seven per cent (10 of 37 patients) failed to improve and underwent completion total gastrectomy. Overall, 70% of this group had almost complete resolution of their symptoms. Three of 10 patients were considered ''failures'' due to postprandial pain in 1 and early vasomotor dumping in 2. Of the 10 patients who failed initial revisional surgery, 7 underwent a 70% to 80% subtotal gastric resection (STG) and 3 patients underwent 85% to 95% extensive resection (EXT.G.). Of the 15 patients who underwent perioperative radionuclide evaluation, a mean two-hour gastric retention of 61.4% +/- 4% (SEM) decreased to 25% +/- 4% following further gastric resection. Eight patients were in the STG group and seven patients were in the EXT.G group. Following STG, mean two-hour gastric retention of 58.2% +/- 3.5% decreased to 38% +/- 3% (p less than 0.05). In seven patients who underwent EXT.G, mean two-hour retention of 65% +/- 4% decreased to 10% +/- 2.5% (p less than 0.005). EXT.G resulted in normal gastric emptying and few late failures.« less

  15. Open total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction for a chronic fistula after sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, Matthieu; Douard, Richard; Voron, Thibault; Berger, Anne; Zinzindohoue, Franck; Chevallier, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    Surgery appears to be the best treatment option for a chronic fistula after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Conservative procedures (conversion into a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Roux-limb placement) have proven their feasibility and efficacy, but an open total gastrectomy (TG) is sometimes required in challenging situations. To assess outcomes from 12 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for a post-sleeve gastrectomy chronic fistula (PSGCF) between January 2004 and February 2012. University public hospital, France. Patients with a PSGCF who underwent surgery were included in this retrospective study. Mortality, morbidity (i.e., Clavien-Dindo score), weight loss, and nutritional status were assessed. Twelve of 57 patients (21%) with a post-LSG leak developed a PSGCF. There were 3 men (25%). Mean age was 39±9 years and mean preoperative body mass index was 35±5 kg/m 2 . All 12 patients underwent an open total gastrectomy with an esojejunostomy (TG). Conservative procedures were considered but not possible. The mean follow-up period was 38±11 months. The mean delay between LSG and TG was 12±6 months. Intraoperative discovery of multiple (>2) gastric fistulas was reported in 9 patients (75%). There were no deaths, but morbidity rate was 50%. Early postoperative fistula occurred in 3 patients (anastomosis n = 1, duodenal stump n = 2). None of these patients required further surgery. The median healing time of the fistula was 37 days (range 24-53). Promising results from weight loss and nutritional status were found at the end of the follow-up. A salvage open TG is a well-tolerated and reproducible salvage procedure for cases of a PSGCF, when conservative procedures are not possible. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on obese class I type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Yin, Jun; Mikami, Dean J; Portenier, Dana D; Zhou, Xiaojun; Mao, Zhongqi

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) can dramatically improve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in obese class II and III patients. There is increasing evidence that shows bariatric surgery can also ameliorate T2D in patients with BMI between 30 kg/m(2) and 35 kg/m(2) (obese class I). To compare the effectiveness of LRYGB on T2D in obese class I patients with that of obese class II and III T2D patients. University Hospital, China A prospective study was performed in the authors' center from March 2010 to July 2011. Forty-two consecutive obese patients were included in the study. Anthropometric and metabolism parameters were compared between obese class II and III patients and obese class I patients before and after LRYGB. No patients were lost to follow up. After 36 months, metabolic parameters significantly improved in both groups. Partial remission rates between the 2 groups at each time point (12 months, 24 months, and 36 months) were comparable. Obese class II and III patients had higher complete remission rates at 12 months and 24 months, but no difference was observed at 36 months. Both obese class II and III patients and obese class I T2D patients showed significant improvement in multiple parameters after LRYGB. Obese class II and III patients had a higher complete remission rate than obese class I patients. Standardized remission criteria are needed to make outcomes form different centers comparable. Large prospective studies are needed and long-term outcomes have to be observed to better evaluate effectiveness of LRYGB on obese class I T2D patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism and its relation to obesity in patients before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ignace M C; Homan, Jens; Schijns, Wendy; Betzel, Bark; Aarts, Edo O; Berends, Frits J; de Boer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), defined as a raised serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with a normal free thyroxine (FT4), is occasionally observed in morbidly obese patients. It is currently not known whether thyroid hormone treatment is indicated. The aim of the present study was to assess the changes in thyroid hormone levels in thyroxine-naïve patients with SH in response to weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). General hospital specialized in bariatric surgery. Serum levels of TSH and FT4 were measured at baseline in 503 patients presenting for RYGB. In patients diagnosed with SH, these measurements were repeated 12 months postoperatively. SH de novo was present in 71 out of 503 patients (14.1%). One-year follow-up was available in 61 out of 71 patients (86%). TSH level >10 mU/L was observed in 3 patients (.5%). RYGB induced a decrease in BMI from 47±8 kg/m(2) to 33±6 kg/m(2) at 12-month follow-up (P<.001), and this was associated with a decrease in TSH from 5.8±2.0 to 2.8±1.3 mU/L (P<.001) and a decrease in FT4 from 15.2±2.1 to 13.9±2.3 pmol/L (P<.001), respectively. SH completely resolved in 53 (87%) of the de novo cases. The prevalence of SH de novo is high in morbidly obese patients. After RYGB it resolves in about 90% of patients. This high degree of spontaneous recovery suggests that follow-up alone is sufficient in the majority of patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleeve Gastrectomy vs Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Data from IFSO-European Chapter Center of Excellence Program.

    PubMed

    Melissas, John; Stavroulakis, Konstantinos; Tzikoulis, Vassilis; Peristeri, Angeliki; Papadakis, John A; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Khalaj, Alireza; Kabir, Ali

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) performed in Institutions participating in IFSO-European Chapter, Center of Excellence (COE) program. Since the initiation of the program in January 2010, 6413 SGs and 10,622 RYGBPs performed as primary procedures by December 31, 2014, with at least 12-month follow-up, were retrospectively compared. There were steadily increasing numbers of patients underwent SG from 2010 to 2015. Early (<30 days) postoperative complication rate of 3.02 % for RYGBP was significantly higher than 2.12 % seen after SG (p = 0.0006). Only two patients, one in each group, died in the first 30 postoperative days (0.016 % mortality for SG vs 0.009 % for RYGBP-NS). From SG group, 103 patients, 1.61 %, and 206 patients, 1.94 %, from RYGBP group required readmission following hospital discharge in the first 30 days following bariatric surgery-NS. From the readmitted patients in the SG group, 75.72 % were reoperated vs 50.50 % in the RYGBP group (p < 0.0001). SG patients were heavier (BMI 44.93 vs 43.96 kg/m 2 , p < 0.0001). However, significantly better % excess weight loss were seen following RYGBP in all postoperative years (60.36 vs 67.72 %, p = 0.002 at fifth year). Better remission rates were seen for diabetes, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and sleep apnea syndrome after RYGBP in the first postoperative year. Both procedures were performed with very low complications, mortality, readmissions, and reoperations rate. Better weight loss was observed following RYGBP, the first five postoperative years.

  19. Roux-en Y gastric bypass is superior to duodeno-jejunal bypass in improving glycaemic control in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Florian; Bueter, Marco; Spliethoff, Kerstin; Miras, Alexander D; Abegg, Kathrin; Lutz, Thomas A; le Roux, Carel W

    2014-11-01

    Whilst weight loss results in many beneficial metabolic consequences, the immediate improvement in glycaemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass (RYGB) remains intriguing. Duodenal jejunal bypass (DJB) induces similar glycaemic effects, while not affecting calorie intake or weight loss. We studied diabetic ZDF(fa/fa) rats to compare the effects of DJB and RYGB operations on glycaemia. Male ZDF(fa/fa) rats, aged 12 weeks underwent RYGB, DJB or sham operations. Unoperated ZDF(fa/fa) and ZDF(fa/+w)ere used as controls. Body weight, food intake, fasting glucose, insulin and gut hormones were measured at baseline and on postoperative days 2, 10 and 35. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on days 12 and 26. DJB had similar food intake and body weight to sham-operated and unoperated control ZDF(fa/fa) rats (p = NS), but had lower fasting glucose (p < 0.05). RYGB had lower food intake, body weight and fasting glucose compared to all groups (p < 0.001). DJB prevented the progressive decline in fasting insulin observed in the sham-operated or unoperated ZDF(fa/fa) rats, while RYGB with normalized glycaemia reduced the physiological requirement for raised fasting insulin. Bypassing the proximal small bowel with the DJB has mild to moderate body weight independent effects on glucose homeostasis and preservation of fasting insulin levels in the medium term. These effects might be further amplified by the additional anatomical and physiological changes after RYGB.

  20. Better long-term outcomes with hilar ductoplasty and a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong-Tian; Liu, Yang; Yang, Tao; Liang, Bin; Wang, Jing; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2017-07-01

    Whether a wide hilar hepaticojejunostomy after bile duct cyst (BDC) excision can prevent the development of postoperative complications remains an unanswered question. We compared our outcomes after a minimum of 2-y follow-up in patients with Todani type Ia choledochal cyst treated with hilar ductoplasty followed by a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (ductoplasty group) or radical cyst resection with an end-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (conventional group). We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with Todani type Ia choledochal cyst who received radical cyst excision from January 1997 to December 2012, and we compared the groups' postoperative complications and surgical outcomes. The groups' baseline demographics were similar, except for age. The gender distribution and preoperative presenting symptoms were comparable in the ductoplasty (n = 72) and conventional (n = 53) groups (all P > 0.05). Average age was 37.0 y for the ductoplasty group and 41.8 y for the conventional group (P = 0.024). The short-term complication rate of the groups was not significantly different (conventional group, 13.2% [7/53]; ductoplasty group, 8.3% [6/72]; all P > 0.05). A significant between-group difference was found in the long-term complication rate of biliary-enteric anastomotic strictures (9.4% in the conventional group and 0% in the ductoplasty group, P = 0.012). The rates of satisfactory surgical outcomes were 91.1% and 77.1% in the ductoplasty and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.036). The application of hilar ductoplasty with a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy as the primary surgery for bile duct cyst excision significantly reduced the postoperative complication of biliary-enteric anastomotic stricture and greatly improved our patients' prognosis with regard to biliary function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic phenotype-microRNA data fusion analysis of the systemic consequences of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Li, J V; Seyfried, F; le Roux, C W; Ashrafian, H; Athanasiou, T; Fenske, W; Darzi, A; Nicholson, J K; Holmes, E; Gooderham, N J

    2015-07-01

    Bariatric surgery offers sustained marked weight loss and often remission of type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms of establishment of these health benefits are not clear. We mapped the coordinated systemic responses of gut hormones, the circulating miRNAome and the metabolome in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. The response of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) to RYGB was striking and selective. Analysis of 14 significantly altered circulating miRNAs within a pathway context was suggestive of modulation of signaling pathways including G protein signaling, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and growth and apoptosis responses. Concomitant alterations in the metabolome indicated increased glucose transport, accelerated glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis in the liver. Of particular significance, we show significantly decreased circulating miRNA-122 levels and a more modest decline in hepatic levels, following surgery. In mechanistic studies, manipulation of miRNA-122 levels in a cell model induced changes in the activity of key enzymes involved in hepatic energy metabolism, glucose transport, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty-acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis, consistent with the findings of the in vivo surgery-mediated responses, indicating the powerful homeostatic activity of the miRNAs. The close association between energy metabolism, neuronal signaling and gut microbial metabolites derived from the circulating miRNA, plasma, urine and liver metabolite and gut hormone correlations further supports an enhanced gut-brain signaling, which we suggest is hormonally mediated by both traditional gut hormones and miRNAs. This transomic approach to map the crosstalk between the circulating miRNAome and metabolome offers opportunities to understand complex systems biology within a disease and interventional treatment setting.

  2. Is Daily Low-Dose Aspirin Safe to Take Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Obesity Surgery?

    PubMed

    Kang, Xian; Hong, Dennis; Anvari, Mehran; Tiboni, Maria; Amin, Nalin; Gmora, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with severe obesity. One potential complication of LRYGB is the development of marginal ulcers (MUs). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to significantly increase the likelihood of developing marginal ulcers after surgery. However, the risk associated with low-dose aspirin consumption is not well defined. We examined the impact of daily low-dose aspirin (81 mg) on the development of marginal ulcers following LRYGB. A retrospective cohort design studied patients undergoing LRYGB surgery, between January 2009 and January 2013, at a single, high-volume bariatric center in Ontario, Canada. The marginal ulcer rate of patients taking low-dose aspirin after surgery was compared to that of the control patients who did not take any NSAID. Diagnosis of MU was confirmed by upper endoscopy in patients presenting with symptoms and a history indicative of marginal ulceration. A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the difference in marginal ulcer rates. A total of 1016 patients underwent LRYGB. Patients taking aspirin were more likely to be male, older, and have diabetes than patients not taking NSAIDs. Of the 1016 patients, 145 (14.3%) took low-dose aspirin following LRYGB and the rest did not (n = 871, 85.7%). The incidence of marginal ulceration was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (12/145, 8.3% versus 90/871, 10.3%; p = 0.45). Patients treated with LRYGB at our institution were not at increased risk of marginal ulcer formation when taking low-dose aspirin after surgery.

  3. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Induces Early Plasma Metabolomic and Lipidomic Alterations in Humans Associated with Diabetes Remission.

    PubMed

    Arora, Tulika; Velagapudi, Vidya; Pournaras, Dimitri J; Welbourn, Richard; le Roux, Carel W; Orešič, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective method to attain sustained weight loss and diabetes remission. We aimed to elucidate early changes in the plasma metabolome and lipidome after RYGB. Plasma samples from 16 insulin-resistant morbidly obese subjects, of whom 14 had diabetes, were subjected to global metabolomics and lipidomics analysis at pre-surgery and 4 and 42 days after RYGB. Metabolites and lipid species were compared between time points and between subjects who were in remission and not in remission from diabetes 2 years after surgery. We found that the variables that were most discriminatory between time points were decanoic acid and octanoic acid, which were elevated 42 days after surgery, and sphingomyelins (18:1/21:0 and 18:1/23:3), which were at their lowest level 42 days after surgery. Insulin levels were lower at 4 and 42 days after surgery compared with pre-surgery levels. At 4 days after surgery, insulin levels correlated positively with metabolites of branched chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism and negatively with triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids. Of the 14 subjects with diabetes prior to surgery, 7 were in remission 2 years after surgery. The subjects in remission displayed higher pre-surgery levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids compared with subjects not in remission. Thus, metabolic alterations are induced soon after surgery and subjects with diabetes remission differ in the metabolic profiles at pre- and early post-surgery time points compared to patients not in remission.

  4. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Induces Early Plasma Metabolomic and Lipidomic Alterations in Humans Associated with Diabetes Remission

    PubMed Central

    Pournaras, Dimitri J.; Welbourn, Richard; le Roux, Carel W.; Orešič, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective method to attain sustained weight loss and diabetes remission. We aimed to elucidate early changes in the plasma metabolome and lipidome after RYGB. Plasma samples from 16 insulin-resistant morbidly obese subjects, of whom 14 had diabetes, were subjected to global metabolomics and lipidomics analysis at pre-surgery and 4 and 42 days after RYGB. Metabolites and lipid species were compared between time points and between subjects who were in remission and not in remission from diabetes 2 years after surgery. We found that the variables that were most discriminatory between time points were decanoic acid and octanoic acid, which were elevated 42 days after surgery, and sphingomyelins (18:1/21:0 and 18:1/23:3), which were at their lowest level 42 days after surgery. Insulin levels were lower at 4 and 42 days after surgery compared with pre-surgery levels. At 4 days after surgery, insulin levels correlated positively with metabolites of branched chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism and negatively with triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids. Of the 14 subjects with diabetes prior to surgery, 7 were in remission 2 years after surgery. The subjects in remission displayed higher pre-surgery levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids compared with subjects not in remission. Thus, metabolic alterations are induced soon after surgery and subjects with diabetes remission differ in the metabolic profiles at pre- and early post-surgery time points compared to patients not in remission. PMID:25946120

  5. Jejunal gluconeogenesis associated with insulin resistance level and its evolution after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Moreno-Ruiz, Francisco J; Alcain-Martinez, Guillermo; Rodriguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis (GNG) may play an important role in glucose homeostasis, but there is little information about the condition in humans. To study the relationship between intestinal GNG and insulin resistance, its association with the evolution of morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery, and the effect of insulin and or leptin. Regional university hospital, Malaga (Spain). Jejunal mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG was analyzed in 3 groups of morbidly obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR), with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2D). Also, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from MO-low-IR were incubated with different doses of insulin and or leptin. In MO-high-IR, glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6 Pase), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1 α), and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1 c (SREBP-1 c) expressions were significantly higher than in MO-low-IR. In MO-metf-T2 D, only PEPCK was significantly lower than in MO-high-IR. In IEC, an incubation with a high glucose and insulin dose produced an increase of PEPCK and SREBP-1 c, and a decrease of glutaminase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and PGC-1 α expression. At high doses of leptin, G6 Pase and FBPase were significantly increased. The improvement of insulin resistance 3 months after bariatric surgery was positively associated with high G6 Pase and FBPase expression. mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG is increased in the jejunum of MO-high-IR, and regulated by insulin and or leptin. High mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG is associated with a better evolution of insulin resistance after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of 30-day versus 90-day proton pump inhibitor therapy in prevention of marginal ulcers after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xian; Zurita-Macias, Luis; Hong, Dennis; Cadeddu, Margherita; Anvari, Mehran; Gmora, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Marginal ulceration is one of the most common complications after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly administered to decrease the incidence of marginal ulcer development. We examine the differential impact of employing a 30-day versus 90-day postoperative PPI regimen on the development of marginal ulceration after LRYGB. University hospital. A retrospective cohort design was used to study all patients undergoing LRYGB at a single, high-volume bariatric center in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Three years previously, the duration of postoperative PPI administration was increased at our center from 30 to 90 days. Diagnosis of marginal ulceration was confirmed by upper endoscopy in patients presenting with epigastric pain and a clinical history suggestive of marginal ulceration. A χ(2) test of independence was performed to examine incidence of marginal ulceration and PPI duration. A total of 1016 patients underwent LRYGB at our center between January 2009 and January 2013. No differences in baseline characteristics were observed between groups. Of the 1016 patients followed, 614 received 30 days of PPI therapy and 402 received 90 days of PPI therapy. The incidence of marginal ulceration after LRYGB decreased significantly (P<.05) among patients receiving daily PPI for 90 days (n = 26, 6.5%) compared with those receiving PPI for 30 days (n = 76, 12.4%). This study suggests a significant benefit to longer duration prophylactic PPI administration after gastric bypass surgery to minimize the risk of symptomatic marginal ulceration. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Roux-en-Y Esophagojejunostomy Ameliorates Renal Function Through Reduction of Renal Inflammatory and Fibrotic Markers in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuifang; He, Bing; Piao, Dongxu; Han, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery has been shown to have a remarkable and sustainable improvement in type 2 diabetes. Recent clinical studies have shown that bariatric surgery can improve or halt the development of diabetic microvascular complications such as nephropathy. However, the exact underlying mechanisms of surgical procedures are unknown. Here, we have investigated the effects of Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy (RYEJ) on renal function and inflammation and fibrosis biomarkers for renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats with high fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were randomly assigned into four groups: diabetic nephropathy (DN), DN treated with food restriction (DN-FR), DN treated with RYEJ surgery (DN-RYEJ), and DN-RYEJ sham (n = 6/group). Age-matched normal rats were assigned as control group. RYEJ and sham surgeries were performed. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with tracer infusion were completed to assess insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four hour urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured. The renal pathological injury was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Kidney messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein content/distribution of phospho-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5 (MKP5) were evaluated by real-time PCR and/or Western blotting/immunohistochemistry. Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy improved insulin sensitivity. RYEJ ameliorated renal function by improving UAER and GFR and attenuated glomerular hypertrophy after surgery. RYEJ also significantly downregulated the levels of JNK-mediated inflammatory response and upregulated the level of the anti-inflammatory mediator MKP5. Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy alleviates insulin resistance. RYEJ surgery ameliorated renal function and attenuated glomerular hypertrophy in a DN rat model. The considerable

  8. Passive-bending, short-type single-balloon enteroscope for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in Roux-en-Y anastomosis patients.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Tokunaga, Shuko; Takezawa, Miyoko; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2015-02-07

    To evaluate short-type-single-balloon enteroscope (SBE) with passive-bending, high-force transmission functions for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Short-type SBE with this technology (SIF-Y0004-V01; working length, 1520 mm; channel diameter, 3.2 mm) was used to perform 50 ERCP procedures in 37 patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis. The rate of reaching the blind end, time required to reach the blind end, diagnostic and therapeutic success rates, and procedure time and complications were studied retrospectively and compared with the results of 34 sessions of ERCP performed using a short-type SBE without this technology (SIF-Y0004; working length, 1520 mm; channel diameter, 3.2 mm) in 25 patients. The rate of reaching the blind end was 90% with SIF-Y0004-V01 and 91% with SIF-Y0004 (P = 0.59). The median time required to reach the papilla was significantly shorter with SIF-Y0004-V01 than with SIF-Y0004 (16 min vs 24 min, P = 0.04). The diagnostic success rate was 93% with SIF-Y0004-V01 and 84% with SIF-Y0004 (P = 0.17). The therapeutic success rate was 95% with SIF-Y0004-V01 and 96% with SIF-Y0004 (P = 0.68). The median procedure time was 40 min with SIF-Y0004-V01 and 36 min with SIF-Y0004 (P = 0.50). The incidence of hyperamylasemia was 6.0% in the SIF-Y0004-V01 group and 14.7% in the SIF-Y0004 group (P = 0.723). The incidence of pancreatitis was 0% in the SIF-Y0004-V01 group and 5.9% in the SIF-Y0004 group (P > 0.999). The incidence of gastrointestinal perforation was 2.0% (1/50) in the SIF-Y0004-V01 group and 2.9% (1/34) in the SIF-Y0004 group (P > 0.999). SIF-Y0004-V01 is useful for ERCP in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis and may reduce the time required to reach the blind end.

  9. Clinical outcomes of Roux-en-Y and Billroth I reconstruction after a distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: What is the optimal reconstructive procedure?

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinnosuke; Matsuo, Katsuichi; Matsumoto, Hisanobu; Maki, Takanobu; Nakano, Masahiko; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical advantages of Roux-en-Y (R-Y) and Billroth-I (B-I) reconstruction after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer by examining the postoperative symptoms based on a patient questionnaire and patient nutrition. In addition, this study determined which of the R-Y or B-I procedures is preferable following distal gastrectomy. Fifty-one patients who had undergone R-Y reconstruction and 50 patients who had undergone B-I reconstruction were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The operative and postoperative findings such as operating time, blood loss, complications, and postoperative hospital stay were evaluated as short-term clinical outcomes. Postoperative serum nutrition parameters, transition of body weight, incidence of residual gastritis, and clinical symptoms were evaluated as mid-term clinical outcomes. An assessment of symptoms was based on a questionnaire concerning dumping symptoms, reflux symptoms, food intake, and satisfaction with the operation. No significant differences were observed in the operative and postoperative clinical parameters without stage grouping. The transition of serum nutrition parameters revealed no significant differences between the two groups for the preoperative and postoperative states. Dumping symptoms, reflux symptoms, and abdominal symptoms were less frequent in R-Y patients, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. Moreover, the differences in body weight recovery rates were not found to be statistically significant between two groups. However, the incidence of residual gastritis was significantly less in R-Y patients (21.2%) than in B-I patients (68.8%) (p < 0.05). The questionnaire results regarding food intake and surgery satisfaction were not significantly different between the two groups. Definite clinical advantages were not recognized in patients with R-Y reconstruction. B-I and R-Y reconstructive procedures should be selected according to the

  10. Chronic biloma after right hepatectomy for stage IV hepatoblastoma managed with roux-en-Y biliary cystenterostomy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew J.; Rauth, Thomas P.; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2012-01-01

    We report the complex case of a 12-month-old female with stage IV hepatoblastoma accompanied by thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein. Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, she underwent right hepatectomy, which was complicated by iatrogenic injury of her left hepatic duct, and subsequently developed a postoperative biloma and chronic biliocutaneous fistula. Concomitant with multiple percutaneous interventions to manage the biloma nonoperatively while the child completed her adjuvant chemotherapy, she progressed to develop chronic malnutrition, jaundice, and failure to thrive. Once therapy was completed and the child was deemed free of disease she underwent exploratory laparotomy with roux-en-Y biliary cyst-enterostomy for definitive management, resulting in resolution of her biliary fistula, jaundice, and marked improvement in her nutritional status. Roux-en-Y biliary cyst-enterostomy is a unique and efficacious management option in the highly selected patient population with chronic biliary leak refractory to minimally invasive management. PMID:23164033

  11. Preoperative assessment of gut hormones does not correlate to weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Vincent, Royce P; Royce, Vincent P; Cross, Gemma F; le Roux, Carel W; Olbers, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective and frequently used surgical treatment for severe obesity. Postoperative weight loss varies markedly, but biomarkers to predict weight loss outcomes remain elusive. Levels of the satiety gut hormones glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are attenuated in obese patients but elevated after RYGB surgery. We aimed to evaluate the preoperative responses of GLP-1 and PYY to a standard meal as a predictor of weight loss after RYGB surgery. We hypothesized that weak satiety gut hormone responses preoperatively, would predict poor weight loss after RYGB surgery. Preoperatively 43 patients (F = 25/M = 18) had GLP-1 and PYY measured in the fasting state and at 30-minute intervals over 180 minutes after a standard 400 kcal mixed meal. Weight loss was assessed at weight stability after surgery (mean 16.2 mo [CI 15.516.9]). Body mass index decreased from 44.0 kg/m(2) (CI 42.2-45.7) before surgery to 30.3 kg/m(2) (CI 28.4-32.2) after surgery (P<.001). Preoperative GLP-1 and PYY responses to food intake; as delta value between fasting and maximum as well as total responses during 180 minutes did not correlate to total weight loss (GLP-1; rho = .060 and rho = -.089, PYY; rho = -.03 and rho = -.022, respectively) or to excess weight loss % (GLP-1; rho = .051 and rho = -.064, PYY; rho = -.1 and rho = -.088, respectively). Preoperative responses of GLP-1 and PYY to a 400 kcal mixed meal do not correlate to postoperative weight loss after RYGB surgery for morbid obesity. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anaemia and related nutrient deficiencies after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ting-Chia; Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Dong, Yaa-Hui; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain a pooled risk estimate on the long-term impact of anaemia and related nutritional deficiencies in patients receiving Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched to identify English reports published before 16 May 2014. Eligibility criteria Articles with case numbers >100, follow-up period >12 months, and complete data from both before and after surgery were selected. Outcomes of interest were changes in baseline measurements of proportion of patients with anaemia, by haemoglobin, haematocrit, ferritin, iron, vitamin B12 and folate levels. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently reviewed data and selected six prospective and nine retrospective studies with a total of 5909 patients. A random effect model with inverse variance weighting was used to calculate summary estimates of outcomes at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months postoperatively. Results Proportion of patients with anaemia was 12.2% at baseline, which, respectively, increased to 20.9% and 25.9% at 12 and 24 months follow-up, consistent with decreases in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. Although the serum iron level did not change substantially after surgery, the frequency of patients with ferritin deficiency increased from 7.9% at baseline to 13.4% and 23.0% at 12 and 24 months, respectively, postoperation. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased from 2.3% at baseline to 6.5% at 12 months after surgery in those subjects receiving RYGB. There was no obvious increase in folate deficiency. Conclusions RYGB surgery is associated with an increased risk of anaemia and deficiencies of iron and vitamin B12, but not folate. Ferritin is more sensitive when serum iron level is within normal range. PMID:26185175

  13. cerebral Markers of the Serotonergic System in Rat Models of Obesity and After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Cecilia; Ettrup, Anders; Bueter, Marco; Haahr, Mette E.; Compan, Valérie; le Roux, Carel W.; Levin, Barry; Hansen, Henrik H.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2013-01-01

    Food intake and body weight are regulated by a complex system of neural and hormonal signals, of which the anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is central. In this study, rat models of obesity and weight loss intervention were compared with regard to several 5-HT markers. Using receptor autoradiography, brain regional-densities of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors were measured in (i) selectively bred polygenic diet-induced obese (pgDIO) rats, (ii) outbred DIO rats, and (iii) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-operated rats. pgDIO rats had higher 5-HT4 and 5-HT2A receptor binding and lower SERT binding when compared to polygenic diet-resistant (pgDR) rats. The most pronounced difference between pgDIO and pgDR rats was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), a brain region regulating reward aspects of feeding. No differences were found in the 5-HT markers between DIO rats, chow-fed control rats, and DIO rats experiencing a weight loss. The 5-HT markers were also similar in RYGB and sham-operated rats except for a downregulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the NAcS. The higher receptor and lower SERT binding in pgDIO as compared to pgDR rats corresponds to what is reported in overweight humans and suggests that the dysfunctions of the 5-HT system associated with overeating or propensity to become overweight are polygenically determined. Our results support that the obesity-prone rat model has high translational value and suggests that susceptibility to develop obesity is associated with changed 5-HT tone in the brain that may also regulate hedonic aspects of feeding. PMID:22450706

  14. Purse-string transoral outlet reduction (TORe) is effective at inducing weight loss and improvement in metabolic comorbidities after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Kröner, Paul T; Thompson, Christopher C

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Transoral outlet reduction (TORe), performed using a traditional interrupted or a recently described purse-string suture pattern, is effective at inducing short- and mid-term weight loss in patients with weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We aimed to determine the technical feasibility and safety of purse-string TORe and to assess its impact on weight and metabolic profiles.  RYGB patients undergoing purse-string TORe were included. The gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA) was ablated using argon plasma coagulation or dissected using endoscopic submucosal dissection. A suture was used to place stitches around the GJA in a continuous ring fashion. The suture was cinched over a balloon (8 - 12 mm). The primary outcome was technical feasibility. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of total body weight lost (%TWL), adverse events, impact on comorbidities, and predictors of weight loss.  252 RYGB patients underwent 260 purse-string TORes. They had regained 52.6 ± 46.4 % of lost weight and weighed 107.6 ± 24.6 kg. The technical success rate was 100 %. At 6 and 12 months, %TWL was 9.6 ± 6.3 and 8.4 ± 8.2. Two serious adverse events (0.8 %) occurred: gastrointestinal bleeding and GJA stenosis. At 12 months, blood pressure, hemoglobin A 1c , and ALT had improved. Prior weight regain was associated with %TWL at 12 months ( β  = 0.07, P  = 0.007) after controlling for BMI, pouch size, and number of purse-string rings.  Purse-string TORe to treat weight regain after RYGB is technically feasible and safe. Additionally, it is associated with improvement in weight and comorbidity profiles up to 12 months post-procedure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Inhibition of Vascular c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 2 Improves Obesity-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Doytcheva, Petia; Bächler, Thomas; Tarasco, Erika; Marzolla, Vincenzo; Engeli, Michael; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Stivala, Simona; Rohrer, Lucia; Tona, Francesco; Camici, Giovanni G; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Matter, Christian M; Lutz, Thomas A; Lüscher, Thomas F; Osto, Elena

    2017-11-14

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces obesity-associated comorbidities and cardiovascular mortality. RYGB improves endothelial dysfunction, reducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) vascular phosphorylation. JNK activation links obesity with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we examined whether JNK1 or JNK2 mediates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and if pharmacological JNK inhibition can mimic RYGB vascular benefits. After 7 weeks of a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, obese rats underwent RYGB or sham surgery; sham-operated ad libitum-fed rats received, for 8 days, either the control peptide D-TAT or the JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 (20 mg/kg per day subcutaneous). JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 treatment improved endothelial vasorelaxation in response to insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, as observed after RYGB. Obesity increased aortic phosphorylation of JNK2, but not of JNK1. RYGB and JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 treatment blunted aortic JNK2 phosphorylation via activation of glucagon-like peptide-1-mediated signaling. The inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 was reduced, whereas the protein kinase B/endothelial NO synthase pathway was increased and oxidative stress was decreased, resulting in improved vascular NO bioavailability. Decreased aortic JNK2 phosphorylation after RYGB rapidly improves obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction. Pharmacological JNK inhibition mimics the endothelial protective effects of RYGB. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of novel strategies targeting vascular JNK2 against the severe cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats progressively decreases the proportion of fat calories selected from a palatable cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Clare M.; Letourneau, Chanel; Blonde, Ginger D.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) decreases caloric intake in both human patients and rodent models. In long-term intake tests, rats decrease their preference for fat and/or sugar after RYGB, and patients may have similar changes in food selection. Here we evaluated the impact of RYGB on intake during a “cafeteria”-style presentation of foods to assess if rats would lower the percentage of calories taken from fat and/or sugar after RYGB in a more complex dietary context. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent either RYGB or sham surgery (Sham) were presurgically and postsurgically given 8-days free access to four semisolid foods representative of different fat and sugar levels along with standard chow and water. Compared with Sham rats, RYGB rats took proportionally fewer calories from fat and more calories from carbohydrates; the latter was not attributable to an increase in sugar intake. The proportion of calories taken from protein after RYGB also increased slightly. Importantly, these postsurgical macronutrient caloric intake changes in the RYGB rats were progressive, making it unlikely that the surgery had an immediate impact on the hedonic evaluation of the foods and strongly suggesting that learning is influencing the food choices. Indeed, despite these dietary shifts, RYGB, as well as Sham, rats continued to select the majority of their calories from the high-fat/high-sugar option. Apparently after RYGB, rats can progressively regulate their intake and selection of complex foods to achieve a seemingly healthier macronutrient dietary composition. PMID:26864811

  17. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats progressively decreases the proportion of fat calories selected from a palatable cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Clare M; Letourneau, Chanel; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2016-05-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) decreases caloric intake in both human patients and rodent models. In long-term intake tests, rats decrease their preference for fat and/or sugar after RYGB, and patients may have similar changes in food selection. Here we evaluated the impact of RYGB on intake during a "cafeteria"-style presentation of foods to assess if rats would lower the percentage of calories taken from fat and/or sugar after RYGB in a more complex dietary context. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent either RYGB or sham surgery (Sham) were presurgically and postsurgically given 8-days free access to four semisolid foods representative of different fat and sugar levels along with standard chow and water. Compared with Sham rats, RYGB rats took proportionally fewer calories from fat and more calories from carbohydrates; the latter was not attributable to an increase in sugar intake. The proportion of calories taken from protein after RYGB also increased slightly. Importantly, these postsurgical macronutrient caloric intake changes in the RYGB rats were progressive, making it unlikely that the surgery had an immediate impact on the hedonic evaluation of the foods and strongly suggesting that learning is influencing the food choices. Indeed, despite these dietary shifts, RYGB, as well as Sham, rats continued to select the majority of their calories from the high-fat/high-sugar option. Apparently after RYGB, rats can progressively regulate their intake and selection of complex foods to achieve a seemingly healthier macronutrient dietary composition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Calcium oxalate crystal related kidney injury in a patient receiving Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy due to gall bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jun-Li; Tsai, Shang-Feng

    2017-03-29

    Calcium oxalate nephropathy is rare in current practice. It was a common complication during jejunoileal bypass, but much less seen in modern gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. The major cause of it is enteric hyperoxaluria. We report on a patient here with acute kidney disease due to calcium oxalate nephropathy, rather than the conditions mentioned above. The male patient received a Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy and common bile duct drainage. In addition to enteric hyperoxaluria, chronic kidney disease related metabolic acidosis, chronic diarrhea related volume depletion, a high oxalate and low potassium diet, long term ascorbic acid intake and long term exposure to antibiotics, all predisposed him to having oxalate nephropathy. This is the first case with such conditions and we recommend that similarly diagnosed patients avoid all these predisposing factors, in order to avoid this rare disease and its undesired outcome.

  19. Dumping symptoms is triggered by fat as well as carbohydrates in patients operated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Laurenius, Anna; Werling, Malin; le Roux, Carel W; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten

    2017-07-01

    Dumping syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is traditionally associated with the consumption of refined carbohydrates, but the role of dietary fat is unclear. This study compares symptoms after consumption of a carbohydrate-rich or fat-rich beverage to determine perceived symptoms, glycemic control, and pulse rate. University hospital. We assessed perceived symptoms (Sigstad's Dumping Index) and glycemic control (P-glucose and S-insulin) as well as autonomic nervous system activity (reflected by arterial pulse rate) after a standardized liquid meal test (440 kcal/300 mL carbohydrates [CARB] or fat [FAT]) in a randomized crossover blinded setting. Blood samples were drawn before and 1, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after finishing each meal and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Twelve patients 42±10 months after undergoing RYGB were studied. AUC differed between drinks for glucose (P = .003) and insulin (P = .005). Pulse rate increased more after CARB than after FAT (P = .01). AUC for perceived symptoms in the Sigstad's Dumping Index were similar after meals (P = .79), yet the pattern of type of symptoms differed. In patients with RYGB, a meal with predominant fat content resulted in as much perceived dumping symptoms as a carbohydrate-profiled meal. As expected, an increase in glucose and insulin levels were found only after carbohydrate intake and the pulse rise was more pronounced for carbohydrates than fat. Dietary counseling in patients undergoing RYGB should address dietary fat as well as traditional information about carbohydrates to avoid dumping symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bowel obstruction rates in antecolic/antegastric versus retrocolic/retrogastric Roux limb gastric bypass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Harakeh, Ayman B; Kallies, Kara J; Borgert, Andrew J; Kothari, Shanu N

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature is varied with regard to rates of bowel obstruction after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). Internal herniation through mesenteric defects is a common cause of bowel obstructions. There are advantages and disadvantages to routing the Roux limb via a retrocolic/retrogastric (RC/RG) versus an antecolic/antegastric (AC/AG) position. To review the literature comparing obstruction rates in RYGB using the antecolic versus retrocolic approach. Community-based integrated multispecialty health system with a teaching hospital serving 19 counties over a 3-state region. A literature search for articles published from 1994-2013 was completed. Articles were included if they reported an n>25, Roux limb route, obstruction rate by route, and follow-up duration. Statistical analysis included χ(2) test by patient number. The initial search identified 241 articles; 8 met inclusion criteria. There were 4805 patients in the AC/AG group, and 2238 in the RC/RG group. Follow-up ranged from 0 to 68 months. A linear stapled technique was reported in 4231 (88%) patients in the AC/AG group and 1541 (69%) of RC/RG group. Handsewn closure of mesenteric defects was reported in 2152 (45%) patients in the AC/AG group and 1012 (45%) patients in the RC/RG group. Bowel obstructions occurred in 68 (1.4%) patients in the AC/AG group and 117 (5.2%) patients in the RC/RG group (P<.001). Internal hernias were reported in 65 (1.3%) patients in the AC/AG group and 52 (2.3%) patients in the RC/RG group (P<.001). Two mortalities were reported in the AC/AG group. Increased rates of bowel obstruction and internal hernia were observed in the RC/RG group compared with the AC/AG group. A prospective, randomized trial would be necessary to definitively determine the impact of Roux limb position and routine closure of mesenteric defects on bowel obstruction rates after gastric bypass. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Technique and outcomes of laparoscopic-combined linear stapler and hand-sutured side-to-side esophagojejunostomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction as a treatment modality in patients undergoing proximal gastrectomy for benign and malignant disease of the gastroesophageal junction.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Carlos M; Ampudia, Carolina; Fridman, Abraham; Moon, Rena; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Raul J

    2014-02-01

    Circular stapler and hand-sutured esophagojejunostomy has been the most popular technique utilized in patients undergoing proximal gastrectomy through Roux-en-Y reconstruction for disease processes of the gastroesophageal junction. In recent years, with the advent of laparoscopic bariatric surgical techniques and refined linear stapler cutters, surgeons have developed the linear stapler side-to-side technique as a valid option. The aim of this study is to describe our technique and review the outcomes using the Roux-en-Y reconstruction with linear staplers after laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for malignant and benign disease. After Internal Review Board approval and with adherence to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act guidelines, a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was conducted. A total of 14 patients underwent proximal laparoscopic gastric resection at our institution during a 3-year period from January 2008 to January 2011. Sex, body mass index, prior surgeries, complications of the prior surgery, intraoperative complications, pathologic findings, postoperative complications, hospital stay, and outpatient follow-up were measured in the preoperative and postoperative period. Our patient population consisted of 9 women and 5 men, with a mean age and body mass index of 45.42 years and 35.64 kg/m, respectively. Indications for proximal gastrectomy was in 4 patients a leak at the angle of His secondary to sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity, 1 patient was a stricture after a vertical banded gastroplasty, 1 patient a revision of a eroded gastric band, 1 patient a revision of a eroded mesh secondary to a hiatal hernia repair, 1 patient a conversion of a failed Nissen, 3 patients had a total gastrectomy due to a stage 2 gastric cancer, and 1 patient a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. There were no intraoperative complications. All the procedures were completed laparoscopically. The mean operative time was 137.16 minutes

  2. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on energy and glucose homeostasis are preserved in two mouse models of functional glucagon-like peptide-1 deficiency☆ab

    PubMed Central

    Mokadem, Mohamad; Zechner, Juliet F.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Aguirre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion is greatly enhanced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). While intact GLP-1exerts its metabolic effects via the classical GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), proteolytic processing of circulating GLP-1 yields metabolites such as GLP-1(9–36)amide/GLP-1(28–36)amide, that exert similar effects independent of the classical GLP-1R. We investigated the hypothesis that GLP-1, acting via these metabolites or through its known receptor, is required for the beneficial effects of RYGB using two models of functional GLP-1 deficiency – α-gustducin-deficient (α-Gust−/−) mice, which exhibit attenuated nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 secretion, and GLP-1R-deficient mice. We show that the effect of RYGB to enhance glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion was greatly attenuated in α-Gust−/− mice. In both genetic models, RYGB reduced body weight and improved glucose homeostasis to levels observed in lean control mice. Therefore, GLP-1, acting through its classical GLP-1R or its bioactive metabolites, does not seem to be involved in the effects of RYGB on body weight and glucose homeostasis. PMID:24634822

  3. Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Sabrina; Matos, Andréa; da Cruz, Suelem Pereira; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. VAD in pregnancy affected 90% of women, 86.7% developed NB and 82.8% had mild VAD. TGWG above/below the recommended range was related to the low serum concentrations of β-carotene ( p = 0.045) in the second trimester and women with TGWG above the recommended range showed 100% of inadequacy of this nutrient in the third trimester. Among the pregnant women with anemia, 90.9% had VAD and 86.4% had NB. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the nutritional status of vitamin A in prenatal care, due to its relationship with TGWG and the high percentage of VAD and NB found since the beginning of pregnancy. It also reaffirms the use of the cut-off <1.05 μmol/L for determining VAD.

  4. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS ON BODY WEIGHT AND CLINICAL METABOLIC COMORBIDITIES IN BARIATRIC SURGERY SERVICE OF A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cátia Ferreira da; Cohen, Larissa; Sarmento, Luciana d'Abreu; Rosa, Felipe Monnerat Marino; Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Carneiro, João Régis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto de; Magno, Fernanda Cristina Carvalho Mattos

    Due to the high failure rate observed in the clinical treatment of morbid obesity an increase in bariatric surgery indications, as an alternative for the control of obesity and comorbidities, is noticeable. To evaluate the performance of type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia in patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in late follow-up. Retrospective analysis of 59 patients included in the bariatric surgery program. Anthropometric (height and body weight) and laboratory (LDLc, HDLc, VLDLc, triglyceride -TG - and glucose) data were collected on pre- and postoperative stages, through medical records. Among the patients, 86% were female aged 43±11, of whom 52% had attended high school. The average postoperative time was 7±3 years. During the postoperative period, there were decreases of weight and body mass index, respectively (133±06 kg vs 91±04 kg p<0.05 e 49±74 kg/m2 vs 33±79 kg/m2, p<0.05). In comparison to the preoperative stage, lower concentrations of glucose (101.00±26.99 vs 89,11±15.19, p=0.014), total cholesterol rates (179.00±37,95 vs 167.48±28,50, p=0.016), LDLc (104.30±33.12 vs 91.46±24.58, p=0.016), VLDLc (25.40±11,12 vs 15.68±7.40, p<0.01), and TG (143.35±86.35 vs 82.45±37.39, p<0.01) and higher concentrations of HDLc (43.53±8.23 vs 57.90±15.60, p<0.01) were identified in the postoperative stage. 40% of hypertensive patients were still undergoing high blood pressure treatment during the postoperative stage. There was remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia on 81% and 94% of the cases, respectively. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has proven itself to be an effective long term procedure, promoting weight loss, remission of DM2 and dyslipidemia. Em função do alto grau de falência que se observa no tratamento clínico da obesidade mórbida, observa-se um aumento da procura pela cirurgia bariátrica como alternativa para o controle da obesidade e comorbidades. Avaliar a evolução do diabete melito

  5. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure performed with the da Vinci robot system: is it worth it?

    PubMed

    Hubens, G; Balliu, L; Ruppert, M; Gypen, B; Van Tu, T; Vaneerdeweg, W

    2008-07-01

    The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure (RYGBP) is in many countries the gold standard for obtaining long-lasting weight reduction and improvement of obesity-related comorbidities. However, performing this operation by standard laparoscopic techniques requires important surgical skills because of the anastomoses involved. The da Vinci surgical robot system with its enhanced degrees of freedom in motion and three-dimensional vision is designed to overcome the difficulties encountered in traditional laparoscopic surgery with suturing and delicate tissue handling. For this study, 45 patients (9 men) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 44.2 (range, 35.1-55.4) underwent RYGBP with the aid of the da Vinci robot system. They were compared with 45 consecutive patients with a mean BMI of 43.9 (range, 35.1-56.2) who underwent a laparoscopic RYGBP by the same surgeon during the same period. Overall, the total operating time was shorter for the laparoscopic cases (127 vs 212 min; p < 0.05). However, the last 10 robotic cases were performed in the same time span as the laparoscopic cases (136 vs 127 min). The total robotic setup time remained constant at about 30 min. There were no differences in postoperative complications between the two groups in terms of anastomotic leakage or stenosis. In the robotic group, more conversions to open surgery were noted. Early in the study, four patients (9%) had to undergo conversion to standard laparoscopic techniques due to inadequate setup of the robotic arms. Five patients (11%), however, had to undergo conversion to open surgery because of intestinal laceration during manipulation of the intestines with the robotic instruments. The costs were higher for robotic surgery than for standard laparoscopic RYGBP, mainly because of the extra equipment used, such as ultrasonic devices. The RYGBP procedure can be performed safely with the da Vinci robot after a learning curve of about 35 cases. At this writing, however, it is not clear whether

  6. Very low-calorie diet mimics the early beneficial effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on insulin sensitivity and β-cell Function in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Jackness, Clifton; Karmally, Wahida; Febres, Gerardo; Conwell, Irene M; Ahmed, Leaque; Bessler, Marc; McMahon, Donald J; Korner, Judith

    2013-09-01

    Marked improvement in glycemic control occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus shortly after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) and before there is major weight loss. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of this change is primarily due to caloric restriction or is unique to the surgical procedure. We studied eleven subjects who underwent RYGB and fourteen subjects mean-matched for BMI, HbA1c, and diabetes duration who were admitted to our inpatient research unit and given a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) of 500 kcal/day with a macronutrient content similar to that consumed by patients after RYGB. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after interventions. Both groups lost an equivalent amount of weight over a mean study period of 21 days. Insulin sensitivity, acute insulin secretion after intravenous glucose administration, and β-cell function as determined by disposition index improved to a similar extent in both groups. Likewise, changes in fasting glucose and fructosamine levels were similar. Based on these data, VLCD improves insulin sensitivity and β-cell function just as well as RYGB in the short term.

  7. The first Polish liver transplantation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Rafał; Ziemiański, Paweł; Łągiewska, Beata; Pacholczyk, Marek; Domienik-Karłowicz, Justyna; Trzebicki, Janusz; Wierzbicki, Zbigniew; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Wasiak, Dariusz; Jonas, Maurycy; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Durlik, Magdalena; Lisik, Wojciech; Chmura, Andrzej

    2015-02-25

    Morbid obesity is associated with liver pathology, most commonly non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) leading to cirrhosis. However, the morbid obesity impedes qualification for organ transplantation. We present a case report of a 56-year-old woman who underwent bariatric procedure followed by liver transplantation (LTx). Her initial weight was 130.2 kg (BMI 50.9 kg/m2). The patient had a history of arterial hypertension, diabetes, gonarthrosis, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and no history of alcohol abuse. She underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. The routine intraoperative liver biopsy revealed fibrosis (III°), steatosis (II°), and intra-acinar inflammation. The operation led to a substantial loss of weight. Two years after the surgery the patient was referred to the Transplantation Clinic of Department of General Surgery and Transplantology with suspicion of liver failure due to advanced cirrhosis, which could be a result of previously diagnosed NASH and, probably, excessive alcohol use after bariatric surgery. The patient was qualified for elective LTx, which was performed 3 years after the RYGB. Immediately before LTx, the patient's weight was 65 kg (BMI 25.4 kg/m²). The postoperative period was complicated by bleeding into the peritoneal cavity, which required reoperation. She also had renal failure, requiring renal replacement therapy. One year after LTx, she showed stable liver function with normal transaminases activity and bilirubin concentration, remission of diabetes, and good renal function. Steatohepatitis in morbidly obese patients may lead to cirrhosis. Bariatric procedure can be a bridge to liver transplantation for morbidly obese patients with advanced liver fibrosis.

  8. Robotic assisted Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in a post-cholecystectomy type E2 bile duct injury

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Arun; De, Sudipto; Mishra, Purak; Tiwari, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis is the treatment of choice for common hepatic duct injury type E2. It has been performed laparoscopically with the advancement of laparoscopic skill. Recently, a telemanipulative robotic surgical system was introduced, providing laparoscopic instruments with wrist-arm technology and 3-dimensional visualization of the operative field. We present a case of 36-year-old female patient who had undergone elective cholecystectomy 2 mo ago for gall stones and had a common bile duct injury during surgery. As the stricture was old and complete it could not be tackled endoscopically. We did a laparoscopic assisted adhesiolysis followed by robotic Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. No intraoperative complications or technical problems were encountered. Postoperative period was uneventful and she was discharged on the 4th postoperative day. At follow-up, she is doing well without evidence of jaundice or cholangitis. This is the first reported case of robotic hepaticojejunostomy following common bile duct injury. The hybrid technique gives the patient benefit of laparoscopic adhesiolysis and robotic suturing. PMID:25684934

  9. A Role for Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 and Bile Acids in Diabetes Remission After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, Glenn S.; Styer, Amanda M.; Wood, G. Craig; Roesch, Stephen L.; Petrick, Anthony T.; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William E.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulos, George

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in humans can remit type 2 diabetes, but the operative mechanism is not completely understood. In mice, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 (FGF19 in humans) regulates hepatic bile acid (BA) production and can also resolve diabetes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the FGF19–BA pathway plays a role in the remission of human diabetes after RYGB surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cohorts of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals of various body weights were used. In addition, RYGB patients without diabetes (No-Diabetes), RYGB patients with diabetes who experienced remission for at least 12 months after surgery (Diabetes-R), and RYGB patients with diabetes who did not go into remission after surgery (Diabetes-NoR) were studied. Circulating FGF19 and BA levels, hepatic glycogen content, and expression levels of genes regulating the FGF19–BA pathway were compared among these groups of patients using pre- and postoperative serum samples and intraoperative liver biopsies. RESULTS Preoperatively, patients with diabetes had lower FGF19 and higher BA levels than nondiabetic patients, irrespective of body weight. In diabetic patients undergoing RYGB, lower FGF19 levels were significantly correlated with increased hepatic expression of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) gene, which modulates BA production. Following RYGB surgery, however, FGF19 and BA levels (particularly cholic and deoxycholic acids) exhibited larger increases in Diabetic-R patients compared with nondiabetic and Diabetic-NoR patients. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, the baseline and postoperative data implicate the FGF19–CYP7A1–BA pathway in the etiology and remission of type 2 diabetes following RYGB surgery. PMID:23801799

  10. Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Mild Obesity: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ricardo; Le Roux, Carel W; Junqueira, Silvio; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Luque, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of only Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m 2 . A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. The searches were performed in February 2017. English was the target language of the publications. The PICO question was used to determine eligibility for studies to be included: population, patient with BMI 30-40 kg/m2; intervention, RYGB; comparison, control group with medical care alone; and outcome, metabolic outcomes. Only randomized clinical trials (RCT) were selected. The main outcome was T2D remission. Secondary outcomes were metabolic effect of RYGB, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. A total of five RCTs were included. The studies included a larger proportion of women, and the average time of T2D duration ranged between 6 and 10 years with 43.3% of the patients having a BMI below 35 kg/m 2 . Despite randomization, the baseline demographics such as age, HbA1c, and duration of diabetes were often less favorable in the surgical group. At the longest follow-up, RYGB significantly improves total and partial type 2 remission, OR 17.48 (95% CI 4.28-71.35) and OR 20.71 (95% CI 5.16-83.12), respectively. HbA1c also reduces at longest follow-up in the surgery group (- 1.83 (95% CI - 2.14; - 1.51)). All these three outcomes revealed high level of evidence according to GRADE evaluation. There is already strong evidence that RYGB improves metabolic outcomes for at least 5 years in patients with class I obesity.

  11. Elevated Postoperative Endogenous GLP-1 Levels Mediate Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Neural Responsivity to Food Cues.

    PubMed

    Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Veltman, Dick J; Gerdes, Victor E A; van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; Barkhof, Frederik; Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens J; Drent, Madeleine L; Diamant, Michaela; IJzerman, Richard G

    2017-11-01

    It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite and weight reduction, mediated via effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Secretion of GLP-1 is greatly enhanced after RYGB. We hypothesized that postoperative elevated GLP-1 levels contribute to the improved satiety regulation after RYGB via effects on the CNS. Effects of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (Ex9-39) and placebo were assessed in 10 women before and after RYGB. We used functional MRI to investigate CNS activation in response to visual food cues (pictures) and gustatory food cues (consumption of chocolate milk), comparing results with Ex9-39 versus placebo before and after RYGB. After RYGB, CNS activation was reduced in the rolandic operculum and caudate nucleus in response to viewing food pictures ( P = 0.03) and in the insula in response to consumption of palatable food ( P = 0.003). GLP-1 levels were significantly elevated postoperatively ( P < 0.001). After RYGB, GLP-1 receptor blockade resulted in a larger increase in activation in the caudate nucleus in response to food pictures ( P = 0.02) and in the insula in response to palatable food consumption ( P = 0.002). We conclude that the effects of RYGB on CNS activation in response to visual and gustatory food cues may be mediated by central effects of GLP-1. Our findings provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the weight-lowering effects of RYGB. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Increases Intestinal Gluconeogenesis in a T2DM Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong; Zhou, Zhou; Kong, Fanzhi; Feng, Suibin; Li, Xuzhong; Sha, Yanhua; Zhang, Guangjun; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Haiqing; Wang, Shiguang; Hu, Cheng; Zhang, Xueli

    2016-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective surgical treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and intestinal morphological adaption, as well as hepatic and intestinal gluconeogenesis. Twenty adult male T2DM rats induced by high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin were randomly divided into sham and RYGB groups. The parameters of body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and serum lipid profiles were assessed to evaluate metabolic changes. Intestinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for light microscopy examination. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase)] were determined through reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. RYGB induced significant improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, along with weight loss and decreased food intake. RYGB also decreased serum triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The jejunum and ileum exhibited a marked increase in the length and number of intestinal villi after RYGB. The RYGB group exhibited downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of PEPCK and G6Pase in the liver and upregulated expression of these enzymes in the jejunum and ileum tissues. RYGB ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism accompanied by weight loss and calorie restriction. The small intestine shows hyperplasia and hypertrophy after RYGB. Meanwhile, our study demonstrated that the reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased intestinal gluconeogenesis may contribute to improved glucose homeostasis after RYGB.

  13. Energy restriction and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reduce postprandial α-dicarbonyl stress in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maessen, Dionne E; Hanssen, Nordin M; Lips, Mirjam A; Scheijen, Jean L; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Pijl, Hanno; Stehouwer, Coen D; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-09-01

    Dicarbonyl compounds are formed as byproducts of glycolysis and are key mediators of diabetic complications. However, evidence of postprandial α-dicarbonyl formation in humans is lacking, and interventions to reduce α-dicarbonyls have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we investigated postprandial α-dicarbonyl levels in obese women without and with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we evaluated whether a diet very low in energy (very low calorie diet [VLCD]) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces α-dicarbonyl stress in obese women with type 2 diabetes. In lean (n = 12) and obese women without (n = 27) or with type 2 diabetes (n = 27), we measured the α-dicarbonyls, methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), and glucose in fasting and postprandial plasma samples obtained during a mixed meal test. Obese women with type 2 diabetes underwent either a VLCD or RYGB. Three weeks after the intervention, individuals underwent a second mixed meal test. Obese women with type 2 diabetes had higher fasting and particularly higher postprandial plasma α-dicarbonyl levels, compared with those without diabetes. After three weeks of a VLCD, postprandial α-dicarbonyl levels in diabetic women were significantly reduced (AUC MGO -14%, GO -16%, 3-DG -25%), mainly through reduction of fasting plasma α-dicarbonyls (MGO -13%, GO -13%, 3-DG -33%). Similar results were found after RYGB. This study shows that type 2 diabetes is characterised by increased fasting and postprandial plasma α-dicarbonyl stress, which can be reduced by improving glucose metabolism through a VLCD or RYGB. These data highlight the potential to reduce reactive α-dicarbonyls in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01167959.

  14. Increased Serum IGFBP-1 and Reduced Insulin Resistance After Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a 6-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigao; Dai, Xiaojian; Yu, Hao; Luo, Qing; Zhang, Hongbin; Wu, Liangping

    2018-04-24

    This study aimed to measure changes of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) following gastric bypass surgery. A total of 10 patients with T2D underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Patient height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured pre- and post-operatively at 6 months after surgery. Serum samples were collected at 6 months after surgery to determine fasting blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, fasting insulin, C-peptide, and 2-h postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. Serum was collected at 3 days and 6 months after surgery and IGFBP-1 level determined using ELISA. Serum samples were also collected from 30 healthy weight subjects and 27 overweight control subjects. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly improved following RYGB surgery. Blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial blood glucose, and HbA1c were also significantly improved. Fasting C-peptide and 2-h postprandial C-peptide were non-significantly reduced. Serum IGFBP-1 significantly increased at 3 days and 6 months after RYGB surgery. Pre-operative serum IGFBP-1 was not significantly different from healthy weight subjects or overweight subjects. Increased serum level of IGF-binding proteins after RYGB in 6 months is increased post-surgery compared with overweight and healthy weight controls. IGFBP-1 may serve as part of new supplementary criteria for surgical selection and for defining the success of RYGB.

  15. Bariatric Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery: Adipocyte Proteins Involved in Increased Bone Remodeling in Humans.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Maria Fernanda G; Mendes, Adriana L; Nogueira, Célia Regina; Leite, Celso V; Gollino, Loraine; Mazeto, Gláucia Mfs

    2017-07-01

    Bariatric surgery has been associated with bone remodeling changes. The action of adipokines on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa β ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and on an increase in sclerostin could be related to these changes. This study aimed to assess the repercussions of weight loss, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) loss and biochemical and hormonal changes on bone remodeling markers after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Anthropometric data, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), collagen type 1 C-telopeptide (CTX), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-VitD), leptin, adiponectin, RANKL, OPG, and sclerostin of 30 menstruating women were measured preoperatively (Pre), and 3, 12, and 24 months (m) after RYGB. Leptin (34.4 (14.7; 51.9) vs. 22.5 (1.9; 52.7) ng/mL) and OPG (3.6 (1.1; 11.5) vs. 3.4 (1.5; 6) pmol/L) decreased, and adiponectin (7.4 (1.7; 18.4) vs. 13.8 (3.0; 34.6) μg/mL), CTX (0.2 (0.1; 2.2) vs. 0.6 (0.4; 6.0) ng/mL), RANKL (0.1 (0.0; 0.5) vs. 0.3 (0.0; 2.0) pmol/L), and sclerostin (21.7 (3.2; 75.1) vs. 34.8 (6.4; 80.5) pmol/L) increased after 3 m. BSAP increased after 12 m (10.1 (5.4; 18.9) vs. 13.9 (6.9; 30.2) μg/mL) (p < 0.005). CTX correlated positively with adiponectin at 24 m and inversely with leptin Pre; OPG at 3 m; weight, FM, FFM, and leptin at 24 m. RANKL correlated directly with weight at 3 m. Sclerostin correlated inversely with weight Pre and FM at 3 m. BSAP correlated negatively with 25-OH-VitD at 12 m, and positively with PTH at 24 m. RYGB induced weight loss, and biochemical, hormonal, and body composition changes are associated with higher bone remodeling.

  16. Meta-analysis of Duct-to-duct versus Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction following liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Pandanaboyana, Sanjay; Bell, Richard; Bartlett, Adam J; McCall, John; Hidalgo, Ernest

    2015-04-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare outcomes following bile duct reconstruction in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) undergoing liver transplantation depending on whether duct-to-duct or Roux-en-Y anastomosis was utilized. An electronic search was performed of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed databases using both subject headings (MeSH) and truncated word searches. Pooled risk ratios and mean difference were calculated using the fixed-effects and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Ten studies including 910 patients met the inclusion criteria. There was no difference in the overall incidence of biliary strictures between the two groups [odds ratio (OR) 1.06 (0.68, 1.66); (P = 0.80)]. The anastomotic stricture rate was similar, [OR 1.18 (0.56, 2.50); (P = 0.67)]. Ascending cholangitis was higher in the Roux-en-Y group [OR 2.91 (1.17, 7.23); (P = 0.02)]. Anastomotic bile leak rates, graft survival, PSC recurrence and number of patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma following transplantation were comparable between both groups. Duct-to-duct and Roux-en-Y reconstruction had comparable outcomes. Both techniques are associated with similar incidence of biliary stricture. The bilioenteric reconstruction was associated with a higher risk of cholangitis. The incidence of de novo cholangiocarcinoma was similar in both groups. Duct-to-duct reconstruction should be considered when feasible in patients with PSC. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Alterations in Gastrointestinal, Endocrine, and Metabolic Processes After Bariatric Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Tura, Andrea; Promintzer-Schifferl, Miriam; Prager, Gerhard; Stadler, Marietta; Ludvik, Bernhard; Esterbauer, Harald; Bischof, Martin Georg; Luger, Anton; Pacini, Giovanni; Krebs, Michael

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity leads to severe long-term complications and reduced life expectancy. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery induces excessive and continuous weight loss in (morbid) obesity, although it causes several abnormal anatomical and physiological conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To distinctively unveil effects of RYGB surgery on β-cell function and glucose turnover in skeletal muscle, liver, and gut, nondiabetic, morbidly obese patients were studied before (pre-OP, five female/one male, BMI: 49 ± 3 kg/m2, 43 ± 2 years of age) and 7 ± 1 months after (post-OP, BMI: 37 ± 3 kg/m2) RYGB surgery, compared with matching obese (CONob, five female/one male, BMI: 34 ± 1 kg/m2, 48 ± 3 years of age) and lean controls (CONlean, five female/one male, BMI: 22 ± 0 kg/m2, 42 ± 2 years of age). Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp tests, and mechanistic mathematical modeling allowed determination of whole-body insulin sensitivity (M/I), OGTT and clamp test β-cell function, and gastrointestinal glucose absorption. RESULTS Post-OP lost (P < 0.0001) 35 ± 3 kg body weight. M/I increased after RYGB, becoming comparable to CONob, but remaining markedly lower than CONlean (P < 0.05). M/I tightly correlated (τ = −0.611, P < 0.0001) with fat mass. During OGTT, post-OP showed ≥15% reduced plasma glucose from 120 to 180 min (≤4.5 mmol/L), and 29-fold elevated active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) dynamic areas under the curve, which tightly correlated (r = 0.837, P < 0.001) with 84% increased β-cell secretion. Insulinogenic index (0–30 min) in post-OP was ≥29% greater (P < 0.04). At fasting, post-OP showed approximately halved insulin secretion (P < 0.05 vs. pre-OP). Insulin-stimulated insulin secretion in post-OP was 52% higher than before surgery, but 1–2 pmol/min2 lower than in CONob/CONlean (P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal glucose absorption was comparable in pre-OP and post-OP, but 9–26% lower from 40 to 90 min

  18. Metabolic Changes After Roux-N-Y Bariatric Surgery In Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gil de Lamadrid, José; Nieves-Rivera, Juan J; Mora, Laura; Corretjer, Lisa; Altieri, Pablo I; Suárez, Albert; Banchs, Héctor L; Muñiz, Jesús; Soto, Marie Ivelisse; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to describe the metabolic outcomes 12 months after bariatric surgery (Roux-N-Y) in morbidly obese Hispanic patients, and evaluate the correlation between weight loss and the observed changes. Medical records from a hundred-and-two Hispanic obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were identified at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) Hospital. The following variables were obtained before and 12 months after surgery: Body Mass Index (BMI), body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and fasting blood sugar (FBS). Ninety-seven percent of patients underwent Roux-N-Y surgery; 79.4% were females and 44% were diabetics. We observed statistically significant reductions (p < 0.05) 12 months after surgery in: BMI -14.3 (± 6.2) kg/m2, weight -86.1 (± 34.4) Ibs, TC -17.9 (± 32.4) mg/dL, triglycerides -28.7(± 40.6) mg/dL, LDL-15.4 (± 30.6) mg/dL, and FBS -11.3 (± 23.5) mg/dL. HDL, instead increased +5.22 (± 12.9) mg/dL (p < 0.0006). Gastric bypass surgery of the Roux-N-Y significantly improves the lipid profile and FBS levels in obese Hispanic patients. The poor correlation factor between weight loss and these variables suggests that other mechanisms, independent from weight loss, are responsible for these changes.

  19. GLP-1 response to a mixed meal: what happens 10 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)?

    PubMed

    Dar, Moahad S; Chapman, William H; Pender, John R; Drake, Almond J; O'Brien, Kevin; Tanenberg, Robert J; Dohm, G Lynis; Pories, Walter J

    2012-07-01

    Oral meal consumption increases glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) release which maintains euglycemia by increasing insulin secretion. This effect is exaggerated during short-term follow-up of Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB). We examined the durability of this effect in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) >10 years after RYGB. GLP-1 response to a mixed meal in the 10-year post-RYGB group (n = 5) was compared to lean (n = 9), obese (n = 6), and type 2 diabetic (n = 10) controls using a cross-sectional study design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate GLP-1 response to mixed meal consumption from 0 to 300 min, 0-20 min, 20-60 min, and 60-300 min, respectively. Weight, insulin resistance, and T2DM were also assessed. GLP-1 response 0-300 min in the 10-year post-RYGB showed a statistically significant overall difference (p =  0.01) compared to controls. Furthermore, GLP-1 response 0-20 min in the 10-year post-RYGB group showed a very rapid statistically significant rise (p = 0.035) to a peak of 40 pM. GLP-1 response between 20 and 60 min showed a rapid statistically significant (p = 0.041) decline in GLP-1 response from ~40 pM to 10 pM. GLP-1 response in the 10-year post-RYGB group from 60 to 300 min showed no statistically significant difference from controls. BMI, HOMA, and fasting serum glucose before and >10 years after RYGB changed from 59.9 → 40.4, 8.7 → 0.88, and 155.2 → 87.6 mg/dl, respectively, and were statistically significant (p < 0.05). An exaggerated GLP-1 response was noted 10 years after RYGB, strongly suggesting a durability of this effect. This phenomenon may play a key role in maintaining type 2 diabetes remission and weight loss after RYGB.

  20. Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery on Bile Acid Metabolism in Normal and Obese Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Hina Y; Rajpal, Neetu; White, Wendy; Freudenberg, Johannes M.; Liu, Yaping; Way, James; Rajpal, Deepak; Cooper, David C.; Young, Andrew; Tavakkoli, Ali; Chen, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    In addition to classic functions of facilitating hepatobiliary secretion and intestinal absorption of lipophilic nutrients, bile acids (BA) are also endocrine factors and regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Recent data indicate that antiobesity bariatric procedures e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), which also remit diabetes, increase plasma BAs in humans, leading to the hypothesis that BAs may play a role in diabetes resolution following surgery. To investigate the effect of RYGB on BA physiology and its relationship with glucose homeostasis, we undertook RYGB and SHAM surgery in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and normoglycemic Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and measured plasma and fecal BA levels, as well as plasma glucose, insulin, Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and Peptide YY (PYY), 2 days before and 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after surgery. RYGB decreased body weight and increased plasma GLP-1 in both SD and ZDF rats while decreasing plasma insulin and glucose in ZDF rats starting from the first week. Compared to SHAM groups, both SD-RYGB and ZDF-RYGB groups started to have increases in plasma total BAs in the second week, which might not contribute to early post-surgery metabolic changes. While there was no significant difference in fecal BA excretion between SD-RYGB and SD-SHAM groups, the ZDF-RYGB group had a transient 4.2-fold increase (P<0.001) in 24-hour fecal BA excretion on post-operative day 3 compared to ZDF-SHAM, which paralleled a significant increase in plasma PYY. Ratios of plasma and fecal cholic acid/chenodeoxycholic acid derived BAs were decreased in RYGB groups. In addition, tissue mRNA expression analysis suggested early intestinal BA reabsorption and potentially reduced hepatic cholic acid production in RYGB groups. In summary, we present novel data on RYGB-mediated changes in BA metabolism to further understand the role of BAs in RYGB-induced metabolic effects in humans. PMID:25798945

  1. Long-Term (7 Years) Follow-Up of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Obese Adolescent Patients (<18 Years).

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Himpens, Jacques; van de Vrande, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available about obesity surgery in adolescent patients. To assess long-term outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in patients <18 years. University Hospital, Europe. A retrospective study of prospectively collected data of patients <18 years (childhood group; ChG) (n = 28) treated by LRYGB of which 19 were available for follow-up between 2.4 and 10.2 years (mean 7.2 years). This group of patients was matched with an adult control group (AdG) of randomly chosen patients with similar characteristics who underwent LRYGB during the same period. The extensive survey included a telephonic questionnaire. 19 (12 females) of the 28 patients (67.9%) were available for follow-up. Preoperatively, 3 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 1 arterial hypertension, 5 dyslipidemia and 1 sleep apnea. In the ChG, average BMI after 7 years dropped from 38.9 kg/m2 preoperatively to 27.5 kg/m2. In the AdG, average BMI decreased from 39.4 to 27.1 kg/m2 in the same time period (nonsignificant between groups). One patient in the ChG needed a reoperation (internal hernia) versus 3 patients in the AdG (1 leak, 2 obstructions). All patients resolved their initial comorbidities. Two of 12 female patients in the ChG became pregnant 6 and 8 years after surgery, respectively, despite seemingly adequate oral contraception. Compliance with postoperative guidelines was good in 16/19 patients in ChG and in 14/18 patients in the AdG. Overall degree of satisfaction was high: 8.2/10 (SD 1.2, range 6-10) in the ChG and 8.9/10 (SD 1.7, range 5-10) in the AdG. LRYGB seems to be safe, provide good weight loss, and cure comorbidities in an adolescent population. Satisfaction degree is high. Inadvertent pregnancy despite conventional contraception is a possible issue. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Lead to Comparable Changes in Body Composition after Adjustment for Initial Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Otto, Mirko; Elrefai, Mohamad; Krammer, Johannes; Weiß, Christel; Kienle, Peter; Hasenberg, Till

    2016-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is a safe and established treatment option of morbid obesity. Mere percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) should not be the only goal of treatment. One hundred seventy-three obese patients were included in the study. They underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n = 127, mean body mass index (BMI) 45.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG; n = 46, mean BMI 55.9 ± 7.8 kg/m(2)) for weight reduction. Body weight and body composition were assessed periodically by bioelectrical impedance analysis. After 1 year of observation, %EWL was 62.9 ± 18.0 % in RYGB and 52.3 ± 15.0 % in SG (p = 0.0024). Body fat was reduced in both procedures with a slight preference for SG, and lean body mass was better preserved in the RYGB group. Due to significant differences in the initial BMI between the two groups, an analysis of covariance was performed, which demonstrated no significant differences in the %EWL as well as in the other parameters of body composition 1 year after surgery. Using percentage of total weight loss to evaluate the outcomes between the two procedures, no significant difference was found (31.7 ± 8.4 % in RYGB and 30.5 ± 7.6 % in SG patients, p > 0.4). Excess weight loss is highly influenced by the initial BMI. Total weight loss seems to be a better measurement tool abolishing initial weight differences. SG and RYGB do not differ in terms of body composition and weight loss 1 year after surgery.

  3. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in a morbidly obese population and improvement after weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Moulin de Moraes, Cristiane M; Mancini, Marcio C; de Melo, Maria Edna; Figueiredo, Daniela Andraus; Villares, Sandra Mara F; Rascovski, Alessandra; Zilberstein, Bruno; Halpern, Alfredo

    2005-10-01

    There are many studies concerning thyroid function in obesity, and some of them describe higher TSH levels in obese subjects. Few studies evaluated long-term changes in thyroid function caused by weight loss after bariatric surgery. Our aims were to evaluate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) in a morbidly obese population and to analyze the effect of weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) on TSH and thyroid hormone (TH) levels. TSH, free thyroxine (fT4) and total triiodothyronine (T3) levels were analyzed before and 12 months after RYGBP in patients with grade III or grade II obesity with co-morbidities. Subjects taking TH and/or with positive antithyroid antibodies and/or with overt hypothyroidism were excluded. 72 subjects (62F/10M), with mean age 39.6+/-9.8 years and mean BMI 53.0+/-10.4 kg/m2 were studied. The prevalence of SH before RYGBP was 25% (n=18). There was a significant post-surgical decrease in BMI in the whole population, as well as in SH patients. In the SH group and normal TSH group, there was a decrease in TSH and T3, but not in fT4. TSH was not correlated with initial BMI or percent change in BMI. TSH concentrations reached normal values in all SH patients after RYGBP. Our data confirm that severe obesity is associated with increased TSH. The decrease in TSH was independent of BMI, but occurred in all SH patients. A putative effect of weight reduction on the improvement of SH in all patients may be an additional benefit of bariatric surgery.

  4. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism Involving Down-Regulation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Song; Liu, Jiayu; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Shuping; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was initiated to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on hepatic glucose metabolism and hepatic expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in obese rats. Methods Body weight, glucose, intraperitoneal glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance tests were performed pre- and postoperatively, and plasma lipid, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were measured. The mRNA levels of G6Pase, Pepck, Gsk-3β and Gys-2, and the expression levels of PTP1B mRNA, protein, and other components of the insulin signaling pathway were measured by using RT-PCR and western blotting. The intracellular localization of PTP1B and hepatic glycogen deposition was also observed. Results RYGB surgery-treated rats showed persistent weight loss, significantly improved glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance, and dyslipidemia, as well as increased insulin sensitivity, hepatic glycogen deposition and increased plasma GLP-1 in obese rats. RT-PCR analyses showed Pepck, G6Pase, and Gsk-3β mRNA to be significantly decreased, and Gys-2 mRNA to be significantly increased in liver tissue in the RYGB group (p < 0.05 vs. high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD + sham group); in addition, the expression of PTP1B were significantly decreased and insulin signaling were improved in the RYGB group (p < 0.05 vs. HFD or HFD + sham group). Conclusion RYGB can improve hepatic glucose metabolism and down-regulate PTP1B in obese rats. An increased circulating GLP-1 concentration may be correlated with the effects following RYGB in obese rats. PMID:28564652

  5. Acute effect of roux-en-y gastric bypass on whole-body insulin sensitivity: a study with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcelo M O; Pareja, José C; Alegre, Sarah M; Geloneze, Sylka R; Kahn, Steven E; Astiarraga, Brenno D; Chaim, Elinton A; Geloneze, Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance ameliorates after bariatric surgery, yet there is still a need for data on the acute effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) on insulin sensitivity. The objective of the study was to describe the acute effect of RYGBP on insulin sensitivity, measured by both the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Evaluations were conducted before and 1 month after RYGBP at State University of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil). Patients included 19 premenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 35.3 (6.7) yr, body mass index 45.50 (3.74) kg/m2 [mean (sd)]. Six had mild type 2 diabetes, seven impaired glucose tolerance, and six normal glucose tolerance. The volunteers underwent RYGBP either alone or combined with omentectomy. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, HOMA-IR, nonesterified fatty acids, leptin, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and IL-6 were assessed at baseline and 4.5 (0.9) wk postoperatively. Fasting glucose decreased [99.2 (13.1) to 83.6 (8.1) mg/dl, P<0.01] along with a reduction in fasting insulin [30.4 (17.0) to 11.4 (6.3) mU/liter, P<0.01]. M value did not improve postoperatively [25.82 (6.30) to 22.02 (6.05) micromol/kgFFM.min] despite of a decrease in body weight [114.8 (14.5) to 102.3 (14.5) kg, P<0.001]. This finding was discordant to the observation of an improvement in HOMA-IR [3.85 (2.10) to 1.42 (0.76), P<0.01]. Nonesterified fatty acids increased. Leptin and C-reactive protein decreased. IL-6 and adiponectin remained unchanged. A month after RYGBP, fasting glucose metabolism improves independent of a change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  6. Ghrelin, leptin, and glycemic control after sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Piotr; Paluszkiewicz, Rafał; Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Remiszewski, Piotr; Grodzicki, Mariusz; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Krawczyk, Marek

    2017-02-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) cause weight loss and metabolic improvement, but results of published studies are contradictory. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of SG and RYGB on ghrelin, leptin, and glucose homeostasis in a randomized controlled trial. University hospital, Poland. Seventy-two morbidly obese patients were randomly selected to undergo either SG (n = 36) or RYGB (n = 36). Fasting ghrelin, leptin, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glycated hemoglobin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were assessed preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. No differences were found in anthropometric and biochemical parameters between the study groups at baseline. Sixty-nine (95.8%) patients completed the study. Percentage of excess weight loss at 12 months was 67.6±19.3% after SG and 64.2±18.5% after RYGB (P>.05). Fasting ghrelin levels decreased 1 month after SG (from 76.8 pmol/L to 35.3 pmol/L; P<.05) and remained reduced until 12 months (41.6 pmol/L; P<.05) but increased 12 months after RYGB from 74.6 pmol/L to 130.2 pmol/L (P<.05). Leptin, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations and glycated hemoglobin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance values decreased significantly in both groups during 12 months. RYGB and SG induce comparable weight loss and improvement in metabolism of glucose. Ghrelin levels decrease after SG and increase after RYGB, but this difference does not affect similar outcomes of these procedures during 1-year follow-up. The contribution of ghrelin to weight loss or metabolic benefits after bariatric surgery is not straightforward, but rather influenced by multiple factors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrahepatic fat content correlates with soluble CD163 in relation to weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Fjeldborg, Karen; Pedersen, Steen B; Møller, Holger J; Rask, Peter; Danielsen, Allan Vestergaard; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new marker of obesity-related metabolic complications. sCD163 and CD163 mRNA were investigated in relation to the fat distribution at baseline and 12 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Thirty-one obese subjects (BMI: 42.3 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were enrolled. Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume were determined by MRI, intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) by MR-spectroscopy, and body composition by DXA. Fasting blood samples and adipose tissue samples were obtained, and ELISA and RT-PCR were performed. RYGB-induced weight loss (36 ± 11 kg) was accompanied by a significant reduction in sCD163 (2.1 ± 0.8 mg/l vs. 1.7 ± 0.7 mg/l), SAT, VAT, and IHL (all, P < 0.001). At baseline, sCD163 was associated with VAT (r = 0.40, P < 0.05) but not with SAT or IHL. Moreover, CD163 mRNA was significantly upregulated in VAT compared with SAT at baseline (P < 0.05) and significantly downregulated in SAT after RYGB (P < 0.001). ΔsCD163 was significantly associated with ΔIHL after RYGB compared with baseline (r = 0.40, P < 0.05). RYGB-induced weight loss results in a reduction of sCD163 and CD163 mRNA. The association between ΔsCD163 and ΔIHL may reflect a reduction in sCD163-producing Kupffer cells in the liver. Moreover, sCD163 may be a marker of "unhealthy" fat distribution in obese subjects. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the distribution and hormone expression of small-intestinal enteroendocrine cells in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Nicolai A; Wahlgren, Camilla D; Pedersen, Jens; Mortensen, Brynjulf; Langholz, Ebbe; Wandall, Erik P; Friis, Steffen U; Vilmann, Peter; Paulsen, Sarah J; Kristiansen, Viggo B; Jelsing, Jacob; Dalbøge, Louise S; Poulsen, Steen S; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2015-10-01

    We studied the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the density and hormonal gene expression of small-intestinal enteroendocrine cells in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twelve patients with diabetes and 11 age- and BMI-matched controls underwent RYGB followed by enteroscopy ~10 months later. Mucosal biopsies taken during surgery and enteroscopy were immunohistochemically stained for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) and the expression of GCG (encoding preproglucagon), PYY, CCK, GIP, GHRL (encoding ghrelin), SCT (encoding secretin), NTS (encoding neurotensin) and NR1H4 (encoding farnesoid X receptor) was evaluated. The density of cells immunoreactive for GLP-1, CCK and GIP increased in patients after RYGB and the density of those immunoreactive for GLP-1, PYY, CCK and PC2 increased in controls. In both groups, GHRL, SCT and GIP mRNA was reduced after RYGB while PYY, CCK, NTS and NR1H4 gene expression was unaltered. GCG mRNA was upregulated in both groups. Numerous alterations in the distribution of enteroendocrine cells and their expression of hormonal genes are seen after RYGB and include increased density of GLP-1-, PYY-, CCK-, GIP- and PC2-positive cells, reduced gene expression of GHRL, SCT and GIP and increased expression of GCG.

  9. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on liver mitochondrial dynamics in a rat model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Jessica; Mulya, Anny; Fealy, Ciaran E; Huang, Hazel; Mosinski, John D; Pagadala, Mangesh R; Shimizu, Hideharu; Batayyah, Esam; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Kirwan, John P

    2018-02-01

    Bariatric surgery provides significant and durable improvements in glycemic control and hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms that drive improvements in these metabolic parameters remain to be fully elucidated. Recently, alterations in mitochondrial morphology have shown a direct link to nutrient adaptations in obesity. Here, we evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics in a diet-induced obesity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Livers were harvested from adult male SD rats 90-days after either Sham or RYGB surgery and continuous high-fat feeding. We assessed expression of mitochondrial proteins involved in fusion, fission, mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) and biogenesis, as well as differences in citrate synthase activity and markers of oxidative stress. Gene expression for mitochondrial fusion genes, mitofusin 1 (Mfn1; P < 0.05), mitofusin 2 (Mfn2; P < 0.01), and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1; P < 0.05) increased following RYGB surgery. Biogenesis regulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α; P < 0.01) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1; P < 0.05), also increased in the RYGB group, as well as mitophagy marker, BCL-2 interacting protein 3 (Bnip3; P < 0.01). Protein expression for Mfn1 (P < 0.001), PGC1α (P < 0.05), BNIP3 (P < 0.0001), and mitochondrial complexes I-V (P < 0.01) was also increased by RYGB, and Mfn1 expression negatively correlated with body weight, insulin resistance, and fasting plasma insulin. In the RYGB group, citrate synthase activity was increased (P < 0.02) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was decreased compared to the Sham control group (P < 0.05), although total antioxidant capacity was unchanged between groups. These data are the first to show an association between RYGB surgery and improved markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics. These observed improvements may be related to weight loss and reduced

  10. Linear compared to circular stapler anastomosis in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass leads to comparable weight loss with fewer complications: a matched pair study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Romano; Gass, Jörn-Markus; Kern, Beatrice; Peters, Thomas; Slawik, Marc; Gebhart, Martina; Peterli, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    In the course of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), a tight gastroenterostomy (GE) may lead to higher weight loss but possibly to an increase of local complications such as strictures and ulcers. Different operative techniques for Roux-en-Y reconstruction may also influence the rate of internal hernias, a typical late complication of LRYGB. The objective of this study was to compare weight loss, rates of strictures, internal hernias, and ulcerations of linear versus circular stapler anastomosis. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in a 3:1-matched pair study. A total of 228 patients with a minimal follow-up of 2 years were matched according to BMI at baseline, age, and gender. The follow-up rate was 100 % at 1 and 2 years postoperatively; the mean follow-up time was 3.8 ± 1.63 years. In group C (circular), 57 patients were operated with a 25-mm circular stapler technique (average BMI 44.7 ± 5.18 kg/m(2), age 44.1 ± 10.8 years, 80.7 % female). In group L (linear), 171 patients were operated using a linear stapler (approximately 30 mm, average BMI 43.8 ± 5.24 kg/m(2), age 43.7 ± 12.5 years, 70.8 % female). A propensity score matching and a logrank test were used for statistical analysis. The average excessive BMI loss (EBMIL) after 1 year was not statistically different (70.6 ± 20.2 % in group C vs 72.5 ± 20.4 % in group L) as well as after 2 years (71.6 ± 22.5 % in group C vs 74.6 ± 19.6 % in group L). The average operation time was 155 ± 53 min in group C and 109 ± 57 min in group L (p = 0.0001). In group L, patients had significantly lower overall stricture rates at the GE compared to group C (0 [0 %] vs. 4 [7 %], p = 0.0004), a lower rate and severity of internal hernias (10 [5.8 %] vs. 7 [12.3 %] p = 0.466), and equal local ulcerations rates (3 [1.8 %] vs. 1 [1.8 %] p = 0.912). Linear stapler anastomosis in LRYGB compared to circular

  11. “A New Reconstructive Method after Pancreaticoduodenectomy: the Triple Roux on a “P” Loop. Rationale and Radionuclide Scanning Evaluatlon.”

    PubMed Central

    Cariati, Erminio

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method of reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy consisting of a double Roux en Y on the same jejunal loop without interruption of the mesentery and a third anatomical Roux en Y to reconstitute the alimentary tract. The construction of the double Roux en Y draining pancreas and bile ducts separately, requires a linear Stapler 3-4 centimeters from the biliary anastomosis. In this way, by employing the same loop without mesenteric interruption, two functional excluded loops will be ’obtained. The rationale of the suggested model is based on the separation of biliary and pancreatic secretions. This makes it possible to avoid a stagnant cul-de-sac coinciding with the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis and to obtain in the case of leakage, a pure biliary and/or pancreatic fistula as far as is possible. 99mTc HIDA scans demonstrated the efficiency, of the biliopancreatic limbs of the reconstruction, showing normal emptying time for the gastric remnant and the absence of radionuclide stagnation or any alkaline enterogastric reflux. PMID:8809583

  12. Open versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a comparative study of over 25,000 open cases and the major laparoscopic bariatric reported series.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kenneth B; Afram, Joseph D; Benotti, Peter N; Capella, Rafael F; Cooper, C Gary; Flanagan, Latham; Hendrick, Steven; Howell, L Michael; Jaroch, Mark T; Kole, Kerry; Lirio, Oscar C; Sapala, James A; Schuhknecht, Michael P; Shapiro, Robert P; Sweet, William A; Wood, Michael H

    2006-06-01

    Laparoscopic bariatric surgery has experienced a rapid expansion of interest over the past 5 years, with a 470% increase. This rapid expansion has markedly increased overall cost, reducing surgical access. Many surgeons believe that the traditional open approach is a cheaper, safer, equally effective alternative. 16 highly experienced "open" bariatric surgeons with a combined total of 25,759 cases representing >200 surgeon years of experience, pooled their open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (ORYGBP) data, and compared their results to the leading laparoscopic (LRYGBP) papers in the literature. In the overall series, the incisional hernia rate was 6.4% using the standard midline incision. Utilizing the left subcostal incision (LSI), it was only 0.3%. Return to surgery in <30 days was 0.7%, deaths 0.25%, and leaks 0.4%. Average length of stay was 3.4 days, and return to usual activity 21 days. Small bowel obstruction was significantly higher with the LRYGBP. Surgical equipment costs averaged approximately $3,000 less for "open" cases. LRYGBP had an added expense for longer operative time. This more than made up for the shorter length of stay with the laparoscopic approach. The higher cost, higher leak rate, higher rate of small bowel obstruction, and similar long-term weight loss results make the "open" RYGBP our preferred operation. If the incision is taken out of the equation (i.e. use of the LSI), the significant advantages of the open technique become even more obvious.

  13. Diet-induced thermogenesis in postoperatve Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients with weight regain.

    PubMed

    Cardeal, Mariane de Almeida; Faria, Silvia Leite; Faria, Orlando Pereira; Facundes, Marcela; Ito, Marina Kiyomi

    2016-06-01

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective treatment for obesity. Changes in energy expenditure, especially through diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), have been identified as one of the mechanisms to explain this success. However, not all patients are able to maintain healthy postoperative weight loss. Therefore, a question arises: In the weight regain after bariatric surgery, are these changes in energy metabolism still active? To investigate if weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is associated with a lower diet-induced thermogenesis in the late postoperative period. A cross-sectional study with the participants chosen from among the patients from a private practice. This was a cross-sectional study where 3 groups of female patients were evaluated: (1) 20 patients with a RYGB postoperative time period of at least 2 years, who kept a healthy weight after surgery (loss of at least 50% of excess weight; Healthy group); (2) 19 patients with clinically severe obesity (BMI>40 kg/m(2), without co-morbidities and>35 kg/m(2), with co-morbidities; Pre group); (3) 18 patients who experienced weight regain after RYGB (Regain group). The 3 groups were submitted to indirect calorimetry to measure resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), and DIT. Immediately after the RMR measurement, a mixed meal of regular consistency was offered. Ten minutes after the food intake began, energy expenditure measurements were initiated continuing throughout the following 3 postprandial hours. Body composition was evaluated using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance. In subgroups of the studied population, glucose and insulin levels were measured at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after feeding. The mean area under the curve (AUC) between the 3 groups and measurements at baseline were compared using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Healthy group had the highest weight adjusted RMR value compared with both the Pre and Regain

  14. Enhanced fasting and post-prandial plasma bile acid responses after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Werling, Malin; Vincent, Royce P; Cross, Gemma F; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Fändriks, Lars; Lönroth, Hans; Taylor, David R; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Olbers, Torsten; Le Roux, Carel W

    2013-11-01

    Exogenous bile acid (BA) administration is associated with beneficial metabolic effects very similar to those seen after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Re-routing of bile into a biliopancreatic limb with simultaneous exclusion of food occurs after RYGB, with subsequent increased fasting plasma BAs. The study assessed fasting and post-prandial plasma BA response before and 15 months after RYGB. The prospective study recruited 63 obese individuals (43 females), aged 43 (36-56) [median (IQR)] years. Blood samples were collected before and every 30 min for 120 min after a standard 400 kcal meal. Fasting and post-prandial plasma BAs, glucagons like peptide-1 (GLP-1), -tyrosine (PYY), fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose and insulin were measured and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Following RYGB, body mass index, CRP, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR decreased; 43.7 (39.3-49.2) kg/m(2) to 29.2 (25.1-35.0) kg/m(2), 7.9 (4.1-11.9) mg/L to 0.4 (0.2-1.0) mg/L, 5.5 (5.0-6.0) mmol/L to 4.6 (4.3-4.9) mmol/L and 5.9 (3.5-9.2) to 1.7 (1.1-2.2), respectively, all P < 0.001. Fasting total BAs, GLP-1 and PYY increased after RYGB; 1.69 (0.70-2.56) µmol/L to 2.43 (1.23-3.82) µmol/L (P = 0.02), 6.8 (1.5-15.3) pmol/L to 17.1 (12.6-23.9) pmol/L (P < 0.001) and 4.0 (1.0-7.1) pmol/L to 15.2 (10.0-28.3) pmol/L (P < 0.001), respectively. The area under the curve for post-prandial total BAs, total glycine-conjugated BAs, GLP-1 and PYY were greater after RYGB; 486 (312-732) µmol/L/min versus 1012 (684-1921) µmol/L/min, 315 (221-466) µmol/L/min versus 686 (424-877) µmol/L/min, 3679 (3162-4537) pmol/L/min versus 5347 (4727-5781) pmol/L/min and 1887 (1423-2092) pmol/L/min versus 3296 (2534-3834) pmol/L/min, respectively, all P < 0.0001. Weight loss following RYGB is associated with an increase in post-prandial plasma BA response due to larger amounts of glycine-conjugated BAs. This suggests up regulation of BA production and conjugation

  15. [A Case of Collision Tumor of Gastric Malignant Lymphoma and Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Kogata, Shuhei; Kanaizumi, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Shuichi; Takeyama, Hiroshi; Kitani, Kotaro; Tsujie, Masanori; Yukawa, Masao; Wakasa, Tomoko; Ohta, Yoshio; Inoue, Masatoshi

    2016-11-01

    A 71-year-old man with anemia, weight loss, and loss of appetite was admitted. Ultrasound examination found thickening of the wall of the stomach. A type 3 gastric tumor was detected in the greater curvature of the gastric corpus via upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Total gastrectomy, transverse colon resection, and Roux-en-Y anastomosis reconstruction was performed. In the postoperative pathological results, adenocarcinoma, tub2, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma collision was found. The patient underwent chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma and although it was a relatively advanced neoplasia, he is alive without a recurrence.

  16. Therapeutic peroral direct cholangioscopy using a single balloon enteroscope in patients with Roux-en-Y anastomosis (with videos).

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uehara, Kazuho; Miyata, Eiji; Hasegawa, Rikiya; Kaneko, Toru; Laopeamthong, Issaree; Lei, Yang; Iwai, Tomohisa; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2018-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopic lithotripsy is a useful procedure in patients with a normal gastrointestinal anatomy who have difficult-to-treat stones. We evaluated the usefulness of peroral direct cholangioscopy (PDCS) using single-balloon enteroscope (SBE) in patients with difficult-to-treat stones who had undergone Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Among 118 patients (169 sessions) who underwent SBE-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to treat biliary stones after Roux-en-Y reconstruction, patients in whom it was difficult to remove biliary stones via a transpapillary or transanastomotic approach and difficult to switch to ultra-slim endoscope, were retrospectively enrolled. The biliary insertion success rate, procedure success rate, procedure time, and procedural complications were assessed. The SBE was inserted into the bile-duct, first using a free-hand technique, second using a guide wire, and third using the large balloon anchoring and deflation (LBAD) technique. A total of 11 patients (14 sessions) were enrolled in this study. The biliary insertion success rate was 100%. Bile-duct insertion was performed using a free-hand technique in 4 sessions, a guide wire in 3 sessions (rendezvous technique, 2 sessions), and the LBAD technique in 7 sessions. The procedure success rate was 86% in first session, and 100% in second session. The median procedure time was 81 min (range 49-137). The median procedure time in the bile-duct was 21.5 min (range 6-60). Mild pancreatitis occurred as a complication in one patient. The median follow-up was 528 days (range 282-764). No patient had stone recurrence. PDCS using SBE is a useful procedure in patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The LBAD technique is an useful technique of inserting SBE into the bile-duct.

  17. Differences in Regional Brain Responses to Food Ingestion After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and the Role of Gut Peptides: A Neuroimaging Study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katharine F; Dunn, Joel T; le Roux, Carel W; Reed, Laurence J; Marsden, Paul K; Patel, Ameet G; Amiel, Stephanie A

    2016-10-01

    Improved appetite control, possibly mediated by exaggerated gut peptide responses to eating, may contribute to weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study compared brain responses to food ingestion between post-RYGB (RYGB), normal weight (NW), and obese (Ob) unoperated subjects and explored the role of gut peptide responses in RYGB. Neuroimaging with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography was performed in 12 NW, 21 Ob, and 9 RYGB (18 ± 13 months postsurgery) subjects after an overnight fast, once FED (400 kcal mixed meal), and once FASTED, in random order. RYGB subjects repeated the studies with somatostatin infusion and basal insulin replacement. Fullness, sickness, and postscan ad libitum meal consumption were measured. Regional brain FDG uptake was compared using statistical parametric mapping. RYGB subjects had higher overall fullness and food-induced sickness and lower ad libitum consumption. Brain responses to eating differed in the hypothalamus and pituitary (exaggerated activation in RYGB), left medial orbital cortex (OC) (activation in RYGB, deactivation in NW), right dorsolateral frontal cortex (deactivation in RYGB and NW, absent in Ob), and regions mapping to the default mode network (exaggerated deactivation in RYGB). Somatostatin in RYGB reduced postprandial gut peptide responses, sickness, and medial OC activation. RYGB induces weight loss by augmenting normal brain responses to eating in energy balance regions, restoring lost inhibitory control, and altering hedonic responses. Altered postprandial gut peptide responses primarily mediate changes in food-induced sickness and OC responses, likely to associate with food avoidance. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Conversion of Sleeve Gastrectomy to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass is Effective for Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease but not for Further Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Chetan D; Mahawar, Kamal K; Boyle, Maureen; Schroeder, Norbert; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K

    2017-07-01

    Inadequate weight loss (IWL)/weight regain (WR) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), unresponsive to medical management, are two most common indications for conversion of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study reports detailed outcomes of conversion of SG to RYGB for these two indications separately. We interrogated our prospectively maintained database to identify patients who underwent a conversion of their SG to RYGB in our unit. Outcomes in patients converted for IWL/WR and those converted for GERD were evaluated separately. We carried out 22 SG to RYGB in our unit between Aug 2012 and April 2015 with a mean follow-up of 16 months. Indication for conversion was GERD in 10/22 (45.5%) patients and IWL/WR in 11/22 (50.0%) patients. Patients undergoing conversion for GERD were significantly lighter (BMI 30.5) than those converted for IWL/WR (BMI 43.3) at the time of conversion. The conversion was very effective for GERD with 100% patients reporting improvement in symptoms, and 80% patients were able to stop their antacid medications. IWL/WR group achieved a further BMI drop of 2.5 points 2 years after surgery (final BMI 40.8) in comparison with 2.0 points BMI drop achieved by the GERD group (final BMI 28.5). This study demonstrates that conversion of SG to RYGB is effective for GERD symptoms but not for further weight loss, which was modest in both groups. Future studies need to examine the best revisional procedure for IWL/WR after SG.

  19. Diagnosing Internal Herniation After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery: Literature Overview, Cadaver Study and the Added Value of 3D CT Angiography.

    PubMed

    Klop, Cornelis; Deden, Laura N; Aarts, Edo O; Janssen, Ignace M C; Pijl, Milan E J; van den Ende, Anneline; Witteman, Bart P L; de Jong, Gabie M; Aufenacker, Theo J; Slump, Cornelis H; Berends, Frits J

    2018-02-05

    The purposes of the study are to outline the complexity of diagnosing internal herniation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and to investigate the added value of computed tomography angiography (CTA) for diagnosing internal herniation. A cadaver study was performed to investigate the manifestations of internal hernias and mesenteric vascularization. Furthermore, a prospective, ethics approved study with retrospective interpretation was conducted. Ten patients, clinically suspected for internal herniation, were prospectively included. After informed consent was obtained, these subjects underwent abdominal CT examination, including additional arterial phase CTA. All subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected internal herniation. The CTA was used to create a 3D reconstruction of the mesenteric arteries and surgical staples (3D CTA). The 3D CTA was interpreted, taking into account the presence and type of internal hernia that was found upon laparoscopy. Cadaveric analysis demonstrated the complexity of internal herniation. It also confirmed the expected changes in vascular structure and surgical staple arrangement in the presence of internal herniation. 3D CTA studies of the subjects with active internal hernias demonstrated remarkable differences when compared to control 3D CTA studies. The blood supply of herniated intestinal limbs in particular showed abnormal trajectories. Additionally, enteroenterostomy staple lines had migrated or altered orientation. 3D CTA is a promising technique for diagnosing active internal hernias. Our findings suggest that for diagnosing internal hernias, focus should probably shift from routine abdominal CT examination towards the 3D assessment of the mesenteric vasculature and surgical staples.

  20. "Candy cane syndrome:" an underappreciated cause of abdominal pain and nausea after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Aryaie, Amir H; Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Wen, Yuxiang; Alshehri, Mohammed; Abbas, Mujjahid; Khaitan, Leena

    2017-09-01

    "Candy cane" syndrome (a blind afferent Roux limb at the gastrojejunostomy) has been implicated as a cause of abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis after Roux-n-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) but remains poorly described. To report that "candy cane" syndrome is real and can be treated effectively with revisional bariatric surgery SETTING: All patients underwent "candy cane" resection at University Hospitals of Cleveland. All patients who underwent resection of the "candy cane" between January 2011 and July 2015 were included. All had preoperative workup to identify "candy cane" syndrome. Demographic data; pre-, peri-, and postoperative symptoms; data regarding hospitalization; and postoperative weight loss were assessed through retrospective chart review. Data were analyzed using Student's t test and χ 2 analysis where appropriate. Nineteen patients had resection of the "candy cane" (94% female, mean age 50±11 yr), within 3 to 11 years after initial RYGB. Primary presenting symptoms were epigastric abdominal pain (68%) and nausea/vomiting (32%), particularly with fibrous foods and meats. On upper gastrointestinal study and endoscopy, the afferent blind limb was the most direct outlet from the gastrojejunostomy. Only patients with these preoperative findings were deemed to have "candy cane" syndrome. Eighteen (94%) cases were completed laparoscopically. Length of the "candy cane" ranged from 3 to 22 cm. Median length of stay was 1 day. After resection, 18 (94%) patients had complete resolution of their symptoms (P<.001). Mean body mass index decreased from 33.9±6.1 kg/m 2 preoperatively to 31.7±5.6 kg/m 2 at 6 months (17.4% excess weight loss) and 30.5±6.9 kg/m 2 at 1 year (25.7% excess weight loss). The average length of latest follow-up was 20.7 months. "Candy cane" syndrome is a real phenomenon that can be managed safely with excellent outcomes with resection of the blind afferent limb. A thorough diagnostic workup is paramount to proper identification of this

  1. Body composition, anthropometrics, energy expenditure, systemic inflammation, in premenopausal women 1 year after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Antonio; Martini, Francesco; Rodolphe, Anty; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Gual, Philippe; Tran, Albert; Hébuterne, Xavier; Gugenheim, Jean

    2014-02-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) is currently the most common bariatric procedure and results in a substantial weight loss and recovery from obesity-related comorbidities, both of which are maintained in the long term. However, besides the desired loss of fat mass, LRYGBP is also followed by the loss of fat-free mass (FFM). We aimed to determine the factors associated with the loss of ≥20 % of the initial FFM 1 year after LRYGBP in a prospective series of 115 Caucasian, premenopausal women. Anthropometrics, body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), resting energy expenditure (REE) (indirect calorimetry), inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid disturbances were determined before and 1 year after LRYGBP. The mean loss of initial FFM was 15.3 ± 13.8 %. 1 year after LRYGBP, 81 women lost <20 % (<20 % FFM group) and 35 lost ≥20 % (≥20 % FFM group) of the initial FFM. Before surgery, the FFM, weight, BMI, excess BMI, brachial circumference, waist circumference, and REE were significantly higher in the ≥20 % FFM group while inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid disturbances were comparable between the two groups. 1 year after LRYGBP, the FFM, weight, BMI, excess BMI, brachial circumference, waist circumference, and REE decreased significantly and were comparable between the two groups. Inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid disturbances improved comparably between the two groups after surgery. The only variable associated with the loss of ≥20 % of the initial FFM in the multivariable analysis was the presence of more FFM before surgery (67.0 ± 9.9 vs. 53.5 ± 6.7 kg). One year after LRYGBP the loss of ≥20 % of the initial FFM occurred mainly in women with more FFM before surgery and resulted in the same body composition of women who lost <20 % of the initial FFM.

  2. Vitamin D and its relation with ionic calcium, parathyroid hormone, maternal and neonatal characteristics in pregnancy after roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marina; Matos, Andréa C; Pereira, Silvia E; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate vitamin D nutritional status and its relation with ionic calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), maternal anthropometry and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who previously underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. In a clinic specialized in obesity control located in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), the following information were collected for adult women who underwent RYGB before pregnancy: serum concentrations of vitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium and PTH per gestational trimester and data on maternal anthropometry, gestational intercurrences and perinatal outcomes. The present study included 46 post-RYGB pregnant women. The prevalence of pregnant women with deficiency (≤20 ng/mL) or insufficiency (≥21 and 29 ng/mL) of vitamin D was above 70% in all trimesters. The prevalence of calcium deficiency was 15.2% in the first and in the second trimesters and 20% in the third trimester, while the prevalence of excess PTH was 19.6, 30.4 and 32.6% in the first, the second and the third trimesters, respectively. In the second and the third trimesters, a significant difference was observed between concentrations of 25(OH)D, and a negative correlation was observed between concentrations of calcium and PTH. Association of 25(OH)D with urinary tract infection (UTI) was found, but there was no association with calcium, PTH, maternal anthropometry, type of delivery and weight and gestational age at birth The post-RYGB pregnant women showed an elevated serum inadequacy (deficiency or insufficiency) of 25(OH)D during pregnancy. Maternal vitamin D status showed no association with maternal variables, except UTI, and the neonatal variables analyzed.

  3. INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN THE ROUX-EN-Y BYPASS GASTRIC POUCH.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luiz Claudio Lopes; Borges, Isabela Klautau Leite Chaves; Souza, Maíra Danielle Gomes de; Silva, Ian Passos; Silva, Lyz Bezerra; Magalhães, Marcelo Alexandre Prado; Fonseca, Allan Herbert Feliz; Campos, Josemberg Marins

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in obese candidates for bariatric surgery and its role in the emergence of inflammatory lesions after surgery has not been well established. To identify the incidence of inflammatory lesions in the stomach after bariatric surgery and to correlate it with H. pylori infection. This is a prospective study with 216 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These patients underwent histopathological endoscopy to detect H. pylori prior to surgery. Positive cases were treated with antibiotics and a proton inhibitor pump followed by endoscopic follow-up in the 6th and 12th month after surgery. Most patients were female (68.1%), with grade III obesity (92.4%). Preoperative endoscopy revealed gastritis in 96.8%, with H. pylori infection in 40.7% (88/216). A biopsy was carried out in 151 patients, revealing H. pylori in 60/151, related to signs of inflammation in 90% (54/60). In the 6th and 12th month after surgery, the endoscopy and the histopathological exam showed a normal gastric pouch in 84% of patients and the incidence of H. pylori was 11% and 16%, respectively. The presence of inflammation was related to H. pylori infection (p<0,001). H. pylori has a similar prevalence in both obese patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery and the general population. There is a low incidence of it in the 6th and 12th months after surgery, probably owing to its eradication when detected prior to surgery. When inflammatory disease is present in the new gastric reservoir it is directly related to H. pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori é responsável por várias doenças gastrointestinais. Com o aumento de cirurgia bariátrica no país, há poucos estudos sobre a prevalência desta bactéria em obesos com indicação cirúrgica e o seu papel no surgimento de lesões inflamatórias no pós-operatório. Identificar a incidência de lesões inflamatórias no estômago pós-cirurgia bariátrica e correlacionar com a infecção por H. pylori

  4. Transjejunal Extraction of Gallbladder After Mini-Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients with Previous Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: A Small Case Series.

    PubMed

    Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Tardu, Ali; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Sumer, Fatih

    2015-07-01

    The length of incisions on the abdominal wall directly correlates with wound-related morbidities and patient comfort. Both mini-laparoscopy (only ≤5-mm trocars) and natural orifice specimen extraction avoid larger abdominal incisions. This study described a new natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES(®); American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy [Oak Brook, IL] and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons [Los Angeles, CA]) cholecystectomy technique by combination of these two advanced laparoscopic techniques for cholelithiasis in patients who had prior laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for obesity. Three patients (two males, one female; 39, 62, and 34 years old, respectively) were admitted with symptomatic cholelithiasis (multiple millimeter-sized gallstones), and all had previously had LRYGB. They were treated by mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy using three 5-mm trocars. The gallbladder was removed through the dilated efferent limb of the jejunum, 5 cm distal from the gastrojejunostomy. Transjejunal extraction was performed under endoscopic guidance. The gallbladder in the jejenum was passed through the anastomosis and extracted with an endoscopic snare by the transoral way. The enterotomy was closed intracorporeally. There was no conversion or additional trocar requirement. All the procedures were completed successfully without problems. Respective operating times were 95, 75, and 120 minutes. Only 1 patient required postoperative analgesic; the others did not. The patients started to get a liquid diet on the night of surgery and were discharged on Days 1, 1, and 2, respectively, with normal diet recommendations. There were no morbidities. Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy is technically feasible in patients with previous LRYGB. Prior LRYGB was not an obstacle for transoral specimen extraction. The dilated efferent jejunal limb is a good alternative route for natural orifice specimen extraction. This

  5. Increase of bone resorption and the parathyroid hormone in postmenopausal women in the long-term after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Valderas, Juan P; Velasco, Soledad; Solari, Sandra; Liberona, Yessica; Viviani, Paola; Maiz, Alberto; Escalona, Alex; González, Gilberto

    2009-08-01

    The effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) on bone in the long-term remains unclear. We assessed bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) 1 to 5 years after RYGB. We designed a retrospective cohort study in 26 postmenopausal women (58.0+/-3.9 years old) with RYGB 3.5+/-1.1 years before (body mass index (BMI) 29.5+/-3.8 kg/m2, presurgery 43.6+/-5.5 kg/m2) and 26 nonoperated women (57.5+/-4.7 years old, BMI 29.2+/-4.1 kg/m2) matched by age and BMI. The main measures were BMD, serum carboxy telopeptide (CTx), total alkaline phosphatases (ALP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and ghrelin. RYGB group, compared to nonoperated women, had higher CTx (0.71+/-0.21 vs. 0.43+/-0.15 ng/ml; P<0.01) and PTH (68.3+/-35 vs. 49.4+/-16 pg/ml; P=0.02). There were no differences between RYGB and nonoperated women in: calcium and vitamin D intake (759+/-457 vs. 705+/-460 mg/day; 176+/-160 vs. 111+/-86 UI/day), ghrelin (763+/-336 vs. 621+/-274 pg/ml), ALP (101+/-22 vs. 94+/-25 UI/l), 25OHD (18.8+/-7.6 vs. 17.4 +/- 5.9 ng/ml), lumbar spine BMD (1.059+/-0.32 vs. 1.071+/-0.207 g/cm2), or femoral neck BMD (0.892+/-0.109 vs. 0.934+/-1.1 g/cm2). RYGB is associated to high bone resorption and hyperparathyroidism prevalence in postmenopausal women in the long-term. This occurs independently of the intake of calcium, vitamin D status, or ghrelin and does not seem to affect BMD after RYGB.

  6. A CARE-compliant article: a case of retrograde intussusception with Uncut-Roux-en-Y anastomosis after radical total gastrectomy: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youxin; Wang, Fengfeng; Ji, Yong; Lv, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Postoperative intussusception is an unusual clinical entity and is rarely encountered as a complication following gastrectomy, especially radical total gastrectomy. A 74-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of melena and hematemesis. And the endoscopic biopsy confirmed the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Radical total gastrectomy with Uncut Roux-en-Y reconstruction was performed. On the third postoperative day (POD3), the patient complained of paroxysmal pain around the umbilicus, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Retrograde intussusceptions after radical total gastrectomy with Uncut Roux-en-Y reconstruction based on exploratory laparotomy. On POD4, the abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed small bowel dilatation and fluid accumulation in the upper abdominal cavity, as well as a small mass of soft tissue on the left side of the pelvis. Small bowel obstruction was considered, and exploratory laparotomy was performed. Retrograde intussusception started just below the jejunojejunal anastomosis with possible organic lesions, which was subsequently removed. The patient recovered well and was discharged 15 days after the second operation. This case report was written for 3 purposes: to increase awareness of this complication after radical total gastrectomy with Uncut-Roux-en-Y reconstruction; to emphasize early diagnosis through clinical manifestation, physical examination, and auxiliary examination with abdominal CT; and lastly, to emphasize that a reasonable surgical procedure should be performed immediately after diagnosis.

  7. Vagal innervation of the hepatic portal vein and liver is not necessary for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery-induced hypophagia, weight loss, and hypermetabolism.

    PubMed

    Shin, Andrew C; Zheng, Huiyuan; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-02-01

    To determine the role of the common hepatic branch of the abdominal vagus on the beneficial effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on weight loss, food intake, food choice, and energy expenditure in a rat model. Although changes in gut hormone patterns are the leading candidates in RYGB's effects on appetite, weight loss, and reversal of diabetes, a potential role for afferent signaling through the vagal hepatic branch potentially sensing glucose levels in the hepatic portal vein has recently been suggested in a mouse model of RYGB. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either RYGB alone (RYGB; n = 7), RYGB + common hepatic branch vagotomy (RYGB + HV; n = 6), or sham procedure (sham; n = 9). Body weight, body composition, meal patterns, food choice, energy expenditure, and fecal energy loss were monitored up to 3 months after intervention. Both RYGB and RYGB + HV significantly reduced body weight, adiposity, meal size, and fat preference, and increased satiety, energy expenditure, and respiratory exchange rate compared with sham procedure, and there were no significant differences in these effects between RYGB and RYGB + HV rats. Integrity of vagal nerve supply to the liver, hepatic portal vein, and the proximal duodenum provided by the common hepatic branch is not necessary for RYGB to reduce food intake and body weight or increase energy expenditure. Specifically, it is unlikely that a hepatic portal vein glucose sensor signaling RYGB-induced increased intestinal gluconeogenesis to the brain depends on vagal afferent fibers.

  8. A Novel Roux-en-Y Reconstruction Involving the Use of Two Circular Staplers after Distal Subtotal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hur, Hoon; Ahn, Chang Wook; Byun, Cheul Su; Shin, Ho Jung; Kim, Young Bae; Son, Sang-Yong; Han, Sang-Uk

    2017-09-01

    Although Roux-en-Y (R-Y) reconstruction after distal gastrectomy has several advantages, such as prevention of bile reflux into the remnant stomach, it is rarely used because of the technical difficulty. This prospective randomized clinical trial aimed to show the efficacy of a novel method of R-Y reconstruction involving the use of 2 circular staplers by comparing this novel method to Billroth-I (B-I) reconstruction. A total of 118 patients were randomly allocated into the R-Y (59 patients) and B-I reconstruction (59 patients) groups. R-Y anastomosis was performed using two circular staplers and no hand sewing. The primary end-point of this clinical trial was the reflux of bile into the remnant stomach evaluated using endoscopic and histological findings at 6 months after surgery. No significant differences in clinicopathological findings were observed between the 2 groups. Although anastomosis time was significantly longer for the patients of the R-Y group (P<0.001), no difference was detected between the 2 groups in terms of the total surgery duration (P=0.112). Endoscopic findings showed a significant reduction of bile reflux in the remnant stomach in the R-Y group (P<0.001), and the histological findings showed that reflux gastritis was more significant in the B-I group than in the R-Y group (P=0.026). The results of this randomized controlled clinical trial showed that compared with B-I reconstruction, R-Y reconstruction using circular staplers is a safe and feasible procedure. This clinical trial study was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (registration No. NCT01142271).

  9. Internal hernia after gastric bypass: sensitivity and specificity of seven CT signs with surgical correlation and controls.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Mark E; Tessler, Franklin N; Canon, Cheri L; Smith, J Kevin; Larrison, Matthew C; Fineberg, Naomi S; Roy, Brandon P; Clements, Ronald H

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of seven CT signs in the diagnosis of internal hernia after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. With institutional review board approval, the CT scans of 18 patients (17 women, one man) with surgically proven internal hernia after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were retrieved, as were CT studies of a control group of 18 women who had undergone gastric bypass but did not have internal hernia at reoperation. The scans were reviewed by three radiologists for the presence of seven CT signs of internal hernia: swirled appearance of mesenteric fat or vessels, mushroom shape of hernia, tubular distal mesenteric fat surrounded by bowel loops, small-bowel obstruction, clustered loops of small bowel, small bowel other than duodenum posterior to the superior mesenteric artery, and right-sided location of the distal jejunal anastomosis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each sign. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to ascertain an independent set of variables predictive of the presence of internal hernia. Mesenteric swirl was the best single predictor of hernia; sensitivity was 61%, 78%, and 83%, and specificity was 94%, 89%, and 67% for the three reviewers. The combination of swirled mesentery and mushroom shape of the mesentery was better than swirled mesentery alone, sensitivity being 78%, 83%, and 83%, and specificity being 83%, 89%, and 67%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Mesenteric swirl is the best indicator of internal hernia after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and even minor degrees of swirl should be considered suspicious.

  10. Influence of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A in Pregnant Women: a Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, Suzana N; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; Saunders, Cláudia; Ramalho, Andréa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin A through biochemical and functional indicators of pregnant women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery compared to pregnant women who did not undergo this surgery. The present study is a cross-sectional study of the analytical type with pregnant women paired by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Group 1 (G1) comprised 80 pregnant women without previous submission to RYGB and group 2 (G2) by 40 pregnant women who previously underwent this surgery. We used high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector for quantification of retinol and β-carotene, and the functional evaluation of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was performed through standardized interview validated for pregnant women. G1 mean age was 29.3 ± 5.3 and 30.8 ± 4.4 in G2. BMI mean prepregnancy found in G1 was 25.7 ± 3.2 and 26.8 ± 3.1 in G2, featuring overweight. Serum retinol and β-carotene means were significantly higher in G1 (1.8 ± 0.9; 87.4 ± 62.2) compared to G2 (0.99 ± 0.39; 22.7 ± 18.0), respectively (p < 0.001). Regarding the functional indicator for evaluation of VAD, approximately 75.0 % of pregnant women in G2 showed night blindness and 20.0 % in G1, and the percentage of pregnant women with this functional impairment was significantly higher in G2 compared to G1 with p < 0.001. Results show that pregnancy after RYGB can represent a high-risk situation for VAD. We recommend interdisciplinary monitoring added to the prenatal routine consultations and the conduction of studies addressed to the investigation of a safe and effective dose of oral supplementation of vitamin A to pregnant women undergoing RYGB.

  11. Current status of robotic bariatric surgery: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment to obtain weight loss in severely obese patients. The feasibility and safety of bariatric robotic surgery is the topic of this review. Methods A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, and Web of Science. Results Twenty-two studies were included. Anastomotic leak rate was 8.51% in biliopancreatic diversion. 30-day reoperation rate was 1.14% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 1.16% in sleeve gastrectomy. Major complication rate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass resulted higher than in sleeve gastrectomy ( 4,26% vs. 1,2%). The mean hospital stay was longer in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (range 2.6-7.4 days). Conclusions The major limitation of our analysis is due to the small number and the low quality of the studies, the small sample size, heterogeneity of the enrolled patients and the lack of data from metabolic and bariatric outcomes. Despite the use of the robot, the majority of these cases are completed with stapled anastomosis. The assumption that robotic surgery is superior in complex cases is not supported by the available present evidence. The major strength of the robotic surgery is strongly facilitating some of the surgical steps (gastro-jejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy anastomosis in the robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or the vertical gastric resection in the robotic sleeve gastrectomy). PMID:24199869

  12. Double-balloon endoscopy for retrograde cholangiography in patients with choledochojejunostomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pohl, J; May, A; Aschmoneit, I; Ell, C

    2009-02-01

    Choledochojejunal anastomoses with Roux-en-Y reconstruction excludes the biliary tract from conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with standard endoscopes due to the length of the interposed small bowel segment. Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) facilitates deep insertion into the small bowel and may be used to perform ERC in these patients. In the present case series we report our experience with diagnostic and therapeutic double-balloon ERC in patients with choledochojejunostomy to a long Roux-en-Y loop previously unavailable for standard length endoscopes. Between December 2004 and May 2008 15 patients (mean age: 60.2 years) with choledochojejunal anastomosis underwent a total of 25 DBE-ERC procedures. Cannulation of the bile ducts was achieved in 22 / 25 procedures (84 %). Twenty-one therapeutic interventions, including stone removal, biliary duct dilation, stent placement and removal of previously placed stents were performed during 16 procedures in 8 patients. The mean total duration time of the procedures was 74.6 +/- 25.0 minutes. Postinterventional self-limiting fever occurred after 4 procedures in 3 patients with cholangitis. After therapeutic interventions all patients had a significant drop of bilirubin levels and all except one patient were free of complaints (follow-up 10.4 +/- 8.6 months). The DBE system permits diagnostic and therapeutic ERC in surgically modified anatomy, previously unavailable for endoluminal access. In our experience this procedure is safe and has a high success rate with a favourable patient outcome.

  13. Comparative study of outcomes following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese patients: A case control study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Harshit; Priyadarshini, Pratyusha; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Agarwal, Samagra; Chaudhary, Rachna

    2017-04-16

    To compare the impact of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on weight loss and obesity related comorbidities over two year follow-up via case control study design. Forty patients undergoing LRYGB, who completed their two year follow-up were matched with 40 patients undergoing LSG for age, gender, body mass index and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data of these patients was retrospectively reviewed to compare the outcome in terms of weight loss and improvement in comorbidities, i.e ., T2DM, hypertension (HTN), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), hypothyroidism and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Percentage excess weight loss (EWL%) was similar in LRYGB and LSG groups at one year follow-up (70.5% vs 66.5%, P = 0.36) while it was significantly greater for LRYGB group after two years as compared to LSG group (76.5% vs 67.9%, P = 0.04). The complication rate after LRYGB and LSG was similar (10% vs 7.5%, P = 0.99). The median duration of T2DM and mean number of oral hypoglycemic agents were higher in LRYGB group than LSG group (7 years vs 5 years and 2.2 vs 1.8 respectively, P < 0.05). Both LRYGB and LSG had significant but similar improvement in T2DM, HTN, OSAS and hypothyroidism. However, GERD resolved in all patients undergoing LRYGB while it resolved in only 50% cases with LSG. Eight point three percent patients developed new-onset GERD after LSG. LRYGB has better outcomes in terms of weight loss two years after surgery as compared to LSG. The impact of LRYGB and LSG on T2DM, HTN, OSAS and hypothyroidism is similar. However, LRYGB has significant resolution of GERD as compared to LSG.

  14. Postoperative long-term evaluation of interposition reconstruction compared with Roux-en-Y after total gastrectomy in gastric cancer: prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji; Hokita, Shuichi; Aoki, Teruaki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Hirakawa, Kosei; Sawada, Tetsuji; Yamamura, Yoshitaka; Itoh, Seiji; Hirata, Koichi; Ohta, Keiichiro; Mafune, Kenichi; Nakane, Yasushi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Iwao; Kubota, Tetsuro; Kitajima, Masaki; Aikou, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    The postoperative clinical superiority of the interposition of jejunum reconstruction (INT) to Roux-en-Y reconstruction (RY) after total gastrectomy has not been clarified. Postoperative quality of life (QOL) was evaluated between the 2 methods by a multi-institutional prospective randomized trial. A total of 103 patients with gastric cancer were prospectively randomly divided into groups for RY (n = 51) or INT reconstruction (n = 52) after total gastrectomy. They were stratified by sex, age, institute, histology, and degree of lymph node dissection. Postoperatively, body mass index (BMI) and nutritional conditions were measured serially, and QOL and postoperative squalor scores were evaluated at 3, 12, and 60 months and compared between the 2 groups. After removing patients who did not complete the follow-up survey or censured cases, 24 patients in the RY group and 18 patients in the INT group were clinically available and their postoperative status was assessed. QOL scores were increased and complication scores were improved in the postoperative periods (P < .01). Postoperative BMI significantly deteriorated compared with preoperative BMI in each group. The postoperative QOL and complication scores at 60 months after surgery were significantly better than those at 3 months after surgery in each group (P < .01). However, there was no significant difference of QOL scores and postoperative complication scores between the 2 reconstruction groups. The nutritional condition in the INT group was nearly the same as that in the RY group. Although our patient sample was small and patients who did not complete the follow-up survey were present, we could not identify any clinical difference between INT and RY after total gastrectomy 60 months after surgery. The safer and simpler RY method may be a more suitable reconstruction method than INT after total gastrectomy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Bile reflux of the remnant stomach following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: an etiology of chronic abdominal pain treated with remnant gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Vella, Erika La; Hovorka, Zach; Yarbrough, Donald E; McQuitty, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Bile reflux gastritis of the remnant stomach following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causing chronic abdominal pain has not been reported. We report a series of symptomatic patients with remnant gastritis treated effectively with remnant gastrectomy (RG). The objective was to report our experience with bile reflux remnant gastritis after RYGB and our outcomes following RG. Community teaching hospital. All patients undergoing RG were retrospectively reviewed for presenting symptoms, diagnostic workup, pathology, complications, and symptom resolution. Nineteen patients underwent RG for bile reflux gastritis at a mean of 4.4 years (52.3 mo, range 8.5-124 mo) after RYGB. All patients were female and presented with pain, primarily epigastric (18/19; 95%), and described as burning (11/19; 58%), with 10 (53%) reporting nausea. Endoscopy was performed preoperatively on all patients with successful remnant inspection in 13 (68%), using push endoscopy (n = 10) or operative assist (n = 3), with 12 (of 13; 92%) biopsy-positive for reactive gastropathy. Seventeen (90%) completed a hepatobiliary scintigraphy scan with 100% positivity demonstrating bile reflux across the pylorus. Surgical approach was laparoscopic or robotic in 18 (95%) with a hospital length of stay of 2.7 days (range 0-12 d), with no major complications or readmissions. Pathology of the remnant confirmed reactive gastropathy in 90% (n = 17). Ninety percent of patients (n = 17) reported sustained symptom resolution, and 11% of patients (n = 2) remained symptomatic at last follow-up. We followed all patients for a mean of 6.6 years (1-194 mo). Bile reflux gastritis of the remnant stomach is a new consideration for chronic abdominal pain months to years following RYGB. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy imaging and endoscopic biopsy are highly suggestive. RG is safe and effective treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Association Between Preoperative Symptoms of Obesity in Knee and Hip Joints and the Change in Quality of Life After Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Birn, Ida; Mechlenburg, Inger; Liljensøe, Anette; Soballe, Kjeld; Larsen, Jens Fromholt

    2016-05-01

    Weight loss after bariatric surgery is shown to reduce knee and hip pain in the majority of the severely obese. Studies indicate that with a reduction in musculoskeletal symptoms, quality of life (QoL) will improve. The group of severely obese with knee and hip symptoms might therefore have potential for a large improvement in QoL after a bariatric surgery. This study aimed therefore to assess the association between the degree of knee and hip symptoms before a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and the improvement of QoL, 1 year after the surgery, in severely obese. This study is a historical cohort study based on data collected consecutively at the private hospital Mølholm, Denmark. Before LRYGB surgery, 4548 severely obese completed a questionnaire on knee and hip symptoms of obesity and QoL. One year after surgery, 2862 (62.9 %) of the participants answered the same questionnaire again. Participants with moderate or severe knee or hip symptoms, before the surgery, experienced a statistically significantly larger improvement of their QoL, compared to participants without symptoms before the surgery. Furthermore, an association between the reduction of knee and hip symptoms and the improvement in QoL was found. Severely obese with moderate or severe preoperative knee and hip symptoms experienced a larger improvement of their QoL after a LRYGB compared to participants without symptoms before the operation.

  17. Late Postoperative Complications in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LVSG) Versus Laparoscopic Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB): Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Osland, Emma; Yunus, Rossita M; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed A

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG), have been proposed as cost-effective strategies to manage obesity-related chronic disease. The objectives of this meta-analysis and systematic review were to analyze the "late postoperative complication rate (>30 days)" for these 2 procedures. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2000 and 2015 comparing the late complication rates, that is, >30 days following LVSG and LRYGB in adult population (ie, 16 y and above) were selected from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database. The outcome variables analyzed included mortality rate, major and minor complications, and interventions required for their management and readmission rates. Random effects model was used to calculate the effect size of both binary and continuous data. Heterogeneity among the outcome variables of these trials was determined by the Cochran Q statistic and I index. The meta-analysis was prepared in accordance with the Preferred Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Six RCTs involving a total of 685 patients (LVSG, n=345; LRYGB, n=340) reported late major complications. A nonstatistical reduction in relative odds favoring the LVSG procedure was observed [odds ratio (OR), 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-1.97; P=0.4]. Four RCTs representing 408 patients (LVSG, n=208; LRYGB, n=200) reported late minor complications. A nonstatistically significant reduction of 36% in relative odds favoring the LVSG procedure was observed (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.28-1.47; P=0.3). A 37% relative reduction in odds was observed in favor of the LVSG for the need for additional interventions to manage late postoperative complications that did not reach statistical significance (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.19-2.05; P=0.4). No study specifically reported readmissions required for the management of late complication. This meta-analysis and

  18. Opened Proton Pump Inhibitor Capsules Reduce Time to Healing Compared With Intact Capsules for Marginal Ulceration Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Allison R; Chan, Walter W; Devery, Aiofe; Ryan, Michele B; Thompson, Christopher C

    2017-04-01

    Marginal ulceration, or ulceration at the gastrojejunal anastomosis, is a common complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Acidity likely contributes to the pathophysiology, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) frequently are prescribed for treatment. However, patients with gastric bypass only have a small gastric pouch and rapid small-bowel transit, which limits the opportunity for capsule breakdown and PPI absorption. Soluble PPIs (open capsules [OCs]) might be absorbed more easily than intact capsules (ICs). We compared time to ulcer healing, number of endoscopic procedures, and use of health care for patients with marginal ulceration who received PPIs in OC vs IC form. We performed a retrospective study of 164 patients diagnosed with marginal ulceration who underwent RYGB at the Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2000 through 2015. Patients received high-dose PPIs and underwent repeat endoscopy every 3 months until ulcer healing was confirmed. We used time-to-event analysis with a Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between mode of PPI administration and time to ulcer healing, in addition to Cox multivariate regression analysis. Total charge (procedural and maintenance) was determined by comparison of categorized charges incurred from time of ulcer diagnosis to resolution. The primary outcome was time to healing of marginal ulceration in RYGB patients receiving high-dose PPIs in OC vs IC form. A total of 162 patients were included (115 received OC and 49 received IC). All patients were followed up until ulcer healing was confirmed. The median time to ulcer healing was 91.0 days for the OC group vs 342.0 days for the IC group (P < .001). OC was the only independent predictor of time to ulcer healing (P < .001) when we controlled for known risk factors. The number of endoscopic procedures (P = .02) and overall health care utilization (P = .05) were lower in the OC than the IC group. Patients with marginal ulceration after RYGB who

  19. Comparison of Billroth I and Roux-en-Y reconstruction after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: one-year postoperative effects assessed by a multi-institutional RCT.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Motohiro; Takiguchi, Shuji; Imamura, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Fujita, Junya; Kobayashi, Kenji; Kimura, Yutaka; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2013-05-01

    This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the clinical efficacy of Billroth I (BI) and Roux-en-Y (RY) reconstruction at 1 year after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The primary end point was the amount of body weight lost at 1 postoperative year, and secondary end points included other items related to nutritional status such as serum albumin and lymphocyte count, as well as endoscopic examination findings of the remnant stomach and esophagus. Of the 332 patients enrolled, 163 were assigned to the BI group and 169 were randomized to the RY group. The loss in body weight 1 year after surgery did not differ significantly between the BI and RY groups (9.1 % and 9.7 %, respectively, p = 0.39). There were no significant differences in other aspects of nutritional status between the 2 groups. Endoscopic examination 1 year after gastrectomy showed reflux esophagitis in 26 patients (17 %) in the BI group versus 10 patients (6 %) in the RY group (p = 0.0037), while remnant gastritis was observed in 71 patients (46 %) in the BI group versus 44 patients (28 %) in the RY group (p = 0.0013); differences were significant for both conditions. Multivariable analysis showed that the only reconstruction was the independently associated factor with the incidence of reflux esophagitis. RY reconstruction was not superior to BI in terms of body weight change or other aspects of nutritional status at 1 year after surgery, although RY more effectively prevented reflux esophagitis and remnant gastritis after distal gastrectomy.

  20. Glycemic Control after Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, Ville; Dirinck, Eveline; Fändriks, Lars; Maleckas, Almantas; le Roux, Carel W; Thorell, Anders

    2018-06-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has weight-independent effects on glycemia in obese type 2 diabetic patients, whereas sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is less well characterized. This study aims to compare early weight-independent and later weight-dependent glycemic effects of LRYGB and LSG. Eighteen LRYGB and 15 LSG patients were included in the study. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP levels were monitored during a modified 30 g oral glucose tolerance test before surgery and 2 days, 3 weeks, and 12 months after surgery. Patients self-monitored glucose levels 2 weeks before and after surgery. Postoperative fasting blood glucose decreased similarly in both groups (LRYGB vs. SG; baseline-8.1 ± 0.6 vs. 8.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 2 days-7.8 ± 0.5 vs. 7.4 ± 0.3 mmol/l, 3 weeks-6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 6.6 ± 0.3 mmol/l, respectively, P < 0.01 vs. baseline for both groups; 12 months-6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 5.9 ± 0.4, respectively, P < 0.05 for LRYGB and P < 0.001 for LSG vs. baseline, P = ns between the groups at all times). LSG, but not LRYGB, showed increased peak insulin levels 2 days postoperatively (mean ± SEM; LSG + 58 ± 14%, P < 0.01; LRYGB - 8 ± 17%, P = ns). GLP-1 levels increased similarly at 2 days, but were higher in LRYGB at 3 weeks (AUC; 7525 ± 1258 vs. 4779 ± 712 pmol × min, respectively, P < 0.05). GIP levels did not differ. Body mass index (BMI) decreased more after LRYGB than LSG (- 10.1 ± 0.9 vs. - 7.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 , respectively, P < 0.05). LRYGB and LSG show very similar effects on glycemic control, despite lower GLP-1 levels and inferior BMI decrease after LSG.

  1. Correlates of Dietary Adherence and Maladaptive Eating Patterns Following Roux-en-Y Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sarah; Fowler, Natasha; Robinson, Athena Hagler; Salcido, Lianne; Darcy, Alison; Toyama, Hannah; Safer, Debra Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Self-reported poor dietary adherence following bariatric surgery is associated with less successful weight loss outcomes. Poor dietary adherence is a global construct lacking specificity regarding its underlying, clinically targetable, maladaptive eating behaviors. Comprehensive online survey data were obtained from a sample of 274 adults who underwent Roux-en-Y surgery in the prior 1-12 years. Correlations between dietary adherence and six eating-related behaviors were calculated, with the frequency of each behavior reported on a 7-point scale. Linear regression modeling was applied. All six maladaptive eating behaviors were highly correlated with dietary adherence (Pearson's r > 0.5): grazing (r = - 0.565), mindless eating (r = - 0.572), loss of control eating (r = - 0.517), eating "more than is best" after dinner (r = - 0.518), eating foods off of one's plan (r = - 0.557), and "when I eat something off-plan, I feel like I have blown it and I give up and eat more" (r = - 0.574). The estimated regression coefficients in the linear model was statistically significant, [F(5, 261) = 60.006, p < 0.001] and accounted for approximately 54% of the variance of global dietary adherence (R 2  = 0.535, adjusted R 2  = 0.526). Six maladaptive eating behaviors accounted for a highly significant portion of post-Roux-en-Y patients' poor self- reported dietary adherence. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the relationship between targetable maladaptive eating behaviors and bariatric surgery outcomes.

  2. Long-term and midterm outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Shoar, Saeed; Saber, Alan A

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare midterm and long-term weight loss and resolution of co-morbidity with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). LRYGB and LSG are the most common procedures performed in bariatric surgery. However, their weight loss efficacy in the midterm and long-term has not been well compared. A meta-analysis was performed by systematically identifying comparative studies conducted until the end of June 2016 that investigated weight loss outcome and resolution of co-morbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and obstructive sleep apnea) with LRYGB and LSG in the midterm (3-5 years) and long term (≥5 years). The primary endpoint was weight loss after LRYGB versus LSG. The secondary endpoint was resolution of co-morbidities after these procedures. Fourteen studies comprising 5264 patients were eligible. Follow-up ranged from 36 months to 75.8±8.4 months. The pooled result for weight loss outcomes did not show any significant difference in midterm weight loss (standardized mean difference = -0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.38-.33; P = .88) but a significant difference in the long-term weight loss outcome favoring LRYGB (standardized mean difference = .17; 95% CI, .05-.28; P= .005). The pooled results demonstrated no significant difference for resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Despite the insignificant difference between LRYGB and LSG in midterm weight loss, LRYGB produced better weight loss in the long-term. There was no significant difference between the 2 procedures for co-morbidity resolution. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Suppressed Fat Appetite after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Associates with Reduced Brain μ-opioid Receptor Availability in Diet-Induced Obese Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Patt, Marianne; Patt, Jörg T W; Becker, Georg A; Rullmann, Michael; Kranz, Mathias; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Schischke, Kristin; Seyfried, Florian; Brust, Peter; Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Krügel, Ute; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2016-01-01

    Brain μ-opioid receptors (MORs) stimulate high-fat (HF) feeding and have been implicated in the distinct long term outcomes on body weight of bariatric surgery and dieting. Whether alterations in fat appetite specifically following these disparate weight loss interventions relate to changes in brain MOR signaling is unknown. To address this issue, diet-induced obese male rats underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sham surgeries. Postoperatively, animals were placed on a two-choice diet consisting of low-fat (LF) and HF food and sham-operated rats were further split into ad libitum fed (Sham-LF/HF) and body weight-matched (Sham-BWM) to RYGB groups. An additional set of sham-operated rats always only on a LF diet (Sham-LF) served as lean controls, making four experimental groups in total. Corresponding to a stage of weight loss maintenance for RYGB rats, two-bottle fat preference tests in conjunction with small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies with the selective MOR radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil were performed. Brains were subsequently collected and MOR protein levels in the hypothalamus, striatum, prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex were analyzed by Western Blot. We found that only the RYGB group presented with intervention-specific changes: having markedly suppressed intake and preference for high concentration fat emulsions, a widespread reduction in [ 11 C]carfentanil binding potential (reflecting MOR availability) in various brain regions, and a downregulation of striatal and prefrontal MOR protein levels compared to the remaining groups. These findings suggest that the suppressed fat appetite caused by RYGB surgery is due to reduced brain MOR signaling, which may contribute to sustained weight loss unlike the case for dieting.

  4. Reduced sweet and fatty fluid intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats is dependent on experience without change in stimulus motivational potency.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Clare M; Bohnenkamp, Ryan A; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2015-10-15

    Here we assessed how intake reductions induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) occur within and across access periods by examining drinking microstructure. After training, RYGB (n = 8-10) or sham-operated (SHAM, n = 12) rats were given 60-min access first to 0.3 M sucrose, then to 5% Intralipid, and finally to milk-chocolate Ensure Plus across 5 days each. Initially, total licks taken during the first meal of sucrose and Intralipid by RYGB and SHAM rats did not differ, but, across subsequent test periods, RYGB rats licked less than SHAM rats. First Ensure meal size also did not differ between RYGB and SHAM rats, but SHAM rats increased licking across test periods while the behavior of RYGB rats remained stable. The intake differences between the surgical groups, when they occurred, were most often due to smaller burst sizes in RYGB rats. Importantly, the surgical-group difference in sucrose and Intralipid intakes could not be explained by altered palatability of these solutions because, throughout testing, both groups had similar early meal licking behavior thought to represent the motivational potency of stimulus orosensory features. Although, overall, RYGB rats displayed lower early meal licking of Ensure relative to the SHAM rats, this appeared to be driven primarily by increases in the latter group across test periods; the RYGB group stayed relatively stable. Collectively, these results suggest that some level of postoral experience with these stimuli and/or their components is necessary before intake differences emerge between surgical groups, and, even when differences occur, often immediate taste-motivated ingestive behavior remains unaltered. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Reduced sweet and fatty fluid intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats is dependent on experience without change in stimulus motivational potency

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Clare M.; Bohnenkamp, Ryan A.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2015-01-01

    Here we assessed how intake reductions induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) occur within and across access periods by examining drinking microstructure. After training, RYGB (n = 8–10) or sham-operated (SHAM, n = 12) rats were given 60-min access first to 0.3 M sucrose, then to 5% Intralipid, and finally to milk-chocolate Ensure Plus across 5 days each. Initially, total licks taken during the first meal of sucrose and Intralipid by RYGB and SHAM rats did not differ, but, across subsequent test periods, RYGB rats licked less than SHAM rats. First Ensure meal size also did not differ between RYGB and SHAM rats, but SHAM rats increased licking across test periods while the behavior of RYGB rats remained stable. The intake differences between the surgical groups, when they occurred, were most often due to smaller burst sizes in RYGB rats. Importantly, the surgical-group difference in sucrose and Intralipid intakes could not be explained by altered palatability of these solutions because, throughout testing, both groups had similar early meal licking behavior thought to represent the motivational potency of stimulus orosensory features. Although, overall, RYGB rats displayed lower early meal licking of Ensure relative to the SHAM rats, this appeared to be driven primarily by increases in the latter group across test periods; the RYGB group stayed relatively stable. Collectively, these results suggest that some level of postoral experience with these stimuli and/or their components is necessary before intake differences emerge between surgical groups, and, even when differences occur, often immediate taste-motivated ingestive behavior remains unaltered. PMID:26290100

  6. Laparoscopic revision of Billroth II with Braun anastomosis into Roux-en-Y anatomy in a patient with intestinal malrotation.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Fabio; Abouzahr, Omar; Atlas, Henri; Denis, Ronald; Garneau, Pierre; Huynh, Hai; Pescarus, Radu

    2018-01-01

    Various reconstructions of the gastro-intestinal tract have been described in the past after distal gastrectomy. Among these, a Billroth II (BII) anastomosis can be performed with the addition of the Omega entero-enterostomy that may theoretically reduce the alkaline reflux. Given the significant complications associated with this procedure such as biliary reflux, marginal ulceration, and afferent loop syndrome, a revision into a Roux-en-Y anatomy is generally recommended. A 73-year-old healthy male was referred to our foregut surgery service for treatment of severe biliary gastritis. The patient previously underwent an open distal gastrectomy with a BII reconstruction followed by a Braun-type entero-enterostomy 6 months later. His main complaint was worsening daily biliary reflux with constant regurgitations, which were non-responsive to medical treatment. The preoperative endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of severe biliary gastritis secondary to alkaline reflux. The distance between the gastro-jejunostomy and the Braun anastomosis was also measured with a pediatric colonoscope and the length of the efferent limb was estimated to be 80 cm. Identification of the afferent and efferent limb was complicated by the patient's incomplete intestinal malrotation with the angle of Treitz being present in the right hypochondrium. Intra-operative gastroscopy enabled visualization of the jejuno-jejunostomy and ensured correct interpretation of the anatomy. Subsequently, resection of the afferent limb completed the revision into a Roux-en-Y anatomy. The patient recovered well after the surgery and was discharged home on post-operative day 2. At 6 months follow-up, the patient's reflux symptoms have completely disappeared. BII reconstruction with or without Braun entero-enterostomy is a classic historical option following distal gastrectomy. Surgical revision of a BII into a Roux-en-Y anatomy is a good solution for severe biliary reflux and other long-term complications

  7. Preoperative Fasting C-Peptide Predicts Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Remission in Low-BMI Chinese Patients After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Weizheng; Su, Zhihong; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Liyong; Zhu, Shaihong

    2018-05-29

    This study investigated the role of preoperative fasting C-peptide (FCP) levels in predicting diabetic outcomes in low-BMI Chinese patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) by comparing the metabolic outcomes of patients with FCP > 1 ng/ml versus FCP ≤ 1 ng/ml. The study sample included 78 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with an average BMI < 30 kg/m 2 at baseline. Patients' parameters were analyzed before and after surgery, with a 2-year follow-up. A univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between the remission and improvement group were performed to determine factors that were associated with type 2 diabetes remission after RYGB. Linear correlation analyses between FCP and metabolic parameters were performed. Patients were divided into two groups: FCP > 1 ng/ml and FCP ≤ 1 ng/ml, with measured parameters compared between the groups. Patients' fasting plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose, FCP, and HbA1c improved significantly after surgery (p < 0.05). Factors associated with type 2 diabetes remission were BMI, 2hINS, and FCP at the univariate logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed then showed the results were more related to FCP (OR = 2.39). FCP showed a significant linear correlation with fasting insulin and BMI (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference in remission rate between the FCP > 1 ng/ml and FCP ≤ 1 ng/ml groups (p = 0.01). The parameters of patients with FCP > 1 ng/ml, including BMI, plasma glucose, HbA1c, and plasma insulin, decreased markedly after surgery (p < 0.05). FCP level is a significant predictor of diabetes outcomes after RYGB in low-BMI Chinese patients. An FCP level of 1 ng/ml may be a useful threshold for predicting surgical prognosis, with FCP > 1 ng/ml predicting better clinical outcomes following RYGB.

  8. Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy Does Not Affect Food Preferences When Assessed by an Ad libitum Buffet Meal.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mette S; Christensen, Bodil J; Ritz, Christian; Rasmussen, Simone; Hansen, Thea T; Bredie, Wender L P; le Roux, Carel W; Sjödin, Anders; Schmidt, Julie B

    2017-10-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) lead to a reduction in energy intake. It is uncertain whether this reduction is simply due to eating smaller portions or if surgery changes food preferences towards less energy-dense food. Previous results rely on verbal reports, which may be prone to recall bias and underestimation of especially unhealthy foods. Using an ad libitum buffet meal targeting direct behavior, we investigated if RYGB and SG surgery leads to changes in food preferences. In addition, we assessed food preferences by a picture display test to explore differences between a method relying on verbal report and a method assessing direct behavior. Forty-one subjects (BMI 45.0 ± 6.8 kg/m 2 ) completed a visit pre- and 6 months post-RYGB (n = 31) and SG (n = 10). Mean BMI decreased with 11.7 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 and total energy intake at the buffet meal with 54% (4491 ± 208 kJ vs. 2083 ± 208 kJ, P < 0.001), respectively. However, relative energy intake from the following food categories: high-fat, low-fat, sweet, savory, high-fat-savory, high-fat-sweet, low-fat-savory, and low-fat-sweet, as well as energy density did not change following surgery (all P ≥ 0.18). In contrast, the picture display test showed that food from the low-fat-savory group was chosen more often post-surgery (34 ± 8% vs. 65 ± 9%, P = 0.02). The reduction in energy intake after RYGB and SG surgery and the subsequent weight loss seems to be primarily related to a reduction in portion sizes and not by changes in food preferences towards less energy-dense foods. These results underline the necessity of investigating eating behavior by targeting direct behavior.

  9. Prediction of Excess Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Data from an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Eric S.; Hocking, Kyle M.; Kavic, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) has become the gold standard for surgical weight loss. The success of LRYGB may be measured by excess body-mass index loss (%EBMIL) over 25 kg/m2, which is partially determined by multiple patient factors. In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was used to derive a reasonable estimate of expected postoperative weight loss using only known preoperative patient variables. Additionally, ANN modeling allowed for the discriminant prediction of achievement of benchmark 50% EBMIL at one year postoperatively. Methods Six-hundred and forty-seven LRYGB included patients were retrospectively reviewed for preoperative factors independently associated with EBMIL at 180 and 365 days postoperatively (EBMIL180 and EBMIL365, respectively). Previously validated factors were selectively analyzed, including age; race; gender; preoperative BMI (BMI0); hemoglobin; and diagnoses of hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), and depression or anxiety disorder. Variables significant upon multivariate analysis (P<.05) were modeled by “traditional” multiple linear regression and an ANN, to predict %EBMIL180 and %EBMIL365. Results The mean EBMIL180 and EBMIL365 were 56.4%±16.5% and 73.5%±21.5%, corresponding to total body weight losses of 25.7%±5.9% and 33.6%±8.0%, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with EBMIL180 included black race (B=−6.3%, P<.001), BMI0 (B=−1.1%/unit BMI, P<.001) and DM (B=−3.2%, P<.004). For EBMIL365, independently associated factors were female gender (B=6.4%, P<.001), black race (B=−6.7%, P<.001), BMI0 (B=−1.2%/unit BMI, P<.001), HTN (B=−3.7%, P=.03) and DM (B=−6.0%, P<.001). Pearson r2 values for the multiple linear regression and ANN models were .38 (EBMIL180) and .35 (EBMIL365), and .42 (EBMIL180) and .38 (EBMIL365), respectively. ANN-prediction of benchmark 50% EBMIL at 365 days generated an area under the curve of 0.78±0.03 in

  10. The influence of prophylactic proton pump inhibitor treatment on the development of symptomatic marginal ulceration in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients: a historic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Coblijn, Usha K; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; de Castro, Steve M M; Kuiken, Sjoerd D; van Tets, Willem F; van Wagensveld, Bart A

    2016-02-01

    Marginal ulceration at the gastrojejunostomy is a serious complication after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (LRYGB) and occurs in 1%-16% of patients. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) might lower the occurrence of these ulcers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 6 months prophylactic usage of PPIs on the development of marginal ulceration and compare this with a historic patient control group. A single institution cohort at a bariatric center of excellence, The Sint Lucas Andreas Zienkenhuis, Amsterdam A consecutive database of patients who underwent LRYGB from November 2007 to September 2012 in a single institution was retrospectively reviewed. From August 2011, patients received a standard dose of pantozol 40 mg once daily directly postoperatively for 6 months. No standard PPI prophylaxis was administered before August 2011, and the patients not using PPIs in this historic cohort served as the control group. A total of 610 patients underwent LRYGB, of which 128 patients (21.0%) underwent revisional surgery. Postoperative PPIs were administered in the intervention group of 337 patients, compared with the historic control group consisting of 273 patients. Six patients (1.2%) who received postoperative PPIs versus 20 patients (7.3 %) in the historic control group developed marginal ulceration (P = .001). Patients using proton pump inhibitors developed fewer gastrointestinal complaints postoperatively (P< .001). Routine usage of PPIs reduced the occurrence of marginal ulceration after LRYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. S100A8/A9 (Calprotectin), Interleukin-6, and C-Reactive Protein in Obesity and Diabetes before and after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lylloff, Louise; Bathum, Lise; Madsbad, Sten; Grundtvig, Josefine Liv Gilling; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge; Fenger, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    In obesity, which is a major contributor to insulin resistance and diabetes, the circulating level of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) is elevated and declines after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). However, studies on S100A8/A9 and the pathophysiological mechanisms in insulin resistance and diabetes are few and contradictory. We studied 48 subjects who underwent RYGB, comprising a non-diabetic control group and two diabetic groups in whom diabetes either regressed or persisted, 6-12 months post-surgically. S100A8/A9, interleukin 6 (IL-6) as well as other inflammatory and diabetes-related markers were measured pre- and post-surgically. Significant and similar decreases of BMI were found in all groups. S100A8/A9 and IL-6 decreased significantly in the group with diabetes remission and in the control group, but not in the group with persistent diabetes. The relative changes in S100A8/A9 and IL-6 correlated significantly (r = 0.905, p = 0.005) only in the group with persistent diabetes. In contrast, leukocyte count and C-reactive protein correlated significantly to S100A8/A9 only in the control group. Our study is suggestive of S100A8/A9 and IL-6 being related to a persistent diabetes status post-surgically and of different pathophysiological mechanisms being involved in the post-surgical changes in the three groups, despite similar decreases in BMI. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Improvement of anthropometric and biochemical, but not of vitamin A, status in adolescents who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a 1-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jacqueline Souza; Chaves, Gabriela Villaça; Stenzel, Ana Paula; Pereira, Silvia Elaine; Saboya, Carlos José; Ramalho, Andréa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe anthropometric, biochemical, co-morbidity, and vitamin A nutritional status in severely obese adolescents before and 30, 180, and 365 days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sixty-four adolescents (15-19 years old) with a body mass index≥40 kg/m 2 were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study. Vitamin A status was evaluated before surgery (T0), and 30 (T30), 180 (T180), and 365 (T365) days after surgery, applying biochemical and functional indicators. Anthropometric measures, lipid profile, glycemia, and basal insulin also were assessed. No patients were lost during follow-up. Before surgery, 26.6% of the sample group experienced vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Serum retinol levels dropped significantly 30 days after surgery and then returned to basal levels. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of β-carotene deficiency and night blindness throughout the postsurgery period. A significant reduction in blood glucose, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and anthropometric parameters was observed. The finding that oral daily supplementation with 5000 IU retinol acetate failed to reverse VAD and night blindness after RYGB is highly significant. We recommend assessment of VAD and night blindness in extremely obese adolescents before and after RYGB. We further recommend monitoring for an additional 180 days (for VAD) and 365 days (for night blindness) after surgery, with particular attention to daily supplementation needs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass vs. laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of lipid effects at one year postsurgery.

    PubMed

    Climent, Elisenda; Benaiges, David; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Goday, Albert; Solà, Ivan; Ramón, José M; Flores-LE Roux, Juana A; Checa, Miguel Á

    2018-03-01

    Results of the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are controversial. Moreover, previous meta-analyses focused on global dyslipidemia remission, but did not include the separate remission rates of the different lipid fractions. Hence, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to compare the outcomes (concentration change and remission rates) of GB and SG on diverse lipid disorders one year postbariatric surgery (BS). An exhaustive electronic search carried out on MedLine, Embase and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) until July 2016 yielded 2621 records, of which 17, totaling 4699 obese patients with one-year follow-up after BS were included in the meta-analysis. GB was superior to SG in terms of total cholesterol (mean difference= 19.77 mg/dL, 95% CI: 11.84-27.69) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (mean difference: 19.29 mg/dL, 95% CI: 11.93-26.64) decreases as well as in hypercholesterolemia remission (RR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.27-1.61). No differences were found between GB and SG in terms of HDL cholesterol increase or triglyceride concentration change after surgery, as well as in hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL remission rates. The effect of GB on total and LDL cholesterol concentration decreases and remission was greater than that of SG, whereas no differences were observed with respect to HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentration evolution. Conclusions cannot be drawn from hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL remission rates based on this meta-analysis.

  14. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. Case Presentation We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery. PMID:20492665

  15. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery of morbidly obese patients induces swift and persistent changes of the individual gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Palleja, Albert; Kashani, Alireza; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Zhang, Chenchen; Li, Yin; Brach, Thorsten; Liang, Suisha; Feng, Qiang; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Burgdorf, Kristoffer S; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten; Wang, Jun; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan

    2016-06-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective means to achieve sustained weight loss for morbidly obese individuals. Besides rapid weight reduction, patients achieve major improvements of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and some of its co-morbidities, like type 2 diabetes, and major changes of gut microbial communities have been hypothesized to mediate part of the beneficial metabolic effects observed after RYGB. Here we describe changes in gut microbial taxonomic composition and functional potential following RYGB. We recruited 13 morbidly obese patients who underwent RYGB, carefully phenotyped them, and had their gut microbiomes quantified before (n = 13) and 3 months (n = 12) and 12 months (n = 8) after RYGB. Following shotgun metagenomic sequencing of the fecal microbial DNA purified from stools, we characterized the gut microbial composition at species and gene levels followed by functional annotation. In parallel with the weight loss and metabolic improvements, gut microbial diversity increased within the first 3 months after RYGB and remained high 1 year later. RYGB led to altered relative abundances of 31 species (P < 0.05, q < 0.15) within the first 3 months, including those of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Veillonella spp., Streptococcus spp., Alistipes spp., and Akkermansia muciniphila. Sixteen of these species maintained their altered relative abundances during the following 9 months. Interestingly, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was the only species that decreased in relative abundance. Fifty-three microbial functional modules increased their relative abundance between baseline and 3 months (P < 0.05, q < 0.17). These functional changes included increased potential (i) to assimilate multiple energy sources using transporters and phosphotransferase systems, (ii) to use aerobic respiration, (iii) to shift from protein degradation to

  16. Same-Day Discharge after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: An Analysis of the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program Database.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Colette S; Koh, Christina Y; Sujatha-Bhaskar, Sarath; Zhang, Lishi; Nguyen, Ninh T

    2018-05-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has been performed with successful discharge on postoperative day 1 (POD1). There are limited studies on same-day discharge after LRYGB. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency and outcomes of same-day discharge after LRYGB. The 2015 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) database was analyzed for adult patients who underwent elective LRYGB cases with same-day vs POD1 discharge. Open and revisional cases were excluded. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare risk-adjusted 30-day mortality, overall morbidity, readmission, and reoperation. There were 354 (0.9%) patients who were discharged on the same day as surgery after LRYGB. After exclusion criteria, 319 patients with same-day discharge and 9,402 patients with POD1 discharge were examined. For same-day vs POD1 discharge groups, mean ages were 45.0 and 44.5 years, respectively, and mean BMIs were 47.3 kg/m 2 and 45.9 kg/m 2 , respectively. The unadjusted mortality rate was significantly higher for same-day compared with POD1 discharge (0.94% vs. 0.05%, respectively; p = 0.0017). Compared with POD1 discharge, same-day discharge had higher overall morbidity (3.76% vs 1.54%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.41; p = 0.0216), but no statistically significant differences for readmissions (3.45% vs. 3.66%; AOR 0.85; p = 0.9999) or reoperations (1.88% vs. 0.89%; AOR 2.33; p = 0.2428). Same-day discharge after LRYGB is associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared with POD1 discharge. The practice of same-day discharge after LRYGB should be considered experimental until further studies confirm which patient characteristics will ensure safe same-day discharge. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppressed Fat Appetite after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Associates with Reduced Brain μ-opioid Receptor Availability in Diet-Induced Obese Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hankir, Mohammed K.; Patt, Marianne; Patt, Jörg T. W.; Becker, Georg A.; Rullmann, Michael; Kranz, Mathias; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Schischke, Kristin; Seyfried, Florian; Brust, Peter; Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Krügel, Ute; Fenske, Wiebke K.

    2017-01-01

    Brain μ-opioid receptors (MORs) stimulate high-fat (HF) feeding and have been implicated in the distinct long term outcomes on body weight of bariatric surgery and dieting. Whether alterations in fat appetite specifically following these disparate weight loss interventions relate to changes in brain MOR signaling is unknown. To address this issue, diet-induced obese male rats underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sham surgeries. Postoperatively, animals were placed on a two-choice diet consisting of low-fat (LF) and HF food and sham-operated rats were further split into ad libitum fed (Sham-LF/HF) and body weight-matched (Sham-BWM) to RYGB groups. An additional set of sham-operated rats always only on a LF diet (Sham-LF) served as lean controls, making four experimental groups in total. Corresponding to a stage of weight loss maintenance for RYGB rats, two-bottle fat preference tests in conjunction with small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies with the selective MOR radioligand [11C]carfentanil were performed. Brains were subsequently collected and MOR protein levels in the hypothalamus, striatum, prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex were analyzed by Western Blot. We found that only the RYGB group presented with intervention-specific changes: having markedly suppressed intake and preference for high concentration fat emulsions, a widespread reduction in [11C]carfentanil binding potential (reflecting MOR availability) in various brain regions, and a downregulation of striatal and prefrontal MOR protein levels compared to the remaining groups. These findings suggest that the suppressed fat appetite caused by RYGB surgery is due to reduced brain MOR signaling, which may contribute to sustained weight loss unlike the case for dieting. PMID:28133443

  18. Robotic versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in obese adults ages 18 to 65 years: a systematic review and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jonathan G; Hayden, Jill A; Davis, Philip J B; Liu, Richard Y; Haardt, David; Ellsmere, James

    2014-02-01

    In the United States, 37.5 % of adults (78 million) are obese. The direct medical costs of treating obesity-related disease account for more than 6 % of the national health expenditure. Robotic bariatric surgery is becoming more common, but it is unclear whether robotic procedures result in lower complication rates. Additionally, some evidence is conflicting regarding the costs of robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) compared with those of laparoscopic RYGB. This study aimed to compare complication rates, operative characteristics, and expected costs between robotic and laparoscopic RYGB. A systematic review of the literature was performed with searches of five databases and grey literature, hand searches, and reference and forward citation searches. Studies comparing robotic versus laparoscopic RYGB involving patients ages 18-65 years who met the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria for bariatric surgery were included in the study if they reported overall or major complication rates. Outcomes were pooled using random-effects metaanalysis. A decision-tree economic analysis was performed to calculate expected costs associated with each technique. The systematic search strategy returned 1,374 potentially relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were met by 10 of these studies, which included results from 2,557 patients. The overall major and minor complications did not differ significantly between the robotic and laparoscopic groups. The rates for anastomotic leak, bleeding, stricture, and reoperation did not differ significantly. An economic analysis found that the expected costs for robotic RYGB ($15,447) were higher than for laparoscopic RYGB ($11,956). Sensitivity analyses produced similar results. The complication rates did not differ significantly between robotic and laparoscopic RYGB, but the expected costs were greater for robotic RYGB. Further cost effectiveness analyses are recommended before adoption of a robotic approach to RYGB.

  19. Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Improves Lipid Profile and Decreases Cardiovascular Risk: a 5-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study of 1048 Patients.

    PubMed

    Gero, Daniel; Favre, Lucie; Allemann, Pierre; Fournier, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Suter, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Dyslipidemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. The aim of the study was to assess lipid profiles and their impact on CV risk changes in a large patient cohort 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). All patients who underwent primary RYGB for severe obesity in our two hospitals between January 1999 and December 2009 were included. The Framingham risk score was used. One thousand and forty-eight patients were included, 791 women and 257 men. Five-year complete lipid profile was available for 77% of patients. At 5 years, mean body mass index (BMI) decreased from 45.7 ± 6 to 31 ± 5.8 kg/m 2 (p < 0.001), excess BMI loss (EBMIL) was 72.35 ± 22%, and total body weight loss (TWL) 31.5 ± 9%. Lipid values improved significantly. Total- and LDL-cholesterol levels dropped at 1 year from 5.4 to 4.48 mmol/L and 3.2 to 2.41 mmol/L, respectively, and slightly increased thereafter. Triglyceride levels dropped from 2 to 1.17 mmol/L at 1 year and remained unchanged. HDL levels rose continuously from 1.27 to 1.77 mmol/L at 5 years. Lipid profile improved more in patients with greater weight loss (%EBMIL ≥ 50 or %TWL ≥ 25%). Assuming that all patients were non-smokers and other baseline risk factors (hypertension, diabetes) remained unchanged at 5 years, the amelioration of the lipid profile itself yielded to a 27% reduction of CV risk (p < 0.001). RYGB results in sustained excess weight loss and in amelioration of the lipid profile from the first to fifth postoperative year. This improvement translates into significantly lower CV risk from the first year after surgery.

  20. Comparative study of the nutritional status of vitamin A in pregnant women and in women who became pregnant or did not after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Sabrina; Machado, Suzana; Cruz, Suelem; Pereira, Sílvia; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2018-01-18

    the changes in digestive physiology after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), as well as pregnancy, maximizes the risk of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and both can result in harm to the mother and child health. to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A among women who became pregnant or did not after RYGB and in pregnant women who did not undergo surgery, and to assess the impact of VAD on the mother and child health. this is a cross-sectional study of the analytical type. The women were divided into: group 1 (G1) with 80 pregnant women; group 2 (G2) with 40 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB, both in their third trimester of pregnancy; and group 3 (G3) with 77 non-pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB. Serum concentrations of retinol and β-carotene, night blindness (NB), gestational and neonatal intercurrences were investigated. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. RYGB, per se,had a greater impact on the inadequacy of retinol, β-carotene, and on the increased percentage of NB when compared to non-surgical pregnant women. When surgery was associated with pregnancy, more than 75% of inadequacy of retinol and β-carotene was noted, as well as a higher percentage of individuals with NB. G2 also showed increased prevalence ratio for developing gestational and neonatal intercurrences, when compared to G1. RYGB provides greater negative impact on the nutritional status of vitamin A compared to pregnancy, and surgery associated with pregnancy can create even greater risks.

  1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, but not calorie restriction, reduces plasma branched-chain amino acids in obese women independent of weight loss or the presence of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lips, Mirjam A; Van Klinken, Jan B; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Dharuri, Harish K; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Laros, Jeroen F J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Janssen, Ignace M; Van Ramshorst, Bert; Van Wagensveld, Bart A; Swank, Dingeman J; Van Dielen, Francois; Dane, Adrie; Harms, Amy; Vreeken, Rob; Hankemeier, Thomas; Smit, Johannes W A; Pijl, Hanno; Willems van Dijk, Ko

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with increased levels of circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, weight loss has not been consistently associated with the reduction of BCAA levels. We included 30 obese normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) subjects, 32 obese subjects with T2DM, and 12 lean female subjects. Obese subjects underwent either a restrictive procedure (gastric banding [GB], a very low-calorie diet [VLCD]), or a restrictive/bypass procedure (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB] surgery). Fasting blood samples were taken for the determination of amine group containing metabolites 4 weeks before, as well as 3 weeks and 3 months after the intervention. BCAA levels were higher in T2DM subjects, but not in NGT subjects, compared with lean subjects. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed a concise PC consisting of all BCAAs, which showed a correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Only after the RYGB procedure, and at both 3 weeks and 3 months, were circulating BCAA levels reduced. Our data confirm an association between deregulation of BCAA metabolism in plasma and insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Three weeks after undergoing RYGB surgery, a significant decrease in BCAAs in both NGT as well as T2DM subjects was observed. After 3 months, despite inducing significant weight loss, neither GB nor VLCD induced a reduction in BCAA levels. Our results indicate that the bypass procedure of RYGB surgery, independent of weight loss or the presence of T2DM, reduces BCAA levels in obese subjects. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Potential additional effect of omentectomy on metabolic syndrome, acute-phase reactants, and inflammatory mediators in grade III obese patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Miguel F; Pantoja, Juan Pablo; Velázquez-Fernández, David; Cabiedes, Javier; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; García-García, Eduardo; Rivas, Alfredo; Villeda, Christian; Hernández-Ramírez, Diego F; Dávila, Andrea; Zaraín, Aarón

    2010-07-01

    To assess the additional effect of sudden visceral fat reduction by omentectomy on metabolic syndrome, acute-phase reactants, and inflammatory mediators in patients with grade III obesity (G-III O) undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). Twenty-two patients were randomized into two groups, LRYGB alone or with omentectomy. Levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as clinical characteristics, were evaluated before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Results were compared between groups. Baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. Mean operative time was significantly higher in the group of patients who underwent omentectomy (P < 0.001). Median weight of the omentum was 795 +/- 341 g. In one patient, a duodenal perforation occurred at the time of omentectomy. BMI, blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides significantly improved in both groups at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up when compared with basal values. However, there were no consistent statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of metabolic syndrome components, acute-phase reactants, and inflammatory mediators. Omentectomy does not have an ancillary short-term significant impact on the components of metabolic syndrome and does not induce important changes in the inflammatory mediators in patients undergoing LRYGB. Operative time is more prolonged when omentectomy is performed.

  3. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of the influence of blood variables of patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the stability of erythrocyte membrane against the chaotropic action of ethanol.

    PubMed

    de Arvelos, Leticia Ramos; Rocha, Vanessa Custódio Afonso; Felix, Gabriela Pereira; da Cunha, Cleine Chagas; Bernardino Neto, Morun; da Silva Garrote Filho, Mario; de Fátima Pinheiro, Conceição; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2013-03-01

    The stability of the erythrocyte membrane, which is essential for the maintenance of cell functions, occurs in a critical region of fluidity, which depends largely on its composition and the composition and characteristics of the medium. As the composition of the erythrocyte membrane is influenced by several blood variables, the stability of the erythrocyte membrane must have relations with them. The present study aimed to evaluate, by bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses, the correlations and causal relationships between hematologic and biochemical variables and the stability of the erythrocyte membrane against the chaotropic action of ethanol. The validity of this type of analysis depends on the homogeneity of the population and on the variability of the studied parameters, conditions that can be filled by patients who undergo bariatric surgery by the technique of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass since they will suffer feeding restrictions that have great impact on their blood composition. Pathway analysis revealed that an increase in hemoglobin leads to decreased stability of the cell, probably through a process mediated by an increase in mean corpuscular volume. Furthermore, an increase in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) leads to an increase in erythrocyte membrane stability, probably because higher values of MCH are associated with smaller quantities of red blood cells and a larger contact area between the cell membrane and ethanol present in the medium.

  4. Treatment of severe peptic esophageal stricture with Roux-en-Y partial gastrectomy, vagotomy, and endoscopic dilation. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Salo, J A; Ala-Kulju, K V; Heikkinen, L O; Kivilaakso, E O

    1991-04-01

    Eleven patients with dysphagia caused by severe esophageal stricture (length 2 to 10 cm) resulting from reflux esophagitis were treated with fibroendoscopic dilation (Eder-Puestow) and Roux-en-Y partial gastrectomy with vagotomy during 10 years (1979 to 1988). There was no operative mortality, but complications developed in three patients: One patient had a mediastinal abscess demanding thoracotomy as a result of esophageal perforation after dilatation; one had postoperative pneumonia; and one patient had ileus. After a mean follow-up of 4 years (range 1 to 10 years) esophagitis healed in all cases, as judged by endoscopy. Eight patients were asymptomatic, but three had slight transient dysphagia. Postoperatively one to eight dilations (average three to four) were needed to relieve dysphagia in the first postoperative year, but later the stricture healed in every case. Postoperative pH measurement was performed in six latest patients and showed complete absence of reflux in all cases. It is concluded that Roux-en-Y partial gastrectomy with vagotomy and endoscopic dilation is an effective, simple, and safe procedure in the management of severe peptic esophageal (acid or alkaline esophagitis) stricture. However, occasional postoperative dilations at the outpatient clinic are often needed in severe cases in the first postoperative year.

  5. Hepatic artery reconstruction with the jejunal artery of the Roux-en-Y limb in pediatric living donor liver re-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wakiya, T; Sanada, Y; Mizuta, K; Umehara, M; Urahashi, T; Egami, S; Hishikawa, S; Nakata, M; Hakamada, K; Yasuda, Y; Kawarasaki, H

    2012-05-01

    When re-anastomosis and re-transplantation becomes necessary after LDLT, arterial reconstruction can be extremely difficult because of severe inflammation and lack of an adequate artery for reconstruction. Frequently, the recipient's HA is not in good condition, necessitating an alternative to the HA. In such cases, the recipient's splenic artery, right gastroepiploic artery or another vessel can be safely used for arterial reconstruction. There have, however, been few reports on using the jejunal artery. Herein, we report our experience with arterial reconstruction using the jejunal artery of the Roux-en-Y limb as an alternative to the HA. A three-yr-old girl who had developed graft failure due to early HA thrombosis after LDLT required re-transplantation. At re-transplantation, an adequate artery for reconstruction was lacking. We reconstructed the artery by using the jejunal artery of the Roux-en-Y limb, as we judged it to be the most appropriate alternative. After surgery, stent was deployed because hepatic blood flow had reduced due to kinking of the anastomosed site, and a favorable outcome was obtained. In conclusion, when an alternative to the HA is required, using the jejunal artery is a feasible alternative. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Isolated Roux-en-Y anastomosis of the pancreatic stump in a duct-to-mucosa fashion in patients with distal pancreatectomy with en-bloc celiac axis resection.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ken-Ichi; Kawai, Manabu; Tani, Masaji; Hirono, Seiko; Miyazawa, Motoki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kitahata, Yuji; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2014-03-01

    A pancreatic fistula is one of the most serious complications in distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR), because the pancreatic transection is performed on the right side of the portal vein, which results in a large cross-section surface, and because post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage is hard to treat by interventional radiology. Therefore, a procedure to decrease the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula is urgently needed. Twenty-six consecutive patients who underwent DP-CAR between April 2008 and August 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The first 13 consecutive patients underwent DP-CAR with no anastomosis, and the subsequent 13 consecutive patients were treated with Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) in a duct-to-mucosa fashion. Extremely high amylase levels (>4000 IU/l) of all drainage fluid specimens on postoperative day (POD) 1, 3 and 4 were detected more frequently in cases with no anastomosis (n = 7) compared to those with PJ (n = 1) (P = 0.056). The incidence of grade B/C pancreatic fistulas was 15.4% in cases with isolated Roux-en-Y anastomosis of the pancreatic stump performed in a duct-to-mucosa fashion, and we are currently examining whether this anastomosis method reduces the pancreatic fistula rate in a multicenter, randomized controlled trial for distal pancreatectomy patients (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01384617). © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  7. Weight Loss Outcomes in Laparoscopic Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (LVSG) Versus Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) Procedures: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Osland, Emma; Yunus, Rossita M; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed A

    2017-02-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG) have been proposed as cost-effective strategies to manage morbid obesity. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the postoperative weight loss outcomes reported in randomized control trials (RCTs) for LVSG versus LRYGB procedures. RCTs comparing the weight loss outcomes following LVSG and LRYGB in adult population between January 2000 and November 2015 were selected from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database. The review was prepared in accordance with Preferred Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Nine unique RCTs described over 10 publications involving a total of 865 patients (LVSG, n=437; LRYGB, n=428) were analyzed. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 months to 5 years. Twelve-month excess weight loss (EWL) for LVSG ranged from 69.7% to 83%, and for LRYGB, ranged from 60.5% to 86.4%. A number of studies reported slow weight gain between the second and third years of postoperative follow-up ranging from 1.4% to 4.2%EWL. This trend was seen to continue to 5 years postoperatively (8% to 10%EWL) for both procedures. In conclusion, LRYGB and LVSG are comparable with regards to the weight loss outcomes in the short term, with LRYGB achieving slightly greater weight loss. Slow weight recidivism is observed after the first postoperative year following both procedures. Long-term reporting of outcomes obtained from well-designed studies using intention-to-treat analyses are identified as a major gap in the literature at present.

  8. Factors affecting the operating time for complete cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in paediatric cases of congenital choledochal malformation: a retrospective case study in Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wan-liang; Zhan, Yang; Fang, Fang; Deng, Yan-bing; Zhao, Jun-gang

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the operating time for complete cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in paediatric cases of congenital choledochal malformation (CCM). Design A 3-year retrospective study was undertaken between January 2013 and December 2015 in four centres in China. Setting This involved a retrospective chart review of paediatric patients with CCM in four large hospitals in Southeast China. Participants Sixty-five paediatric patients with CCM were included in this study. We derived all available information on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, preoperative complications and surgical methods from the charts of all these patients. Interventions Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate factors significantly affecting the operating time for complete cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in paediatric cases of CCM. Results Twenty-three of the 65 case surgeries were performed using laparoscopic technique, and 42 surgeries were performed by conventional open surgery. The median operating time was 215 min (range 120–430 min). The morphological subtype of CCM and the presence of cholecystitis or cholangitis were the only factors found to affect the operating time (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis confirmed cholangitis as an independent risk factor. Conclusions The morphological subtype of CMM and the presence of cholecystitis or cholangitis are factors affecting the operating time for complete cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in paediatric cases of CCM, whereas cholangitis is an independent risk factor. PMID:29804066

  9. Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) incidentally found and resected during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Marcelo A; Pujado, Blazenko; Méndez, Pedro E; Gonzáles, Francisco J; Margulis, David I; Contreras, Mario A; Cruces, Karina S

    2010-03-01

    The incidence of incidental pathology found during laparoscopic bariatric surgery has been estimated to be around 2%, and gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have been found in 0.8% of patients, constituting a rather uncommon finding. Safe laparoscopic resection of gastric GISTs is an established procedure and has been described associated to gastric Roux-en-Y bypass for morbid obesity. We discuss one case of a gastric GIST incidentally discovered during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. The procedure was performed via laparoscopy, and the patient recovered without any complication. Currently, the patient has lost weight according to what was expected, is asymptomatic, and free of disease.

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRE AND POSTOPERATIVE LEVELS OF GLP-1/GLP-2 AND WEIGHT LOSS AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Cazzo, Everton; Gestic, Martinho Antonio; Utrini, Murillo Pimentel; Pareja, José Carlos; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Geloneze, Bruno; Barreto, Maria Rita Lazzarini; Magro, Daniéla Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis and weight loss achievement and maintenance after bariatric surgery appears to be a key point in the understanding of the beneficial effects observed following these procedures. To determine whether there is a correlation between the pre and postoperative levels of both GLP-1 and GLP-2 and the excess weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An exploratory prospective study which enrolled 11 individuals who underwent RYGB and were followed-up for 12 months. GLP-1 and GLP-2 after standard meal tolerance test (MTT) were determined before and after surgery and then correlated with the percentage of excess loss (%EWL). GLP-2 AUC presented a significant postoperative increase (945.3±449.1 vs.1787.9±602.7; p=0.0037); GLP-1 AUC presented a non-significant trend towards increase after RYGB (709.6±320.4 vs. 1026.5±714.3; p=0.3808). Mean %EWL was 66.7±12.2%. There was not any significant correlation between both the pre and postoperative GLP-1 AUCs and GLP-2 AUCs and the %EWL achieved after one year. There was no significant correlation between the pre and postoperative levels of the areas under the GLP-1 and GLP-2 curves with the percentage of weight loss reached after one year. O papel de hormônios gastrointestinais sobre a homeostase glicêmica e a obtenção e manutenção da perda de peso após a cirurgia bariátrica parece ser elemento fundamental na compreensão dos benefícios observados após estes procedimentos. Determinar se há correlação entre os níveis pré e pós-operatórios de GLP-1 e GLP-2 com a perda do excesso de peso após o bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux. Estudo prospectivo exploratório que envolveu 11 indivíduos submetidos ao bypass gástrico, acompanhados por 12 meses. Os níveis GLP-1 e GLP-2 após um teste de refeição padrão foram determinados antes e 12 meses após a operação e então foram correlacionados com o percentual de perda do excesso de peso. Houve aumento

  11. Postoperative Early Major and Minor Complications in Laparoscopic Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (LVSG) Versus Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) Procedures: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Osland, Emma; Yunus, Rossita Mohamad; Khan, Shahjahan; Alodat, Tareq; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed Ashraf

    2016-10-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG) have been proposed as cost-effective strategies to manage obesity-related chronic disease. The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to compare the "early postoperative complication rate i.e. within 30-days" reported from randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing these two procedures. RCTs comparing the early complication rates following LVSG and LRYGB between 2000 and 2015 were selected from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database. The outcome variables analyzed included 30-day mortality, major and minor complications and interventions required for their management, length of hospital stay, readmission rates, operating time, and conversions from laparoscopic to open procedures. Six RCTs involving a total of 695 patients (LVSG n = 347, LRYGB n = 348) reported on early major complications. A statistically significant reduction in relative odds of early major complications favoring the LVSG procedure was noted (p = 0.05). Five RCTs representing 633 patients (LVSG n = 317, LRYGB n = 316) reported early minor complications. A non-statically significant reduction in relative odds of 29 % favoring the LVSG procedure was observed for early minor complications (p = 0.4). However, other outcomes directly related to complications which included reoperation rates, readmission rate, and 30-day mortality rate showed comparable effect size for both surgical procedures. This meta-analysis and systematic review of RCTs suggests that fewer early major and minor complications are associated with LVSG compared with LRYGB procedure. However, this does not translate into higher readmission rate, reoperation rate, or 30-day mortality for either procedure.

  12. Changes in Physical Activities and Body Composition after Roux-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Alex Harley; Verlengia, Rozangela; Ravelli, Michele Novaes; Junior, Irineu Rasera; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques

    2018-06-01

    Given the importance of physical activities for health outcomes, it is still unclear whether bariatric surgery per se and the standard care after surgery would result in an increase of physical activity level. This study aimed to determine physical activities preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively among female patients who underwent bariatric surgery, and to investigate its relationship with body composition changes. Thirty-four women who had Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery completed the study. Physical activity was measured objectively for 7 consecutive days by using an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Body composition was estimated by using multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. The percentage of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) changed significantly from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively; however, no difference was observed at 12 months. No significant changes were detected for other physical activity variables. Multivariable regression analysis suggested that the percentage of time spent in sedentary activity was associated with fat-free mass loss at 6 months (β = - 0.323; 95% CI = - 0.649 to 0.003) and 12 months (β = - 0.510; 95% CI = - 0.867 to - 0.154) postoperatively. The overall MVPA increased at 6 months post-RYGB surgery; however, this change was not maintained at 12 months. Despite the considerable body mass loss postoperatively, most of the subjects were classified as being physically inactive and did not change their sedentary behavior. These findings indicate that female patients undergoing bariatric surgery should be encouraged to increase their physical activity level.

  13. Timing of pregnancy after gastric bypass-a national register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Mette Mandrup; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2013-08-01

    Current recommendations suggest postponing pregnancy by at least 1 year after gastric bypass. During the first postoperative year, women are in a catabolic phase with a rapid weight loss which may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. This study tested the hypothesis that the risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes is increased in women who conceive during the first year after gastric bypass surgery. This is a national register-based cohort study covering all Danish deliveries during 2004-2010 in women with prior Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Only the first postoperative birth was included. The risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes was compared between women who conceived within the first postoperative year and women who conceived later. Data were extracted from the Danish National Patient Registry and The Danish Medical Birth Register. Of 286 women who had a singleton delivery after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, 158 women conceived within the first year and 128 later. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the two groups regarding neonatal birth weight, gestational age, risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, labor induction, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage (>500 ml), preterm birth (before 37 weeks), small for gestational age, large for gestational age, or Apgar score (5 min ) below 7, or in the need of neonatal intensive care. This study showed no evidence to support a recommendation to delay pregnancy until after the first postoperative year. At present, the optimal time for pregnancy after gastric bypass is unknown.

  14. Quality of Life 1 Year After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Versus Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: a Randomized Controlled Trial Focusing on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Biter, L Ulas; van Buuren, Michiel M A; Mannaerts, Guido H H; Apers, Jan A; Dunkelgrün, Martin; Vijgen, Guy H E J

    2017-10-01

    Bariatric surgery is the only treatment option that achieves sustained weight loss in obese patients and that also has positive effects on obesity-related comorbidities. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) seems to achieve equal weight loss as laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), but there is still much debate about the quality of life (QOL) after LSG, mainly concerning the association with gastroesophageal reflux. Our hypothesis is that QOL after LSG is comparable with QOL after LRYGB. Between February 2013 and February 2014, 150 patients were randomized to undergo either LSG or LRYGB in our clinic. Differences in QOL were compared between groups by using multiple QOL questionnaires at follow-up moments preoperatively and 2 and 12 months after surgery. After 12 months of follow-up, 128 patients had returned the questionnaires. Most QOL questionnaires showed significant improvement in scores between the preoperative moment and after 12 months of follow-up. The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GerdQ) score deteriorated in the LSG group after 2 months, but recovered again after 12 months. After 2 months of follow-up, the mean GerdQ score was 6.95 ± 2.14 in the LSG group versus 5.50 ± 1.49 in the LRYGB group (p < 0.001). After 1 year, the mean GerdQ score was 6.63 ± 2.26 in the LSG group and 5.60 ± 1.07 in the LRYGB group (p = 0.001). This randomized controlled trial shows that patients who underwent LSG have significantly higher GerdQ scores at both 2 and 12 months postoperatively than patients who underwent LRYGB, whereas overall QOL did not differ significantly.

  15. Changes in Non-Diabetic Comorbid Disease Status Following Laparoscopic Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (LVSG) Versus Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) Procedures: a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Osland, Emma; Yunus, Rossita Mohamad; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG) have been proposed as cost-effective strategies to manage obesity-related chronic disease. The aim of this systematic review was to study the peer review literature regarding postoperative nondiabetic comorbid disease resolution or improvement reported from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LVSG and LRYGB procedures. RCTs comparing postoperative comorbid disease resolution such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, joint and musculoskeletal conditions, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and menstrual irregularities following LVSG and LRYGB were included for analysis. The studies were selected from PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database and reported on at least one comorbidity resolution or improvement. The present work was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The Jadad method for assessment of methodological quality was applied to the included studies. Six RCTs performed between 2005 and 2015 involving a total of 695 patients (LVSG n = 347, LRYGB n = 348) reported on the resolution or improvement of comorbid disease following LVSG and LRYGB procedures. Both bariatric procedures provide effective and almost comparable results in improving or resolving these comorbidities. This systematic review of RCTs suggests that both LVSG and LRYGB are effective in resolving or improving preoperative nondiabetic comorbid diseases in obese patients. While results are not conclusive at this time, LRYGB may provide superior results compared to LVSG in mediating the remission and/or improvement in some conditions such as dyslipidemia and arthritis.

  16. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery or Lifestyle With Intensive Medical Management in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Florencia; Ding, Su-Ann; Simonson, Donald C.; Panosian, Jennifer; Goebel-Fabbri, Ann; Wewalka, Marlene; Hamdy, Osama; Abrahamson, Martin; Clancy, Kerri; Foster, Kathleen; Lautz, David; Vernon, Ashley; Goldfine, Allison B.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Emerging data support bariatric surgery as a therapeutic strategy for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE To test the feasibility of methods to conduct a larger multisite trial to determine the long-term effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery compared with an intensive diabetes medical and weight management (Weight Achievement and Intensive Treatment [Why WAIT]) program for type 2 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 1-year pragmatic randomized clinical trial was conducted in an academic medical institution. Participants included persons aged 21 to 65 years with type 2 diabetes diagnosed more than 1 year before the study; their body mass index was 30 to 42 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was greater than or equal to 6.5%. All participants were receiving antihyperglycemic medications. INTERVENTIONS RYGB (n = 19) or Why WAIT (n = 19) including 12 weekly multidisciplinary group lifestyle, medical, and educational sessions with monthly follow-up thereafter. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Proportion of patients with fasting plasma glucose levels less than 126 mg/dL and HbA1c less than 6.5%, measures of cardiometabolic health, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS At 1 year, the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c below 6.5% and fasting glucose below 126 mg/dL was higher following RYGB than Why WAIT (58% vs 16%, respectively; P = .03). Other outcomes, including HbA1c, weight, waist circumference, fat mass, lean mass, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels, decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased more after RYGB compared with Why WAIT. Improvement in cardiovascular risk scores was greater in the surgical group. At baseline the participants exhibited moderately low self-reported quality-of-life scores reflected by Short Form-36 total, physical health, and mental health, as well as high Impact of Weight on Quality of Life–Lite and Problem

  17. Pancreatogenic choledocholithiasis in common bile duct stump after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hui; Zhang, An-Hong; Zhou, Shao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Choledocholithiasis in common bile duct (CBD) stump after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) is incredibly rare and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Patient concerns: A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with upper abdominal pain radiating through to the back in November 2016. Diagnoses: Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed filling defects in CBD stump, chronic pancreatitis, and dilatation of CBD stump and main pancreatic duct (MPD). Interventions: During the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), cannulation proceeded easily from MPD to CBD through a variant pancreatic duct, and then white crushed stones extracted from the CBD stump. Elemental analysis and infrared spectrophotometry demonstrated that the main constituent of the calculi was calcium carbonate. Outcomes: After a therapeutic ERCP, the patient's symptoms disappeared, and a 9-month follow-up indicated no remaining stones or lithiasis relapse. Lessons: This type of choledocholithiasis in CBD stump after RYHJ has never been reported before. We nominated it as “pancreatogenic choledocholithiasis,” and pancreatobiliary reflux caused by a variant pancreatic duct may be the main cause. PMID:29145338

  18. Current status of robotic bariatric surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Boselli, Carlo; Santoro, Alberto; Guarino, Salvatore; Covarelli, Piero; Renzi, Claudio; Listorti, Chiara; Trastulli, Stefano; Desiderio, Jacopo; Coratti, Andrea; Noya, Giuseppe; Redler, Adriano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2013-11-07

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment to obtain weight loss in severely obese patients. The feasibility and safety of bariatric robotic surgery is the topic of this review. A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, and Web of Science. Twenty-two studies were included. Anastomotic leak rate was 8.51% in biliopancreatic diversion. 30-day reoperation rate was 1.14% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 1.16% in sleeve gastrectomy. Major complication rate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass resulted higher than in sleeve gastrectomy ( 4,26% vs. 1,2%). The mean hospital stay was longer in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (range 2.6-7.4 days). The major limitation of our analysis is due to the small number and the low quality of the studies, the small sample size, heterogeneity of the enrolled patients and the lack of data from metabolic and bariatric outcomes. Despite the use of the robot, the majority of these cases are completed with stapled anastomosis. The assumption that robotic surgery is superior in complex cases is not supported by the available present evidence. The major strength of the robotic surgery is strongly facilitating some of the surgical steps (gastro-jejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy anastomosis in the robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or the vertical gastric resection in the robotic sleeve gastrectomy).

  19. FGF 19 and Bile Acids Increase Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass but Not After Medical Management in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Saachi; Wang, Qi; Billington, Charles; Connett, John; Ahmed, Leaque; Inabnet, William; Chua, Streamson; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Korner, Judith

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to quantify changes in fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and bile acids (BAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs intensive medical management (IMM) and matched for similar reduction in HbA1c after 1 year of treatment. Blood samples were drawn from patients who underwent a test meal challenge before and 1 year after IMM (n = 15) or RYGB (n = 15). Mean HbA1c decreased from 9.7 to 6.4% after RYGB and from 9.1 to 6.1% in the IMM group. At 12 months, the number of diabetes medications used per subject in the RYGB group (2.5 ± 0.5) was less than in the IMM group (4.6 ± 0.3). After RYGB, FGF19 increased in the fasted (93 ± 15 to 152 ± 19 pg/ml; P = 0.008) and postprandial states (area under the curve (AUC), 10.8 ± 1.9 to 23.4 ± 4.1 pg × h/ml × 10(3); P = 0.006) but remained unchanged following IMM. BAs increased after RYGB (AUC ×10(3), 6.63 ± 1.3 to 15.16 ± 2.56 μM × h; P = 0.003) and decreased after IMM (AUC ×10(3), 8.22 ± 1.24 to 5.70 ± 0.70; P = 0.01). No changes were observed in the ratio of 12α-hydroxylated/non-12α-hyroxylated BAs. Following RYGB, FGF19 AUC correlated with BAs (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and trended negatively with HbA1c (r = -0.44; P = 0.09); these associations were not observed after IMM. BA and FGF19 levels increased after RYGB but not after IMM in subjects who achieved similar improvement in glycemic control. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these hormonal changes facilitate improved glucose homeostasis.

  20. Changes in hormones and biomarkers in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Eid, George M; McCloskey, Carol; Titchner, Rebecca; Korytkowski, Mary; Gross, Debra; Grabowski, Cynthia; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Small retrospective studies have demonstrated reduction in weight and co-morbid hirsutism and diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The objective of this study was to prospectively determine clinical improvements in obese women with PCOS treated with gastric bypass and identify postoperative biomarker changes. Data were collected on obese women with PCOS undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass over 1 year. Testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, insulin, fasting glucose, and lipid levels were obtained preoperatively at baseline, and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Testosterone was used as the primary hormonal biomarker. A physical examination for body mass index (BMI) and hirsutism, and information on menstrual pattern were collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Data were available for 14 women. Mean BMI decreased from 44.8±5.9 kg/m(2) at baseline to 29.2±5.9 kg/m(2) at 12 months postoperatively. Significant improvements were seen in testosterone, fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride at 12 months (P<.05). At baseline, irregular menses were reported in 10 patients; all patients were experiencing regular menses 6 and 12 months after surgery. Hirsutism was present in 11 patients at baseline and only 7 patients at 12 months. Improvements in biomarkers, menstrual cycling, and hirsutism was not correlated with degree of weight change. Gastric bypass achieved significant reductions in BMI, testosterone, and markers of glucose and lipid metabolism. These data confirm reports of previous retrospective studies showing weight reduction and health improvement in women with PCOS treated with gastric bypass. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Weight and Metabolic Outcomes 12 Years after Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ted D.; Davidson, Lance E.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Kim, Jaewhan; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Nanjee, M. Nazeem; Gutierrez, Jonathan M.; Frogley, Sara J.; Ibele, Anna R.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Hopkins, Paul N.; McKinlay, Rodrick; Simper, Steven C.; Hunt, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few long-term or controlled studies of bariatric surgery have been conducted to date. We report the 12-year follow-up results of an observational, prospective study of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass that was conducted in the United States. METHODS A total of 1156 patients with severe obesity comprised three groups: 418 patients who sought and underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (surgery group), 417 patients who sought but did not undergo surgery (primarily for insurance reasons) (non-surgery group 1), and 321 patients who did not seek surgery (nonsurgery group 2). We performed clinical examinations at baseline and at 2 years, 6 years, and 12 years to ascertain the presence of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. RESULTS The follow-up rate exceeded 90% at 12 years. The adjusted mean change from baseline in body weight in the surgery group was −45.0 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], −47.2 to −42.9; mean percent change, −35.0) at 2 years, −36.3 kg (95% CI, −39.0 to −33.5; mean percent change, −28.0) at 6 years, and −35.0 kg (95% CI, −38.4 to −31.7; mean percent change, −26.9) at 12 years; the mean change at 12 years in nonsurgery group 1 was −2.9 kg (95% CI, −6.9 to 1.0; mean percent change, −2.0), and the mean change at 12 years in nonsurgery group 2 was 0 kg (95% CI, −3.5 to 3.5; mean percent change, −0.9). Among the patients in the surgery group who had type 2 diabetes at baseline, type 2 diabetes remitted in 66 of 88 patients (75%) at 2 years, in 54 of 87 patients (62%) at 6 years, and in 43 of 84 patients (51%) at 12 years. The odds ratio for the incidence of type 2 diabetes at 12 years was 0.08 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.24) for the surgery group versus nonsurgery group 1 and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for the surgery group versus nonsurgery group 2 (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The surgery group had higher remission rates and lower incidence rates of hypertension and dyslipidemia than did nonsurgery group 1 (P<0

  2. Successful treatment of recurrent cholangitis by constructing a hepaticojejunostomy with long Roux-en-Y limb in a long-term surviving patient after a Whipple procedure for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsalis, Konstantinos; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Koukouritaki, Zambia; Patridas, Dimitrios; Sakkas, Leonidas; Kyziridis, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, Charalampos

    2014-08-20

    Female, 74. Recurrent cholangitis. -. -. -. Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Unusual clinical course. Cholangitis may result from biliary obstruction (e.g., biliary or anastomotic stenosis, or foreign bodies) or occur in the presence of normal biliary drainage. Although reflux of intestinal contents into the biliary tree after hepaticojejunostomy appears to be a rare complication, it is important to emphasize that there are few available surgical therapeutic techniques. A 74-year-old woman presented to our hospital after 17 years of episodes of cholangitis. The patient had undergone a pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) 18 years earlier due to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The reconstruction was achieved through the sequential placement of pancreatic, biliary, and retrocolic gastric anastomosis into the same jejunal loop. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Approximately 6 months after the initial operation, the patient started having episodes of cholangitis. Over the next 17 years she experienced several febrile episodes presumed to be secondary to cholangitis. A computing tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed intrahepatic bile ducts partially filled with orally administered contrast material (Gastrografin). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed dilatation of the left intrahepatic bile ducts. A percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography showed that the bilioenteric anastomosis was normal, without stenosis. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of a short loop between the hepaticojejunostomy and the gastrojejunostomy permitting the reflux of intestinal juice into the biliary tree was made. During the re-operation, a new hepaticojejunal anastomosis in a 100-cm long Roux-en-Y loop was performed to prevent the reflux of the intestinal fluid into the biliary tree. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. One year after the second procedure, the patient enjoys good health and has

  3. Quality of life after total vs distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction: Use of the Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale-45

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masazumi; Terashima, Masanori; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Nagai, Eishi; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Kinami, Shinichi; Nagata, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Masashi; Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Nakada, Koji

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the detrimental impact of loss of reservoir capacity by comparing total gastrectomy (TGRY) and distal gastrectomy with the same Roux-en-Y (DGRY) reconstruction. The study was conducted using an integrated questionnaire, the Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale (PGSAS)-45, recently developed by the Japan Postgastrectomy Syndrome Working Party. METHODS The PGSAS-45 comprises 8 items from the Short Form-8, 15 from the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, and 22 newly selected items. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed on 868 questionnaires completed by patients who underwent either TGRY (n = 393) or DGRY (n = 475) for stage I gastric cancer (52 institutions). Multivariate analysis weighed of six explanatory variables, including the type of gastrectomy (TGRY/DGRY), interval after surgery, age, gender, surgical approach (laparoscopic/open), and whether the celiac branch of the vagus nerve was preserved/divided on the quality of life (QOL). RESULTS The patients who underwent TGRY experienced the poorer QOL compared to DGRY in the 15 of 19 main outcome measures of PGSAS-45. Moreover, multiple regression analysis indicated that the type of gastrectomy, TGRY, most strongly and broadly impaired the postoperative QOL among six explanatory variables. CONCLUSION The results of the present study suggested that TGRY had a certain detrimental impact on the postoperative QOL, and the loss of reservoir capacity could be a major cause. PMID:28373774

  4. Efficacy of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass compared to medically managed controls in meeting the American Diabetes Association composite end point goals for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Daniel B; Dorman, Robert B; Serrot, Federico J; Swan, Therese W; Kellogg, Todd A; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Buchwald, Henry; Slusarek, Bridget M; Sampson, Barbara K; Bantle, John P; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2012-03-01

    The treatment goals recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus include hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) <7.0%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) <100 mg/dL, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) <130 mmHg. Only 10% of conventionally treated patients reach these goals as a composite endpoint. The efficacy of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in meeting this composite endpoint has not been reported. We compared our database of patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing RYGB to a database of patients with medically managed type 2 diabetes and at least 2 years of follow-up data. Ultimately, 152 RYGB patients were compared to 115 routine medical management (RMM) patients for whom data on the composite endpoint were available over 2 years. The results show significant decrease in body mass index (kilograms per square meter) in the RYGB group compared to the RMM group (P < 0.001). HbA1C, LDL cholesterol, and SBP all significantly improved in the RYGB group (all P ≤ 0.01) and did not demonstrate any significant change in the RMM group. Over 2 years, when evaluating all three endpoints, the RYGB group (10.5% to 38.2%, P < 0.001) demonstrated increased achievement of the ADA goals compared to the RMM group (13.9% to 17.4%, P = 0.47). There was a significant decrease in medication use in the RYGB cohort; however, discontinuation of medications was sometimes inappropriate. RYGB achieves the ADA composite endpoint more frequently than conventional therapy and with less medication.

  5. Functional jejunal interposition, a reconstruction procedure, promotes functional outcomes after total gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuewei; Yan, Fang; Liang, Han; Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Kuo; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao; Hao, Xishan

    2015-04-15

    Functional jejunal interposition (FJI) has been applied as a reconstruction procedure to maintain the jejunal continuity and duodenal food passage after total gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of the FJI procedure by comparing the functional outcomes of FJI to Roux-en-Y after total gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients, and investigate physiologic mechanisms by which FJI exerts beneficial outcomes in beagles. Patients with stage I-IV gastric cancer without metastasis and recurrence one year after surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. Seventy one patients received FJI and seventy nine patients received Roux-en-Y after total gastrectomy. We evaluated the nutritional status at three and twelve months and incidence of complications up to twelve months after surgery. Beagles receiving sham operation, FJI, or Roux-en-Y after total gastrectomy were sacrificed forty eight hours postoperatively. Beagles were gavaged with active carbon for evaluating the intestinal transit rate. Intestinal tissues from the duodenojejunal anastomosis were collected for examining interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), inflammation, and apoptosis. Compared to the bodyweight before surgery, the bodyweight loss at three and twelve months after surgery in patients receiving FJI was significant less than that in patients with Roux-en-Y. Patients with the FJI procedure showed significant increase of blood hemoglobin and total protein, compared to those at one month after surgery, and the prognostic nutrition index scores at three and twelve months after surgery. The incidence rates of post-operative complications, including reflux esophagitis, dumping syndrome, and Roux-en-Y syndrome were decreased in patients with FJI. Compared to beagles receiving Roux-en-Y, more ICC in the intestinal submuocsa, less intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and decreased inflammation in serosal side of the intestine were found in the FJI

  6. [Simplified laparoscopic gastric bypass. Initial experience].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Miguelena, Luis; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Ríos-Cruz, Daniel; Marín-Domínguez, Raúl; Castillo-González, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Obesity surgery includes various gastrointestinal procedures. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the prototype of mixed procedures being the most practiced worldwide. A similar and novel technique has been adopted by Dr. Almino Cardoso Ramos and Dr. Manoel Galvao called "simplified bypass," which has been accepted due to the greater ease and very similar results to the conventional technique. The aim of this study is to describe the results of the simplified gastric bypass for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution. We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of all patients undergoing simplified gastric bypass from January 2008 to July 2012 in the obesity clinic of a private hospital in Mexico City. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with morbid obesity underwent simplified gastric bypass. Complications occurred in 10% of patients; these were more frequent bleeding and internal hernia. Mortality in the study period was 0%. The average weight loss at 12 months was 72.7%. Simplified gastric bypass surgery is safe with good mid-term results and a loss of adequate weight in 71% of cases.

  7. Accuracy of upper gastrointestinal swallow study in identifying strictures after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Daylami, Rouzbeh; Rogers, Ann M; King, Tonya S; Haluck, Randy S; Shope, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    Stricture at the gastrojejunal anastomosis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a significant sequela that often requires intervention. The diagnosis of stricture is usually established by a recognized constellation of symptoms, followed by contrast radiography or endoscopy. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the accuracy of contrast swallow studies in excluding the diagnosis of gastrojejunal stricture. A retrospective analysis of the charts of 119 patients who had undergone laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, representing 41 upper gastrointestinal (GI) swallow studies, was conducted. Of those patients who underwent GI swallow studies, 30 then underwent definitive upper endoscopy to confirm or rule out stricture. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the swallow studies were calculated. Of the 30 patients who underwent upper endoscopic examination for symptoms of stricture after laparoscopic gastric bypass, 20 were confirmed to have a stricture. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the upper GI swallow study in this group was 55%, 100%, and 53%, respectively. The demographics of the patients with strictures were similar to those of the study group as a whole. The results of our study have shown that a positive upper GI swallow study is 100% specific for the presence of stricture. However, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of upper GI swallow studies were poor, making this modality unsatisfactory in definitively excluding the diagnosis of gastrojejunal stricture.

  8. A Time Interval of More Than 18 Months Between a Pregnancy and a Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Increases the Risk of Iron Deficiency and Anaemia in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crusell, Mie; Nilas, Lisbeth; Svare, Jens; Lauenborg, Jeannet

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the impact of time between Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and pregnancy on obstetrical outcome and nutritional derangements. In a retrospective cross-sectional study of pregnant women admitted for antenatal care at two tertiary hospitals, we examined 153 women with RYGB and a singleton pregnancy of at least 24 weeks. The women were stratified according to a pregnancy <18 months (40 women) or ≥18 months (113 women) after RYGB. Main outcome measures were nutritional parameters and glycated haemoglobin 1Ac (HbA1c) in second and third trimester of pregnancy, gestational hypertension, length of pregnancy, mode of delivery and foetal birth weight. The two groups were comparable regarding age, parity and prepregnancy body mass index. The frequency of iron deficiency anaemia (ferritin <12 μg/L and haemoglobin <6.5 mmol/L/10.5 g/dL) was significantly higher in the late group, 29 vs. 8 % in the early group, p = 0.010. No differences were found for vitamin B12, vitamin D and zinc. Median HbA1c was significantly higher in the late group than in the early group (33 vs. 31 mmol/mol, p = 0.027). There were no significant differences in the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome or birth weight between the two groups. A long surgery-to-pregnancy time interval after a RYGB increases the risk of iron deficiency anaemia but not of other nutritional deficits. Time interval does not seem to have an adverse effect on the obstetrical outcome, including intrauterine growth restriction. Specific attention is needed on iron deficit with increasing surgery-to-pregnancy time interval.

  9. Baseline Anthropometric and Metabolic Parameters Correlate with Weight Loss in Women 1-Year After Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Sans, Arnaud; Bailly, Laurent; Anty, Rodolphe; Sielezenef, Igor; Gugenheim, Jean; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Iannelli, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we explored in a prospective cohort of morbidly obese women undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGP) correlations between baseline anthropometrics, metabolic parameters, resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, and 1-year % excess body mass index loss (%EBMIL). We also investigated risk factors for insufficient %EBMIL. One hundred three consecutive women were prospectively evaluated at baseline (age 40.6 ± 11.2, weight 113.9 kg ± 15.3, BMI 43.3 ± 4.9 kg/m 2 ) and 1 year after LRYGP. Weight, excess weight, brachial circumference, waist circumference, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis), REE, inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid disturbances were determined before and 1 year after LRYGP. At 1 year, mean weight loss was 39.8 kg ± 11.7 and mean EBMIL was 15.2 kg/m 2  ± 4.2. Mean %EBMIL was 86% ± 21% (range 30-146%). Baseline brachial circumference, waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness decreased significantly at 1 year (P < 0.001). Blood glucose and insulin levels, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and CRP also decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The mean loss of initial FFM and FM was 9.1 kg ± 8.2 (15%) and 30.7 kg ± 11.8 (53%), respectively. REE on body weight ratio (REE/BW) increased from 15.3 kcal/kg ± 2.8 to 18.4 kcal/kg ± 2.5 (p < 0.0001) and REE on FFM ratio decreased from 31.2 to 28.7 kcal/day/kg (p < 0.001). Preoperative waist circumference (r = -0.3; P < 0.001), blood glucose level (r = -0.37; P < 0.001), and CRP (r = -0.28; P = 0.004) were negatively correlated with EBMIL% 1 year after surgery. Among baseline body composition parameters, only preoperative FM was negatively correlated with %EBMIL (r = -0.23; p = 0.02). One year after surgery FM change was negatively correlated with EBMIL% (r = -0.49; P < 0.001) while FFM/BW ratio was positively correlated with

  10. Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of the EndoLift Liver Retractor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-03

    Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedure; Laparoscopic Gastric Banding; Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass; Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy; Laparoscopic Fundoplication Procedure; Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy; Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hernia Repair; Laparoscopic Gastric Resection

  11. Roux-En-Y Fistulo-Jejunostomy as a salvage procedure in patients with post-sleeve gastrectomy fistula.

    PubMed

    Chouillard, Elie; Chahine, Elias; Schoucair, Naim; Younan, Antoine; Jarallah, Mohammad Al; Fajardy, Alain; Vitte, René-Louis; Biagini, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is currently the most common bariatric procedure in France. It achieves both adequate excess weight loss and significant reduction of comorbidities. However, leak is still the most common complication after SG. Nevertheless, its risk of occurrence is <3% in specialized centers. Its management is difficult, long, and challenging. Although the procedure is commonly endoscopic and nonoperative, the management of post-SG fistulas could sometimes be surgical, including peritoneal lavage, abscess drainage, disrupted staple line suturing, resleeve, gastric bypass, or total gastrectomy. Roux-en-Y fistulojejunostomy (RYFJ) has been described as a salvage option. In this study, we report the early results of RYFJ for post-SG fistula, emphasizing indications, operative technique, and short-term outcome. Between January 2007 and December 2012, we treated 62 patients with post-SG fistula. Before surgery, intra-abdominal or thoracic abscesses or collections were either excluded or treated by computed tomographic scan-guided drainage or even surgery. Endoscopic stenting was then attempted. After optimization of the nutritional status in case of failure of endoscopic measures, some of the patients underwent RYFJ. Between January 2007 and December 2012, a total of 21 patients (16 women and 5 men) had RYFJ for post-SG fistula. Mean age was 47 years (range, 22-59 years). Procedures were performed laparoscopically in all but 3 cases. The rate of secondary conversion to laparotomy was 11.1%. The was no mortality. The postoperative morbidity rate was less than 5%. The rate of fistula control was eventually 100%. RYFJ is a safe and feasible salvage procedure for the treatment of patients with post-SG fistula. Longer outcome analysis is, however, needed especially regarding the physiological and metabolic behavior of the procedure.

  12. Advances in circular stapling technique for gastric bypass: transoral placement of the anvil.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Hinojosa, Marcelo W; Smith, Brian R; Reavis, Kevin M; Wilson, Samuel E

    2008-05-01

    In Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, construction of the gastrojejunostomy is commonly performed using a circular stapler. The initial description for placement of the anvil was via the transoral approach. Although the concept was ingenious, technical difficulty was encountered during passage resulting in complications such as hypopharyngeal perforation and esophageal mucosal injury. As a result, most surgeons subsequently changed their route of anvil placement to the transabdominal approach. Advances in stapler technology now allow the head of the anvil to be pre-tilted, permitting transoral introduction with greater ease and safety. This paper describes this improved method for transoral placement of the anvil during laparoscopic gastric bypass and reoperative bariatric surgery.

  13. Decreased serum betatrophin levels correlate with improved fasting plasma glucose and insulin secretion capacity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kaifeng; Yu, Haoyong; Lu, Junxi; Bao, Yuqian; Chen, Haibing; Jia, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that serum betatrophin levels, a hormone derived from adipose tissue and liver, are elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). To investigate the relationships among betatrophin and metabolic control, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell function in obese Chinese patients with T2D who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). University hospital, China. This 1-year follow-up study included 34 obese individuals with T2D (18 males, 16 females) who underwent RYGB in our hospital. Anthropometric results, glucose levels, lipid profiles, and serum betatrophin levels were determined before and 1 year after RYGB. The serum betatrophin level decreased significantly after RYGB (72.0 ng/mL [33.4-180.9] versus 35.7 ng/mL [14.8-103.3]); P<.001]. The change in betatrophin was significantly positively correlated with the changes in hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose and negatively correlated with the changes in the 2-hour C-peptide/fasting C-peptide and homeostasis model of assessment of β-cell function (P<.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the change in the serum betatrophin level was independently and significantly associated with the changes in fasting plasma glucose (β = .586, P<.001) and 2-hour C-peptide/fasting C-peptide (β = -.309, P = .021). Circulating betatrophin might be involved in the regulation of glucose control and insulin secretion in obese Chinese with T2D soon after RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Actual 5-Year Nutritional Outcomes of Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the rarely reported long-term nutritional results of patients with gastric cancer after curative gastrectomy. We retrospectively reviewed the prospectively collected medical records of 658 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy with curative intent for gastric cancer from January 2008 to December 2009 and had no recurrences. All patients were followed for 5 years. Nutritional statuses were assessed using measurements of body weight, serum hemoglobin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), protein, albumin, cholesterol, and nutritional risk index (NRI). Patients who underwent total gastrectomy had lower body weights, hemoglobin, protein, albumin, and cholesterol levels. TLC and NRI valued after the first postoperative year (P<0.05), and lower hemoglobin and NRI valued during the fifth postoperative year than patients who underwent distal gastrectomy (P<0.05). Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy after gastrectomy had lower hemoglobin, protein, albumin, and cholesterol levels. TLC and NRI valued during the first postoperative year, than those who underwent gastrectomy only (P<0.05). Regarding post-distal gastrectomy reconstruction, those who underwent Roux-en-Y had lower cholesterol levels than did those who underwent Billroth-I and Billroth-II reconstruction at the first and fifth years after gastrectomy, respectively (P<0.05). Patients undergoing total or distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis or adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery should be monitored carefully for malnutrition during the first postoperative year, and patients undergoing total gastrectomy should be monitored for malnutrition and anemia for 5 years.

  15. Effects of Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Comparison of BMI > 30 and < 30 kg/m2.

    PubMed

    Ke, Zhigang; Li, Fan; Chen, Jing; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Xunmei; Sun, Fang; Li, Chunxue; Liu, Baohua; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Zhiming; Tong, Weidong

    2017-11-01

    Recently, many studies focused on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m 2 and suggested that those patients might benefit from Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, evidence on its effectiveness to improve T2DM patients with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 is still lacking. The aim of this study is to explore whether T2DM patients with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 get similar surgical effect from RYGB compared with those patients with BMI > 30 kg/m 2 . Seventy patients with uncontrolled T2DM underwent laparoscopic RYGB from May 2010 to December 2015 in the GI Department of Daping Hospital. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, and lipid metabolic parameters were collected and evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postsurgery. Patients with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 were compared with those with BMI > 30 kg/m 2 . Among the 70 patients, 47 (67.1%) BMI < 30 kg/m 2 , and 23 (32.9%) BMI > 30 kg/m 2 . Patients with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 are significantly older; they are female predominant and have longer duration of diabetes. The complete remission of T2DM was 28.2% of the BMI < 30 kg/m 2 group and 57.9% of the BMI > 30 kg/m 2 group (p = 0.029). There was no significant difference in the change of glucose and lipid metabolic parameters of both groups. FPG, 2hPG, and HbA1c% levels were significantly improved after 1 month (p < 0.05), and then remained essentially stable from the sixth month in both groups. The 2-year study has shown that RYGB is a safe and effective procedure in treating T2DM with BMI < 30 kg/m 2 , although the complete remission of T2DM in the BMI < 30 kg/m 2 group is lower than the BMI > 30 kg/m 2 group.

  16. A Predictive Model of Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass up to 5 Years After Surgery: a Useful Tool to Select and Manage Candidates to Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Seyssel, Kevin; Suter, Michel; Pattou, François; Caiazzo, Robert; Verkindt, Helene; Raverdy, Violeta; Jolivet, Mathieu; Disse, Emmanuel; Robert, Maud; Giusti, Vittorio

    2018-06-19

    Different factors, such as age, gender, preoperative weight but also the patient's motivation, are known to impact outcomes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). Weight loss prediction is helpful to define realistic expectations and maintain motivation during follow-up, but also to select good candidates for surgery and limit failures. Therefore, developing a realistic predictive tool appears interesting. A Swiss cohort (n = 444), who underwent RYGBP, was used, with multiple linear regression models, to predict weight loss up to 60 months after surgery considering age, height, gender and weight at baseline. We then applied our model on two French cohorts and compared predicted weight to the one finally reached. Accuracy of our model was controlled using root mean square error (RMSE). Mean weight loss was 43.6 ± 13.0 and 40.8 ± 15.4 kg at 12 and 60 months respectively. The model was reliable to predict weight loss (0.37 < R 2  < 0.48) and RMSE between 5.0 and 12.2 kg. High preoperative weight and young age were positively correlated to weight loss, as well as male gender. Correlations between predicted weight and real weight were highly significant in both validation cohorts (R ≥ 0.7 and P < 0.01) and RMSE increased throughout follow-up between 6.2 and 15.4 kg. Our statistical model to predict weight loss outcomes after RYGBP seems accurate. It could be a valuable tool to define realistic weight loss expectations and to improve patient selection and outcomes during follow-up. Further research is needed to demonstrate the interest of this model in improving patients' motivation and results and limit the failures.

  17. Management of gastrogastric fistulas after divided Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity: analysis of 1,292 consecutive patients and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Carrodeguas, Lester; Szomstein, Samuel; Soto, Flavia; Whipple, Oliver; Simpfendorfer, Conrad; Gonzalvo, John Paul; Villares, Alexander; Zundel, Natan; Rosenthal, Raul

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most commonly performed bariatric operation in the United States. Although rare, gastrogastric fistulas are an important complication of this procedure. We report a series of 1,292 consecutive patients who underwent a divided RYGB procedure at our institution between January 2000 and November 2004. Of the 1,292 patients, we identified 15 (1.2%) who presented with gastrogastric fistulas after surgery. The mean age, weight, and body mass index of these patients was 39.5 years, 377.5 lb, and 54.9 kg/m(2), respectively. The mean postoperative follow-up was 17.6 months. The overall follow-up success rate in this series at 1 and 2 years postoperatively was 85% and 77%, respectively. Of the 15 patients, 12 (80%) presented with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain. Esophagogastroscopy revealed marginal ulcers in 8 (53%) of these symptomatic patients. The most sensitive test for the diagnosis of gastrogastric fistula was an upper gastrointestinal contrast study. The mean time to fistula diagnosis was 80 days. Four patients (27%) had had a known leak before their diagnosis of gastrogastric fistula. In all cases, the leaks were managed nonoperatively with drainage, parenteral nutrition, and bowel rest. In this subset of patients, the mean time to fistula diagnosis was 25 days. Four patients (27%) presented to the clinic unsatisfied with their weight loss. The mean excess percentage of weight loss was 60.9%. Of the 15 patients with a diagnosed gastrogastric fistula, 8 (53.3%) presented with concomitant marginal ulcers. When present, marginal ulcers were managed with chronic acid suppressive therapy consisting of proton pump inhibitors and sucralfate. Revisional surgery was performed in 5 (33.3%) of 15 patients because of the combination of constant pain and ulceration refractory to optimal medical treatment and in 1 patient (7%) because of refractory pain unresponsive to medical therapy and weight regain. All

  18. The Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy Surgery on Dietary Intake, Food Preferences, and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Post-Surgical Morbidly Obese Lebanese Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    El Labban, Sibelle; Safadi, Bassem; Olabi, Ammar

    2015-12-01

    Data on gastrointestinal (GI) and dietary changes following bariatric surgery are scarce in the Middle Eastern region. The objective of this work was to retrospectively compare dietary intake, food preferences, and GI symptoms in subjects with extreme obesity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Sixty subjects equally divided between RYGB and SG with a postoperative period of ≥6 months were recruited for a retrospective, non-randomized, and observational study. All subjects completed three questionnaires (GI symptoms, food preferences, and quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)) and three 24-h recalls. At one year postoperatively, both surgical groups showed similar percentage of excess weight loss that exceeded 50%. In addition, percentage of carbohydrate, protein, and sugar intake from total energy, frequency of daily consumption from the eight food categories and daily energy intake were comparable between surgical groups. RYGB subjects consumed significantly more fruits and juices from total energy (P < 0.05) whereas SG subjects tended to consume more sweets and desserts. Heartburn (P < 0.001), regurgitation (P < 0.01), nausea (P < 0.01), vomiting (P < 0.001), and constipation (P < 0.05) were significantly more frequent among SG subjects. Flatulence (P < 0.001) and diarrhea (P < 0.05), as well as dizziness (P < 0.001), and fast heartbeat (P < 0.05) after eating were significantly more frequent after RYGB. There were no major differences in dietary intake and food preferences between RYGB and SG groups. There was a trend for sweet-eating in SG subjects with less dumping symptoms to suggest different mechanisms of action for each procedure, which might impact eating behavior.

  19. Relationship Between Vitamin D Deficiency and the Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Morbid Obesity, Before and 1 Year After Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass or Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Obispo Entrenas, Ana; Legupin Tubio, David; Lucena Navarro, Fabiola; Martin Carvajal, Francisco; Gandara Adan, Norberto; Redondo Bautista, Maximino; Abiles Osinaga, Jimena

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). After bariatric surgery (BS), high rates of VDD often persist and some patients are refractory to the resolution of comorbidities. The aim of the present study is to analyse the relationship between the levels of vitamin D and the persistence of MS components at 12 months after BS, according to the surgical technique used. We performed a retrospective study of 46 patients undergoing BS: 23 underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) and 23 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). These patients had an average BMI of 45 kg/m 2 (34-63). Levels of vitamin D were classified as deficient (<20 ng/dl), insufficient (20-30 ng/dl) or normal (>30 ng/dl) and analysed in relation to the components of MS (high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidaemia (DL) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) preoperatively and 12 months after surgery. VDD was observed in 77% of the patients prior to surgery. There were no significant associations between predisposing factors and baseline vitamin D. After surgery, plasma levels of vitamin D increased in both groups, but only 18% of the patients achieved normal values. Both groups had achieved significant improvements in MS components. Thus, 63% of all the patients achieved complete resolution of HBP, 54% that of DL and 77% that of T2DM. Moreover, MS was present in 11% of the patients, compared to 63% at baseline, and the MS resolution rate was 83%, with no significant differences between LRYGBP and LSG. There is a relationship between VDD and persistence of MS, and particularly so with T2DM. VDD could represent a predictor of MS persistence at 12 months after surgery.

  20. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass lead to equal changes in body composition and energy metabolism 17 months postoperatively: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Julia; Peterli, Ralph; Gass, Markus; Slawik, Marc; Peters, Thomas; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss is the sum of fat and lean mass loss. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences between 2 surgical procedures, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), in terms of their effect on body composition and energy metabolism. In addition, the predictive value of preoperative body composition and energy metabolism on postoperative outcome was evaluated. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon (RP) at the St. Claraspital Basel in Switzerland. Calorimetry and DEXA were carried out at the same institution (Interdisciplinary Center of Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, St. Claraspital Basel). Forty-two morbidly obese, mainly female (85%), nondiabetic and diabetic (50%) patients (body mass index [BMI]: 43.9 kg/m(2)±1.3) before and 17±5.6 months after LSG (n = 23) and LRYGB (n = 19) were examined. Body composition was analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and resting energy expenditure (REE); fat and carbohydrate oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Follow-up was 100%. Excessive BMI loss (EBMIL) was 64.4% in the LSG group and 76.4% in the LRYGB group (P<.046). In both groups total fat and muscle mass decreased significantly compared with baseline (P<.001) and the percentage of muscle mass per kilogram of weight increased postoperatively (results not significant). REE decreased (P<.001) and REE per kilogram of weight increased significantly (P<.003) compared with baseline. Carbohydrate oxidation remained stable in both groups, and fat oxidation decreased significantly (P<.001) compared with baseline. In diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic patients there were no statistically significant differences in REE, substrate oxidation, or reduction in truncal fat. Postoperatively, lean mass was higher in diabetic patients (P = .037). Preoperative indirect calorimetry and DEXA results were of no predictive value for outcome. Changes in REE and body

  1. Pancreaticojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy and double Roux-en-Y digestive tract reconstruction for benign pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chang-Ku; Lu, Xue-Fei; Yang, Qing-Zhuang; Weng, Jie; Chen, You-Ke; Fu, Yu

    2014-09-28

    Surgery such as digestive tract reconstruction is usually required for pancreatic trauma and severe pancreatitis as well as malignant pancreatic lesions. The most common digestive tract reconstruction techniques (e.g., Child's type reconstruction) for neoplastic diseases of the pancreatic head often encompass pancreaticojejunostomy, choledochojejunostomy and then gastrojejunostomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy, whereas these techniques may not be applicable in benign pancreatic diseases due to an integrated stomach and duodenum in these patients. In benign pancreatic diseases, the aforementioned reconstruction will not only increase the distance between the pancreaticojejunostomy and choledochojejunostomy, but also the risks of traction, twisting and angularity of the jejunal loop. In addition, postoperative complications such as mixed fistula are refractory and life-threatening after common reconstruction procedures. We here introduce a novel pancreaticojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy and double Roux-en-Y digestive tract reconstruction in two cases of benign pancreatic disease, thus decreasing not only the distance between the pancreaticojejunostomy and choledochojejunostomy, but also the possibility of postoperative complications compared to common reconstruction methods. Postoperatively, the recovery of these patients was uneventful and complications such as bile leakage, pancreatic leakage and digestive tract obstruction were not observed during the follow-up period.

  2. Effects of Fat and Protein Preloads on Pouch Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Glycaemia, Gut Hormones, Glucose Absorption, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Debreceni, Tamara L; Burgstad, Carly M; Neo, Melissa; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith M; Standfield, Scott; Bartholomeusz, Dylan; Rayner, Chris K; Wittert, Gary; Horowitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of fat and protein preloads on pouch emptying (PE), caecal arrival time (CAT), glucose absorption, blood glucose (BSL), gut hormones, haemodynamics and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in subjects who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) >12 months previously. Ten RYGB subjects were studied on three occasions, in randomised order, receiving 200-ml preloads of either water, fat (30 ml olive oil) or whey protein (55 g), 30 min before a mixed meal. PE, CAT, BSL, plasma 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranose (3-OMG), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and GI symptoms were assessed over 270 min. Although fat and protein preloads did not alter PE of either solids or liquids, the CAT of solids, but not liquids, was longer than that after the water preload (fat 68 ± 5 min and protein 71 ± 6 min vs. water 46 ± 5 min; P = 0.02). BSL elevated promptly after the meal on all days (P < 0.001), but after protein, the magnitude and integrated increases in the first 75 min were less than fat and water preloads (area under the curve (AUC(0-75 min)), 18.7 ± 18.2 vs. 107.2 ± 30.4 and 76.1 ± 19.3 mmol/L/min; P < 0.05). Compared to water preload, the protein and fat preloads were associated with greater increases in plasma insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon concentrations, a reduction in BP, and greater increases in HR, fullness, bloating and nausea. Plasma 3-OMG levels were lower after the protein than after the water and fat preloads (P < 0.001). Given its effects to attenuate post-prandial glycaemia, reduce intestinal glucose absorption and potentiate the "incretin response", without inducing more adverse post-prandial GI symptom, protein preload may prove clinically useful in RYGB patients and warrant further evaluation, particularly in those with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and/or dumping syndrome.

  3. Increased Postprandial Energy Expenditure May Explain Superior Long Term Weight Loss after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Compared to Vertical Banded Gastroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Malin; Olbers, Torsten; Fändriks, Lars; Bueter, Marco; Lönroth, Hans; Stenlöf, Kaj; le Roux, Carel W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Gastric bypass results in greater weight loss than Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to effects on energy intake the two bariatric techniques may differentially influence energy expenditure (EE). Gastric bypass in rats increases postprandial EE enough to result in elevated EE over 24 hours. This study aimed to investigate alterations in postprandial EE after gastric bypass and VBG in humans. Methods Fourteen women from a randomized clinical trial between gastric bypass (n = 7) and VBG (n = 7) were included. Nine years postoperatively and at weight stability patients were assessed for body composition and calorie intake. EE was measured using indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber over 24 hours and focused on the periods surrounding meals and sleep. Blood samples were analysed for postprandial gut hormone responses. Results Groups did not differ regarding body composition or food intake either preoperatively or at study visit. Gastric bypass patients had higher EE postprandially (p = 0.018) and over 24 hours (p = 0.048) compared to VBG patients. Postprandial peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels were higher after gastric bypass (both p<0.001). Conclusions Gastric bypass patients have greater meal induced EE and total 24 hours EE compared to VBG patients when assessed 9 years postoperatively. Postprandial satiety gut hormone responses were exaggerated after gastric bypass compared to VBG. Long-term weight loss maintenance may require significant changes in several physiological mechanisms which will be important to understand if non-surgical approaches are to mimic the effects of bariatric surgery. PMID:23573244

  4. More symptoms but similar blood glucose curve after oral carbohydrate provocation in patients with a history of hypoglycemia-like symptoms compared to asymptomatic patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Laurenius, Anna; Werling, Malin; Le Roux, Carel W; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is an effective treatment for obesity through altering several physiologic mechanisms. Some patients experience symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia after LRYGB, but whether these symptoms always are associated with low blood glucose are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia, plasma glucose levels and gut hormones involved in glycemic control. Eight LRYGB patients with hypglycemia-like symptoms (SY) and 8 patients with no hypglycemia-like symptoms (ASY) ingested a liquid carbohydrate meal. Insulin, plasma-glucose, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon were measured intermittently 180 minutes postprandially. In addition, pulse rate, blood pressure and symptoms were assessed. Plasma glucose at 120 min was lower in the ASY mean (95% CI) 2.4 (1.6,3.3) mmol/L (43.2 mg/dL) compared to the SY group 3.0 (3.1,4.6) mmol/L (54.6 mg/dL), (P = .050). The ASY group had larger reduction in plasma glucose than the SY group from pre- to 120 min postmeal -2.2 (-2.8,-1.7) mmol/L (-39.6 mg/dL) versus -1.1 (-1.7,-0.4) mmol/L (-19.8 mg/dL), (P = .011). The concentrations of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon did not differ significantly between groups. Blood pressure was similar between groups, but the AUC for pulse rate was higher in the SY than ASY group 13009 (11148,14870) versus 11569 (10837,12300) beats/180 minutes, (P = .038). The SY group reported more symptoms than the ASY group, AUC for Sigstad scale 60 to 180 minutes was 970 (-274,1667) for SY versus 170 for ASY (-39,379), (P = .028). Patients with a history of symptoms suggestive of hypglycemia after LRYGB neither demonstrated lower plasma glucose nor greater insulin response compared to asymptomatic patients in response to a liquid carbohydrate meal, but perceived more symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [The key points of prevention for special surgical complications after radical operation of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Wang, Weizhi; Li, Panyuan; Zhang, Diancai; Yang, Li; Xu, Zekuan

    2017-02-25

    . The key treatment of this complication is to promt diagnosis and effective hemostasis.(4) Blood supply disorder of Roux-Y intestinal loop: Main preventive principle of this complication is to pay attention to the blood supply of vascular arch in intestinal edge. (5) Anastomotic obstruction by big purse of jejunal stump: When Roux-en-Y anastomosis is performed after distal radical operation for gastric cancer, anvil is placed in the remnant stomach and anastomat from distal jejunal stump is placed to make gastrojejunal anastomosis, and the stump is closed with big purse embedding. The embedding jejunal stump may enter gastric cavity leading to internal hernia and anastomotic obstruction. We suggest that application of interruptable and interlocking suture and fixation of stump on the gastric wall can avoid the development of this complication.

  6. Drain tube migration into the anastomotic site of an esophagojejunostomy for gastric small cell carcinoma: short report.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peng-Sheng; Lo, Chiao; Lin, Long-Wei; Lee, Po-Chu

    2010-05-21

    Intraluminal migration of a drain through an anastomotic site is a rare complication of gastric surgery. We herein report the intraluminal migration of a drain placed after a lower esophagectomy and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis for gastric small cell carcinoma. Persistent drainage was noted 1 month after surgery, and radiographic studies were consistent with drain tube migration. Endoscopy revealed the drain had migrated into the esophagojejunostomy anastomotic site. The drain was removed from outside of abdominal wound while observing the anastomotic site endoscopically. The patient was treated with suction via a nasogastric tube drain for 5 days, and thereafter had an uneventful recovery. Though drain tube migration is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in patients with persistent drainage who have undergone gastric surgery.

  7. Reported appetite, taste and smell changes following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: Effect of gender, type 2 diabetes and relationship to post-operative weight loss.

    PubMed

    Makaronidis, Janine M; Neilson, Sabrina; Cheung, Wui-Hang; Tymoszuk, Urszula; Pucci, Andrea; Finer, Nicholas; Doyle, Jacqueline; Hashemi, Majid; Elkalaawy, Mohamed; Adamo, Marco; Jenkinson, Andrew; Batterham, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    Reduced energy intake drives weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) procedures. Post-operative changes in subjective appetite, taste, and smell and food preferences are reported and suggested to contribute to reduced energy intake. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these changes following RYGB and SG and to evaluate their relationship with weight loss. 98 patients post-RYGB and 155 post-SG from a single bariatric centre were recruited to a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a questionnaire, previously utilised in post-operative bariatric patients, to assess the prevalence of post-operative food aversions and subjective changes in appetite, taste and smell. Anthropometric data were collected and percentage weight loss (%WL) was calculated. The relationship between food aversions, changes in appetite, taste and smell and %WL was assessed. The influence of time post-surgery, gender and type 2 diabetes (T2D) were evaluated. Following RYGB and SG the majority of patients reported food aversions (RYGB = 62%, SG = 59%), appetite changes (RYGB = 91%, SG = 91%) and taste changes (RYGB = 64%, SG = 59%). Smell changes were more common post-RYGB than post-SG (RYGB = 41%, SG = 28%, p = 0.039). No temporal effect was observed post-RYGB. In contrast, the prevalence of appetite changes decreased significantly with time following SG. Post-operative appetite changes associated with and predicted higher %WL post-SG but not post-RYGB. Taste changes associated with and predicted higher %WL following RYGB but not post-SG. There was no gender effect post-RYGB. Post-SG taste changes were less common in males (female = 65%, males = 40%, p = 0.008). T2D status in females did not influence post-operative subjective changes. However, in males with T2D, taste changes were less common post-SG than post-RYGB together with lower %WL (RYGB = 27.5 ± 2.7, SG = 14.6 ± 2.1, p = 0.003). Further research is

  8. Thirty-day outcomes of sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: first report based on Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program database.

    PubMed

    Chaar, Maher El; Lundberg, Peter; Stoltzfus, Jill

    2018-05-01

    According to recent American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery estimates, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is now the most commonly performed procedure in the United States (~53.8% of all bariatric procedures), followed by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 23.1% of all procedures). The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes and safety of these 2 procedures in the first 30 days postoperatively using the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program data registry. University health network, United States. We reviewed all SG and RYGB cases entered between January 1 and December 31, 2015 in the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program data registry. Demographic characteristics and 30-day outcomes were analyzed based on separate Mann-Whitney rank sums tests, χ 2 , or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate, with P<.05 denoting statistical significance and no adjustment for multiple testing. A total of 141,646 patients were analyzed; 98,292 underwent SG and 43,354 underwent RYGB. Average age was 44.5 and 45.4 years for SG and RYGB, respectively. Preoperative body mass index was 45.1 and 46.1 for SG and RYGB, respectively. The 30-day mortality was .1% for SG and .2% for RYGB (P<.05). The incidence of unplanned intensive care unit admission after RYGB was twice as high compared with SG (1.3% versus .6%, respectively, P<.05). The incidence of at least 1 intervention or reoperation after RYGB was significantly higher compared with SG (2.8% and 2.5% for GB versus 1.2% and 1% for SG, P<.05). After RYGB, .4% of patients had a drain left in place at 30 days postoperatively versus .3% for SG (P<.05). The incidence of readmission was 2.8% for RYGB and 1.2% for SG (P<.05). The incidence of postoperative complications in the first 30 days after surgery is low for both RYGB and SG. However, SG seems to have a better safety profile in the first 30 days postoperatively compared with RYGB. These findings should

  9. Laparoscopic gastric bypass with subtotal gastrectomy for a super-obese patient with Biermer anemia.

    PubMed

    Sodji, Maxime; Sebag, Frédéric A; Catheline, Jean Marc

    2007-08-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is a common procedure for morbid obesity. After RYGBP, the bypassed stomach is unavailable for follow-up. Biermer anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis inducing vitamin B12 deficiency and it is a risk factor for gastric carcinoma. A 41-year-old woman with a long history of morbid obesity presented with a BMI of 56 kg/m2. She had anemia (Hb 9.9 g/dL), and atrophic gastritis was found endoscopically. We performed a laparoscopic RYGBP with subtotal gastrectomy, to avoid the risk of gastric carcinoma in the bypassed stomach. The patient was discharged 9 days after the operation without complication. At 18 months follow-up, her BMI was 39 kg/m2 (50% excess weight loss). Laparoscopic RYGBP with subtotal gastrectomy is a safe treatment for morbid obesity, which should be considered for patients with a risk factor for gastric carcinoma.

  10. The Role of Bile After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Promoting Weight Loss and Improving Glycaemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Pournaras, Dimitri J.; Glicksman, Clare; Vincent, Royce P.; Kuganolipava, Shophia; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamie; Mahon, David; Bekker, Jan H.R.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Walters, Julian R.F.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric bypass leads to the remission of type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss. Our hypothesis is that changes in bile flow due to the altered anatomy may partly explain the metabolic outcomes of the operation. We prospectively studied 12 patients undergoing gastric bypass and six patients undergoing gastric banding over a 6-wk period. Plasma fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, stimulated by bile acid absorption in the terminal ileum, and plasma bile acids were measured. In canine and rodent models, we investigated changes in the gut hormone response after altered bile flow. FGF19 and total plasma bile acids levels increased after gastric bypass compared with no change after gastric banding. In the canine model, both food and bile, on their own, stimulated satiety gut hormone responses. However, when combined, the response was doubled. In rats, drainage of endogenous bile into the terminal ileum was associated with an enhanced satiety gut hormone response, reduced food intake, and lower body weight. In conclusion, after gastric bypass, bile flow is altered, leading to increased plasma bile acids, FGF19, incretin. and satiety gut hormone concentrations. Elucidating the mechanism of action of gastric bypass surgery may lead to novel treatments for type 2 diabetes. PMID:22673227

  11. Specialty Article: so You Think You Got a Bypass? A Case Series of Adventures in Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eugene Y; Shope, Timothy R

    2018-05-01

    To raise awareness for surgeons encountering bariatric patients with anatomy that deviates from the standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This is a single-institution retrospective case series over 12 years (2003-2014) involving patients who believed they received RYGBs, but actually did not. Data was obtained reviewing physician encounters, imaging, and operative reports. There were six cases with confusing clinical pictures, found to have aberrant RYGB anatomy: (1) gastric bypass with jejuno-jejunostomy only without gastrojejunostomy, (2) distal partial vertical gastrectomy without expected prosthetic band, (3) inverse vertical banded gastroplasty, (4) non-divided gastric bypass with no gastrojejunostomy, (5) 20-cm Roux limb, with gastro-gastric fistula, and (6) 200-cm bilio-pancreatic limb similar to the traditional Scopinaro procedure. There are cases of "Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses" that have no resemblance to the named procedure at all. Adjunctive upper gastrointestinal studies and upper endoscopies help surgeons make diagnoses that are incongruent with the surgical history. It is important to keep in mind that there could be anatomic or surgical variations which were born out of necessity or based on other surgeons' creativities.

  12. Liver Function in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Randomized to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Piotr; Paluszkiewicz, Rafał; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Bogna; Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Remiszewski, Piotr; Grodzicki, Mariusz; Krawczyk, Marek

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the influence of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on liver function in bariatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a randomized clinical trial (NCT01806506). Rapid weight loss and malabsorption after bariatric surgery in patients with NAFLD or steatohepatitis (NASH) may impair liver function. Sixty-six morbidly obese patients randomized to SG or RYGB were included in a secondary outcome analysis. Intraoperative liver biopsies were categorized with NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) and liver function tests were done before surgery and after 1, 6 and 12 months. NASH was present in 54.5% RYGB and 51.5% SG patients (P > 0.05). At 12 months excess weight loss was 68.7 ± 19.7% after SG and 62.8 ± 18.5% after RYGB (P > 0.05). At 1 month international normalized ratio (INR) increased after RYGB (0.98 ± 0.05 vs 1.14 ± 0.11; P < 0.05) and SG (0.99 ± 0.06 vs 1.04 ± 0.06; P < 0.05), RYGB induced significantly greater increase in INR in the whole group and NASH patients than SG. After RYGB albumin decreased at 1 month (41.2 ± 2.7 vs 39.0 ± 3.2 g/L; P < 0.05). At 12 months, INR and albumin returned to baseline. At 12 months in NASH group, SG induced significant improvement in aspartate aminotransferase (32.4 ± 17.4 vs 21.5 ± 6.9U/L), alanine aminotransferase (39.9 ± 28.6U/L vs 23.8 ± 14.1U/L), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (34.3 ± 16.6 vs 24.5 ± 16.8U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (510.8 ± 33 vs 292.4 ± 29). Variables predictive of INR change after 1 month included operation type, NAS ≥ 5, bilirubin, body mass index, hemoglobin A1C, and dyslipidemia. Patients with NASH undergoing RYGB are more susceptible to early transient deterioration of liver function than after SG.

  13. Acute transverse colon volvulus with secondary gastric isquemia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Sala-Hernández, Ángela; Pous-Serrano, Salvador; Lucas-Mera, Elí; Carvajal-Amaya, Nicolás

    2016-03-01

    Acute colonic volvulus accounts for 10% of all intestinal obstructions being the transverse colon volvulus an exceptional localization (2-4%). Late diagnosis is made as there are no pathognomonic clinical or radiological findings for this pathology. We present the case of an 81 year-old male with acute transverse colon volvulus that involved the gastric antrum causing irreversible ischemia. Subtotal gastrectomy, subtotal colectomy and reconstruction with Y en Roux gastrojejunostomy and ileosigmoid anastomosis was performed given the good overall status of the patient. Decompressive colonoscopy is not advised given the high probability of ischemic lesions in these cases; surgical exploration is mandatory in these circumstances. Surgical detortion with or without colopexia carries important recurrence rates. Treatment of choice includes colectomy with or without primary anastomosis. There are no reports on gastric ischemic necrosis in the setting of a transverse colon volvulus making this case unusual and unique.

  14. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass versus Intensive Medical Management for the Control of Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia: An International, Multicenter, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Korner, Judith; Lee, Wei-Jei; Connett, John E.; Inabnet, William B.; Billington, Charles B.; Thomas, Avis J.; Leslie, Daniel B.; Chong, Keong; Jeffery, Robert W.; Ahmed, Leaque; Vella, Adrian; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Bessler, Marc; Sarr, Michael G.; Swain, James M.; Laqua, Patricia; Jensen, Michael D.; Bantle, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Context Guideline directed care for diabetes calls for control of glycemia, blood pressure and cholesterol (composite goal). Most patients treated medically do not reach this goal. Objective Determine the efficacy and safety of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) added to lifestyle modification and intensive medical management (LS/IMM) to achieve control of all 3 endpoints. Design Two-arm unblinded randomized clinical trial with 120 participants. The primary endpoint of the composite outcome was assessed at 12 months. The study began in April 2008 and completed one year follow-up in all participants in December 2012. Setting Four academic teaching hospitals in the U.S. and Taiwan, involving five operating surgeons. Participants Inclusion criteria for the Diabetes Surgery Study (DSS) included HbA1c ≥ 8.0%, BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m2, diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes for at least six months, and stimulated C peptide > 1.0 ng/ml. Interventions All patients received lifestyle intervention modeled after the Look AHEAD study. Medications for hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were prescribed according to protocol. RYGB techniques were standardized. Main Outcome Measure Attainment of a composite goal: HbA1c < 7.0%, LDL-C < 100 mg/dl, and SBP < 130 mmHg. Results One hundred and twenty participants were randomized with equal probability into LS/IMM or RYGB (60 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Mean BMI was 34.6 kg/m2 (95% CI 29.2 to 40.8 kg/m2) with 71 (59%; 95% CI 50% to 68%) participants having BMI < 35 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c was 9.6% (95% CI 9.4% to 9.8%). At 12 months the followup rate was 95%, and 11 (19%) in the LS/IMM group and 28 (49%) in the RYGB group achieved the primary endpoint (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 11.6). RYGB participants required 3.1 fewer medications than LS/IMM (4.8 versus 1.7, 95% CI -3.6 to -2.3). Weight loss was 7.9% LS/IMM vs. 26.1% RYGB (difference 18.2% 95% CI 14.2% to 20.7%). Regression analyses

  15. Bariatric surgery options.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bryan G

    2003-01-01

    There are multiple surgical procedures used for weight loss. The concept of achieving malabsorption through manipulation of the gastrointestinal contract is briefly discussed. Various surgical options are considered with their advantages and disadvantages, namely vertical banded gastroplasty, gastric banding, Roux-en-y gastric bypass, distal gastric bypass billiopancreatic diversion, and duodental switch.

  16. A lethal cocktail: gastric perforation following liquid nitrogen ingestion.

    PubMed

    Pollard, James Scott; Simpson, Joanne Elizabeth; Bukhari, Moatasiem Idris

    2013-01-07

    We report a case of gastric perforation in an 18-year-old girl as a result of ingesting an alcoholic drink containing liquid nitrogen. The drink was purchased in licensed premises. The extent of the injury necessitated total gastrectomy with Roux-en Y reconstruction. We review the literature, discuss the mechanism of injury and consider the implications for medical services. The authors believe this case is of educational interest to professionals working in emergency medicine, general surgery and public health fields. It raises awareness of a rare injury, but one that may be more commonly encountered because of developing social trends. It informs surgeons confronted with this type of injury that trauma to the gastrointestinal tract can be extensive and preoperative contact with oesophago-gastric colleagues is advisable. Public health bodies must be aware of, and monitor, the use of liquid nitrogen in this way and consider regulation to prevent further injuries.

  17. The procedure of mesh wrapping the gastric pouch in cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ke; Gagner, Michel; Bardaro, Sergio; Ueda, Kazuki

    2007-12-01

    Dietary and behavioral modifications have resulted in limited long-term success in curing morbidly obese patients, and surgery remains the only effective treatment. Of the surgical procedures that are the most commonly offered, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) appears to offer the best long-term results. However 5-15% of patients will not achieve successful weight loss after RYGB. There are many reports showing that the patients who underwent gastric bypass surgeries regain weight over time. The cause for this remains unclear. Several factors may contribute, including dilation of the gastric pouch and the gastrojejunal anastomosis. However, the data to support the link is sparse. The objective of this paper is to describe the surgical technique of wrapping the gastric pouch with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh to prevent gastric pouch dilatation. In specific, we created a 20-30 ml gastric pouch and subsequently, the gastrojejunostomy was performed with a circular stapler. Afterwards, the mesentery was dissected and the gastric pouch was wrapped with the PTFE mesh. We have performed this procedure on three cadavers with an average operative time of 75 minutes. We found that the procedure of wrapping the gastric pouch was not particularly difficult. As a result, the gastric pouch, gastrojejunal anastomosis and the stump of the jejunum are all totally wrapped within the mesh. It may be effective in the prevention of dilatation.

  18. Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference

    PubMed Central

    Bueter, Marco; Theis, Nadine; Werling, Malin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Löwenstein, Christian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Bloom, Stephen R.; Spector, Alan C.; Olbers, Torsten; Lutz, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P < 0.001) and increased standard low-fat chow consumption compared with sham controls (P < 0.001) in rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, gastric bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation. PMID:21734019

  19. Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Carel W; Bueter, Marco; Theis, Nadine; Werling, Malin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Löwenstein, Christian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Bloom, Stephen R; Spector, Alan C; Olbers, Torsten; Lutz, Thomas A

    2011-10-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P < 0.001) and increased standard low-fat chow consumption compared with sham controls (P < 0.001) in rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, gastric bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation.

  20. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism during massive weight loss following gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Bourron, Olivier; Ciangura, Cécile; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Massias, Laurent; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2007-11-01

    Gastric bypass is increasingly used in morbidly obese patients to achieve significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and concurrent improvement in co-morbidities. We report the case of a 53-year-old male patient (141 kg, BMI 50 kg/m2), successfully treated by amiodarone for supraventricular arrythmia, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). 6 months after surgery, he had lost 45% of his preoperative weight (44.8% of weight loss was lean mass) and developed amiodarone-induced subclinical hyperthyroidism. We hypothesize the following sequence of events: weight loss after RYGBP, therefore fat loss, decrease in distribution volume of amiodarone inducing iodine overload and hyperthyroidism, reinforcing weight loss and particularly loss of lean mass. This report emphasizes the importance of careful monitoring of weight and body composition changes after RYGBP. In this situation, checking thyroid status is recommended, especially when there is a history of thyroid disease or potentially toxic thyroid medication.

  1. Unusual Development of Iatrogenic Complex, Mixed Biliary and Duodenal Fistulas Complicating Roux-en-Y Antrectomy for Stenotic Peptic Disease of the Supraampullary Duodenum Requiring Whipple Procedure: An Uncommon Clinical Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Polistina, Francesco A; Costantin, Giorgio; Settin, Alessandro; Lumachi, Franco; Ambrosino, Giovanni

    2010-10-23

    Complex fistulas of the duodenum and biliary tree are severe complications of gastric surgery. The association of duodenal and major biliary fistulas occurs rarely and is a major challenge for treatment. They may occur during virtually any kind of operation, but they are more frequent in cases complicated by the presence of difficult duodenal ulcers or cancer, with a mortality rate of up to 35%. Options for treatment are many and range from simple drainage to extended resections and difficult reconstructions. Conservative treatment is the choice for well-drained fistulas, but some cases require reoperation. Very little is known about reoperation techniques and technical selection of the right patients. We present the case of a complex iatrogenic duodenal and biliary fistula. A 42-year-old Caucasian man with a diagnosis of postoperative peritonitis had been operated on 3 days earlier; an antrectomy with a Roux-en-Y reconstruction for stenotic peptic disease was performed. Conservative treatment was attempted with mixed results. Two more operations were required to achieve a definitive resolution of the fistula and related local complications. The decision was made to perform a pancreatoduodenectomy with subsequent reconstruction on a double jejunal loop. The patient did well and was discharged on postoperative day 17. In our experience pancreaticoduodenectomy may be an effective treatment of refractory and complex iatrogenic fistulas involving both the duodenum and the biliary tree.

  2. Catastrophic Bleeding From a Marginal Ulcer After Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Sidani, Shafik; Akkary, Ehab

    2013-01-01

    Marginal ulceration at the gastrojejunal anastomosis is a common complication following Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Hemodynamically significant hemorrhagic marginal ulcers are usually treated either endoscopically or surgically. We describe a unique case of life-threatening hemorrhagic marginal ulcer eroding into the main splenic artery. This condition was initially managed with angiographic embolization, followed by surgical intervention. PMID:23743389

  3. Efficacy and safety of bariatric surgery for craniopharyngioma-related hypothalamic obesity: a matched case-control study with 2 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, M; Olsson, D S; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Wallenius, V; Janssen, J A M J L; Delhanty, P J D; van der Lely, A J; Johannsson, G; Neggers, S J C M M

    2017-02-01

    Hypothalamic obesity is a devastating consequence of craniopharyngioma. Bariatric surgery could be a promising therapeutic option. However, its efficacy and safety in patients with craniopharyngioma-related hypothalamic obesity remain largely unknown. We investigated the efficacy of bariatric surgery for inducing weight loss in patients with craniopharyngioma-related hypothalamic obesity. In addition, we studied the safety of bariatric surgery regarding its effects on hormone replacement therapy for pituitary insufficiency. In this retrospective matched case-control study, we compared weight loss after bariatric surgery (that is, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy) between eight patients with craniopharyngioma-related hypothalamic obesity and 75 controls with 'common' obesity during 2 years of follow-up. We validated our results at 1 year of follow-up in a meta-analysis. In addition, we studied alterations in hormone replacement therapy after bariatric surgery in patients with craniopharyngioma. Mean weight loss after bariatric surgery was 19% vs 25% (difference -6%, 95% confidence of interval (CI) -14.1 to 4.6; P=0.091) at 2 years of follow-up in patients with craniopharyngioma-related hypothalamic obesity compared with control subjects with 'common' obesity. Mean weight loss was 25% vs 29% (difference -4%, 95% CI -11.6 to 8.1; P=0.419) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 10% vs 20% (difference -10%, 95% CI -14.1 to -6.2; P=0.003) after sleeve gastrectomy at 2 years of follow-up in patients with craniopharyngioma-related hypothalamic obesity vs control subjects with 'common' obesity. Our meta-analysis demonstrated significant weight loss 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but not after sleeve gastrectomy. Seven patients with craniopharyngioma suffered from pituitary insufficiency; three of them required minor adjustments in hormone replacement therapy after bariatric surgery. Weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but not sleeve gastrectomy

  4. What is the best reconstruction method after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Ju-Hee; Park, Do Joong; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Won Woo

    2012-06-01

    We performed this prospective randomized study to evaluate what is the best reconstruction method after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. One hundred fifty-nine patients who underwent laparoscopy-assisted or open gastrectomy for gastric cancer were analyzed from March 2006 to August 2007. Billroth I (B-I) anastomosis, Billroth II (B-II) with Braun anastomosis, and Roux-en-Y (R-Y) anastomosis were applied randomly. Additionally, the patients were divided into two groups based on treatment type: laparoscopic and open operation. Endoscopy and hepatobiliary scans were performed to investigate gastric stasis and enterogastric reflux. The Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) was used to evaluate postoperative quality of life, and the hematologic test was used to assess nutritional aspect. Endoscopy revealed that reflux after the R-Y anastomosis procedure was significantly less frequent than after the other anastomosis types at 12 months. Comparison of the GIQLI and the nutritional parameters between the reconstruction types revealed that there were no differences, but a significantly higher GIQLI score was observed in the laparoscopic group immediately following the procedure (P = 0.042). R-Y anastomosis is superior to B-I and B-II with Braun anastomosis in terms of frequency of bile reflux, despite the fact that there is no difference in the postoperative quality-of-life index and nutritional status between reconstructive procedures. The laparoscopic approach is the better option than open surgery in terms of QOL in the immediate postoperative period.

  5. Cross-sectional study of variables associated with length of stay and ICU need in open Roux-En-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obese patients: an exploratory analysis based on the Public Health System administrative database (Datasus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Asano, Elio Fernando; Rasera, Irineu; Shiraga, Elisabete Cristina

    2012-12-01

    This is an exploratory analysis of potential variables associated with open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery hospitalization resource use pattern. Cross-sectional study based on an administrative database (DATASUS) records. Inclusion criteria were adult patients undergoing RYGB between Jan/2008 and Jun/2011. Dependent variables were length of stay (LoS) and ICU need. Independent variables were: gender, age, region, hospital volume, surgery at certified center of excellence (CoE) by the Surgical Review Corporation (SRC), teaching hospital, and year of hospitalization. Univariate and multivariate analysis (logistic regression for ICU need and linear regression for length of stay) were performed. Data from 13,069 surgeries were analyzed. In crude analysis, hospital volume was the most impactful variable associated with log-transformed LoS (1.312 ± 0.302 high volume vs. 1.670 ± 0.581 low volume, p < 0.001), whereas for ICU need it was certified CoE (odds ratio (OR), 0.016; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.010-0.026). After adjustment by logistic regression, certified CoE remained as the strongest predictor of ICU need (OR, 0.011; 95% CI, 0.007-0.018), followed by hospital volume (OR, 3.096; 95% CI, 2.861-3.350). Age group, male gender, and teaching hospital were also significantly associated (p < 0.001). For log-transformed LoS, final model includes hospital volume (coefficient, -0.223; 95% CI, -0.250 to -0.196) and teaching hospital (coefficient, 0.375; 95% CI, 0.351-0.398). Region of Brazil was not associated with any of the outcomes. High-volume hospital was the strongest predictor for shorter LoS, whereas SRC certification was the strongest predictor of lower ICU need. Public health policies targeting an increase of efficiency and patient access to the procedure should take into account these results.

  6. Single- and double-balloon enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with Roux-en-Y plus hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis and Whipple resection.

    PubMed

    Itokawa, Fumihide; Itoi, Takao; Ishii, Kentaro; Sofuni, Atsushi; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2014-04-01

    In patients with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (HJ with R-Y) and Whipple resection, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be challenging. We report our experience with ERCP using balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) (BAE-ERCP) in patients with HJ with R-Y, and Whipple resection. BAE-ERCP procedures were carried out in 62 patients (HJ with R-Y:Whipple resection=34:28). Overall, the rates of reaching the anastomosis were 85.3% (29/34) in HJ with R-Y and 96.4% (27/28) in Whipple resection. In terms of HJ with R-Y, insertion success rate by standard single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) was 89.3% (25/28). Insertion success rate by short BAE, including SBE and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE), was 50% (3/6). There was a statistically significant difference of insertion success rate between standard long BE and short BE (P=0.021). However, in the Whipple patients, insertion success rate by standard and short SBE was 93.8% (15/16) and 91.7% (11/12), respectively. Initial insertion success rate by short BAE in Whipple patients was significantly higher than in HJ with R-Y (91.7% vs 50%, P=0.045). Therapeutic interventions included dilation of anastomosis stricture, stone extraction, endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy, biliary stent placement, stent extraction, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, direct cholangioscopy, and electrohydraulic lithotripsy. Our HJ with R-Y series and Whipple series treatment success rate was 90% (18/20) and 95.0% (19/20), respectively. BAE-ERCP enabled ERCP to be carried out in patients with HJ. It is considered safe and feasible. Further experience and device improvement are needed. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Dumping Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... also part of treatment for stomach cancer, esophageal cancer and other conditions. These surgeries include: Gastrectomy, in which a portion or all of your stomach is removed. Gastric bypass surgery (Roux-en-Y operation), which is ...

  8. National Differences in Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery-Subgroup Analysis of 2-Year Results of the Diabetes Surgery Study Comparing Taiwanese with Americans with Mild Obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m2).

    PubMed

    Chong, Keong; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Lee, Wei-Jei; Billington, Charles J; Bantle, John P; Wang, Qi; Thomas, Avis J; Connett, John E; Leslie, Daniel B; Inabnet, William B; Jeffery, Robert W; Sarr, Michael G; Jensen, Michael D; Vella, Adrian; Ahmed, Leaque; Belani, Kumar; Schone, Joyce L; Olofson, Amy E; Bainbridge, Heather A; Laqua, Patricia S; Korner, Judith; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare effects of different nations on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs. intensive medical management (IMM) in achieving remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Between April 2008 and December 2011, this randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted at four teaching hospitals in the United States and Taiwan involving 71 participants with mild obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m 2 ). Thirty-six of 71 participants were randomly assigned to the RYGB group, and the others were in IMM group. Partial or complete remission of T2DM was defined as blood HbA1c < 6.5 % (48 mmol/mol) or <6 % (42 mmol/mol) without any antihyperglycemic medication for at least 1-year duration, respectively. At baseline, Taiwanese participants had a lower BMI, younger age, and shorter duration of T2DM than American participants. At 24 months, weight loss was greater in the RYGB group in both populations than in the IMM group. No IMM participant of either population had partial or complete remission of T2DM. In the RYGB group, a substantial proportion of the subjects achieved complete or partial remission (57 % in Taiwanese and 27 % in American participants, P = 0.08). Logistic regression revealed stimulated C-peptide (Odds ratio 2.22, P = 0.02) but not nationality as a significant predictor of diabetes remission. Adding RYGB to lifestyle and medical management was associated with a greater likelihood of remission of T2DM in both Taiwanese and American subjects with mild obesity with type 2 diabetes. Residual beta-cell function at baseline appears to be the major factor predicting remission of T2DM. Trial registry number: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00641251.

  9. Assessment of two different diagnostic guidelines criteria (National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel III [ATP III] and International Diabetes Federation [IDF]) for the evaluation of metabolic syndrome remission in a longitudinal cohort of patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ortiz, Donají; Reyes-Pérez, Azucena; León, Pablo; Sánchez, Hugo; Mosti, Maureen; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Velázquez-Fernández, David; Herrera, Miguel F

    2016-04-01

    Bariatric surgery has proven to provide durable weight loss and control of comorbid conditions, including the metabolic syndrome (MS). Existing definitions of MS have caused substantial confusion regarding their concordance for identifying the same individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the value of 2 different diagnostic guidelines criteria (National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel III [ATP III] and International Diabetes Federation [IDF]) for the evaluation of remission of MS after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A cohort of 381 patients who underwent a primary RYGB, satisfied the criteria for MS, and had at least o1 postoperative visit were selected. Weight loss and MS remission were analyzed 6 and 12 months after surgery by ATP III and IDF criteria. Before surgery, 381 (48.9%) and 354 (45.4%) patients fulfilled the criteria for MS according to the ATP III and IDF, respectively. According to the ATP III definition, remission of MS after bariatric surgery occurred in 209 of 239 (87.4%) and 98/102 (96.1%) patients at 6 and 12 months, respectively. According to the IDF definition, this occurred in 180 of 232 (77.6%) and 54 of 64 (84.4%) at the same time periods. On the basis of different percentage of excess body weight loss cut-off values, the area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic analysis at 12 months was slightly better for ATP III (0.77) than IDF criteria (0.68) for remission of MS. With the use of the IDF definition, the remission rate of MS was 10% more rigorous than with use of the ATP-III criteria. This feature is attributable to a greater discrimination of patients with high blood pressure, glycemia, and dyslipidemia. The IDF criteria seem more accurate to evaluate MS remission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Remission of metabolic syndrome: a study of 140 patients six months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marçal; Barretto Fereira da Silva, Renato; Chaves Alcântara, Geraldo; Regina, Paulo Fernando; Martin Bianco Rossi, Felipe; Serpa Neto, Ary; Zimberg Chehter, Ethel

    2008-05-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a complex disorder characterized by a number of cardiovascular risk factors usually associated with central fat deposition and insulin resistance. Nowadays, there are many different medical treatments to MS, including bariatric surgery, which improves all risk factors. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of gastric bypass in the improvement of risk factors associated with MS, during the postoperative (6 months). This was a retrospective study of 140 patients su