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  1. [Thyroid nodule].

    PubMed

    Clerc, Jérôme

    2005-01-31

    The thyroid nodule is a frequent, most often benign, chronic, multifocal and slowly progressive disease. The first line strategy is to diagnose cancerous nodules (<5%) and relies upon fine needle aspiration (FNA), a specialised technique which in trained hands has a false negative rate of below 5%. The interest to explore small thyroid nodules is controversial since the prognosis of thyroid cancer is excellent for lesions measuring less than 20 mm. Though imaging accuracy is quite limited in assessing the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, both ultrasounds (US) and thyroid scan are helpful to enhance nodular identification (>30%), to sort the nodules relevant for cytological sampling and to optimize the follow-up, the major source of health costs. Suspicious and non contributive FNAs must have a control FNA within 6 months. Nodules with a non suspicious FNA (>85%) require long term follow-up. This follow-up is mainly morphological. New or evolutive nodules, as assessed by palpation or US, will require iterative FNAs or should be considered for surgery. In patients with hyperfunctioning nodules on the scan (10 to 20%), a yearly evaluation of the TSH level is sufficient. These nodules account either for autonomously functioning ones, which slowly develop towards thyrotoxicosis, or for hyperplastic nodules frequently disclosing a lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morbidity due to thyroid autonomy is still underestimated especially in aging patients with TSH levels < or =0.60 mU/L. An algorithmic approach to the diagnostic and follow-up evaluation of thyroid nodule is suggested.

  2. Thyroid Nodules

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thyroid and see if the nodule is solid or filled with fluid (cystic). Although this test cannot tell if the nodule is cancerous, it is very useful to guide the needle to remove (aspirate) cells from nodules. This procedure is called “ultrasound-guided ...

  3. Thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Knox, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common finding in the general population. They may present with symptoms of pressure in the neck or may be discovered during physical examination. Although the risk of cancer is small, it is the main reason for workup of these lesions. Measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone can identify conditions that may cause hyperfunctioning of the thyroid. For all other conditions, ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration are central to the diagnosis. Lesions larger than 1 cm should be biopsied. Lesions with features suggestive of malignancy and those in patients with risk factors for thyroid cancer should be biopsied, regardless of size. Smaller lesions and those with benign histology can be followed and reevaluated if they grow. The evaluation of thyroid nodules in euthyroid and hypothyroid pregnant women is the same as in other adults. Thyroid nodules are uncommon in children, but the malignancy rate is much higher than in adults. Fine-needle aspiration is less accurate in children, so more aggressive surgical excision may be preferable.

  4. Thyroid Nodules

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, can cause thyroid inflammation resulting in nodular enlargement. This often is associated with reduced thyroid gland ... Goiter" is a term used to describe any enlargement of the thyroid gland, which can be caused ...

  5. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... has grown Another possible treatment is an ethanol (alcohol) injection into the nodule to shrink ... Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  6. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Konno, M; Sato, T; Matsuura, N

    1980-10-01

    We studied two cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children. A 9-year-old girl and an 11-year-old girl had thyroid masses in otherwise nonpalpable thyroid glands. Scintiscan showed hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The former patient had elevated values for T4 and T3, and plasma thyrotropin (TSH) level failed to respond to stimulation with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), whereas the latter patient had normal values for T4, and T3 and plasma TSH response to TRH was normal. After the surgical removal of nodules, scintiscan exhibited radioactivity in the contralateral lobe of the thyroid gland in the former and in the ectopic thyroid tissue in the latter. Results of microscopic examinations of thyroid nodules were consistent with adenomatous goiter.

  7. Thyroid Ultrasound Pitfalls: Esophageal Fibrovascular Polyp Mimicking Thyroid Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Brigante, G.; Madeo, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ultrasound (US) is the most accurate tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules if performed by expert physician. Misdiagnosis due to extrathyroidal lesions mimicking thyroid nodules is reported in literature. We describe the first case of an esophageal fibrovascular polyp misdiagnosed as a thyroid nodule on US examination. Patient Findings. A 54-year-old woman presented to emergency department for headache and underwent carotid Doppler extended to neck ultrasound with incidental finding of a nodule in the posterior side of the left thyroid lobe. A following thyroid US performed by an endocrinologist allowed the characterization of the lesion as an esophageal pathology, considering the extrathyroidal position, the typical peripheral hyperechoic spots and hypoechoic rim, the connection to the esophagus, and the swallowing connected movement. The patient was addressed to further investigations and finally to anterior pharyngotomy with histological diagnosis of esophageal fibrovascular polyp. Summary. Differential diagnosis between thyroid nodules and other neck lesions is important to prevent an unnecessary fine needle aspiration biopsy and to treat the extrathyroidal pathology. In this case, an US performed by an expert endocrinologist allowed detecting an esophageal fibrovascular polyp requiring surgical removal. In conclusion, the possibility of an esophageal pathology, and even fibrovascular polyp, should be considered during US thyroid examination. PMID:27022492

  8. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in an Autonomous Hyperfunctioning Thyroid Nodule: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tfayli, Hala M.; Teot, Lisa A.; Indyk, Justin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Whereas thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults, the anxiety generated by the finding of a thyroid nodule is high because 20% of nodules found in children contain thyroid cancer. Discovery of a nodule in the context of hyperthyroidism is usually comforting due to the presumption that the nodule represents a benign toxic adenoma. Summary An 11-year-old girl presented with heavy menses, fatigue, and a right thyroid mass. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated triiodothyronine and undetectable thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 3.5 cm nonhomogenous nodule, and scintigraphy was consistent with an autonomous hyper-functioning nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy could not rule out malignancy, and patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy and isthmusectomy. Pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusions We report the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning nodule in an 11-year-old girl. Detection of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule in children and adolescents does not exclude the possibility of thyroid carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation and appropriate therapy. PMID:20718686

  9. Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peoples, George E; Libutti, Steven K; Henry, Leonard R; Eberhardt, John; Howard, Robin S; Gur, David; Elster, Eric A; Nissan, Aviram

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention. Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10–18 million people) has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95%) of thyroid nodules are benign. While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm) with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20–30%. These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis. Given that the majority (70–80%) of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent. Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery. Methods Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US), electrical impedance scanning (EIS) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) prior to thyroidectomy. A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates. Ten-fold cross-validation was performed to estimate classifier error wherein the data set was randomized into ten separate and unique train and test sets consisting of a training set (90% of records) and a test set (10% of records). A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Results Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of malignancy. Cross

  10. The Role of Conventional Ultrasound in the Assessment of Thyroid Nodule in Erbil City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Sarbast Ismail; Hanary, Salah Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nodular thyroid disease is relatively common although thyroid cancer is rare. The aim of this study is to evaluate the advantage and reliability of conventional ultrasound in correlating sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodule with US-FNAC guided result as a diagnostic aid in thyroid nodule. Method: 111 patients were examined by…

  11. False negative cytology in large thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Giles, Wesley H; Maclellan, Reid A; Gawande, Atul A; Ruan, Daniel T; Alexander, Erik K; Moore, Francis D; Cho, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in large thyroid nodules. Recent surgical series have documented false-negative rates ranging from 0.7 to 13 %. We examined the accuracy of benign FNA cytology in patients with thyroid nodules ≥3 cm who underwent surgical resection and identified features characteristic of false-negative results. We retrospectively studied all thyroidectomy specimens between January 2009 and October 2011 and identified nodules ≥3 cm with corresponding benign preoperative FNA cytology. We collected clinical information regarding patient demographics, nodule size, symptoms, sonographic features, FNA results, and final surgical pathology. For comparison, we analyzed nodules <3 cm from this cohort also with benign FNA cytology. A total of 323 nodules with benign preoperative cytology were identified. Eighty-three nodules were <3 cm, 94 nodules were 3-3.9 cm, and 146 nodules were ≥4 cm in size. The false-negative rate was 11.7 % for all nodules ≥3 cm and 4.8 % for nodules <3 cm (p = 0.03). Subgroup analysis of nodules ≥3 cm revealed a false-negative rate of 12.8 % for nodules 3-3.9 cm and 11 % for nodules ≥4 cm. Age ≥55 years and asymptomatic clinical status were the only patient characteristics that reached statistical significance as risk factors. Final pathology of the false-negative specimens consisted mainly of follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer. When referred for thyroidectomy, patients with large thyroid nodules demonstrate a modest, yet significant, false-negative rate despite initial benign aspiration cytology. Therefore, thyroid nodules ≥3 cm may be considered for removal even when referred with benign preoperative cytology.

  12. Ultrasonography of thyroid nodules: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cheng; Cox, Peter; Taylor, Nia; LaPorte, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common occurrence in the general population, and these incidental thyroid nodules are often referred for ultrasound (US) evaluation. US provides a safe and fast method of examination. It is sensitive for the detection of thyroid nodules, and suspicious features can be used to guide further investigation/management decisions. However, given the financial burden on the health service and unnecessary anxiety for patients, it is unrealistic to biopsy every thyroid nodule to confirm diagnosis. The British Thyroid Association (BTA) has recently produced a US classification (U1-U5) of thyroid nodules to facilitate the decision-making process regarding the need to perform fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for suspicious cases. In this pictorial review, we provide a complete series of sonographic images to illustrate benign and malignant features of thyroid nodules according to the U1-5 classification. Specifically, we highlight morphologic characteristic of the nodule, including its echo signal in relation to its consistency, nodular size, number and contour. Additional diagnostic features such as halo, colloid, calcification and vascular patterns are also discussed in detail. The aim is to assist radiologists and clinicians in recognising sonographic patterns of benign, suspicious and malignant nodules based on U1-5 criteria, and in planning for further investigations. • Ultrasound is sensitive in identifying suspicious features, which require aspiration. • Whether nodules require aspiration should be based on sonographic features and clinical findings. • U1-5 classification of sonographic findings can help determine whether aspiration is necessary.

  13. Malignancy in solitary solid cold thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, M; Amin, A H; Ahmed, M U; Karim, S S; Moslem, F; Kamal, M

    2012-04-01

    Solitary thyroid nodule is a common endocrine problem. The main concern of solitary thyroid nodule lies in excluding the malignancy & to operate on as few patients as possible. Other than history & clinical examination, hormone assessment, USG of thyroid gland, radionuclide scan & FNAC were used to differentiate malignant nodules from benign ones. In this study 127 cases with solitary thyroid nodule of all age group & both sexes were included from Endocrine & Thyroid clinic of BSMMU. They were clinically & biochemically euthyroid & had cold nodule on radionuclide scan. USG & FNAC were done & subsequently they underwent surgical procedure. On the basis of postoperative histopathological report the specimens were divided into benign & malignant groups. All the nodules were cold among which 104 were solid & 23 were mixed in consistency. Of the 104 solid cold nodules histopathology revealed 36(34.6%) malignant & 68(65.4%) benign cases. From the 23 mixed cold solitary nodule 5(21.7%) appeared malignant & 18(78.3%) were benign. So malignancy was higher in solid cold group than the mixed cold one but this was not statistically significant (p=0.673). FNAC was done & it revealed that 83(65.5%) cases were benign, 10(7.8%) cases were suspicious & 34(26.7%) were malignant. Finally histopathology showed 41(32.3%) cases were positive & 86(67.7%) cases were negative for malignancy.

  14. Predictors of Malignancy in Patients with Cytologically Suspicious Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Espiritu, Rachel P.; Bahn, Rebecca S.; Henry, Michael R.; Gharib, Hossein; Caraballo, Pedro J.; Morris, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration (FNA), although very reliable for cytologically benign and malignant thyroid nodules, has much lower predictive value in the case of suspicious or indeterminate nodules. We aimed to identify clinical predictors of malignancy in the subset of patients with suspicious FNA cytology. Methods We reviewed the electronic medical records of 462 patients who had FNA of thyroid nodules at our institution with a suspicious cytological diagnosis, and underwent surgery at Mayo Clinic between January 2004 and September 2008. Demographic data including age, gender, history of exposure to radiation and use of thyroid hormone was collected. The presence of single versus multiple nodules by ultrasonography, nodule size, and serum thyroid-stimulating harmone (TSH) level before thyroid surgery were recorded. Analysis of the latter was limited to patients not taking thyroid hormone or antithyroid drugs at the time of FNA. Results Of the 462 patients, 327 had lesions suspicious for follicular neoplasm (S-FN) or Hürthle cell neoplasm (S-HCN), 125 had cytology suspicious for papillary carcinoma (S-PC) and 10 had a variety of other suspicious lesions (medullary cancer, lymphoma and atypical). Malignancy rate for suspicious neoplastic lesions (FN+HCN) was ∼15%, whereas malignancy rate for lesions S-PC was 77%. Neither age, serum TSH level, or history of radiation exposure were associated with increased malignancy risk. The presence of multiple nodules (41.1% vs. 26.4%, p=0.0014) or smaller nodule size (2.6±1.8 cm vs. 2.9±1.6 cm, p=0.008) was associated with higher malignancy risk. In patients with cytology suspicious for neoplasm (FN, HCN) malignancy risk was higher in those receiving thyroid hormone therapy than in nonthyroid hormone users (37.7% vs. 16.5%, p=0.0004; odds ratio: 3.1), although serum TSH values did not differ significantly between thyroid hormone users and nonusers. Conclusion In patients with cytologically suspicious thyroid

  15. Pathogenesis of thyroid nodules: histological classification?

    PubMed

    Salabè, G B

    2001-02-01

    Thyroid nodule genesis may be considered as an amplification of thyroid heterogeneity due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms. We classified the thyroid nodules in five types with distinct histological features: hyperplastic, neoplastic, colloid, cystic and thyroiditic nodules. Hyperplastic: Thyrocyte proliferation is under the control of TSH but several other paracrine and autocrine factors are secreted by follicular cells, the stromal apparatus and the lymphocytes, which are implicated in initiation and perpetuation of thyroid hyperplasia. Growth occurs mainly through TSHR, cAMP and PKA. Constitutive cAMP overproduction has been shown to be due to point mutation of the TSHR or Gs protein, producing overgrowth and hyperfunction. Neoplastic: Several activated oncogenes have been identified in thyroid malignancies. Oncogenes relevant to the thyroid carcinogenesis are: mutated TSHR and gsp (constitutive activation of cAMP); TRK (receptor for NGF); RET/PTC (phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase receptor)--an isoform of this oncogene is induced by radiation: ras (it encodes Gs proteins transducing mitogenic signals); and c-MET (receptor for hepatocyte growth factor). The evolution of a differentiated thyroid cancer towards an undifferentiated cancer is due to a mutation of a family of proteins (i.e., p53), which acts as a brake, preventing the genomic instability of cancer. It is suggested that a tumor initiates by RET or ras and possibly progresses--as a result of additional mutations and by p53 mutation--to anaplastic carcinoma. Colloid: Flattening of the epithelium and dilatation of follicles containing viscous material--made up by a concentrated solution of thyroglobulin (hTg)--is the characteristic of the colloid nodule. A defect of intraluminal reabsorption of hTg has been suggested but not proven. Experimentally, a load of iodine is able to change thyroid hyperplasia to a colloid feature; however, a load of iodine is rarely found in the clinical history of

  16. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  17. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature.

  18. Current status of fine needle aspiration for thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Jennifer B; Piatigorsky, Eli J; Clark, Orlo H

    2006-01-01

    When not to perform fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule In summary, FNA of thyroid nodules has become one of the most useful, safe, and accurate tools in the diagnosis of thyroid pathology. Thyroid nodules that should be considered for FNA include any firm, palpable, solitary nodule or nodule associated with worrisome clinical features (rapid growth, attachment to adjacent tissues, new hoarseness, or palpable lymphadenopathy). FNA should also be performed on nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic features (microcalcifications, rounded shape, predominantly solid composition); dominant or atypical nodules in multinodular goiter; complex or recurrent cystic nodules; or any nodule associated with palpable or ultrasonographically abnormal cervical lymph nodes. Finally, FNA should be performed on any abnormal-appearing or palpable cervical lymph nodes. The management of thyroid nodules based on FNA findings is summarized in Table 2. It can be argued that in certain circumstances the results of thyroid FNA do not change the surgical management of a thyroid nodule, and thus preoperative FNA may be unnecessary. These cases include solitary nodules in patients who have a strong family history of thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, or radiation to the head and neck. These patients when they have thyroid nodules have at least a 40% risk for thyroid cancer and frequent multifocal or bilateral disease and should undergo total thyroidectomy with or without central neck lymph node dissection. Patients who have multinodular goiter and compressive symptoms, patients who have Graves disease and a thyroid nodule, or patients who have large (greater than 4 cm) or symptomatic unilateral thyroid nodules could also be considered for total thyroidectomy or lobectomy as indicated without preoperative FNA. Finally, patients who have a solitary hyperfunctioning nodule on radioiodine scan and a suppressed TSH have an extremely low incidence of malignancy and may be

  19. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Valcavi, Roberto; Pacella, Claudio M.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Na, Dong Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation. PMID:21927553

  20. Sonographic features of thyroid nodules that may help distinguish clinically atypical subacute thyroiditis from thyroid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fu-shun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Ming; Liang, Jin-yu; Zheng, Yan-ling; Xie, Xiao-yan; Li, Xiao-xi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonographic features for distinguishing clinically atypical subacute thyroiditis from malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 165 hypoechoic thyroid nodules without calcification in 135 patients with histologic diagnosis were included in this study. These nodules were classified into 2 groups: a thyroiditis group (55 nodules in 36 patients) and a malignancy group (110 nodules in 99 patients). The sonographic features of the groups were retrospectively reviewed. No significant differences were detected for the variables of marked echogenicity, a taller-than-wide shape, and mixed vascularity. However, a poorly defined margin was detected more frequently in the thyroiditis group than the malignancy group (P < .05); it yielded a high capability for differential diagnosis of atypical subacute thyroiditis, with sensitivity and specificity of 87.3% and 80.9%, respectively. Centripetal reduction echogenicity was observed exclusively in the thyroiditis group, with high specificity (100%) but low sensitivity (21.8%) for atypical subacute thyroiditis diagnosis. All of the thyroiditis nodules with a positive color signal showed noninternal vascularity (negative predictive value, 100%). There is a considerable overlap between the sonographic features of atypical subacute thyroiditis and thyroid malignancy. However, the margin, echogenicity, and vascularity type are helpful indicators for differential diagnosis of atypical subacute thyroiditis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waguespack, Steven G.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M.; Dinauer, Catherine A.; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D.; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T.; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B.; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. Methods: A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Results: These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. Conclusions: In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the

  2. A thyroid nodule classification method based on TI-RADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yang; Peng, Bo; Chen, Qin

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System(TI-RADS) is a valuable tool for differentiating the benign and the malignant thyroid nodules. In clinic, doctors can determine the extent of being benign or malignant in terms of different classes by using TI-RADS. Classification represents the degree of malignancy of thyroid nodules. TI-RADS as a classification standard can be used to guide the ultrasonic doctor to examine thyroid nodules more accurately and reliably. In this paper, we aim to classify the thyroid nodules with the help of TI-RADS. To this end, four ultrasound signs, i.e., cystic and solid, echo pattern, boundary feature and calcification of thyroid nodules are extracted and converted into feature vectors. Then semi-supervised fuzzy C-means ensemble (SS-FCME) model is applied to obtain the classification results. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can help doctors diagnose the thyroid nodules effectively.

  3. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Bagher; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hossein; Bastanhagh, Mohammad-Hassan; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Firooznia, Kazem; Shirzad, Mahmood; Amini, Mohammad-Reza; Sarai, Maryam; Abbasvandi, Nasreen; Baradar-Jalili, Reza

    2002-12-06

    BACKGROUND: Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. METHODS: 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (<0.24 &mgr;IU/ml) and normal thyroid hormone levels. Ethanol injections were performed once every 1-4 weeks. Ethanol injections were stopped when serum T3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. RESULTS: Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 PlusMinus; 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 PlusMinus; 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P < 0.001]. All patients had normal thyroid hormone levels at 3 and 6 months follow-up [P < 0.001 relative to baseline]. sTSH levels increased from 0.09 PlusMinus; 0.02 &mgr;IU/ml to 0.65 PlusMinus; 0.8 &mgr;IU/ml at the end of therapy [P < 0.05]. Only 3 patients had persistent sTSH suppression at 6 months post-therapy. T4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  4. Diagnosis of hyperfunctional thyroid nodules: impact of US-elastography.

    PubMed

    Ruhlmann, M; Stebner, V; Görges, R; Farahati, J; Simon, D; Bockisch, A; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S; Nagarajah, J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies described the ultrasound based real-time elastography (USE) having a high sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules. Recently published studies called these results into question. Until now the usefulness of USE in the diagnosis of scintigraphically hyperfunctional thyroid nodules is not examined. This study included 135 hyperfunctional thyroid nodules of 102 consecutive patients. The following attributes of the nodules were analyzed: stiffness with the USE using scores of Rago or Asteria and ultrasound criteria using TIRADS. 94 of the examined thyroid nodules (70%) were rated as hard (suspicious for malignancy) and 41 nodules (30%) as soft (not suspicious) with a specificity of 30%. The scoring systems of Rago and Asteria showed no significant difference. Applying the TIRADS criteria 44 nodules (33%) have a higher risk for malignancy (33 nodules TIRADS 4a, 11 nodules TIRADS 4b). Combining USE and TIRADS 32 nodules (24%) are categorized as suspicious (intersection of hard nodules that are categorized as TIRADS 4a or 4b). Ultrasound based real-time elastography cannot identify scintigraphically hyperfunctional thyroid nodules as benign nodules reliably. Its accuracy in the assessment of at least "hot" thyroid nodules is to be questioned.

  5. Increased thyrotropin binding in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Müller-Gärtner, H W; Schneider, C; Bay, V; Tadt, A; Rehpenning, W; de Heer, K; Jessel, M

    1987-08-01

    The object of this study was to investigate TSH receptors in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HFN). In HFN, obtained from seven patients, 125-I-TSH binding as determined by equilibrium binding analysis on particulate membrane preparations, was found to be significantly increased as compared with normal thyroid tissues (five patients; P less than 0.001). Scatchard analysis of TSH-binding revealed two kinds of binding sites for both normal thyroid tissue and HFN, and displayed significantly increased association constants of high- and low-affinity binding sites in HFN (Ka = 11.75 +/- 6.8 10(9) M-1, P less than 0.001 and Ka = 2.1 +/- 1.0 10(7) M-1, P less than 0.025; x +/- SEM) as compared with normal thyroid tissue (Ka = 0.25 +/- 0.06 10(9) M-1, Ka = 0.14 +/- 0.03 10(7) M-1; x +/- SEM). The capacity of the high-affinity binding sites in HFN was found to be decreased (1.8 +/- 1.1 pmol/mg protein, x +/- SEM) in comparison with normal thyroid tissue (4.26 +/- 1.27 pmol/mg protein; x +/- SEM). TSH-receptor autoradiography applied to cryostatic tissue sections confirmed increased TSH binding of the follicular epithelium in HFN. These data suggest that an increased affinity of TSH-receptor sites in HFN in iodine deficient areas may be an important event in thyroid autonomy.

  6. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  7. Thyroid nodule classification using ultrasound elastography via linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Si; Kim, Eung-Hun; Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yongmin

    2011-05-01

    The non-surgical diagnosis of thyroid nodules is currently made via a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. It is estimated that somewhere between 250,000 and 300,000 thyroid FNA biopsies are performed in the United States annually. However, a large percentage (approximately 70%) of these biopsies turn out to be benign. Since the aggressive FNA management of thyroid nodules is costly, quantitative risk assessment and stratification of a nodule's malignancy is of value in triage and more appropriate healthcare resources utilization. In this paper, we introduce a new method for classifying the thyroid nodules based on the ultrasound (US) elastography features. Unlike approaches to assess the stiffness of a thyroid nodule by visually inspecting the pseudo-color pattern in the strain image, we use a classification algorithm to stratify the nodule by using the power spectrum of strain rate waveform extracted from the US elastography image sequence. Pulsation from the carotid artery was used to compress the thyroid nodules. Ultrasound data previously acquired from 98 thyroid nodules were used in this retrospective study to evaluate our classification algorithm. A classifier was developed based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and used to differentiate the thyroid nodules into two types: (I) no FNA (observation-only) and (II) FNA. Using our method, 62 nodules were classified as type I, all of which were benign, while 36 nodules were classified as Type-II, 16 malignant and 20 benign, resulting in a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 75.6% in detecting malignant thyroid nodules. This indicates that our triage method based on US elastography has the potential to substantially reduce the number of FNA biopsies (63.3%) by detecting benign nodules and managing them via follow-up observations rather than an FNA biopsy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p < or = 0.05) increase in the labeling index for PCNA was detectable. In 19 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p < or = 0.05) increase in the labeling index for Ki-67 was detectable. Moreover, surrounding tissues with lymphocyte infiltration showed a significantly higher labeling index for both PCNA and Ki-67 compared with normal surrounding tissue. These findings are first evidence that an increased thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  9. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Luca, F; Chaussain, J L; Job, J C

    1986-01-01

    Eight children and adolescents, seven female and one male, aged 7.1 to 15.0 years, referred over a 12-year period for a solitary mass in an otherwise normal thyroid gland, exhibited a hyperfunctioning nodule on thyroid scintiscan. Tracer uptake in the surrounding thyroid tissue was reduced or completely suppressed, but could be restored after TSH stimulation. Only one patient had mild clinical hyperthyroidism with normal T4 but increased T3 serum levels and blunted TSH responsiveness to TRH. A similar hormonal pattern suggestive of subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in three other subjects who were clinically euthyroid. One patient initially euthyroid progressed to subclinical hyperthyroidism two years later. In the whole group a significant negative relationship was found between serum T3 level and TRH-stimulated TSH peak (r = -0.829, p less than 0.02). All the patients underwent selective surgery after a 3-month to 2-year period of follow-up. Microscopic examination was consistent with adenoma in seven patients, while in one case a well-encapsulated papillary adenocarcinoma was found. Though hyperfunctioning nodules are seldom malignant, their surgical removal must be recommended when they become thyrotoxic, exceed 3 cm or show progressive enlargement.

  10. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation for treating benign thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Cui, Dan; Chi, Jiachang; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Tao; Zhai, Bo; Li, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new procedure for treating benign thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of RFA for treating benign thyroid nodules so as to serve as a reference for future clinical practice. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients receiving percutaneous RFA for treating thyroid nodules from November 2014 to July 2015 in our medical center. One hundred and eight patients with a total of 380 nodules received ultrasound-guided RFA for treating thyroid nodules. Comparisons of the volume change of thyroid nodules before and after RFA treatment, post-treatment complication, and change of thyroid function, were carried out afterwards. Results: Before treatments, all patients received fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) which supported the diagnosis of benign tumor. There were 13 males and 95 females included in the study. Twenty-six cases (24.07%) had single nodule, and 82 cases (75.93%) had multiple nodules. Before treatments, the thyroid functions (FT3, FT4, and TSH) were normal originally or adjusted to normal range by endocrinology treatment. The preoperative nodules had minimum volume of 0.01mL, maximum volume of 70.89 mL, and mean volume of 1.02 ± 4.24mL. The volume of nodules one month and three months after RFA were 0.29 ± 0.72mL and 0.15 ± 0.87mL, respectively. In addition, volume reduction ratio (VRR) of nodules one month and three months after RFA were 64.12% and 85.54%, respectively. Both volume of nodules and VRR had statistically significant differences for pre-operative and post-operative comparison (P<0.05). Thyroid functions were in normal range after treatments, and there was no serious complications. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided RFA treating benign thyroid nodules had the advantages of definite efficacy, safety, strong in control ability, no incision, less damage to surrounding normal tissues and no effect on thyroid function

  11. TIRADS for sonographic assessment of hypofunctioning and indifferent thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Schenke, Simone; Rink, T; Zimny, M

    2015-01-01

    To test the feasibility of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting And Data System (TIRADS) according to Horvath and Kwak for the assessment of thyroid nodules. Retrospective analysis of patients with thyroid nodules applying the following inclusion criteria: B-mode-ultrasound, surgery and histological results. Thyroid nodules were classified as TIRADS 2, 3, 4A, 4B, 4C, 5 and 6. A total of 172 patients were included (133 women, 48 ± 13 years, 39 men, 49 ± 11 years) with 222 thyroid nodules (24.9 ± 11.5 mm). Final histological diagnosis revealed 203 benign nodules (91%) and 19 malignant nodules (9%; 18 papillary thyroid carcinoma, PTC, and one medullary thyroid carcinoma, MTC). One hundred and sixty thyroid nodules were hypofunctioning in 99mTc-pertechnetate-scintigraphy, 14 nodules were hyperfunctioning and 46 nodules were classified as indifferent. In two cases with small carcinoma < 1 cm 99mTc-pertechnetate-scintigraphy was not performed. According to Horvath, the prevalence of malignancy was 6.7% in TIRADS 2, 0% in 3, 1.9% in 4A, 33% in 4B, 12.5% in 5 and 100% in 6; 73 nodules (39%) were not clearly classifiable, including 3 carcinoma (4.1%). According to Kwak, the prevalence of malignancy was 6.9% in TIRADS 2, 0% in 3, 2% in 4A, 4.1% in 4B, 23.1% in 4C, and 100% in 5 and 6, respectively. Notably, in the subgroup of hot nodules, 11 (79%) were graded as TIRADS 4A or higher, and thus advisable for fine-needle aspiration biopsy in both TIRADS. The TIRADS described by Horvath is not practicable due to numerous unclassifiable nodules. The revised TIRADS published by Kwak is feasible and suitable to assess the prevalence of malignancy, but it cannot replace scintigraphic imaging. Fine-needle-biopsy is not necessary in nodules categorized as (K)TIRADS 3, 4A and 5.

  12. Overview of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Matti, Bashar; Cohen-Hallaleh, Ruben

    2016-09-09

    The last few years have witnessed numerous publications addressing the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide a simplified summary of the newly released guidelines by the American Thyroid Association. A systematic approach has been recommended to evaluate a thyroid nodule through clinical assessment, measurement of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, neck ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration where appropriate. This is followed by cytology analysis using the Bethesda scoring system to detect malignancy. Once diagnosed, thyroid cancers need to be staged and risk stratification needs to be applied to develop further treatment plans. Lastly, several recommendations have been presented to assure proper follow-up and support for thyroid cancer patients regardless of the treatment received.

  13. Co-Existence of Thyroid Nodule and Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents with Hashimoto Thyroiditis: A Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Meliksah; Savas-Erdeve, Senay; Aycan, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is an inadequate number of studies on nodule and malignancy development in children and adolescents with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Patients who were diagnosed with HT between 2004 and 2013 were included in the study. The HT diagnosis was made with a heterogeneous appearance on thyroid ultrasonography and the elevation of antithyroid peroxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed in cases with a nodule size >1 cm or who had ultrasonography findings indicating malignancy. A total of 39 (13%) thyroid nodules were detected in 300 patients with a diagnosis of HT. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was diagnosed in 2 of the 12 cases in whom FNAB was performed. The thyroid nodule was detected at the same time as HT in the 2 cases with malignancy. The PTC diagnosis was made 2 years after the HT diagnosis in the first case and 3 years later in the second case. The largest diameter of the thyroid nodule was 5 mm in both cases. The thyroid nodule rate on an HT background was found to be 13%, and the thyroid malignancy rate was 0.67% in our study. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peoples, George E; Libutti, Steven K; Henry, Leonard R; Eberhardt, John; Howard, Robin S; Gur, David; Elster, Eric A; Nissan, Aviram

    2009-08-10

    Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention. Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10-18 million people) has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95%) of thyroid nodules are benign. While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm) with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20-30%. These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis. Given that the majority (70-80%) of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent. Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery. Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US), electrical impedance scanning (EIS) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) prior to thyroidectomy. A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates. Ten-fold cross-validation was performed to estimate classifier error wherein the data set was randomized into ten separate and unique train and test sets consisting of a training set (90% of records) and a test set (10% of records). A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of malignancy. Cross validation of the model created with

  15. Preoperative Molecular Markers in Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Zeyad T; Smith, Philip W; Umbricht, Christopher B; Zeiger, Martha A

    2018-01-01

    The need for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules has led to the pursuit of differentiating molecular markers. The most common molecular tests in clinical use are Afirma ® Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) and Thyroseq ® V2. Despite the rapidly developing field of molecular markers, several limitations exist. These challenges include the recent introduction of the histopathological diagnosis "Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid neoplasm with Papillary-like nuclear features", the correlation of genetic mutations within both benign and malignant pathologic diagnoses, the lack of follow-up of molecular marker negative nodules, and the cost-effectiveness of molecular markers. In this manuscript, we review the current published literature surrounding the diagnostic value of Afirma ® GEC and Thyroseq ® V2. Among Afirma ® GEC studies, sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 75 to 100%, 5 to 53%, 13 to 100%, and 20 to 100%, respectively. Among Thyroseq ® V2 studies, Se, Sp, PPV, and NPV ranged from 40 to 100%, 56 to 93%, 13 to 90%, and 48 to 97%, respectively. We also discuss current challenges to Afirma ® GEC and Thyroseq ® V2 utility and clinical application, and preview the future directions of these rapidly developing technologies.

  16. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  17. Hyperfunction Thyroid Nodules: Their Risk for Becoming or Being Associated with Thyroid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sun; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. Results In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Conclusion Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed. PMID:23901323

  18. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tfayli, Hala M; Teot, Lisa A; Indyk, Justin A; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2010-09-01

    Whereas thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults, the anxiety generated by the finding of a thyroid nodule is high because 20% of nodules found in children contain thyroid cancer. Discovery of a nodule in the context of hyperthyroidism is usually comforting due to the presumption that the nodule represents a benign toxic adenoma. An 11-year-old girl presented with heavy menses, fatigue, and a right thyroid mass. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated triiodothyronine and undetectable thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 3.5 cm nonhomogenous nodule, and scintigraphy was consistent with an autonomous hyper-functioning nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy could not rule out malignancy, and patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy and isthmusectomy. Pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. We report the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning nodule in an 11-year-old girl. Detection of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule in children and adolescents does not exclude the possibility of thyroid carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation and appropriate therapy.

  19. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-05-04

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant "hot" nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases of benign hyperfunctioning nodules. A literature review of surgical patients with solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules managed by thyroid resection revealed an estimated 3.1% prevalence of malignancy. A separate literature search uncovered 76 cases of reported malignant hot thyroid nodules, besides the present case. Of these, 78% were female and mean age at time of diagnosis was 47 years. Mean nodule size was 4.13 ± 1.68 cm. Laboratory assessment revealed T3 elevation in 76.5%, T4 elevation in 51.9%, and subclinical hyperthyroidism in 13% of patients. Histological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 57.1%, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in 36.4%, and Hurthle cell carcinoma in 7.8% of patients. Thus, hot thyroid nodules harbor a low but non-trivial rate of malignancy. Compared to individuals with benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, those with malignant hyperfunctioning nodules are younger and more predominantly female. Also, FTC and Hurthle cell carcinoma are found more frequently in hot nodules than in general. We were unable to find any specific characteristics that could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign hot nodules.

  20. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant “hot” nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases of benign hyperfunctioning nodules. A literature review of surgical patients with solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules managed by thyroid resection revealed an estimated 3.1% prevalence of malignancy. A separate literature search uncovered 76 cases of reported malignant hot thyroid nodules, besides the present case. Of these, 78% were female and mean age at time of diagnosis was 47 years. Mean nodule size was 4.13 ± 1.68 cm. Laboratory assessment revealed T3 elevation in 76.5%, T4 elevation in 51.9%, and subclinical hyperthyroidism in 13% of patients. Histological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 57.1%, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in 36.4%, and Hurthle cell carcinoma in 7.8% of patients. Thus, hot thyroid nodules harbor a low but non-trivial rate of malignancy. Compared to individuals with benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, those with malignant hyperfunctioning nodules are younger and more predominantly female. Also, FTC and Hurthle cell carcinoma are found more frequently in hot nodules than in general. We were unable to find any specific characteristics that could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign hot nodules. PMID:23641736

  1. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, S.; Lila, Anurag; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly being studied for their diagnostic utility in assessing thyroid nodules. The various molecular markers consist of gene mutations, gene re arrangements, RNA based assays and immunohistochemical markers. The molecular markers definitely would help to optimise the management of such patients. PMID:23565369

  2. Thyroid nodule ultrasound: technical advances and future horizons.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Andrew S; Bhatia, Kunwar S S

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid nodules are extremely common and the vast majority are non-malignant; therefore the accurate discrimination of a benign lesion from malignancy is challenging. Ultrasound (US) characterisation has become the key component of many thyroid nodule guidelines and is primarily based on the detection of key features by high-resolution US. The thyroid imager should be familiar with the strengths and limitations of this modality and understand the technical factors that create and alter the imaging characteristics. Specific advances in high-resolution US are discussed with reference to individual features of thyroid cancer and benign disease. Potential roles for three-dimensional thyroid ultrasound and computer-aided diagnosis are also considered. The second section provides an overview of current evidence regarding thyroid ultrasound elastography (USE). USE is a novel imaging technique that quantifies tissue elasticity (stiffness) non-invasively and has potential utility because cancers cause tissue stiffening. In recent years, there has been much research into the value of thyroid USE for distinguishing benign and malignant nodules. Preliminary findings from multiple pilot studies and meta-analyses are promising and suggest that USE can augment the anatomical detail provided by high-resolution US. However, a definite role remains controversial and is discussed. • High-resolution US characterises thyroid nodules by demonstration of specific anatomical features • Technical advances heavily influence the key US features of thyroid nodules • Most papillary carcinomas appear stiffer than benign thyroid nodules on US elastography (USE) • Thyroid USE is controversial because of variation in the reported accuracies for malignancy • Combined grey-scale US/USE may lower the FNAC rate in benign nodules.

  3. Ultrasound image-based thyroid nodule automatic segmentation using convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinlian; Wu, Fa; Jiang, Tian'an; Zhao, Qiyu; Kong, Dexing

    2017-11-01

    Delineation of thyroid nodule boundaries from ultrasound images plays an important role in calculation of clinical indices and diagnosis of thyroid diseases. However, it is challenging for accurate and automatic segmentation of thyroid nodules because of their heterogeneous appearance and components similar to the background. In this study, we employ a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to automatically segment thyroid nodules from ultrasound images. Our CNN-based method formulates a thyroid nodule segmentation problem as a patch classification task, where the relationship among patches is ignored. Specifically, the CNN used image patches from images of normal thyroids and thyroid nodules as inputs and then generated the segmentation probability maps as outputs. A multi-view strategy is used to improve the performance of the CNN-based model. Additionally, we compared the performance of our approach with that of the commonly used segmentation methods on the same dataset. The experimental results suggest that our proposed method outperforms prior methods on thyroid nodule segmentation. Moreover, the results show that the CNN-based model is able to delineate multiple nodules in thyroid ultrasound images accurately and effectively. In detail, our CNN-based model can achieve an average of the overlap metric, dice ratio, true positive rate, false positive rate, and modified Hausdorff distance as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] on overall folds, respectively. Our proposed method is fully automatic without any user interaction. Quantitative results also indicate that our method is so efficient and accurate that it can be good enough to replace the time-consuming and tedious manual segmentation approach, demonstrating the potential clinical applications.

  4. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Na, Dong Gyu; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sung, Jin Yong; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Joon Hyung; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jeong Seon; Kim, Kyu Sun; Baek, Seon Mi; Lee, Younghen; Chong, Semin; Sim, Jung Suk; Huh, Jung Yin; Bae, Jae-Ik; Kim, Kyung Tae; Han, Song Yee; Bae, Min Young; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2012-01-01

    Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies, and expert consensus. PMID:22438678

  5. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fjaelling, M.T.; Tisell, L.E.; Carlsson, S.

    1986-09-15

    A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the wholemore » series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life.« less

  6. Diagnostic Performance of SRU and ATA Thyroid Nodule Classification Algorithms as Tested With a 1 Million Virtual Thyroid Nodule Model.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Mitchell; Patel, Nayana; McKinney, Kristin; Clark, Toshimasa

    The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound (SRU 2005) and American Thyroid Association (ATA 2009 and ATA 2015) have published algorithms regarding thyroid nodule management. Kwak et al. and other groups have described models that estimate thyroid nodules' malignancy risk. The aim of our study is to use Kwak's model to evaluate the tradeoffs of both sensitivity and specificity of SRU 2005, ATA 2009 and ATA 2015 management algorithms. 1,000,000 thyroid nodules were modeled in MATLAB. Ultrasound characteristics were modeled after published data. Malignancy risk was estimated per Kwak's model and assigned as a binary variable. All nodules were then assessed using the published management algorithms. With the malignancy variable as condition positivity and algorithms' recommendation for FNA as test positivity, diagnostic performance was calculated. Modeled nodule characteristics mimic those of Kwak et al. 12.8% nodules were assigned as malignant (malignancy risk range of 2.0-98%). FNA was recommended for 41% of nodules by SRU 2005, 66% by ATA 2009, and 82% by ATA 2015. Sensitivity and specificity is significantly different (< 0.0001): 49% and 60% for SRU; 81% and 36% for ATA 2009; and 95% and 20% for ATA 2015. SRU 2005, ATA 2009 and ATA 2015 algorithms are used routinely in clinical practice to determine whether thyroid nodule biopsy is indicated. We demonstrate significant differences in these algorithms' diagnostic performance, which result in a compromise between sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Survey of management of solitary thyroid nodules in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dietlein, M; Wegscheider, K; Vaupel, R; Schmidt, M; Schicha, H

    2008-01-01

    To compare the opinions of practitioners in primary care with those of thyroid specialists in Germany on the management of solitary thyroid nodules (Papillon 2005). Questionnaires were filled in by 2,191 practitioners and 297 thyroid specialists between June 1 and September 30, 2005. The test cases and their modifications described a solitary thyroid nodule of 2-3 cm with different levels of thyroid function and a hypoechogenic nodule of 1 cm in diameter. TSH determination and sonography were found to be standard procedures, followed by scintigraphy (selected by 84.7% of practitioners and 95.1% of specialists, p < 0.001) and fine needle aspiration cytology (54.5% of practitioners, 57.4% of specialists). For a hypoechogenic nodule calcitonin determination was advocated by 54.0% of endocrinologists and by 32.2% of nuclear medicine physicians (p < 0.001). A euthyroid solitary thyroid nodule would be treated medically by 77.8% of practitioners and by 85.7% of specialists, the combination of levothyroxine and iodine being clearly preferred (60.9% of practitioners and 67.1% of specialists). For a hyperfunctioning nodule the preference of radioiodine therapy was significantly higher in the specialist group (88.8%) than among the practitioners (52.2%). The main differences of opinion between practitioners and specialists focused on calcitonin screening and referral to radioiodine therapy.

  8. Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Bechtner, G; Edwards, R; Trott, K R

    1999-08-01

    Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings.

  9. Detection of survivin 2α gene expression in thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Kyani, Keyhaneh; Babaei, Esmaeil; Feizi, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour; Vandghanooni, Somayeh; Montazeri, Vahid; Halimi, Monireh

    2014-01-01

    Functional studies of the survivin splice variants have been performed almost exclusively in various types of cancer and produced remarkable advances in our understanding of cancer biology and cancer genetics. To observation the expression of survivin 2α in thyroid nodules and estimate its potential as a new molecular marker in thyroid nodules screening and malignant thyroid, as well. We detected the expression of a splice variant of survivin, survivin 2α, in thyroid nodules. Expression of survivin 2α mRNA was evaluated with specific primers by Hemi-Nested RT-PCR in 77 thyroid nodules including malignant and benign tumors, non-tumoral (goiter and thyroiditis) as well as surgical margin, non-neoplastic normal tissues adjacent to the malignant lesions. Our data revealed for the first time the expression of survivin 2α in thyroid nodules. It was detected in 85.7% of non-neoplastic surgical margin tissues, 71.4% of non tumoral, 63.2% of tumoral samples. Also, the expression of survivin 2α in benign tumor samples (64.2%) is more than malignant groups (62.8%). Survivin 2α expression is the highest in non-neoplastic surgical margin rather than other samples and the lowest expression was that of malignancy. According to the results, it can be concluded that survivin 2α protein may be has a vital protective effect throw survivin quenching due to the high expression in normal tissue compared with lesions.

  10. Chinese herbal medicines for benign thyroid nodules in adults.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenxun; Yin, Detao; Yang, Weimin; Kan, Quancheng; Liu, Zhangsuo; Ren, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Chenguang; Zhang, Shengjun

    2014-03-04

    A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland that might be palpable and is ultrasonographically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Thyroid nodules are more common as age increases and occur more frequently in women. Benign thyroid nodules often cause pressure symptoms and cosmetic complaints. In China and many other countries, doctors use Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) to treat thyroid nodules. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in adults. Review authors searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP information (a Chinese database), WANFANG Data (a Chinese database), the Chinese Conference Papers Database and the Chinese Dissertation Database (all searched up to April 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing CHM or CHM plus levothyroxine versus levothyroxine, placebo or no treatment in adults with benign thyroid nodules. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and evaluated overall study quality according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation), with differences resolved by consensus. We included one randomised trial involving 152 participants with a randomisation ratio of 2:1 (CHM vs no treatment). The trial applied adequate sequence generation; however, allocation concealment was unclear. Duration of treatment was three months, and follow-up six months. Our a priori defined outcomes of interest (i.e. nodule volume reduction ≥ 50%; pressure symptoms, cosmetic complaints or both; health-related quality of life; all-cause mortality; cancer occurrence; changes in number and size of thyroid nodules; changes in thyroid volume; and socioeconomic effects) were not investigated in the included study. Thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and tri

  11. Risk of Thyroid Cancer in Euthyroid Asymptomatic Patients with Thyroid Nodules with an Emphasis on Family History of Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors-such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels-were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041-0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  12. Evaluation of percutaneous ethanol injections in benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Perez, Camila Luhm Silva; Fighera, Tayane Muniz; Miasaki, Fabiola; Mesa Junior, Cleo Otaviano; Paz Filho, Gilberto Jorge da; Graf, Hans; Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. We evaluated 120 patients with benign thyroid nodules. Patients underwent evaluation of serum TSH and free T4, cervical ultrasound, and thyroid scintigraphy (in those with suppressed TSH levels). The application of sterile ethanol 99% was guided by ultrasound, with the injected volume amounting to one-third of the nodule volume. Response was considered complete (reduction of 90%); partial (reduction between 50 and 90%); or none (reduction of < 50%). Autonomous nodules were evaluated for normalization of TSH levels. Among the nodules studied, 30.8% were solid, 56.7% were mixed, 12.5% were cystic, and 21.6% were hyperfunctioning. The initial volume of the treated nodules ranged from 0.9 to 74.8 mL (mean 13.1 ± 12.4 mL). We performed 1-8 sessions of PEI, applying an average of 6.2 mL of ethanol for patient. After 2 years of follow-up, 17% of patients achieved a complete response (94% reduction); 53%, a partial response (70% reduction); and 30%, no response. A reduction in the volume of autonomous nodules was noted in 70% of cases, and 54% had a normalized value of TSH. The main side effect is local pain, lasting less than 24 hours in most cases. This study showed that PEI is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of benign, solid or mixed thyroid nodules. Most cases resulted in significant reduction in nodule volume, with normalization of thyroid function.

  13. Oncocytic follicular nodules of the thyroid with or without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: An institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Canberk, Sule; Griffin, A Carruth; Goyal, Abha; Wang, He; Montone, Kathleen; Livolsi, Virginia; Baloch, Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Oncocytic follicular (OF) cells can be a prominent component of fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from neoplasms (adenomas and carcinomas) and nodules arising in multinodular goiter and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). Because OF cells can be present in non-neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions it can be challenging to differentiate between these two in FNA specimens. The aims of this study were to determine the risk of malignancy in cases diagnosed as either oncocytic follicular neoplasm (OFN) or hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule with OF on FNA and to identify clinicopathologic features that may help in predicting malignancy in such cases, especially the presence or absence of CLT. We retrospectively searched the computerized laboratory information system at our institution between 1998 and 2009 for thyroid US guided FNA specimens in which the term "oncocytic/oncocytes" was mentioned in the final cytopathologic diagnosis. A total of 340 cases were selected for this study. The following data points were collected: Patient demographics, site of thyroid biopsy, size of lesion, FNA diagnosis, histopathologic follow-up and presence of CLT. Surgical pathology follow-up (SPFU) was available in 269 (79%) cases. Two hundred and sixty patients were females and 80 males (average age 53 years). The lesion size was <3.0 cm in 241 (71%) and ≥ 3.0 cm in 99 (29%) cases. Cytologic diagnoses included: Follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features (FNOF) 321 and suggestive of FNOF 19 cases; a secondary cytologic diagnosis of CLT was made in 20 cases. SPFU was available in 269 (79%) cases; it was benign in 213 (213/267 = 79%) and malignant in 56 (56/269 = 21%) cases. The background thyroid showed CLT in 67 (25%) cases; 24% (48/196) neoplasms occurred with versus 76% (147/196) without CLT. The rate of malignancy was lower in nodules measuring less than 3.0 cm as compared to those equal or greater than 3.0 cm in size (17% vs. 28% respectively). The presence of CLT did not

  14. Percutaneous ethanol injection of large autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, L; Giorgio, A; Mariniello, N; de Stefano, G; Perrotta, A; Aloisio, V; Tamasi, S; Forestieri, M C; Esposito, F; Esposito, F; Finizia, L; Voza, A

    2000-01-01

    To verify the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of large (>30-mL) hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Twelve patients (eight women, four men; age range, 26-76 years) with a large hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule (volume range, 33-90 mL; mean, 46.08 mL) underwent PEI treatment under ultrasonographic (US) guidance. US was used to calculate the volume of the nodules and to assess the diffusion of the ethanol in the lesions during the procedure. When incomplete necrosis of the nodule was depicted at scintigraphy performed 3 months after treatment, additional PEI sessions were performed. Four to 11 PEI sessions (mean, seven) were performed in each patient, with an injection of 3-14 mL of 99.8% ethanol per session (total amount of ethanol per patient, 30-108 mL; mean, 48.5 mL). At scintigraphy after treatment in all patients, recovery of extranodular uptake, absence of uptake in the nodule, and normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) levels were observed. In all patients, US showed volume reductions of 30%-50% after 3 months and 40%-80% after 6-9 months. Side effects were self-limiting in all patients. During the 6-48-month follow-up, no recurrence was observed. PEI is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of large hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

  15. Effect of estrogen therapy for 1 year on thyroid volume and thyroid nodules in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Graziano; Milli, Bruna; Morganti, Simonetta; Maggio, Marcello; Bacchi-Modena, Alberto; Sgarabotto, Maria Paola; Chirico, Carla; Di Donato, Pietro; Campanati, Paolo; Valcavi, Roberto; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Braverman, Lewis E; Valenti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are present in thyroid follicular cells in normal and neoplastic tissue. We evaluated changes in total thyroid volume and volume of thyroid nodules in postmenopausal women given either hormone therapy (HT) or no treatment in a 1-year observational follow-up. We studied 33 women receiving HT and 76 women receiving no treatment, comparing total thyroid volume, thyroid nodule volume, and serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone and estradiol at baseline and 1 year of follow-up. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were not different between groups either at baseline or at 1 year. Estradiol rose significantly in the HT group. The final percent changes in total thyroid volume were comparable between groups (HT, 1.59 +/- 2.56%; no treatment, 1.20 +/- 2.28%). At baseline, nodules were detected in 17 (51.5%) and 33 (43.4%) of women in the HT and no treatment groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between groups. The final number of nodules was unchanged or reduced in 88.2% and 81.1% and increased in 11.8% and 18.9% of women in the HT and no treatment groups, respectively, with no differences between groups. Baseline volumes of thyroid nodules were 0.8 +/- 0.4 and 1.4 +/- 0.4 mL in women in the HT and no treatment groups, respectively (P = 0.4). After 1 year the volume of thyroid nodules was unchanged or reduced in 47.1% and 52.8% and increased in 52.9% and 47.2% of women in the HT and no treatment groups, respectively, with no differences between groups. Estrogen administration for 1 year did not affect thyroid volume or the number and volume of thyroid nodules in postmenopausal women.

  16. Percutaneous laser ablation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Papini, Enrico; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Pacella, Claudio M

    2008-10-01

    Percutaneous image-guided procedures, largely based on thermal ablation, are at present under investigation for achieving a nonsurgical targeted cytoreduction in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. In several uncontrolled clinical trials and in two randomized clinical trials, laser ablation has demonstrated a good efficacy and safety for the shrinkage of benign cold thyroid nodules. In hyperfunctioning nodules, laser ablation induced a nearly 50% volume reduction with a variable frequency of normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Laser ablation has been tested for the palliative treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, local recurrences or distant metastases. Laser ablation therapy is indicated for the shrinkage of benign cold nodules in patients with local pressure symptoms who are at high surgical risk. The treatment should be performed only by well trained operators and after a careful cytological evaluation. Laser ablation does not seem to be consistently effective in the long-term control of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and is not an alternative treatment to 131I therapy. Laser ablation may be considered for the cytoreduction of tumor tissue prior to external radiation therapy or chemotherapy of local or distant recurrences of thyroid malignancy that are not amenable to surgical or radioiodine treatment.

  17. Management of hyperfunctioning single thyroid nodules in the era of minimally invasive thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Charles; Sidhu, Stan; Sywak, Mark; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-05-01

    Both surgical excision and radioiodine ablation are effective modalities in the management of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Minimally invasive thyroid surgery (MITS) using the lateral mini-incision approach has previously been demonstrated to be a safe and effective technique for thyroid lobectomy. As such MITS may offer advantages as a surgical approach to hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules without the need for a long cervical incision or extensive dissection associated with formal open hemithyroidectomy. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of MITS for the treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. This is a retrospective case study. Data were obtained from the University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit Database from 2002 to 2007. There were 86 cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules surgically removed during the study period, of which 10 (12%) were managed using the MITS approach. The ipsilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified and preserved in all cases with no incidence of temporary or permanent nerve palsy. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve was visualized and preserved in eight cases (80%). There were no cases of postoperative bleeding. There was one clinically significant follicular thyroid carcinoma in the series (10%). In nine of 10 cases (90%) normalization of thyroid function followed surgery. MITS is a safe and effective procedure, achieving the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure with minimal morbidity. As such it now presents an attractive alternative to radioiodine ablation for the management of small hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

  18. Cytological diagnosis of thyroid nodules in Hashimoto thyroiditis in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long standing Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT) causes shrinking and atrophy of the thyroid, but may also lead to diffuse enlargement of the gland and/or formation of nodules. These nodules should be differentiated from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and primary thyroidal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTL), which are possible complications of HT, and require pre-surgical diagnoses and different treatments. This study focuses on the role of fine-needle cytology (FNC) in the clinical surveillance and pre-surgical diagnosis of HT with diffuse and nodular enlargement of the gland in elderly patients. Methods Thirty-four elderly patients (≥ 65 yrs) with HT and diffuse or nodular enlargement of the thyroid underwent ultrasound (US)-guided FNC. Smears were routinely stained and evaluated; additional passes were used for flow cytometry (FC) assessment of lymphoid infiltrate in 6 cases. Results The cytological diagnosis was HT in 12 cases with prevalence of Hurtle cells in 2 cases, PTC in 1 case and PTL in 2 cases. FC assessed the reactive, non-lymphomatous nature of the lymphoid infiltrate in 5 cases and demonstrated light chain restriction, hence the lymphomatous nature of the lymphoid infiltrate in 2 cases of PTL. Conclusions FNC plays a key role in the clinical surveillance and pre-surgical diagnosis of diffuse enlargement and nodular presentation of HT in elderly patients. FNC can correctly diagnose HT, PTC and PTL indicating the need for surgery and its extension in suspicious or neoplastic cases, leaving other cases to the medical treatment and clinical surveillance. PMID:24266923

  19. Management implications from routine needle biopsy of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Walfish, P G; Strawbridge, H T; Rosen, I B

    1985-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and treatment consequences of using a routine needle biopsy procedure on all thyroid nodules without a radioisotopic scintigraphic study, 12 patients with documented hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were retrospectively evaluated regarding the physical and cytologic observations obtained after a fine-needle (22 to 27-gauge) aspiration biopsy (FNB) procedure. Among the seven solid lesions, features of marked cellularity and nuclear pleomorphism were present in three and moderate sheets of epithelium in four raising the suspicion of underlying malignancy, while five mixed (cystic and solid) lesions were larger than 3 cm, hemorrhagic, and recurrent, with two having detectable sheets of epithelium. Evidence for concomitant lymphocytic thyroiditis was seen in five of 12 (42%) patients, and nine had positive serum antithyroid antibody titers as well. In conclusion, total reliance on FNB without scintigraphy could lead to operations on hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas for suspected malignancy, of whom the vast majority would be benign, and could expose some unprepared patients with thyrotoxicosis to surgical morbidity. Routine thyroid hormone suppression therapy for apparently benign inflammatory or cystic degenerative lesions could also induce hyperthyroidism in patients with hyperfunctional or autonomous (nonsuppressible) nodules. When using an initial FNB approach, the need for thyroid function studies and scintigraphy before undertaking surgery or thyroid hormone feeding, as well as the consequences of omitting such studies, should be considered.

  20. Hyperthyroidism, hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule, and thyroid cancer in a young female: a rare and unusual coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hernán-Martínez, José; Uzcategui, María; Corder, Eric; Castillo, Manuel; Sostre, Samuel; Alicea, Luz

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of concomitant thyroid carcinoma with Grave's disease has been reported to range from 0 to 10%. Many controversies exist in the literature regarding the diagnostic workup and management in these types of patients. We are reporting a case of a 31 year old woman who had Graves' disease, a palpable thyroid nodule, and results from a thyroid scan revealed a "hot" nodule. Interestingly, an ultrasound guided FNA of the "hot" nodule showed papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Finally, a total thyroidectomy showed multilobar tumor involvement. The diagnostic tools employed to establish the proper management strategy for this patient were based on data in the literature that is full of discrepancies. The fact that Grave's disease occurs concomitantly with thyroid cancer, specifically the papillary type, is an indisputably rare combination. One rare feature on our clinical case was the reported malignancy of a papillary carcinoma within a "hot" nodule which usually is much less that 1%. Many studies describe an increasing incidence of Grave's disease patients with concomitant papillary thyroid carcinoma. One possible explanation for these findings could be improvements in medical technology of screening tools. We propose that, thyroid ultrasonography should be integrated in the diagnostic workup in patients presenting with Graves' disease, especially in those presenting with palpable nodules. Fine needle biopsy should not be restricted to cold nodules.

  1. GNAq mutations are not identified in papillary thyroid carcinomas and hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Clarissa A; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

    2010-12-01

    Activating mutations of GNAq protein in a hotspot at codon 209 have been recently described in uveal melanomas. Since these neoplasms share with thyroid carcinomas a high frequency of MAP kinase pathway-activating mutations, we hypothesized whether GNAq mutations could also play a role in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Additionally, activating mutations of another subtype of G protein (GNAS1) are frequently found in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, making it plausible that GNAq-activating mutations could also be found in some of these nodules. To investigate thyroid papillary carcinomas and thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules for GNAq mutations in exon 5, codon 209, a total of 32 RET/PTC, BRAF, and RAS negative thyroid papillary carcinomas and 13 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were evaluated. No mutations were identified. Although plausible, GNAq mutations seem not to play an important role in the development of thyroid follicular neoplasms, either benign hyperfunctioning nodules or malignant papillary carcinomas. Our results are in accordance with the literature, in which no GNAq hotspot mutations were found in thyroid papillary carcinomas, as well as in an extensive panel of other tumors. The molecular basis for MAP-kinase pathway activation in RET-PTC/BRAF/RAS negative thyroid carcinomas remains to be determined.

  2. Nodule in Nodule” on Thyroid Ultrasonography: Possibility of Follicular Carcinoma Transformed from Benign Thyroid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Ota, Hisashi; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yabuta, Tomonori; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Masuoka, Hiroo; Higashiyama, Takuya; Kihara, Minoru; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miya, Akihiro; Miyauchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Background It is generally considered impossible to differentiate follicular carcinomas from follicular adenomas by means of ultrasonography or cytology before surgery. Therefore, follicular carcinoma is histopathologically diagnosed by verifying capsular and/or vascular invasion after surgery. However, ultrasonography may play an important role in diagnosing follicular carcinoma preoperatively in a small number of cases. Case Description Four cases of follicular carcinoma or follicular neoplasm that transformed from a benign thyroid tumor and demonstrated a “nodule in nodule” appearance on ultrasonography are presented in this report. Characteristic ultrasound features of such patients are: (1) a “nodule in nodule” appearance, (2) a well-defined boundary line between the nodules, and (3) separate distribution of blood signals within each nodule. Conclusion A small number of patients with follicular carcinomas or follicular neoplasms may present with a “nodule in nodule” appearance on ultrasonography. It was suggested a long time ago that follicular carcinomas may develop from benign thyroid tumors. The fact that follicular carcinomas appear within benign tumors may be evidence of thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:28589092

  3. Cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid nodules harboring thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Mon, Sann Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Abbott, Collette E; Seethala, Raja; Ohori, N Paul; Nikiforova, Marina N; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Hodak, Steven P

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene mutations play a critical role in thyroid cell proliferation and function. They are found in 20%-82% of hyperfunctioning nodules, hyperfunctioning follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), and papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). The diagnostic importance of TSHR mutation testing in fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens remains unstudied. To examine the association of TSHR mutations with the functional status and surgical outcomes of thyroid nodules, we evaluated 703 consecutive thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology for TSHR mutations using next-generation sequencing. Testing for EZH1 mutations was performed in selected cases. The molecular diagnostic testing was done as part of standard of care treatment, and did not require informed consent. TSHR mutations were detected in 31 (4.4%) nodules and were located in exons 281-640, with codon 486 being the most common. Allelic frequency ranged from 3% to 45%. Of 16 cases (12 benign, 3 FTC, 1 PTC) with surgical correlation, 15 had solitary TSHR mutations and 1 PTC had comutation with BRAF V600E. Hyperthyroidism was confirmed in all 3 FTC (2 overt, 1 subclinical). Of 5 nodules with solitary TSHR mutations detected at high allelic frequency, 3 (60%) were FTC. Those at low allelic frequency (3%-22%) were benign. EZH1 mutations were detected in 2 of 4 TSHR-mutant malignant nodules and neither of 2 benign nodules. We report that TSHR mutations occur in ∼5% thyroid nodules in a large consecutive series with indeterminate cytology. TSHR mutations may be associated with an increased cancer risk when present at high allelic frequency, even when the nodule is hyperfunctioning. Benign nodules were however most strongly correlated with TSHR mutations at low allelic frequency. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. c-KIT receptor expression is strictly associated with the biological behaviour of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large amount of information has been collected on the molecular tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer. A low expression of c-KIT gene has been reported during the transformation of normal thyroid epithelium to papillary carcinoma suggesting a possible role of the gene in the differentiation of thyroid tissue rather than in the proliferation. The initial presentation of thyroid carcinoma is through a nodule and the best way nowadays to evaluate it is by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). However many thyroid FNAs are not definitively benign or malignant, yielding an indeterminate or suspicious diagnosis which ranges from 10 to 25% of FNAs. BRAF mutational analysis is commonly used to assess the malignancy of thyroid nodules but unfortunately it still leaves indeterminate diagnoses. The development of molecular initial diagnostic tests for evaluating a thyroid nodule is needed in order to define optimal surgical approach for patients with uncertain diagnosis pre- and intra-operatively. Methods In this study we extracted RNA from 82 FNA smears, 46 malignant and 36 benign at the histology, in order to evaluate by quantitative Real Time PCR the expression levels of c-KIT gene. Results We have found a highly preferential decrease rather than increase in transcript of c-KIT in malignant thyroid lesions compared to the benign ones. To explore the diagnostic utility of c-KIT expression in thyroid nodules, its expression values were divided in four arbitrarily defined classes, with class I characterized by the complete silencing of the gene. Class I and IV represented the two most informative groups, with 100% of the samples found malignant or benign respectively. The molecular analysis was proven by ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis to be highly specific and sensitive improving the cytological diagnostic accuracy of 15%. Conclusion We propose the use of BRAF test (after uncertain cytological diagnosis) to assess the malignancy of thyroid nodules at first

  5. Diagnostic and functional structure of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Mancha-Doblas, Isabel; Ortega-Jiménez, María Victoria; Ruiz-Escalante, José Francisco; Castells-Fusté, Ignasi; Tofé-Povedano, Santiago; Argüelles-Jiménez, Iñaki; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Appearance of a thyroid nodule has become a daily occurrence in clinical practice. Adequate thyroid nodule assessment requires several diagnostic tests and multiple medical appointments, which results in a substantial delay in diagnosis. Implementation of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic largely avoids these drawbacks by condensing in a single appointment all tests required for adequate evaluation of thyroid nodule. This paper reviews the diagnostic and functional structure of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Interstitial laser photocoagulation for benign thyroid nodules: time to treat large nodules.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Gerardo; Rotondi, Mario; Pirali, Barbara; Dionisio, Rosa; Agozzino, Lucio; Lanza, Michele; Buonanno, Luciano; Di Filippo, Bruno; Fonte, Rodolfo; Chiovato, Luca

    2011-09-01

    Interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) is a new therapeutic option for the ablation of non-functioning and hyper-functioning benign thyroid nodules. Amelioration of the ablation procedure currently allows treating large nodules. Aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ILP, performed according to a modified protocol of ablation, in patients with large functioning and non-functioning thyroid nodules and to identify the best parameters for predicting successful outcome in hyperthyroid patients. Fifty-one patients with non-functioning thyroid nodules (group 1) and 26 patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (group 2) were enrolled. All patients had a nodular volume ≥40 ml. Patients were addressed to 1-3 cycles of ILP. A cycle consisted of three ILP sessions, each lasting 5-10 minutes repeated at an interval of 1 month. After each cycle of ILP patients underwent thyroid evaluation. A nodule volume reduction, expressed as percentage of the basal volume, significantly occurred in both groups (F = 190.4; P < 0.0001 for group 1 and F = 100.2; P < 0.0001 for group 2). Receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for: (i) percentage of volume reduction; (ii) difference in nodule volume; (iii) total amount of energy delivered expressed in Joule. ROC curves identified the percentage of volume reduction as the best parameter predicting a normalized serum TSH (area under the curve 0.962; P < 0.0001). Intraoperative complications consisted in: (i) mild pain occurring in five (6.5%) patients, (ii) vasovagal reaction in two (2.6%) patients, (iii) fever within 24 hours from ILP in five (6.5%) patients. No major complications including persistent pain, laringeal nerve dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism, pseudocystic transformation, and/or neck fascitis were observed. ILP represents a valid alternative to surgery also for large benign thyroid nodules, both in terms of nodule size reduction and cure of

  7. Malignancy in solitary thyroid nodule: A clinicoradiopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jena, Amitabh; Patnayak, Rashmi; Prakash, Jaya; Sachan, Alok; Suresh, V; Lakshmi, Amarchala Yadagiri

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common. They can be either benign or malignant. Solitary thyroid nodules (STN) have a high likelihood of being malignant. They should be characterized properly for optimum management. In this study, we have analyzed our departmental data over a period of 5 years. All the patients who presented to the outpatient department with a clinically detected STN were included in the study group. Our approach was individualized. Preoperative ultrasonography (USG) and fine-needle aspiration cytology were planned in all these patients. Hemi thyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy with and without neck dissection were performed wherever appropriate. There were 162 cases of clinically detected STN. USG findings were available in 146 cases. Postoperative histopathology was reported as malignant in 58 cases. Malignant STN was more likely in males. Ultrasonographically detected solid STN were more prone for malignancy as compared to multinodular goiter (P = 0.000) Presence of micro calcification and cervical lymphadenopathy were more commonly noted in malignant thyroid swellings. Solitary thyroid nodules do have a high likelihood of harboring a malignancy. Solid echogenicity, micro calcification and cervical lymphadenopathy on USG were seen more frequently in malignant nodules.

  8. Ultrasonography Diagnosis and Imaging-Based Management of Thyroid Nodules: Revised Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung Hee; Baek, Jung Hwan; Chung, Jin; Ha, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji-hoon; Lee, Young Hen; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Moon, Won-Jin; Park, Jeong Seon; Choi, Yoon Jung; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Jeon, Se Jeong; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Lee, Chang Yoon; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Joon Hyung; Lee, Kwang Hui; Park, Sun-Won; Sung, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    The rate of detection of thyroid nodules and carcinomas has increased with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US), which is the mainstay for the detection and risk stratification of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for their biopsy and nonsurgical treatment. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published their first recommendations for the US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in 2011. These recommendations have been used as the standard guidelines for the past several years in Korea. Lately, the application of US has been further emphasized for the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the KSThR has revised the recommendations for the ultrasound diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules. The review and recommendations in this report have been based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus of experts. PMID:27134526

  9. Microwave ablation for thyroid nodules: a new string to the bow for percutaneous treatments?

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Francesco; Sacrini, Andrea; Pompili, Giovanni; Borelli, Anna; Panella, Silvia; Masu, Annamaria; De Pasquale, Loredana; Giacchero, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are a fairly common finding in general population and, even if most of them are benign, a treatment can be however necessary. In the last years, non surgical minimally invasive techniques have been developed to treat this pathology, starting from percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), to laser ablation (LA), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and, most recently, microwave ablation (MWA). Methods We reviewed all medical literature searching in pubmed.gov the terms “microwave” & “thyroid”. We found three original studies concerning MWA treatment, for a total of 263 patients (mean age 51.0 years; range, 15–80 years; male to female ratio 2.55) and 522 nodules. Results A total of 522 nodules (338 solid, 22 cystic, 162 mixed) in 263 patients were treated. Studies have shown a mean reduction in volume of thyroid nodules ranging from 45.9% to 65%. No study reported a significant and definitive change in laboratory parameters, except for one case (Heck et al.). No studies have reported major complications after procedure. Conclusions MWA is a new, promising technique among the minimally invasive treatments of thyroid nodules. Actually, the larger diameter of MW antenna seems to be the major limiting factor in the use of this technique. More studies are necessary to evaluate feasibility, safety and efficacy of the procedure. PMID:28149799

  10. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gary L; Waguespack, Steven G; Bauer, Andrew J; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M; Dinauer, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-07-01

    Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in

  11. Prospective Validation of ATA and ETA Sonographic Pattern Risk of Thyroid Nodules Selected for FNAC.

    PubMed

    Maino, Fabio; Forleo, Raffaella; Martinelli, Martina; Fralassi, Noemi; Barbato, Filomena; Pilli, Tania; Capezzone, Marco; Brilli, Lucia; Ciuoli, Cristina; Di Cairano, Giovanni; Nigi, Laura; Pacini, Furio; Castagna, Maria Grazia

    2018-06-01

    Recently, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) have proposed that thyroid ultrasound (US) should be used to stratify the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules and to aid decision-making about whether fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is indicated. To validate and to compare the ATA and ETA US risk stratification systems of thyroid nodules in a prospective series of thyroid nodules submitted to FNAC. We prospectively evaluated 432 thyroid nodules selected for FNAC from 340 patients. Cytology reports were based on the five categories according to the criteria of the British Thyroid Association. The proportion of Thy2 nodules decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of Thy4/Thy5 nodules significantly increased with increasing US risk class (P < 0.0001). The ability to identify benign and malignant nodules was similar between ATA and ETA systems. According to ATA and ETA US risk stratification systems, 23.7% and 56.0% nodules did not meet the criteria for FNAC, respectively. Considering only categories at lower risk of malignancy, the cumulative malignancy rate in these nodules was 1.2% for ATA and 1.7% for ETA US risk stratification systems. ETA and ATA US risk stratification systems provide effective malignancy risk stratification for thyroid nodules. In clinical practice, using this approach, we should be able to reduce the number of unnecessary FNAC without losing clinically relevant thyroid cancer.

  12. Ultrasonography and the Ultrasound-Based Management of Thyroid Nodules: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kwak, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Joon Hyung; Lee, Young Hen; Na, Dong Gyu; Park, Jeong Seon; Park, Sun Won

    2011-01-01

    The detection of thyroid nodules has become more common with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US). US is the mainstay for detecting and making the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for a biopsy. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the US diagnosis and US-based management of thyroid nodules. The review and recommendations in this report have been based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies and from the consensus of experts. PMID:21228935

  13. Update on Molecular Testing for Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Michiya; Nikiforova, Marina

    2018-04-01

    - Approximately 15% to 30% of thyroid nodules that undergo fine-needle aspiration are classified as cytologically indeterminate, presenting management challenges for patients and clinicians alike. During the past several years, several molecular tests have been developed to reduce the diagnostic uncertainty of indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspirations. - To review the methodology, clinical validation, and recent peer-reviewed literature for 4 molecular tests that are currently marketed for cytologically indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens: Afirma, ThyroSeq, ThyGenX/ThyraMIR, and RosettaGX Reveal. - Peer-reviewed literature retrieved from PubMed search, data provided by company websites and representatives, and authors' personal experiences. - The 4 commercially available molecular tests for thyroid cytology offer unique approaches to improve the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. Familiarity with data from the validation studies as well as the emerging literature about test performance in the postvalidation setting can help users to select and interpret these tests in a clinically meaningful way.

  14. Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Dong Eun; Jung, Chan Kwon; Kim, Won Gu; Kwon, Hyemi; Lee, Yu-Mi; Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Chung, Ki-Wook; Hong, Suck Joon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-01-01

    Background The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using ‘non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)’ for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs) to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia. Methods We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76%) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%). Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%). Results In total, 160 nodules (42%) presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%). The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7–35% in AUS-A nodules and 28–49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5–24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23–39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies. Conclusions After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs. PMID:27936121

  15. Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Austrian Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Monopolar radiofrequency ablation is currently deemed an exotic treatment option for benign thyroid nodules in many central European countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the safety and efficacy of this method in a large patient cohort following its introduction in Austria. Methods: Peri- and post-interventional complications were analyzed for 277 patients. Efficacy was determined for 300 and 154 nodules at 3 and 12 months post treatment, respectively. All treatments were performed with an internally cooled 18G radiofrequency electrode using a free-hand, “moving-shot” technique following subcutaneous and local perithyroidal anesthesia. Results: Mean patient age (SD) was 52 ± 12.9 years (75% female), and overall mean baseline nodule volume (SD) was 13.8 ± 15.9 mL. Nodules were visible in 62.8% of patients, 40% had a symptom score ≥4 on a 10-point visual analogue scale, and 14.4% had hyperthyroidism. Mean overall nodule volume reduction rates (VRR) at 3 and 12 months were 68 ± 16% and 82 ± 13%, respectively (p < 0.001). At 12 months, 81% of nodules exhibited a VRR of ≥70%, with 10%, 6%, and 2% of nodules showing VRRs of 60–70%, 50–60%, and ≤50%, respectively. Subgroup analysis according to baseline nodule size (≤10 mL to >30 mL) or baseline nodule composition (solid, mixed, cystic) revealed significantly higher VRRs for smaller and cystic nodules. Moreover, nodule shrinkage was accompanied by significantly improved symptom and cosmetic scores after 3 and 12 months (p < 0.001). Of 32 hyperthyroid patients, 27 (84%) were euthyroid, four had subclinical hyperthyroidism, and one had subclinical hypothyroidism at last follow-up. Post-procedural complications were absent in 83% of patients, minimal in 12.9%, moderate and reversible in 3.2% (1.8% voice change, 0.7% hyperthyroidism, 0.3% wound infection treated with antibiotics, 0.3% epifascial hematoma), and irreversible in 0.7% (one case

  16. Malignancy Rate in Thyroid Nodules Classified as Bethesda Category III (AUS/FLUS)

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Allen S.; Sarti, Evan E.; Jain, Kunal S.; Wang, Hangjun; Nixon, Iain J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Ghossein, Ronald; Fish, Stephanie A.; Wong, Richard J.; Lin, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the standard for interpreting fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. The “atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance” (AUS/FLUS) category, known as Bethesda Category III, has been ascribed a malignancy risk of 5–15%, but the probability of malignancy in AUS/FLUS specimens remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the risk of malignancy in thyroid FNAs categorized as AUS/FLUS at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods: The management of 541 AUS/FLUS thyroid nodule patients treated at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011 was analyzed. Clinical and radiologic features were examined as predictors for surgery. Target AUS/FLUS nodules were correlated with surgical pathology. Results: Of patients with an FNA initially categorized as AUS/FLUS, 64.7% (350/541) underwent immediate surgery, 17.7% (96/541) had repeat FNA, and 17.6% (95/541) were observed. Repeat FNA cytology was unsatisfactory in 5.2% (5/96), benign in 42.7% (41/96), AUS/FLUS in 38.5% (37/96), suspicious for follicular neoplasm in 5.2% (5/96), suspicious for malignancy in 4.2% (4/96), and malignant in 4.2% (4/96). Of nodules with two consecutive AUS/FLUS diagnoses that were resected, 26.3% (5/19) were malignant. Among all index AUS/FLUS nodules (triaged to surgery, repeat FNA, or observation), malignancy was confirmed on surgical pathology in 26.6% [CI 22.4–31.3]. Among AUS/FLUS nodules triaged to surgery, the malignancy rate was 37.8% [CI 33.1–42.8]. Incidental cancers were found in 22.3% of patients. On univariate logistic regression analysis, factors associated with triage to surgery were younger patient age (p<0.0001), increasing nodule size (p<0.0001), and nodule hypervascularity (p=0.032). Conclusions: In patients presenting to a comprehensive cancer center, malignancy rates in nodules with AUS/FLUS cytology are higher than previously estimated, with 26

  17. Radiology reports for incidental thyroid nodules on CT and MRI: high variability across subspecialties.

    PubMed

    Grady, A T; Sosa, J A; Tanpitukpongse, T P; Choudhury, K R; Gupta, R T; Hoang, J K

    2015-02-01

    Variability in radiologists' reporting styles and recommendations for incidental thyroid nodules can lead to confusion among clinicians and may contribute to inconsistent patient care. Our aim was to describe reporting practices of radiologists for incidental thyroid nodules seen on CT and MR imaging and to determine factors that influence reporting styles. This is a retrospective study of patients with incidental thyroid nodules reported on CT and MR imaging between January and December 2011, identified by text search for "thyroid nodule" in all CT and MR imaging reports. The studies included CT and MR imaging scans of the neck, spine, and chest. Radiology reports were divided into those that mentioned the incidental thyroid nodules only in the "Findings" section versus those that reported the incidental thyroid nodules in the "Impression" section as well, because this latter reporting style gives more emphasis to the finding. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify radiologist, patient, and nodule characteristics that influenced reporting styles. Three hundred seventy-five patients met the criterion of having incidental thyroid nodules. One hundred thirty-eight (37%) patients had incidental thyroid nodules reported in the "Impression" section. On multivariate analysis, only radiologists' divisions and nodule size were associated with reporting in "Impression." Chest radiologists and neuroradiologists were more likely to report incidental thyroid nodules in the "Impression" section than their abdominal imaging colleagues, and larger incidental thyroid nodules were more likely to be reported in "Impression" (P ≤ .03). Seventy-three percent of patients with incidental thyroid nodules of ≥20 mm were reported in the "Impression" section, but higher variability in reporting was seen for incidental thyroid nodules measuring 10-14 mm and 15-19 mm, which were reported in "Impression" for 61% and 50% of patients, respectively. Reporting

  18. [Screening of benign and malignant thyroid nodules in 5 196 physical examination population].

    PubMed

    Li, M H; Liu, J T

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To investigate the distribution characteristics of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer in physical examination population in Tianjin, and report the outcome of ultrasonography in detection of thyroid nodules. Methods: Enrolled all of physical examination population in our hospital from Jan 1, 2014 to Dec 31, 2014 as our study subjects then the thyroid gland lesions were screened by ultrasound diagnostic technique. The risk assessment of benign and malignant thyroid nodules was assessed by ultrasonography and thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS), and the individuals were followed up for 1 year. Results: Among the 5 196 cases, the patients with thyroid nodules was 2 068 cases (39.80%). The thyroid nodules was 35.04% in male and 44.78% in female subjects, lower in females than in male cases ( P <0.001). 18 cases of thyroid cancer patients were detected (0.35%). The thyroid cancer rate were 0.34% and 0.36% in male and female respectively ( P >0.05). Thyroid nodules increased with age, but the thyroid cancer patients were mainly concentrated in the 30 to 39 years old group and 50 to 59 years old group. All of the thyroid cancer patients underwent surgical treatment, better differentiation thyroid papillary carcinoma (17 cases) in major, most were early stage cancer and micro-cancer, possessing relatively low risk of recurrence. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography and TI-RADS diagnosis of thyroid cancer was 72.22%, 98.94% and 98.85%. Conclusions: The detection rate of thyroid nodules in our population is close to 40%, and there are differences between sexes and ages. Ultrasonography and TI-RADS association is an efficient method to detect the nodules in thyroid.

  19. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy, and thyrotropin suppression

  20. Prognosis of Thyroid Nodules in Individuals Living in the Zhitomir Region of Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Naomi; Sekitani, Yui; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kozlovsky, Alexander A.; Gutevych, Oleksandr K.; Saiko, Aleksey S.; Nirova, Nina V.; Petrova, Anjela A.; Rafalskiy, Ruslan M.; Chorny, Sergey A.; Daniliuk, Valery V.; Anami, Masanobu; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Objective After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. Patients and Methods Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group) and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group) intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Results Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy), was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine. PMID:23209797

  1. Morphological and wavelet features towards sonographic thyroid nodules evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tsantis, Stavros; Dimitropoulos, Nikos; Cavouras, Dionisis; Nikiforidis, George

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a computer-based classification scheme that utilized various morphological and novel wavelet-based features towards malignancy risk evaluation of thyroid nodules in ultrasonography. The study comprised 85 ultrasound images-patients that were cytological confirmed (54 low-risk and 31 high-risk). A set of 20 features (12 based on nodules boundary shape and 8 based on wavelet local maxima located within each nodule) has been generated. Two powerful pattern recognition algorithms (support vector machines and probabilistic neural networks) have been designed and developed in order to quantify the power of differentiation of the introduced features. A comparative study has also been held, in order to estimate the impact speckle had onto the classification procedure. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of both classifiers was made by means of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. In the speckle-free feature set, the area under the ROC curve was 0.96 for the support vector machines classifier whereas for the probabilistic neural networks was 0.91. In the feature set with speckle, the corresponding areas under the ROC curves were 0.88 and 0.86 respectively for the two classifiers. The proposed features can increase the classification accuracy and decrease the rate of missing and misdiagnosis in thyroid cancer control.

  2. Prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in ultrasound studies of dogs with hypercalcemia (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Pollard, Rachel E; Bohannon, Laurie K; Feldman, Edward C

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is commonly used to evaluate the cervical region in dogs with hypercalcemia due to suspected hyperparathyroidism. Incidental thyroid nodules may be detected during these studies, however little information has been published to guide clinical decision-making when this occurs. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in hypercalcemic dogs undergoing cervical ultrasound at our hospital during the period of 2008-2013. Dogs with a palpable neck mass were excluded. Cervical ultrasound images for each dog were retrieved and reviewed by a board certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of patient outcome. Presence, number, and dimensions of thyroid nodules were recorded. Results of thyroid nodule aspirate, biopsy or necropsy were recorded from medical records when available. Ninety-one dogs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 14/91 (15%) dogs had at least one thyroid nodule. Mean (± standard deviation) thyroid gland nodule length, width, and height were 1.51 ± 0.74, 0.96 ± 0.73, and 0.75 ± 0.36 cm, respectively. A histologic diagnosis was available for the incidental thyroid lesions in eight dogs, including one dog with two nodules. Confirmed diagnoses for these nodules were thyroid cyst (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenoma (3/9, 33%), thyroid adenocarcinoma (2/9, 22%) and nodular hyperplasia (1/9, 11%). Findings indicated that incidental thyroid nodules may be present in hypercalcemic dogs with no palpable neck mass and no clinical signs of thyroid disease. Some of these nodules may be malignant and therefore a recommendation for cytology or biopsy may be justified. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Free thyroxine in needle washout after fine needle aspiration biopsy of toxic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Raikov, Nikolai; Nonchev, Boyan; Chaushev, Borislav; Vjagova, Diyana; Todorov, Svetoslav; Bocheva, Yana; Malceva, Daniela; Vicheva, Snejinka; Raikova, Asyia; Argatska, Antoaneta; Raikov, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main diagnostic tool for toxic adenomas (TA) is radionuclide imaging indicated in patients with evidence of thyroid nodules in combination with thyrotoxic syndrome. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are widely used for the valuation of thyroid masses. There is no literature data concerning the utility of FNAB and related tests for the diagnosis of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) in the needle washout after FNAB of hot thyroid nodules. The results of our study show that the FT4 levels in needle washout from TA were significantly higher than the surrounding parenchyma and correlated with the hormonal changes in patients with thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules. Further studies on a large number of patients are needed to refine the diagnostic value of this method and evaluate its importance in quantitative risk assessment of thyroid autonomy.

  4. Detecting and Treating Thyroid Nodules and Cancer Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nodules relies mainly on the results of thyroid ultrasound imaging and fine-needle aspiration biopsy . A biopsy is the removal of a small sample of the nodule for further testing. Thyroid ultrasound uses the same safe technique of high- frequency ...

  5. ROLE OF MOLECULAR MARKERS IN THYROID NODULE MANAGEMENT: THEN AND NOW.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2017-08-01

    To describe the evolution and clinical utility of molecular testing for thyroid nodules and cancer achieved over the last 2 decades. Scientific reports on thyroid cancer genetics and molecular diagnostics in thyroid nodules. Over the last 2 decades, our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of thyroid cancer has dramatically expanded, such that most thyroid cancers now have known gene driver events. This knowledge provides the basis for establishing and further improving molecular tests for thyroid nodules and cancer and for the introduction of new entities such as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features. The progress with molecular tests for thyroid nodules started in the 1990s from demonstrating feasibility of detecting various molecular alterations in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) material collected from thyroid nodules. It was followed by the introduction of the first single-gene mutational markers, such as BRAF, and a small mutational panel into clinical practice in the mid 2000s. Currently, several more advanced molecular tests are available for clinical use. They are based on multiple molecular markers and have increasing impact on the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules. The evolution of molecular tests for thyroid nodules followed the discovery of various diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers of thyroid cancer that can be applied to thyroid FNA samples to inform more individualized management of these patients. FNA = fine-needle aspiration miRNA = micro RNA NGS = next-generation sequencing NIFTP = noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features NPV = negative predictive value PPV = positive predictive value PTC = papillary thyroid carcinoma RAI = radioactive iodine.

  6. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma presenting as a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Gabalec, Filip; Svilias, Ioannis; Plasilova, Ivana; Hovorkova, Eva; Ryska, Aler; Horacek, Jiri

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we describe a case of papillary carcinoma in a 15-year-old girl who presented with a hyperfunctioning (hot) thyroid nodule and discuss it in the context of current management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules. In adults, hot nodules rarely require cytologic or histologic evaluation, and hyperthyroidism is often treated with radioiodine (131I). However, in children and adolescents, the malignancy rate for nodules (both cold and hot) is higher and surgery is often necessary. Surgery may serve as a therapy, as well as a diagnostic tool, to treat hot nodules in children and adolescents.

  7. Increases in thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirations, operations, and diagnoses of thyroid cancer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Julie Ann; Hanna, John W; Robinson, Karen A; Lanman, Richard B

    2013-12-01

    To provide population-based estimates of trends in thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirations (FNA) and operative volumes, we used multiple claims databases to quantify rates of these procedures and their association with the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States. Private and public insurance claims databases were used to estimate procedure volumes from 2006 to 2011. Rates of FNA and thyroid operations related to thyroid nodules were defined by CPT4 codes associated with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision Clinical Modification codes for nontoxic uni- or multinodular goiter and thyroid neoplasms. Use of thyroid FNA more than doubled during the 5-year study period (16% annual growth). The number of thyroid operations performed for thyroid nodules increased by 31%. Total thyroidectomies increased by 12% per year, whereas lobectomies increased only 1% per year. In 2011, total thyroidectomies accounted for more than half (56%) of the operations for thyroid neoplasms in the United States. Thyroid operations became increasingly (62%) outpatient procedures. Thyroid FNA and operative procedures have increased rapidly in the United States, with an associated increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer. The more substantial increase in number of total versus partial thyroid resections suggests that patients undergoing thyroid operation are perceived to have a greater risk of cancer as determined by preoperative assessments, but this trend could also increase detection of incidental microcarcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 2, sonographic analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lauren; Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Reading, Carl C; Langer, Jill E; Desser, Terry; Szabunio, Margaret M; Mandel, Susan J; Hildebolt, Charles F; Cronan, John J

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare sonographic features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. As part of an ongoing multiinstitutional study, patients who underwent ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration of one or more thyroid nodules were analyzed for a variety of predetermined sonographic features. Patients with a sonographic appearance consistent with diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis and with coexisting nodules that could be confirmed to be benign or malignant by fine-needle aspiration or surgical pathologic analysis were included in the study. Among nodules within diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis, 84% (69/82) were benign (35 nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis, 32 nodular hyperplasia, and two follicular adenoma), and 16% (13/82) were malignant (12 papillary carcinoma and one lymphoma). Malignant nodules were more likely to be solid and hypoechoic (62% vs 19%). All types of calcifications were more prevalent among malignant nodules, including microcalcifications (39% vs 0%), nonspecific tiny bright reflectors (39% vs 6%), macrocalcifications (15% vs 3%), and eggshell (15% vs 2%). Benign nodules were more likely to be hyperechoic (46% vs 9%), to have a halo (39% vs 15%), and to lack calcifications (88% vs 23%). Benign nodules more often had ill-defined margins (36% vs 8%). Sonographic features of benign and malignant nodules within diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis are generally similar to the features typical of benign and malignant nodules in the general population. If calcifications of any type are added to the list of malignant sonographic features, the decision to biopsy a nodule in patients with diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis can be based on recommendations that have been published previously.

  9. Intrathyroid metastasis presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule: an unusual case of clinically silent lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, U K; Rauniyar, R K; Adhikary, S; Sinha, A

    2008-01-01

    Metastases in the thyroid gland are very rare. Carcinoma lung is one of the tumours, which may metastasize to the thyroid. We report a 60-year-old lady with intrathyroid metastasis presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the nodule showed features of metastatic adenocarcinoma. Further detail evaluation revealed primary lung adenocarcinoma with secondaries to adrenals, retroperitoneal and bilateral axillary nodes. This report emphasizes this unusual clinical presentation of carcinoma lung with wide spread secondaries; and a solitary thyroid nodule can be a presenting complain of a metastatic disease.

  10. The natural history of thyroid autonomy and hot nodules.

    PubMed

    Corvilain, B

    2003-02-01

    Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas are benign monoclonal tumors characterized by their capacity to grow and produce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) autonomously, i.e. in the absence of thyrotropin (TSH). Mutations of the TSH receptor (TSH-R) have been found in the majority of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas. On radioisotope scanning they generally appear as hot nodules because they concentrate radioiodide or 99mTc pertechnate, whereas the normal surrounding and contralateral tissue concentrate little isotopes. A toxic adenoma probably evolves gradually from a small autonomously hyperfunctioning adenoma that initially is only slightly more active than the extranodular tissue. This has been referred to as a "warm" nodule or a "compensated" adenoma. The diagnostic criterion for this designation is the persistence of detectable serum TSH maintaining some radioiodine uptake by the extranodular tissue. This "compensated" adenoma persists as long as the autonomous hormone output is not sufficient to suppress thyrotropin, i.e. to cause hyperthyroidism. The rate of development of thyrotoxicosis in patients with hyperfunctioning adenomas who are euthyroid initially is about 4% per year and depends on the size of the adenoma, iodine intake and age of the patient. No clear relationship can be establish between the nature of the TSH receptor mutations and the phenotype of the tumor.

  11. Demonstration of Iodide Transport Defect but Normal Iodide Organification in Nonfunctioning Nodules of Human Thyroid Glands

    PubMed Central

    Field, James B.; Larsen, P. Reed; Yamashita, Kamejiro; Mashiter, Keith; Dekker, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Benign and malignant nodules in human thyroid glands, which did not concentrate iodide in vivo, were also unable to accumulate iodide in vitro. The mean thyroid-to-medium ratio (T/M) in seven benign nodules was 0.8±0.2 compared with 7±2 in adjacent normal thyroid tissue. In four malignant thyroid nodules, the mean T/M was 0.5±0.1 compared with 11±4 in adjacent normal thyroid. Despite the inability of such nodules to concentrate iodide, iodide organification was present but was only one-half to one-third as active as in surrounding normal thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increased iodide organification equally in both benign nodules and normal thyroid although it had no effect in three of the four malignant lesions. The reduction in organification is probably related to the absence of iodide transport, since incubation of normal thyroid slices with perchlorate caused similar diminution in iodide incorporation but no change in the response to TSH. Monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and di-iodotyrosine (DIT) accounted for most of the organic iodide in both the nodules and normal tissue. The MIT/DIT ratio was similar in normal and nodule tissue. The normal tissue contained much more inorganic iodide than the nodules, consistent with the absence of the iodide trap in the latter tissue. The thyroxine content of normal thyroid was 149±17 μg/g wet wt and 18±4 μg/g wet wt in the nodules. The transport defect in the nodules was not associated with any reduction in total, Na+-K+- or Mg++-activated ATPase activities or the concentration of ATP. Basal adenylate cyclase was higher in nodules than normal tissue. Although there was no difference between benign and malignant nodules, the response of adenylate cyclase to TSH was greater in the benign lesions. These studies demonstrate that nonfunctioning thyroid nodules, both benign and malignant, have a specific defect in iodide transport that accounts for their failure to accumulate radioactive iodide in vivo. In benign

  12. Qualitative and Semiquantitative Elastography for the Diagnosis of Intermediate Suspicious Thyroid Nodules Based on the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo Ra; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Y; Kwak, Jin Young

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate qualitative and semiquantitative elastography for the diagnosis of intermediate suspicious thyroid nodules based on the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines. Through a retrospective search of our institutional database, 746 solid thyroid nodules found on grayscale ultrasonography, strain elastography, and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration between June and November 2009 were collected. Among them, 80 nodules from 80 patients with an intermediate suspicion of malignancy based on the 2015 ATA guidelines that were 10 mm or larger were recruited as the final study nodules. Elastographic findings were categorized according to the criteria of Rago et al (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92:2917-2922) and Asteria et al (Thyroid 2008; 18:523-531), and strain ratio values were calculated and recorded. The independent 2-sample t test and χ 2 test (or Fisher exact test) were used to evaluate differences in clinical parameters between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. All variables were compared by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 80 nodules, 6 (7.5%) were malignant, and 74 (92.5%) were benign. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, nodule size, elasticity score, and strain ratio between benign and malignant nodules. No variables significantly predicted thyroid malignancy on the univariate analysis. On the multivariate logistic regression analysis, there were no independent variables associated with thyroid malignancy, including the elasticity score and strain ratio (all P > .05). Elastographic analysis using the elasticity score and strain ratio has limited ability to characterize the benignity or malignancy of thyroid nodules with an intermediate suspicion of malignancy based on the 2015 ATA guidelines. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Thyroid nodule management: clinical, ultrasound and cytopathological parameters for predicting malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Frederico F. R.; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration cytology is considered to be the reference method for evaluating thyroid nodules, the results are inaccurate in approximately 10-30% of cases. Several studies have attempted to predict the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules based on age, nodularity, thyrotropin values, thyroid autoimmune disease, hot/cold nodule status, and ultrasound parameters. However, no consensus has been found, and none of these parameters has significantly affected patient management. The management of indeterminate thyroid nodules and re-biopsies of nodules with initially benign cytological results remain important and controversial topics of discussion. The Bethesda cytological system and several studies on the use of molecular markers to predict malignancy from cytological samples of thyroid nodules need further clarification. More in-depth discussions among and continuous education of the specialists involved in treating thyroid disease are necessary to improve the management of these patients. This review aims to examine the clinical, laboratory, ultrasound, and scintigraphic parameters that can be used for thyroid nodule management. PMID:22948464

  14. Ultrasound-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in 435 patients

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Lin-Xue; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Jun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. A total of 474 benign thyroid nodules in 435 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided microwave ablation from September 2012 to August 2015 were included. Nodule volume and thyroid function were measured before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and subsequently after every 6 months. The nodule volume reduction rate and changes of thyroid function were evaluated. The volume of all thyroid nodules significantly decreased after ultrasound-guided microwave ablation. The average volume was 13.07 ± 0.95 ml before treatment, and 1.14 ± 0.26 ml at 12-months follow-up. The mean volume reduction rate was 90% and the final volume reduction rate was 94%. The volume reduction rate of mainly cystic nodules was significantly higher than that of simple solid and mainly solid nodules (all P < 0.05). The pretreatment volume of nodules was positively correlated with the final volume reduction rate at final follow-up (P = 0.004). No serious complications were observed after treatment. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided microwave ablation is an effective and safe technique for treatment of benign thyroid nodules, and has the potential for clinical applications. Impact statement Ultrasound-guided MWA is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. It can significantly reduce the nodule volume, improve the patients’ clinical symptoms, has less complication, guarantees quick recovery, meets patients' aesthetic needs, and shows less interference on the physiological and psychological aspects of the body. MWA should be a good complement to traditional open surgery and has potentials in clinical applications. PMID:28847173

  15. Ultrasound-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in 435 patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Jiang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Jun-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. A total of 474 benign thyroid nodules in 435 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided microwave ablation from September 2012 to August 2015 were included. Nodule volume and thyroid function were measured before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and subsequently after every 6 months. The nodule volume reduction rate and changes of thyroid function were evaluated. The volume of all thyroid nodules significantly decreased after ultrasound-guided microwave ablation. The average volume was 13.07 ± 0.95 ml before treatment, and 1.14 ± 0.26 ml at 12-months follow-up. The mean volume reduction rate was 90% and the final volume reduction rate was 94%. The volume reduction rate of mainly cystic nodules was significantly higher than that of simple solid and mainly solid nodules (all P < 0.05). The pretreatment volume of nodules was positively correlated with the final volume reduction rate at final follow-up ( P = 0.004). No serious complications were observed after treatment. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided microwave ablation is an effective and safe technique for treatment of benign thyroid nodules, and has the potential for clinical applications. Impact statement Ultrasound-guided MWA is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. It can significantly reduce the nodule volume, improve the patients' clinical symptoms, has less complication, guarantees quick recovery, meets patients' aesthetic needs, and shows less interference on the physiological and psychological aspects of the body. MWA should be a good complement to traditional open surgery and has potentials in clinical applications.

  16. Validation of American Thyroid Association Ultrasound Risk Assessment of Thyroid Nodules Selected for Ultrasound Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alice L; Falciglia, Mercedes; Yang, Huaitao; Mark, Jonathan R; Steward, David L

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the American Thyroid Association (ATA) sonographic risk assessment of thyroid nodules. The ATA sonographic risk assessment was prospectively applied to 206 thyroid nodules selected for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA), and analyzed with The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC), as well as surgical pathology for the subset undergoing surgical excision. The analysis included 206 thyroid nodules averaging 2.4 cm (range 1-7 cm; standard error of the mean 0.07). Using the ATA US pattern risk assessment, nodules were classified as high (4%), intermediate (31%), low (38%), and very low (26%) risk of malignancy. Nodule size was inversely correlated with sonographic risk assessment, as lower risk nodules were larger on average (p < 0.0001). Malignancy rates determined by cytology/surgical pathology were high 100%, intermediate 11%, low 8%, and very low 2%, which were closely aligned with ATA malignancy risk estimates (high 70-90%, intermediate 10-20%, low 5-10%, and very low 3%). ATA US pattern risk assessment also appropriately predicted the proportion of nodules classified as malignant or suspicious for malignancy through TBSRTC classification-high (77%), intermediate (6%), low (1%), and very low 0%-as well as benign TBSRTC classification-high (0%), intermediate (47%), low (61%), and very low (70%) (p < 0.0001). Malignancy rates of surgically excised, cytologically indeterminate nodules followed ATA sonographic risk stratification (high 100%, intermediate 21%, low 17%, and very low 12%; p = 0.003). This prospective study supports the new ATA sonographic pattern risk assessment for selection of thyroid nodules for US-FNA based upon TBSRTC and surgical pathology results. In the setting of indeterminate cytopathology, nodules categorized as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance with ATA high-risk sonographic patterns have a high

  17. A 2015 Survey of Clinical Practice Patterns in the Management of Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Burch, Henry B; Burman, Kenneth D; Cooper, David S; Hennessey, James V; Vietor, Nicole O

    2016-07-01

    The management of thyroid nodules has changed dramatically over the past two decades. In the interim, technological advances including high-resolution ultrasound and molecular testing of thyroid nodules have been introduced. We sought to document current practices in the management thyroid nodules and assess the extent to which technological advances have been incorporated into current practice. We further sought to compare current practice to recommendations made in a recently updated American Thyroid Association (ATA) clinical practice guideline (CPG) and examine differences in thyroid nodule management among international members of U.S.-based endocrine societies. Members of The Endocrine Society, ATA, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists were invited to participate in a Web-based survey dealing with testing, treatment preference, and modulating factors in patients with thyroid nodules. A total of 897 respondents participated in the survey, including 661 members of The Endocrine Society, 454 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists members, and 365 ATA members. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in 2015 is generally performed by endocrinologists (56.6%) and radiologists (31.9%), most frequently using ultrasound guidance (83.3%). Respondents in general have a lower threshold for FNA of thyroid nodules than that recommended in the updated ATA CPG. Management depends on the FNA result, with follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance resulting in molecular testing (38.8% of respondents), repeat FNA cytology (31.5%), or immediate referral for thyroid surgery (24.4%). Nodules showing follicular neoplasm by FNA are referred for thyroid surgery by 61.2% of respondents (46.6 % lobectomy, 14.6 % total thyroidectomy) or molecular testing (29.0 %). Nodules found suspicious but not conclusive for malignancy (Bethesda category V), are referred for thyroid surgery (86.0%) and rarely undergo molecular testing

  18. Autonomously hyperfunctioning cystic nodule harbouring thyroid carcinoma - Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria João; Soares, Virgínia; Koch, Pedro; Silva, Artur; Taveira-Gomes, António

    2018-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is rarely associated with malignancy, but it cannot rule out thyroid cancer. Although there is published data describing this coexistence, thyroid carcinomas inside autonomously functioning nodules are uncommon. A 49-year-old woman presented with a cervical mass, unexplained weight loss and anxiousness, sweating and insomnia. On physical examination, she had a palpable left thyroid nodule. Thyroid function tests showed suppressed TSH (<0,1 uUI/mL), thyroxine 1,44 ng/dL (normal range 0,70-1,48) and triiodothyronine 4,33 pg/mL (normal range 1,71-3,71). Ultrasound imaging revealed a left lobe, 4 cm partial cystic nodule. 99mTC thyroid scintigraphy showed a hyperfunctioning nodule with suppression of the remainder parenchyma. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was nondiagnostic (cystic fluid). The patient was started on thiamazole 5 mg daily with subsequent normalization of thyroid function, but she developed cervical foreign body sensation and a left hemithyroidectomy was performed. Histology showed a 4 cm cystic nodule with a follicular variant papillary carcinoma and the patient underwent completion thyroidectomy, followed by radio-iodine ablation. Published literature showed an increased prevalence of autonomously functioning nodules, harbouring thyroid carcinomas in adults. Papillary carcinoma is the most frequently described but the follicular variant is rare. Although rare, thyroid cancer is not definitively excluded in hyperthyroid patients and it should always be considered as differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Helicobacter pylori Infection Is Associated with the Presence of Thyroid Nodules in the Euthyroid Population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Munker, Stefan; Chen, Lihua; Yu, Chaohui; Chen, Peng; Li, Youming

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with extragastric diseases. The thyroid may be one of the targets of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to investigate whether H. pylori infections were associated with the presence of thyroid nodules. A total of 988 euthyroid subjects from China were included in this cross-sectional study. Four hundred thirty-five (44.0%) subjects were diagnosed as having thyroid nodules, and 486 (49.2%) were diagnosed with H. pylori infections. The thyroid nodules group had a higher proportion of H. pylori infections than the control group (P = 0.002). Free thyroxine (FT4) levels were lower and the prevalence of thyroid nodules was higher in patients with H. pylori infection compared to those without infection, even after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI; all P < 0.05). The prevalence of H. pylori infection showed a decreasing trend as serum FT4 level increased (P trend = 0.020). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of thyroid nodules (odds ratio: 1.390, 95% confidence interval: 1.059–1.824, P = 0.018). Our results suggested that H. pylori infections were positively associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population, whose thyroid functions were in the reference range. PMID:24244604

  20. Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: update on the Brazilian consensus.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa Maria Z; Maia, Ana Luiza; Vaisman, Mário

    2013-06-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent findings, especially when sensitive imaging methods are used. Although thyroid cancer is relatively rare, its incidence is increasing, particularly in terms of small tumors, which have an uncertain clinical relevance. Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer exhibit satisfactory clinical outcomes when treatment is appropriate, and their mortality rate is similar to that of the overall population. However, relapse occurs in a considerable fraction of these patients, and some patients stop responding to conventional treatment and eventually die from their disease. Therefore, the challenge is how to identify the individuals who require more aggressive disease management while sparing the majority of patients from unnecessary treatments and procedures. We have updated the Brazilian Consensus that was published in 2007, emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic advances that the participants, representing several Brazilian university centers, consider most relevant in clinical practice. The formulation of the present guidelines was based on the participants' experience and a review of the relevant literature.

  1. Study on the status of thyroid function and thyroid nodules in chinese breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhou; Zhao, Chunxia; Wu, Yutuan; Wu, He; Chen, Haoran; Li, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Kai-Nan; Kong, Ling-Quan

    2017-01-01

    We performed a study to investigate the status of thyroid nodules and thyroid functions in Chinese breast cancer women. The clinical data of female patients with breast cancer or benign breast diseases and normal populace were evaluated. The thyroxine(T4) level in initially diagnosed breast cancer patients were significantly higher than those in benign breast diseases patients (7.68±1.51 vs 7.29±1.52ug/dl, p<0.001), while the TSH levels were slightly lower than in benign breast diseases patients(3.23±4.59 vs 3.60±6.74uIU/ml, p=0.302). The overall incidence of hypothyroidism in initially diagnosed breast cancer and benign breast diseases patients were 28.65% and 32.74%(p=0.195). During chemotherapy, the T4(7.08±1.69ug/dl), fT3(2.87±0.48pg/ml) and fT4(0.83±0.15ng/dl) levels were significantly lower than in initially diagnosed breast cancer patients(7.68±1.51ug/dl, 3.07±0.50pg/ml, 0.88±0.20ng/dl, p<0.05). The incidence of thyroid nodules in initially diagnosed breast cancer patients, benign breast diseases patients and healthy population were 56.17%, 43.64%, 34.49%(p<0.001). The incidence of TI-RADS≥4 TN in initially diagnosed breast cancer patients and benign breast diseases patients were significantly higher than in normal population(7.27% vs 9.45% vs 2.87%, p<0.001). The incidence of TI-RADS≥4 thyroid nodules in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy was significantly higher than in initially diagnosed breast cancer patients(11.71% vs 7.27%, p<0.05). These data indicate that the incidence of thyroid disease in breast disease patients is higher than in normal population in China, and the breast diseases, especially breast cancer, might be related to the high incidence of thyroid nodules. PMID:29113346

  2. Histologic Findings and Cytological Alterations in Thyroid Nodules After Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Graves' Disease: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    El Hussein, Siba; Omarzai, Yumna

    2017-06-01

    Unlike the well-documented relation between radiation to the neck and development of papillary thyroid carcinoma, a causal association between radioactive iodine treatment for Graves' disease and development of thyroid malignancy is less defined. However, patients with a background of thyroid dysfunction presenting with clinically palpable thyroid nodules are followed more closely than the average population, and fine needle aspiration is recommended in such circumstances. Cytological examination of aspirates, and histologic examination of tissue provided from patients with a known history of Graves' disease, managed by radioactive iodine therapy can create a diagnostic dilemma, as the distinction between radiation effect and a malignant primary thyroid neoplasm can be very challenging. Thus, pathologists should be aware of the existence of these changes in the setting of radiation therapy for Graves' disease. Providing pathologists with appropriate clinical history of Graves' disease treated with radioactive iodine is of paramount importance in order to prevent an overdiagnosis of malignancy.

  3. An Experimental Comparison of Two Different Technetium Source Activities Which Can Imitate Thyroid Scintigraphy in Case of Thyroid Toxic Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Miftari, Ramë; Fejza, Ferki; Bicaj, Xhavit; Nura, Adem; Topciu, Valdete; Bajrami, Ismet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In cases of thyroid toxic autonomous nodule, anterior projection of Tc-99m pertechnetate image shows a hot nodule that occupies most, or the entire thyroid lobe with near-total or total suppression of the contra lateral lobe. In this case is very difficult to distinguish toxic nodule from lobe agenesis. Our interest was to estimate and determinate the rate of radioactivity when the source with high activity can make total suppression of the second source with low activity in same conditions with thyroid scintigraphy procedures. Material and methodology: Thyroid scintigraphy was performed with Technetium 99 meta stable pertechnetate. A parallel high resolution low energy collimator was used as an energy setting of 140 KeV photo peak for T-99m. Images are acquired at 200 Kilo Counts in the anterior projection with the collimator positioned as close as the patient’s extended neck (approximately in distance of 18 cm). The scintigraphy of thyroid gland was performed 15 minutes after intravenous administration of 1.5 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate. Technetium 99 meta stable radioactive sources with different activity were used for two scintigraphies studies, performed in same thyroid scintigraphy acquisition procedures. In the first study, were compared the standard source with high activity A=11.2 mCi with sources with variable activities B=1.33 mCi; 1.03 mCi; 0.7 mCi; 0.36 mCi; and 0.16mCi) in distance of 1.5cm from each other sources, which is approximately same with distance between two thyroid lobes. In the second study were compared the sources with low activity in proportion 70:1(source A = 1.5 mCi and source B=0.021mCi). As clinical studies we preferred two different patents with different thyroid disorders. There were one patient with thyroid toxic nodule in the right lobe, therefore the second patient was with left thyroid nodule agenesis. Results: During our examination, we accurately determined that two radioactive sources in proportion 70:1 will be

  4. A molecular computational model improves the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology have a 20% risk of thyroid cancer. The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic utility of an 8-gene assay to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm. Methods The mRNA expression level of 9 genes (KIT, SYNGR2, C21orf4, Hs.296031, DDI2, CDH1, LSM7, TC1, NATH) was analysed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) in 93 FNA cytological samples. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of all the genes analysed, we assessed the area under the curve (AUC) for each gene individually and in combination. BRAF exon 15 status was determined by pyrosequencing. An 8-gene computational model (Neural Network Bayesian Classifier) was built and a multiple-variable analysis was then performed to assess the correlation between the markers. Results The AUC for each significant marker ranged between 0.625 and 0.900, thus all the significant markers, alone and in combination, can be used to distinguish between malignant and benign FNA samples. The classifier made up of KIT, CDH1, LSM7, C21orf4, DDI2, TC1, Hs.296031 and BRAF had a predictive power of 88.8%. It proved to be useful for risk stratification of the most critical cytological group of the indeterminate lesions for which there is the greatest need of accurate diagnostic markers. Conclusion The genetic classification obtained with this model is highly accurate at differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions and might be a useful adjunct in the preoperative management of patients with thyroid nodules. PMID:22958914

  5. Ras mutations are rare in solitary cold and toxic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Krohn, K; Reske, A; Ackermann, F; Müller, A; Paschke, R

    2001-08-01

    Activation of ras proto-oncogenes as a result of point mutations is detectable in a significant percentage of most types of tumour. Similar to neoplasms of other organs, mutations of all three ras genes can be found in thyroid tumours. H-, K- and N-ras mutations have been detected in up to 20% of follicular adenomas and adenomatous nodules which were not functionally characterized. This raises the question as to whether ras mutations are specific for hypofunctional nodules and TSH receptor mutations for hyperfunctioning nodules. To investigate ras and TSH receptor mutations with respect to functional differentiation we studied 41 scintigraphically cold nodules and 47 toxic thyroid nodules. To address the likelihood of a somatic mutation we also studied the clonal origin of these tumours. Genomic DNA was extracted from nodular and surrounding tissue. Mutational hot spots in exons 1 and 2 of the H- and K-ras gene were PCR amplified and sequenced using big dye terminator chemistry. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to verify sequencing results for the H-ras gene and to analyse the N-ras gene because its greater sensitivity in detecting somatic mutations. Clonality of nodular thyroid tissue was evaluated using X-Chromosome inactivation based on PCR amplification of the human androgen receptor locus. Monoclonal origin was detectable in 14 of 23 informative samples from cold thyroid nodules. In toxic thyroid nodules the frequency of clonal tissue was 20 in 30 informative cases. Only one point mutation could be found in the N-ras gene codon 61 (Gly to Arg) in a cold adenomatous nodule which was monoclonal. In toxic thyroid nodules no ras mutation was detectable. Our study suggests that ras mutations are rare in solitary cold and toxic thyroid nodules and that the frequent monoclonal origin of these tumours implies somatic mutations in genes other than H-, K- and N-ras.

  6. Laser, radiofrequency, and ethanol ablation for the management of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Papini, Enrico; Gugliemi, Rinaldo; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The majority of benign thyroid nodules are nearly asymptomatic, remain stable in size, and do not require treatment. However, a minority of patients with growing nodules may complain of local symptoms or have cosmetic concerns, and thus seek surgical consultation. The timely use of ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures can change the natural history of benign enlarging thyroid nodules. The procedures produce persistent shrinkage of thyroid nodules and are associated with improvement of local symptoms. Among the various procedures, percutaneous ethanol injection represents the first-line treatment for relapsing thyroid cysts. In solid nonfunctioning nodules, laser and radiofrequency ablation produces a more than 50% reduction in nodular volume that remains persistent over several years. For hyperfunctioning nodules, thermal ablation techniques are not appropriate unless radioactive iodine is contraindicated or not accessible. MITs are best suited for the management of medium or large-sized nodules that are sonographically well visualized. Conversely, large nodules or nodular goiters that extend into the chest are difficult to treat. MITs are performed in outpatient clinics, are less expensive, and have a lower risk of complications, compared to surgery, and usually do not induce thyroid dysfunction. However, malignancy should be ruled out with a dedicated ultrasound neck assessment and repeat fine needle aspiration of the lesion before treatment.

  7. Application of Sonoelastography in Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Esfahanian, Fatemeh; Aryan, Arvin; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Yazdi, Meisam Hosein; Nobakht, Nasir; Burchi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Sonoelastography is a new ultrasound method which could be helpful to determine which thyroid nodule is malignant. We designed this study to evaluate the accuracy of sonoelastography in differentiating of benign and malignant thyroid nodules in Iranian patients. Forty thyroid nodules in forty consecutive patients who had been referred for sonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy were evaluated. Gray scale ultrasound and elastosonography by real-time, freehand technique applied for all patients. Elastography findings were classified into four groups. Nodules which were classified as patterns 1 or 2 in elastogram evaluation were classified as benign and probably malignant if elastogram scans were patterns 3 and 4 of elastogram scan. Mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 42.2 ± 12.6 years, and mean ± SD thyroid-stimulating hormone level was 1.4 ± 1.9 IU/ml. Thirty-five cases (87.5%) were female and 5 (12.5%) were male. Histological examination indicated 27 (67.5%) benign and 13 (32.5%) malignant nodules. The most elastogram score was 2 (50%) followed by score 3. The cut-off point of 2 considered as the best value to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules with sensitivity and specificity of 61% and 78% (area under the curve = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.92, P = 0.007). Sonoelastography could help to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules. As our sample size was limited, larger studies are recommended.

  8. Thyroid Nodule Size at Ultrasound as a Predictor of Malignancy and Final Pathologic Size.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Allison; Johnson, Daniel N; White, Michael G; Siddiqui, Saaduddin; Antic, Tatjana; Mathew, Melvy; Grogan, Raymon H; Angelos, Peter; Kaplan, Edwin L; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid-related mortality has remained constant despite the increasing incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Most thyroid nodules are benign; therefore, ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) are integral in cancer screening. We hypothesize that increased nodule size at ultrasound does not predict malignancy and correlation between nodule size at ultrasound and pathologic exam is good. Resected thyroids with preoperative ultrasounds were identified. Nodule size at ultrasound, FNA diagnosis by Bethesda category, size at pathologic examination, and final histologic diagnosis were recorded. Nodule characteristics at ultrasound and FNA diagnoses were correlated with gross characteristics and histologic diagnoses. Nodules for which correlation could not be established were excluded. Of 1003 nodules from 659 patients, 26% were malignant. Nodules <2 cm had the highest malignancy rate (∼30%). Risk was similar (∼20%) for nodules ≥2 cm. Of the 548 subject to FNA, 38% were malignant. Decreasing malignancy rates were observed with increasing size (57% for nodules <1 cm to 20% for nodules >6 cm). At ultrasound size cutoffs of 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm, smaller nodules had higher malignancy rates than larger nodules. Of the 455 not subject to FNA, 11% were malignant. Ultrasound size alone is a poor predictor of malignancy, but a relatively good predictor of final pathologic size (R 2  = 0.748), with less correlation at larger sizes. In nodules subject to FNA, false negative diagnoses were highest (6-8%) in nodules 3-6 cm, mostly due to encapsulated follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. Thyroid nodule size is inversely related to malignancy risk, as larger nodules have lower malignancy rates. However, the relationship of size to malignancy varies by FNA status. All nodules (regardless of FNA status) demonstrate a risk trough at ≥2 cm. Nodules subject to FNA show step-wise decline in malignancy rates by size, demonstrating that size alone should not be

  9. [Treatment of autonomous and cystic thyroid nodules with intranodular ethanol injection].

    PubMed

    Braga-Basaria, Milena; Trippia, Marcus Adriano; Stolf, Anderson Ravy; Mesa, Cléo; Graf, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Intranodular ethanol injection has been used for the past 10 years as an efficient modality for treating patients with thyroid nodules. Several studies have reported the success of this therapy in autonomous and cystic nodules and, more recently, in cold benign nodules. To evaluate the efficacy of this therapeutic modality on the treatment of autonomous and cystic thyroid nodules. 42 patients (26 with cystic and 16 with autonomous nodules) were treated with ultrasound guided intranodular 99% ethanol injection and followed for 6 months. No major complications were observed during or after treatment, however, most of the patients reported slight to moderate pain and/or discomfort after the injection. Most of the nodules showed reduction after the treatment. Autonomous nodules had a mean reduction of 50.3% and cystic nodules of 69.3%. No significant differences in pretreatment serum total T3, total T4 or TSH were observed among the patients in the cystic group. Patients in the autonomous group with hyperfunctioning nodules showed a decrease in serum total T3, total T4 and an increase in serum TSH levels, hence, proving the effectiveness of this therapy. Intranodular ethanol injection is a safe and efficient treatment for autonomous and cystic nodules of the thyroid.

  10. European Thyroid Association Guidelines regarding Thyroid Nodule Molecular Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Ralf; Cantara, Silvia; Crescenzi, Anna; Jarzab, Barbara; Musholt, Thomas J; Sobrinho Simoes, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Molecular fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnostics has the potential to address the inherent limitation of FNA cytology which is an indeterminate (atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance follicular neoplasm) cytology. Because of the emerging role of molecular FNA cytology diagnostics, the European Thyroid Association convened a panel of international experts to review methodological aspects, indications, results, and limitations of molecular FNA cytology diagnostics. The panel reviewed the evidence for the diagnostic value of mutation panel assessment (including at least BRAF , NRAS , HRAS , KRAS , PAX8/PPARG , RET/PTC ) of targeted next generation sequencing and of a microarray gene expression classifier (GEC) test in the diagnostic assessment of an indeterminate cytology thyroid nodule. Moreover, possible surgical consequences of molecular FNA diagnostic results of thyroid nodules and the evidence that analysis of a molecular FNA diagnostic panel of somatic mutations or a microarray GEC test can alter the follow-up were reviewed. Molecular tests may help clinicians to drive patient care and the surgical decision if the analysis is performed in specialized laboratories. These molecular tests require standardization of performance characteristics and appropriate calibration as well as analytic validation before clinical interpretation.

  11. European Thyroid Association Guidelines regarding Thyroid Nodule Molecular Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Ralf; Cantara, Silvia; Crescenzi, Anna; Jarzab, Barbara; Musholt, Thomas J.; Sobrinho Simoes, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Molecular fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnostics has the potential to address the inherent limitation of FNA cytology which is an indeterminate (atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance follicular neoplasm) cytology. Because of the emerging role of molecular FNA cytology diagnostics, the European Thyroid Association convened a panel of international experts to review methodological aspects, indications, results, and limitations of molecular FNA cytology diagnostics. The panel reviewed the evidence for the diagnostic value of mutation panel assessment (including at least BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, PAX8/PPARG, RET/PTC) of targeted next generation sequencing and of a microarray gene expression classifier (GEC) test in the diagnostic assessment of an indeterminate cytology thyroid nodule. Moreover, possible surgical consequences of molecular FNA diagnostic results of thyroid nodules and the evidence that analysis of a molecular FNA diagnostic panel of somatic mutations or a microarray GEC test can alter the follow-up were reviewed. Molecular tests may help clinicians to drive patient care and the surgical decision if the analysis is performed in specialized laboratories. These molecular tests require standardization of performance characteristics and appropriate calibration as well as analytic validation before clinical interpretation. PMID:28785538

  12. Evaluation of proliferation potential in thyroid normo-/hypofunctioning and hyperfunctioning nodules.

    PubMed

    Cornianu, Marioara; Stan, V; Lazăr, Elena; Dema, Alis; Golu, Ioana; Tăban, Sorina; Vlad, Mihaela; Faur, Alexandra; Vărcuş, F; Babău, F

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas (FA) and adenomatous thyroid nodules (AN) - lesions that are frequently found in areas with iodine deficiency, can be normo-/hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold - SCN) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot - SHN) nodules. Evaluation of proliferation potential in thyroid nodules on tissue samples obtained at surgery from euthyroid patients clinically diagnosed with SCN and from patients with thyroid hyperfunction and SHN. We investigated the proliferation activity estimated by assessing PCNA and Ki-67 proliferation markers in 20 SCN (eight FA and 12 AN) and 16 toxic nodules (six hyperfunctioning FA and 10 toxic multinodular goiters), on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples, 4-5 μm thick; we used the immunohistochemical technique in LSAB system (DAB visualization) with anti-PCNA (PC10) and anti-Ki-67 (MIB-1) monoclonal antibodies. For each case, we calculated the proliferation index PI-PCNA and PI-Ki-67. The dates were statistically evaluated using the t-unpaired test. We observed a higher PI-PCNA in thyroid nodules than in the normal surrounding thyroid tissue, with statistically significant values for FA (14.3% vs. 3.8%; p<0.029) and also for AN (8.36% vs. 1.24%; p<0.001). The mean PI-Ki-67 in nodules vs. surrounding thyroid tissue was 1.64% vs. 1.10% in FA (p<0.35) and 1.07% vs. 0.51% in AN (p>0.05). We also noted: (1) significantly higher PI-PCNA values (p < 0.01) in FA (14.03%) than in AN (8.36%), as compared to statistically insignificant values for Ki-67 (1.64% vs. 1.07%; p>0.05); (2) increased proliferation rate (p<0.01) in thyroid nodules with aspects of lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) (PI-Ki-67 was 1.21%) as compared to nodules without LT (PI-Ki-67 was 0.12%); (3) a mean PI-PCNA of 8.5% and PI-Ki-67 of 4.61% in toxic thyroid nodules (TTN) vs. 3.01% and 1.5% in normal surrounding thyroid, respectively. The clinical expression of SCN is the consequence of increased thyrocyte proliferation in the nodules; the

  13. Multivariate evaluation of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) in diagnosis malignant thyroid nodule: application to PCA and PLS-DA analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tan; Li, Fangxuan; Mu, Jiali; Liu, Juntian; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To explore the significance of ultrasonic features in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules via combining the thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) and multivariate statistical analysis. Patients who received surgical treatment and was diagnosed with single thyroid nodule by postoperative pathology and preoperative ultrasound were enrolled in this study. Multivariate analysis was applied to assess the significant ultrasonic features which correlated with identifying benign or malignance and grading the TI-RADS classification of thyroid nodule. There were significant differences in the nodule size, aspect ratio, internal, echogenicity, boundary, presence or absence of calcifications, calcification type and CDFI between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Multivariate analysis showed clear-cut distinction both between benign and malignance and among different TI-RADS categories of malignancy nodules. The shape and calcification of the nodule were important factors for distinguish the benign and malignance. Height of the nodule, aspect and calcification was important factors for grading TI-RADS categories of malignancy thyroid nodules. Ill-defined boundary, irregular shape and presence of calcification related with highly malignant risk for thyroid nodule. The larger height and aspect and presence of calcification related with higher TI-RADS classification of malignancy thyroid nodule.

  14. ΤND: a thyroid nodule detection system for analysis of ultrasound images and videos.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Eystratios G; Maroulis, Dimitris; Iakovidis, Dimitris K

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system prototype, named TND (Thyroid Nodule Detector), for the detection of nodular tissue in ultrasound (US) thyroid images and videos acquired during thyroid US examinations. The proposed system incorporates an original methodology that involves a novel algorithm for automatic definition of the boundaries of the thyroid gland, and a novel approach for the extraction of noise resilient image features effectively representing the textural and the echogenic properties of the thyroid tissue. Through extensive experimental evaluation on real thyroid US data, its accuracy in thyroid nodule detection has been estimated to exceed 95%. These results attest to the feasibility of the clinical application of TND, for the provision of a second more objective opinion to the radiologists by exploiting image evidences.

  15. Ensuring patient safety when implementing a new diagnostic pathway for thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Brimioulle, M; Al-Lami, A; Marzouk, S; Emerson, H; Balfour, A; Dhar, V; Nixon, I J

    2018-05-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine whether ultrasound alone is sufficient to safely exclude malignancy in thyroid nodules in a district general hospital setting, to comply with the latest British Thyroid Association guidelines. Methods This retrospective study investigated the quality of ultrasound reporting and the correlation between ultrasound report and histology for individual thyroid nodules. Cases were selected from the thyroid multidisciplinary meeting and included all patients having undergone surgery for a thyroid malignancy in a one-year period. Results Forty-seven patients were included in the study. Ultrasound reports were reviewed and assessed, in which 21 clinicians were involved; 36% of scans included a summary of whether the nodule(s) overall appeared benign, equivocal, suspicious or malignant; 4% of reports included a U classification; 81% of reports commented on cervical lymph nodes. Ultrasound was compared with histology. The sensitivity of ultrasound in correctly identifying nodules requiring further investigation was of 56% and specificity was 81%. Positive predictive value was 81% and negative predictive value was 56%. Discussion These findings suggest that, in a district general hospital setting without a dedicated head and neck radiologist, using only ultrasound and limiting fine-needle aspiration cytology to identify suspicious nodules may not be safe, as a high number of nodules appearing benign on ultrasound may ultimately prove to be malignant.

  16. Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in thyroid nodules with calcification.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jue; Shang, Xu; Wang, Hua; Xu, Yong-Bo; Gao, Ya; Zhou, Qi

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic values of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in benign and malignant thyroid nodules with calcification. Conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed in 122 patients with thyroid nodules with calcification. The thyroid nodules were characterized as benign or malignant by pathological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accordance rate of the two imaging methods were determined. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was used to assess the diagnostic values of the two imaging methods. In 122 cases of thyroid nodules with calcification, 73 benign nodules and 49 malignant nodules were verified by pathological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accordance rate of conventional ultrasound were 50%, 77%, 59%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, and those of CEUS were 90%, 92%, 88%, 93%, and 91%, respectively. There were significant differences between the two imaging methods. AUCs of conventional ultrasound and CEUS were 0.628 ± 0.052 and 0.908 ± 0.031, suggesting low and high diagnostic values, respectively. CEUS has high diagnostic values, being significantly greater than those of conventional ultrasound, in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules with calcification. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, CAISONG; LIU, WEI; YANG, JUN; YANG, JING; SHAO, KANGWEI; YUAN, LIXIN; CHEN, HAIRONG; LU, WEI; ZHU, YING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). MDCT features such as ill-defined margin, absence of capsule or incomplete capsule or homogeneous enhancement were more likely to be present in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the enhancement degree at arterial or venous phase between benign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice. PMID:27347131

  18. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). MDCT features such as ill-defined margin, absence of capsule or incomplete capsule or homogeneous enhancement were more likely to be present in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the enhancement degree at arterial or venous phase between benign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  19. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in toxic multinodular goiter share activating thyrotropin receptor mutations with solitary toxic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Tonacchera, M; Chiovato, L; Pinchera, A; Agretti, P; Fiore, E; Cetani, F; Rocchi, R; Viacava, P; Miccoli, P; Vitti, P

    1998-02-01

    Toxic multinodular goiter is a cause of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and is believed to differ in its nature and pathogenesis from toxic adenoma. Gain-of-function mutations of the TSH receptor gene have been identified as a cause of toxic adenoma. The pathogenesis at the molecular level of hyperfunctioning nodules in toxic multinodular goiter has yet not been reported. Six patients with a single hot nodule within a multinodular goiter and 11 patients with toxic thyroid adenoma were enrolled in our study. At histology five hyperfunctioning nodules in multinodular goiters showed the features of adenomas, and one was identified as a hyperplastic nodule. The entire exon 10 of the TSH receptor gene was directly sequenced after PCR amplification from genomic DNA obtained from surgical specimens. Functional studies of mutated receptors were performed in COS-7 cells. Five out of 6 (83%) hyperfunctioning nodules within toxic multinodular goiters harbored a TSH receptor mutation. A TSH receptor mutation was also evident in the hyperfunctioning nodule that at histology had the features of noncapsulated hyperplastic nodule. Among toxic adenomas, 8 out of 11 (72%) nodules harbored a TSH receptor mutation. All the mutations were heterozygotic and somatic. Nonfunctioning nodules, whether adenomas or hyperplastic nodules present in association with hyperfunctioning nodules in the same multinodular goiters, had no TSH receptor mutation. All the mutations identified had constitutive activity as assessed by cAMP production after expression in COS-7 cells. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in multinodular goiters recognize the same pathogenetic event (TSH receptor mutation) as toxic adenoma. Other mechanisms are implicated in the growth of nonfunctioning thyroid nodules coexistent in the same gland.

  20. Ultrasound-Based Risk Stratification for Malignancy in Thyroid Nodules: A Four-Tier Categorization System.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyobin; Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ji Won

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to stratify the malignancy risk of US features, with an emphasis on nodule echogenicity. A total of 1,058 nodules of 824 consecutive patients (236 malignant and 822 benign) were included in this study. Malignancy risk of each nodule was analyzed according to US features, with an emphasis on nodule echogenecity, and was stratified into 4-tier categories. In multivariate analysis, isoechogenicity, indistinct margin, non-solid internal content, and parallel orientation were predictive of benign nodules (P < 0.002), while hypoechogenicity, marked hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margin, solid content, nonparallel orientation (taller than wide), microcalcification, and macrocalcification were predictive of malignancy (P ≤ 0.037). Although the presence of US features associated with malignancy was significantly predictive of malignancy in hypoechoic and markedly hypoechoic nodules (P ≤ 0.004), it was not associated with malignancy in isoechoic or hyperechoic nodules. Thyroid nodules could be stratified into four categories according to the malignancy risk: benign (risk 0%), probably benign (risk ≤ 5%), indeterminate (risk > 5 and < 50%), and suspicion of malignancy (risk > 50%). The US-based four-tier categorization system will be useful for predicting the risk of malignancy and decisions regarding FNA for thyroid nodules. • No US feature was predictive of malignancy in isoechoic nodules. • Isoechoic nodules without calcification can be included in the probably benign category. • We suggest a four-tier categorization stratified primarily by nodule echogenecity. • The four-tier categorization of thyroid nodules will be useful for FNA decisions.

  1. Q-elastography in the presurgical diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Vito; Ulisse, Salvatore; Guaitoli, Eleonora; De Vito, Corrado; Caruso, Riccardo; Mocini, Renzo; D'Andrea, Vito; Ascoli, Valeria; Antonaci, Alfredo; Catalano, Carlo; Nardi, Francesco; Redler, Adriano; Ricci, Paolo; De Antoni, Enrico; Sorrenti, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (US) elastography (Q-USE), able to evaluate tissue stiffness has been indicated as a new diagnostic tool to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Aim of this prospective study, conducted at the Department of Surgical Sciences, of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Q-USE, compared with US parameters, in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (Thy3).The case study included 140 nodules from 140 consecutive patients. Patient's thyroid nodules were evaluated by Q-USE, measuring the strain ratio (SR) of stiffness between nodular and surrounding normal thyroid tissue, and conventional US parameters prior fine-needle aspiration cytology. Those with Thy3 diagnosis were included in the study. Forty of the nodules analyzed harbored a malignant lesion. Q-USE demonstrated that malignant nodules have a significant higher stiffness with respect to benign one and an optimun SR cut-off value of 2.05 was individuated following ROC analysis. Univariate analysis showed that hypoechogenicity, irregular margins and SR >2.05 associated with malignancy, with an accuracy of 67.2%, 81,0% and 89.8%, respectively. Data were unaffected by nodule size or thyroiditis. These findings were confirmed in multivariate analysis demonstrating a significant association of the SR and the irregular margins with thyroid nodule's malignancy. In conclusion, we demonstrated the diagnostic utility of Q-USE in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology that, if confirmed, could be of major clinical utility in patients' presurgical selection.

  2. Clinico-pathological Correlation of Thyroid Nodule Ultrasound and Cytology Using the TIRADS and Bethesda Classifications.

    PubMed

    Singaporewalla, R M; Hwee, J; Lang, T U; Desai, V

    2017-07-01

    Clinico-pathological correlation of thyroid nodules is not routinely performed as until recently there was no objective classification system for reporting thyroid nodules on ultrasound. We compared the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) of classifying thyroid nodules on ultrasound with the findings on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) reported using the Bethesda System. A retrospective analysis of 100 consecutive cases over 1 year (Jan-Dec 2015) was performed comparing single-surgeon-performed bedside thyroid nodule ultrasound findings based on the TIRADS classification to the FNAC report based on the Bethesda Classification. TIRADS 1 (normal thyroid gland) and biopsy-proven malignancy referred by other clinicians were excluded. Benign-appearing nodules were reported as TIRADS 2 and 3. Indeterminate or suspected follicular lesions were reported as TIRADS 4, and malignant-appearing nodules were classified as TIRADS 5 during surgeon-performed bedside ultrasound. All the nodules were subjected to ultrasound-guided FNAC, and TIRADS findings were compared to Bethesda FNAC Classification. Of the 100 cases, 74 were considered benign or probably benign, 20 were suspicious for malignancy, and 6 were indeterminate on ultrasound. Overall concordance rate with FNAC was 83% with sensitivity and specificity of 70.6 and 90.4%, respectively. The negative predictive value was 93.8%. It is essential for clinicians performing bedside ultrasound thyroid and guided FNAC to document their sonographic impression of the nodule in an objective fashion using the TIRADS classification and correlate with the gold standard cytology to improve their learning curve and audit their results.

  3. Surgical implications of B-RafV600E mutation in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Mekel, Michal; Nucera, Carmelo; Hodin, Richard A.; Parangi, Sareh

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Management of patients with thyroid nodules is based on establishing an accurate diagnosis; however, differentiating benign from malignant lesions preoperatively is not always possible using current cytological techniques. Novel molecular testing on cytological material could lead to clearer treatment algorithms. B-RafV600E mutation is the most common genetic alteration in thyroid cancer, specifically found in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and usually reported to be associated with aggressive disease. DATA SOURCE A literature search using PubMed identified all the pertinent literature on the identification and utilization of the B-RafV600E mutation in thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS The utility of using B-Raf mutation testing for nodules with indeterminate cytology is limited since many of those nodules (benign and malignant) do not harbor B-Raf mutations. However, when the pathologist sees cytological features suspicious for PTC, B-RafV600E mutation analysis may enhance the assessment of preoperative risks for PTC, directing a more aggressive initial surgical management when appropriate. PMID:20637346

  4. Fine-Needle Aspiration, Touch Imprint, and Crush Preparation Cytology for Diagnosing Thyroid Malignancies in Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Ahmadinejad, Mojtaba; Aliepour, Asghar; Anbari, Khatereh; Kaviani, Mojhgan; Ganjizadeh, Hasan; Nadri, Sedigheh; Foroutani, Niloufar; Meysami, Masoumeh; Almasi, Vahid

    2015-12-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate the thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, false positive and negative rates, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of touch imprint, crush preparation, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) methods. This cross-sectional study was done in Shohada-ye Ashayer University Hospital in Khorramabad. All the patients who underwent thyroid surgery due to thyroid nodules in this hospital between March and September 2011 were evaluated. The thyroid nodules of all the patients were evaluated by touch imprint, crush preparation, FNA, and permanent pathology methods. Finally, the results of the first three methods were compared with the result of permanent pathology method. The mean age of 104 patients who underwent thyroid surgery was 42.6 ± 11.9 years old. Based on permanent pathology, touch imprint, crush preparation, and FNA methods, 15.3, 6.25, 6.25, and 4.4 % of thyroid nodules were malignant, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate, PPV, and NPV of FNA biopsy were 62.5, 100, 0, 37.5, 100, and 95.3 %, respectively. Also, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate, PPV, and NPV of touch imprint and crush preparation were equal and were 80, 100, 0, 20, 100, and 96.7 %, respectively. Using touch imprint and crush preparation in evaluation of thyroid nodules for rapid evaluation of these nodules in operating rooms seems to be logical, and it can prevent further surgeries.

  5. Elastography in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Mustafa; Çakal, Erman; Özbek, Mustafa; Güngünes, Aşkin; Arslan, Müyesser Sayki; Akkaymak, Esra Tutal; Uçan, Bekir; Ünsal, Ilknur Öztürk; Bozkurt, Nujen Çolak; Delibaşi, Tuncay

    2014-08-01

    Elastography is a method which assesses the risk of the malignancy and provides information about the degree of hardness in tissue. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, autoimmune lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis, is considered to be a very common disease that is able to change the hardness of the tissue. The diagnostic value of elastography of this group of patients has not previously been reported. In our study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic value of elastography in 283 patients (255 female, 28 male) with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Elastography score and index were measured with real-time ultrasound elastography (Hitachi(®) EUB 7000 HV machine with using 13 MHz linear transducer). The outcome of this measure shows that malignant nodules were with higher elastography scores (ES) and strain indexes (SI) values. ES ≥3 were observed in 16/20 malignant and 130/263 benign nodules, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) for the elasto score (AUC) was 0.72 (p = 0.001), and AUC for the strain index was 0.77 (p < 0.0001). Accordingly, our study suggests that strain index reflects malignancy better than the elasto score. We conclude that elastography score is ≥3 providing 80 % sensitivity and 50 %, six specificity for diagnosing malignancy. For strain index, we found that 2.45 (72.2 % sensitivity and 70 % specificity) is a cut-off point. We have detected a lower cut-off point for SI in Hashimoto patients although sensitivity and specificity decreases in Hashimoto in this population.

  6. Outcome of radioiodine-131 therapy in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: a 20 years' retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Claudia; Bencivelli, Walter; Vitti, Paolo; Grasso, Lucia; Pinchera, Aldo

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the risk of hypothyroidism after radioiodine (131I) treatment for hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Retrospective analysis of patients treated with 131I for hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and followed up for a maximum of 20 years. A total of 346 patients treated with 131I in the years 1975-95, for a single hyperfunctioning nodule. Hypothyroidism was defined as TSH levels > 3.7 mU/l. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to analyse permanence of euthyroidism after 131I. A stepwise Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify factors influencing the progression to hypothyroidism. The cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism was 7.6% at 1 year, 28% at 5 years, 46% at 10 years and 60% at 20 years. Age (P < 0.01), 24-th 131I uptake (P < 0.05) and previous treatment with methimazole (MMI, P < 0.1) were associated with a faster progression towards hypothyroidism, while thyroid and nodule size, thyroid status at diagnosis and degree of extranodular thyroid parenchymal suppression had no influence. In hyperthyroid patients with partial parenchymal suppression, however, previous MMI treatment was the most important prognostic factor (P < 0.01). After 20 years of follow-up, 60% of patients treated with 131I for a single hyperfunctioning nodule are hypothyroid. Factors increasing the risk of hypothyroidism are age, 131I uptake and MMI pretreatment. The prognostic value of this last factor, however, depends on the degree of suppression of the extranodular thyroid parenchyma at the scan.

  7. Benign thyroid nodule unresponsive to radiofrequency ablation treated with laser ablation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Silvia; Balestra, Margherita; Vera, Lara; Giusti, Massimo

    2018-05-11

    Radiofrequency ablation and laser ablation are safe and effective techniques for reducing thyroid nodule volume, neck symptoms, and cosmetic complaints. Therapeutic success is defined as a nodule reduction > 50% between 6 and 12 months after the procedure, but a percentage of nodules inexplicably do not respond to thermal ablation. We describe the case of a young Caucasian woman with a solid benign thyroid nodule who refused surgery and who had undergone radiofrequency ablation in 2013. The nodule did not respond in terms of either volume reduction or improvement in neck symptoms. After 2 years, given the patient's continued refusal of thyroidectomy, we proposed laser ablation. The nodule displayed a significant volume reduction (- 50% from radiofrequency ablation baseline volume, - 57% from laser ablation baseline), and the patient reported a significant improvement in neck symptoms (from 6/10 to 1/10 on a visual analogue scale). We conjecture that some benign thyroid nodules may be intrinsically resistant to necrosis when one specific ablation technique is used, but may respond to another technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of performing a different percutaneous ablation technique in a nodule that does not respond to radiofrequency ablation.

  8. Optimized multi-level elongated quinary patterns for the assessment of thyroid nodules in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, U; Gudigar, Anjan; Maithri, M; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Meiburger, Kristen M; Yeong, Chai Hong; Madla, Chakri; Kongmebhol, Pailin; Molinari, Filippo; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Acharya, U Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging is one of the most common visualizing tools used by radiologists to identify the location of thyroid nodules. However, visual assessment of nodules is difficult and often affected by inter- and intra-observer variabilities. Thus, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can be helpful to cross-verify the severity of nodules. This paper proposes a new CAD system to characterize thyroid nodules using optimized multi-level elongated quinary patterns. In this study, higher order spectral (HOS) entropy features extracted from these patterns appropriately distinguished benign and malignant nodules under particle swarm optimization (PSO) and support vector machine (SVM) frameworks. Our CAD algorithm achieved a maximum accuracy of 97.71% and 97.01% in private and public datasets respectively. The evaluation of this CAD system on both private and public datasets confirmed its effectiveness as a secondary tool in assisting radiological findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of radiofrequency ablation in benign thyroid nodules: a literature review and updates.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kai-Pun; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin

    2013-01-01

    Successful thermal ablation using radiofrequency has been reported in various tumors including liver or kidney tumors. Nonsurgical minimally invasive ablative therapy such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been reported to be a safe and efficient treatment option in managing symptomatic cold thyroid nodules or hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Pressure and cosmetic symptoms have been shown to be significantly improved both in the short and long terms after RFA. For hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, RFA is indicated for whom surgery or radioiodine are not indicated or ineffective or for those who refuse surgery or radio-iodine. Improvement of thyroid function with decreased need for antithyroid medications has been reported. Complication rate is relatively low. By reviewing the current literature, we reported its efficacy and complications and compared the efficacy of RFA relative to other ablative options such as ethanol ablation and laser ablation.

  10. Use of Radiofrequency Ablation in Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Literature Review and Updates

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kai-Pun; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin

    2013-01-01

    Successful thermal ablation using radiofrequency has been reported in various tumors including liver or kidney tumors. Nonsurgical minimally invasive ablative therapy such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been reported to be a safe and efficient treatment option in managing symptomatic cold thyroid nodules or hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Pressure and cosmetic symptoms have been shown to be significantly improved both in the short and long terms after RFA. For hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, RFA is indicated for whom surgery or radioiodine are not indicated or ineffective or for those who refuse surgery or radio-iodine. Improvement of thyroid function with decreased need for antithyroid medications has been reported. Complication rate is relatively low. By reviewing the current literature, we reported its efficacy and complications and compared the efficacy of RFA relative to other ablative options such as ethanol ablation and laser ablation. PMID:24298282

  11. Q-Elastography in the Presurgical Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Guaitoli, Eleonora; De Vito, Corrado; Caruso, Riccardo; Mocini, Renzo; D’Andrea, Vito; Ascoli, Valeria; Antonaci, Alfredo; Catalano, Carlo; Nardi, Francesco; Redler, Adriano; Ricci, Paolo; De Antoni, Enrico; Sorrenti, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (US) elastography (Q-USE), able to evaluate tissue stiffness has been indicated as a new diagnostic tool to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Aim of this prospective study, conducted at the Department of Surgical Sciences, of the “Sapienza” University of Rome, was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Q-USE, compared with US parameters, in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (Thy3).The case study included 140 nodules from 140 consecutive patients. Patient’s thyroid nodules were evaluated by Q-USE, measuring the strain ratio (SR) of stiffness between nodular and surrounding normal thyroid tissue, and conventional US parameters prior fine-needle aspiration cytology. Those with Thy3 diagnosis were included in the study. Forty of the nodules analyzed harbored a malignant lesion. Q-USE demonstrated that malignant nodules have a significant higher stiffness with respect to benign one and an optimun SR cut-off value of 2.05 was individuated following ROC analysis. Univariate analysis showed that hypoechogenicity, irregular margins and SR >2.05 associated with malignancy, with an accuracy of 67.2%, 81,0% and 89.8%, respectively. Data were unaffected by nodule size or thyroiditis. These findings were confirmed in multivariate analysis demonstrating a significant association of the SR and the irregular margins with thyroid nodule’s malignancy. In conclusion, we demonstrated the diagnostic utility of Q-USE in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology that, if confirmed, could be of major clinical utility in patients’ presurgical selection. PMID:23209819

  12. Is there still a role for thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of a thyroid nodule in the era of fine needle aspiration cytology and molecular testing?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Bourmorck, Carole; Chami, Rayan; Corvilain, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is now rarely used in the work-up of a thyroid nodule except in the presence of a low TSH value. Therefore, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) with a normal TSH value are diagnosed only in the rare medical centers that continue to use thyroid scan systematically in the presence of a thyroid nodule. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of AFTN with a normal TSH level and the possible consequences of performing fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in an undiagnosed AFTN. We also discuss the risk of malignant AFTN which may be higher than previously stated. PMID:27158470

  13. Association of radiation dose with prevalence of thyroid nodules among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association of radiation dose with thyroid nodules among adults exposed to radiation in childhood. To evaluate radiation dose responses on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. This survey study investigated 3087 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years at exposure and participated in the thyroid study of the Adult Health Study at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Thyroid examinations including thyroid ultrasonography were conducted between October 2007 and October 2011, and solid nodules underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Data from 2668 participants (86.4% of the total participants; mean age, 68.2 years; 1213 men; and 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; median dose, 0.018 Gy; dose range, 0-4.040 Gy) were analyzed. The prevalence of all thyroid nodules having a diameter of 10 mm or more (consisting of solid nodules [malignant and benign] and cysts), prevalence of small thyroid nodules that were less than 10 mm in diameter detected by ultrasonography, and atomic bomb radiation dose-responses. Thyroid nodules with a diameter of 10 mm or more were identified in 470 participants (17.6%): solid nodules (427 cases [16.0%]), malignant tumors (47 cases [1.8%]), benign nodules (186 cases [7.0%]), and cysts (49 cases [1.8%]), and all were significantly associated with thyroid radiation dose. Excess odds ratios per gray unit were 1.65 (95% CI, 0.89-2.64) for all nodules, 1.72 (95% CI, 0.93-2.75) for solid nodules, 4.40 (95% CI, 1.75-9.97) for malignant tumors, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.16-3.39) for benign nodules, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.15-3.12) for cysts. The interaction between age at exposure and the dose was significant for the prevalence of all nodules (P = .003) and solid nodules (P < .001), indicating that dose effects were significantly higher with earlier childhood exposure. No interactions were seen for

  14. 12-month efficacy of a single radiofrequency ablation on autonomously functioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Stella; Stacul, Fulvio; Michelli, Andrea; Giudici, Fabiola; Zuolo, Giulia; de Manzini, Nicolò; Dobrinja, Chiara; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been advocated as an alternative to radioiodine and/or surgery for the treatment of autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. However, only a few studies have measured radiofrequency ablation efficacy on autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. The aim of this work was to evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a single session of radiofrequency ablation (performed with the moving shot technique) on solitary autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Thirty patients with a single, benign autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules, who were either unwilling or ineligible to undergo surgery and radioiodine, were treated with radiofrequency ablation between April 2012 and May 2015. All the patients underwent a single radiofrequency ablation, performed with the 18-gauge needle and the moving shot technique. Clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound evaluations were scheduled at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months from the procedure. A single radiofrequency ablation reduced thyroid nodule volume by 51, 63, 69, and 75 % after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. This was associated with a significant improvement of local cervical discomfort and cosmetic score. As for thyroid function, 33 % of the patients went into remission after 3 months, 43 % after 6 months, and 50 % after 12 months from the procedure. This study demonstrates that a single radiofrequency ablation allowed us to withdraw anti-thyroid medication in 50 % of the patients, who remained euthyroid afterwards. This study shows that a single radiofrequency ablation was effective in 50 % of patients with autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Patients responded gradually to the treatment. It is possible that longer follow-up studies might show greater response rates.

  15. Utility of shear wave elastography to detect papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroid nodules: efficacy of the standard deviation elasticity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Choi, In Ho; Jin, So-Young; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi

    2018-02-23

    The aim of this study was to address the role of the elasticity index as a possible predictive marker for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and quantitatively assess shear wave elastography (SWE) as a tool for differentiating PTC from benign thyroid nodules. One hundred and nineteen patients with thyroid nodules undergoing SWE before ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy were analyzed. The mean (EMean), minimum (EMin), maximum (EMax), and standard deviation (ESD) of SWE elasticity indices were measured. Among 105 nodules, 14 were PTC and 91 were benign. The EMean, EMin, and EMax values were significantly higher in PTCs than benign nodules (EMean 37.4 in PTC vs. 23.7 in benign nodules, p = 0.005; EMin 27.9 vs. 17.8, p = 0.034; EMax 46.7 vs. 31.5, p < 0.001). The EMean, EMin, and EMax were significantly associated with PTC with diagnostic odds ratios varying from 6.74 to 9.91, high specificities (86.4%, 86.4%, and 88.1%, respectively), and positive likelihood ratios (4.21, 3.69, and 4.82, respectively). The ESD values were significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (6.3 vs. 2.6, p < 0.001). ESD had the highest specificity (96.6%) when applied with a cut-off value of 6.5 kPa. It had a positive likelihood ratio of 14.75 and a diagnostic odds ratio of 28.50. The shear elasticity index of ESD, with higher likelihood ratios for PTC, will probably identify nodules that have a high potential for malignancy. It may help to identify and select malignant nodules, while reducing unnecessary fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsies of benign nodules.

  16. A 10-Gene Classifier for Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Development and Multicenter Accuracy Study

    PubMed Central

    González, Hernán E.; Martínez, José R.; Vargas-Salas, Sergio; Solar, Antonieta; Veliz, Loreto; Cruz, Francisco; Arias, Tatiana; Loyola, Soledad; Horvath, Eleonora; Tala, Hernán; Traipe, Eufrosina; Meneses, Manuel; Marín, Luis; Wohllk, Nelson; Diaz, René E.; Véliz, Jesús; Pineda, Pedro; Arroyo, Patricia; Mena, Natalia; Bracamonte, Milagros; Miranda, Giovanna; Bruce, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Background: In most of the world, diagnostic surgery remains the most frequent approach for indeterminate thyroid cytology. Although several molecular tests are available for testing in centralized commercial laboratories in the United States, there are no available kits for local laboratory testing. The aim of this study was to develop a prototype in vitro diagnostic (IVD) gene classifier for the further characterization of nodules with an indeterminate thyroid cytology. Methods: In a first stage, the expression of 18 genes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in a broad histopathological spectrum of 114 fresh-tissue biopsies. Expression data were used to train several classifiers by supervised machine learning approaches. Classifiers were tested in an independent set of 139 samples. In a second stage, the best classifier was chosen as a model to develop a multiplexed-qPCR IVD prototype assay, which was tested in a prospective multicenter cohort of fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Results: In tissue biopsies, the best classifier, using only 10 genes, reached an optimal and consistent performance in the ninefold cross-validated testing set (sensitivity 93% and specificity 81%). In the multicenter cohort of fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples, the 10-gene signature, built into a multiplexed-qPCR IVD prototype, showed an area under the curve of 0.97, a positive predictive value of 78%, and a negative predictive value of 98%. By Bayes' theorem, the IVD prototype is expected to achieve a positive predictive value of 64–82% and a negative predictive value of 97–99% in patients with a cancer prevalence range of 20–40%. Conclusions: A new multiplexed-qPCR IVD prototype is reported that accurately classifies thyroid nodules and may provide a future solution suitable for local reference laboratory testing. PMID:28521616

  17. Treatment of Benign Thyroid Nodules: Comparison of Surgery with Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Che, Y; Jin, S; Shi, C; Wang, L; Zhang, X; Li, Y; Baek, J H

    2015-07-01

    Nodular goiter is one of the most common benign lesions in thyroid nodule. The main treatment of the disease is still the traditional surgical resection, however there are many problems such as general anesthesia, surgical scar, postoperative thyroid or parathyroid function abnormalities, and high nodules recurrence rate in residual gland. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of 2 treatment methods, surgery and radiofrequency ablation, for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. From May 2012 to September 2013, 200 patients with nodular goiters who underwent surgery (group A) and 200 patients treated by radiofrequency ablation (group B) were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were the following: 1) cosmetic problem, 2) nodule-related symptoms, 3) hyperfunctioning nodules related to thyrotoxicosis, and 4) refusal of surgery (for group B). An internally cooled radiofrequency ablation system and an 18-ga internally cooled electrode were used. We compared the 2 groups in terms of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness during a 1-year follow-up. After radiofrequency ablation, the nodule volume decreased significantly from 5.4 to 0.4 mL (P = .002) at the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of complications was significantly higher from surgery than from radiofrequency ablation (6.0% versus 1.0%, P = .002). Hypothyroidism was detected in 71.5% of patients after surgery but in none following radiofrequency ablation. The rate of residual nodules (11.9% versus 2.9%, P = .004) and hospitalization days was significantly greater after surgery (6.6 versus 2.1 days, P < .001), but the cost difference was not significant. Surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation are both effective treatments of nodular goiter. Compared with surgery, the advantages of radiofrequency ablation include fewer complications, preservation of thyroid function, and fewer hospitalization days. Therefore, radiofrequency ablation should be

  18. Histologic changes in thyroid nodules after percutaneous ethanol injection in patients subsequently operated on due to new focal thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Pomorski, Lech; Bartos, Magdalena

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports macro- and microscopic changes in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTN), initially diagnosed as solitary, in patients treated with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). In 78 patients, benign solitary HTN were diagnosed by clinical and hormonal examination. High resolution ultrasonography confirmed the solitary nodule. The results of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), performed twice, ruled out malignancy of the nodule. The patients were referred for PEI treatment. At 1-year follow-up, newly formed thyroid nodules, whose volumes increased, were detected in five patients (6.4%) with HTN, initially diagnosed as solitary. Therefore, these patients were operated on. Subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. At the intraoperative macroscopic evaluation, a hard fibrous solid mass was found in place of three nodules (n1, n2, n3) following PEI treatment. The middle area of the cut surface of PEI-treated nodules (n4 and n5) in the other two patients was firm and haemorrhagic, surrounded by a fibrous mass. Histolopathologic examination of n1, n2 and n3 revealed fibrosis and hyalinosis. Examination of n4 and n5 showed haemorrhagic necrosis in the middle of the nodules surrounded by fibrous tissue.

  19. A pre-trained convolutional neural network based method for thyroid nodule diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinlian; Wu, Fa; Zhu, Jiang; Xu, Dong; Kong, Dexing

    2017-01-01

    In ultrasound images, most thyroid nodules are in heterogeneous appearances with various internal components and also have vague boundaries, so it is difficult for physicians to discriminate malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones. In this study, we propose a hybrid method for thyroid nodule diagnosis, which is a fusion of two pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with different convolutional layers and fully-connected layers. Firstly, the two networks pre-trained with ImageNet database are separately trained. Secondly, we fuse feature maps learned by trained convolutional filters, pooling and normalization operations of the two CNNs. Finally, with the fused feature maps, a softmax classifier is used to diagnose thyroid nodules. The proposed method is validated on 15,000 ultrasound images collected from two local hospitals. Experiment results show that the proposed CNN based methods can accurately and effectively diagnose thyroid nodules. In addition, the fusion of the two CNN based models lead to significant performance improvement, with an accuracy of 83.02%±0.72%. These demonstrate the potential clinical applications of this method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Galofré, Juan Carlos; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion for Differentiating Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yi Ling; Liu, Jin Huan; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Chang Sheng; Huang, Dongjie

    2018-06-13

    This study aimed to preliminarily investigate the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) theory in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Forty-five patients with 56 confirmed thyroid nodules underwent preoperative routine magnetic resonance imaging and IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging. The histopathologic diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction f, diffusivity D, and pseudo-diffusivity D* were quantified. Independent samples t test of IVIM-derived metrics were conducted between benign and malignant nodules. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal thresholds as well as the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating. Significant intergroup difference was observed in ADC, D, D*, and f (p < 0.001). Malignant tumors featured significantly lower ADC, D and D* values and a higher f value than that of benign nodules. The ADC, D, and D* could distinguish the benign from malignant thyroid nodules, and parameter f differentiate the malignant tumors from benign nodules. The values of the area under the curve for parameter ADC, D, and D* were 0.784 (p = 0.001), 0.795 (p = 0.001), and 0.850 (p < 0.001), separately, of which the area under the curve of f value was the maximum for identifying the malignant from benign nodules, which was 0.841 (p < 0.001). This study suggested that ADC and IVIM-derived metrics, including D, D*, and f, could potentially serve as noninvasive predictors for the preoperative differentiating of thyroid nodules, and f value performed best in identifying the malignant from benign nodules among these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Academic Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroid nodules in the population living around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: possible implications for dose-response relationships study.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay

    2006-02-01

    The risk of radiation-induced nodules is higher than the risk for radiation-induced cancer. Risk factors and specific modifiers of the dose-response relationship may vary among different populations and not be well recognized. Many thyroid studies have considered thyroid nodularity itself, but not specific morphological types of thyroid nodules. There are many specific types of thyroid nodules which follow a morphological classification of thyroid lesions, including some congenital and tumor-like conditions. Modern equipment and technique can help us to identify particular specific types of thyroid nodules. In this study we report some results of a clinically applicable approach to materials derived from three studies. From 1999 through 2002, we have screened 571 current residents from 4 exposed and 1 control village near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site area, who were of similar ages (<20) at the time of major radiation fallout events at the SNTS. Prevalent nodules were identified by ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, cytopathology results. Analysis of ultrasound images and cytopathology of thyroid lesions among exposed and non-exposed population allowed us to distinguish some interesting ultrasound features for specific types of thyroid nodules. We believe that it would be interesting and possibly more informative for thyroid dosimetry studies to consider specific morphological types of thyroid nodules. We need more detailed research to clarify the feasibility of applying these findings for study of the dose-response relationship.

  3. Reduction in Thyroid Nodule Biopsies and Improved Accuracy with American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Jenny K; Middleton, William D; Farjat, Alfredo E; Langer, Jill E; Reading, Carl C; Teefey, Sharlene A; Abinanti, Nicole; Boschini, Fernando J; Bronner, Abraham J; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Hertzberg, Barbara S; Newman, Justin R; Scanga, Daniel; Vogler, Robert C; Tessler, Franklin N

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To compare the biopsy rate and diagnostic accuracy before and after applying the American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) criteria for thyroid nodule evaluation. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, eight radiologists with 3-32 years experience in thyroid ultrasonography (US) reviewed US features of 100 thyroid nodules that were cytologically proven, pathologically proven, or both in December 2016. The radiologists evaluated nodule features in five US categories and provided biopsy recommendations based on their own practice patterns without knowledge of ACR TI-RADS criteria. Another three expert radiologists served as the reference standard readers for the imaging findings. ACR TI-RADS criteria were retrospectively applied to the features assigned by the eight radiologists to produce biopsy recommendations. Comparison was made for biopsy rate, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Results Fifteen of the 100 nodules (15%) were malignant. The mean number of nodules recommended for biopsy by the eight radiologists was 80 ± 16 (standard deviation) (range, 38-95 nodules) based on their own practice patterns and 57 ± 11 (range, 37-73 nodules) with retrospective application of ACR TI-RADS criteria. Without ACR TI-RADS criteria, readers had an overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 95% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83%, 99%), 20% (95% CI: 16%, 25%), and 28% (95% CI: 21%, 37%), respectively. After applying ACR TI-RADS criteria, overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 92% (95% CI: 68%, 98%), 44% (95% CI: 33%, 56%), and 52% (95% CI: 40%, 63%), respectively. Although fewer malignancies were recommended for biopsy with ACR TI-RADS criteria, the majority met the criteria for follow-up US, with only three of 120 (2.5%) malignancy encounters requiring no follow-up or biopsy. Expert consensus recommended biopsy in 55 of 100 nodules with ACR TI-RADS criteria. Their sensitivity

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Thyroid Nodule Core Biopsy: Clinical Utility in Patients with Prior Nondiagnostic Fine-Needle Aspirate

    PubMed Central

    Vij, Abhinav; Seale, Melanie K.; Desai, Gaurav; Halpern, Elkan; Faquin, William C.; Parangi, Sareh; Hahn, Peter F.; Daniels, Gilbert H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Five percent to 20% of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples are nondiagnostic. The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of FNA and core biopsy (CFNACB) would yield a higher proportion of diagnostic readings compared with FNA alone in patients with a history of one or more prior nondiagnostic FNA readings. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 90 core biopsies (CBs) performed in 82 subjects (55 women and 27 men) between 2006 and 2008 in an outpatient clinic. Results CFNACB yielded a diagnostic reading in 87%. The diagnostic reading yield of the CB component of CFNACB was significantly superior to the concurrent FNA component, with CB yielding a diagnosis in 77% of cases and FNA yielding a diagnosis in 47% (p<0.0001). The combination of CB and FNA had a higher diagnostic reading yield than either alone. In 69 nodules that had only one prior nondiagnostic FNA, CB was diagnostic in 74%, FNA was diagnostic in 52%, CFNACB was diagnostic in 87%, and CB performed significantly better than FNA (p=0.0135). In 21 nodules with two or more prior nondiagnostic FNAs, CFNACB and CB were diagnostic in 86%, FNA was diagnostic in 29%, and CB was significantly better than FNA (p=0.0005). Clinical, ultrasound, or histopathologic follow-up was available for 81% (73/90) of the CFNACB procedures. No subject with a benign CFNACB reading was diagnosed with thyroid malignancy in the follow-up period (range 4–37 months, mean 18 months), although one subject had minimal increase in nodule size and was awaiting repeat sonography at study conclusion. Conclusion Thyroid nodule CFNACB is safe and clinically useful in selected patients when a prior FNA reading is nondiagnostic. CFNACB is superior to either CB or FNA alone. CFNACB should be strongly considered as an alternative to surgery in individuals with two prior nondiagnostic FNAs. PMID:22304390

  5. Inappropriate Suppression of Thyrotropin Concentrations in Young Patients with Thyroid Nodules Including Thyroid Cancer: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru; Nakamura, Izumi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohkouchi, Chiyo; Mizunuma, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Ito, Yuko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Matsuzuka, Takashi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    Serum thyroid hormone concentration is regulated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between thyroid hormone regulation and ultrasonographic findings in subjects with thyroid nodules detected during thyroid ultrasound examination for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. As of October 31, 2014, a total of 296,253 subjects, who had been living in Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and were aged ≤18 years on March 11, 2011, participated in two concurrent screening programs. In the primary screening, thyroid nodules were detected in 2241 subjects. A secondary confirmatory thyroid ultrasound examination and blood sampling for thyroid function tests were performed on 2004 subjects. The subjects were reassessed and classified into disease-free subjects (Group 1), subjects with cysts only (Group 2), subjects with nodules (Group 3), and subjects with malignancy or suspected malignancy (Group 4). Serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, and the fT3/fT4 ratio were classified according to the diagnoses. Inverse relationships between age and log TSH values (Spearman's correlation r = -0.311, p = 0.015), serum fT3 concentration (r = -0.688, p < 0.001), and the fT3/fT4 ratio (r = -0.520, p < 0.001) were observed in Group 1. When analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons was used in the four groups, the log TSH values were significantly lower in both Group 3 and Group 4 compared with Group 1 and Group 2 after correcting for age (p < 0.001; Group 1 vs. Group 3, p = 0.016; Group 1 vs. Group 4, p = 0.022; Group 2 vs. Group 3, p = 0.001; Group 2 vs. Group 4, p = 0.008). However, no significant differences were observed between the four groups regarding levels of fT3, fT4, fT3/fT4 ratio, and thyroglobulin (p = 0.304, 0.340, 0.208, and 0

  6. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules with concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Li, Dan-Dan; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Li, Xiao-Long; Guo, Le-Hang; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Shen

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in patients with coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). A total of 141 pathological proven nodules in 141 HT patients (7 males and 134 females, mean age 50.1 years, range 23-75 years) received conventional ultrasound (US), elasticity imaging (EI) and ARFI elastography, including virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ), before surgery. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and SWV ratio were measured for each nodule on VTQ. The US, EI and ARFI elastography features were compared between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses and area under curve (AUC) were performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 70 nodules were benign and 71 nodules were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients for EI (EI score) and ARFI (VTI grade and SWV) (all P value <0.05). The AUCs for EI, VTI, SWV and SWV ratio were 0.68 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.77], 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95), 0.77 (95%CI: 0.70-0.85) and 0.74 (95%CI: 0.66-0.82), respectively. The cut-off points were EI score ≥3, VTI grade ≥4, SWV ≥2.58 m/s and SWV ratio ≥1.03, respectively. In conclusion, ARFI elastography is useful for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in HT patients. The diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography is better than EI.

  7. The efficacy and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian H; Wu, Arnold L H

    2018-04-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising form of thermal ablation of benign thyroid nodules, but evidence supporting its use is scarce. The present review evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-session HIFU treatment of benign thyroid nodules. As reported in the literature, the extent of nodule shrinkage following treatment ranged from 48.8% to 68.8%. Like other forms of ablation, the shrinkage rate was greatest in the first 3-6 months, and the best responders were patients with small (≤10 mL) nodules. Complications were uncommon, but temporary vocal cord palsy occurred in 3%-4% of patients, and was related to the distance between the HIFU beam and the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Despite being safe and efficacious, a larger-scale prospective trial is required.

  8. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for benign thyroid nodules without anesthesia or sedation.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Bini, Fabiano; Marinozzi, Franco; Baek, Jung Hwan; Giovanella, Luca

    2018-02-16

    Thermal ablation of thyroid nodules has gained momentum due to the possibility to avoid surgery. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) allows thermal treatment by energy ultrasound beam inside the targeted zone. Aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of HIFU treatment using Beamotion mode without anesthesia. Since 2016, patients with normal thyroid function, benign thyroid nodules with diameter no larger than 4 cm, and presenting local discomfort and/or compressive symptoms were treated by HIFU. We performed Beamotion HIFU and did not use anesthesia. Nodule size and thyroid function were evaluated before HIFU and 6 and 12 months later. Complications to therapy and tolerability of patients were also recorded. According to local ethical committee, for this retrospective study formal consent was not required. The final series included 26 nodules from 26 patients with estimated volume of 2.81 ± 2.04 mL, treated by a power of 33.3 ± 10.3 W/site and energy of 2.1 ± 1.1 kJ. Nodules volume was significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced at 6 months of follow-up (1.83 ± 1.63 mL), and further at 1 year (1.57 ± 1.47 mL). Mean percentage of reduction over time of nodules was 48%. A 73% of patients described good comfort during treatment, 100% experienced good comfort just after therapy, and tolerability was high. No complications were recorded. At one 1 year of follow-up, 85% of subjects reported a reduction of local symptoms. HIFU therapy is effective in reducing size of thyroid nodules with major diameter below 4 cm and can be performed without anesthesia.

  9. Evaluation of pain during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian H H; Woo, Yu-Cho; Chiu, Keith Wan-Hang

    2018-06-01

    To assess severity and factors of pain during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of benign thyroid nodules. 128 patients who underwent a HIFU ablation for a benign thyroid nodule were analysed. All patients received a bolus of intravenous pethidine and diazepam before treatment. After treatment, patients were asked to rate their overall pain experience on a visual analogue scale (0-100) (0 = no pain; 100 = worse possible pain) during treatment, 2 h after treatment and the following morning. Binary logistic regression was performed to evaluate associated factors for pain including patient demographics, nodule size, body mass index (BMI) and treatment parameters. At T1, median (range) pain score was 65.0 (0.00-100.00). Only 16 (12.5 %) patients had a pain score of zero. In multivariate analysis, only lower BMI (OR 1.265, 95 % CI 1.102-1.452, p=0.001) and longer nodule diameter (OR 1.462, 95 % CI 1.071-1.996, p=0.017) were independent factors for pain score at T1 ≤ 65.0. A moderate to severe amount of pain was reported during ablation of benign thyroid nodules in over 50 % of patients. Patients' BMI and length of nodule diameter were independent variables for pain during HIFU ablation. • Pain was moderate to severe during HIFU ablation of thyroid nodules. • Only one in eight patients reported no pain during ablation. • Level of energy per pulse did not affect pain. • Patients with lower BMI and larger nodules had less pain.

  10. Treatment efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-long; Lu, Feng; Yue, Wen-wen; Sun, Li-ping; Bo, Xiao-wan; Guo, Le-hang; Xu, Jun-mei; Liu, Bo-ji; Li, Dan-dan; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency ablation (BRFA) of benign thyroid nodules by comparison with a matched untreated control group. Methods: The therapeutic efficacy and safety in 35 patients who were subjected to a single session of ultrasound-guided percutaneous BRFA (Group A) for benign thyroid nodules were compared with those in 35 untreated patients (Group B) with benign nodules. The benign nature of all the nodules was confirmed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), and all the patients had normal thyroid functions. BRFA was performed with a bipolar electrode (CelonProSurge 150–T20) with an output power of 20 W. Nodule volume, thyroid function and clinical symptoms of all the patients were compared before treatment and during follow-up. Results: In Group A, the BRFA procedures were completed with a mean time of 10.02 ± 3.30 min (range, 5.47–16.03 min) and with a mean total energy deposition of 10.747 ± 3704 J (range, 5510–17.770 J). The procedures were tolerated well in all the patients without causing any major complications. At the 6-month follow-up, all of the nodule volume decreased significantly (from 8.81 ± 8.66 to 1.59 ± 1.55 ml, p < 0.001) in Group A, whereas the nodule volume increased from 6.90 ± 3.77 to 7.87 ± 3.95 ml in Group B (p < 0.001). All (100%) the 35 nodules in Group A had volume reduction ratios (VRRs) of >50%, among which 3 (8.57%) had VRRs >90%. In Group A, the clinical symptoms of the patients who had symptoms before BRFA disappeared, whereas in Group B, the patients had no resolution of clinical symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous BRFA seems to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. It may gain a wide use in clinical practice. Advances in knowledge: Based on the comparable efficacy and clinical

  11. Microwave ablation for thyroid nodules: a new string to the bow for percutaneous treatments?

    PubMed

    Morelli, Francesco; Sacrini, Andrea; Pompili, Giovanni; Borelli, Anna; Panella, Silvia; Masu, Annamaria; De Pasquale, Loredana; Giacchero, Roberta; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid nodules are a fairly common finding in general population and, even if most of them are benign, a treatment can be however necessary. In the last years, non surgical minimally invasive techniques have been developed to treat this pathology, starting from percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), to laser ablation (LA), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and, most recently, microwave ablation (MWA). We reviewed all medical literature searching in pubmed.gov the terms "microwave" & "thyroid". We found three original studies concerning MWA treatment, for a total of 263 patients (mean age 51.0 years; range, 15-80 years; male to female ratio 2.55) and 522 nodules. A total of 522 nodules (338 solid, 22 cystic, 162 mixed) in 263 patients were treated. Studies have shown a mean reduction in volume of thyroid nodules ranging from 45.9% to 65%. No study reported a significant and definitive change in laboratory parameters, except for one case (Heck et al. ). No studies have reported major complications after procedure. MWA is a new, promising technique among the minimally invasive treatments of thyroid nodules. Actually, the larger diameter of MW antenna seems to be the major limiting factor in the use of this technique. More studies are necessary to evaluate feasibility, safety and efficacy of the procedure.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of [99mTc]Tc-Sestamibi in the assessment of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Yordanova, Anna; Mahjoob, Soha; Lingohr, Philipp; Kalff, Jörg; Türler, Andreas; Palmedo, Holger; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Kristiansen, Glen; Farahati, Jamshid; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2017-01-01

    [99mTc]Tc-Sestamibi (MIBI) is an increasingly used tool for evaluation of thyroid nodules. However, there is a lack of evidence about the accuracy of this method in the European population. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of MIBI for the differentiation of thyroid nodules in a large cohort. 161 patients underwent MIBI, followed by a thyroidectomy. We used a dual phase MIBI protocol. Interpretation of the images included a scoring system from 0 (absent) to 3 (increased); this was to provide a scale for the uptake of the thyroid nodule in comparison to the paranodular tissue. Additionally, we evaluated the tracer uptake trend in late images compared to early images. We used the final histopathology as the reference standard. Scores 0-1 in early images, scores 0-2 in late images, and an absence of increasing uptake in the thyroid nodule in late images, showed the best predictive values to exclude malignancy, respectively (negative predictive value (NPV) 89%). Highest sensitivity (91%) for malignant nodules was evident in early images with a score 1-3. Highest specificity (91%) was obtained when the negative was defined as an absence of uptake-increase, in the late images. This study confirms that the most valuable feature of MIBI is the high NPV. Thus, with the appropriate interpretation method, high sensitivity and specificity, and moderate PPV can be obtained. PMID:29212258

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of [99mTc]Tc-Sestamibi in the assessment of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Anna; Mahjoob, Soha; Lingohr, Philipp; Kalff, Jörg; Türler, Andreas; Palmedo, Holger; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Kristiansen, Glen; Farahati, Jamshid; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2017-11-07

    [ 99m Tc]Tc-Sestamibi (MIBI) is an increasingly used tool for evaluation of thyroid nodules. However, there is a lack of evidence about the accuracy of this method in the European population. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of MIBI for the differentiation of thyroid nodules in a large cohort. 161 patients underwent MIBI, followed by a thyroidectomy. We used a dual phase MIBI protocol. Interpretation of the images included a scoring system from 0 (absent) to 3 (increased); this was to provide a scale for the uptake of the thyroid nodule in comparison to the paranodular tissue. Additionally, we evaluated the tracer uptake trend in late images compared to early images. We used the final histopathology as the reference standard. Scores 0-1 in early images, scores 0-2 in late images, and an absence of increasing uptake in the thyroid nodule in late images, showed the best predictive values to exclude malignancy, respectively (negative predictive value (NPV) 89%). Highest sensitivity (91%) for malignant nodules was evident in early images with a score 1-3. Highest specificity (91%) was obtained when the negative was defined as an absence of uptake-increase, in the late images. This study confirms that the most valuable feature of MIBI is the high NPV. Thus, with the appropriate interpretation method, high sensitivity and specificity, and moderate PPV can be obtained.

  14. Risk stratification of thyroid nodules on ultrasonography with the French TI-RADS: description and reflections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of ultrasonography places it in a key position for use in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. The French proposal is a five-tier system, our version of a thyroid imaging reporting and database system (TI-RADS), which includes a standardized vocabulary and report and a quantified risk assessment. It allows the selection of the nodules that should be referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Effort should be directed towards merging the different risk stratification systems utilized around the world and testing this unified system with multi-center studies. PMID:26324117

  15. Screening for thyroid cancer according to French recommendations with thyroid ultrasound in newly diagnosed Graves' disease without palpable nodule is not useful.

    PubMed

    Nys, Pierre; Cordray, Jean-Pierre; Sarafian, Véronique; Lefort-Mossé, Ève; Merceron, Robert-Édouard

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate systematic thyroid ultrasonography (US) relevance in newly diagnosed Graves' disease among patients presenting without palpable nodules. We consecutively recruited 208 cases of Graves' disease without palpable nodule. All patients were screened for thyroid antibodies and underwent a thyroid US. Ultrasonically guided biopsy was proposed for the assessment of all nodules upper or equal to 10mm in diameter. Two third of patients had an abnormal thyroid at palpation requiring an US. One third of patients had a normal thyroid at palpation and US was consequently unwarranted. Among all patients, US detected non-palpable nodules in 26% of cases. We found no smears suspected to be cancerous. In newly diagnosed Graves' disease, the US relevance is only questionable in patients without abnormal thyroid at palpation. Ultrasonography detected non-palpable nodules and none was suspected to be cancerous. These data suggest that US is not useful in patients without abnormal thyroid at palpation. Nevertheless, the recent Thyroid Imaging-Reporting And Data System classification (TI-RADS) might change our conclusions. The TI-RADS classification indeed improves the selection of nodules lower than 10mm in diameter requiring a biopsy. Nodules lower than 10mm in diameter were not biopsied in the present study. The other US data presented herein (echogenicity, vascularisation) provide no further relevance for systematic US in newly diagnosed patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Preoperative Serum Thyrotropin to Thyroglobulin Ratio Is Effective for Thyroid Nodule Evaluation in Euthyroid Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Li, Hao; Yang, Zhongyuan; Guo, Zhuming; Zhang, Quan

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the efficiency of the serum thyrotropin to thyroglobulin ratio for thyroid nodule evaluation in euthyroid patients. Cross-sectional study. Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China. Retrospective analysis was performed for 400 previously untreated cases presenting with thyroid nodules. Thyroid function was tested with commercially available radioimmunoassays. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine cutoff values. The efficacy of the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio and thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyroid nodule evaluation was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and odds ratio. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve was 0.746 for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio and 0.659 for thyroid-stimulating hormone. With a cutoff point value of 24.97 IU/g for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 78.9%, 60.8%, 75.5%, 2.01, and 0.35, respectively. The odds ratio for the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio indicating malignancy was 5.80. With a cutoff point value of 1.525 µIU/mL for thyroid-stimulating hormone, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 74.0%, 53.2%, 70.8%, 1.58, and 0.49, respectively. The odds ratio indicating malignancy for thyroid-stimulating hormone was 3.23. Increasing preoperative serum thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio is a risk factor for thyroid carcinoma, and the correlation of the thyrotropin:thyroglobulin ratio to malignancy is higher than that for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Less is More: Comparing the 2015 and 2009 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian W; Yousman, Wina; Wong, Wei Xiang; Cheng, Cheng; McAninch, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    The American Thyroid Association (ATA) has recently revised its guidance pertaining to thyroid nodules and follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer. The 2015 guidelines are massive in both scope and scale, with changes in the organizational approach to risk stratification of nodules and cancer, as well as multiple sections covering new material. This review highlights the major structural and organizational changes, focusing attention on the most dramatically changed recommendations, that is, those recommendations that clinicians will find striking because they call for significant divergence from prior clinical practice. The revised approach to thyroid nodule risk stratification is based on sonographic pattern, with an emphasis on pattern rather than growth in the long-term surveillance of nodules. Accumulating data have also been incorporated into an updated risk stratification scheme for thyroid cancer that increases the size of the low-risk pool, in part because low-volume lymph nodal metastases are now considered low risk. The most fundamentally altered recommendation is that lobectomy might be considered as the initial surgical approach for follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers from 1 to 4 cm in size. The underlying theme of the 2015 ATA guidelines is that "less is more." As these new recommendations are adopted, fewer fine-needle aspiration biopsies will need to be done, less extensive surgeries will become more common, less radioactive iodine will be used either for treatment or for diagnostics, and less stimulated thyroglobulin testing will be done. Mastery of these guidelines will help clinicians know when it is reasonable to do less, thus providing responsibly individualized therapy for their patients.

  18. Single-session radiofrequency ablation on benign thyroid nodules: a prospective single center study : Radiofrequency ablation on thyroid.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Akbulut, Huseyin; Elmas, Leyla

    2016-05-01

    The activity of the application of single-session ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous radio frequency ablation (RFA) in benign thyroid nodules was investigated in this prospective clinical study. RFA treatment was applied to 100 nodules in 100 patients (78 women, 22 men; average age 44.5 years old; age range 18-71) who had euthyroid condition, nodule size larger than 1 cm in the ultrasonography, proven to be benign by fine needle aspiration cytology. The nodules were separated into three groups according to the content: solid, cystic and mixed. In first 73 cases, the process performed under local anesthesia and the other 27 cases were performed under general anesthesia. RFA process was standardized to 70 W in all of the patients, and a moving shot technique was used. The results acquired in the third and sixth months of the controls were evaluated, and the volume of the nodules was screened. No differences between the thyroid function tests performed before and after RFA were detected (p > 0.05). The mean volume of the nodules before the process, in the third month after the process, and in the sixth month were 16.8, 4.8, and 2.6 ml, respectively (p < 0.001). The decrease in cystic nodules was greater than solid and mixed structures. Temporary hoarseness occurred in one case and skin edema was detected in a patient at the isthmus. RFA is an option for treatment, with minimal invasiveness and a low complication rate, and it is effective primarily in cases with benign nodules and nodular goiter. In cases with good compliance, the likelihood of success is greater. General anesthesia can be a good option for anxious cases to gather better results.

  19. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of benign thyroid nodules - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Wu, Arnold L H

    2017-01-01

    With an increasing number of imaging studies being done nowadays, the number of incidentally discovered thyroid nodules is expected to rise. Although many of these nodules are small and benign in nature, some do grow and may cause pressure and/or thyrotoxic symptoms. Surgical resection has traditionally been recommended for symptomatic nodules but is associated with risk of hypothyroidism, bleeding, infection, and nerve damage. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is one of the non-surgical thermal ablation techniques that may serve as an alternative in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. The present review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of HIFU ablation. We comprehensively searched all studies that evaluated the use of HIFU ablation as a treatment of benign thyroid nodules from Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Library electronic databases using specific keywords. All titles identified by the search strategy were independently screened by two authors. Case reports, animal studies, editorials, expert opinions, reviews without original data and studies on pediatric population were excluded. Multiple reports of the same dataset were assessed and the most representative and updated report of a study was included. Five original studies were found. All treated thyroid nodules were confirmed to be benign cytologically and either appeared solid or predominantly (>70%) solid on ultrasonography. Only one type of commercially available US-guided device with an extracorporeal probe (3 MHz) was used in all the reported treatments. No major complications including recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, skin burn or haematoma were reported in all of the studies. The overall nodule volume reduction after single session of HIFU ablation ranged between 45 and 68%, depending on nodule size and length of follow-up. Despite the few number of studies, our review appeared to suggest that HIFU is a safe and efficacious method of treating symptomatic benign thyroid

  20. Methodology and technical requirements of the galectin-3 test for the preoperative characterization of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bartolazzi, Armando; Bellotti, Carlo; Sciacchitano, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the β-galactosyl binding protein galectin-3 has been the object of extensive molecular, structural, and functional studies aimed to clarify its biological role in cancer. Multicenter studies also contributed to discover the potential clinical value of galectin-3 expression analysis in distinguishing, preoperatively, benign from malignant thyroid nodules. As a consequence galectin-3 is receiving significant attention as tumor marker for thyroid cancer diagnosis, but some conflicting results mostly owing to methodological problems have been published. The possibility to apply preoperatively a reliable galectin-3 test method on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA)-derived thyroid cells represents an important achievement. When correctly applied, the method reduces consistently the gray area of thyroid FNA cytology, contributing to avoid unnecessary thyroid surgery. Although the efficacy and reliability of the galectin-3 test method have been extensively proved in several studies, its translation in the clinical setting requires well-standardized reagents and procedures. After a decade of experimental work on galectin-3-related basic and translational research projects, the major methodological problems that may potentially impair the diagnostic performance of galectin-3 immunotargeting are highlighted and discussed in detail. A standardized protocol for a reliable galectin-3 expression analysis is finally provided. The aim of this contribution is to improve the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules, promoting the preoperative use of a reliable galectin-3 test method as ancillary technique to conventional thyroid FNA cytology. The final goal is to decrease unnecessary thyroid surgery and its related social costs.

  1. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of thyroid nodules: first human feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Esnault, Olivier; Franc, Brigitte; Ménégaux, Fabrice; Rouxel, Agnès; De Kerviler, Eric; Bourrier, Pierre; Lacoste, François; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Leenhardt, Laurence

    2011-09-01

    Thyroid surgery is common, but complications may occur. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive alternative to surgery. We hypothesized that an optimized HIFU device could be safe and effective for ablating benign thyroid nodules without affecting neighboring structures. In this open, single-center feasibility study, 25 patients were treated with HIFU with real-time ultrasound imaging 2 weeks before a scheduled thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter. Thyroid ultrasonography imaging, thyroid function, were evaluated before and after treatment. Adverse events were carefully recorded. Each patient received HIFU for one thyroid nodule, solid or mixed, with mean diameter ≥8 mm, and no suspicion of malignancy. The HIFU device was progressively adjusted with stepwise testing. The energy level for ablation ranged from 35 to 94 J/pulse for different groups of patients. One pathologist examined all removed thyroids. Three patients discontinued treatment due to pain or skin microblister. Among the remaining 22 patients, 16 showed significant changes by ultrasound. Macroscopic and histological examinations showed that all lesions were confined to the targeted nodule without affecting neighboring structures. At pathological analysis, the extent of nodule destruction ranged from 2% to 80%. Five out of 22 patients had over 20% pathological lesions unmistakably attributed to HIFU. Seventeen cases had putative lesions including nonspecific necrosis, hemorrhage, nodule detachment, cavitations, and cysts. Among these 17 cases, 12 had both ultrasound changes and cavitation at histology that may be expected for an HIFU effect. In the last three patients ablated at the highest energy level, significant ultrasound changes and complete coagulative necrosis were observed in 80%, 78%, and 58% of the targeted area, respectively. There were no major complications of ablation. This study showed the potential efficacy of HIFU for human thyroid nodule ablation

  2. Percutaneous ethanol injection of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: long-term follow-up in 125 patients.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Luciano; Francica, Giampiero; Sordelli, Ignazio; Sperlongano, Pasquale; Parmeggiani, Domenico; Ripa, Carmine; Parmeggiani, Umberto

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. One hundred twenty-five patients (88 women, 37 men; age range, 17-76 years; mean age, 53 years) with 127 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (volume, 1.2-90 mL; mean, 10.3 mL) were treated with PEI. There were 1-11 PEI sessions per patient (average, 3.9) performed, with injection of 1-14 mL of ethanol per session (total injected ethanol per patient, 3-108 mL; mean, 14.0 mL). Efficacy of the treatment was assessed with color Doppler sonography; scintigraphy; and free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) assays. Follow-up (9-144 months; median, 60 months) was performed with TSH and color Doppler sonography every 2 months for 6 months and every 6 months thereafter. Three (2.4%) of 125 patients refused completion of PEI therapy because of pain. Results are reported in 122 patients with 124 nodules. All 122 patients showed posttreatment normal levels of FT3, FT4, and TSH. A complete cure (absent uptake in the nodule and recovery of normal uptake in the thyroid parenchyma) was obtained in 113 (93%) of 122 patients-115 (92.7%) of 124 treated nodules. Residual hyperfunctioning nodular tissue along with decreased thyroid parenchyma uptake (partial cure) was present in nine patients accounting for nine (7.3%) of 124 nodules. Rates of complete cure after PEI were: overall nodules, 115 (92.7%) of 124; nodules < or = 10 mL, 63 (94.0%) of 67; nodules > 10 to < or = 30 mL, 32 (91.4%) of 35; nodules > 30 to < or = 60 mL, 17 (89.5%) of 19; nodules > 60 mL, three (100%) of three. The overall rate of major complications (transient laryngeal nerve damage, two patients; abscess and hematoma, one patient each) was four (3.2%) of 125 patients. Follow-up examinations showed marked shrinkage of 112 treated nodules ranging from 50% to 90% of the pretreatment volume (mean, 66%) and new growth

  3. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing with ThyroSeq v2.1 for Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Witt, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    To determine if patients elect molecular testing over diagnostic surgery or repeat fine needle aspiration for indeterminate thyroid nodules. Can ThyroSeq v2.1 molecular testing reduce diagnostic thyroid surgery and rule out cancer? Retrospective review Setting: Single institution, single-practice surgeon. Fifteen month retrospective review of indeterminate thyroid nodules that went on to ThyroSeq v2.1 testing. 286 patients met American Thyroid Association guideline criteria for surgeon- performed, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for a thyroid nodule with on-site cytopathology. The indeterminate (Bethesda III or IV) fine needle aspiration cytology rate was 9.1 percent. Prevalence of malignancy in indeterminate nodules was 19 percent. 26/26 (100 percent) patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules elected molecular testing. 16 patients had no mutation, 9 had one or more mutations, and I had no result. 16 of 25 (64 percent) patients with no mutation elected not to undergo diagnostic surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules. Patients demonstrated a strong preference for molecular testing instead of diagnostic thyroid surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules. All patients in this series, 25/25 (100 percent) with indeterminate thyroid nodules elected molecular testing instead of repeat biopsy or diagnostic thyroid surgery. 16 of 25 (64 percent) patients tested had no mutation. All 16/16 (100 percent) patients with no mutation on ThyroSeq "rule out" testing elected active surveillance rather than surgery or biopsy, reducing diagnostic surgery. The risk of malignancy among mutation negative patients was not definitively established. There are a number of factors currently that may mute the power of "rule in" testing.

  4. Association of Pro-apoptotic Bad Gene Expression Changes with Benign Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Gül, Nurdan; Temel, Berna; Ustek, Duran; Sirma-Ekmekçi, Sema; Kapran, Yersu; Tunca, Fatih; Giles-Şenyürek, Yasemin; Özbek, Uğur; Alagöl, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in benign thyroid nodules. Paired samples of nodular and normal tissues were collected from 26 patients with nodular goiters undergoing thyroidectomy. Variable expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Bad genes were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Expression level of Bad gene in nodules was found to be significantly decreased compared to normal tissues (p=0.049). A positive correlation was observed between nodule size and Bad expression levels (correlation coefficient=0.563, p=0.004); and this correlation was stronger in hot nodules (n=18, correlation coefficient=0.689, p=0.003). No significant difference was observed between nodular and normal tissue expressions of Bax and Bcl-2. These results suggest that Bad expression correlates with the size of benign thyroid nodules and also its relatively lower expression in nodules, warrant further investigation. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Novel and Practical Scoring Systems for the Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ying; Zhou, Xinrong; Liu, Siyue; Wang, Hong; Liu, Limin; Liu, Renze; Kang, Jinsong; Hong, Kai; Wang, Daowen; Yuan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules that are biopsied by fine-needle aspiration cytology and yield indeterminate results remains unsettled. The BRAF V600E mutation has dubious diagnostic value due to its low sensitivity. Novel strategies are urgently needed to distinguish thyroid malignancies from thyroid nodules. Design This prospective study included 504 thyroid nodules diagnosed by ultrasonography from 468 patients, and fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed under ultrasound guidance. Cytology and molecular analysis, including BRAF V600E, RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3, were conducted simultaneously. The cytology, ultrasonography results, and mutational status were gathered and analyzed together. Predictive scoring systems were designed using a combination of diagnostic parameters for ultrasonography, cytology and genetic analysis. The utility of the scoring systems was analyzed and compared to detection using the individual methods alone or combined. Result The sensitivity of scoring systema (ultrasonography, cytology, BRAF V600E, RET/PTC) was nearly identical to that of scoring systemb (ultrasonography, cytology, BRAF V600E); these were 91.0% and 90.2%, respectively. These sensitivities were significantly higher than those obtained using FNAC, genetic analysis and US alone or combined; their sensitivities were 63.9%, 70.7% and 87.2%, respectively. Scoring systemc (ultrasonography, cytology) was slightly inferior to the former two scoring systems but still had relatively high sensitivity and specificity (80.5% and 95.1%, respectively), which were significantly superior to those of single cytology, ultrasonography or genetic analysis. In nodules with uncertainty cytology, scoring systema, scoring systemb and scoring systemc could elevate the malignancy detection rates to 69.7%, 69.7% and 63.6%, respectively. Conclusion These three scoring systems were quick for clinicians to master and could provide quantified information to predict

  6. Reasons Associated with Total Thyroidectomy as Initial Surgical Management of an Indeterminate Thyroid Nodule.

    PubMed

    Angell, Trevor E; Vyas, Chirag M; Barletta, Justine A; Cibas, Edmund S; Cho, Nancy L; Doherty, Gerard M; Gawande, Atul A; Howitt, Brooke E; Krane, Jeffrey F; Marqusee, Ellen; Strickland, Kyle C; Alexander, Erik K; Moore, Francis D; Nehs, Matthew A

    2018-05-01

    Diagnostic hemithyroidectomy (HT) is the most widely recommended surgical procedure for a nodule with indeterminate cytology; however, additional details may make initial total thyroidectomy (TT) preferable. We sought to identify patient-specific factors (PSFs) associated with initial TT in patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. Retrospective analysis of all patients with a thyroid nodule ≥ 1 cm and initial cytology of atypia of undetermined significance or suspicious for follicular neoplasm between 2012 and 2015 who underwent thyroidectomy. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, neck symptoms, nodule size, cytology, molecular test results, final histopathology, and additional PSFs influencing surgical management. Variables were analyzed to determine associations with the use of initial TT. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent associations. Of 325 included patients, 182/325 (56.0%) had HT and 143/325 (44.0%) had TT. While patient age and sex, nodule size, and cytology result were not associated with initial treatment, five PSFs were associated with initial TT (p < 0.0001). These included contralateral nodules, hypothyroidism, fluorodeoxyglucose avidity on positron emission tomography scan, family history of thyroid cancer, and increased surgical risk. At least one PSF was present in 126/143 (88.1%) TT patients versus 47/182 (25.8%) HT patients (p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that these variables were the strongest independent predictor of TT (odds ratio 45.93, 95% confidence interval 18.80-112.23, p < 0.001). When surgical management of an indeterminate cytology thyroid nodule was performed, several PSFs were associated with a preference by surgeons and patients for initial TT, which may be useful to consider in making decisions on initial operative extent.

  7. The role of molecular diagnostic testing in the management of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Moore, Maureen D; Panjwani, Suraj; Gray, Katherine D; Finnerty, Brendan M; Zarnegar, Rasa; Fahey, Thomas J

    2017-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) with cytologic examination remains the standard of care for investigation of thyroid nodules. However, as many as 30% of FNA samples are cytologically indeterminate for malignancy, which confounds clinical management. To reduce the burden of repeat diagnostic testing and unnecessary surgery, there has been extensive investigation into molecular markers that can be detected on FNA specimens to more accurately stratify a patient's risk of malignancy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss recent evidence and progress in molecular markers used in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer highlighting somatic gene alterations, molecular technologies and microRNA analysis. Expert commentary: The goal of molecular markers is to improve diagnostic accuracy and aid clinicians in the preoperative management of thyroid lesions. Modalities such as direct mutation analysis, mRNA gene expression profiling, next-generation sequencing, and miRNA expression profiling have been explored to improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid nodule FNA. Although no perfect test has been discovered, molecular diagnostic testing has revolutionized the management of thyroid nodules.

  8. Computed Tomography Features of Benign and Malignant Calcified Thyroid Nodules: A Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Dong Wook; Heo, Young Jin; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Young Mi; Baek, Hye Jin; Jung, Soo Jin

    No previous studies have investigated thyroid calcification on computed tomography (CT) quantitatively by using Hounsfield unit (HU) values. This study aimed to analyze quantitative HU values of thyroid calcification on preoperative neck CT and to assess the characteristics of benign and malignant calcified thyroid nodules (CTNs). Two hundred twenty patients who underwent neck CT before thyroid surgery from January 2015 to June 2016 were included. On soft-tissue window CT images, CTNs with calcified components of 3 mm or larger in minimum diameter were included in this study. The HU values and types of CTNs were determined and analyzed. Of 61 CTNs in 49 patients, there were 42 malignant nodules and 19 benign nodules. The mean largest diameter of the calcified component was 5.3 (2.5) mm (range, 3.1-17.1 mm). A statistically significant difference was observed in the HU values of calcified portions between benign and malignant CTNs, whereas there was no significant difference in patient age or sex or in the size, location, or type of each CTN. Of the 8 CTNs with pure calcification, 3 exhibited a honeycomb pattern on bone window CT images, and these 3 CTNs were all diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma on histopathological examination. Hounsfield unit values of CTNs may be helpful for differentiating malignancy from benignity.

  9. Classification of thyroid nodules using a resonance-frequency-based electrical impedance spectroscopy: progress assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Tublin, Mitchell E.; Lederman, Dror; Klym, Amy H.; Brown, Erica D.; Gur, David

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is rising faster than other malignancies and has nearly doubled in the United States (U.S.) in the last 30 years. However, classifying between malignant and benign thyroid nodules is often difficult. Although ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) is considered an excellent tool for triaging patients, up to 25% of FNABs are inconclusive. As a result, definitive diagnosis requires an exploratory surgery and a large number of these are performed in the U.S. annually. It would be extremely beneficial to develop a non-invasive tool or procedure that could assist in assessing the likelihood of malignancy of otherwise indeterminate thyroid nodules, thereby reducing the number of exploratory thyroidectomies that are performed under general anesthesia. In this preliminary study we demonstrate a unique hand-held Resonance-frequency based Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (REIS) device with six pairs of detection probes to detect and classify thyroid nodules using multi-channel EIS output signal sweeps. Under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved case collection protocol, this REIS device is being tested in our clinical facility and we have been collecting an initial patient data set since March of this year. Between March and August of 2011, 65 EIS tests were conducted on 65 patients. Among these cases, six depicted pathology-verified malignant cells. Our initial assessment indicates the feasibility of easily applying this REIS device and measurement approach in a very busy clinical setting. The measured resonance frequency differences between malignant and benign nodules could potentially make it possible to accurately classify indeterminate thyroid nodules.

  10. Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Austrian Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Dobnig, Harald; Amrein, Karin

    2018-04-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency ablation is currently deemed an exotic treatment option for benign thyroid nodules in many central European countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the safety and efficacy of this method in a large patient cohort following its introduction in Austria. Peri- and post-interventional complications were analyzed for 277 patients. Efficacy was determined for 300 and 154 nodules at 3 and 12 months post treatment, respectively. All treatments were performed with an internally cooled 18G radiofrequency electrode using a free-hand, "moving-shot" technique following subcutaneous and local perithyroidal anesthesia. Mean patient age (SD) was 52 ± 12.9 years (75% female), and overall mean baseline nodule volume (SD) was 13.8 ± 15.9 mL. Nodules were visible in 62.8% of patients, 40% had a symptom score ≥4 on a 10-point visual analogue scale, and 14.4% had hyperthyroidism. Mean overall nodule volume reduction rates (VRR) at 3 and 12 months were 68 ± 16% and 82 ± 13%, respectively (p < 0.001). At 12 months, 81% of nodules exhibited a VRR of ≥70%, with 10%, 6%, and 2% of nodules showing VRRs of 60-70%, 50-60%, and ≤50%, respectively. Subgroup analysis according to baseline nodule size (≤10 mL to >30 mL) or baseline nodule composition (solid, mixed, cystic) revealed significantly higher VRRs for smaller and cystic nodules. Moreover, nodule shrinkage was accompanied by significantly improved symptom and cosmetic scores after 3 and 12 months (p < 0.001). Of 32 hyperthyroid patients, 27 (84%) were euthyroid, four had subclinical hyperthyroidism, and one had subclinical hypothyroidism at last follow-up. Post-procedural complications were absent in 83% of patients, minimal in 12.9%, moderate and reversible in 3.2% (1.8% voice change, 0.7% hyperthyroidism, 0.3% wound infection treated with antibiotics, 0.3% epifascial hematoma), and irreversible in 0.7% (one case with hypothyroidism and one with a

  11. Diagnostic Criteria and Accuracy of Categorizing Malignant Thyroid Nodules by Ultrasonography and Ultrasound Elastography with Pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Naglaa Mostafa; Elkhatib, Yasser Atta

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common medical and surgical concern. Thyroid ultrasound (US) is the primary imaging modality used for initial evaluation and assortment of nodules for fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology/biopsy. Ultrasound elastography (USE) is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of US in distinguishing benign from malignant nodules. The aim of the work described here is to evaluate the diagnostic criteria and accuracy of US and USE in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules. A prospective study of 88 patients who have thyroid nodules was performed. US, color Doppler, and USE were evaluated using a Philips iU22 equipped with a 5 to 12 MHz, linear transducer, followed by FNA of the each scanned nodule. The most sensitive US criteria for malignant nodules were a height-to-width ratio greater than one and the absence of a halo sign (sensitivity 0.875% and 1.000%, respectively). The most specific criteria for malignancy were a spiculated/blurred margin and the presence of microcalcifications (specificity 0.968% and 0.888%, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the cutoff diagnostic criteria of malignancy are two US characteristics and an elastography score of 4. The diagnostic accuracy of US for malignant thyroid nodules increases by combining US and USE. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Shear Wave Elastography May Add a New Dimension to Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules: Case Series with Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Slapa, Rafal Z.; Piwowonski, Antoni; Jakubowski, Wieslaw S.; Bierca, Jacek; Szopinski, Kazimierz T.; Slowinska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Migda, Bartosz; Mlosek, R. Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Although elastography can enhance the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, its diagnostic performance is not ideal at present. Further improvements in the technique and creation of robust diagnostic criteria are necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of strain elastography and a new generation of elasticity imaging called supersonic shear wave elastography (SSWE) in differential evaluation of thyroid nodules. Six thyroid nodules in 4 patients were studied. SSWE yielded 1 true-positive and 5 true-negative results. Strain elastography yielded 5 false-positive results and 1 false-negative result. A novel finding appreciated with SSWE, were punctate foci of increased stiffness corresponding to microcalcifications in 4 nodules, some not visible on B-mode ultrasound, as opposed to soft, colloid-inspissated areas visible on B-mode ultrasound in 2 nodules. This preliminary paper indicates that SSWE may outperform strain elastography in differentiation of thyroid nodules with regard to their stiffness. SSWE showed the possibility of differentiation of high echogenic foci into microcalcifications and inspissated colloid, adding a new dimension to thyroid elastography. Further multicenter large-scale studies of thyroid nodules evaluating different elastographic methods are warranted. PMID:22685685

  13. A Risk Score Model for Evaluation and Management of Patients with Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwen; Meng, Fanrong; Hong, Lianqing; Chu, Lanfang

    2018-06-12

    The study is aimed to establish a simplified and practical tool for analyzing thyroid nodules. A novel risk score model was designed, risk factors including patient history, patient characteristics, physical examination, symptoms of compression, thyroid function, ultrasonography (US) of thyroid and cervical lymph nodes were evaluated and classified into high risk factors, intermediate risk factors, and low risk factors. A total of 243 thyroid nodules in 162 patients were assessed with risk score system and Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS). The diagnostic performance of risk score system and TI-RADS was compared. The accuracy in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules was 89.3% for risk score system, 74.9% for TI-RADS respectively. The specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV) of risk score system were significantly higher than the TI-RADS system (χ 2 =26.287, 17.151, 11.983; p <0.05), statistically significant differences were not observed in the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) between the risk score system and TI-RADS (χ 2 =1.276, 0.290; p>0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for risk score diagnosis system was 0.963, standard error 0.014, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.934-0.991, the AUC for TI-RADS diagnosis system was 0.912 with standard error 0.021, 95% CI=0.871-0.953, the AUC for risk score system was significantly different from that of TI-RADS (Z=2.02; p <0.05). Risk score model is a reliable, simplified and cost-effective diagnostic tool used in diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The higher the score is, the higher the risk of malignancy will be. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Expression of adenylyl cyclase types III and VI in human hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Celano, M; Arturi, F; Presta, I; Bruno, R; Scarpelli, D; Calvagno, M G; Cristofaro, C; Bulotta, S; Giannasio, P; Sacco, R; Filetti, S; Russo, D

    2003-05-30

    Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules are characterized by the presence of spontaneous somatic mutations responsible for constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway. However, alterations affecting other elements of the cAMP signaling system may counteract the effects of the mutations. In this study, the expression of the adenylyl cyclase (AC) types III and VI was investigated by Western blot in 18 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules; in 12 samples, we also assessed the presence of TSH receptor (TSHR) or gsp mutations and levels of AC VI and III mRNA. We found that the expression of nodular AC VI (but not AC III) was significantly lower (85.1% of normal, P=0.014) than the expression of both adenylyl cycles types of perinodular tissue from the same patients. Slightly, but not significant differences were detected in nodules with or without mutations and AC protein levels generally showed correlation with the levels of the transcripts detected by RT-PCR. In addition, AC III and AC VI expression levels within a given nodule were characterized by a significant positive correlation. These findings indicate that a diminished expression of AC type VI may be part of the mechanisms occurring in the hyperfunctioning nodules, independently of the presence of TSHR or gsp mutations, which influence the resulting phenotype.

  15. Success rate of repeated fine needle aspiration biopsy of clinically suspicious thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Nagarajah, J; Farahati, J; Görges, R; Grabellus, F; Bockisch, A; Sheu-Grabellus, S-Y

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the success rate of double fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of clinically suspicious thyroid nodules in one session. The success rate of FNAB in clinical setting is quite low. There were several attempts made to improve the success rate of this method. It is anticipated that a double FNAB in one session would increase the success rate of FNAB. 176 consecutive patients (130 women, 46 men; mean age 56 years ± 11) with at least one clinically suspicious nodule were included in this study. Each individual nodule was biopsied twice (20G- and 21G-needle). In 33 patients, two suspicious nodules were biopsied, accounting for a total of 209 biopsied thyroid nodules. To evaluate the success rate the number of cell formations and the total number of cells in each cell formation were counted. The biopsy with the 20G needle provided in mean 40 cell cluster with a mean of 830 cells whereas the 21G needle provided in mean 41 cell cluster with a mean of 1010 cells. With the 20G needle the success rate was 73%, with the 21G needle 78% and the combination of the both biopsies provided a success rate of 87% (p = 0.01). Based on the number of cell formations and the total number of cells, the difference between the two needle sizes was not significant (p = 0.5 for cell formations and p = 0.9 for the total number of cells, respectively). A double FNAB of suspicious thyroid nodules in one session provides a higher success rate, and a 21G needle is sufficient enough.

  16. Value of Quantitative Three-dimensional Doppler Ultrasound in the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Qing-Li; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Jian

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the role of quantitative three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodule. A total of 92 lesions in 86 patients were preoperatively examined using 3D power Doppler ultrasound. The Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis(VOCAL)-imaging program was used to analyze the stored volume ultrasound. The differences in the mean gray value (MG), vascularization index (VI), flow index(FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI) were compared between benign and malignant lesions. The MG of the malignant thyroid nodules was significantly lower than that of the benign ones (28.27±7.21 vs. 32.89±8.73,P=0.007). The benign nodules had significantly higher VI,FI,and VFI than the malignant nodules [VI:(40.43±26.55)% vs. (26.87±23.06)%,P=0.011;FI:41.03±7.19 vs. 37.51±7.17,P=0.022;VFI:18.23±14.60 vs. 11.47±12.47, P=0.009]. Also,76.5% (39/51) of the malignant nodules and 92.7% (38/41) of the benign nodules had higher VIs in the shell of the lesion than that of the whole lesion,and 80.4%(41/51) of the malignant nodules and 95.1% (39/41) of the benign nodules had higher FIs in the shell of the lesion than that of the whole lesion. Quantitative 3D power Doppler ultrasound provides a useful tool in distinguishing benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The malignant thyroid nodules have lower echoes than the benign nodules, wherese the benign nodules have larger blood flow than the malignant nodules.

  17. Thyroid nodules with benign findings at cytologic examination: results of long-term follow-up with US.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Kyung Hwa; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Chung, Woong Youn; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the natural history of thyroid nodules found to be benign at initial fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the percentage of nodules that increased in volume by more than 50% as being an indicator of malignancy. This retrospective observational cohort study was approved by the institutional review board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. The study included 854 FNAB-confirmed benign thyroid nodules. Suspicious ultrasonographic (US) features included marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margin, microcalcification, and taller-than-wide shape. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear mixed models were used to assess the association with nodule growth greater than 50% in volume. For the 854 nodules, the initial mean diameter was 19.92 mm (range, 3.10-60.00 mm), and the initial mean volume was 3.19 cm(3) (range, 0.01-4.64 cm(3)). The majority (682 [79.9%] of 854) of thyroid nodules with benign cytologic results at initial FNAB did not grow more than 50% in volume during 4 years of mean follow-up (range, 7-101 months). More than 4 years of follow-up time versus less than 2 years, younger age, a cystic component of less than 25%, and nodule size 1 cm or larger versus less than 1 cm were independently associated with growth. There was only one malignant nodule (0.6%) among 172 thyroid nodules with a volume increase of 50% or greater during the entire follow-up time. Ten malignant nodules (overall malignancy rate: 1.2%) were detected among the 854 total nodules, and eight of these 10 nodules showed suspicious features at US. Repeat FNAB for nodules showing more than 50% growth in volume is unlikely to result in a diagnosis of malignancy. A positive FNAB result for malignancy is significantly more likely in the presence of suspicious US features. RSNA, 2014

  18. Thyroid Nodule Classification in Ultrasound Images by Fine-Tuning Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jianning; Walia, Ekta; Babyn, Paul; Wang, Jimmy; Groot, Gary; Eramian, Mark

    2017-08-01

    With many thyroid nodules being incidentally detected, it is important to identify as many malignant nodules as possible while excluding those that are highly likely to be benign from fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies or surgeries. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying thyroid nodules in ultrasound images. We use deep learning approach to extract features from thyroid ultrasound images. Ultrasound images are pre-processed to calibrate their scale and remove the artifacts. A pre-trained GoogLeNet model is then fine-tuned using the pre-processed image samples which leads to superior feature extraction. The extracted features of the thyroid ultrasound images are sent to a Cost-sensitive Random Forest classifier to classify the images into "malignant" and "benign" cases. The experimental results show the proposed fine-tuned GoogLeNet model achieves excellent classification performance, attaining 98.29% classification accuracy, 99.10% sensitivity and 93.90% specificity for the images in an open access database (Pedraza et al. 16), while 96.34% classification accuracy, 86% sensitivity and 99% specificity for the images in our local health region database.

  19. Diagnostic potential of real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiangdong; Liu, Yujiang; Qian, Linxue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) are noninvasive and easily available imaging techniques that measure the tissue strain, and it has been reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of elastography were better in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules than conventional technologies. Methods: Relevant articles were searched in multiple databases; the comparison of elasticity index (EI) was conducted with the Review Manager 5.0. Forest plots of the sensitivity and specificity and SROC curve of RTE and SWE were performed with STATA 10.0 software. In addition, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis of the studies were conducted to examine the quality of articles; and to estimate possible publication bias, funnel plot was used and the Egger test was conducted. Results: Finally 22 articles which eventually satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in this study. After eliminating the inefficient, benign and malignant nodules were 2106 and 613, respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that the difference of EI between benign and malignant nodules was statistically significant (SMD = 2.11, 95% CI [1.67, 2.55], P < .00001). The overall sensitivities of RTE and SWE were roughly comparable, whereas the difference of specificities between these 2 methods was statistically significant. In addition, statistically significant difference of AUC between RTE and SWE was observed between RTE and SWE (P < .01). Conclusion: The specificity of RTE was statistically higher than that of SWE; which suggests that compared with SWE, RTE may be more accurate on differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules. PMID:29068996

  20. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with percutaneous ethanol injection: Eight years' experience.

    PubMed

    Monzani, F; Caraccio, N; Goletti, O; Casolaro, A; Lippolis, P V; Cavina, E; Miccoli, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to define the long-term efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodule (ATN), and to optimise the clinical usefulness of such a therapy. We treated 132 patients with ATN (30 M and 102 F, aged 47.5+/-12.9 years; mean+/-SD), in case other established treatments were refused or contraindicated. Eighty-five patients were affected by toxic adenoma and 47 suffered from pre-toxic nodules. Ethanol was administered weekly under sonographic control, in 7 sessions (range 2-16). During PEI treatment, 26 toxic elderly patients were treated with methimazole and propranolol. Three possible outcomes were identified for statistical analysis: failure (persistent suppression of extra nodular tissue uptake, along with elevated free thyroid hormone and undetectable TSH levels); partial cure (normal free thyroid hormone and low/undetectable TSH levels); complete cure (normal thyroid hormone and TSH levels; restored extra nodular uptake). The patients were followed for up to 8.5 years (median 76 months). PEI therapy was well tolerated by all patients though a mild to moderate local pain occurred in about 30% of sessions. Complete cure was achieved in all pre-toxic patients and in 60 (70.6%) patients with toxic adenoma, while partial cure was observed in 11 cases (12.9%) and failure in 14 (16.5%). A significant shrinkage of nodule volume was observed in all patients (p = 0.0001), while those with toxic nodules larger than 30 mL showed a significantly lower response rate to PEI (p < 0.05). At controls, only one patient developed subclinical hypothyroidism while, among partially cured patients, five relapsed. The administration of methimazole and/or propranolol did not modify PEI outcome. In conclusion, we suggest that PEI therapy may be the treatment of choice in patients with pre-toxic thyroid adenoma where therapy is least necessary- despite the nodule volume. Though ethanol injection therapy of toxic

  1. Iodine status and thyroid nodules in females: a comparison of Cyprus and Romania.

    PubMed

    Gaengler, S; Andrianou, X D; Piciu, A; Charisiadis, P; Zira, C; Aristidou, K; Piciu, D; Makris, K C

    2017-02-01

    The increased comparative prevalence rates of thyroid cancer in Cyprus (>EU average) led us to conduct this study on possible risk factors of thyroid nodules. Romania served as a reference with a comparative thyroid cancer prevalence < EU average. This study aimed to assess the association between urinary iodine (UI) and thyroid nodules in adult females (n = 208) from Cyprus and Romania. A case-control study (n = 208). Cases were females with ultrasound-confirmed thyroid nodules and controls with confirmed absence of nodules. In both countries, subjects underwent ultrasound medical examinations, completed a questionnaire and offered a spot urine sample. Median UI level in Cyprus was 94 μg/L, whereas 32% of the Cypriot UI was < 50 μg/L, classifying the population as mildly iodine deficient. In Romania, both cases and controls were iodine sufficient. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in serum free thyroxin (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were found between cases and controls. Cases had lower median TSH levels compared with controls (1.4 mIU/L and 1.7 mIU/L, P = 0.060), but serum TSH and free thyroxin levels were within normal range. Albeit non-significant, participants with inadequate UI (<100 μg/L) had increased risk for thyroid nodules (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 0.70, 2.81, P = 0.346), using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for age, body mass index, education, country and serum TSH. This was the first study to quantify UI levels in Cyprus. While the Romanian iodine fortification programme reflected onto its UI levels, a representative assessment of iodine status in Cyprus will address the necessity of an iodine fortification programme. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term follow-up in toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules treated with radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Huysmans, D.A.; Corstens, F.H.; Kloppenborg, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The long-term effects of radioiodine treatment on thyroid function in patients with a toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodule were evaluated. Fifty-two patients received a therapeutic dose of 20 mCi of iodine-131 ({sup 131}I). Duration of follow-up was 10 +/- 4 yr. Follow-up data included a biochemical evaluation of thyroid function. The failure rate (recurrent hyperthyroidism) was 2%. The incidence of hypothyroidism was 6% and was not related to the dose per gram of nodular tissue. Oral administration of 20 mCi of radioiodine is a simple and highly effective method for the treatment of patients with a toxic autonomous thyroid nodule.more » The risk of development of hypothyroidism is low if extranodular uptake of {sup 131}I is prevented. This can be achieved by not treating euthyroid patients, by no longer using injections of exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone in the diagnostic work-up of the patients and by always performing radioiodine imaging shortly before treatment.« less

  3. Two novel mutations in the sixth transmembrane segment of the thyrotropin receptor gene causing hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Gozu, Hulya; Avsar, Melike; Bircan, Rifat; Claus, Maren; Sahin, Serap; Sezgin, Ozlem; Deyneli, Oguzhan; Paschke, Ralf; Cirakoglu, Beyazit; Akalin, Sema

    2005-04-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) can present as hyperfunctioning adenomas or toxic multinodular goiters. In the last decade, a large number of activating mutations have been identified in the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Most have been situated close to, or within the sixth transmembrane segment and third intracellular loop of the TSHR where the receptor interacts with the Gs protein. In this study we describe two novel mutations in the sixth transmembrane segment of the TSHR causing hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Genomic DNAs were isolated from four hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, normal tissues and peripheral leukocytes of two patients with toxic multinodular goiter. After amplifying the related regions, TSHR and G(s)alpha genes were analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The precise localization of the mutations was identified by automatic DNA sequence analysis. Functional studies were done by site-directed mutagenesis and transfection of a mutant construct into COS-7 cells. We identified two novel TSHR mutations in two hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: Phe631Val in the first patient and Iso630Met in the second patient. Both mutant receptors display an increase in constitutive stimulation of basal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels compared to the wild-type receptor. This confirms that these mutant receptors cause hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

  4. Complications Following Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Fen; Wu, Tao; Hu, Kun-Peng; Xu, Wen; Zheng, Bo-Wen; Tong, Ge; Yao, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Bo; Ren, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examined whether radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe treatment modality for benign thyroid nodules (BTNs). Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for articles that (a) targeted human beings and (b) had a study population with BTNs that were confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and/or core needle biopsy. Study Selection: Thirty-two studies relating to 3409 patients were included in this systematic review. Results: Based on literatures, no deaths were associated with the procedure, serious complications were rare, and RFA appears to be a safe and well-tolerated treatment modality. However, a broad spectrum of complications offers insights into some undesirable complications, such as track needle seeding and Horner syndrome. Conclusions: RFA appears to be a safe and well-tolerated treatment modality for BTNs. More research is needed to characterize the complications of RFA for thyroid nodules. PMID:28524837

  5. Effects of GH replacement therapy on thyroid volume and nodule development in GH deficient adults: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Curtò, Lorenzo; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Alibrandi, Angela; Campennì, Alfredo; Trimarchi, Francesco; Cannavò, Salvatore; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena

    2015-05-01

    Despite the well-known effects of GH/IGF1 signaling on the thyroid, few data are available on the risk of developing nodular goiter in hypopituitary subjects during GH replacement therapy (GHRT). We aimed to define the effects of GH therapy on thyroid volume (TV) and nodular growth. The records of 96 subjects (47 males and 49 females, median age 48 years) with GH deficit (GHD) were investigated. Seventy also had central hypothyroidism (CH). At the time of our retrospective evaluation, median treatment duration was 5 years. Pre-treatment TV was smaller in GHD patients than in healthy subjects (P=0.030). During GH treatment, TV significantly increased (P=0.016 for the entire group and P=0.014 in euthyroid GHD patients). Before starting GH therapy, 17 patients harbored thyroid nodules. During GH therapy, nodule size increased slightly in seven patients, and new thyroid nodules occurred in nine patients. Among the 79 patients without pre-existing thyroid nodules, 17 developed one or more nodules. There was no difference in the prevalence of CH in GHD patients with or without thyroid nodules (P=0.915; P=0.841, when patients with pre-therapy nodular goiter were excluded), the main predictor for nodule development being serum IGF1 (P=0.038). GHRT is associated with TV's increase in GHD patients. Thyroid nodules developed in 27% of patients, mainly in relation to pre-therapy IGF1 levels, independently of normal or impaired TSH stimulation. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Decreased expression of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 in cold thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Voigt, C; Holzapfel, H-P; Paschke, R

    2005-02-01

    G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) have been shown to regulate the homologous desensitization of different G-protein coupled receptors. We have previously demonstrated that the expression of GRK 3 and 4 is increased in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs) and that GRKs 2, 3, 5 and 6 are able to desensitize the TSHR in vitro. Since cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) and HTNs show different molecular and functional properties, different expression patterns of GRKs in these nodules can be expected. The comparison of GRK expression between CTNs and HTNs could give additional insight into the regulation mechanisms of these nodules. We therefore examined the expression of GRKs in CTNs and analyzed the differences to HTNs. The expression of the different GRKs in CTNs was measured by Western blot followed by chemiluminescence imaging. We found a decreased expression of GRK 2 in CTNs compared to their surrounding tissues and an increased expression of GRK 3 and 4 in CTNs, which is similar to HTNs. The decreased GRK 2 expression most likely results from reduced cAMP stimulation in CTNs. However, the increased GRK 3 and 4 expression in CTNs remains unclear and requires further investigations.

  7. Pharmacotherapy for thyroid nodules. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Bernd; Neises, Gudrun; Clar, Christine

    2002-09-01

    The review highlights the uncertainty in the management of nodular thyroid disease. Thyroxine suppressive treatment is given in the hope that nodules might decrease in size, sometimes assuming that dependency on TSH is different in benign and malignant nodular disease. Follow-up of benign nodules over 10 years suggested that most remain the same, shrink, or disappear [14]. TSH suppression may lead to hyperthyroidism, reduced bone density [37.39], and atrial fibrilation; however, apart from reduction of nodule size or arrest in nodule growth, thyroxine therapy may benefit patients by reducing perinodular volume. Consequently, both pressure symptoms and cosmetic complaints could improve. Unfortunately, no information concerning symptoms or well-being is available from published randomized trials. In conclusion, more high quality studies of sufficient duration with adequate power estimation are needed. Uncertainty about predictors of response or the impact on outcomes that are important to patients leaves considerable doubt about the wisdom of applying suppressive therapy. Future studies shoudl include patient-important outcomes including thyroid cancer incidence, health-related quality of life and costs.

  8. Application of texture analysis method for classification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Abbasian Ardakani, Ali; Gharbali, Akbar; Mohammadi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system with texture analysis (TA) to improve radiologists' accuracy in identification of thyroid nodules as malignant or benign. A total of 70 cases (26 benign and 44 malignant) were analyzed in this study. We extracted up to 270 statistical texture features as a descriptor for each selected region of interests (ROIs) in three normalization schemes (default, 3s and 1%-99%). Then features by the lowest probability of classification error and average correlation coefficients (POE+ACC), and Fisher coefficient (Fisher) eliminated to 10 best and most effective features. These features were analyzed under standard and nonstandard states. For TA of the thyroid nodules, Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Non-Linear Discriminant Analysis (NDA) were applied. First Nearest-Neighbour (1-NN) classifier was performed for the features resulting from PCA and LDA. NDA features were classified by artificial neural network (A-NN). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used for examining the performance of TA methods. The best results were driven in 1-99% normalization with features extracted by POE+ACC algorithm and analyzed by NDA with the area under the ROC curve ( Az) of 0.9722 which correspond to sensitivity of 94.45%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 97.14%. Our results indicate that TA is a reliable method, can provide useful information help radiologist in detection and classification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  9. Thyroid nodules and thyroid autoimmunity in the context of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Vita, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that in most industrialized countries autoimmune disorders, including chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, are increasing. This increase parallels the one regarding differentiated thyroid cancer, the increment of which is mainly due to the papillary histotype. A number of studies have pointed to an association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and differentiated thyroid cancer. The upward trend of these two thyroid diseases is sustained by certain environmental factors, such as polluting substances acting as endocrine disrupting chemicals. Herein we will review the experimental and clinical literature that highlights the effects of environmental and occupational exposure to polluting chemicals in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease or differentiated thyroid cancer. Stakeholders, starting from policymarkers, should become more sensitive to the consequences for the thyroid resulting from exposure to EDC. Indeed, the economic burden resulting from such consequences has not been quantified thus far.

  10. Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Kyeong; Kim, Dong-Lim; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Wan Seop; Kim, Seung Ja; Moon, Won Jin; Oh, Seo Young; Hwang, Tae Sook

    2008-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the primary means of distinguishing benign from malignant and of guiding therapeutic intervention in thyroid nodules. However, 10% to 30% of cases with indeterminate cytology in FNAB need other diagnostic tools to refine diagnosis. We compared the pyrosequencing method with the conventional direct DNA sequencing analysis and investigated the usefulness of preoperative BRAF mutation analysis as an adjunct diagnostic tool with routine FNAB. A total of 103 surgically confirmed patients' FNA slides were recruited and DNA was extracted after atypical cells were scraped from the slides. BRAF mutation was analyzed by pyrosequencing and direct DNA sequencing. Sixty-three (77.8%) of 81 histopathologically diagnosed malignant nodules revealed positive BRAF mutation on pyrosequencing analysis. In detail, 63 (84.0%) of 75 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples showed positive BRAF mutation, whereas 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma did not show BRAF mutation. None of 22 benign nodules had BRAF mutation in both pyrosequencing and direct DNA sequencing. Out of 27 thyroid nodules classified as 'indeterminate' on cytologic examination preoperatively, 21 (77.8%) cases turned out to be malignant: 18 PTCs (including 2 follicular variant types) and 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas. Among these, 13 (61.9%) classic PTCs had BRAF mutation. None of 6 benign nodules, including 3 follicular adenomas and 3 nodular hyperplasias, had BRAF mutation. Among 63 PTCs with positive BRAF mutation detected by pyrosequencing analysis, 3 cases did not show BRAF mutation by direct DNA sequencing. Although it was not statistically significant, pyrosequencing was superior to direct DNA sequencing in detecting the BRAF mutation of thyroid nodules (P=0.25). Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing and is

  11. [Is our approach to thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinoma in agreement with the American guideline and European consensus?].

    PubMed

    Gómez Sáez, José Manuel

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the approaches of specialists in Spain to patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinoma and to compare them with the American guideline and European consensus. We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire addressed to clinical endocrinologists specialized in thyroid cancer and specialists in nuclear medicine throughout Spain. A total of 177 questionnaires were completed, representing an overall response rate of 85%; 74% of responses were from endocrinologists and 24% from physicians active in nuclear medicine; 82% of respondents worked in third-level hospitals, 10% in second level hospitals and the remainder in private practice. Most used ultrasonography and cytology to assess thyroid nodules and collaborated with a group of surgeons expert in thyroid surgery. The majority preferred total or subtotal thyroidectomy in tumors with a diameter of 1 cm or more, and systematic lymph node dissection. Only 43 (24%) preferred prophylactic central lymph node dissection. Eighty-one respondents (45%) would still use whole body scan with ¹³¹I or ¹²³I before ¹³¹I ablation. Follow-up was based on cervical echography and thyroglobulin determination; however, 101 (57%) respondents continued to use diagnostic whole body scan in the follow-up. The approaches of the respondents were mainly in accordance with the guideline and consensus, although some variations were found, especially in the use of whole body scan with ¹³¹I before ablation and in follow-up. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. How to manage thyroid nodules with two consecutive non-diagnostic results on ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Choi, Yoon Seong; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors for considering surgery on thyroid nodules that had non-diagnostic results on two consecutive cytology examinations. A total of 104 thyroid nodules with two consecutive non-diagnostic cytology examinations in 104 patients were investigated. Nodules with one or more suspicious ultrasonography (US) features of marked hypoechogenicity, a not well defined margin, microcalcifications, or a taller-than-wide shape were assessed as sonographically suspicious. Those without any suspicious features were assessed as sonographically benign. The clinicopathologic characteristics of patients and US features of the nodules were compared according to malignancy and benignity. The odds ratio for predicting malignancy was calculated. Altogether, 12 nodules were malignant, and 92 were benign. Age, sex, nodule size, and solidness were not associated with malignancy (P = 0.73, 0.92, 0.48, and 0.73, respectively). The malignancy rate of sonographically suspicious nodules was 25.7%, higher than the 4.3% of sonographically benign nodules (P = 0.002). The odds ratio of sonographically suspicious nodules for predicting malignancy was 16.01 (95% confidence interval 2.36-108.54, P = 0.005). Based on sonographic features, surgery can be performed selectively on nodules with two consecutive non-diagnostic cytology results.

  13. Association of hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma with thyroid cancer presenting as "trapping only" nodule at 99mTcO4- scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    dell'Erba, L; Gerundini, P; Caputo, M; Bagnasco, M

    2003-11-01

    Rarely may a non-hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule present as "hot" at Technetium-99m pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) and "cold" at radioiodine scintigraphy at late acquisitions. We report the case of a hyperthyroid female patient whose 99mTcO4- scintigraphy showed two "hot" nodules, whereas Iodide-131 (131I-) revealed a lack of indicator uptake by the larger, and intense uptake by the smaller nodule. The patient underwent surgery: histology demonstrated that the larger nodule, mismatched at pertechnetate vs iodine scintigraphy, was a papillary carcinoma. Our suggestion is to perform thyroid scintigraphy with radioiodine in hyperthyroid patients with more than one nodule concentrating pertechnetate, especially when an ultrasonographic pattern possibly suspect for malignancy is present.

  14. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.

    1990-03-21

    Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areasmore » were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage.« less

  15. Quantitative Evaluation for Differentiating Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules Using Histogram Analysis of Grayscale Sonograms.

    PubMed

    Nam, Se Jin; Yoo, Jaeheung; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of histogram analysis using grayscale sonograms for differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid nodules. From July 2013 through October 2013, 579 nodules in 563 patients who had undergone ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration were included. For the grayscale histogram analysis, pixel echogenicity values in regions of interest were measured as 0 to 255 (0, black; 255, white) with in-house software. Five parameters (mean, skewness, kurtosis, standard deviation, and entropy) were obtained for each thyroid nodule. With principal component analysis, an index was derived. Diagnostic performance rates for the 5 histogram parameters and the principal component analysis index were calculated. A total of 563 patients were included in the study (mean age ± SD, 50.3 ± 12.3 years;range, 15-79 years). Of the 579 nodules, 431 were benign, and 148 were malignant. Among the 5 parameters and the principal component analysis index, the standard deviation (75.546 ± 14.153 versus 62.761 ± 16.01; P < .001), kurtosis (3.898 ± 2.652 versus 6.251 ± 9.102; P < .001), entropy (0.16 ± 0.135 versus 0.239 ± 0.185; P < .001), and principal component analysis index (-0.386±0.774 versus 0.134 ± 0.889; P < .001) were significantly different between the malignant and benign nodules. With the calculated cutoff values, the areas under the curve were 0.681 (95% confidence interval, 0.643-0.721) for standard deviation, 0.661 (0.620-0.703) for principal component analysis index, 0.651 (0.607-0.691) for kurtosis, 0.638 (0.596-0.681) for entropy, and 0.606 (0.563-0.647) for skewness. The subjective analysis of grayscale sonograms by radiologists alone showed an area under the curve of 0.861 (0.833-0.888). Grayscale histogram analysis was feasible for differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules but did not show better diagnostic performance than subjective analysis performed by radiologists. Further technical advances will be needed to objectify

  16. The yield of adequate and conclusive fine-needle aspiration results in thyroid nodules is uniform across functional and goiter types.

    PubMed

    Liel, Y

    1999-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the cytological characteristics of hyperfunctioning (hot) thyroid nodules. Concern has been expressed that fine-needle aspiration (FNA) identifies hot nodules as follicular tumors or indeterminate, and as a consequence patients could be unnecessarily referred for surgery. Between 1979 and 1996, thyroid FNA was performed on 829 patients. Result of thyroid scan was available in 326; 69 (21%) patients had hot, and 257 (79%) had warm or cold thyroid nodules. Nodules in each of these major groups were divided into 2 subgroups: clinically solitary nodules and dominant nodules in multinodular goiters (MNG). The frequencies of adequate versus inadequate FNA samples, and of conclusive versus indeterminate FNA results were determined separately for each of the groups and subgroups. In addition, patients with hot nodules and overt hyperthyroidism were identified and evaluated separately. Bivariate analyses were performed for the frequency of adequate versus inadequate smears and conclusive versus indeterminate results between hot, toxic, and cold-warm nodules, and between solitary nodules and MNG. The frequency of adequate aspirations and conclusive results in the various groups and subgroups was found to be statistically indistinguishable. In conclusion, the yield of adequate samples and the rate of conclusive results of FNA in thyroid nodules is similar, irrespective of the functional state or of goiter presentation. Hot thyroid nodules do not seem to produce an increase in the rate of inadequate or indeterminate FNA results, and therefore, do not affect the overall performance of thyroid FNA.

  17. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules using a multiple overlapping shot technique in a 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kohlhase, Konstantin David; Korkusuz, Yücel; Gröner, Daniel; Erbelding, Christian; Happel, Christian; Luboldt, Wolfgang; Grünwald, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the decrease of benign thyroid nodules after bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in a 3-month follow-up using a multiple overlapping shot technique ('MOST'). Methods A total of 18 patients with 20 symptomatic benign thyroid nodules (17 cold nodules, 3 hyperfunctioning nodules) were treated in one single session by bipolar RFA. Bipolar ablation was performed using MOST. The nodule volumes were measured prior to ablation and 3 months after the procedure using ultrasound. The population consisted of either solid (>80% solid tissue within the volume of interest), complex, or cystic nodules (<20% solid tissue within the volume of interest). Results Bipolar RFA resulted in a highly significant (p < 0.0001) decrease of nodule volume (ΔV), median 5.3 mL (range 0.13-43.1 mL), corresponding to a relative reduction in mean of 56 ± 17.9%. Median initial volume was 8 mL (range 0.48-62 mL); 3 months after ablation a median volume of 2.3 mL (range 0.3-32 mL) was measured. Nodule growth ≥50% occurred in 70% (14 nodules). At the follow-up no complications such as infections, persisting pain, nerve injuries or immunogen stimulation occurred. Patients with cold nodules (15) remained euthyroid, with hyperfunctioning nodules either euthyroid (2) or latent hypofunctional (1). Conclusion The use of bipolar RFA is an effective, safe and suitable thermoablative technique to treat benign thyroid nodules. Combined with the multiple overlapping shot technique it allows sufficient ablation.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Shong, Young Kee; Sung, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyu Sun; Lee, Ducky; Kim, Ji-hoon; Baek, Seon Mi; Sim, Jung Suk; Na, Dong Gyu

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of thyroid radiofrequency (RF) ablation for benign thyroid nodules by trained radiologists according to a unified protocol in a multi-center study. Materials and Methods From 2010 to 2011, 345 nodules from 345 patients (M:F = 43:302; mean age ± SD = 46.0 ± 12.7 years, range = 15–79) who met eligibility criteria were enrolled from five institutions. At pre-ablation, the mean volume was 14.2 ± 13.2 mL (1.1–80.8 mL). For 12 months or longer after treatment, 276 lesions, consisting of 248 solid and 28 predominantly cystic nodules, were followed. All operators performed RF ablation with a cool-tip RF system and two standard techniques (a transisthmic approach and the moving-shot technique). Volume reduction at 12 months after RF ablation (the primary outcome), therapeutic success, improvement of symptoms as well as of cosmetic problems, and complications were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to identify factors that were independently predictive of volume reduction. Results The mean volume reduction at 12 months was 80.3% (n = 276) and at the 24-, 36-, 48-, and 60-month follow-ups 84.3% (n = 198), 89.2% (n = 128), 91.9% (n = 57), and 95.3% (n = 6), respectively. Our therapeutic success was 97.8%. Both mean symptom and cosmetic scores showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The rate of major complications was 1.0% (3/276). Solidity and applied energy were independent factors that predicted volume reduction. Conclusion Radiofrequency ablation performed by trained radiologists from multiple institutions using a unified protocol and similar devices was effective and safe for treating benign thyroid nodules. PMID:29354014

  19. Cost-effectiveness of molecular testing for thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance cytology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lawrence; How, Jacques; Tabah, Roger J; Mitmaker, Elliot J

    2014-08-01

    Novel molecular diagnostics, such as the gene expression classifier (GEC) and gene mutation panel (GMP) testing, may improve the management for thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) cytology. The cost-effectiveness of an approach combining both tests in different practice settings in North America is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of two diagnostic molecular tests, singly or in combination, for AUS thyroid nodules. We constructed a microsimulation model to investigate cost-effectiveness from US (Medicare) and Canadian healthcare system perspectives. Low-risk patients with AUS thyroid nodules were simulated. We examined five management strategies: 1) routine GEC; 2) routine GEC + selective GMP; 3) routine GMP; 4) routine GMP + selective GEC; and 5) standard management. Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years were measured. From the US perspective, the routine GEC + selective GMP strategy was the dominant strategy. From the Canadian perspective, routine GEC + selective GMP cost and additional CAN$24 030 per quality-adjusted life-year gained over standard management, and was dominant over the other strategies. Sensitivity analyses reported that the decisions from both perspectives were sensitive to variations in the probability of malignancy in the nodule and the costs of the GEC and GMP. The probability of cost-effectiveness for routine GEC + selective GMP was low. In the US setting, the most cost-effective strategy was routine GEC + selective GMP. In the Canadian setting, standard management was most likely to be cost effective. The cost of these molecular diagnostics will need to be reduced to increase their cost-effectiveness for practice settings outside the United States.

  20. Benign Solid Thyroid Nodules: US-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation-Initial Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kovatcheva, Roussanka D; Vlahov, Jordan D; Stoinov, Julian I; Zaletel, Katja

    2015-08-01

    To assess the short-term efficacy and safety of ultrasonographically (US)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for treatment of benign solid thyroid nodules. This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and written informed consent was acquired. HIFU ablation was performed in one session with US guidance and conscious sedation in 20 euthyroid patients (mean age, 44.5 years) with a benign solitary or dominant thyroid nodule. Thyroid nodule volume, US structure, and Doppler pattern were assessed at baseline, at 1 week, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Adverse events associated with HIFU were evaluated. Statistical analysis was conducted by using repeated measures analysis of variance, the Student t test, χ(2) test, and correlation analysis. The mean ± standard deviation nodule volume was 4.96 mL ± 2.79 at the start of the study. Nodule volume had decreased to 3.05 mL ± 1.96 at the 3-month follow-up examination (n = 20, P < .001), and reached 2.91 mL ± 2.43 by the 6-month follow-up examination (n = 16, P < .001). By then, the mean volume reduction was 48.7% ± 24.3 (P < .001). Isoechoic nodules showed greater reduction at 1 month than did hypoechoic nodules (31.6% ± 18.1 vs 16.4% ± 8.6, P = .053). Nodules with markedly increased blood flow showed smaller volume reduction at 3 months than did less-vascularized nodules (10.9% ± 14.5 vs 41.5% ± 20.3, P = .054). Minor transient complications (eg, subcutaneous edema, mild skin redness) were observed in two patients. Early data suggest that US-guided HIFU ablation is an effective and safe procedure for treatment of benign solid thyroid nodules. Initial US echogenicity and vascularization influence the ablation outcome. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  1. Quantitative analysis of thyroid tumors vascularity: A comparison between 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasound and 3-D Power Doppler on benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Caresio, Cristina; Caballo, Marco; Deandrea, Maurilio; Garberoglio, Roberto; Mormile, Alberto; Rossetto, Ruth; Limone, Paolo; Molinari, Filippo

    2018-05-15

    To perform a comparative quantitative analysis of Power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) and Contrast-Enhancement ultrasound (CEUS) for the quantification of thyroid nodules vascularity patterns, with the goal of identifying biomarkers correlated with the malignancy of the nodule with both imaging techniques. We propose a novel method to reconstruct the vascular architecture from 3-D PDUS and CEUS images of thyroid nodules, and to automatically extract seven quantitative features related to the morphology and distribution of vascular network. Features include three tortuosity metrics, the number of vascular trees and branches, the vascular volume density, and the main spatial vascularity pattern. Feature extraction was performed on 20 thyroid lesions (ten benign and ten malignant), of which we acquired both PDUS and CEUS. MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) was used to differentiate benign and malignant lesions based on the most significant features. The analysis of the extracted features showed a significant difference between the benign and malignant nodules for both PDUS and CEUS techniques for all the features. Furthermore, by using a linear classifier on the significant features identified by the MANOVA, benign nodules could be entirely separated from the malignant ones. Our early results confirm the correlation between the morphology and distribution of blood vessels and the malignancy of the lesion, and also show (at least for the dataset used in this study) a considerable similarity in terms of findings of PDUS and CEUS imaging for thyroid nodules diagnosis and classification. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Cancer Risk Associated with Nuclear Atypia in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Valderrabano, Pablo; Khazai, Laila; Thompson, Zachary J; Sharpe, Susan C; Tarasova, Valentina D; Otto, Kristen J; Hallanger-Johnson, Julie E; Wadsworth, J Trad; Wenig, Bruce M; Chung, Christine H; Centeno, Barbara A; McIver, Bryan

    2018-02-01

    Indeterminate categories of thyroid cytopathology (categories B-III and B-IV of the Bethesda system) are integrated by a heterogeneous spectrum of cytological scenarios that are generally clustered for analysis and management recommendations. It has been suggested that aspirates exhibiting nuclear atypia have a higher risk of malignancy. This study aimed to assess whether cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with nuclear atypia have a significantly higher cancer risk than those without nuclear atypia. On June 30, 2016, PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles in English or Spanish using a search strategy developed by an endocrinologist and a librarian. Case reports were excluded, and no date limits were used. The references of all included studies were also screened for relevant missing studies. Studies were included if the prevalences of malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with histological confirmation with and without nuclear atypia were reported. Studies were excluded if they had: (i) nodules suspicious for malignancy; (ii) nodules with non-indeterminate (B-III or B-IV) cytology on repeated biopsy, if performed; (iii) nodules not consecutively evaluated; or (iv) cohorts overlapping with another larger series. Two investigators independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the studies. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. Summary data were extracted from published reports by one investigator and independently reviewed by another. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was explored using subgroup analysis and mixed-effect model meta-regression. The odds ratio for malignancy of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules with nuclear atypia over cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules without nuclear atypia was calculated. Of 2571 retrieved studies, 20 were eligible. The meta-analysis was conducted on summary data of 3532 cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules: 1162 with and 2370

  3. [On-site fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules. Quality assurance of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (2008)].

    PubMed

    Bak, Mihály; Péter, Ilona; Nyári, Tibor; Simon, Péter; Újlaky, Mátyás; Boér, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2015-10-11

    The methods available for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules include physical examination, imaging, laboratory and fine-needle aspiration cytology tests. The aim of this study was to determine the quality assurance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules. Cytology results were rated to 6 categories according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (2008) (I. nondiagnostic; II. benign; III. atypia of undetermined significance; IV. follicular neoplasia; V. suspicious for malignancy; VI. malignant). All cytology reports were compared with the final histology diagnosis. A total of 1384 patient with thyroid nodule underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology. Smears were classified I. inadequate in 214 (15.9%); II. benign 986; III. atypical 56; IV. follicular neoplasm 41; V. suspicious for malignancy 18; VI. malignant 33 cases. Two hundred and twenty seven (16.8%) of the cases were operated and histologically verified. The positive predictive value in the benign category was 98.25% and in the malignant 88.46%. The sensitivity of the follicular neoplasm was 66.67%. The results suggest that fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules using the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology has a high diagnostic accuracy. The auditing values of the results meet the proposed threshold values.

  4. Radiofrequency ablation of benign symptomatic thyroid nodules: prospective safety and efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, M Umit; Uprak, Kivilcim; Akpinar, Ihsan N; Attaallah, Wafi; Yegen, Cumhur; Gulluoglu, Bahadir M

    2015-04-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively novel procedure in the management of benign nodular goiter. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous RFA for benign symptomatic thyroid nodules as an alternative to surgery. The study involved patients for whom a fine needle aspiration biopsy had proved a diagnosis of benign nodular goiter and had nodule-related symptoms such as dysphagia, cosmetic problems, sensation of foreign body in the neck, hyperthyroidism due to autonomous nodules or fear of malignancy. Percutaneous RFA was performed as an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia. The primary outcome was an evaluation of the changes in symptom scores (0-10) for pain, dysphagia and foreign body sensation at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months after the RFA procedure. Secondary outcomes were assessing volume changes in nodules, complication rates, and changes in thyroid function status. A total of 33 patients (24% female, 76% male) and a total of 65 nodules were included into the study. More than one nodule was treated in 63.6% of the patients. We found a statistically significant improvement from baseline to values at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months, respectively, as follows: pain scores (2.9 ± 2.7, 2.3 ± 2.01, 1.8 ± 1.7, and 1.5 ± 1.2, p 0.005), dysphagia scores (3.9 ± 2.7, 2.6 ± 1.9; 1.7 ± 1.6, and 1.1 ± 0.3, p 0.032), and foreign body sensation scores 3.6 ± 3, 2.5 ± 2.2; 1.6 ± 1.5, and 1.1 ± 0.4, p 0.002).The mean pre-treatment nodule volume was 7.3 ± 8.3 mL. There was a statistically significant size reduction in the nodules at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months after RFA (3.5 ± 3.8, 2.7 ± 3.4, and 1.2 ± 1.7 mL, p 0.002). The volume reduction was found to be 74% at 6th months following the RFA (p 0.005). 8 patients had autonomously functioning nodules in the pre-treatment period, 50% (n: 4) became euthyroid at the 6th month after RFA. There were no complaints other than pain (12%). RFA can be an

  5. Critical Pitfalls in the use of BRAF Mutation as a Diagnostic Tool in Thyroid Nodules: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Ragazzi, Moira; Zini, Michele; Giordano, Davide; Nicoli, Davide; Piana, Simonetta

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the primary tool for the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation analysis is employed as an ancillary tool in indeterminate cases, as recommended by the American Thyroid Association management guidelines. Hereby, we report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented an 8-mm-size, ill-defined, left thyroid nodule. FNA resulted "suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma". BRAF mutation status was analyzed, and somatic BRAF (V600E) mutation identified. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. At histological examination, the nodule was composed of Langerhans cells, admixed with many eosinophils. A final diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid was made. Our case emphasizes the critical diagnostic pitfalls due to the use of BRAF (V600E) mutation analysis in thyroid FNA. Notably, BRAF (V600E) mutation is common in melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, brain tumors, hairy cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, and histiocytoses. Therefore, in cases of indeterminate FNA with unclassifiable atypical cells BRAF (V600E) mutated, the possibility of a localization of hystiocytosis or a secondary thyroid malignancy should be taken into account.

  6. Outcomes of Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy for Large Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Mayo Clinic Case Series.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Oksana; Callstrom, Matthew R; Lee, Robert A; Dean, Diana; Castro, M Regina; Morris, John C; Stan, Marius N

    2018-03-21

    To assess the effectiveness, tolerability, and complications of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with benign large thyroid nodules (TNs). This is a retrospective review of 14 patients with predominantly solid TNs treated with RFA at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, from December 1, 2013, through October 30, 2016. All the patients declined surgery or were poor surgical candidates. The TNs were benign on fine-needle aspiration, enlarging or causing compressive symptoms, and 3 cm or larger in largest diameter. We evaluated TN volume, compressive symptoms, cosmetic concerns, and thyroid function. Median TN volume reduction induced by RFA was 44.6% (interquartile range [IQR], 42.1%-59.3%), from 24.2 mL (IQR, 17.7-42.5 mL) to 14.4 mL (IQR, 7.1-19.2 mL) (P<.001). Median follow-up was 8.6 months (IQR, 3.9-13.9 months). Maximum results were achieved by 6 months. Radiofrequency ablation did not affect thyroid function. In 1 patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism due to toxic adenoma, thyroid function normalized 4 months after ablation of the toxic nodule. Compressive symptoms resolved in 8 of 12 patients (67%) and improved in the other 4 (33%). Cosmetic concerns improved in all 8 patients. The procedure had no sustained complications. In this population, RFA of benign large TNs performed similarly to the reports from Europe and Asia. It induces a substantial volume reduction of predominantly solid TNs, improves compressive symptoms and cosmetic concerns, and does not affect normal thyroid function. Radiofrequency ablation has an acceptable safety profile and should be considered as a low-risk alternative to conventional treatment of symptomatic benign TNs. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound-Detected Thyroid Nodule Prevalence and Radiation Dose from Fallout

    PubMed Central

    Land, C. E.; Zhumadilov, Z.; Gusev, B. I.; Hartshorne, M. H.; Wiest, P. W.; Woodward, P. W.; Crooks, L. A.; Luckyanov, N. K.; Fillmore, C. M.; Carr, Z.; Abisheva, G.; Beck, H. L.; Bouville, A.; Langer, J.; Weinstock, R.; Gordeev, K. I.; Shinkarev, S.; Simon, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Settlements near the Semipalatinsk Test Site (SNTS) in northeastern Kazakhstan were exposed to radioactive fallout during 1949–1962. Thyroid disease prevalence among 2994 residents of eight villages was ascertained by ultrasound screening. Malignancy was determined by cytopathology. Individual thyroid doses from external and internal radiation sources were reconstructed from fallout deposition patterns, residential histories and diet, including childhood milk consumption. Point estimates of individual external and internal dose averaged 0.04 Gy (range 0–0.65) and 0.31 Gy (0–9.6), respectively, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.46. Ultrasound-detected thyroid nodule prevalence was 18% and 39% among males and females, respectively. It was significantly and independently associated with both external and internal dose, the main study finding. The estimated relative biological effectiveness of internal compared to external radiation dose was 0.33, with 95% confidence bounds of 0.09–3.11. Prevalence of papillary cancer was 0.9% and was not significantly associated with radiation dose. In terms of excess relative risk per unit dose, our dose–response findings for nodule prevalence are comparable to those from populations exposed to medical X rays and to acute radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. PMID:18363427

  8. US-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation for the treatment of solid benign hyperfunctioning or compressive thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Deandrea, Maurilio; Limone, Paolo; Basso, Edoardo; Mormile, Alberto; Ragazzoni, Federico; Gamarra, Elena; Spiezia, Stefano; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria; Molinari, Filippo; Garberoglio, Roberto

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to define the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) thermal ablation in the treatment of compressive solid benign thyroid nodules. Thirty-one patients not eligible for surgery or radioiodine (131I) treatment underwent RF ablation for benign nodules; a total of 33 nodules were treated (2 patients had 2 nodules treated in the same session): 10 cold nodules and 23 hyperfunctioning. Fourteen patients complained of compressive symptoms. Nodule volume, thyroid function and compressive symptoms were evaluated before treatment and at 1, 3 and 6 mo. Ultrasound-guided RF ablation was performed using a Starbust RITA needle, with nine expandable prongs; total exposure time was 6 to 10 min at 95 degrees C in one area or more of the nodule. Baseline volume (measured at the time of RF ablation) was 27.7 +/- 21.5 mL (mean +/- SD), but significantly decreased during follow-up: 19.2 +/- 16.2 at 1 mo (-32.7%; p < 0.001), 15.9 +/- 14.1 mL at 3 mo (-46.4 %; p < 0.001) and 14.6 +/- 12.6 mL at 6 mo (-50.7%; p < 0.001). After treatment, all patients with cold nodules remained euthyroid: five patients with hot nodules normalized thyroid function, and the remaining sixteen showed a partial remission of hyperthyroidism. Besides a sensation of heat and mild swelling of the neck, no major complications were observed. Improvement in compressive symptoms was reported by 13 patients, with a reduction on severity scale from 6.1 +/- 1.4 to 2.2 +/- 1.9 (p < 0.0001). Radiofrequency was effective and safe in reducing volume by about 50% and compressive symptoms in large benign nodules. Hyperfunction was fully controlled in 24% of patients and partially reduced in the others.

  9. Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous polidocanol sclerotherapy in benign predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qi; Chen, Shuoping; Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenjun; Chen, Xiaojun

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous polidocanol injection (PPI) in treatment of predominantly cystic thyroid nodules. This prospective study included 111 patients with 122 benign predominantly cystic thyroid nodules inducing pressure symptoms or cosmetic problems. The nodules were randomized to a single aspiration with (n = 61) or without (n = 61) subsequent PPI and followed up after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Ten patients (12 nodules) declined to follow up after aspiration in group 2. Nodule volumes, symptoms scores, and cosmetic scores were evaluated before and after treatment. The therapeutic success rate and safety of PPI for treatment of predominantly cystic thyroid nodules were also evaluated. In the PPI group, the nodule volumes were reduced from 13.67 ± 9.90 to 2.60 ± 2.66 (p < .001). Therapeutic success rate (nodule volume reduction >50%) was obtained in 57 of 61 (93.44%) nodules in the PPI group, compared to seven of 49 (14.29%) in the aspiration group (p < .001). In the aspiration group, the nodule volume was not significantly reduced. The reduction in symptom scores was significantly higher in the PPI group (from 3.60 ± 1.65 to 1.60 ± 1.19) than in the aspiration group (from 3.62 ± 1.89 to 3.30 ± 1.06) (p < .001, between groups). The reduction in cosmetic scores showed a significant difference between groups (p < .001). In total, 4.92% of patients (3/61) in the PPI group and 85.71% (42/49) in the aspiration group showed recurrence during the follow-up period. There was a significant difference in the recurrence rate between groups (p < .001). No major side-effects occurred. US-guided PPI of benign recurrent predominantly cystic thyroid nodules is effective and safe. PPI is an important alternative to benign recurrent predominantly cystic thyroid nodules.

  10. Logistic regression analysis of conventional ultrasonography, strain elastosonography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound characteristics for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Pang, Tiantian; Huang, Leidan; Deng, Yingyuan; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Gong, Xuehao; Liu, Weixiang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to screen the significant sonographic features by logistic regression analysis and fit a model to diagnose thyroid nodules. A total of 525 pathological thyroid nodules were retrospectively analyzed. All the nodules underwent conventional ultrasonography (US), strain elastosonography (SE), and contrast -enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Those nodules' 12 suspicious sonographic features were used to assess thyroid nodules. The significant features of diagnosing thyroid nodules were picked out by logistic regression analysis. All variables that were statistically related to diagnosis of thyroid nodules, at a level of p < 0.05 were embodied in a logistic regression analysis model. The significant features in the logistic regression model of diagnosing thyroid nodules were calcification, suspected cervical lymph node metastasis, hypoenhancement pattern, margin, shape, vascularity, posterior acoustic, echogenicity, and elastography score. According to the results of logistic regression analysis, the formula that could predict whether or not thyroid nodules are malignant was established. The area under the receiver operating curve (ROC) was 0.930 and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 83.77%, 89.56%, 87.05%, 86.04%, and 87.79% respectively.

  11. GAUGING THE EXTENT OF THYROIDECTOMY FOR INDETERMINATE THYROID NODULES: AN ONCOLOGIC PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David F; Cherney Stafford, Linda M; Brys, Nicole; Greenberg, Caprice C; Balentine, Courtney J; Elfenbein, Dawn M; Pitt, Susan C

    2017-04-02

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on appropriateness of care and avoidance of over- and under-treatment. Indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs) present a particular risk for this problem because cancer found via diagnostic lobectomy (DL) often requires a completion thyroidectomy (CT). However, initial total thyroidectomy (TT) for benign ITN results in lifelong thyroid hormone replacement. We sought to measure the accuracy and factors associated with the extent of initial thyroidectomy for ITN. We queried a single institution thyroid surgery database for all adult patients undergoing an initial operation for ITN. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with either oncologic under- or overtreatment at initial operation. There were 639 patients with ITN. The median age was 52 (range, 18 to 93) years, 78.4% were female, and final pathology revealed a cancer >1 cm in 24.7%. The most common cytology was follicular neoplasm (45.1%) followed by Hürthle cell neoplasm (20.2%). CT or initial oncologic undertreatment was required in 58 patients (9.3%). Excluding those with goiters, 19.0% were treated with TT for benign final pathology. Multivariate analysis failed to identify any factor that independently predicted the need for CT. Female gender was associated with TT in benign disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 4.5; P = .05). Age >45 years predicted correct initial use of DL (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.7; P = .02). Suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.1 to 15.3; P<.01) and frozen section (OR, 9.7; 95% CI, 2.5 to 38.6; P<.01) were associated with oncologically appropriate initial TT. The highest frequency of CT occurred in patients with follicular lesion of undetermined significance (11.6%). TT for benign final pathology occurred most frequently in patients with a Hürthle cell neoplasm (24.8%). In patients with ITN, nearly 30% received an inappropriate extent of initial thyroidectomy from an

  12. Economic impact of and satisfaction with a high resolution thyroid nodule clinic at the endocrinology department.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Torres, Beatriz; López Gómez, Juan Jose; Gómez Hoyos, Emilia; Villar, Aurelia; Romero, Enrique; de Luis, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    No conclusive data exist on the value of a high resolution thyroid nodule clinic for management of nodular thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of and user satisfaction with a high resolution thyroid nodule clinic (HRTNC) in coordination with primary care. A prospective, observational, descriptive study was conducted to analyze data from 3,726 patients (mean age 61±12 years; 85% women) evaluated at an HRTNC during 2014 and 2015. Demographic data (sex and age), number of ultrasound examinations and fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNAC), referral center and consultation type were assessed. In 2014 and 2015, 3,726 neck ultrasound examinations and 926 FNACs (3.8% rated as non-diagnostic) were performed. Among the 1,227 patients evaluated for the first time, 21.5% did not require a second endocrine appointment, which resulted in mean estimated savings of 14,354.55 euros. Of all patients, 41.1% were referred from primary care, 33.4% from endocrinology, and 26.5% from other specialties. As compared to 2013, the number of thyroid ultrasound examinations requested decreased by 65.3% and 59.7% in 2014 and 2015 respectively, with mean estimated savings of 137,563.92 euros. Mean user satisfaction assessed was 4.0 points (95% confidence interval, 3.7-4.3) on a 5-point scale. HRTNCs at endocrinology departments, coordinated with primary care, are a viable, cost-effective alternative with a positive user perception. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Polidocanol Sclerotherapy in Benign Cystic Thyroid Nodules: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenjun; Chen, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous polidocanol injection (PPI) in treating cystic thyroid nodules. A total of 158 cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules (>80% cystic component) in 143 patients were evaluated. 114 patients with compressive symptoms or aesthetic complaints were offered PPI. 44 individuals without compressive symptoms and aesthetic complaints who were only followed up clinically were used as the control group. The efficacy and safety of PPI were evaluated for 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months of follow-up. In the PPI group, the mean baseline volume of 15.6 ± 18.9 cm 3 reduced at the 1-month follow-up to 5.1 ± 5.6 cm 3 ( p < 0.001) and 0.6 ± 0.9 ( p < 0.001), and nodules shrunk according to the time after PPI ( p < 0.001). A complete response (if ≥70% decrease) to PPI at the 12-month follow-up occurred in 100% of the cystic or predominant cystic nodules. None of the nodules recurred at the 12-month follow-up after PPI. The side effects were mild. Twenty patients (17.5%) developed mild localized pain, and fourteen cases (12.3%) experienced mild or moderate fever after PPI. PPI is a safe and effective alternative to treat benign cystic or predominant cystic thyroid nodules.

  14. Ultrasound-guided laser thermal ablation in the treatment of autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and compressive nontoxic nodular goiter.

    PubMed

    Spiezia, Stefano; Vitale, Giovanni; Di Somma, Carolina; Pio Assanti, Angelo; Ciccarelli, Antonio; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria

    2003-10-01

    Percutaneous laser thermal ablation (LTA) has been applied in several tumors. In this study we evaluated the safety and long-term efficacy of LTA in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. Seven patients with autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule (group A) and five patients with compressive nodular goiter (group B) were treated with LTA. Up to three needles were positioned centrally in the thyroid nodule and laser fiber was placed in the lumen of the needle. Laser illumination was performed reaching a maximal energy deposition of 1800 J per fiber. Thyroid nodule volume, endocrinologic, and clinical evaluation were performed at baseline, 3, and 12 months after the treatment. Scintigraphy was performed at diagnosis and 12 months after the first session in group A. In group A, mean thyroid volume decreased from 3.15 +/- 1.26 mL to 0.83 +/- 0.49 mL (p < 0.001) after 12 months. The treatment induced disappearance of clinical signs and symptoms related to hyperthyroidism; normalization of free triiodothyronine (FT(3)), free thyroxine (FT(4)), and thyrotropin (TSH) serum levels and recovery of extranodular uptake at scintiscan. In group B, mean thyroid volume decreased from 11.14 +/- 4.99 mL to 3.73 +/- 1.47 mL (p < 0.01) after 12 months. Pressure symptoms in the neck, difficulty in swallowing and tracheal displacement improved in all patients. The treatment was well tolerated in both groups of patients. LTA appears to be a valid and safe alternative approach in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules.

  15. APE/Ref-1 is increased in nuclear fractions of human thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules.

    PubMed

    Russo, D; Celano, M; Bulotta, S; Bruno, R; Arturi, F; Giannasio, P; Filetti, S; Damante, G; Tell, G

    2002-08-30

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein provided with DNA repair, transcription-factor regulation and anti-apoptotic activities. We have previously reported that, in thyroid cells, TSH regulates both the synthesis and nuclear translocation of APE/Ref-1. We have also shown that nuclear levels of this protein are reduced both in thyroid carcinoma tissues and cell lines. In the present study, APE/Ref-1 expression and cellular localization were analysed by Western blot in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules from patients with toxic adenoma and/or toxic multinodular goiter. The total content of APE/Ref-1 protein was increased in the majority of the hyperfunctioning tissues with respect to normal adjacent tissue. There was also an increase in the nuclear levels of APE/Ref-1, suggesting enhanced cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of the protein in addition to its increased rate of synthesis. These results demonstrate that the phenomenon of nuclear translocation of APE/Ref-1 hypothesized on the basis of cell culture experiments does actually occur in vivo. Together with previous observations in thyroid carcinomas and tumoral cell lines, our findings suggest a two-stage model of APE/Ref-1 behaviour during malignant thyrocyte transformation: an early stage characterized by simple hyperplasia and upregulation of APE/Ref-1 in the nuclear compartment of the cell and a later stage in which nuclear levels of the protein drop to below-normal levels as the cell becomes progressively undifferentiated.

  16. Logistic regression analysis of conventional ultrasonography, strain elastosonography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound characteristics for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yingyuan; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Liu, Weixiang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to screen the significant sonographic features by logistic regression analysis and fit a model to diagnose thyroid nodules. A total of 525 pathological thyroid nodules were retrospectively analyzed. All the nodules underwent conventional ultrasonography (US), strain elastosonography (SE), and contrast -enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Those nodules’ 12 suspicious sonographic features were used to assess thyroid nodules. The significant features of diagnosing thyroid nodules were picked out by logistic regression analysis. All variables that were statistically related to diagnosis of thyroid nodules, at a level of p < 0.05 were embodied in a logistic regression analysis model. The significant features in the logistic regression model of diagnosing thyroid nodules were calcification, suspected cervical lymph node metastasis, hypoenhancement pattern, margin, shape, vascularity, posterior acoustic, echogenicity, and elastography score. According to the results of logistic regression analysis, the formula that could predict whether or not thyroid nodules are malignant was established. The area under the receiver operating curve (ROC) was 0.930 and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 83.77%, 89.56%, 87.05%, 86.04%, and 87.79% respectively. PMID:29228030

  17. Significance of hyperechoic marks observed during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian H H; Woo, Yu-Cho; Chiu, Keith Wan-Hang

    2018-06-01

    To examine the association between the appearance of hyperechoic marks (HEMs) during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of benign thyroid nodules and nodule shrinkage at 6 months. One hundred and thirty-six patients who underwent HIFU for benign thyroid nodule were analysed. An independent person carefully examined the B-mode ultrasonography screen for the appearance of HEMs after each pulse. The proportion of HEMs (%) was calculated by: [(Number of pulses that resulted in HEMs) / (Total number of pulses given per treatment) × 100] while the nodule shrinkage was measured by volume reduction ratio (VRR) = [Baseline volume-volume at 6 months]/[Baseline volume] * 100. Treatment success was defined as VRR ≥ 50 %. Patients with HEMs (n=91) had significantly greater 6-month VRR than those without HEMs (n=45) (65.76 % vs. 36.76 %, p<0.001). By regression analysis, after adjusting for age and energy per pulse, smaller nodule volume at baseline (OR 1.143, 95 % CI 1.038-1.256, p=0.006) and appearance of HEMs (OR 275.44, 95 % CI 26.63-2848.98, p<0.001) were independent predictors for treatment success. The appearance of HEMs during treatment was an independent determinant of treatment success following single-session HIFU ablation of benign thyroid nodule. • HIFU is a safe and effective treatment for benign thyroid nodules. • Lower BMI and greater applied power increase likelihood of hyperechoic marks. • The appearance of hyperechoic marks during HIFU affects subsequent treatment outcome.

  18. An Algorithm of Image Heterogeneity with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Differential Diagnosis of Solid Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lifang; Xu, Changsong; Xie, Xueqian; Li, Fan; Lv, Xiuhong; Du, Lianfang

    2017-01-01

    Enhancement heterogeneity on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is used to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. In this study, we used an algorithm to quantify enhancement heterogeneity of solid thyroid nodules on CEUS. The heterogeneity value (HV) is calculated as standard deviation/mean intensity × 100 (using Adobe Photoshop). The heterogeneity ratio (HR) is calculated as the ratio of the HV of the nodule to that of the surrounding parenchyma. Three phases-ascending, peak and descending phases-were studied. HV values at ascending (HV a ) and peak (HV p ) phases were significantly higher in malignant nodules than in benign nodules (95.57 ± 43.87 vs. 73.06 ± 44.04, p = 0.009, and 32.53 ± 10.73 vs. 26.44 ± 8.25, p = 0.002, respectively). HR a , HR p and HR d were significantly higher in malignant nodules than in benign nodules (1.93 ± 1.03 vs. 1.00 ± 0.47, p = 0.000, 1.43 ± 0.51 vs. 1.09 ± 0.28, p = 0.000, and 1.33 ± 0.40 vs. 1.08 ± 0.33, p = 0.001, respectively). HR a achieved optimal diagnostic performance on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The algorithm used for assessment of image heterogeneity on CEUS examination may be a useful adjunct to conventional ultrasound for differential diagnosis of solid thyroid nodules. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thyroid Nodules in Pediatrics: Which Ones Can Be Left Alone, Which Ones Must be Investigated, When and How

    PubMed Central

    Corrias, Andrea; Mussa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are less frequent in childhood than in adulthood, but are more often malignant. Recent estimates suggest that up to 25% of thyroid nodules in children are malignant, therefore, a more aggressive approach is recommended. In this review, we suggest an approach based on a first-step clinical, laboratory, and sonographic evaluation. A history of irradiation of the neck, cranium or upper thorax, previous thyroid diseases or thyroid neoplasms in the family should alert clinicians as being associated with a greater likelihood of malignant nodules. Signs or symptoms of hyperthyroidism and dysmorphic features should be carefully considered during the physical examination. Palpable firm lymph nodes, found in some 70% of cases, are the most significant clinical finding in children with malignant nodules. Although the routine determination of calcitonin levels is not uniformly practiced, it can help recognize sporadic or familial medullary thyroid neoplasms. Blood thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and free triiodothyronine determinations (the latter in case of symptoms of hyperthyroidism) are aimed at identifying the few hyperthyroid patients, for whom the next step should be scintiscan. Hyperthyroid patients usually disclose an increased uptake, and a diagnosis of toxic adenoma is commonly made. Cases with normal thyroid function or hypothyroidism (which is usually subclinical) should be evaluated by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). In eu/hypo-thyroid patients, scintiscan provides poor diagnostic information and should not be routinely employed. Thyroid ultrasonography is used to select cases for FNAB. Although ultrasound cannot reliably discriminate between benign and malignant lesions, it does provide an index of suspicion. Sonographic features that increase the likelihood of malignancy are microcalcifications, lymph node alterations, nodule growth under levothyroxine treatment, and increased intranodular vascularization demonstrated by color

  20. Differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid nodules and stratification of papillary thyroid cancer with aggressive histological features: Whole-lesion diffusion-weighted imaging histogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yonghong; Pan, Chu; Chen, WeiWei; Li, Tao; Zhu, WenZhen; Qi, JianPin

    2016-12-01

    To explore the usefulness of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from reduced field-of-view (r-FOV) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules and stratifying papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with aggressive histological features. This Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study included 93 patients with 101 pathologically proven thyroid nodules. All patients underwent preoperative r-FOV DWI at 3T. The whole-lesion ADC assessments were performed for each patient. Histogram-derived ADC parameters between different subgroups (pathologic type, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis) were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine optimal histogram parameters in differentiating benign and malignant nodules and predicting aggressiveness of PTC. Mean ADC, median ADC, 5 th percentile ADC, 25 th percentile ADC, 75 th percentile ADC, 95 th percentile ADC (all P < 0.001), and kurtosis (P = 0.001) were significantly lower in malignant thyroid nodules, and mean ADC achieved the highest AUC (0.919) with a cutoff value of 1842.78 × 10 -6 mm 2 /s in differentiating malignant and benign nodules. Compared to the PTCs without extrathyroidal extension, PTCs with extrathyroidal extension showed significantly lower median ADC, 5 th percentile ADC, and 25 th percentile ADC. The 5 th percentile ADC achieved the highest AUC (0.757) with cutoff value of 911.5 × 10 -6 mm 2 /s for differentiating between PTCs with and without extrathyroidal extension. Whole-lesion ADC histogram analysis might help to differentiate malignant nodules from benign ones and show the PTCs with extrathyroidal extension. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1546-1555. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Retrospective cytological evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodules according to the British Thyroid Association 2014 classification and comparison of clinical evaluation and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Massimo; Massa, Barbara; Balestra, Margherita; Calamaro, Paola; Gay, Stefano; Schiaffino, Simone; Turtulici, Giovanni; Zupo, Simonetta; Monti, Eleonora; Ansaldo, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The cytology of 130 indeterminate nodules (Thy 3) was retrospectively reviewed according to the British Thyroid Association 2014 classification. Nodules were divided into Thy 3a (atypical features) and Thy 3f (follicular lesion) categories. Histology was available as a reference for 97 nodules. Pre-surgical evaluations comprised biochemical tests, color-Doppler ultrasonography (US), semi-quantitative elastography-US (USE), contrast-enhanced US (CEUS), and mutation analysis from cytological slides. Thyroid malignancy was the final diagnosis for 19% of surgically-treated nodules. No statistically significant difference in the risk of malignancy was found between Thy 3a (26%) and Thy 3f (14%) nodules. Histology of the Thy 3a and Thy 3f nodules showed a higher incidence of Hurtle cell adenomas in Thy 3f (29%) than in Thy 3a (3%) nodules (P=0.01). The only pre-surgical difference concerned the BRAF V600E mutation, which was positive in some Thy 3a but not in any Thy 3f nodules (P=0.04). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to obtain cut-off values from US (score), USE (ELX 2/1 strain index), and CEUS (time-to-peak index and peak index) data. The cut-off values were similar for Thy 3a and Thy 3f nodules. Data showed that malignancy can be suspected if the US score is >2, ELX 1/2 strain index >1, time-to-peak index >1, and peak index <1. In a sub-group of 24 revised nodules (12 Thy 3a and 12 Thy 3f) with histology as a reference, the diagnostic power of cumulative pre-surgical analysis by means of US, USE, and CEUS showed high positive and negative predictive values (83% and 100%, respectively) for the presence of malignancy in Thy 3a and Thy 3f nodules. In conclusion, in our series of revised Thy 3 nodules, malignancy was low and displayed no significant differences between Thy 3a and Thy 3f categories. The use of cut-offs based on histology as a reference could reduce surgery. Our data support the conviction that, in mutation-negative Thy 3a and Thy

  2. Benign thyroid nodules treatment using percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

    PubMed

    Mauri, Giovanni; Cova, Luca; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Corbetta, Sabrina; Benedini, Stefano; Ambrogi, Federico; Milani, Valentina; Baroli, Alberto; Ierace, Tiziana; Solbiati, Luigi

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the reduction over time of benign thyroid nodules treated using percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) by the same equipe. Ninety patients (age 55.6 ± 14.1 years) underwent ablation for benign thyroid nodule causing compression/aesthetic dissatisfaction from 2011. Fifty-nine (age 55.8 ± 14.1 years) underwent RFA and 31 (age 55.2 ± 14.2 years) PLA, ultrasound guided. Technical success, complications, duration of ablation and treatment, energy deployed, volumetric percentage reduction at 1, 6 and 12 months were derived. A regression model for longitudinal measurements was used with random intercept and random slope. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or N (%). Technical success was always obtained. No major complications occurred. Mean ablation time was 30.1 ± 13.8 vs. 13.9 ± 5.9 min (p < .0001) and mean energy deployment was 5422.3 ± 2484.5 J vs. 34 662.7 ± 15 812.3 J in PLA vs. RFA group. Mean volume reduced from 20.3 ± 16.4 ml to 13.17 ± 10.74 ml (42% ± 17% reduction) at 1st month, 8.7 ± 7.4 ml (60% ± 15% reduction) at 6th month and 7.1 ± 7.7 ml (70%% ± 16% reduction) at 12th month, in PLA group, and from 32.7 ± 19.5 ml to 17.2 ± 12.9 ml (51%±15% reduction) at 1st month, 12.8 ± 9.6 ml (64 ± 14% reduction) at 6th month and 9.9 ± 9.2 ml (74% ± 14% reduction) at 12th month in RFA group. No difference in time course of the relative volume reduction between the two techniques was found. RFA and PLA are similarly feasible, safe and effective in treating benign thyroid nodules when performed by the same equipe. RFA is faster than PLA but require significantly higher energy.

  3. The value of quantitative shear wave elastography in differentiating the cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    You, Jun; Chen, Juan; Xiang, Feixiang; Song, Yue; Khamis, Simai; Lu, Chengfa; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Yanrong; Xie, Mingxing

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in differentiating metastatic cervical lymph nodes from benign nodes in patients with thyroid nodules. One hundred and forty-one cervical lymph nodes from 39 patients with thyroid nodules that were diagnosed as papillary thyroid cancer had been imaged with SWE. The shear elasticity modulus, which indicates the stiffness of the lymph nodes, was measured in terms of maximum shear elasticity modulus (maxSM), minimum shear elasticity modulus (minSM), mean shear elasticity modulus (meanSM), and standard deviation (SD) of the shear elasticity modulus. All the patients underwent thyroid surgery, 50 of the suspicious lymph nodes were resected, and 91 lymph nodes were followed up for 6 months. The maxSM value, minSM value, meanSM value, and SD value of the metastatic lymph nodes were significantly higher than those of the benign nodes. The area under the curve of the maxSM value, minSM value, meanSM value, and SD value were 0.918, 0.606, 0.865, and 0.915, respectively. SWE can differentiate metastasis from benign cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules, and the maxSM, meanSM, and SD may be valuable quantitative indicators for characterizing cervical lymph nodes.

  4. Computer-aided system for diagnosing thyroid nodules on ultrasound: A comparison with radiologist-based clinical assessments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Luying; Liu, Ruyu; Jiang, Yuxin; Song, Wenfeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jia; Wang, Juanjuan; Wu, Dongqian; Li, Shuai; Hao, Aimin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficiency of a thyroid ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with that of 1 radiologist. This study retrospectively reviewed 342 surgically resected thyroid nodules from July 2013 to December 2013 at our center. The nodules were assessed on typical ultrasound images using the CAD system and reviewed by 1 experienced radiologist. The radiologist stratified the risk of malignancy using the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (TIRADS) and the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines. The radiologist, using TI-RADS and ATA guidelines, performed better than the CAD system (P < .01). The sensitivity of the CAD system was similar to that of an experienced radiologist (P > .05; P < .01; and P > .05). However, we found that the CAD system had lower specificity (P < .01). The sensitivity of a thyroid ultrasound CAD system in differentiating nodules was similar to that of an experienced radiologist. However, the CAD system had lower specificity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. SAME-DAY FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY DIAGNOSIS FOR THYROID NODULES ACHIEVES RAPID ANXIETY DECREASE AND HIGH DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY.

    PubMed

    Lodewijk, Lutske; Vriens, Menno R; Vorselaars, Wessel M C M; van der Meij, Nick T M; Kist, Jakob W; Barentsz, Maarten W; Verkooijen, Helena M; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Valk, Gerlof D

    2016-05-01

    The time between the moment of referral for the diagnostic workup for thyroid nodules and the outcome can be worrisome for patients. In general, patients experience high levels of anxiety during the evaluation of a lesion suspicious for cancer. Therefore, the implementation of same-day fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnosis is becoming standard-of-care for many solid tumors. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of same-day FNAC diagnosis for thyroid nodules and to assess patient anxiety during the diagnostic process. For feasibility of same-day FNAC diagnosis, we assessed the proportion of patients receiving a diagnosis at the end of the visit. Accuracy was measured by comparing histology with the FNAC result. Patient anxiety was measured by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory at 6 moments during the diagnostic workup. Of the 131 included patients, 112 (86%) were female, and the mean age was 53 years. All patients, except those with a nondiagnostic FNAC result (n = 26; 20%), had a diagnosis at the end of the day. There were only two discordant results. Anxiety levels at the beginning of the day were high throughout the group, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) score 43.1 (SD 2.0) and decreased significantly more in patients with a benign FNAC result (STAI score 30.2), compared to patients with a malignant or indeterminate result (STAI score 39.6). Distress of patients with a thyroid nodule undergoing same-day FNAC diagnostics was high. Same-day FNAC diagnosis is feasible and accurate for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Therefore, same-day FNAC diagnosis seems a safer, more patient-friendly approach to diagnose thyroid nodules.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of lobectomy versus genetic testing (Afirma®) for indeterminate thyroid nodules: Considering the costs of surveillance.

    PubMed

    Balentine, Courtney J; Vanness, David J; Schneider, David F

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated whether diagnostic thyroidectomy for indeterminate thyroid nodules would be more cost-effective than genetic testing after including the costs of long-term surveillance. We used a Markov decision model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of thyroid lobectomy versus genetic testing (Afirma®) for evaluation of indeterminate (Bethesda 3-4) thyroid nodules. The base case was a 40-year-old woman with a 1-cm indeterminate nodule. Probabilities and estimates of utilities were obtained from the literature. Cost estimates were based on Medicare reimbursements with a 3% discount rate for costs and quality-adjusted life-years. During a 5-year period after the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules, lobectomy was less costly and more effective than Afirma® (lobectomy: $6,100; 4.50 quality-adjusted life- years vs Afirma®: $9,400; 4.47 quality-adjusted life-years). Only in 253 of 10,000 simulations (2.5%) did Afirma® show a net benefit at a cost-effectiveness threshold of $100,000 per quality- adjusted life-years. There was only a 0.3% probability of Afirma® being cost saving and a 14.9% probability of improving quality-adjusted life-years. Our base case estimate suggests that diagnostic lobectomy dominates genetic testing as a strategy for ruling out malignancy of indeterminate thyroid nodules. These results, however, were highly sensitive to estimates of utilities after lobectomy and living under surveillance after Afirma®. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Increased expression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases 3 and 4 in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Carsten; Holzapfel, Hans-Peter; Meyer, Silke; Paschke, Ralf

    2004-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are implicated in the pathophysiology of human diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. While G-protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 5 have been shown to be involved in the desensitization of the rat thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), their role in the pathophysiology of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs) is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the expression pattern of the known GRKs in human thyroid tissue and investigated their function in the pathology of HTNs. The expression of different GRKs in human thyroid and HTNs was measured by Western blotting. The influence of GRK expression on TSHR function was analyzed by coexpression experiments in HEK 293 cells. We demonstrate that in addition to GRKs 2, 5 and 6, GRKs 3 and 4 are also expressed in the human thyroid. GRKs 2, 3, 5 and 6 are able to desensitize the TSHR in vitro. This GRK-induced desensitization is amplified by the additional over-expression of beta-arrestin 1 or 2. We did not find any mutations in the GRKs 2, 3 and 5 from 14 HTNs without TSHR mutations and Gsalpha mutations. The expression of GRKs 3 and 4 was increased in HTNs independently from the existence of TSHR mutations or Gsalpha mutations. In conclusion, the increased expression of GRK 3 in HTNs and the ability of GRK 3 to desensitize the TSHR in vitro, suggest a potential role for GRK 3 as a negative feedback regulator for the constitutively activated cAMP pathway in HTNs.

  8. Pathological findings of thyroid nodules after percutaneous laser ablation : a series of 22 cases with cyto-histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Piana, Simonetta; Riganti, Fabrizio; Froio, Elisabetta; Andrioli, Massimiliano; Pacella, Claudio M; Valcavi, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous laser ablation (LA) of benign thyroid nodules may be a potential alternative to surgery in patients with compressive symptoms, at high surgical risk, or in patients who refuse to undergo surgery. We evaluated the morphological effects of LA procedure on 22 patients and compared the cytological findings before and after LA with the histological features on surgical specimens. Twenty-two (4.9%; 19 women, three men, mean age 53.2 years) out of 452 patients treated with LA for benign thyroid nodules in our Hospital underwent surgery after LA procedure, either because nodule regrowth (treatment failure, n = 17) or indeterminate cytology (Thy3) after LA (n = 5). Morphological findings varied according to the time between LA and surgical intervention. Within 2 months, the area was occasionally cavitated and filled in with dark amorphous material. The inflammatory response was abundant and composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages. After 18 months or more since LA, the expected laser-induced histologic changes in thyroid morphology consisted of a well-defined area surrounded by a fibrous capsule and filled in by amorphous material. No significant pathologic features were found in the thyroid tissue adjacent to the treated area. Histological evaluation of thyroid tissues after LA shows that thermal damage is restricted to the ablated area, with no involvement of the nearby parenchyma. Our long-term histopathological findings indicate that LA treatment of benign thyroid nodules is safe, and patients undergoing LA may also be followed up by fine needle aspiration.

  9. Cytological Results of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology for Thyroid Nodules: Emphasis on Correlation with Sonographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Jung; Hong, Soon Won; Chung, Woung Youn; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Min Jung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cytological results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules to sonographic findings and determine whether US findings are helpful in the interpretation of cytological results. Materials and Methods Among the thyroid nodules that underwent US-FNA cytology, we included the 819 nodules which had a conclusive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was based on pathology from surgery, repeated FNA cytology or follow-up of more than one year. Cytological results were divided into five groups: benign, indeterminate (follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm), suspicious for malignancy, malignant, and inadequate. US findings were categorized as benign or suspicious. Cytological results and US categories were analyzed. Results Final diagnosis was concluded upon in 819 nodules based on pathology (n=311), repeated FNA cytology (n=204) and follow-up (n=304), of which 634 were benign and 185 were malignant. There were 560 benign nodules, 141 malignant nodules, 49 nodules with inadequate results, 21 with indeterminate results, and 48 that were suspicious for malignancy. The positive and negative predictive values of the US categories were 59.1% and 97.0%, and those of the cytological results were 93.7% and 98.9%. The US categories were significantly correlated with final diagnosis in the benign (p=0.014) and suspicious for malignancy (p<0.001) cytological result groups, but not in the inadequate and indeterminate cytological results groups. The false positive and negative rates of cytological results were 1.9% and 3.2%. Conclusion Sonographic findings can be useful when used alongside cytological results, especially in nodules with cytological results that are benign or suspicious for malignancy. PMID:21786450

  10. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Using Artificial Intelligence for the Diagnosis and Characterization of Thyroid Nodules on Ultrasound: Initial Clinical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Park, Hye Sun; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    An initial clinical assessment is described of a new, commercially available, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system using artificial intelligence (AI) for thyroid ultrasound, and its performance is evaluated in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules and categorization of nodule characteristics. Patients with thyroid nodules with decisive diagnosis, whether benign or malignant, were consecutively enrolled from November 2015 to February 2016. An experienced radiologist reviewed the ultrasound image characteristics of the thyroid nodules, while another radiologist assessed the same thyroid nodules using the CAD system, providing ultrasound characteristics and a diagnosis of whether nodules were benign or malignant. The diagnostic performance and agreement of US characteristics between the experienced radiologist and the CAD system were compared. In total, 102 thyroid nodules from 89 patients were included; 59 (57.8%) were benign and 43 (42.2%) were malignant. The CAD system showed a similar sensitivity as the experienced radiologist (90.7% vs. 88.4%, p > 0.99), but a lower specificity and a lower area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve (specificity: 74.6% vs. 94.9%, p = 0.002; AUROC: 0.83 vs. 0.92, p = 0.021). Classifications of the ultrasound characteristics (composition, orientation, echogenicity, and spongiform) between radiologist and CAD system were in substantial agreement (κ = 0.659, 0.740, 0.733, and 0.658, respectively), while the margin showed a fair agreement (κ = 0.239). The sensitivity of the CAD system using AI for malignant thyroid nodules was as good as that of the experienced radiologist, while specificity and accuracy were lower than those of the experienced radiologist. The CAD system showed an acceptable agreement with the experienced radiologist for characterization of thyroid nodules.

  11. The rational use of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in diagnosing thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Sidoti, M; Marino, G; Resmini, E; Augeri, C; Cappi, C; Cavallero, D; Lagasio, C; Ceppa, P; Minuto, F; Giusti, M

    2006-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules and enables the number of surgical operations to be reduced. Theoretically, FNAB should be carried out on all nodules, though currently only those displaying certain characteristics are biopsied. Indeed, to perform FNAB on all nodules may be regarded as an excess of zeal. Therefore, it seems advisable that the endocrinologist should be able to confirm on the spot the necessity and utility of FNAB. We evaluated on a sample of 263 consecutive requests (209 female, 57 male; age 56.7+/-13.7 years) for FNAB in 2004: 1) the appropriateness of the investigation, 2) expected efficacy, 3) practical efficacy, 4) efficiency. FNAB was performed under echo-guidance in accordance with the standard technique. In 50%, 36%, 6%, 3%, 2% and 1% of cases, the echographic diagnosis was of MNG, UNG, pseudo-nodular lesion in ATD, lymph-node, neck cyst, suspected parathyroid lesion and tumefaction of the salivary glands, respectively. A pre-FNAB clinical risk score was assigned to each case on the basis of clinical and echographic data, with a maximum possible score of 11. The results of FNAB were subdivided into 5 categories according to the criteria of the BTA (Thy1-Thy5). After FNAB, a decisional category was assigned, ranging from ''observation'' to ''surgery''; this was subsequently (7-18 months) compared with the management strategy adopted by the attending physician. Information was gathered by means of telephone enquiry. 1) Appropriateness: on the basis of clinical and echographic findings, FNAB was not judged appropriate in 24% of cases because of either the lack of confirmation of a significant target (34%) or a low pre-FNAB risk score (range 0-2) (66%). The decisional category was ''observation'' in 87% of cases and ''further investigation'' in 13%. 2) Expected efficacy: FNAB was performed in 76% of cases. The biopsies (3%) performed on swollen lymph-nodes and extra-thyroid neck

  12. Changes associated with percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Schrut, Gianna Carla Alberti; Miasaki, Fabíola Yukiko; Paz-Filho, Gilberto; Cavalcanti, Teresa Cristina Santos; Graf, Hans; de Carvalho, Gisah Amaral

    2011-06-01

    Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) is an alternative therapy for thyroid nodules (TN). However, some concern is raised on its carcinogenic effects. To evaluate the cytological and clinical changes caused by PEI in patients with benign TN. Thirty-nine patients with TN (23.1% hyperfunctioning) were submitted to a median of three PEI sessions. After a median of 17 months, patients were reassessed. A new ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (US-FNB) was performed, and the smears were analyzed after May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining. The diagnostic findings and the cellular characteristics were compared before and after treatment. There was an increase in the proportion of nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory results (from 2.5% to 18.9%). No malignant cases were observed. The proportion of moderate/intense macrophage infiltration decreased from 60% to 15%. Before treatment, 23.1% patients had hyperthyroidism, which was completely or partially resolved in 66.7%. By ultrasound, the percentage of homogeneous nodules decreased from 64.0% to 38.4% (p=0.0235), and the mean nodule volume decreased from 13.4 ± 12.2 to 5.3 ± 5.1 cm(3). We demonstrate that PEI increases the proportion of nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory results from US-FNB. Therefore, cytological findings after PEI must be evaluated with caution. Our results also suggest that PEI is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option, with no carcinogenic effects observed on cytological evaluations. Safety and efficacy must be evaluated in larger studies with longer follow-up periods.

  13. Radiodine therapy of the autonomous thyroid nodule in patients with or without visible extranodular activity

    SciTech Connect

    Clerc, J.; Dagousset, F.; Izembart, M.

    1995-02-01

    Patients with an autonomously functioning throid nodule (ATN) may present with various clinical, biochemical and scintigraphic features. To optimize 1 dose planning and treatment timing in these patients, relationships between dosimetric data and clinical follow-up events must be established. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 88 patients who received 1 (intended dose of 80 Gy) for an ATN, of whom 39 had evidence of extranodular activity (ENA) and 76 presented with overt thyrotoxicosis. In all of the patients, dosage calculation was monitored to estimate precisely both beta and gamma absorbed doses received by the ATN and the nodule-free lobe.more » The mean duration of follow-up was 75 mo (max 180) and always included biochemical thyroid tests. Finally, they compared the dosimetric profiles of four dosage schemes which had been normalized by simulation to ensure that the same absorbed dose threshold value was always delivered to the ATN. About 75% of the patients were cured at 6 mo for a mean 305 MBq administered. The absorbed doses delivered to the nodule-free lobe to the ATN, mainly in the form of beta irradiation. Life-table estimates for hypothyroidism and death were 9.6% and 22% at 75 mo, respectively. Hypothyroidism mainly developed in patients with nonsuppressed TSH levels but regardless of ENA, which often accounted for multifocal disease. The authors suggest that fixed doses bordering on 370 MBq are advisable in younger individuals and in patients with mild thyrotoxocosis, while 555 MBq-740 MBq can be administered in other patients and that ENA indicates multifocal autonomy in patients with toxic ATN and is a further indication for radioiodine treatment which should be begun as soon as possible to avoid the development of cardiac complications. 27 refs., 5 tabs.« less

  14. The peculiar ultrasonographic and elastographic features of thyroid nodules after treatment with laser or radiofrequency: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Valcavi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of percutaneous thermal ablation with laser (LA) or radiofrequency (RFA) is to reduce the volume of benign thyroid nodules. Little is known about ultrasonographic and elastographic appearances of thyroid lesions after treatment. For the first time, we report in detail the main ultrasonographic and elastographic characteristics of thermally ablated nodules and their underlying similarities and differences. Both thermal treatments usually produce a marked hypoechoic area of coagulative necrosis. LA-treated lesions usually become highly heterogeneous due to the presence of cavitations and charring; they then evolve into hyperechoic scars. In RFA-treated nodules, instead, the necrotic area is more homogeneous but presents more irregular margins compared to those observed in LA-treated lesions. Regardless of the thermal method used, vascularity is typically reduced in all treated nodules and stiffness, evaluated with qualitative elastography, increases. In conclusion, ultrasonographic and elastographic appearances of the thermally ablated thyroid lesions differ slightly according to the adopted procedure. Furthermore, they are peculiar, changeable over time, and potentially misleading.

  15. Evidence for overestimation of the prevalence of malignancy in indeterminate thyroid nodules classified as Bethesda category III.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Bonomo, Giovanni; Avadhani, Vaidehi; Persky, Mark; Lucido, David; Wang, Beverly; Marti, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Several recent analyses of indeterminate thyroid nodules classified as Bethesda III (follicular lesion of undetermined significance) have reported considerably greater rates of malignancy than those initially reported by the Bethesda System for Reporting Cytopathology (BSRTC). These values, however, may be overestimates owing to several sources of bias, such as referral, selection, and publication biases. Our aim was to analyze the prevalence of malignancy in Bethesda III and IV thyroid nodules in a comprehensive health system less prone to institutional referral bias, excluding incidental carcinomas, and we examine the literature for publication bias. We performed a retrospective analysis with pathologic re-review of 119 patients with Bethesda III/IV cytology undergoing surgery in a comprehensive health system by examining patient and nodule characteristics. A review of the literature was performed and analyzed for publication bias. The malignancy rate in resected thyroid nodules was 13% (6/48) for Bethesda III and 28% (20/71) for Bethesda IV. There were 9 of 119 patients (8%) with incidental microcarcinomas. Age <30 years was associated with an increased risk of malignancy (odds ratio, 25.8; P = .005). Sex, nodule size, and ultrasonographic features were not associated with risk of malignancy. Analysis of the literature was indicative of publication bias for Bethesda III cohorts, with reported rates positively skewed (P = .039). In a comprehensive health system, the rate of malignancy in Bethesda III nodules was similar to the range reported by the BSRTC. Recent reports of greater rates of malignancy may be attributable to institutional referral patterns, operative selection, inclusion of incidental microcarcinomas, and publication bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP): impact on the reclassification of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Amendoeira, Isabel; Maia, Tiago; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The 2017 edition of the WHO book on Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs includes a new section entitled 'Other encapsulated follicular-patterned thyroid tumours', in which the newly created NIFTP (non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features) is identified and described in detail. Despite deleting the word 'carcinoma' from its name, NIFTP is not a benign tumor either and is best regarded as a neoplasm with 'very low malignant potential'. The main goal of the introduction of NIFTP category is to prevent overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Sampling constraints, especially when dealing with heterogeneous and/or large nodules, and difficulties in the invasiveness evaluation, are the major weaknesses of the histological characterization of NIFTP. At the cytological level, NIFTP can be separated from classic papillary carcinoma (cPTC) but not from encapsulated, invasive follicular variant PTC. The impact of NIFTP individualization for cytopathology is the drop of rates of malignancy for each Bethesda category in general and for indeterminate categories in particular. The biggest impact will be seen in institutions with a high frequency of FVPTC. The introduction of NIFTP has changed the utility of predictive values of molecular tests because RAS mutations and PAX8-PPARg rearrangements are frequently detected in NIFTP. This turns less promising the application of mutation detection panels as indicators of malignancy and will probably contribute to switch to a rule-out approach of molecular testing. Selection for surgery will go on being determined by a combined detection of clinical, cytological and ultrasound suspicious features. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Thyroid nodules, polymorphic variants in DNA repair and RET-related genes, and interaction with ionizing radiation exposure from nuclear tests in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Land, Charles E.; Bhatti, Parveen; Pineda, Marbin; Brenner, Alina; Carr, Zhanat; Gusev, Boris I.; Zhumadilov, Zhaxibay; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Rutter, Joni L.; Ron, Elaine; Struewing, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for thyroid cancer remain largely unknown except for ionizing radiation exposure during childhood and a history of benign thyroid nodules. Because thyroid nodules are more common than thyroid cancers and are associated with thyroid cancer risk, we evaluated several polymorphisms potentially relevant to thyroid tumors and assessed interaction with ionizing radiation exposure to the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules were detected in 1998 by ultrasound screening of 2997 persons who lived near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan when they were children (1949-62). Cases with thyroid nodules (n=907) were frequency matched (1:1) to those without nodules by ethnicity (Kazakh or Russian), gender, and age at screening. Thyroid gland radiation doses were estimated from fallout deposition patterns, residence history, and diet. We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in 13 genes and assessed interaction with ionizing radiation exposure using likelihood ratio tests (LRT). Elevated thyroid nodule risks were associated with the minor alleles of RET S836S (rs1800862, p = 0.03) and GFRA1 -193C>G (rs not assigned, p = 0.05) and decreased risk with XRCC1 R194W (rs1799782, p-trend = 0.03) and TGFB1 T263I (rs1800472, p = 0.009). Similar patterns of association were observed for a small number of papillary thyroid cancers (n=25). Ionizing radiation exposure to the thyroid gland was associated with significantly increased risk of thyroid nodules (age and gender adjusted excess odds ratio/Gy = 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.56), with evidence for interaction by genotype found for XRCC1 R194W (LRT p value = 0.02). Polymorphisms in RET signaling, DNA repair, and proliferation genes may be related to risk of thyroid nodules, consistent with some previous reports on thyroid cancer. Borderline support for gene-radiation interaction was found for a variant in XRCC1, a key base excision repair protein. Other pathways, such as genes in double strand break repair, apoptosis, and

  18. Comparison of machine learned approaches for thyroid nodule characterization from shear wave elastography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carina; Dighe, Manjiri; Alessio, Adam M.

    2018-02-01

    Various Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed that characterize thyroid nodules using the features extracted from the B-mode ultrasound images and Shear Wave Elastography images (SWE). These features, however, are not perfect predictors of malignancy. In other domains, deep learning techniques such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have outperformed conventional feature extraction based machine learning approaches. In general, fully trained CNNs require substantial volumes of data, motivating several efforts to use transfer learning with pre-trained CNNs. In this context, we sought to compare the performance of conventional feature extraction, fully trained CNNs, and transfer learning based, pre-trained CNNs for the detection of thyroid malignancy from ultrasound images. We compared these approaches applied to a data set of 964 B-mode and SWE images from 165 patients. The data were divided into 80% training/validation and 20% testing data. The highest accuracies achieved on the testing data for the conventional feature extraction, fully trained CNN, and pre-trained CNN were 0.80, 0.75, and 0.83 respectively. In this application, classification using a pre-trained network yielded the best performance, potentially due to the relatively limited sample size and sub-optimal architecture for the fully trained CNN.

  19. Identification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules by in vivo iodine concentration measurement using single-source dual energy CT

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shun-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wei, Wei; Li, Xiao-Ting; Li, Yan-Ling; Xu, Min; Sun, Ying-Shi; Zhang, Xiao-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study proposed to determine whether in vivo iodine concentration measurement by single-source dual energy (SSDE) CT can improve differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. In total, 53 patients presenting with thyroid nodules underwent SSDE CT scanning. Iodine concentrations were measured for each nodule and normal thyroid tissue using the GSI-viewer image analysis software. A total of 26 thyroid nodules were malignant in 26 patients and confirmed by surgery; 33 nodules from 27 patients were benign, with 10 confirmed by surgery and others after follow-up. Iodine concentrations with plain CT were significantly lower in malignant than benign nodules (0.47 ± 0.20 vs 1.17 ± 0.38 mg/mL, P = 0.00). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93; with a cutoff of 0.67, iodine concentration showed 92.3% sensitivity and 88.5% specificity in diagnosing malignancy. Iodine concentration obtained by enhanced and plain CT were significantly higher in malignant than benign nodules (9.05 ± 3.35 vs 3.46 ± 2.24 mg/mL, P = 0.00). ROC curve analysis showed an AUC of 0.93; with a cutoff value of 3.37, iodine concentration displayed 78% sensitivity, 95% specificity in diagnosing malignancy. Combining unenhanced with enhanced iodine concentrations, the diagnostic equation was: Y = –8.641 × unenhanced iodine concentration + 0.663 × iodine concentration. ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.94, 1.00). With Y ≥ –2 considered malignancy, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 96%, 96.3%, respectively. This study concluded that SSDE CT can detect the differences in iodine uptake and blood supply between benign and malignant thyroid lesions. PMID:27684811

  20. Radioiodine therapy of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: usefulness of an implemented dose calculation algorithm allowing reduction of radioiodine amount.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, M; Bagnara, M C; Pomposelli, E; Altrinetti, V; Calamia, I; Camerieri, L; Giusti, M; Pesce, G; Reitano, C; Bagnasco, M; Caputo, M

    2013-09-01

    Radioiodine is a common option for treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Due to the expected selective radioiodine uptake by adenoma, relatively high "fixed" activities are often used. Alternatively, the activity is individually calculated upon the prescription of a fixed value of target absorbed dose. We evaluated the use of an algorithm for personalized radioiodine activity calculation, which allows as a rule the administration of lower radioiodine activities. Seventy-five patients with single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule eligible for 131I treatment were studied. The activities of 131I to be administered were estimated by the method described by Traino et al. and developed for Graves'disease, assuming selective and homogeneous 131I uptake by adenoma. The method takes into account 131I uptake and its effective half-life, target (adenoma) volume and its expected volume reduction during treatment. A comparison with the activities calculated by other dosimetric protocols, and the "fixed" activity method was performed. 131I uptake was measured by external counting, thyroid nodule volume by ultrasonography, thyroid hormones and TSH by ELISA. Remission of hyperthyroidism was observed in all but one patient; volume reduction of adenoma was closely similar to that assumed by our model. Effective half-life was highly variable in different patients, and critically affected dose calculation. The administered activities were clearly lower with respect to "fixed" activities and other protocols' prescription. The proposed algorithm proved to be effective also for single hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule treatment and allowed a significant reduction of administered 131I activities, without loss of clinical efficacy.

  1. Hürthle cell tumor dwelling in hot thyroid nodules: preoperative detection with technetium-99m-MIBI dual-phase scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Cintorino, M; Burroni, L; Volterrani, D; Vella, A; Lazzi, S

    1998-05-01

    Single injection dual-phase scintigraphy (early and late acquisitions) with 99mTc-MIBI was used to differentiate benign and malignant hot thyroid nodules. Thirteen euthyroid and two hyperthyroid patients displaying a hot thyroid nodule on the 99mTc scan due to an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) underwent early (15-30 min) and late (3-4 hr) thyroid scintigraphy after the administration of 740-1000 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. Visual scoring was done to assess nodular tracer uptake and retention. In addition, the nodular-to-thyroid (N/T) uptake ratio in the early and late image and the washout rates (WO) from the nodule and thyroidal tissue were measured. All patients underwent thyroid surgery. Histopathology revealed a Hürthle cell tumor in three nodules, a benign adenoma with oxyphilic metaplasia in two nodules and a benign adenoma without oxyphilic cells in the remaining 10 nodules. The Hürthle cell tumor nodules displayed intense and persistent uptake of 99mTc-MIBI (N/T was 2.81 +/- 0.52 and 5.53 +/- 1.06 in early and late images, respectively; WO from the nodule was 12.33 +/- 0.47, WO from the thyroidal tissue was 22.00 +/- 3.56). The benign nodules showed intense uptake in the early image and intense uptake to absent retention in the late image (N/T was 2.94 +/- 1.31 and 1.62 +/- 0.50 in the early and late images, respectively; WO from the nodule was 20.25 +/- 2.92, WO from the thyroidal tissue was 20.33 +/- 2.92). Single injection dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy of the thyroid with AFTN can identify nodules as a result of the activity of a Hürthle cell tumor, since these tumors cause intense and persistent tracer uptake in contrast with a benign AFTN.

  2. Does Lesion Size Affect the Value of Shear Wave Elastography for Differentiating Between Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules?

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Chang, Cai; Chen, Min; Gao, Yi; Chen, Ya-Ling; Zhou, Shi-Chong; Li, Jia-Wei; Zhi, Wen-Xiang

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography (SWE) combined with conventional ultrasonography (US) for differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules of different sizes. A total of 445 thyroid nodules from 445 patients were divided into 3 groups based on diameter (group 1, ≤ 10 mm; group 2, 10-20 mm; and group 3, > 20 mm). The mean elasticity index of the whole lesion was automatically calculated, and the threshold for differentiation between benign and malignant nodules was constructed by a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Diagnostic performances of conventional US and SWE were compared by using pathologic results as reference standards. The mean elasticity was significantly higher in malignant versus benign nodules for all size groups. The differences in mean elasticity in the size groups were not statistically significant for malignant or benign nodules. The specificity of US combined with SWE for group 1 was significantly higher than that for groups 2 and 3 (77.8% versus 62.9% and 53.3%; P < .05), and compared with group 1, the sensitivity was significantly higher for groups 2 and 3 (92.4% and 94.3% versus 80.7%; P < .05). When SWE was added, the specificity increased and the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy decreased for group 1, and the sensitivity increased and the specificity decreased for groups 2 and 3; however, the differences were not significant. Combined with SWE, US yielded higher specificity for nodules of 10 mm and smaller and higher sensitivity for nodules larger than 10 mm. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Heterogeneity in Positive Predictive Value of RAS Mutations in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Nabhan, Fadi; Porter, Kyle; Lupo, Mark A; Randolph, Gregory W; Patel, Kepal N; Kloos, Richard T

    2018-06-01

    RAS mutations are common in the available mutational analysis of cytologically indeterminate (Cyto-I) thyroid nodules. However, their reported positive predictive value (PPV) for cancer is widely variable. The reason for this variability is unknown, and it causes clinical management uncertainty. A systematic review was performed, evaluating the PPV for cancer in RAS mutation positive Cyto-I nodules, and variables that might affect residual heterogeneity across the different studies were considered. PubMed was searched through February 22, 2017, including studies that evaluated at least one type of RAS mutation in Cyto-I nodules, including any (or all) of the Bethesda III/IV/V categories or their equivalents and where the histological diagnosis was available. The PPV residual heterogeneity was investigated after accounting for Bethesda classification, blindedness of the histopathologist to the RAS mutational status, Bethesda category-specific cancer prevalence for each study, and which RAS genes and codons were tested. This was studied using five meta-regression models fit to different sets of Bethesda classification categories: Bethesda III, IV, or V (III/IV/V); Bethesda III or IV (III/IV); Bethesda III only; Bethesda IV only; and Bethesda V only. Of 1831 studies, 23 were eligible for data inclusion. Wide ranges of PPV were found at 0-100%, 28-100%, and 0-100% in Bethesda III, IV, and V, respectively. Residual heterogeneity remained moderately high for PPV after accounting for the above moderators for Bethesda III/IV/V (21 studies; I 2  = 59.5%) and Bethesda III/IV (19 studies; I 2  = 66.0%), with significant Cochran's Q-test for residual heterogeneity (p < 0.001). Among individual Bethesda categories, residual heterogeneity was: Bethesda III (eight studies; I 2  = 89.0%), IV (12 studies; I 2  = 53.5%), and V (10 studies; I 2  = 34.4%), with significant Cochran's Q-test for Bethesda III (p < 0.001) and IV (p = 0.04). The PPV of RAS

  4. Quantitative evaluation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound after intravenous administration of a microbubble contrast agent for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: assessment of diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan F; Novotny, Clemens; Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Krestan, Christian R

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy, through quantitative analysis, of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), using a microbubble contrast agent, in the differentiation of thyroid nodules. This prospective study enrolled 46 patients with solitary, scintigraphically non-functional thyroid nodules. These patients were scheduled for surgery and underwent preoperative CEUS with pulse-inversion harmonic imaging after intravenous microbubble contrast medium administration. Using histology as a standard of reference, time-intensity curves of benign and malignant nodules were compared by means of peak enhancement and wash-out enhancement relative to the baseline intensity using a mixed model ANOVA. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant nodules on CEUS. The complete CEUS data of 42 patients (31/42 [73.8%] benign and 11/42 [26.2%] malignant nodules) revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in enhancement between benign and malignant nodules. Furthermore, based on ROC analysis, CEUS demonstrated sensitivity of 76.9%, specificity of 84.8% and accuracy of 82.6%. Quantitative analysis of CEUS using a microbubble contrast agent allows the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and may potentially serve, in addition to grey-scale and Doppler ultrasound, as an adjunctive tool in the assessment of patients with thyroid nodules. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) helps differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. • Quantitative CEUS analysis yields sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 84.8%. • CEUS may be a potentially useful adjunct in assessing thyroid nodules.

  5. Size and Ultrasound Features Affecting Results of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Dong, YiJie; Mao, MinJing; Zhan, WeiWei; Zhou, JianQiao; Zhou, Wei; Yao, JieJie; Hu, YunYun; Wang, Yan; Ye, TingJun

    2018-06-01

    Our goal was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules according to size and US features. A retrospective correlation was made with 1745 whole thyroidectomy and hemithyroidectomy specimens with preoperative US-guided FNA results. All cases were divided into 5 groups according to nodule size (≤5, 5.1-10, 10.1-15, 15.1-20, and >20 mm). For target nodules, static images and cine clips of conventional US and color Doppler were obtained. Ultrasound images were reviewed and evaluated by two radiologists with at least 5 years US working experience without knowing the results of pathology, and then agreement was achieved. The Bethesda category I rate was higher in nodules larger than 15 mm (P < .05). The diagnostic accuracy was best in nodules of 5 to 10 mm in diameter. The sensitivity, accuracy, PPV, and LR for negative US-guided FNA results were better in nodules with a size range of 5 to 15 mm. The specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and LR for positive results and the Youden index rose with increasing nodule size. Seventeen false-positive and 60 false-negative results were found in this study. The false-negative rate rose with increasing nodule size. However, the false-positive rate was highest in the group containing the smallest nodules. Nodules with circumscribed margins and those that were nonsolid and nonhypoechoic and had no microcalcifications correlated with Bethesda I FNA results. Nodules with circumscribed margins and those that were nonsolid, heterogeneous, and nonhypoechoic and had increased vascularity correlated with false-negative FNA results. Borders correlated with Bethesda I false-negative and false-positive FNA results. Tiny nodules (≤5 mm) with obscure borders tended to yield false-positive FNA results. Large nodules (>20 mm) with several US features tended to yield false-negative FNA results. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Factors associated with initial incomplete ablation for benign thyroid nodules after radiofrequency ablation: First results of CEUS evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong-Ke; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Lu, Feng; Sun, Li-Ping; He, Ya-Ping; Guo, Le-Hang; Li, Xiao-Long; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Yue, Wen-Wen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the factors associated with initial incomplete ablation (ICA) after radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules (BTNs). 69 BTNs (mean volume 6.35±5.66 ml, range 1.00-25.04 ml) confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in fifty-four patients were treated with ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and the local treatment efficacy was immediately assessed by intra-procedural contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). The RFA was performed with a bipolar electrode (CelonProSurge 150-T20, output power: 20 W). CEUS was performed with a second generation contrast agent under low acoustic power (i.e. coded phase inversion, CPI). Characteristics of clinical factors, findings on conventional gray-scale ultrasound, color-Doppler ultrasound, and CEUS were evaluated preoperatively. Factors associated with initial ICA and initial ICA patterns on CEUS were assessed. Volume reduction ratios (VRRs) of ICA nodules were compared with those with complete ablation (CA). The RFA procedures were accomplished with a mean ablation time and mean total energy deposition of 11.13±3.39 min (range, 5.38-22.13 min) and 12612±4466 J (range, 6310-26130 J) respectively. CEUS detected initial ICA in 21 of 69 (30.8%) BTNs and 16 (76.2%) of the 21 BTNs with initial ICA achieved CA after additional RFA, leading to a final CA rate of 92.8% (64/69). The factors associated with initial ICA were predominantly solid nodule, nodule close to danger triangle area, nodule close to carotid artery, and peripheral blood flow on color-Doppler ultrasound (all P < 0.05). The mean VRRs of all BTNs were 23.4%, 54.4% and 81.9% at the 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. All BTNs achieved therapeutic success in this series in that all had VRRs of >50% at the 6-month follow-up, among which 7 nodules (10.1%) had VRRs of >90%. There were significant differences in VRRs between ICA nodules and CA nodules at the 3- and 6-month follow-up (all P < 0

  7. Further Investigation on High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Treatment for Thyroid Nodules: Effectiveness Related to Baseline Volumes.

    PubMed

    Sennert, Michael; Happel, Christian; Korkusuz, Yücel; Grünwald, Frank; Polenz, Björn; Gröner, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Several minimally invasive thermal techniques have been developed for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. A new technique for this indication is high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness in varying preablative nodule volumes and whether outcome patterns that were reported during studies with other thermal ablative procedures for thyroid nodule ablation would also apply to HIFU. Over the last 2 years, 19 nodules in 15 patients (12 women) whose average age was 58.7 years (36-80) were treated with HIFU in an ambulatory setting. Patients with more than one nodule were treated in multiple sessions on the same day. The mean nodule volume was 2.56 mL (range 0.13-7.67 mL). The therapeutic ultrasound probe (Echopulse THC900888-H) used in this series functions with a frequency of 3 MHz, reaching temperatures of approximately 80°C-90°C and delivering an energy ranging from 87.6 to 320.3 J per sonication. To assess the effectiveness of thermal ablation, nodular volume was measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. The end point of the study was the volume reduction assessment after 3 months' follow-up. Therapeutic success was defined as volume reduction of more than 50% compared to baseline. This study was retrospectively analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Kendall tau. The median percentage volume reduction of all 19 nodules after 3 months was 58%. An inverse correlation between preablative nodular volume and percentage volume shrinking was found (tau = -0.46, P < .05). Therapeutic success was achieved in 10 out of 19 patients (53%). HIFU of benign thyroid nodules can be carried out as an alternative therapy for nodules ≤3 mL if patients are refusing surgery or radioiodine therapy. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assay of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: a useful and low-cost assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Daniele; Macchia, Enrico; Orsini, Paola; Piazza, Francesca; Lapi, Paola; Pasquini, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether analysis of thyroid hormones in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules can provide information about the functional status and the nature of the nodules. We studied 4 groups of patients: group 1, 17 patients with autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules; group 2, 52 patients with cold nonfunctioning thyroid nodules; group 3, 12 patients with malignant thyroid nodules; and group 4 (control group), 10 patients with nonthyroid nodular lesions (enlarged parathyroid glands or lymph nodes). The assay of thyroid hormones was performed in FNA after the washing of needles and, with patient consent, also in normal thyroid parenchyma. The free thyroxine (FT(4)) and free triiodothyronine (FT(3)) values were remarkably high in group 1 (mean, 5.5 +/- 0.53 ng/dL and 27.6 +/- 3.1 pg/mL, respectively; P<0.05 versus group 2 and group 4, the control group). The levels of FT(4) and FT(3) were very low in group 3 (<0.2 ng/dL and <1.0 pg/mL, respectively; P<0.05 versus group 2). Thyroglobulin values in FNA specimens were much higher than the normal range in human serum, but no significant differences were found between the various groups. The control group had low levels of FT(4) and FT(3) (<0.2 ng/dL and <1.0 pg/mL, respectively) in conjunction with low levels of thyroglobulin, whereas parathyroid hormone levels were high in parathyroid nodules. These results show that assay of FT(4) and FT(3) in FNA can yield information about the functional status of thyroid nodules and, indirectly, about the nature of nodules. In this era of sophisticated new molecular markers in FNA cytology, this low-cost diagnostic method can be readily performed in every laboratory.

  9. Calculation and usage of the thyroid to background ratio on the pertechnetate thyroid scan.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Seth; Metcalf, Michelle; Skidmore, Angela; Lamb, Christopher R

    2010-01-01

    Feline hyperthyroidism is a common endocrine disorder. A single dose of 148MBq (4mCi) 131I is 95-98% effective for the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats; however, the cause for treatment failures has not been determined. In a series of 113 hyperthyroid cats having pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy before treatment using a standard 148MBq (4mCi) 131I dose, the thyroid to salivary gland (T:S) ratio and the thyroid to background (T:B) ratio were calculated. Results in 107 (95%) cats successfully treated were compared with results in six (5%) cats that remained hyperthyroid after treatment. T:B ratio was significantly higher for cats that had treatment failure (median 13.0, range 3.6-73.0) than for cats successfully treated (median 4.4, range 1.2-69.0) (P = 0.02), whereas there was no significant difference in their T:S ratios (P = 0.2). The T:B ratio is a new approach to evaluating the thyroid pertechnetate scan with the intent of identifying which hyperthyroid cats may fail treatment using a standard 148 MBq (4 mCi) 131 dose and which, therefore, require a higher dose.

  10. [Triggering role of emotional stress and childbirth. Unexpected occurrence of Graves' disease compared to 96 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis and 97 cases of thyroid nodules].

    PubMed

    Martin-du Pan, R C

    1998-07-01

    98 patients with Graves' disease have been compared to 95 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and to 97 patients with benign thyroid nodules (control group) in order to evaluate the triggering role of major stressors and pregnancy in the occurrence of autoimmune thyroid diseases. A stress factor has been encountered in 11% cases of Graves' disease and in 6% of Hashimoto's and thyroid nodes (chi 2 test, not different). Graves' disease occurred after a pregnancy in 25% of the women in child bearing age versus 10% of the cases of Hashimoto's (p < 0.05) and 13% of the thyroid nodes. The role of stressors, if any, in triggering Graves' disease seems to be weak and dubious compared to the role of pregnancy and post-partum. It is assumed that the decrease of immunosuppressive hormones occurring after stress or delivery could induce a rebound autoimmune reaction responsible for the thyroid disease. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, stress and pregnancies do not seem to have any triggering role.

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Diagnostic Molecular Testing on the Surgical Decision-Making Process for Patients With Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Noureldine, Salem I; Najafian, Alireza; Aragon Han, Patricia; Olson, Matthew T; Genther, Dane J; Schneider, Eric B; Prescott, Jason D; Agrawal, Nishant; Mathur, Aarti; Zeiger, Martha A; Tufano, Ralph P

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic molecular testing is used in the workup of thyroid nodules. While these tests appear to be promising in more definitively assigning a risk of malignancy, their effect on surgical decision making has yet to be demonstrated. To investigate the effect of diagnostic molecular profiling of thyroid nodules on the surgical decision-making process. A surgical management algorithm was developed and published after peer review that incorporated individual Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology classifications with clinical, laboratory, and radiological results. This algorithm was created to formalize the decision-making process selected herein in managing patients with thyroid nodules. Between April 1, 2014, and March 31, 2015, a prospective study of patients who had undergone diagnostic molecular testing of a thyroid nodule before being seen for surgical consultation was performed. The recommended management undertaken by the surgeon was then prospectively compared with the corresponding one in the algorithm. Patients with thyroid nodules who did not undergo molecular testing and were seen for surgical consultation during the same period served as a control group. All pertinent treatment options were presented to each patient, and any deviation from the algorithm was recorded prospectively. To evaluate the appropriateness of any change (deviation) in management, the surgical histopathology diagnosis was correlated with the surgery performed. The study cohort comprised 140 patients who underwent molecular testing. Their mean (SD) age was 50.3 (14.6) years, and 75.0% (105 of 140) were female. Over a 1-year period, 20.3% (140 of 688) had undergone diagnostic molecular testing before surgical consultation, and 79.7% (548 of 688) had not undergone molecular testing. The surgical management deviated from the treatment algorithm in 12.9% (18 of 140) with molecular testing and in 10.2% (56 of 548) without molecular testing (P = .37). In the group with

  12. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of clinically suspicious thyroid nodules with an automatic aspirator: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Nagarajah, James; Sheu-Grabellus, Sien-Yi; Farahati, Jamshid; Kamruddin, Kamer A; Bockisch, Andreas; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Görges, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a simple technique for the investigation of suspicious thyroid nodules. However, low success rates are reported in the literature. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the clinical performance and impact of an automatic aspirator, referred to here as Aspirator 3, to those of the manual technique for the FNAB of clinically suspicious thyroid nodules. One hundred nine consecutive patients with 121 clinically suspicious thyroid nodules underwent a biopsy twice of the same site with the clinically approved Aspirator 3 and with the manual technique. The number of follicular cell formations and the total number of follicular cells in the aspirate were counted using the ThinPrep® method. With the Aspirator 3, the total number and the mean number of extracted cell formations were significantly higher than the values achieved with the manual technique (total: 3222 vs. 1951, p=0.02; mean: 27 vs. 16). The total number of cells that were biopsied was also higher when the Aspirator 3 was utilized (47,480 vs. 23,080, p=0.005). Overall, the Aspirator 3 was superior in 65 biopsies, and the manual technique was superior in 39 biopsies. In terms of cell formations and the total number of cells aspirated, the Aspirator 3 was superior to the manual technique. Further, the Aspirator 3 was more convenient to use and had a greater precision in needle guidance.

  13. Role of Core Needle Biopsy in the Management of Atypia/Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance Thyroid Nodules: Comparison with Repeat Fine-Needle Aspiration in Subcategory Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Na, Dong Gyu; Min, Hye Sook; Lee, Hunkyung; Won, Jae-Kyung; Seo, Hyo Bin; Kim, Ji-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of repeat fine-needle aspiration (RFNA) or core needle biopsy (CNB) has not been established in nodules categorized as atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS). Objective The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine whether CNB is more useful for management decisions than RFNA at each subcategory of AUS/FLUS nodules. Methods This study included 158 AUS/FLUS nodules (≥1 cm) from 153 consecutive patients who underwent both RFNA and CNB. The AUS/FLUS nodules were subcategorized into nuclear atypia (NA) and follicular lesions with other atypia (FOA). The diagnostic results and rate of determined management by RFNA and CNB were compared at each subcategory. The diagnostic values of RFNA and CNB for malignancy were evaluated in nodules with final diagnoses. Results CNB showed a lower rate of AUS/FLUS diagnosis, higher rates of benign and follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) diagnoses (p ≤ 0.038), and marginally higher rates of malignant diagnosis than RFNA in the NA subcategory. CNB showed a higher rate of FN/SFN (p = 0.007) than RFNA in the FOA subcategory. CNB also demonstrated a higher rate of surgery decision than RFNA in both the NA subcategory (20.2 vs. 9.6%, p < 0.001) and FOA subcategory (20.8 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.007), and a higher rate of observation decision only in the NA subcategory (48.1 vs. 35.6%, p = 0.035). CNB demonstrated a higher diagnostic performance for malignancy overall in the nodules compared with RFNA. Conclusion CNB may be more useful for management decisions than RFNA in both the NA and FOA subcategories, and has the potential to be a first-line alternative diagnostic tool in initially diagnosed AUS/FLUS nodules. PMID:26558236

  14. Characterization of the major histopathological components of thyroid nodules using sonographic textural features for clinical diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Jer; Yu, Sung-Nien; Tzeng, Jeh-En; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chang, Ku-Yaw; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Hsiao, Fu-Tsung; Wei, Chang-Kuo

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the characteristic sonographic textural feature that represents the major histopathologic components of the thyroid nodules was objectively quantified to facilitate clinical diagnosis and management. A total of 157 regions-of-interest thyroid ultrasound image was recruited in the study. The sonographic system used was the GE LOGIQ 700), (General Electric Healthcare, Chalfant St. Giles, UK). The parameters affecting image acquisition were kept in the same condition for all lesions. Commonly used texture analysis methods were applied to characterize thyroid ultrasound images. Image features were classified according to the corresponding pathologic findings. To estimate their relevance and performance to classification, ReliefF was used as a feature selector. Among the various textural features, the sum average value derived from co-occurrence matrix can well reflect echogenicity and can effectively differentiate between follicles and fibrosis base thyroid nodules. Fibrosis shows lowest echogenicity and lowest difference sum average value. Enlarged follicles show highest echogenicity and difference sum average values. Papillary cancer or follicular tumors show the difference sum average values and echogenicity between. The rule of thumb for the echogenicity is that the more follicles are mixed in, the higher the echo of the follicular tumor and papillary cancer will be and vice versa for fibrosis mixed. Areas with intermediate and lower echo should address the possibility of follicular or papillary neoplasm mixed with either follicles or fibrosis. These areas provide more cellular information for ultrasound guided aspiration

  15. Reduction of Thyroid Nodule Volume by Levothyroxine and Iodine Alone and in Combination: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reiners, C.; Paschke, R.; Wegscheider, K.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Nodular goiter is common worldwide, but there is still debate over the medical treatment. Objective: The objective of the study was the measurement of the effect of a treatment with (nonsuppressive) T4, iodine, or a combination of both compared with placebo on volume of thyroid nodules and thyroid. Design: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial in patients with nodular goiter in Germany [LISA (Levothyroxin und Iodid in der Strumatherapie Als Mono-oder Kombinationstherapie) trial]. Setting: The study was conducted in outpatient clinics in university hospitals and regional hospitals and private practices. Participants: One thousand twenty-four consecutively screened and centrally randomized euthyroid patients aged 18–65 yr with one or more thyroid nodules (minimal diameter 10 mm) participated in the study. Intervention: Intervention included placebo, iodine (I), T4, or T4+I for 1 yr. T4 doses were adapted for a TSH target range of 0.2–0.8 mU/liter. Outcome Measures: The primary end point was percent volume reduction of all nodules measured by ultrasound, and the main secondary end point was a change in goiter volume. Results: Nodule volume reductions were −17.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) −24.8/−9.0%, P < 0.001] in the T4+I group, −7.3% (95% CI −15.0/+1.2%, P = 0.201) in the T4 group, and −4.0% (95% CI −11.4/+4.2%, P = 0.328) in the I group as compared with placebo. In direct comparison, the T4+I therapy was significantly superior to T4 (P = 0.018) or I (P = 0.003). Thyroid volume reductions were −7.9% (95% CI −11.8/−3.9%, P < 0.001), −5.2% (95% CI −8.7/−1.6%, P = 0.024) and −2.5% (95% CI −6.2/+1.4%, P = 0.207), respectively. The T4+I therapy was significantly superior to I (P = 0.034) but not to T4 (P = 0.190). Conclusion: In a region with a sufficient iodine supply, a 1-yr therapy with a combination of I and T4 with incomplete suppression of thyrotropin reduced thyroid nodule volume further than either

  16. Impact of proto-oncogene mutation detection in cytological specimens from thyroid nodules improves the diagnostic accuracy of cytology.

    PubMed

    Cantara, Silvia; Capezzone, Marco; Marchisotta, Stefania; Capuano, Serena; Busonero, Giulia; Toti, Paolo; Di Santo, Andrea; Caruso, Giuseppe; Carli, Anton Ferdinando; Brilli, Lucia; Montanaro, Annalisa; Pacini, Furio

    2010-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the gold standard for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules but has the limitation of inadequate sampling or indeterminate lesions. We aimed to verify whether search of thyroid cancer-associated protooncogene mutations in cytological samples may improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC. One hundred seventy-four consecutive patients undergoing thyroid surgery were submitted to FNAC (on 235 thyroid nodules) that was used for cytology and molecular analysis of BRAF, RAS, RET, TRK, and PPRgamma mutations. At surgery these nodules were sampled to perform the same molecular testing. Mutations were found in 67 of 235 (28.5%) cytological samples. Of the 67 mutated samples, 23 (34.3%) were mutated by RAS, 33 (49.3%) by BRAF, and 11 (16.4%) by RET/PTC. In 88.2% of the cases, the mutation was confirmed in tissue sample. The presence of mutations at cytology was associated with cancer 91.1% of the times and follicular adenoma 8.9% of the time. BRAF or RET/PTC mutations were always associated with cancer, whereas RAS mutations were mainly associated with cancer (74%) but also follicular adenoma (26%). The diagnostic performance of molecular analysis was superior to that of traditional cytology, with better sensitivity and specificity, and the combination of the two techniques further contributed to improve the total accuracy (93.2%), compared with molecular analysis (90.2%) or traditional cytology (83.0%). Our findings demonstrate that molecular analysis of cytological specimens is feasible and that its results in combination with cytology improves the diagnostic performance of traditional cytology.

  17. [Prediction of occult carcinoma in contralateral nodules based on the ultrasonic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yang, L M; Li, Q; Zhao, B W; Lyu, J G; Xu, H S; Xu, L L; Li, S Y; Gao, L; Zhu, J

    2017-04-07

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence of occult carcinoma in contralateral lobes based on the ultrasonic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: The study included 202 consecutives cases of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma with benign nodules in the contralateral lobe identified by preoperative ultrasound or fine-needle aspiration from June 2014 to December 2015. All patients received total thyroidectomies, and with postoperative pathological examination they were divided into two groups, one including 60 cases with positive occult cancer and another one consisting of 142 cases with negative occult cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the sonographic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma relevant to the occurrence of occult carcinoma in the contralateral nodules. Results: Univariate analysis indicated occult carcinoma in the contralateral lobes was associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(χ(2)=3.955, P =0.047), unclear border (χ(2)=4.375, P =0.036)and multifocality in the ipsilateral(χ(2)=7.375, P =0.007), but not with tumors maximum size, location, A/T, shape, internal structure, internal echo, acoustic halo, calcification, capsular invasion and blood flow signal in the lobe with carcinoma on another side. Multivariate analysis showed unclear border ( OR =2.727, P =0.010) and multifocality in the ipsilateral( OR =2.807, P =0.005)of carcinoma were independent predictive factor for contralateral occult PTC. Conclusions: Unclear border and multifocality of PTC in the ipsilateral were closely relevant to the occurrence of occult carcinoma in the contralateral nodules.

  18. A Fresh Cadaver Model for the Instruction of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    McCrary, Hilary C; Faucett, Erynne A; Hurbon, Audriana N; Milinic, Tijana; Cervantes, Jose A; Kent, Sean L; Adamas-Rappaport, William J

    2017-07-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to determine if a fresh cadaver model (FCM) for the instruction of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules is a practical method for instruction. Study Design Pre- and postinstruction assessment of medical students' ability to perform US-guided FNA of artificially created thyroid nodules placed adjacent to the thyroid gland of a fresh cadaver. Setting University-based fresh cadaver laboratory. Subjects and Methods Study participants included a total of 17 first- and second-year medical students with minimal US training. Technical skills were assessed using a 10-item checklist. In addition, a cognitive assessment regarding the indications, contraindications, and complications of the procedure was completed. A postinstruction assessment was provided for participants 5 weeks after their initial assessment. Differences between pre- and postinstruction assessment scores of technical skills were analyzed using McNemar's test. The mean cognitive knowledge gain was analyzed using a paired 2-sample t test. Results Eight of 10 items on the skills checklist were statistically significant between pre- and postinstruction skills assessment ( P < .05). There was a statistically significant change in cognitive knowledge gain regarding the contraindications of the procedure ( P = .001), but not for indications or complications ( P = .104 and P = .111, respectively). Conclusion US-guided FNA continues to be an important diagnostic procedure in the workup of thyroid nodules, making it an essential skill to integrate into surgical skills lab. Our FCM for the instruction of US-guided FNA is the first of its kind, and this pilot study shows this is a viable method for instruction.

  19. Sonographic Features of Nodular Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Daniel Corey; Giampoli, Ellen; Montoya, Simone; Patel, Swapnil; Dogra, Vikram

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis and normal background thyroid parenchyma. Eighty-six patients who had fine-needle aspiration biopsy of 100 thyroid nodules confirmed to be HT and a thyroid ultrasound within 1 year of the biopsy were included in the study. Retrospective analysis of several sonographic features of each nodule was then performed. The mean age of patients with nodular HT was 53 years, 84% of which were female. Nodular HT occurred in a background of diffuse thyroiditis in 85% and in a homogeneous normal background in 15%. Ninety-three percent of nodules were completely solid and 7% of nodules were cystic and solid. Although the sonographic appearance of nodular HT was variable, the most common appearance was a solid (93/100) and hypoechoic nodule (44/100) with a thin hypoechoic halo (42/100) without calcifications (96/100). On color Doppler, 17% of nodules showed peripheral hypervascularity, 14% of nodules were diffusely hypervascular, 34% were iso vascular, 32% were hypovascular, and 3% were avascular. The sonographic appearance of nodular HT was not significantly different in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis compared with those without background thyroiditis. The sonographic appearance of nodular HT is variable, but the most common appearance is a solid sharply circumscribed hypoechoic nodule with thin hypoechoic halo without calcification. There was no significant difference in the appearance of nodular HT in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis compared with patients with normal background thyroid parenchyma.

  20. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as toxic nodule in an adolescent: coexistent polymorphism of the TSHR and Gsα genes.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena; Campennì, Alfredo; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Saraceno, Giovanna; Vicchio, Teresa Manuela; Carlotta, Dario; Cucinotta, Maria Paola; Micali, Carmelo; Trimarchi, Francesco; Tuccari, Giovanni; Baldari, Sergio; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    Autonomously functioning, "hot", thyroid nodules are not common in children and adolescents. Such nodules are not considered alarming because they are assumed to be benign adenomas. Herein, we present a 15-year-old girl with a papillary thyroid carcinoma of 3.5 cm in diameter, which was functionally autonomous and scintigraphically hot. The patient, initially referred to our Endocrine Unit because of a thyroid nodule, returned 6 months later for symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was confirmed biochemically. Radioactive iodine ((131)I) thyroid scintigraphy was consistent with an autonomous thyroid nodule. As per guidelines, the patient underwent surgery and a pathological examination revealed papillary carcinoma, follicular variant. The excised nodule was examined for activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), Gsα (GNAS1), H-RAS, N-RAS, K-RAS, and BRAF genes by direct sequencing. No mutations were found. Nevertheless, two combined nonfunctioning mutations were detected: a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TSHR gene, in exon 7, at codon 187 (AAT→AAC, both encoding asparagine), and a SNP within exon 8 of the Gsα gene at codon 185 (ATC→ATT, both encoding isoleucine). Both SNPs were also identified in the germline DNA of the patient. The same SNPs were sought in the parents and brother of our patient. Her father was heterozygous for the TSHR SNP, her mother heterozygous for the Gsα SNP, and her brother was wild type. This case demonstrates that the presence of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule(s) does not rule out cancer and warrants careful evaluation, especially in childhood and adolescence to overlook malignancy.

  1. Clinicopathological factors increased the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules with atypical or follicular lesions of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) risk factor of malignancy in thyroid nodule with AUS/FLUS

    PubMed Central

    Hong, In Ki; Kim, Jun Ho; Cho, Young Up; Park, Shin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) in thyroid nodules is presently most commonly used to identify whether these nodules are benign or malignant. However, atypical or follicular lesions of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), as categorized in the Bethesda System for reporting the results of FNA, cannot be classified as benign or malignant. Therefore, several clinical factors should be considered to assess the risk of malignancy in patients with AUS/FLUS. The purpose of the present study was to determine which clinical factor increased the risk of malignancy in patients with AUS/FLUS. Methods A retrospective study was done on 129 patients with fine needle aspiration categorized as AUS/FLUS from January 2011 through April 2015. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the independent effect of risk factors such as age, sex, size of nodule, atypical descriptors, and ultrasonography criteria for malignancy. Results We identified that the presence of spiculated margin (odds ratio [OR], 5.655; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.114-15.131; P = 0.001), nuclear grooving (OR, 3.697; 95% CI, 1.409-9.701; P = 0.008), irregular nuclei (OR, 3.903; 95% CI, 1.442-10.560; P = 0.001) were shown to be significantly related to malignancy on univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusion We recommend that surgical resection of thyroid nodules be considered in patients with AUS/FLUS showing the histologic findings such as nuclear grooving, irregular nuclei along with spiculated margin of ultrasonographic finding. PMID:27073790

  2. Improvement of diagnostic efficiency in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules via conventional ultrasound combined with ultrasound contrast and elastography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei-Juan; Men, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Liu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of conventional ultrasound (US), ultrasound contrast (UC) and ultrasound elastography (UE) in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 100 patients with thyroid nodules receiving operative treatment were selected; they underwent the conventional US, UE and UC examinations before operation, respectively. The nodules received pathological examination after operation to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accordance rate of each diagnostic method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the area under the curve (AUC) of ROC was calculated. The manifestations of malignant thyroid nodules in conventional US examination were mostly the hypoecho, heterogeneous echo, irregular shape, unclear boundary, aspect ratio <1, microcalcification and irregular peripheral echo halo, and there were statistically significant differences compared with the benign nodules (P<0.05). UE showed that the differences between benign and malignant nodules in 2, 3 and 4 points were statistically significant (P<0.05). The manifestations of malignant nodules in UC were mostly the irregular shape, obscure boundary, no obvious enhancement, heterogeneous enhancement and visible perfusion defects, and there were statistically significant differences compared with the benign nodules (P<0.05). ROC curve showed that both sensitivity and specificity of UE and UC were superior to those of conventional US. AUC was the largest (AUC = 0.908) and the diagnostic value was the highest in the conventional US combined with UE and UC. Conventional US combined with elastography and UC can significantly improve the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. PMID:28693244

  3. Improvement of diagnostic efficiency in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules via conventional ultrasound combined with ultrasound contrast and elastography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Juan; Men, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of conventional ultrasound (US), ultrasound contrast (UC) and ultrasound elastography (UE) in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 100 patients with thyroid nodules receiving operative treatment were selected; they underwent the conventional US, UE and UC examinations before operation, respectively. The nodules received pathological examination after operation to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accordance rate of each diagnostic method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the area under the curve (AUC) of ROC was calculated. The manifestations of malignant thyroid nodules in conventional US examination were mostly the hypoecho, heterogeneous echo, irregular shape, unclear boundary, aspect ratio <1, microcalcification and irregular peripheral echo halo, and there were statistically significant differences compared with the benign nodules (P<0.05). UE showed that the differences between benign and malignant nodules in 2, 3 and 4 points were statistically significant (P<0.05). The manifestations of malignant nodules in UC were mostly the irregular shape, obscure boundary, no obvious enhancement, heterogeneous enhancement and visible perfusion defects, and there were statistically significant differences compared with the benign nodules (P<0.05). ROC curve showed that both sensitivity and specificity of UE and UC were superior to those of conventional US. AUC was the largest (AUC = 0.908) and the diagnostic value was the highest in the conventional US combined with UE and UC. Conventional US combined with elastography and UC can significantly improve the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  4. Morphology combined with ancillary techniques: An algorithm approach for thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Rossi, E D; Martini, M; Capodimonti, S; Cenci, T; Bilotta, M; Pierconti, F; Pontecorvi, A; Lombardi, C P; Fadda, G; Larocca, L M

    2018-04-23

    Several authors have underlined the limits of morphological analysis mostly in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms (FN). The application of ancillary techniques, including immunocytochemistry (ICC) and molecular testing, contributes to a better definition of the risk of malignancy (ROM) and management of FN. According to literature, the application of models, including the evaluation of ICC, somatic mutations (ie, BRAF V 600E ), micro RNA analysis is proposed for FNs. This study discusses the validation of a diagnostic algorithm in FN with a special focus on the role of morphology then followed by ancillary techniques. From June 2014 to January 2016, we enrolled 37 FNs with histological follow-up. In the same reference period, 20 benign nodules and 20 positive for malignancy were selected as control. ICC, BRAF V 600E mutation and miR-375 were carried out on LBC. The 37 FNs included 14 atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance and 23 FN. Specifically, atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance resulted in three goitres, 10 follicular adenomas and one NIFTP whereas FN/suspicious for FN by seven follicular adenomas and 16 malignancies (nine non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features, two invasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC] and five PTC). The 20 positive for malignancy samples included two invasive follicular variant of PTC, 16 PTCs and two medullary carcinomas. The morphological features of BRAF V 600E mutation (nuclear features of PTC and moderate/abundant eosinophilic cytoplasms) were associated with 100% ROM. In the wild type cases, ROM was 83.3% in presence of a concordant positive ICC panel whilst significantly lower (10.5%) in a negative concordant ICC. High expression values of MirR-375 provided 100% ROM. The adoption of an algorithm might represent the best choice for the correct diagnosis of FNs. The morphological

  5. Characterization of benign thyroid nodules with HyperSPACE (Hyper Spectral Analysis for Characterization in Echography) before and after percutaneous laser ablation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Granchi, Simona; Vannacci, Enrico; Biagi, Elena

    2017-04-22

    To evaluate the capability of the HyperSPACE (Hyper SPectral Analysis for Characterization in Echography) method in tissue characterization, in order to provide information for the laser treatment of benign thyroid nodules in respect of conventional B-mode images and elastography. The method, based on the spectral analysis of the raw radiofrequency ultrasonic signal, was applied to characterize the nodule before and after laser treatment. Thirty patients (25 females and 5 males, age between 37 and 81 years) with thyroid benign nodule at cytology (Thyr 2) were evaluated by conventional ultrasonography, elastography, and HyperSPACE, before and after laser ablation. The images processed by HyperSPACE exhibit different color distributions that are referred to different tissue features. By calculating the percentages of the color coverages, the analysed nodules were subdivided into 3 groups. Each nodule belonging to the same group experienced, on average, similar necrosis extension. The nodules exhibit different Configurations (colors) distributions that could be indicative of the response of nodular tissue to the laser treatmentConclusions: HyperSPACEcan characterize benign nodules by providing additional information in respect of conventional ultrasound and elastography which is useful for support in the laser treatment of nodules in order to increase the probability of success.

  6. Validation of the modified 4-tiered categorization system through comparison with the 5-tiered categorization system of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for classifying small thyroid nodules on ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hye; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Y; Kwak, Jin Young

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the modified 4-tiered categorization system and to compare stratification of malignancy risk in small thyroid nodules with the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) management guidelines. From January 2015 to December 2015, 737 thyroid nodules measured ≥ 1 cm and <2 cm were included in this study. Each nodule was assigned a category with the ultrasonographic patterns described by the 2015 ATA guidelines. On univariate analysis, there was no difference of malignancy risk between low suspicion and very low suspicion nodules (P = .584). Therefore, we suggested a modified 4-tiered categorization, which combines very low suspicion and low suspicion nodules into the "revised low suspicion" category. Specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy were higher with the modified 4-tiered categorization system (P < .001 for all). The modified 4-tiered categorization system allows more efficient management with better diagnostic performance than the 2015 ATA categorization system in small thyroid nodules. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Quantitative Shear Wave Velocity Measurement on Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for Differential Diagnosis between Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Ji; Li, Dan-Dan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Le-Hang; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Liu, Chang; Liu, Lin-Na; Li, Xiao-Long; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Shen; Xing, Mingzhao

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave velocity (SWV) measurement on acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules using meta-analysis. The databases of PubMed and the Web of Science were searched. Studies published in English on assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of ARFI elastography for the differentiation of thyroid nodules were collected. The quantitative measurement of ARFI elastography was evaluated by SWV (m/s). Meta-Disc Version 1.4 software was used to describe and calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and summary receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed a total of 13 studies, which included 1,854 thyroid nodules (including 1,339 benign nodules and 515 malignant nodules) from 1,641 patients. The summary sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules by SWV were 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.84) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.81-0.86), respectively. The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.21 (95% CI: 3.56-7.62) and 0.23 (95% CI: 0.17-0.32), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 27.53 (95% CI: 14.58-52.01), and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.91 (Q* = 0.84). In conclusion, SWV measurement on ARFI elastography has high sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules and can be used in combination with conventional ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. First clinical use of the EchoTrack guidance approach for radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland nodules.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alfred Michael; Seitel, Alexander; Bopp, Nasrin; Erbelding, Christian; Cheray, Dominique; Delorme, Stefan; Grünwald, Frank; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2017-06-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of thyroid nodules is an alternative to surgical resection that offers the benefits of minimal scars for the patient, lower complication rates, and shorter treatment times. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred modality for guiding these procedures. The needle is usually kept within the US scanning plane to ensure needle visibility. However, this restricts flexibility in both transducer and needle movement and renders the procedure difficult, especially for inexperienced users. Existing navigation solutions often involve electromagnetic (EM) tracking, which requires placement of an external field generator (FG) in close proximity of the intervention site in order to avoid distortion of the EM field. This complicates the clinical workflow as placing the FG while ensuring that it neither restricts the physician's workspace nor affects tracking accuracy is awkward and time-consuming. The EchoTrack concept overcomes these issues by combining the US probe and the EM FG in one modality, simultaneously providing both real-time US and tracking data without requiring the placement of an external FG for tracking. We propose a system and workflow to use EchoTrack for RFA of thyroid nodules. According to our results, the overall error of the EchoTrack system resulting from errors related to tracking and calibration is below 2 mm. Navigated thyroid RFA with the proposed concept is clinically feasible. Motion of internal critical structures relative to external markers can be up to several millimeters in extreme cases. The EchoTrack concept with its simple setup, flexibility, improved needle visualization, and additional guidance information has high potential to be clinically used for thyroid RFA.

  9. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ASSOCIAZIONE MEDICI ENDOCRINOLOGI MEDICAL GUIDELINES FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID NODULES--2016 UPDATE.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Garber, Jeffrey R; Duick, Daniel S; Harrell, R Mack; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Paschke, Ralf; Valcavi, Roberto; Vitti, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid nodules are detected in up to 50 to 60% of healthy subjects. Most nodules do not cause clinically significant symptoms, and as a result, the main challenge in their management is to rule out malignancy, with ultrasonography (US) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy serving as diagnostic cornerstones. The key issues discussed in these guidelines are as follows: (1) US-based categorization of the malignancy risk and indications for US-guided FNA (henceforth, FNA), (2) cytologic classification of FNA samples, (3) the roles of immunocytochemistry and molecular testing applied to thyroid FNA, (4) therapeutic options, and (5) follow-up strategy. Thyroid nodule management during pregnancy and in children are also addressed. On the basis of US features, thyroid nodules may be categorized into 3 groups: low-, intermediate-and high-malignancy risk. FNA should be considered for nodules ≤10 mm diameter only when suspicious US signs are present, while nodules ≤5 mm should be monitored rather than biopsied. A classification scheme of 5 categories (nondiagnostic, benign, indeterminate, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant) is recommended for the cytologic report. Indeterminate lesions are further subdivided into 2 subclasses to more accurately stratify the risk of malignancy. At present, no single cytochemical or genetic marker can definitely rule out malignancy in indeterminate nodules. Nevertheless, these tools should be considered together with clinical data, US signs, elastographic pattern, or results of other imaging techniques to improve the management of these lesions. Most thyroid nodules do not require any treatment, and levothyroxine (LT4) suppressive therapy is not recommended. Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) should be the first-line treatment option for relapsing, benign cystic lesions, while US-guided thermal ablation treatments may be considered for solid or mixed symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for

  10. Combined value of Virtual Touch tissue quantification and conventional sonographic features for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Shi, Qiusheng; Gu, Jiying; Jiang, Luying; Bai, Min; Liu, Long; Wu, Ying; Du, Lianfang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of sonographic features including Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ; Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA) for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm. Seventy-one thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm with pathologic diagnoses were included in this study. The conventional sonographic features and quantitative elasticity features (VTQ) were observed and compared between benign and malignant nodules. There were 39 benign and 32 malignant nodules according to histopathologic examination. When compared with benign nodules, malignant nodules were more frequently taller than wide, poorly defined, and markedly hypoechoic (P < .05). Color Doppler sonographic features were not significantly different between benign and malignant nodules. The VTQ value for malignant nodules (mean ± SD 3.260 ± 0.725 m/s) was significantly higher than that of benign ones (2.108 ± 0.455 m/s; P < .001). The cutoff point for the differential diagnosis was 2.910 m/s, with sensitivity, specificity, a positive predictive value, a negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of 71.9%, 100%, 100%, 81.2%, and 87.3% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that a taller-than-wide shape, a poorly defined boundary, marked hypoechogenicity, and a VTQ value greater than 2.910 m/s were independent risk factors for malignancy, with odds ratios of 69.366, 41.864, 5.945, and 64.991. The combination of VTQ with a taller-than-wide shape had the highest sensitivity and specificity of 90.6% and 97.4%. The shape, margin, echogenicity, and VTQ value are useful sonographic criteria for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm. When VTQ was combined with B-mode sonographic features, the sensitivity was improved significantly.

  11. Calcitonin assay in wash-out fluid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with a thyroid nodule and border-line value of the hormone.

    PubMed

    Massaro, F; Dolcino, M; Degrandi, R; Ferone, D; Mussap, M; Minuto, F; Giusti, M

    2009-04-01

    Assaying calcitonin (CT) in the wash-out fluid from fine-needle aspiration biopsies (CT-FNAB) could be useful in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The aim of this study was to correlate serum CT with cytology and CT-FNAB. Twenty-seven subjects (age range 27-75 yr) were studied. FNAB was performed in a thyroid nodule (no.=16) or lymph-node (no.=1 previously operated on for MTC) or in the prevalent nodule of multinodular goiters (no.=10). CT-FNAB values obtained in 37 subjects with normal serum CT (<10 ng/l) who underwent FNAB for thyroid nodules served as a negative control. In these subjects, CTFNAB values were 8.2+/-6.4 ng/l (range 2-30 ng/l). In patients with a thyroid nodule under evaluation for MTC, serum CT and CT-FNAB values were 14.5+/-3.9 ng/l (range 10-24 ng/l) and 16.4+/-29.8 ng/l (range 2-144 ng/l), respectively. In 4 patients, CT-FNAB values were higher than the highest values found in our negative controls (30 ng/l), but cytology results were compatible with a benign thyroid lesion and pentagastrin testing was negative. In 3 cases with CT-FNAB <30 ng/l, cytology was indicative of an indeterminate or probably follicular malignant lesion and histology was negative for MTC. None of the other subjects in whom pentagastrin testing was conducted showed serum CT values >100 ng/l. Our data do not show any correlation between CT-FNAB and serum CT. In conclusion, borderline CT values in patients with thyroid nodules are not rare. Our experience suggests that CT-FNAB does not have the same importance as that reported in the literature for thyroglobulin and PTH assay in wash-out fluid after FNAB in malignant thyroid and hyperfunctioning parathyroid lesions.

  12. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Management of cystic or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: the role of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bellantone, Rocco; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Raffaelli, Marco; Traini, Emanuela; De Crea, Carmela; Rossi, Esther Diana; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    Conventional fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for cystic thyroid nodules (CTNs) has a high rate of nondiagnostic and false-negative results. Ultrasound-guided FNAB (UG-FNAB) permits direct sampling of the wall and/or the solid portion of CTNs, increasing the possibility of a representative sample. In this study we evaluated the role of UG-FNAB in CTNs management. Five-hundred-seventy-five UG-FNAB of CTNs were performed. Thyroidectomy was carried out in 119 of these cases. The medical records of these 119 patients were reviewed and form the basis of this report. The nondiagnostic smear rate was 9.2%. Cytological diagnosis was benign nodule in 42 cases, predominantly follicular lesion in 50 cases, and suspicious or malignant lesion in 16 cases. The final pathology revealed a benign nodule in 98 cases (82.4%) and a carcinoma in 21 (17.6%). The overall accuracy of UG-FNAB was 88.0%. No significant differences were found in age, sex, lesion size, or echographic pattern (p = NS) comparing patients with benign CTNs to patients with malignant CTNs. UG-FNAB has a low rate of nondiagnostic smears and a high overall accuracy in CTNs. All CTNs should undergo UG-FNAB to select patients for surgery, since the malignancy rate is not negligible and no clinical parameter can reliably predict it.

  14. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (P< .05). Sonographic features of thyroid cancer are similar in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Web-based thyroid imaging reporting and data system: Malignancy risk of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance thyroid nodules calculated by a combination of ultrasonography features and biopsy results.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Shin, Jung Hee; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Seon-Ok; Lee, Won-Hong; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae Yong; Chung, Ki-Wook; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2018-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to construct a web-based predictive model using ultrasound characteristics and subcategorized biopsy results for thyroid nodules of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) to stratify the risk of malignancy. Data included 672 thyroid nodules from 656 patients from a historical cohort. We analyzed ultrasound images of thyroid nodules and biopsy results according to nuclear atypia and architectural atypia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to predict whether nodules were diagnosed as malignant or benign. The ultrasound features, including spiculated margin, marked hypoechogenicity, calcifications, biopsy results, and cytologic atypia, showed significant differences between groups. A 13-point risk scoring system was developed, and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the development and validation sets were 0.837 and 0.830, respectively (http://www.gap.kr/thyroidnodule_b3.php). We devised a web-based predictive model using the combined information of ultrasound characteristics and biopsy results for AUS/FLUS thyroid nodules to stratify the malignant risk. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules using micro ribonucleic acid amplification in residual cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Mazeh, Haggi; Levy, Yair; Mizrahi, Ido; Appelbaum, Liat; Ilyayev, Nadia; Halle, David; Freund, Herbert R; Nissan, Aviram

    2013-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most commonly used diagnostic tool to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Nevertheless, some FNAB cytology results are not definite. In such cases diagnostic thyroid lobectomy is performed with malignancy rate on final histopathology ranging at 15%-75%. The aim of this study was to improve on the accuracy of FNAB-based cytology by amplification of microRNAs (micro ribonucleic acids [miRs]) from the residual cells left in the FNAB needle after submission for cytology. Residual cells were collected from the needle cup after FNAB cytology of 77 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules. miR-enriched RNA was extracted for all patients with cytology showing either follicular lesion or suspicion for malignancy (n=11). The expression of miR-21, -31, -146b, -187, -221, and -222 was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results were compared with final surgical histopathology. RNA was successfully extracted from all FNAB specimens. Five patients had FNAB cytology suspicious for malignancy. The miR panel was positive in all five (100%). Six patients had follicular lesions on FNAB. The miR panel was positive in three of four patients (75%) with confirmed malignancy and was negative in two of two (0%) patients with benign pathology results. This corresponded to a specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 88%, and accuracy of 90%. RNA extraction from FNAB residual cells is feasible, and a miR panel amplified from the extracted RNA seems like a promising diagnostic tool in this limited number of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytical performance of the ThyroSeq v3 genomic classifier for cancer diagnosis in thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Nikiforova, Marina N; Mercurio, Stephanie; Wald, Abigail I; Barbi de Moura, Michelle; Callenberg, Keith; Santana-Santos, Lucas; Gooding, William E; Yip, Linwah; Ferris, Robert L; Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2018-04-15

    Molecular tests have clinical utility for thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, although their performance requires further improvement. This study evaluated the analytical performance of the newly created ThyroSeq v3 test. ThyroSeq v3 is a DNA- and RNA-based next-generation sequencing assay that analyzes 112 genes for a variety of genetic alterations, including point mutations, insertions/deletions, gene fusions, copy number alterations, and abnormal gene expression, and it uses a genomic classifier (GC) to separate malignant lesions from benign lesions. It was validated in 238 tissue samples and 175 FNA samples with known surgical follow-up. Analytical performance studies were conducted. In the training tissue set of samples, ThyroSeq GC detected more than 100 genetic alterations, including BRAF, RAS, TERT, and DICER1 mutations, NTRK1/3, BRAF, and RET fusions, 22q loss, and gene expression alterations. GC cutoffs were established to distinguish cancer from benign nodules with 93.9% sensitivity, 89.4% specificity, and 92.1% accuracy. This correctly classified most papillary, follicular, and Hurthle cell lesions, medullary thyroid carcinomas, and parathyroid lesions. In the FNA validation set, the GC sensitivity was 98.0%, the specificity was 81.8%, and the accuracy was 90.9%. Analytical accuracy studies demonstrated a minimal required nucleic acid input of 2.5 ng, a 12% minimal acceptable tumor content, and reproducible test results under variable stress conditions. The ThyroSeq v3 GC analyzes 5 different classes of molecular alterations and provides high accuracy for detecting all common types of thyroid cancer and parathyroid lesions. The analytical sensitivity, specificity, and robustness of the test have been successfully validated and indicate its suitability for clinical use. Cancer 2018;124:1682-90. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  18. Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies Gene Mutations That Are Predictive of Malignancy in Residual Needle Rinses Collected From Fine-Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Maren Y; Mody, Dina; Hull, April; Pepper, Kristi; Hendrickson, Heather; Olsen, Randall

    2018-02-01

    - Thyroid nodules have a prevalence of approximately 70% in adults. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive, cost-effective, standard method to collect tissue from thyroid nodules for cytologic examination. However, approximately 15% of thyroid FNA specimens cannot be unambiguously diagnosed as benign or malignant. - To investigate whether clinically actionable data can be obtained using next-generation sequencing of residual needle rinse material. - A total of 24 residual needle rinse specimens with malignant (n = 6), indeterminate (n = 9), or benign (n = 9) thyroid FNA diagnoses were analyzed in our clinical molecular diagnostics laboratory using next-generation sequencing assays designed to detect gene mutations and translocations that commonly occur in thyroid cancer. Results were correlated with surgical diagnoses and clinical outcomes. - Interpretable data were generated from 23 of 24 residual needle rinse specimens. Consistent with its well-known role in thyroid malignancy, BRAF V600E mutations were detected in 4 malignant cases. An NRAS mutation was detected in 1 benign case. No mutations were detected from specimens with indeterminate diagnoses. - Our data demonstrate that residual thyroid FNA needle rinses are an adequate source of material for molecular diagnostic testing. Importantly, detection of a mutation implicated in thyroid malignancy was predictive of the final surgical diagnosis and clinical outcome. Our strategy to triage thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology with molecular testing eliminates the need to perform additional FNA passes into dedicated media or to schedule additional invasive procedures. Further investigation with a larger sample size to confirm the clinical utility of our proposed strategy is underway.

  19. Galectin-3 Performance in Histologic and Cytologic Assessment of Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Virili, Camilla; Romanelli, Francesco; Crescenzi, Anna; Giovanella, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The literature on Galectin-3 (Gal-3) was systematically reviewed to achieve more robust information on its histologic reliability in identifying thyroid cancers and on the concordance between Gal-3 test in histologic and cytologic samples. A computer search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was conducted by combinations of the terms thyroid and Gal-3. Initially, 545 articles were found and, after their critical review, 52 original papers were finally included. They reported 8172 nodules with histologic evaluation of Gal-3, of which 358 with also preoperative FNAC Gal-3 assessment. At histology, Gal-3 sensitivity was 87% (95% confidence intervals [CI] from 86% to 88%), and specificity 87% (95% CI from 86% to 88%); in both cases, we found heterogeneity (I2 85% and 93%, respectively) and significant publication bias (p < 0.001). The pooled rate of positive Gal-3 at fine needle aspiration (FNAC) among cancers with histologically proven Gal-3 positivity was 94% (95% CI from 89% to 97%), with neither heterogeneity (I2 14.5%) nor bias (p = 0.086). These data show high reliability of Gal-3 for thyroid cancer at histology, while its sensitivity on FNAC samples is lower. The limits of cytologic preparations and interpretation of Gal-3 results have to be solved. PMID:28800068

  20. Ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules: Guidelines and recommendations vs clinical practice; a 12-month study of 89 patients.

    PubMed

    Peli, M; Capalbo, E; Lovisatti, M; Cosentino, M; Berti, E; Mattai Dal Moro, R; Cariati, M

    2012-06-01

    Given the high prevalence of thyroid nodules in the general population it is essential to develop a method for identifying those nodules which require fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) due to suspicion for malignancy in order to avoid over- or under treatment of this disease. The ultrasound (US) criteria identified by Kim et al. and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists appear to be the most sensitive and most specific. The purpose of this study was to analyze a sample of patients who underwent FNAB of the thyroid and to compare the obtained data with the international guidelines and the recommendations for management of thyroid nodules. This study analyzed the clinical, anamnestic and US reasons for which 97 nodules located in 89 patients underwent FNAB, and the data were compared with the criteria set by the guidelines and with the cytological results. Echogenicity was indication for FNAB in 99% of cases, appearance of the margins in 75.3%, presence of calcifications in 93.8% and presence of vascularity in 73.2%. In a total of 4.1% of cases, cytological outcome was positive for malignancy, 21.6% necessitated monitoring, 4.1% were referred to surgery and histological examination of the surgical specimen and 63.9% resulted negative for malignancy. The finding of hypoechoic nodules often leads to continued investigation; the presence of intranodular vascularization detected at Doppler US is perceived as suspicious and the presence of microcalcifications always leads to further investigation. On the request of the endocrinologist the dominant nodule in a goiter is in most cases subjected to FNAB even if the volume has not increased. Adequate US criteria can help identify potentially malignant nodules and guide implementation of FNAB. However, identification of malignant nodules using instrumental investigation cannot disregard medical records and clinical laboratory tests. According to the authors' experience, a close collaboration between

  1. EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D Utility Measures in Symptomatic benign Thyroid Nodules: Acceptability and Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carlos K H; Lang, Brian H H; Yu, Hill M S; Lam, Cindy L K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acceptability, validity, and reliability of the EuroQoL Five-Dimension Five-Level (EQ-5D-5L) and Short-Form Six-Dimension (SF-6D) health utility measures in patients with symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. Data from a randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02398721) of 294 patients with symptomatic benign thyroid nodules were utilized for this psychometric evaluation of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) measurement. Three HR-QOL questionnaires-the generic 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2), EQ-5D-5L, and SF-6D-were interviewer-administered at baseline and 2 weeks afterwards. Responses to SF-6D were transformed to SF-6D utility scores using a Hong Kong population scoring algorithm derived by standard gamble, whereas responses to EQ-5D-5L were mapped onto EQ-5D-3L response via interim mapping algorithms and then converted to EQ-5D-5L utility scores using a Chinese-specific value set. Construct validity was determined by evaluating Spearman correlation between SF-12v2 scores and utility scores. Two-week test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient. No significant (>15%) floor and ceiling effects were observed for SF-6D utility scores. The SF-6D utility scores had a moderate Spearman rank correlation with the SF-12v2 domain score providing evidence for adequate construct validity. The SF-6D utility scores showed good test-retest reliability (0.794; range 0.696-0.860). Better reliability was observed in SF-6D utility scores than in EQ-5D-5L utility scores. While the EQ-5D-5L instrument was less reproducible, the SF-6D instrument appeared to be an applicable, valid, and reliable measure in assessing the HR-QOL of Chinese patients with symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. The impact of utility score selection on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of clinical interventions targeted to these patients needs further exploration. NCT02398721, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  2. Evaluation of thyroid nodule characteristics in subclinical hypothyroid patients under a myo-inositol plus selenium treatment.

    PubMed

    Nordio, M; Basciani, S

    2018-04-01

    The anticancer effect of myo-inositol (MI) is catching researchers' attention worldwide. Thyroid nodules (TNs) have been detected by ultrasound (US) in up to 76% of the general population and, although most of them are benign, thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 642 patients with suspected hypothyroidism undergoing US. The analysis was addressed exclusively to patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels borderline associated to TNs classified as class I and II; 1 group (control, no. 16) no treatment was prescribed; the other group (treated, no. 18) underwent treatment with 1 tablet containing MI plus selenium (Se) every day, for six months. Clinical data were collected to evaluate the nodular size, number, and elasticity, as well as TSH levels. Final data were analyzed from 34 patients: in 76% of mixed TNs was observed a significant reduction of their size and 56% of them significantly regressed nodule stiffness following oral supplementation with MI plus Se. The mean number of mixed nodules for patient shifted from 1.39 ± 0.16 to 1.05 ± 0.15 (p ≤ 0.05). TSH levels dropped from 4.2 ± 0.21 mIU/L at baseline to 2.1 ± 0.20 mIU/L post-treatment (p < 0.001). In the control group, 38% of TNs reduced their diameter but TSH levels significantly increased up to the threshold after six months (from 3.95 ± 0.18 mIU/L to 4.30 ± 0.22 mIU/L, p ≤ 0.05). In SCH patients undergoing treatment with MI plus Se, a reduction of the size, number and elasticity score of TNs as well as TSH levels was observed. Further studies are required, either in vitro and in vivo, to investigate the use of MI plus Se for the management of TNs.

  3. Suggesting the cytologic diagnosis of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP): A retrospective analysis of atypical and suspicious nodules.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Kyle C; Howitt, Brooke E; Barletta, Justine A; Cibas, Edmund S; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2018-02-01

    The term "noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" (NIFTP) has replaced a subset of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma due to the indolent behavior of such tumors. NIFTPs are most often classified in an "indeterminate" diagnostic category. In the current study, the authors sought to identify cytologic features helpful in distinguishing NIFTP from other entities in these categories, particularly benign nodules. The authors retrospectively evaluated a consecutive cohort of 130 thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens with an indeterminate diagnosis and available histopathologic follow-up. All FNA specimens were evaluated using the ThinPrep method. Each FNA was blindly reviewed by 2 board-certified cytopathologists, who assessed overall cellularity; architectural parameters; and nuclear features, including nuclear pallor and fine chromatin, distinct nucleoli, and irregular nuclear membranes. Each case received a score of 0 to 3, based on the presence or absence of these 3 nuclear features. Nuclear but not architectural features appeared to distinguish NIFTP from benign nodules. Ninety-one percent of the NIFTPs (32 of 35 NIFTPs) received a score of ≥2, compared with 35% of benign nodules (23 of 66 benign nodules) (P<.0001). In contrast, NIFTP could not be differentiated from the invasive/infiltrative follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma using these criteria (P = 1.000). Nuclear scoring was found to be especially useful in atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS); a score ≥2 enriched for NIFTP (39% vs 3% of AUS cases with a score <2), whereas a score <2 was more likely benign (85% vs 50% of AUS cases with a score ≥2). In indeterminate FNA specimens, the distinction of a possible NIFTP from a benign thyroid nodule can be suggested using a simple nuclear scoring system that is most valuable in AUS aspirates. Cancer Cytopathol 2018;126:86-93. © 2017

  4. Outcomes of Bethesda Categories III and IV Thyroid Nodules Over 5 Years and Performance of the Afirma Gene Expression Classifier: A Single-Institution Study.

    PubMed

    Deaver, Kelsi E; Haugen, Bryan R; Pozdeyev, Nikita; Marshall, Carrie B

    2018-05-23

    The second edition Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology estimates 6-18% malignancy rate of category III (B3) and 10-40% for category IV (B4) nodules; however, reported malignancy rates have considerable variability among institutions. Use of molecular classifiers (including Afirma Gene Expression Classifier, GEC) can be utilized in management of thyroid nodules. Our objective was to analyze malignancy rates of B3 and B4 nodules and determine clinical outcomes of GEC Benign nodules. A retrospective analysis of 2019 thyroid FNAs was performed at the University of Colorado from 2011-2015, including molecular, surgical, and clinical follow-up. Of 2019 FNAs analyzed, 231 (11.4%) were diagnosed as B3 and 80 (4.0%) as B4. GEC was obtained in 54.1% of B3 cases, with nearly half (48.8%) having a Benign result. Surgery was performed in 40.7% B3 cases with a 24.5% malignancy rate, ranging 8-38% by year. In the B4 group, 52.5% underwent molecular testing with 28.6% as GEC Benign. 68.8% of B4 cases underwent surgery with a 20% malignancy rate, ranging 0-42% by year. 73 GEC Benign cases were reviewed: 5 (6.8%) underwent surgery, with none demonstrating malignancy in the target nodule. Size remained stable for most GEC Benign nodules: 75.9% (B3) and 71.4% (B4) with no malignancy on repeat FNA. Our 5-year review demonstrated that malignancy rates of B3 and B4 nodules showed year-to-year variability. We suggest that clinicians use a multi-year average of their institution's malignancy rates to optimally manage patients. Follow-up for GEC Benign cases thus far supports their indolent nature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Proposed algorithm for management of patients with thyroid nodules/focal lesions, based on ultrasound (US) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB); our own experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The standard management in patients with thyroid nodules is to assess the risk of malignancy, based on cytological examination. On the other hand, there are thyroid patterns of ultrasound (US) image, associated with an increased risk of malignancy. The aim of our study was to create a diagnostic algorithm that would employ both data from US examination (expressed by a total score, according to our scoring system) and FNAB results, classified according to Bethesda system (The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology - TBSRTC categories). Material and methods 100 thyroid cancer foci (94 papillary carcinomas, 4 medullary carcinomas, 2 undifferentiated carcinomas) and 100 benign focal lesions were selected during postoperative histopathological examination of thyroid glands excised during surgery from 111 patients. The corresponding US images of each lesion – performed in the course of preoperative diagnostics – were evaluated for the presence of seven (7) different features in US image, suggesting a malignant character of lesion, viz. vascularity, i.e., the increased central intranodular blood flows, microcalcifications, “taller-than-wide” orientation, solid composition, hypoechogenicity, irregular margin and either absence of peripheral halo or the presence of outer shell of uneven thickness, surrounding the lesion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values and odds ratios for each US feature were calculated. Results In US image of the analyzed cancer foci, we obtained the following values of odds ratio for each of the above mentioned features suggesting malignancy: “taller-than-wide” orientation - odds ratio - 301.0, microcalcifications - 24.67, increased intranodular vascularity - 20.44, hypoechogenicity - 18.61, irregular margins - 7.81, absence of halo - 5.88, and solid composition - 4.16. Taking into account our own experience and the present data, in juxtaposition with the opinions of

  6. Association of Malignancy Prevalence With Test Properties and Performance of the Gene Expression Classifier in Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurayshi, Zaid; Deniwar, Ahmed; Thethi, Tina; Mallik, Tilak; Srivastav, Sudesh; Murad, Fadi; Bhatia, Parisha; Moroz, Krzysztof; Sholl, Andrew B; Kandil, Emad

    2017-04-01

    It is crucial for clinicians to know the malignancy prevalence within each indeterminate cytologic category to estimate the performance of the gene expression classifier (GEC). To examine the variability in the performance of the GEC. This retrospective cohort study of patients with Bethesda category III and IV thyroid nodules used single-institution data from January 1, 2013, through February 29, 2016. Expected negative predictive value (NPV) was calculated by adopting published sensitivity and specificity. Observed NPV was calculated based on the true-negative rate. Outcomes were compared with pooled data from 11 studies published January 1, 2010, to January 31, 2016. A total of 145 patients with 154 thyroid nodules were included in the study (mean [SD] age, 56.0 [16.2] years; 106 females [73.1%]). Malignancy prevalence was 45%. On the basis of this prevalence, the expected NPV is 85% and the observed NPV is 69%. If the prevalence is assumed to be 25%, the expected NPV would be 94%, whereas the observed NPV would be 85%. Pooled data analysis of 11 studies comprising 1303 participants revealed a malignancy prevalence of 31% (95% CI, 29%-34%) and a pooled NPV of 92% (95% CI, 87%-96%). In this study, variability in the performance of the GEC was not solely a function of malignancy prevalence and may have been attributable to intrinsic variability of the test sensitivity and specificity. The utility of the GEC in practice is elusive because of this variability. A better definition of the GEC's intrinsic properties is needed.

  7. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  8. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology.

    PubMed

    Labourier, Emmanuel; Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E; Lupo, Mark A; Manganelli, Monique L; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73-97%) and 85% (95% CI, 75-92%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 85-98%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve the preoperative risk-based management of benign nodules with

  9. Autonomous functioning thyroid nodules and 131I in diagnosis and therapy after 50 years of experience: what is still open to debate?

    PubMed

    Ronga, Giuseppe; Filesi, Mauro; D'Apollo, Rosaria; Toteda, Maria; Di Nicola, Angelo Domenico; Colandrea, Marzia; Travascio, Laura; Vestri, Anna Rita; Montesano, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    Autonomous functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN), defined as "hot nodules" at thyroid scan, are often cured by radioiodine treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the long-term outcome in patients treated with an 131I calculated dose, to identify a possible "size-tailored" dose, and to simplify follow-up procedures. Retrospective analysis was carried out on 1402 cases, covering a period of 50 years, of AFTN treated with an 131I calculated dose. Our study focused on nodular size and mean administered dose. Concordance between thyroid scan and serum TSH levels at 3-6 months from treatment was considered. A single 131I dose was effective for the vast majority of patients (93%). The outcome was influenced by nodular size. On the basis of the Italian dose limit for outpatient treatment, our population was divided into subgroups according to administered doses (more or less than 16 mCi) and nodular dimensions: no differences in outcome were observed for each class of nodule size. A dose ≤10 mCi was effective on the smaller nodules (50.1% of our population). The agreement between TSH and scan after treatment was 90.3% at 3 months and 94.5% at 6 months. 131I therapy with a calculated dose is an effective treatment of AFTN. If a fixed dose is chosen, 16 mCi is often resolutive and for nodules <3 cm a dose of 10 mCi can suffice. Nodules >5 cm are eligible for surgery. TSH is the only parameter required to evaluate the outcome.

  10. Is Diagnostic Performance of Quantitative 2D-Shear Wave Elastography Optimal for Clinical Classification of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules?: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nattabi, Haliimah A; Sharif, Norhafidzah M; Yahya, Noorazrul; Ahmad, Rozilawati; Mohamad, Mazlyfarina; Zaki, Faizah M; Yusoff, Ahmad N

    2017-10-17

    This study is a dedicated 2D-shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) review aimed at systematically eliciting up-to-date evidence of its clinical value in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic value of 2D-SWE for thyroid malignancy risk stratification published until December 2016. The retrieved titles and abstracts were screened and evaluated according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy included in Systematic Review 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Extracted 2D-SWE diagnostic performance data were meta-analyzed to assess the summary sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. After stepwise review, 14 studies in which 2D-SWE was used to evaluate 2851 thyroid nodules (1092 malignant, 1759 benign) from 2139 patients were selected for the current study. Study quality on QUADAS-2 assessment was moderate to high. The summary sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 2D-SWE for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.69), 0.78 (CI: 0.76-0.80), and 0.851 (Q* = 0.85), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and positive likelihood ratio were 12.73 (CI: 8.80-18.43), 0.31 (CI: 0.22-0.44), and 3.87 (CI: 2.83-5.29), respectively. Diagnostic performance of quantitative 2D-SWE for malignancy risk stratification of thyroid nodules is suboptimal with mediocre sensitivity and specificity, contrary to earlier reports of excellence. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 1, sonographic analysis of the nodular form of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lauren; Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Reading, Carl C; Langer, Jill E; Desser, Terry; Szabunio, Margaret M; Hildebolt, Charles F; Mandel, Susan J; Cronan, John J

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sonographic appearance of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis. As part of an ongoing multiinstitutional study, patients who underwent ultrasound examination and fine-needle aspiration of one or more thyroid nodules were analyzed for multiple predetermined sonographic features. Patients completed a questionnaire, including information about thyroid function and thyroid medication. Patients (n = 61) with fine-needle aspiration cytologic results consistent with nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 64) were included in the study. The mean (+/- SD) diameter of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis was 15 +/- 7.33 mm. Nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis occurred as a solitary nodule in 36% (23/64) of cases and in the setting of five or more nodules in 23% (15/64) of cases. Fifty-five percent (35/64) of the cases of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis occurred within a sonographic background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis, and 45% (29/64) of cases occurred within normal thyroid parenchyma. The sonographic appearance was extremely variable. It was most commonly solid (69% [42/61] of cases) and hypoechoic (47% [27/58] of cases). Twenty percent (13/64) of nodules had calcifications (seven with nonspecific bright reflectors, four with macrocalcifications, and three eggshell), and 5% (3/64) of nodules had colloid. Twenty-seven percent (17/64) of nodules had a hypoechoic halo. The margins were well defined in 60% (36/60) and ill defined in 40% (24/60) of nodules. On Doppler analysis, 35% (22/62) of nodules were hypervascular, 42% (26/62) were isovascular or hypovascular, and 23% (14/62) were avascular. The sonographic features and vascularity of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis were extremely variable.

  12. The cost-effectiveness of iodine 131 scintigraphy, ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the initial diagnosis of solitary thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ayesha N; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Quraishi, Sadeq A; Fan, Chris Y; Stack, Brendan C

    2006-03-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration biopsy, iodine 131 scintigraphy, and ultrasonography for the initial diagnostic workup of a solitary palpable thyroid nodule. A deterministic cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a decision tree to model the diagnostic strategies. A single, mid-Atlantic academic medical center. Expected costs, expected number of cases correctly diagnosed, and incremental cost per additional case correctly diagnosed. Relative to the routine use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy, the incremental cost per case correctly diagnosed is 24,554 dollars for the iodine 131 scintigraphy strategy and 1212 dollars for the ultrasound strategy. A diagnostic strategy using initial fine-needle aspiration biopsy for palpable thyroid nodules was found to be cost-effective compared with the other approaches as long as a payor's willingness to pay for an additional correct diagnosis is less than 1212 dollars. Prospective studies are needed to validate these finding in clinical practice.

  13. Treatment of benign thyroid nodules by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) at different acoustic powers: a study on in-silico phantom.

    PubMed

    Bini, Fabiano; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Marinozzi, Franco; Giovanella, Luca

    2018-03-01

    The non-surgical therapies of benign thyroid nodules are gaining momentum due to the possibility to reduce the nodule's volume and avoid surgery. As the last technique introduced, high intensity focused ultrasound allows the thermal tissue treatment by directing energy inside the targeted nodule with no invasive instruments. In the present study we applied the Food and Drug Administration high intensity focused ultrasound simulator to in-silico phantom to evaluate the effects obtained by different acoustic powers. The simulated layers were water and thyroid tissue. The source was a spherically curved circular transducer with radius r   = 2.3 cm generating a continuous wave beam at a frequency of 3 MHz. The focal distance was 6.5 cm. The sequence included a pulse (8 s) with acoustic power at different value from 5 to 50 W, and a cooling-off interval (32 s). The use of acoustic power of 5 W allowed to achieve the threshold of temperature for coagulative necrosis (55 °C) at 1 s. The simulation with 50 W showed that temperature was significantly higher (above 300 °C) at 1 s and is maintained at high levels for a long interval. Since 2016, we treated patients according to the present experience, and a significant reduction of nodule's volume was observed with good patent's comfort and no complications (unpublished data). Also, no anesthesia was practiced. We feel that the present data could contribute to develop a high intensity focused ultrasound therapy of benign thyroid nodules free from potential complications.

  14. Morphometric information to reduce the semantic gap in the characterization of microscopic images of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Alessandra A; Pessotti, Hugo C; Almansa, Luciana F; Felipe, Joaquim C; Kimura, Edna T

    2016-07-01

    The analyses of several systems for medical-imaging processing typically support the extraction of image attributes, but do not comprise some information that characterizes images. For example, morphometry can be applied to find new information about the visual content of an image. The extension of information may result in knowledge. Subsequently, results of mappings can be applied to recognize exam patterns, thus improving the accuracy of image retrieval and allowing a better interpretation of exam results. Although successfully applied in breast lesion images, the morphometric approach is still poorly explored in thyroid lesions due to the high subjectivity thyroid examinations. This paper presents a theoretical-practical study, considering Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) and Morphometry, to reduce the semantic discontinuity between medical image features and human interpretation of image content. The proposed method aggregates the content of microscopic images characterized by morphometric information and other image attributes extracted by traditional object extraction algorithms. This method carries out segmentation, feature extraction, image labeling and classification. Morphometric analysis was included as an object extraction method in order to verify the improvement of its accuracy for automatic classification of microscopic images. To validate this proposal and verify the utility of morphometric information to characterize thyroid images, a CAD system was created to classify real thyroid image-exams into Papillary Cancer, Goiter and Non-Cancer. Results showed that morphometric information can improve the accuracy and precision of image retrieval and the interpretation of results in computer-aided diagnosis. For example, in the scenario where all the extractors are combined with the morphometric information, the CAD system had its best performance (70% of precision in Papillary cases). Results signalized a positive use of morphometric information from

  15. Are thyroid nodules associated with sex-related hormones? A cross-sectional SPECT-China study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Yingchao; Wang, Ningjian; Chen, Chi; Nie, Xiaomin; Li, Qin; Han, Bing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhai, Hualing; Jiang, Boren; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2017-08-03

    Little is known about the association between thyroid nodules (TNs) and endogenous sex hormones. We aimed to investigate the relationship between TNs and sex-related hormones among men in China. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors (SPECT-China study, 2014-2015) based on the population. In total, 4024 men over 18 years of age who were not using hormone replacement therapy and who underwent complete assays of the serum total testosterone (T), oestradiol (E 2 ), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels as well as thyroid ultrasonography (US) enrolled in this study. Of the 4024 participants (54.15±13.08 years old), 1667 participants (41.4%) had TNs. Men with TN(s) (TN(+) group) had significantly lower levels of total T and SHBG and higher E 2 /T levels compared with the men without TN(s) (TN(-) group) (p<0.05). The TN prevalence decreased with the quartiles of the SHBG level (p<0.05). Binary logistic analysis showed that lower quartiles of SHBG had a greater risk of TN(s) (all p for trend <0.05). This association persisted in the fully adjusted model (p for trend=0.017), in which, for the lowest compared with the highest quartile of SHBG, the OR of TN(s) was 1.42 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.89). No statistically significant association was found between sex-related hormones and US characteristics associated with malignancy (nodule >10 mm, microcalcification and a 'taller' than 'wider' shape). TNs are highly prevalent in men in China. A lower SHBG level was significantly associated with TN among men. The potential role of SHBG in the pathogenesis of the TN remains to be elucidated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. American Thyroid Association Guidelines on the Management of Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Task Force Review and Recommendation on the Proposed Renaming of Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Without Invasion to Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Bryan R; Sawka, Anna M; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Caturegli, Patrizio; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Morris, John C; Nassar, Aziza; Pacini, Furio; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn; Sherman, Steven I; Somerset, Hilary; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Wartofsky, Leonard; Williams, Michelle D

    2017-04-01

    American Thyroid Association (ATA) leadership asked the ATA Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Guidelines Task Force to review, comment on, and make recommendations related to the suggested new classification of encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (eFVPTC) without capsular or vascular invasion to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). The task force consists of members from the 2015 guidelines task force with the recusal of three members who were authors on the paper under review. Four pathologists and one endocrinologist were added for this specific review. The manuscript proposing the new classification and related literature were assessed. It is recommended that the histopathologic nomenclature for eFVPTC without invasion be reclassified as a NIFTP, given the excellent prognosis of this neoplastic variant. This is a weak recommendation based on moderate-quality evidence. It is also noted that prospective studies are needed to validate the observed patient outcomes (and test performance in predicting thyroid cancer outcomes), as well as implications on patients' psychosocial health and economics.

  17. Comparative analysis of diagnostic performance, feasibility and cost of different test-methods for thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

    PubMed Central

    Sciacchitano, Salvatore; Lavra, Luca; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Magi, Fiorenza; De Francesco, Gian Paolo; Bellotti, Carlo; Salehi, Leila B.; Trovato, Maria; Drago, Carlo; Bartolazzi, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Since it is impossible to recognize malignancy at fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in indeterminate thyroid nodules, surgery is recommended for all of them. However, cancer rate at final histology is <30%. Many different test-methods have been proposed to increase diagnostic accuracy in such lesions, including Galectin-3-ICC (GAL-3-ICC), BRAF mutation analysis (BRAF), Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) alone and GEC+BRAF, mutation/fusion (M/F) panel, alone, M/F panel+miRNA GEC, and M/F panel by next generation sequencing (NGS), FDG-PET/CT, MIBI-Scan and TSHR mRNA blood assay. We performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compare their features, feasibility, diagnostic performance and cost. GEC, GEC+BRAF, M/F panel+miRNA GEC and M/F panel by NGS were the best in ruling-out malignancy (sensitivity = 90%, 89%, 89% and 90% respectively). BRAF and M/F panel alone and by NGS were the best in ruling-in malignancy (specificity = 100%, 93% and 93%). The M/F by NGS showed the highest accuracy (92%) and BRAF the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) (247). GAL-3-ICC performed well as rule-out (sensitivity = 83%) and rule-in test (specificity = 85%), with good accuracy (84%) and high DOR (27) and is one of the cheapest (113 USD) and easiest one to be performed in different clinical settings. In conclusion, the more accurate molecular-based test-methods are still expensive and restricted to few, highly specialized and centralized laboratories. GAL-3-ICC, although limited by some false negatives, represents the most suitable screening test-method to be applied on a large-scale basis in the diagnostic algorithm of indeterminate thyroid lesions. PMID:28472764

  18. Expression of G(alpha)(s) proteins and TSH receptor signalling in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with TSH receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Hans-Peter; Bergner, Beate; Wonerow, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2002-07-01

    Constitutively activating mutations of the thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) are the main molecular cause of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs). The G protein coupling is an important and critical step in the TSHR signalling which mainly includes G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins. We investigated the in vitro consequences of overexpressing G(alpha) proteins on signalling of the wild-type (WT) or mutated TSHR. Moreover, we investigated whether changes in G(alpha) protein expression are pathophysiologically relevant in HTNs or cold thyroid nodules (CTNs). Wild-type TSH receptor and mutated TSH receptors were coexpressed with G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) or G(alpha)(q)/11, and cAMP and inositol phosphate (IP) production was measured after stimulation with TSH. The expression of G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins was examined by Western blotting in 28 HTNs and 14 CTNs. Coexpression of G(alpha)(s) with the WT TSH receptor in COS 7 cells significantly increased the basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation while coexpression of the G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)11 protein significantly increased the production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)). The coexpression of the TSH receptor mutants (I486F, DEL613-621), known to couple constitutively to G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q) with G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q)/11, significantly increased the basal and stimulated cAMP and IP(3) accumulation. Coexpression of the TSH receptor mutant V556F with G(alpha)(s) only increased the basal and stimulated cAMP production while its coexpression with G(alpha)(q)/11 increased the basal and stimulated IP(3) signalling. The expression of G(alpha)(s) protein subunits determined by Western blotting was significantly decreased in 14 HTNs with a constitutively activating TSH receptor mutation in comparison with the corresponding surrounding tissue, while in 14 HTNs without TSH receptor or G(alpha)(s) protein mutation and in 14 CTNs the expression of G

  19. The Clinical Values of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Levels in Blood and Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Altas, Ayfer; Can, Murat; Barut, Figen; Kokturk, Furuzan; Ilikhan, Sevil Uygun; Bayraktaroglu, Taner

    2017-01-01

    Aim Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a potent mitogen for many cells. IGF-1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of various tumors with its mutagenic and antiapoptotic properties. The aim of this study was to determine both the serum and intranodular levels of IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in patients with nodular thyroid diseases. Materials and Methods In this study, 80 subjects who performed fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were required in order to investigate the effects of serum and intranodular IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in the pathogenesis of nodules. After performing FNAB, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were determined in blood and aspiration samples. Results The serum levels of IGF-1 (232.8 ± 12.9 ng/ml) and IGFBP-3 (4.8 μg/ml) were found significantly higher than that of the intranodular IGF-1 (39.1 ng/ml) and intranodular IGFBP-3 levels (0.173 μg/ml) (p < 0.01). Intranodular levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were higher in subjects with multinodular thyroid gland than those of subjects with solitary nodules (p = 0.043). A positive correlation between the nodule size and the serum IGFBP-3 levels was detected (p = 0.042, r = 0.23). Conclusion This study demonstrated the possible role of both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in the growth and the formation of multinodularity of thyroid nodules. PMID:29081797

  20. Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12-18 months, 20% possibility of permanent hypothyroidism. Post partum thyroiditis Anti-thyroid antibodies, autoimmune disease Thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism. Thyroid function tests, thyroid antibody tests, radioactive iodine uptake (contraindicated if ...

  1. What to do with thyroid nodules showing benign cytology and BRAF(V600E) mutation? A study based on clinical and radiologic features using a highly sensitive analytic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2015-02-01

    BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis has been used as a complementary diagnostic tool to ultrasonography-guided, fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodule with high specificity reported up to 100%. When highly sensitive analytic methods are used, however, false-positive results of BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis have been reported. In this study, we investigated the clinical, US features, and outcome of patients with thyroid nodules with benign cytology but positive BRAF(V600E) mutation using highly sensitive analytic methods from US-FNA. This study included 22 nodules in 22 patients (3 men, 19 women; mean age, 53 years) with benign cytology but positive BRAF(V600E) mutation from US-FNA. US features were categorized according to the internal components, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, and shape. Suspicious US features included markedly hypoechogenicity, noncircumscribed margins, micro or mixed calcifications, and nonparallel shape. Nodules were considered to have either concordant or discordant US features to benign cytology. Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for final cytopathology results and outcomes during follow-up. Among the 22 nodules, 17 nodules were reviewed. Fifteen of 17 nodules were malignant, and 2 were benign. The benign nodules were confirmed as adenomatous hyperplasia with underlying lymphocytic thyroiditis and a fibrotic nodule with dense calcification. Thirteen of the 15 malignant nodules had 2 or more suspicious US features, and all 15 nodules were considered to have discordant cytology considering suspicious US features. Five nodules had been followed with US or US-FNA without resection, and did not show change in size or US features on follow-up US examinations. BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis is a highly sensitive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinomas. In the management of thyroid nodules with benign cytology but positive BRAF(V600E) mutation, thyroidectomy should be considered in

  2. EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE THYROID SCINTIGRAPHY FOR DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CATS WITH HYPERTHYROIDISM: COMPARISON OF THE PERCENT THYROIDAL UPTAKE OF PERTECHNETATE TO THYROID-TO-SALIVARY RATIO AND THYROID-TO-BACKGROUND RATIOS.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark E; Guterl, Jade N; Rishniw, Mark; Broome, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used for evaluation of cats with hyperthyroidism, with the thyroid-to-salivary ratio (T/S) being the most common method to quantify the degree of thyroid activity and disease. Calculation of thyroid-to-background ratios (T/B) or percent thyroidal uptake of (99m) TcO(-) 4 (TcTU) has only been reported in a few studies. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to evaluate a number of quantitative scintigraphic indices as diagnostic tests for hyperthyroidism, including the T/S, three different T/B, TcTU, and estimated thyroid volume. Of 524 cats referred to our clinic for evaluation of suspected hyperthyroidism, the diagnosis was confirmed (n = 504) or excluded (n = 20) based on results of a serum thyroid panel consisting of thyroxine (T4 ), triiodothyronine (T3 ), free T4 (fT4 ), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. In the hyperthyroid cats, median values for TcTU, T/S, and three T/B ratios were all significantly higher (P < 0.001) than values in euthyroid suspect cats or clinically normal cats. All scintigraphic parameters were relatively sensitive and specific as diagnostic tests for hyperthyroidism, but the T/S ratio had the highest test accuracy. The T/S ratio correlated strongly with the TcTU (r = 0.85). However, the TcTU had a higher and more significant correlation (P < 0.01) with serum T4 (r = 0.76 vs. 0.64), T3 (r = 0.77 vs. 0.64), and estimated thyroid volume (r = 0.62 vs. 0.38). Overall, calculation of TcTU is an accurate diagnostic test, but also appears to be the best parameter to predict the functional volume and metabolic activity of the feline adenomatous thyroid gland. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. From Mount Sinai to Mount Scopus: differences in the role and value of fine needle aspiration for evaluating thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Mazeh, Haggi; Greenstein, Alexander; Swedish, Kristin; Arora, Shalini; Hermon, Hila; Ariel, Ilana; Divino, Celia; Freund, Herbert R; Weber, Kaare

    2009-05-01

    Fine needle aspiration is the main diagnostic tool used to assess thyroid nodules. To correlate FNA cytology results with surgical pathological findings in two teaching medical centers across the Atlantic. We retrospectively identified 484 patients at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem and Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, by means of both preoperative FNA cytology and a final histopathological report. Results compared FNA diagnosis, histological findings and frozen section results (Mt. Sinai only). The sensitivity value of FNA at Hadassah was 83.0% compared with 79.1% at Mt. Sinai (NS). Specificity values were 86.6 vs. 98.5% (P < 0.05), negative predictive value 78.7 vs. 77.6% (NS) and positive predictive value 89.7 vs. 98.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. "Follicular lesion" was diagnosed on FNA in 33.1% of the patients at Hadassah and in 21.5% at Mt Sinai (P < 0.005) with a malignancy rate of 42.5 vs. 23.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Frozen section was used in 190 patients at Mt. Sinai (78.5%) with sensitivity and specificity values of 72.3% and 100%. Frozen section results altered the planned operative course in only 6 patients (2.5%). Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 12 patients at Hadassah vs. 2 patients at Mt. Sinai (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of FNA at the two institutions was comparable. While malignancy on frozen section is highly specific, it should be used selectively for suspicious FNA results. Follicular lesions and the rate of malignancy in such lesions were more common at Hadassah, favoring a more aggressive surgical approach.

  4. [Thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  5. Diagnostic potential of real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangdong; Liu, Yujiang; Qian, Linxue

    2017-10-01

    Real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) are noninvasive and easily available imaging techniques that measure the tissue strain, and it has been reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of elastography were better in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules than conventional technologies. Relevant articles were searched in multiple databases; the comparison of elasticity index (EI) was conducted with the Review Manager 5.0. Forest plots of the sensitivity and specificity and SROC curve of RTE and SWE were performed with STATA 10.0 software. In addition, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis of the studies were conducted to examine the quality of articles; and to estimate possible publication bias, funnel plot was used and the Egger test was conducted. Finally 22 articles which eventually satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in this study. After eliminating the inefficient, benign and malignant nodules were 2106 and 613, respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that the difference of EI between benign and malignant nodules was statistically significant (SMD = 2.11, 95% CI [1.67, 2.55], P < .00001). The overall sensitivities of RTE and SWE were roughly comparable, whereas the difference of specificities between these 2 methods was statistically significant. In addition, statistically significant difference of AUC between RTE and SWE was observed between RTE and SWE (P < .01). The specificity of RTE was statistically higher than that of SWE; which suggests that compared with SWE, RTE may be more accurate on differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  6. Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid is used to treat the symptoms of hypothyroidism (a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, ...

  7. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M.; Celi, Francesco S.; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B.; Remaley, Alan T.; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. Method and Findings 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. Conclusion In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:26914549

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis for classifying benign versus malignant thyroid nodules based on ultrasound images: A comparison with radiologist-based assessments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yongjun; Paul, Anjan Kumar; Kim, Namkug; Baek, Jung Hwan; Choi, Young Jun; Ha, Eun Ju; Lee, Kang Dae; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Shin, DaeSeock; Kim, Nakyoung

    2016-01-01

    To develop a semiautomated computer-aided diagnosis (cad) system for thyroid cancer using two-dimensional ultrasound images that can be used to yield a second opinion in the clinic to differentiate malignant and benign lesions. A total of 118 ultrasound images that included axial and longitudinal images from patients with biopsy-confirmed malignant (n = 30) and benign (n = 29) nodules were collected. Thyroid cad software was developed to extract quantitative features from these images based on thyroid nodule segmentation in which adaptive diffusion flow for active contours was used. Various features, including histogram, intensity differences, elliptical fit, gray-level co-occurrence matrixes, and gray-level run-length matrixes, were evaluated for each region imaged. Based on these imaging features, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to differentiate benign and malignant nodules. Leave-one-out cross-validation with sequential forward feature selection was performed to evaluate the overall accuracy of this method. Additionally, analyses with contingency tables and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to compare the performance of cad with visual inspection by expert radiologists based on established gold standards. Most univariate features for this proposed cad system attained accuracies that ranged from 78.0% to 83.1%. When optimal SVM parameters that were established using a grid search method with features that radiologists use for visual inspection were employed, the authors could attain rates of accuracy that ranged from 72.9% to 84.7%. Using leave-one-out cross-validation results in a multivariate analysis of various features, the highest accuracy achieved using the proposed cad system was 98.3%, whereas visual inspection by radiologists reached 94.9% accuracy. To obtain the highest accuracies, "axial ratio" and "max probability" in axial images were most frequently included in the optimal feature sets for the authors

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis for classifying benign versus malignant thyroid nodules based on ultrasound images: A comparison with radiologist-based assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yongjun; Paul, Anjan Kumar; Kim, Namkug, E-mail: namkugkim@gmail.com

    Purpose: To develop a semiautomated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for thyroid cancer using two-dimensional ultrasound images that can be used to yield a second opinion in the clinic to differentiate malignant and benign lesions. Methods: A total of 118 ultrasound images that included axial and longitudinal images from patients with biopsy-confirmed malignant (n = 30) and benign (n = 29) nodules were collected. Thyroid CAD software was developed to extract quantitative features from these images based on thyroid nodule segmentation in which adaptive diffusion flow for active contours was used. Various features, including histogram, intensity differences, elliptical fit, gray-level co-occurrencemore » matrixes, and gray-level run-length matrixes, were evaluated for each region imaged. Based on these imaging features, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to differentiate benign and malignant nodules. Leave-one-out cross-validation with sequential forward feature selection was performed to evaluate the overall accuracy of this method. Additionally, analyses with contingency tables and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to compare the performance of CAD with visual inspection by expert radiologists based on established gold standards. Results: Most univariate features for this proposed CAD system attained accuracies that ranged from 78.0% to 83.1%. When optimal SVM parameters that were established using a grid search method with features that radiologists use for visual inspection were employed, the authors could attain rates of accuracy that ranged from 72.9% to 84.7%. Using leave-one-out cross-validation results in a multivariate analysis of various features, the highest accuracy achieved using the proposed CAD system was 98.3%, whereas visual inspection by radiologists reached 94.9% accuracy. To obtain the highest accuracies, “axial ratio” and “max probability” in axial images were most frequently included in

  10. Measurement of TFF3 mRNA in aspirates from thyroid nodules using mesh filtration: the first clinical trial in 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroya; Takano, Toru; Kihara, Minoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hidaka, Yoh; Miyauchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of gene expression levels in thyroid tumor cells in aspirates was difficult because it is interfered with peripheral blood cells or infiltrating lymphocytes. In this study, we established a novel method to separate thyroid tumor cells from blood cells efficiently with mesh filtration. The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA was estimated using LGALS3 mRNA as an internal control (T/G ratio) in 148 preoperative thyroid aspirates. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of T/G ratio for high, moderate, and low samples were 6.5%, 2.5%, and 9.7%, respectively, and inter-assay CV for high, moderate, and low samples were 27.7%, 21.9%, and 38.2%, respectively. Nondiagnostic samples in terms of T/G ratio and cytology were 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. We observed no interference with the data by contaminating blood cells. Among these patients, 12 patients received more than two repeated aspirations. We did not observe a marked day-to-day variation except in two cases. All 13 preoperative aspirates diagnosed as malignant by cytology showed an extremely low T/G ratio, whereas 93 aspirates diagnosed as benign by cytology showed extremely varied T/G ratios and 21.5% of them showed a T/G ratio below the cut-off value. Eleven cases underwent surgery. All nodules showing a low T/G ratio were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma by pathological diagnosis. However, one nodule diagnosed as follicular adenoma after surgery showed a high T/G ratio. Our present method may be a promising preoperative test for measuring mRNAs in thyroid aspirates.

  11. Accounting for shared and unshared dosimetric uncertainties in the dose response for ultrasound-detected thyroid nodules after exposure to radioactive fallout.

    PubMed

    Land, Charles E; Kwon, Deukwoo; Hoffman, F Owen; Moroz, Brian; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, André; Beck, Harold; Luckyanov, Nicholas; Weinstock, Robert M; Simon, Steven L

    2015-02-01

    Dosimetic uncertainties, particularly those that are shared among subgroups of a study population, can bias, distort or reduce the slope or significance of a dose response. Exposure estimates in studies of health risks from environmental radiation exposures are generally highly uncertain and thus, susceptible to these methodological limitations. An analysis was published in 2008 concerning radiation-related thyroid nodule prevalence in a study population of 2,994 villagers under the age of 21 years old between August 1949 and September 1962 and who lived downwind from the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan. This dose-response analysis identified a statistically significant association between thyroid nodule prevalence and reconstructed doses of fallout-related internal and external radiation to the thyroid gland; however, the effects of dosimetric uncertainty were not evaluated since the doses were simple point "best estimates". In this work, we revised the 2008 study by a comprehensive treatment of dosimetric uncertainties. Our present analysis improves upon the previous study, specifically by accounting for shared and unshared uncertainties in dose estimation and risk analysis, and differs from the 2008 analysis in the following ways: 1. The study population size was reduced from 2,994 to 2,376 subjects, removing 618 persons with uncertain residence histories; 2. Simulation of multiple population dose sets (vectors) was performed using a two-dimensional Monte Carlo dose estimation method; and 3. A Bayesian model averaging approach was employed for evaluating the dose response, explicitly accounting for large and complex uncertainty in dose estimation. The results were compared against conventional regression techniques. The Bayesian approach utilizes 5,000 independent realizations of population dose vectors, each of which corresponds to a set of conditional individual median internal and external doses for the 2,376 subjects. These 5,000 population

  12. Accounting for Shared and Unshared Dosimetric Uncertainties in the Dose Response for Ultrasound-Detected Thyroid Nodules after Exposure to Radioactive Fallout

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, F. Owen; Moroz, Brian; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, André; Beck, Harold; Luckyanov, Nicholas; Weinstock, Robert M.; Simon, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetic uncertainties, particularly those that are shared among subgroups of a study population, can bias, distort or reduce the slope or significance of a dose response. Exposure estimates in studies of health risks from environmental radiation exposures are generally highly uncertain and thus, susceptible to these methodological limitations. An analysis was published in 2008 concerning radiation-related thyroid nodule prevalence in a study population of 2,994 villagers under the age of 21 years old between August 1949 and September 1962 and who lived downwind from the Semi-palatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan. This dose-response analysis identified a statistically significant association between thyroid nodule prevalence and reconstructed doses of fallout-related internal and external radiation to the thyroid gland; however, the effects of dosimetric uncertainty were not evaluated since the doses were simple point “best estimates”. In this work, we revised the 2008 study by a comprehensive treatment of dosimetric uncertainties. Our present analysis improves upon the previous study, specifically by accounting for shared and unshared uncertainties in dose estimation and risk analysis, and differs from the 2008 analysis in the following ways: 1. The study population size was reduced from 2,994 to 2,376 subjects, removing 618 persons with uncertain residence histories; 2. Simulation of multiple population dose sets (vectors) was performed using a two-dimensional Monte Carlo dose estimation method; and 3. A Bayesian model averaging approach was employed for evaluating the dose response, explicitly accounting for large and complex uncertainty in dose estimation. The results were compared against conventional regression techniques. The Bayesian approach utilizes 5,000 independent realizations of population dose vectors, each of which corresponds to a set of conditional individual median internal and external doses for the 2,376 subjects. These 5

  13. Mutations in the thyrotropin receptor signal transduction pathway in the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules from multinodular goiters: a study in the Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Gozu, Hulya; Avsar, Melike; Bircan, Rifat; Sahin, Serap; Deyneli, Oguzhan; Cirakoglu, Beyazit; Akalin, Sema

    2005-10-01

    Many studies have been carried out to determine G(s) alpha and TSHR mutations in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Variable prevalences for somatic constitutively activating TSHR mutations in hot nodules have been reported. Moreover, the increased prevalence of toxic multinodular goiters in iodine-deficient regions is well known. In Turkey, a country with high incidence rates of goiter due to iodine deficiency, the frequency of mutations in the thyrotropin receptor signal transduction pathway has not been evaluated up to now. In the present study, a part of the genes of the TSHR, G(s)alpha and the catalytic subunit of the PKA were checked for activating mutations. Thirty-five patients who underwent thyroidectomy for multinodular goiters were examined. Genomic DNAs were extracted from 58 hyperactive nodular specimens and surrounding normal thyroid tissues. Mutation screening was done by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. In those cases where a mutation was detected, the localization of the mutation was determined by automatic DNA sequencing. No G(s)alpha or PKA mutations were detected, whereas ten mutations (17%) were identified in the TSHR gene. All mutations were somatic and heterozygotic. In conclusion, the frequency of mutations in the cAMP signal transduction pathway was found to be lower than expected in the Turkish population most likely because of the use of SSCP as a screening method and sequencing only a part of TSHR exon 10.

  14. Likelihood ratio-based differentiation of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse hashimoto thyroiditis: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Xia, Yu; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Qing; Li, Xiao-Yi

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of sonography for discriminating nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. This study included 20 patients with 24 surgically confirmed Hashimoto thyroiditis nodules and 40 patients with 40 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules; all had sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. A retrospective review of the sonograms was performed, and significant benign and malignant sonographic features were selected by univariate and multivariate analyses. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated as the product of each feature's likelihood ratio for papillary thyroid carcinoma. We compared the abilities of the original sonographic features and combined likelihood ratios in diagnosing nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma by their sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index. The diagnostic capabilities of the sonographic features varied greatly, with Youden indices ranging from 0.175 to 0.700. Compared with single features, combinations of features were unable to improve the Youden indices effectively because the sensitivity and specificity usually changed in opposite directions. For combined likelihood ratios, however, the sensitivity improved greatly without an obvious reduction in specificity, which resulted in the maximum Youden index (0.825). With a combined likelihood ratio greater than 7.00 as the diagnostic criterion for papillary thyroid carcinoma, sensitivity reached 82.5%, whereas specificity remained at 100.0%. With a combined likelihood ratio less than 1.00 for nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.5%, respectively. Several sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis were significantly different. The combined likelihood ratio may be superior to original sonographic features for

  15. Serum 8-OHdG and HIF-1α levels: do they affect the development of malignancy in patients with hypoactive thyroid nodules?

    PubMed

    Ece, Harman; Mehmet, Erdogan; Cigir, Biray Avci; Yavuz, Dodurga; Muammer, Karadeniz; Cumhur, Gunduz; Mustafa, Harman; Sevki, Cetinkalp; Fusun, Saygılı; Gokhan, Ozgen Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate 8-OHdG and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) levels in patients with hypoactive thyroid nodules (toxic multi-nodular goiter, Graves' disease, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as these parameters may be related to oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of cancer. The study included patients diagnosed with Graves' disease (n = 20), toxic multinodular goiter (n = 20), and Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 20), and 20 healthy controls. HIF-1α levels were measured in blood samples and 8-OHdG levels were measured in urine - both via ELISA. HIF-1α and 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in the patient groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients a correlation was observed between 8-OHdG and thyroglobulin antibodies (p = 0.03). A significant relation was found between 8-OHdG and HIF-1α in the patient group (p < 0.01). Carcinoma was detected in 7 of 43 female patients, but not in any of the male patients. No difference was observed in 8-OHdG or HIF-1α levels between the patients with and without papillary carcinoma (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in 8-OHdG or HIF-1α levels between the patients with biopsy results that were benign, malignant, and non-diagnostic (p > 0.05). Serum HIF-1α and urine 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in the patients with thyroid diseases; however, a relationship with cancer was not observed.

  16. Spatial frequency characteristics at image decision-point locations for observers with different radiological backgrounds in lung nodule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Manning, David J.; Dix, Alan; Donovan, Tim

    2009-02-01

    Aim: The goal of the study is to determine the spatial frequency characteristics at locations in the image of overt and covert observers' decisions and find out if there are any similarities in different observers' groups: the same radiological experience group or the same accuracy scored level. Background: The radiological task is described as a visual searching decision making procedure involving visual perception and cognitive processing. Humans perceive the world through a number of spatial frequency channels, each sensitive to visual information carried by different spatial frequency ranges and orientations. Recent studies have shown that particular physical properties of local and global image-based elements are correlated with the performance and the level of experience of human observers in breast cancer and lung nodule detections. Neurological findings in visual perception were an inspiration for wavelet applications in vision research because the methodology tries to mimic the brain processing algorithms. Methods: The wavelet approach to the set of postero-anterior chest radiographs analysis has been used to characterize perceptual preferences observers with different levels of experience in the radiological task. Psychophysical methodology has been applied to track eye movements over the image, where particular ROIs related to the observers' fixation clusters has been analysed in the spaces frame by Daubechies functions. Results: Significance differences have been found between the spatial frequency characteristics at the location of different decisions.

  17. NA cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chernobyl accident: cytohistopathologic correlation and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in nodules detected during the first screening in Ukraine (1998-2000).

    PubMed

    Bozhok, Yuriy; Greenebaum, Ellen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I; McConnell, Robert J; Zelinskaya, Anna; Brenner, Alina V; Zurnadzhy, Lyudmyla Y; Zablotska, Lydia; Tronko, Mykola D; Hatch, Maureen

    2009-04-25

    The Ukrainian American Cohort Study was established to evaluate the risk of thyroid disorders in a group exposed as children and adolescents to 131I by the Chernobyl accident (arithmetic mean thyroid dose, 0.79 grays). Individuals are screened by palpation and ultrasound and are referred to surgery according to fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). However, the accuracy of FNA cytology for detecting histopathologically confirmed malignancy after this level of internal exposure to radioiodines is unknown. During the first screening cycle (1998-2000), 13,243 individuals were examined, 356 individuals with thyroid nodules were referred for FNA, 288 individuals completed the procedure, 85 individuals were referred to surgery, 82 individuals underwent surgery, and preoperative cytology was available for review in 78 individuals. Cytologic interpretation for the nodule that resulted in surgical referral was correlated with final pathomorphology; discrepancies were reviewed retrospectively; and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNA cytology were calculated. All 24 cytologic interpretations that were definite for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were confirmed histopathologically (PPV, 100%); and, of 11 cytologic interpretations that were suspicious for PTC, 10 were confirmed (PPV, 90.9%). Ten of 41 FNAs that were interpreted as either definite or suspect for follicular neoplasm were confirmed as malignant (PPV, 24.4%), including 2 follicular thyroid cancers and 8 PTCs (all but 1 of the follicular or mixed subtypes). Depending on whether a cytologic interpretation of follicular neoplasm was considered "positive" or "negative," the sensitivity was 100% and 77.3%, respectively; similarly, the respective specificity was 17.6% and 97.1%, the respective PPV was 61.1% and 97.1%, and the respective NPV was 100% and 76.7%. Among children and adolescents who were exposed to 131I after the Chernobyl accident and were

  18. Thyroid nodule as a first manifestation of Hodgkin lymphoma–report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lymphomas account for less than 5% of thyroid malignant lesions. Vast majority of them are B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), while Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of HL, at baseline manifesting as a thyroid lesion. First patient, 29-year-old pregnant female, initially suspected for metastatic medullary thyroid cancer, was eventually diagnosed with mixed cellularity type of thyroid HL. Second patient, 22-year-old woman with suspicion of advanced thyroid cancer, was in the end diagnosed with an extra-lymphatic classical HL of the thyroid. In both cases, despite repeated fine-needle aspiration biopsy, cytological examination gave inconclusive or misleading results. On histopathological examination, thyroid tumor cells were positive for CD15 and CD30 antigen, which is typical for Reed-Sternberg cells. In the report authors also discuss difficulties in management as well as potential importance of novel methods such as FISH, PCR and other molecular techniques in diagnostics of thyroid lymphomas. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2896947559559648 PMID:23856094

  19. Surgeon-Performed Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (SP-US-FNAC) Shortens Time for Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei Xiang; Tan, Chuen Seng; Ho, Thomas W T

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) of thyroid nodules is an important diagnostic procedure. In most hospitals, patients are referred to radiologists for US-FNAC, but this often results in a long waiting time before results are available. Surgeon-performed US-FNAC (SP-US-FNAC) during the initial patient consultation attempts to reduce the waiting time but it is not known whether this is as accurate as radiologist-performed US-FNAC (RP-US-FNAC). The aim of this study is to compare the clinical efficiency between SP-US-FNAC and RP-US-FNAC. A retrospective study was performed on patients from the Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) who underwent an US-FNAC from August 2011 to May 2012. All cases of SP-US-FNAC were performed by a single surgeon. This study compared the rates of positive diagnoses achieved by SP-US-FNAC and RPUS- FNAC as well as the time interval to reach a cytological diagnosis by each group. A total of 40 cases of SP-US-FNAC and 72 cases of RP-US-FNAC were included in the study. SP-US-FNAC resulted in 28 (70%) positive diagnoses and 12 (30%) nondiagnoses while RP-US-FNAC resulted in 47 (65.3%) positive diagnoses and 25 (34.7%) non-diagnoses. These results were comparable (P=0.678). The median time taken to reach a cytological diagnosis was 1 working day for SP-US-FNAC and 29.5 working days for RP-US-FNAC resulting in a shorter interval to reaching a cytological diagnosis for SP-US-FNAC (P<0.001). In the workup of thyroid nodules, SP-US-FNAC is as accurate as RP-US-FNAC but significantly reduces the time taken to reach a cytological diagnosis. This leads to greater clinical efficiency in the management of patients with thyroid nodules, which in turn leads to other benefits such as decreased patient anxiety and increased patient satisfaction.

  20. Influence of Bisphenol A on Thyroid Volume and Structure Independent of Iodine in School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Zhou, Ying; Fu, Chaowei; Wang, Hexing; Huang, Peixin; Wang, Bin; Su, Meifang; Jiang, Feng; Fang, Hong; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several studies have evaluated the relationship between bisphenol A (BPA) and thyroid functions, their results are not entirely consistent. Little is known about BPA in relation to thyroid volume and structure. Methods We examined the association of BPA with thyroid volume and thyroid nodules using data from 718 Chinese children living in the East Coast of China in 2012. First morning urine samples were collected for the determination of urinary BPA, creatinine, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC). Thyroid volume (TV) and nodules were assessed by thyroid ultrasonography. Results The median of TV was 3.14ml. 459(63.9%) children took iodized salt at home and the median of UIC was 159μg/l. BPA was detected in 99.9% of the urine samples and the medians for boys and girls were 2.64 and 2.35μg/g creatinine, respectively. Of all participants 14.0% had thyroid nodules. Urinary BPA concentration was inversely associated with thyroid volume (β = -0.033, 95% CI: -0.053, -0.013) and the risk for multiple nodules (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.97). The associations above were similar for children who consumed iodized salt and those consumed non-iodized salt. Conclusions The data suggest that BPA may be one of the influencing factors for TV and thyroid nodules and its effects are independent of iodine nutrition status in children. PMID:26496713

  1. Diagnostic Value of Circulating microRNA-95 and -190 in the Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules: A Validation Study in 1000 Consecutive Patients.

    PubMed

    Pilli, Tania; Cantara, Silvia; Marzocchi, Carlotta; Cardinale, Sandro; Santini, Chiara; Cevenini, Gabriele; Pacini, Furio

    2017-08-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the combination of miRNA-190 and -95 (expressed as probability of malignant risk: pmiRNA) in the serum of Caucasian patients with thyroid nodular disease allows the identification of nodules at high risk of malignancy with great accuracy. The present study aimed to validate these results in a larger cohort of patients. This study prospectively analyzed 1000 patients. Cytological diagnosis was available in 982/1000 (98.2%) and histological diagnosis in 445/1000 (44.5%). The expression levels of circulating miRNA-190 and -95 were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction with the 2 -ΔΔct method. The diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), pmiRNA, and a combination of the two methods was correlated with the cytological and histological diagnoses. The combination of pmiRNA and FNAC significantly increased the sensitivity (96.3%) with respect to each method alone (88.9% for FNAC and 89.6% for pmiRNA) by reducing the rate of false-negative results from 18 for FNAC and 17 for pmiRNA to only five. In patients in whom FNAC was not performed (n = 14) or in those with inadequate (n = 18) or indeterminate (n = 72) lesions submitted to surgery, pmiRNA correctly identified 90.8% of patients with benign disease and 74.3% of patients with cancer. These results confirm that a combination of serum expression levels of miRNA-95 and -190 is an accurate and noninvasive tool for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules in the Italian population.

  2. Basal Serum Calcitonin, After Calcium Stimulation, and in the Needle Washout of Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Mild or Moderate Basal Hypercalcitoninemia.

    PubMed

    Rosario, P W; Calsolari, M R

    2017-02-01

    This prospective study evaluated the concentrations of basal serum calcitonin (Ctn), Ctn after stimulation with calcium, and Ctn in the needle washout (FNA-Ctn) as predictors of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in patients with thyroid nodules and basal Ctn between 10 and 100 pg/ml. Forty-one patients were included in the study. MTC was diagnosed in only 6 patients (14.6%). None of the patients with basal Ctn≤24.6 pg/ml (n=26) or stimulated Ctn≤186.5 pg/ml (n=21) had MTC. All patients without MTC had basal Ctn<47 pg/ml and stimulated Ctn<655.2 pg/ml. Among patients with basal Ctn between 24.6 and 47 pg/ml (n=12), 3 (25%) had MTC. Among patients with stimulated Ctn between 186.5 and 655.2 pg/ml (n=18), 4 (22.2%) had MTC. FNA-Ctn distinguished nodules that were MTC (n=6) from those that were not (n=60), without overlapping results. In the calcium stimulation test, 19 patients (46.3%) reported some adverse effect, but none of them was severe or required specific treatment. Our results highlight that in patients without a history suspicious for MTC, mild or moderate basal hypercalcitoninemia should not establish the diagnosis of this tumor. Depending on the concentration found, basal Ctn should be sufficient to define patient management. In doubtful cases, FNA-Ctn seems to be the best diagnostic test. Calcium stimulation testing was safe, but more studies are needed to determine the Ctn cutoff after stimulation with calcium. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Volume reduction of benign thyroid nodules 3 months after a single treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU).

    PubMed

    Korkusuz, Huedayi; Fehre, Niklas; Sennert, Michael; Happel, Christian; Grünwald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising, non-invasive technique in treating benign thyroid nodules (TNs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HIFU to induce clinically meaningful shrinkage in benign predominantly solid TNs and to identify variables that influence or predict the magnitude of TN volume reduction. For each of ten subjects, HIFU treatment was conducted on a single nodule. Nodular volume was measured sonographically at baseline and at 3 months post-procedure. Nodular function and early treatment assessment was done scintigraphically. Median nodular volume reduction was 0.7 ml absolute and 48.8% relative to pre-interventional size (p < 0.05). Absolute shrinkage was negatively correlated with the average treatment depth (τ = -0.61, p < 0.05). Absolute nodular volume was positively correlated with the scintigraphic nodular uptake reduction (τ = 0.66, p < 0.05). HIFU treatment of benign predominantly solid TNs appears to be safe and effective for inducing nodular shrinkage. Despite potential for improvement, a single treatment session with HIFU is already a viable alternative to more standard methods. The feasibility of multiple HIFU treatments requires further investigation. Due to the small sample size, the findings of this analysis need conformation by larger studies.

  4. Deletion of thyrotropin receptor residue Asp403 in a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule provides insight into the role of the ectodomain in ligand-induced receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, E; Chen, C-R; Mizutori-Sasai, Y; Ito, M; Kubota, S; Amino, N; Miyauchi, A; Rapoport, B

    2012-01-01

    Somatic mutations of the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene are the main cause of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Except for mutations in ectodomain residue S281, all of the numerous reported activating mutations are in the TSHR membrane-spanning region. Here, we describe a patient with a toxic adenoma with a novel heterozygous somatic mutation caused by deletion of ectodomain residue Asp403 (Del-D403). Subsequent in vitro functional studies of the Del-D403 TSHR mutation demonstrated greatly increased ligand-independent constitutive activity, 8-fold above that of the wild-type TSHR. TSH stimulation had little further effect, indicating that the mutation produced near maximal activation of the receptor. In summary, we report only the second TSHR ectodomain activating mutation (and the first ectodomain deletion mutation) responsible for development of a thyroid toxic adenoma. Because Del-D403 causes near maximal activation, our finding provides novel insight into TSHR structure and function; residue D403 is more likely to be involved in the ligand-mediated activating pathway than in the ectodomain inverse agonist property.

  5. Proposed algorithm for management of patients with thyroid nodules/focal lesions, based on ultrasound (US) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB); our own experience.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The standard management in patients with thyroid nodules is to assess the risk of malignancy, based on cytological examination. On the other hand, there are thyroid patterns of ultrasound (US) image, associated with an increased risk of malignancy. The aim of our study was to create a diagnostic algorithm that would employ both data from US examination (expressed by a total score, according to our scoring system) and FNAB results, classified according to Bethesda system (The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology - TBSRTC categories). 100 thyroid cancer foci (94 papillary carcinomas, 4 medullary carcinomas, 2 undifferentiated carcinomas) and 100 benign focal lesions were selected during postoperative histopathological examination of thyroid glands excised during surgery from 111 patients. The corresponding US images of each lesion - performed in the course of preoperative diagnostics - were evaluated for the presence of seven (7) different features in US image, suggesting a malignant character of lesion, viz. vascularity, i.e., the increased central intranodular blood flows, microcalcifications, "taller-than-wide" orientation, solid composition, hypoechogenicity, irregular margin and either absence of peripheral halo or the presence of outer shell of uneven thickness, surrounding the lesion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values and odds ratios for each US feature were calculated. IN US IMAGE OF THE ANALYZED CANCER FOCI, WE OBTAINED THE FOLLOWING VALUES OF ODDS RATIO FOR EACH OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED FEATURES SUGGESTING MALIGNANCY: "taller-than-wide" orientation - odds ratio - 301.0, microcalcifications - 24.67, increased intranodular vascularity - 20.44, hypoechogenicity - 18.61, irregular margins - 7.81, absence of halo - 5.88, and solid composition - 4.16. Taking into account our own experience and the present data, in juxtaposition with the opinions of other authors, we propose a division of US features

  6. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid tumours in patients with thyroid nodules. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of high-resolution ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, F; Marzola, M C; Zucchetta, P; Tregnaghi, A; Cecchin, D; Bui, F

    2003-09-01

    A series of 112 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent both high-resolution neck ultrasonography (US) and 99mTc-sestamibi/99mTc-pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy (SS) prior to successful parathyroidectomy was reviewed. There were 29 (25.9%) men and 83 (74.1%) women, with a median age of 58 years (range 13-78 years). Patients were divided into two groups, according to the preoperative US findings: group A (87 patients, 77.7%) without thyroid diseases, and group B (25 patients, 22.3%) with either multinodular goitre or a solitary nontoxic thyroid nodule. In group B patients partial or total thyroidectomy was also performed, according to the intraoperative findings and frozen-section examination results. Final histopathology showed 99 (88.4%) solitary parathyroid (PT) adenomas and 3 (2.7%) PT carcinomas, while 10 (8.9%) patients had a multiglandular disease. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were (group A vs group B) 79.8% vs 70.8% (P=0.25) and 95.7% vs 94.4% (P=0.58) for US, and 83.3% vs 87.0% (P=0.47) and 95.9% vs 90.9% (P=0.32) for SS respectively. Better but similar (P=not significant) results were obtained in patients with solitary PT tumours: 81.5% vs 77.8% (US) and 85.0 vs 94.1% (SS) sensitivity; 97.1% vs 93.3% (US) and 95.8% vs 88.9% (SS) PPV. Overall, the combination of US and SS was 92.9% sensitive (group A=93.1%, group B=92.0%; P=0.55), and the PPV reached 100% in each group. In conclusion, in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism the results of both US and SS are independent of coexistent thyroid disease, especially in patients with solitary PT tumours.

  7. Ultrastructure of the C cells forming adenoma-like nodules of the thyroid in experimental hypervitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Roszkiewicz, J; Roszkiewicz, A

    1977-01-01

    The degranulation of the C cells, their hypertrophy and hyperplasia leading to the formation adenoma-like nodules were observed under conditions of prolonged hypervitaminosis A which causes bone damage without associated hypercalcemia. These changes which are probably the morphologic manifestation of the increased requirement of the body for calcitonin, connected with the damage of the bone tissue seem to indicate that calcitonin is an important factor essential for the protection of skeleton from its excessive mineralization.

  8. [Thyroid gland and the heart : Pathophysiological background, diagnostic and therapeutic consequences].

    PubMed

    Dischinger, U; Fassnacht, M

    2018-05-23

    Irregularities in thyroid-specific laboratory parameters are frequent in the general population. Observational studies have shown associations between dysfunction of the thyroid gland and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to give a critical overview of the relationship and treatment recommendations for the simultaneous occurrence of functional disorders of the thyroid gland and the heart. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Medline. Overt and also to a lesser extent subclinical hyperthyroidism are of relevance for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, even though interventional studies are missing. Therefore, basic thyroid diagnostics are recommended when cardiovascular diseases occur or deteriorate. Whereas overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are treated immediately, subclinical thyroid dysfunction disorders require confirmation by laboratory testing. In cases with confirmed subclinical hyperthyroidism and heart disease, a thyroid-specific treatment is meaningful (e. g. with radioiodine). At what point a subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated is controversial. We usually initiate substitution treatment with levothyroxine only in patients with a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level > 10 mIU/l. A control of baseline thyroid parameters is necessary prior to initiation of any treatment with amiodarone or with deterioration of the general condition.

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quang T.; Lee, Eun Joo; Huang, Melinda Gingman; Park, Young In; Khullar, Aashish; Plodkowski, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, representing 3.8% of all new cancer cases in the United States and is the ninth most common cancer overall. The American Cancer Society estimates that 62,450 people in the United States will be diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 2015, and 1950 deaths will result from the disease. Objective To review the current approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. Discussion Over the past 3 decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of people diagnosed with thyroid cancer, which may be attributable to the wide use of imaging studies, including ultrasounds, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scans that incidentally detect thyroid nodules. Thyroid cancer is divided into several main types, with papillary thyroid cancer being the most common. The treatment options for patients with thyroid cancer include the surgical removal of the entire thyroid gland (total thyroidectomy), radioactive iodine therapy, and molecular-targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This article summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer, with recommendations from the American Thyroid Association regarding thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Recently approved drugs and treatment trends are also explored. Conclusion The prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer depend on the tumor type and its stage at the time of diagnosis. Many thyroid cancers remain stable, microscopic, and indolent. The increasing treatment options for patients with thyroid cancer, including therapies that were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, have kept the mortality rate from this malignancy low, despite the increase in its incidence. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve prognosis and reduce mortality. PMID:25964831

  10. Thyroid Disease in the Older Patient

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a history of extensive surgery and/or radiotherapy to the neck. A decision to treat the ... Weight Thyroiditis Pediatric Thyroid Information Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Congenital Hypothyroidism FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules in ...

  11. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules in the pediatric population: a 12-year cyto-histological correlation experience at North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System.

    PubMed

    Lale, Seema A; Morgenstern, Nora N; Chiara, Sugrue; Wasserman, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules by FNA is used in the clinical management triage based on the knowledge of the rate of malignancy of each diagnostic category. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology was published in 2007 by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Using this classification, we studied our institution's experience in the pediatric population calculating the rate of malignancy for each diagnostic category, comparing our findings to our general patient population and that of the literature. 13,312 thyroid FNAs were performed at our institution between 1998 and 2010. 282 cases were from patients under 19 years of age. We reviewed and reclassified these cases using the new NCI categories, and pursued cytology-surgical follow-up. Of the 282 FNA cases, 20.92% (59) were classified as unsatisfactory (U), 48.22, % (136) benign (B), 2.12% (6) Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), 14.18% (40) suspicious for follicular neoplasm (FN), 2.12% (6) suspicious for malignancy (SM) and 12.41% (35) positive for malignancy (P). The U-category was further classified into nondiagnostic (ND) 12.41% (35) and cysts (C) 8.51% (24). Seventy-four children had surgical follow-up. The rates of histologically confirmed malignancy were 10% in U (1/10), 0% in B (0/17), 50% in AUS (2/4), 39% in FN (7/18), 100% in SM (4/4) and 100% in P (24/24) categories respectively. Among the U category, malignancy rate was 0% for the ND category and 25% for the C category. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply the NCI categories to the pediatric population. The rate of malignancy in the U category was only seen in the specimens with cystic component. AUS and FN categories had a higher malignancy rate (50 and 39% respectively) as compared with that of the general population (15 and 30% respectively). Given that the rates of malignancy are higher for cysts and AUS, the literature recommendation to "follow-up and repeat" may not apply to the pediatric population

  12. The use of the Bethesda terminology in thyroid fine-needle aspiration results in a lower rate of surgery for nonmalignant nodules: a report from a reference center in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozluk, Yasemin; Pehlivan, Esmehan; Gulluoglu, Mine G; Poyanli, Arzu; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Colak, Nese; Kapran, Yersu; Yilmazbayhan, Dilek

    2011-12-01

    The Bethesda system (BS) for reporting thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA), which classifies nodules as nondiagnostic (ND), benign (B), atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN/FN), suspicious for malignancy (SFM), or malignant (M), uses clinically valuable management guidelines. The authors employed a similar in-house classification system (IS) for thyroid FNAs, using the categories of ND, B, suspicious follicular cells (SFC), follicular lesion/neoplasm (FL/FN), SFM, and M. The authors compared IS and BS, and assessed the utility of BS in clinical practice. A total of 581 nodules with cytological/histological follow-up were examined and indeterminate lesions by BS were reclassified. The sensitivity and specificity for malignancy using IS were similar to that of BS (77% vs 99%). However, when SFN/FN and SFM were both considered positive, the results for IS and BS were as follows: sensitivity, 85% versus 85%; specificity, 87% versus 94%; and diagnostic accuracy, 86% versus 90%, respectively. Discrepancies between cytological and histological data were evident in 35 cases among all categories of BS except AUS/FLUS. The rate of surgery for nonmalignant nodules was lesser (20% vs 9%) by BS. Among 34 AUS/FLUS cases with follow-up data, hypocellularity was the case in 11 (46%) nonneoplastic and 10 (100%) neoplastic nodules. The use of BS results in a lower rate of surgery for nonmalignant nodules even though patients with borderline cytopathologic features are still encountered. AUS/FLUS category can be separated into subgroups according to the factors causing difficulties in the interpretation. There is a need of accumulation of AUS/FLUS cases to do further evaluations and studies.

  13. Rheumatoid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Tilstra, Jeremy S; Lienesch, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    Rheumatoid nodules are a common manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. These lesions are often easily identified based on typical diagnostic features and characteristic locations. When biopsied, nodules have a characteristic histologic appearance. Uncommonly, rheumatoid nodules can occur in systemic locations. There is no evidence that systemic therapy treats underlying rheumatoid nodules. Paradoxically, methotrexate and possibly tumor necrosis factor inhibitors can increase nodule development. Treatment of rheumatoid nodules is often not necessary, unless patients are experiencing pain or there is interference of mechanical function. This review outlines the available data on and associations of rheumatoid nodules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful treatment of solitary toxic thyroid nodules with relatively low-dose iodine-131, with low prevalence of hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.; Ridgway, E.C.; Daniels, G.H.

    1984-10-01

    Forty-five patients with solitary toxic thyroid adenomas received 131I (mean dose, 10.3 mCi) for treatment of hyperthyroidism and were followed for 4.9 +/- 3.2 years (range, 0.5 to 13.5). Seventy-seven percent were euthyroid by 2 months, 91% by 6 months, and 93% by 1 year. Only 3 patients did not respond to a single dose of 131I, but all responded to multiple doses. Late recurrent hyperthyroidism occurred in 3 patients at 4.5, 6, and 10 years after treatment with a single dose of 131I. No patient developed clinical hypothyroidism, and none had a low serum thyroxine level associated with anmore » elevated serum thyrotrophin level. Three patients developed minimal elevations in serum thyrotrophin levels: 1, 4, and 7.5 years after 131I treatment, their thyrotrophin levels were 8.4, 6.2, and 9.6 microU/mL, respectively. All 3 had normal serum thyroxine levels and were clinically euthyroid. Mean serum thyroxine concentrations of all patients were unchanged between 1 and more than 9 years of follow-up. These data suggest that solitary toxic adenomas may be treated with relatively low doses of 131I (5 to 15 mCi), and that post-treatment hypothyroidism is very unusual.« less

  15. Urine iodine excretion ın patients with euthyroid noduler disease

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Evrim; Eskioglu, Erdal; Aydin, Yusuf; Ozkan, Selma Karaahmetoglu; Guler, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Different nutritional and environmental factors are responsible for the pathogenesis of goiter, but iodine deficiency is the most important factor. However, little is known about the natural course of benign thyroid nodules in euthyroid patients over time. Few studies have used ultrasonographic evaluation to address this issue, especially in iodine-deficient areas. In this study, we present the long-term follow-up of benign thyroid nodules in a iodine-deficient area. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 62 randomly selected patients with benign euthyroid nodule. Thyroid volume and nodules were measured with sonography. Iodine intake was estimated by patient diet history and by measuring iodine excretion in spot urine samples. Patients were followed one year. RESULTS: Patients were divided into three groups according to level of urine iodine excretion: Group 1: <50μg/L (severe iodine deficiency group), Group 2: 50-100μg/L (mild iodine deficiency group), Group 3: >100 g/L (iodine sufficient group). The presence of additional disease (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure and a history of any medication for chronic disorder) and smoking rates were significantly higher in first group compared to the second and third group. Among groups, no significant difference was observed in either right or left thyroid lobe volume after one year. A clinically significant increase in nodule volume was observed in the first group, while there was a significant decrease in the second and third group. CONCLUSION: In this study, iodine deficiency was associated with an increase in thyroid nodule volumes. Smoking rates were higher in iodine deficient groups. It is thought that smoking impairs iodine intake or absorption consistent with a previous report. PMID:21422654

  16. Nodular Graves' disease with medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shoukat Hussain; Rather, Tanveer Ahmed; Makhdoomi, Rumana; Malik, Dharmender

    2015-01-01

    Co-existence of thyroid nodules with Graves' disease has been reported in various studies. 10-15% of such nodules harbor thyroid cancer with papillary thyroid cancer being the commonest. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in nodules associated with Graves' disease is rare. On literature survey, we came across 11 such cases reported so far. We report a 62-year-old female with Graves' disease who also had a thyroid nodule that on fine-needle aspiration cytology and the subsequent postthyroidectomy histopathological examination was reported to be MTC.

  17. Nodular Graves’ disease with medullary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shoukat Hussain; Rather, Tanveer Ahmed; Makhdoomi, Rumana; Malik, Dharmender

    2015-01-01

    Co-existence of thyroid nodules with Graves’ disease has been reported in various studies. 10–15% of such nodules harbor thyroid cancer with papillary thyroid cancer being the commonest. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in nodules associated with Graves’ disease is rare. On literature survey, we came across 11 such cases reported so far. We report a 62-year-old female with Graves’ disease who also had a thyroid nodule that on fine-needle aspiration cytology and the subsequent postthyroidectomy histopathological examination was reported to be MTC. PMID:26430321

  18. The association between thyroid malignancy and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: should it alter the surgical approach?

    PubMed

    Büyükaşık, Oktay; Hasdemir, Ahmet Oğuz; Yalçın, Erol; Celep, Bahadır; Sengül, Serkan; Yandakçı, Kemal; Tunç, Gündüz; Küçükpınar, Tevfik; Alkoy, Seval; Cöl, Cavit

    2011-01-01

    The relation between thyroid neoplasms and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is controversial. While it is accepted that focal lymphocytic thyroiditis develops secondarily to malignancy, it is not clear whether diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis has a tendency to develop into thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between CLT and malignant tumours of the thyroid and evaluate the surgical approach to CLT cases. In this study, 917 patients operated on for thyroid diseases were investigated retrospectively. Seventy-seven (8.4%) patients histopathologically diagnosed as having CLT (either non-specific or Hashimoto's thyroiditis) were investigated for any concurrent malignant neoplasm. Fifteen patients in whom CLT and thyroid malignancy were coexisting were included in the study. In the pathological evaluation of 917 cases, malignancy in the thyroid was found in 97 (10.6%) cases. Seventy-seven cases were categorised as CLT. Of these 77, 16 (20.8%) were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (specific CLT) and the other 61 (79.2%) were non-specific CLT. In 15 cases, thyroid malignancy was found to be concurrent with CLT. Of the malignities, nine (60%) were papillary carcinoma, three (20%) medullar carcinoma, one (6.6%) follicular carcinoma, one (6.6%) Hurthle cell carcinoma, and one (6.6%) lymphoma. In our series, the rate of the development of malignancy against the background of CLT was 19.48%, while the rate in the groups without CLT was 9.76%, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.008). CLT cases should be evaluated more carefully in terms of malignancy. If a nodule is detected on thyroiditis, the minimal surgical intervention should be lobectomy. Total thyroidectomy should be considered as preferable to subtotal thyroidectomy because of its many advantages such as controlling thyroiditis, removing the probability of reoperation, and hormonal stability.

  19. Marine-Lenhart syndrome in two adolescents, including one with thyroid cancer: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Animesh

    2017-11-27

    The coexistence of functional thyroid nodules and Graves' disease (GD) is a rare condition known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Thyroid cancer has been described in several adults, but never in children, with Marine-Lenhart syndrome. This paper discusses the challenges in diagnosis and the unique management of this condition in children, in the context of extant literature. In this case report, two adolescent female patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, aged 15 and 16 years, exhibited biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism, and were found to have unilateral hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules via thyroid scintigraphy. Additionally, both patients showed elevated thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI) and increased glandular activity, confirming background GD. Notably, one patient was also diagnosed with intranodular thyroid cancer upon preoperative examination. Both patients were treated via surgical resection. Summary and outlook: Diagnosis of Marine-Lenhart syndrome can be made in patients with functional thyroid nodules and increased glandular activity on thyroid scintigraphy. Standard doses of radioiodine ablation are not effective in the majority of patients and should be avoided due to the increased risk for thyroid cancer, making thyroidectomy the preferred treatment.

  20. Cost-effectiveness comparison between palpation- and ultrasound-guided thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ahmet Selçuk

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to perform a cost-effectiveness comparison between palpation-guided thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies (P-FNA) and ultrasound-guided thyroid FNA biopsies (USG-FNA). Methods Each nodule was considered as a case. Diagnostic steps were history and physical examination, TSH measurement, Tc99m thyroid scintigraphy for nodules with a low TSH level, initial P-FNA versus initial USG-FNA, repeat USG-FNA for nodules with initial inadequate P-FNA or USG-FNA, hemithyroidectomy for inadequate repeat USG-FNA. American Thyroid Association thyroid nodule management guidelines were simulated in estimating the cost of P-FNA strategy. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists guidelines were simulated for USG-FNA strategy. Total costs were estimated by adding the cost of each diagnostic step to reach a diagnosis for 100 nodules. Strategy cost was found by dividing the total cost to 100. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated by dividing the difference between strategy cost of USG-FNA and P-FNA to the difference between accuracy of USG-FNA and P-FNA. A positive ICER indicates more and a negative ICER indicates less expense to achieve one more additional accurate diagnosis of thyroid cancer for USG-FNA. Results Seventy-eight P-FNAs and 190 USG-FNAs were performed between April 2003 and May 2008. There were no differences in age, gender, thyroid function, frequency of multinodular goiter, nodule location and diameter (median nodule diameter: 18.4 mm in P-FNA and 17.0 mm in USG-FNA) between groups. Cytology results in P-FNA versus USG-FNA groups were as follows: benign 49% versus 62% (p = 0.04), inadequate 42% versus 29% (p = 0.03), malignant 3% (p = 1.00) and indeterminate 6% (p = 0.78) for both. Eleven nodules from P-FNA and 18 from USG-FNA group underwent surgery. The accuracy of P-FNA was 0.64 and USG-FNA 0.72. Unit cost of P-FNA was 148 Euros and USG-FNA 226 Euros. The cost of P-FNA strategy was 534 Euros and USG

  1. Diagnostic Limitation of Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) on Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules Can Be Partially Overcome by Preoperative Molecular Analysis: Assessment of RET/PTC1 Rearrangement in BRAF and RAS Wild-Type Routine Air-Dried FNA Specimens.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Sin; Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Ja Yeon; Choi, Yoon-La; Lee, Seung Eun; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Wan Seop; Kim, Suk Kyeong; Park, Kyoung Sik

    2017-04-12

    Molecular markers are helpful diagnostic tools, particularly for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Preoperative RET/PTC1 rearrangement analysis in BRAF and RAS wild-type indeterminate thyroid nodules would permit the formulation of an unambiguous surgical plan. Cycle threshold values according to the cell count for detection of the RET/PTC1 rearrangement by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fresh and routine air-dried TPC1 cells were evaluated. The correlation of RET/PTC1 rearrangement between fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and paired formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens was analyzed. RET/PTC1 rearrangements of 76 resected BRAF and RAS wild-type classical PTCs were also analyzed. Results of RT-PCR and the Nanostring were compared. When 100 fresh and air-dried TPC1 cells were used, expression of RET/PTC1 rearrangement was detectable after 35 and 33 PCR cycles, respectively. The results of RET/PTC1 rearrangement in 10 FNA and paired FFPE papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) specimens showed complete correlation. Twenty-nine (38.2%) of 76 BRAF and RAS wild-type classical PTCs had RET/PTC1 rearrangement. Comparison of RET/PTC1 rearrangement analysis between RT-PCR and the Nanostring showed moderate agreement with a κ value of 0.56 ( p = 0.002). The RET/PTC1 rearrangement analysis by RT-PCR using routine air-dried FNA specimen was confirmed to be technically applicable. A significant proportion (38.2%) of the BRAF and RAS wild-type PTCs harbored RET/PTC1 rearrangements.

  2. Painless thyroiditis associated to thyroid carcinoma: role of initial ultrasonography evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Raisa Bressan; Macedo, Bruno Mussoi de; Izquierdo, Rogério Friedrich; Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza

    2016-04-01

    Even though it is a rare event, most associations of thyroid carcinoma with subacute thyroiditis described in the literature are related to its granulomatous form (Quervain's thyroiditis). We present a patient with subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (painless thyroiditis) and papillary thyroid cancer that was first suspected in an initial ultrasound evaluation. A 30-year old female patient who was referred to the emergency room due to hyperthyroidism symptoms was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis established by physical examination and laboratory findings. With the presence of a palpable painless thyroid nodule an ultrasound was prescribed and the images revealed a suspicious thyroid nodule, microcalcification focus in the heterogeneous thyroid parenquima and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was taken from this nodule; cytology was assessed for compatibility with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postsurgical pathology evaluation showed a multicentric papillary carcinoma and lymphocytic infiltration. Subacute thyroiditis, regardless of type, may produce transitory ultrasound changes that obscure the coexistence of papillary carcinoma. Due to this, initial thyroid ultrasound evaluation should be delayed until clinical recovery. We recommended a thyroid ultrasound exam for initial evaluation of painless thyroiditis, particularly in patients with palpable thyroid nodule. Further cytological examination is recommended in cases presenting with suspect thyroid nodule and/or non-nodular hypoechoic (> 1 cm) or heterogeneous areas with microcalcification focus.

  3. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma with functional autonomy.

    PubMed

    Yaturu, Subhashini; Fowler, Marjorie R

    2002-01-01

    To present a case of papillary carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule. We chronicle the clinical and laboratory findings in a patient with a painless neck mass, with a particular focus on the pathologic findings after surgical removal of the right thyroid lobe. A 39-year-old woman had an enlarging nodule of the right thyroid lobe. Results of thyroid function tests suggested subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two months later, the patient complained of increasing swelling in the neck (but still had no symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism). Thus, resection of the right thyroid lobe was performed. Pathologic analysis disclosed low-grade papillary thyroid carcinoma within the nodule, with a small rim of compressed inactive-appearing thyroid tissue surrounding the nodule. Subsequently, she underwent total thyroidectomy and follow-up care for thyroid carcinoma. Although solitary hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid gland are usually considered benign, the current case suggests that the diagnosis of autonomous thyroid nodules does not preclude thyroid carcinoma in a functioning nodule.

  4. Athlete's nodule.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Masaki; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Mitsuhashi, Yoshihiko

    2009-11-01

    Three cases of athlete's nodule on the feet are reported. In case 1, a 30-year-old man, who had been an amateur football player, presented with nodules on the lateral side of the feet and on the right lateral malleolus with a duration of 1 year. In case 2, a 22-year-old man, who had participated in karate and track-and-field, presented with nodules on the lateral side of the feet and on the right lateral malleolus with a duration of 10 years. In case 3, a 25-year-old man, who had skied, presented with a nodule on the right lateral malleolus with a duration of 4 years. The biopsy specimens from the lesion demonstrated hyperkeratosis, acanthosis of the epidermis and thickness of the dermis. In 1991, Cohen et al. proposed the concept of athlete's nodule which indicated an acquired cutaneous nodule caused by chronic stimuli with sports. Histopathology of the athlete's nodule shows hypertrophy of the epidermis and dermis. To the best of our knowledge the term "athlete's nodule" has not been used in Japan, but it is a useful term to refer to the lesion induced by athletics or the use of sporting equipment.

  5. Pheochromocytoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Tariq; Qari, Faiza

    2009-08-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented with labile and difficult to control hypertension on 3 different anti-hypertensive medications. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland showed a 1.8 cm thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, intact parathyroid hormone, and calcium levels were within normal limits. A 24-hour urine metanephrine showed significant elevation in urine metanephrine of approximately 3 times the upper limit of normal, and the result of 131I-metaiodobenzyleguanjdjne (131I-MIBG) scintigraphy confirmed that the adrenal mass was pheochromocytoma. Right adrenalectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed. The final pathology was pheochromocytoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. An analysis of c-ret porto-oncogene mutation yielded a negative result. This unusual association of 2 tumors represents a new entity.

  6. Manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Figure 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published in the journal Economic Geology (Mero, 1962) and later as a book (Mero, 1965). By the mid-1970s, large consortia had formed to search for and mine Mn nodules that occur between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones (CCZ) in the NE Pacific (Figure 2). This is still the area considered of greatest economic potential in the global ocean because of high nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and Mn contents and the dense distribution of nodules in the area. While the mining of nodules was fully expected to begin in the late 1970s or early 1980s, this never occurred due to a downturn in the price of metals on the global market. Since then, many research cruises have been undertaken to study the CCZ nodules, and now 15 contracts for exploration sites have been given or are pending by the International Seabed Authority (ISA). Many books and science journal articles have been published summarizing the early work (e.g., Baturin, 1988; Halbach et al., 1988), and research has continued to the present day (e.g., ISA, 1999; ISA, 2010). Although the initial attraction for nodules was their high Ni, Cu, and Mn contents, subsequent work has shown that nodules host large quantities of other critical metals needed for high-tech, green-tech, and energy applications (Hein et al., 2013; Hein and Koschinsky, 2014).

  7. American Thyroid Association Statement on Remote-Access Thyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bernet, Victor; Fahey, Thomas J.; Kebebew, Electron; Shaha, Ashok; Stack, Brendan C.; Stang, Michael; Steward, David L.; Terris, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Remote-access techniques have been described over the recent years as a method of removing the thyroid gland without an incision in the neck. However, there is confusion related to the number of techniques available and the ideal patient selection criteria for a given technique. The aims of this review were to develop a simple classification of these approaches, describe the optimal patient selection criteria, evaluate the outcomes objectively, and define the barriers to adoption. Methods: A review of the literature was performed to identify the described techniques. A simple classification was developed. Technical details, outcomes, and the learning curve were described. Expert opinion consensus was formulated regarding recommendations for patient selection and performance of remote-access thyroid surgery. Results: Remote-access thyroid procedures can be categorized into endoscopic or robotic breast, bilateral axillo-breast, axillary, and facelift approaches. The experience in the United States involves the latter two techniques. The limited data in the literature suggest long operative times, a steep learning curve, and higher costs with remote-access thyroid surgery compared with conventional thyroidectomy. Nevertheless, a consensus was reached that, in appropriate hands, it can be a viable option for patients with unilateral small nodules who wish to avoid a neck incision. Conclusions: Remote-access thyroidectomy has a role in a small group of patients who fit strict selection criteria. These approaches require an additional level of expertise, and therefore should be done by surgeons performing a high volume of thyroid and robotic surgery. PMID:26858014

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of thyroid in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: overt hypothyroid and euthyroid.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Tezcan; Varım, Ceyhun; Nalbant, Ahmet; Gündüz, Yasemin; Tamer, Ali

    2013-08-01

    To compare the frequency, size, and sonographic features of thyroid nodules in overt hypothyroid and euthyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. The study included 135 overt hypothyroid (group 1) and 74 euthyroid patients (group 2) with Hashimoto thyroiditis. The two groups were compared for presence of nodule(s), nodule numbers, and nodule sizes obtained by ultrasonography. Nodules were found in 48 (35.5%) patients in group 1 and in 24 (36.9%) in group 2 (p more than 0.05). The numbers of nodules in the group 1 and group 2, respectively, were as follows: single nodule in 12 (25%) and in 9 (33.3%) patients; 2-4 nodules in 20 (41.6%) and in 13 (48.1%) patients; and > 4 nodules in 16 (33.3%) and in 5 (18.5%) patients (p more than 0.05 for all of the results). Nodule sizes of the solitary or dominant nodule in group 1 and group 2, respectively, were as follows: less than 1 cm nodules in 27 (56.2%) and in 14 (51.8%) patients; 1-2 cm nodules in 18 (37.5%) and in 7 (25.9) patients; 2-4 cm nodules in 2 (4.1%) and in 5 (18.5%) patients and > 4 cm nodules in 1 (2%) and in 1 (3.7%) patient (p more than 0.05 for all of the results). Thyroid ultrasound examination of overt hypothyroid and euthyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis reveals similarities in terms of frequency, number, size, and ultrasound features of the thyroid nodules.

  9. Hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Salih, Abdulwahid M; Kakamad, F H; Nihad, Han

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid malignant tumors are rarely associated with hyperfunctioning thyroid. The incidence of this co-incidence is highly variable. Here we report a rare case of papillary thyroid cancer associated with hyperthyroidism with brief literature review. A 40-year-old male, presented with palpitation, excess sweating and weight loss for one month duration. There was asymmetrical swelling of the neck, more on right side, mobile. Free T3: 11.09pmol/L, free T4: 34.41pmol/L, TFT: less than 0.005mIU/ml, Neck ultrasound showed features of background thyroiditis. Left lobe contained 9×7×5mm nodule with irregular outline and multiple dots of calcification, other nodules are of the same features. Under ultrasound guide, fine needle aspiration cytology showed features of papillary carcinoma. After preparation, total thyrodectomy done and the result of histopathological examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient was put on 0.2mg thyroxine daily. Literature review has showed an increasing number of papers reporting the association of high level of thyroid function tests and thyroid malignancy. The cause of high level of TH in thyroid malignancy is thought to be due to an active mutation of the gene of TH receptor. Niepomniszcze and colleagues found that a combination of TSH receptor mutations and Ki-RAS was the main etiological factor for hyperfunction of the thyroid malignancy. Although the coexistence of them is rare, thyroid malignancy should be put in the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroid goiter. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypothyroidism, new nodule formation and increase in nodule size in patients who have undergone hemithyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Reyhan Ünlü; Anıl, Cüneyd; Demir, Özgür; Erdoğan, Murat Faik; Güllü, Sevim; Berker, Dilek; Gül, Kamile; Ünlütürk, Uğur; Erdoğan, Gürbüz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The current medical literature has conflicting results about factors related to hypothyroidism and nodular recurrences during follow-up of hemithyroidectomized patients. We aimed to evaluate factors that may have a role in new nodule formation, hypothyroidism, increase in thyroid lobe and increase in nodule volumes in these patients with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and with and without levothyroxine (LT4) use. Material and methods We enrolled 140 patients from five different hospitals in Ankara and evaluated their thyroid tests, autoantibody titre results and ultrasonographic findings longitudinally between two visits with a minimum 6-month interval. Results In patients with HT there was no significant difference between the two visits but in patients without HT, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and nodule volume were higher, and free T4 levels were lower in the second visit. Similarly, in patients with LT4 treatment there was no difference in TSH, free T4 levels, or lobe or nodule size between the two visits, but the patients without LT4 had free T4 levels lower in the second visit. Regression analysis revealed a relationship between first visit TSH levels and hypothyroidism during follow-up. Conclusions Patients who have undergone hemithyroidectomy without LT4 treatment and without HT diagnosis should be followed up more carefully for thyroid tests, new nodule formation and increase in nodule size. The TSH levels at the beginning of the follow-up may be helpful to estimate hypothyroidism in hemithyroidectomized patients. PMID:22661999

  11. Thyroid scintigraphy findings in 2096 cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark E; Broome, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is currently the reference standard for diagnosing and staging cats with hyperthyroidism, but few studies describing the scintigraphic characteristics in a large number of cats have been reported. The objective of this study was to better characterize thyroid scintigraphy findings by evaluating 2096 consecutive cats with hyperthyroidism that were referred over a 3.5-year period. Of these cats, 2068 (98.7%) had a high thyroid-to-salivary ratio (>1.5), whereas 2014 (96.1%) were found to have a high thyroid-to-background ratio (>6.1). When the patterns of the cats' thyroid disease were recorded, 665 (31.7%) had unilateral disease, 1060 (50.6%) had bilateral-asymmetric disease (two thyroid lobes unequal in size), 257 (12.3%) had bilateral-symmetric disease (both lobes similar in size), and 81 (3.9%) had multifocal disease (≥3 areas of increased radionuclide uptake). The number of areas of (99m) TcO(-) 4 uptake in the 2096 cats ranged from 1 to 6 (median, 2), located in the cervical area in 2057 (98.1%), thoracic inlet in 282 (13.5%), and in the thoracic cavity in 115 (5.5%). Ectopic thyroid tissue (e.g. lingual or mediastinal) was diagnosed in 81 (3.9%) cats, whereas thyroid carcinoma was suspected in 35 (1.7%) of the cats. The results of this study support conclusions that most hyperthyroid cats have unilateral or bilateral thyroid nodules, but that multifocal disease will develop in a few cats that have ectopic thyroid disease or thyroid carcinoma. Both ectopic thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma are relatively uncommon in hyperthyroid cats, with a respective prevalence of ∼4% and ∼2% in this study. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Thyroid Radiofrequency Ablation: Updates on Innovative Devices and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Sun; Park, Auh Whan; Chung, Sae Rom; Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-known, effective, and safe method for treating benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. Thyroid-dedicated devices and basic techniques for thyroid RFA were introduced by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) in 2012. Thyroid RFA has now been adopted worldwide, with subsequent advances in devices and techniques. To optimize the treatment efficacy and patient safety, understanding the basic and advanced RFA techniques and selecting the optimal treatment strategy are critical. The goal of this review is to therefore provide updates and analysis of current devices and advanced techniques for RFA treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. PMID:28670156

  13. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules. PMID:20847957

  14. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  15. Ultrasonography of Various Thyroid Diseases in Children and Adolescents: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Jisang; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules. PMID:25741204

  16. Endocrinology Update: Thyroid Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Scott

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid disease affects nearly every organ system in the body. Hypothyroidism is a state of thyroid hormone insufficiency that results in decreased metabolism and secondary effects including fatigue and weight gain. Primary hypothyroidism typically is a result of autoimmune thyroiditis or iodine deficiency and is assessed by measurement of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. This level usually is elevated in patients with hypothyroidism and low in patients with hyperthyroidism. Levothyroxine is the treatment of choice for hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a state of thyroid hormone excess, which increases the metabolic rate and causes symptoms including anxiety and tremor. Graves disease is the most common etiology in developed countries. Patients with hyperthyroidism are evaluated with measurement of TSH and free thyroxine levels. Management options include antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, and surgery. Thyroid nodules are detected commonly in family medicine, and may or may not be associated with thyroid hormone abnormalities. Patients with thyroid nodules should be evaluated with TSH level measurement and thyroid ultrasonography to guide further testing. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Lack of association between autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and germline polymorphisms of the thyrotropin receptor and Gαs genes in a mild to moderate iodine-deficient Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Vicchio, Teresa Manuela; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Certo, Rosaria; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Micali, Carmelo; Baldari, Sergio; Benvenga, Salvatore; Trimarchi, Francesco; Campennì, Alfredo; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena

    2014-07-01

    Mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and/or Gαs gene have been found in a number of, but not all, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). Recently, in a 15-year-old girl with a hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma, we found two somatic and germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): a SNP of the TSHR gene (exon 7, codon 187) and a SNP of Gαs gene (exon 8, codon 185). The same silent SNP of the TSHR gene had been reported in patients with AFTN or familial non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. No further data about the prevalence of the two SNPs in AFTNs as well as in the general population are available in the literature. To clarify the possible role of these SNPs in predisposing to AFTN. Germline DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes of 115 patients with AFTNs (43 males and 72 females, aged 31-85 years, mean ± SD = 64 ± 13) and 100 sex-matched healthy individuals from the same geographic area, which is marginally iodine deficient. The genotype distribution of the two SNPs was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of the two SNPs in our study population was low and not different to that found in healthy individuals: 8 % of patients vs. 9 % of controls were heterozygous for the TSHR SNP and 4 % patients vs. 6 % controls were heterozygous for the Gαs SNP. One patient harbored both SNPs. These results suggest that these two SNPs do not confer susceptibility for the development of AFTN.

  18. [Malignant tumors of thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Uhliarová, B; Bugová, G; Hajtman, A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing. The aim of this work was to determine risk factors, diagnostic methods and extent of surgical treatment of malignant goiter. The authors retrospectively analyzed patients who were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Comenius University, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Teaching Hospital in Martin, Slovakia, from the January 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2013, for thyroid disease. The incidence, risk factors of malignant thyroid tumors, indication for surgery and its complications were evaluated. A total of 1,620 adult patients were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of ENT, Head and Neck Surgery, CU JMF, UH in Martin, Slovakia, between 2006- 2013. Malignant tumors were identified in 238 patients (15%). Microcarcinoma (incidentally detected malignant tumor 1 cm) occurred in 78 cases (5%). Malignant thyroid tumor was more common in younger patients (p = 0.002). Newly created and larger nodules positively correlated with the occurrence of malignancy (p = 0.003, p = 0.041, resp.). Gender, family history of thyroid disorder, previous radiation therapy, and previous malignancy did not affect the incidence of malignant tumor of thyroid gland. High sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid nodule was observed using aspiration cytology (75%, 97%, resp.) and intraoperative histopathological examination (88%, 100%, resp.). Malignant tumor of thyroid gland is more common in younger patients with newly developed nodule. The risk factors of malignancy increase with the size of the thyroid nodule. Aspiration cytology and peroperative histopathology have high sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid tumor; therefore, they should be a standard method in the dia-gnosis of nodular goiter. The method of choice in the treatment of thyroid malignancy is total thyroidectomy.

  19. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Hulusi; Çolak, Ramis; Yazici, Zihni Acar; Kefeli, Mehmet; Tosun, Fevziye Canbaz

    2015-04-01

    Graves' disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) also within Graves' thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves' disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far.

  20. Predictive factors of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meng; Wu, Mu Chao; Shang, Chang Zhen; Wang, Xiao Yi; Zhang, Jing Lu; Cheng, Hua; Xu, Ming Tong; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The best preoperative examination in Graves' disease with thyroid cancer still remains uncertain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease patients, and to identify the predictive factors and ultrasonographic features of thyroid cancer that may aid the preoperative diagnosis in Graves' disease. This retrospective study included 423 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgical treatment from 2002 to 2012 at our institution. The clinical features and ultrasonographic findings of thyroid nodules were recorded. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was determined according to the pathological results. Thyroid cancer was discovered in 58 of the 423 (13.7 %) surgically treated Graves' disease patients; 46 of those 58 patients had thyroid nodules, and the other 12 patients were diagnosed with incidentally discovered thyroid carcinomas without thyroid nodules. Among the 58 patients with thyroid cancer, papillary microcarcinomas were discovered in 50 patients, and multifocality and lymph node involvement were detected in the other 8 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed younger age was the only significant factor predictive of metastatic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonographic findings of calcification and intranodular blood flow in thyroid nodules indicate that they are more likely to harbor thyroid cancers. Because the influencing factor of metastatic thyroid cancers in Graves' disease is young age, every suspicious nodule in Graves' disease patients should be evaluated and treated carefully, especially in younger patients because of the potential for metastasis.

  1. Non-Malignant Thyroid Diseases Following a Wide Range of Radiation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Elaine; Brenner, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Background The thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive human organs. While it is well known that radiation exposure increases the risk of thyroid cancer, less is known about its effects in relation to non-malignant thyroid diseases. Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of high and low dose radiation on benign structural and functional diseases of the thyroid. Methods We examined the results of major studies from cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy or thyrotoxicosis patients treated with high doses of iodine-131, patients treated with moderate to high dose radiotherapy for benign diseases, persons exposed to low doses from environmental radiation and survivors of the atomic bombings who were exposed to a range of doses. We evaluated radiation effects on structural (tumors, nodules), functional (hyper- and hypothyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Results Following a wide range of doses of ionizing radiation, an increased risk of thyroid adenomas and nodules was observed in a variety of populations and settings. The dose response appeared to be linear at low to moderate doses, but in one study there was some suggestion of a reduction in risk above 5 Gy. The elevated risk for benign tumors continues for decades following exposure. Considerably less consistent findings are available regarding functional thyroid diseases including autoimmune diseases. In general, associations for these outcomes were fairly weak and significant radiation effects were most often observed following high doses, particularly for hypothyroidism. Conclusions A significant radiation dose-response relation was demonstrated for benign nodules and follicular adenomas. The effects of radiation on functional thyroid diseases are less clear, partly due to the greater difficulties studying these diseases. PMID:21128812

  2. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer - solitary nodule; Infectious granuloma - pulmonary nodule; SPN ... such as aspergillosis , coccidioidomycosis , cryptococcosis , or histoplasmosis Primary lung cancer is the most common cause of cancerous (malignant) ...

  3. Thyrotoxicosis: a rare presenting symptom of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Wong, C P; AuYong, T K; Tong, C M

    2003-10-01

    Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare type of thyroid neoplasm. The most common clinical presentation is a single palpable thyroid nodule. The neoplasm typically presents as a nonfunctioning or cold nodule on a Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate or radioiodine thyroid scan. We report a case of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid in a woman presenting with thyrotoxicosis. The Tc-99m thyroid scan was also interesting in that the nodule was a hot or hyperfunctioning area, resulting in a rare scintigraphic finding in a rare tumor. Clinicopathologic aspects and related issues are further discussed.

  4. Thyroid Swelling and Thyroiditis in the Setting of Recent hCG Injections and Fine Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lamos, Elizabeth M.; Munir, Kashif M.

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with a neck mass and underwent fine needle aspiration of a left thyroid nodule. During this time, she had been injected with hCG for weight loss. Soon after, she developed rapid diffuse thyroid growth with pain. She was ultimately diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis due to postaspiration subacute thyroiditis and subsequently became hypothyroid. This condition is rare in the nonpregnant state in noncystic nodules with a smaller needle gauge approach. The incidence of thyroid nodule discovery and evaluation is increasing. As more procedures are undertaken, understanding of potential complications is important. This case highlights potential complications of thyroid fine needle aspiration including diffuse thyroid swelling and thyroiditis. The role of hCG injections is speculated to have potentially stimulated thyroid follicular epithelium via cross-reactivity with the TSH receptor and contributed to the acute inflammatory response after fine needle aspiration. PMID:26942022

  5. Thyroid Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. Thyroid problems include Goiter - enlargement of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones ...

  6. Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Akiko T; Hirano, Shigeru; Asato, Ryo; Tanaka, Shinzo; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Honda, Nobumitsu; Fujiki, Nobuya; Miyata, Kouji; Fukushima, Hideyuki; Ito, Juichi

    2008-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma is rare, and most cases are caused by hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma rather than primary carcinoma. Among primary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma, multifocal thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with the only one case being reported in the literature. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multifocal functioning thyroid carcinoma. Technetium-99m (99m Tc) scintigraphic imaging showed four hot areas in the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination of all four nodules revealed papillary carcinoma, corresponding to hot areas in the 99m Tc scintigram. DNA sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene from all nodules revealed no mutation, indicating that activation of TSH-R was unlikely in the pathophysiogenesis of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in the present case.

  7. Impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of pathological incidental thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Eric; Heffron, Cynthia; Murphy, Matthew; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of incidental thyroid cancers. We conducted a retrospective review of 713 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomies. Incidental thyroid cancer was defined as an unexpected cancer discovered on pathological examination outside the index nodule undergoing preoperative cytology. We excluded 65 cases because of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer, and 68 because of nonincidental cancer within the index nodule. Among the remaining 580 cases, there were 43 cases (7.4%) of incidental thyroid cancers. Incidental thyroid cancers were significantly associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis (relative risk = 2.5; p = .03). Sixteen of 56 patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis had Graves' disease, none of whom had incidental thyroid cancer. The risk of incidental thyroid cancer associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis was significantly higher in non-Graves' than patients with Graves' disease (p = .05). The risk of incidental thyroid cancer is significantly increased in patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis. Moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with Graves' disease seems to have a lower risk of incidental thyroid cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 122-127, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ultrasonographic features and clinical characteristics of Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga Ram; Shin, Jung Hee; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Ko, Eun Young; Oh, Young Lyun

    2016-04-25

    Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (WVPTC) is a rare entity recently characterized. We evaluated ultrasonographic (US) features and clinical characteristics of WVPTC. Nine patients were diagnosed with WVPTC through surgery in our institution from May 2005 to January 2015. Eight of nine patients had available preoperative US images. A retrospective review of the US and clinical characteristics was performed. WVPTC compromised of 0.06% of 14,071 PTCs surgically confirmed. A mean age of nine patients was 53.2 years (range, 32-75 years). The mean nodule size of nine WVPTCs was 0.9 cm (range, 0.5-1.5 cm). Two patients showed central nodal metastasis and one patient with conventional PTC as an index tumor underwent central and lateral neck dissection. No one showed recurrence or distant metastasis during the follow-up period (mean, 4.6 years; range, 0.6-10 years). The most common US features of WVPTCs were solid composition (62.5%), hypoechogenicity (75%), and wider-than-tall shape (100%), respectively. Four (50%) of eight nodules showed well-defined margin and three (37.5%) of them had cystic component. One of eight resembled focal thyroiditis. Three nodules were considered as probably benign with US. All nine cases demonstrated underlying heterogeneous parenchymal echogenicity and accompanied chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in permanent sections. Thyroid function tests in all patients were normal except for one with subclinical hypothyroidism. WVPTC is an uncommon subtype of PTC and has favorable prognosis, which can be misdiagnosed as a probably benign nodule or focal thyroiditis with US. All cases are associated with heterogeneous parenchyma in the background.

  9. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: Background Data and Proposals for the Classification of Lung Cancer with Separate Tumor Nodules in the Forthcoming Eighth Edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Frank C; Bolejack, Vanessa; Arenberg, Douglas A; Crowley, John; Donington, Jessica S; Franklin, Wilbur A; Girard, Nicolas; Marom, Edith M; Mazzone, Peter J; Nicholson, Andrew G; Rusch, Valerie W; Tanoue, Lynn T; Travis, William D; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Separate tumor nodules with the same histologic appearance occur in the lungs in a small proportion of patients with primary lung cancer. This article addresses how such tumors can be classified to inform the eighth edition of the anatomic classification of lung cancer. Separate tumor nodules should be distinguished from second primary lung cancer, multifocal ground glass/lepidic tumors, and pneumonic-type lung cancer, which are addressed in separate analyses. Survival of patients with separate tumor nodules in the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer database were analyzed. This was compared with a systematic literature review. Survival of clinically staged patients decreased according to the location of the separate tumor nodule relative to the index tumor (same lobe > same side > other side) in N0 and N-any cohorts (all M0 except possible other-side nodules). However, there was also a decrease in the proportion of patients resected; among only surgically resected or among nonresected patients no survival differences were noted. There were no survival differences between patients with same-lobe nodules and those with other T3 tumors, between patients with same-side nodules and those with T4 tumors, and patients with other-side nodules and those with other M1a tumors. The data correlated with those identified in a literature review. Tumors with same-lobe separate tumor nodules (with the same histologic appearance) are recommended to be classified as T3, same-side nodules as T4, and other-side nodules as M1a. Thus, there is no recommended change between the seventh and eighth edition of the TNM classification of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photoacoustic analysis of thyroid cancer in vivo: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Min-Hee; Jo, Kwanhoon; Ha, Jeonghoon; Kim, Yongmin; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers. About 3-8% of the people in the United States have thyroid nodules, and 5-15% of these nodules are malignant. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a standard procedure to diagnose malignity of nodules. However, about 10-20% of FNABs produce indeterminable results, which leads to repeat biopsies and unnecessary surgical operations. We have explored photoacoustic (PA) imaging as a new method to identify cancerous nodules. In a pilot study to test its feasibility, we recruited patients with thyroid nodules (currently 36 cases with 21 malignant and 15 benign nodules), acquired in vivo PA and ultrasound (US) images of the nodules in real time using a recently-developed clinical PA/US imaging system, and analyzed the acquired data offline. The preliminary results show that malignant and benign nodules could be differentiated by utilizing their PA amplitudes at different excitation wavelengths. This is the first in vivo PA analysis of thyroid nodules. Although a larger-scale study is needed for statistical significance, the preliminary results show the good potential of PA imaging as a non-invasive tool for triaging thyroid cancer.

  11. The Rate and Clinical Significance of Incidental Thyroid Uptake as Detected by Gallium-68 DOTATATE Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nockel, Pavel; Millo, Corina; Keutgen, Xavier; Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Shell, Jasmine; Patel, Dhaval; Nilubol, Naris; Herscovitch, Peter; Sadowski, Samira M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTATATE is a radiolabeled peptide–imaging modality that targets the somatostatin receptor (SSTR), especially subtype 2 (SSTR2). Benign and malignant thyroid tumors have been observed to express SSTR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of incidental atypical thyroid uptake as detected by Ga-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of a prospective study in which 237 patients underwent Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/CT as part of a work-up for metastatic and unknown primary neuroendocrine tumors. The types of uptake in the thyroid gland (focal/diffuse) and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) levels were evaluated and compared with the background uptake in the liver and salivary glands. Results: Of 237 patients, 26 (11%) had atypical thyroid uptake as detected by Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/CT. There were no significant clinical or biochemical variables associated with atypical thyroid uptake. Fourteen (54%) patients had positive focal uptake, and 12 (46%) patients had diffuse uptake. Of the 14 patients with atypical focal uptake, 10 (71%) had thyroid nodules on the corresponding side, as detected by anatomic imaging. Three of 10 patients (21%) were found to have papillary thyroid cancer, and seven (70%) had adenomatoid nodules. Of the 12 patients with diffuse increased uptake, six (50%) had a history of hypothyroidism, five (42%) had chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, and one (8%) had nontoxic multinodular goiter. Conclusions: Patients with an incidental focal abnormal thyroid uptake on Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/CT scan should have further clinical evaluation to exclude a diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27094616

  12. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M; Celi, Francesco S; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B; Remaley, Alan T; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules.

  13. Hyperfunctioning thyroid cancer: a five-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Monalisa Ferreira; Casulari, Luiz Augusto

    2010-02-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer rarely occurs in association with hyperfunctioning nodules. We describe a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism associated with a palpable thyroid nodule. Thyroid scintigraphy showed an autonomous nodule, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suggestive of papillary carcinoma. Laboratorial findings were consistent with the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and a papillary carcinoma of 3.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 cm, follicular variant, was described by histological examination. The surrounding thyroid tissue was normal. Postoperatively, the patient received 100 mCi of (131)I, and whole body scans detected only residual uptake. No evidence of metastasis was detected during five years of follow-up. Hot thyroid nodules rarely harbor malignancies, and this case illustrated that, when a carcinoma occurs the prognosis seems to be very good with no evidence of metastatic dissemination during a long-term follow-up.

  14. [Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid gland carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Zivaljevic, V; Zivic, R; Diklic, A; Krgovic, K; Kalezic, N; Vekic, B; Stevanovic, D; Paunovic, I

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid gland carcinomas usually appear as afunctional and hypofunctional lesions on thyroid scintigrams, but some rare cases of thyroid carcinoma with scintigraphic hyperfunctional lesions have also been reported. The aim of our retrospective study was to elucidate the frequency of carcinomas in patients operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules and to represent their demographic and clinical features. During one decade (1997/2006), 308 patients were operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules in the Centre for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade. Malignancy was revealed in 9 cases (about 3 %) by histopathological examination. In 6 cases papillary microcarcinomas were found adjacent to dominant hyperfunctional adenomas, while in 3 cases (about 1 %) real hyperfunctional carcinomas were confirmed. Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases and papillary carcinoma in one. All 3 patients were preoperatively hyperthyroid. In both patients with follicular carcinoma we performed lobectomies. In the third case we carried out a total thyroidectomy considering the intraoperative frozen section finding of a papillary carcinoma. According to our results the frequency of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinomas is about 1 %, so that the possibility that a hyperfunctional nodule is malignant should be considered in the treatment of such lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  15. Molecular Approaches to Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common, and the accurate diagnosis of cancer or benign disease is important for the effective clinical management of these patients. Molecular markers are a helpful diagnostic tool, particularly for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in developing molecular markers for clinical use in fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens, including gene mutation panels and gene expression classifiers. With the availability of next generation sequencing technology, gene mutation panels can be expanded to interrogate multiple genes simultaneously and to provide yet more accurate diagnostic information. In addition, recently several new molecular markers in thyroid cancer have been identified that offer diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic information that could potentially be of value in guiding individualized management of patients with thyroid nodules. PMID:24829266

  16. Tracheal invasion by Thyroid nodule in Thyroidectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-20

    through the first tracheal ring. The tracheal defect was fixed with a strap muscle flap and surgery concluded uneventfully. Following deep extubation, an...air leak at the surgical site was noted. The patient was reintubated, the incision was re-opened and the tracheal flap was revised to prevent tracheal leaking.

  17. Activating thyrotropin receptor mutations in histologically heterogeneous hyperfunctioning nodules of multinodular goiter.

    PubMed

    Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P; Agretti, P; Giulianetti, B; Mazzi, B; Cavaliere, R; Ceccarini, G; Fiore, E; Viacava, P; Naccarato, A; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    1998-07-01

    Activating thyrotropin (TSH) receptor mutations have been found in toxic adenomas and in hot nodules contained in toxic multinodular goiter. The typical feature of multinodular goiter is the heterogeneity in morphology and function of different follicles within the same enlarged gland. In this report we describe a patient with a huge multinodular goiter, normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum values, and subnormal TSH serum concentration. Thyroid scintiscan showed two hot areas corresponding to the basal and apical nodules of the left lobe. The right lobe was poorly visualized by the radioisotope. The patient underwent thyroidectomy, and histological examination of the tissue was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissue specimen and direct sequencing of the TSH receptor and Gs alpha genes was done. At histology, one hyperfunctioning nodule had the typical microscopic structure of thyroid adenomas, and the other contained multiple macrofollicular areas not confined by a capsule. In spite of this histological difference, both hyperfunctioning nodules harbored a mutation of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHr) gene: an isoleucine instead of a threonine in position 632 (T632I) in the first nodule and a methionine instead of an isoleucine in position 486 (I486M) in the second nodule. In conclusion, our findings show for the first time that gain-of-function TSHr mutations are not only present in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with the histological features of the true thyroid adenomas, but also in hyperfunctioning hyperplastic nodules contained in the same multinodular goiter.

  18. Hashimoto thyroiditis is more frequent than expected when diagnosed by cytology which uncovers a pre-clinical state

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our Thyroid-Multidisciplinary Clinic is a large referral site for thyroid diseases. Thyroid biopsies are mainly performed for thyroid cancer screening. Yet, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is being too frequently diagnosed. The prevalence of HT is reported as 0.3-1.2% or twice the prevalence of type 1 diabetes. However, the prevalence of HT confirmed by cytology is still uncertain. To evaluate different aspects of thyroid physiopathology including prevalence of Hashimoto's, a database of clinical features, ultrasound images and cytology results of patients referred for FNA of thyroid nodules was prospectively developed. Methods We retrospectively studied 811 consecutive patients for whom ultrasound guided thyroid FNA biopsies were performed at our clinic over 2.5 year period (Mar/2006-Sep/2008). Results The analysis of our database revealed that from 761 patients, 102 (13.4%) had HT, from whom 56 (7.4%) were euthyroid or had sub-clinical (non-hypothyroid) disease, and 46 (6%) were clinically hypothyroid. Conclusions This is the first study to show such a high prevalence of HT diagnosed by ultrasound-guided FNA. More strikingly, the prevalence of euthyroid HT, appears to be >5% similar to that of type 2 diabetes. Based on our results, there might be a need to follow up on cytological Hashimoto's to monitor for thyroid failure, especially in high risk states, like pregnancy. The potential risk for thyroid cancer in patients with biopsy-proven inflammation of thyroid epithelium remains to be established prospectively. However, it may explain the increased risk for thyroid cancer observed in patients with elevated but within normal TSH. PMID:21172028

  19. [DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT STRATEGY IN FOLLICULAR TUMOR OF THYROID GLAND].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova, M V; Zubarovskiĭ, I N; Osipenko, S K

    2015-01-01

    The article is based on the treatment results of 44 patients with follicular tunor of thyroid gland. A staged morphological assessment of thyroid nodes was performed for all patients: in case of preoperative fine-needle biopsy, urgent intraoperative study and according to results of final histological research. The urgent histological study of surgical material was conducted for 44 patients with diagnosis "follicular tumor" according to fine-needle biopsy. The data of final histological study were matched with findings of intraoperative research. A micro-follicular adenoma was detected in 22 patients (50%) and 6 (13,6%) patients had this diagnosis combined with autoimmune thyroiditis. The general part of patients didn't changed in final study, but the rate of diagnosis "micro-follicular adenoma against the background of autoimmune thyroiditis" increased. Papillary carcinoma was revealed in 5 (11,4%) patients and follicular cancer had 4 (9,1%) patients detected in intraoperative study and 3 (6,8%) more patients according to data of final research. The histopathologic feature of colloid goiter was observed in 7 (15,9%) cases and a part of such patients reduced to 6,8% during final study. One of the patients (2,3%) had final diagnosis "oncocytoma". In case of thyroid nodules detection the needle biopsy should be carried out regardless to the size of nodule. The authors recommended performing the surgery with the urgent histological study in case of undetermined histological report. The following surgical strategy was specified by the results of the urgent histological report.

  20. Progress in molecular-based management of differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingzhao; Haugen, Bryan R; Schlumberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial developments have occurred in the past 5–10 years in clinical translational research of thyroid cancer. Diagnostic molecular markers, such as RET-PTC, RAS, and BRAFV600E mutations; galectin 3; and a new gene expression classifier, are outstanding examples that have improved diagnosis of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation is a prognostic genetic marker that has improved risk stratification and hence tailored management of patients with thyroid cancer, including those with conventionally low risks. Novel molecular-targeted treatments hold great promise for radioiodine-refractory and surgically inoperable thyroid cancers as shown in clinical trials; such treatments are likely to become a component of the standard treatment regimen for patients with thyroid cancer in the near future. These novel molecular-based management strategies for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer are the most exciting developments in this unprecedented era of molecular thyroid-cancer medicine. PMID:23668556

  1. WOMEN IN CANCER THEMATIC REVIEW: Thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Nieto, Hannah; Boelaert, Kristien

    2016-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Appropriate diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with thyroid tumours are critical. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer, and although there have been significant refinements to this technique, diagnostic surgery is often required for patients suspected to have malignancy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is higher in patients with malignant thyroid nodules than in those with benign disease, and TSH is proportionally increased in more aggressive tumours. Importantly, we have shown that the pre-operative serum TSH concentration independently predicts the presence of malignancy in subjects presenting with thyroid nodules. Establishing the use of TSH measurements in algorithms identifying high-risk thyroid nodules in routine clinical practice represents an exciting, cost-efficient and non-invasive approach to optimise thyroid cancer diagnosis. Binding of TSH to receptors on thyrocytes stimulates a number of growth promoting pathways both in normal and malignant thyroid cells, and TSH suppression with high doses of levothyroxine is routinely used after thyroidectomy to prevent cancer recurrence, especially in high-risk tumours. This review examines the relationship between serum TSH and thyroid cancer and reflects on the clinical potential of TSH measurements in diagnosis and disease monitoring. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Functioning and nonfunctioning thyroid adenomas involve different molecular pathogenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P; Agretti, P; Ceccarini, G; Perri, A; Cavaliere, R; Mazzi, B; Naccarato, A G; Viacava, P; Miccoli, P; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    1999-11-01

    The molecular biology of follicular cell growth in thyroid nodules is still poorly understood. Because gain-of-function (activating) mutations of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TShR) and/or Gs alpha genes may confer TSh-independent growth advantage to neoplastic thyroid cells, we searched for somatic mutations of these genes in a series of hyperfunctioning and nonfunctioning follicular thyroid adenomas specifically selected for their homogeneous gross anatomy (single nodule in an otherwise normal thyroid gland). TShR gene mutations were identified by direct sequencing of exons 9 and 10 of the TShR gene in genomic DNA obtained from surgical specimens. Codons 201 and 227 of the Gs alpha gene were also analyzed. At histology, all hyperfunctioning nodules and 13 of 15 nonfunctioning nodules were diagnosed as follicular adenomas. Two nonfunctioning thyroid nodules, although showing a prevalent microfollicular pattern of growth, had histological features indicating malignant transformation (a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and a focal papillary carcinoma). Activating mutations of the TShR gene were found in 12 of 15 hyperfunctioning follicular thyroid adenomas. In one hyperfunctioning adenoma, which was negative for TShR mutations, a mutation in codon 227 of the Gs alpha gene was identified. At variance with hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, no mutation of the TShR or Gs alpha genes was detected in nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. In conclusion, our findings clearly define a different molecular pathogenetic mechanism in hyperfunctioning and nonfunctioning follicular thyroid adenomas. Activation of the cAMP cascade, which leads to proliferation but maintains differentiation of follicular thyroid cells, typically occurs in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas. Oncogenes other than the TShR and Gs alpha genes are probably involved in nonfunctioning follicular adenomas.

  3. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Disease Graves’ Eye Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism (Overactive) Hypothyroidism (Underactive) Iodine Deficiency Low Iodine Diet Medullary Thyroid ...

  4. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  5. ADM3, TFF3 and LGALS3 are discriminative molecular markers in fine-needle aspiration biopsies of benign and malignant thyroid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Karger, S; Krause, K; Gutknecht, M; Schierle, K; Graf, D; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Führer, D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously, we reported a six-marker gene set, which allowed a molecular discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Now, we evaluated these markers in fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) in a prospective, independent series of thyroid tumours with proven histological outcome. Methods: Quantitative RT–PCR was performed (ADM3, HGD1, LGALS3, PLAB, TFF3, TG) in the needle wash-out of 156 FNAB of follicular adenoma (FA), adenomatous nodules, follicular and papillary thyroid cancers (TC) and normal thyroid tissues (NT). Results: Significant expression differences were found for TFF3, HGD1, ADM3 and LGALS3 in FNAB of TC compared with benign thyroid nodules and NT. Using two-marker gene sets, a specific FNAB distinction of benign and malignant tumours was achieved with negative predictive values (NPV) up to 0.78 and positive predictive values (PPV) up to 0.84. Two FNAB marker gene combinations (ADM3/TFF3; ADM3/ACTB) allowed the distinction of FA and malignant follicular neoplasia with NPV up to 0.94 and PPV up to 0.86. Conclusion: We demonstrate that molecular FNAB diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid tumours including follicular neoplasia is possible with recently identified marker gene combinations. We propose multi-centre FNAB studies on these markers to bring this promising diagnostic tool closer to clinical practice. PMID:22223087

  6. Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography.

  7. A method for evaluating the performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in lung cancer CT screening: detection limit for nodule size and density

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hajime; Ohkubo, Masaki; Narita, Akihiro; Marasinghe, Janaka C; Murao, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toru; Sone, Shusuke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We propose the application of virtual nodules to evaluate the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules in cancer screening using low-dose CT. Methods: The virtual nodules were generated based on the spatial resolution measured for a CT system used in an institution providing cancer screening and were fused into clinical lung images obtained at that institution, allowing site specificity. First, we validated virtual nodules as an alternative to artificial nodules inserted into a phantom. In addition, we compared the results of CAD analysis between the real nodules (n = 6) and the corresponding virtual nodules. Subsequently, virtual nodules of various sizes and contrasts between nodule density and background density (ΔCT) were inserted into clinical images (n = 10) and submitted for CAD analysis. Results: In the validation study, 46 of 48 virtual nodules had the same CAD results as artificial nodules (kappa coefficient = 0.913). Real nodules and the corresponding virtual nodules showed the same CAD results. The detection limits of the tested CAD system were determined in terms of size and density of peripheral lung nodules; we demonstrated that a nodule with a 5-mm diameter was detected when the nodule had a ΔCT > 220 HU. Conclusion: Virtual nodules are effective in evaluating CAD performance using site-specific scan/reconstruction conditions. Advances in knowledge: Virtual nodules can be an effective means of evaluating site-specific CAD performance. The methodology for guiding the detection limit for nodule size/density might be a useful evaluation strategy. PMID:27897029

  8. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Weinberger SE, et al. Diagnostic evaluation and management of the solitary pulmonary nodule. http:// ...

  9. A putative OTU domain-containing protein 1 deubiquitinating enzyme is differentially expressed in thyroid cancer and identifies less-aggressive tumours

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, A P; Reis, C F; Morari, E C; Maia, Y C P; Nascimento, R; Bonatto, J M C; de Souza, M A; Goulart, L R; Ward, L S

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify novel biomarkers for thyroid carcinoma diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: We have constructed a human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library that was selected against tumour thyroid cells using the BRASIL method (biopanning and rapid analysis of selective interactive ligands) and phage display technology. Results: One highly reactive clone, scFv-C1, with specific binding to papillary thyroid tumour proteins was confirmed by ELISA, which was further tested against a tissue microarray that comprised of 229 thyroid tissues, including: 110 carcinomas (38 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 42 follicular carcinomas, 30 follicular variants of PTC), 18 normal thyroid tissues, 49 nodular goitres (NG) and 52 follicular adenomas. The scFv-C1 was able to distinguish carcinomas from benign lesions (P=0.0001) and reacted preferentially against T1 and T2 tumour stages (P=0.0108). We have further identified an OTU domain-containing protein 1, DUBA-7 deubiquitinating enzyme as the scFv-binding antigen using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Conclusions: The strategy of screening and identifying a cell-surface-binding antibody against thyroid tissues was highly effective and resulted in a useful biomarker that recognises malignancy among thyroid nodules and may help identify lower-risk cases that can benefit from less-aggressive management. PMID:24937664

  10. A study of Galactin-3 on fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic marker differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Muzafar, Alliya; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Qureshi, Ihtesham uddin

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objective: Thyroid nodules are very common in our setup and their diagnosis on fine needle aspiration is not easy and is a taxing affair. It is a challenge to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma without histology. Our objective was to investigate the role of Galectin-3 in fine needle aspirates of thyroid nodules as a prospective diagnostic marker and consequently its ability to differentiate benign from malignant neoplasms. Methods: The research was conducted at the department of Pathology, King Edward Medical University, in association with other teaching institutions of Lahore from June 2012 to July 2014.. Sixty cases of solitary thyroid nodules were included in the study. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of the fixed smears and Galectin-3 immunohistochemical staining of the sections prepared from the cell block was performed. Results: There were 60 patients in our study with a mean age of 33.35 years. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology was used to classify the smears and only categories IV, V and VI were included. On histological examination of the resected nodules there were 38.3% (23/60) cases of follicular adenoma, 46.6% (28/60) were of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma made up to 15% (9/60) of all cases. Galectin-3 was negative in 100% (23/23) cases of follicular adenomas. Out of 37 malignant cases 65% lesions showed positivity, while 35% showed negativity for this immunomarker. Considering the malignant lesions, 75% cases of papillary carcinomas showed a positive reaction while only 33% of follicular carcinomas were positive for the immunomarker. This showed that the positive expression was more common in papillary as compared to follicular carcinomas. Conclusion: Galectin-3immunomarker is considerably expressed in malignant tumors, but it is not expressed in benign follicular lesions. PMID:28811803

  11. Thyroid Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Accident

    PubMed Central

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    2012-01-01

    Background A special report, ‘The Fukushima Accident’, was delivered at the 35th Annual Meeting of the European Thyroid Association in Krakow on September 11, 2011, and this study is the follow-up of the special report. Objectives To present a preliminary review of potential thyroid consequences of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear reactor accident. Methods Numerous new data have been presented in Japanese, and most of them are available on the website from each research institute and/or from each municipality. The review was made using these data from the website. Results When individual radiation doses were expressed as values in more than 99% of residents, radiation doses by behavior survey in evacuation and deliberate evacuation areas were less than 10 mSv in the first 4 months, and internal radiation doses measured by whole body counters were less than 1 mSv/year. Individual thyroid radiation doses were less than 50 mSv (intervention levels) even in evacuation areas. As for health consequences, no one died and no one suffered from acute effects. The thyroid ultrasound examination is in progress and following examination of almost 40,000 children, 35% of them have nodules and/or cysts but no cancers. Conclusions Countermeasures against radiation must consider current individual measured values, although every effort must be taken to reconstruct radiation doses as precisely as possible. At present, the difference of thyroid radiation dose between Chernobyl and Fukushima appears to be due to the strict control of milk started within a week after the accident in Fukushima. Since the iodine-131 plume moved around in wide areas and for a long time, the method of thyroid protection must be reconsidered. PMID:24783014

  12. Automatic Solitary Lung Nodule Detection in Computed Tomography Images Slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentana, I. W. B.; Jawas, N.; Asri, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Lung nodule is an early indicator of some lung diseases, including lung cancer. In Computed Tomography (CT) based image, nodule is known as a shape that appears brighter than lung surrounding. This research aim to develop an application that automatically detect lung nodule in CT images. There are some steps in algorithm such as image acquisition and conversion, image binarization, lung segmentation, blob detection, and classification. Data acquisition is a step to taking image slice by slice from the original *.dicom format and then each image slices is converted into *.tif image format. Binarization that tailoring Otsu algorithm, than separated the background and foreground part of each image slices. After removing the background part, the next step is to segment part of the lung only so the nodule can localized easier. Once again Otsu algorithm is use to detect nodule blob in localized lung area. The final step is tailoring Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the nodule. The application has succeed detecting near round nodule with a certain threshold of size. Those detecting result shows drawback in part of thresholding size and shape of nodule that need to enhance in the next part of the research. The algorithm also cannot detect nodule that attached to wall and Lung Chanel, since it depend the searching only on colour differences.

  13. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, ... Later symptoms may be of an underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ), including fatigue and cold intolerance, until the thyroid ...

  14. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  15. Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

    1999-12-01

    It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid

  16. Lenticular fibroxanthomatous nodule.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok J; Ling, Jun X; Aaberg, Thomas M; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2003-02-01

    To describe two patients with unique lenticular nodular proliferations. Observational case reports. The clinical histories and pathologic findings of two patients with lenticular nodular proliferations were reviewed. One patient with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous and another patient with trauma developed lenticular nodular proliferations. The nodules were vascularized collections of foamy histiocytes, multinucleated cells, lens capsule, and lens epithelium that had undergone fibrous metaplasia. The lesions were classified as lenticular fibroxanthomatous nodules. A lenticular fibroxanthomatous nodule is a unique clinicopathologic entity that should be differentiated from Soemmerring ring, Elschnig pearl, and other simulating entities such as juvenile xanthogranuloma.

  17. Iodine Nutrition and the Prevalence of Thyroid Disease after Salt Iodization: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Shanghai, a Coastal Area in China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Shurong; Wu, Fan; Guo, Changyi; Song, Jun; Huang, Cuihua; Zhu, Zhenni; Yu, Huiting; Guo, Yanfei; Lu, Xi; Ruan, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Background Both insufficient and excess iodine may produce thyroid disease. After salt iodization in China, the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of children aged 8–10 years appeared adequate. However, it is unknown whether dietary changes due to rapid economic development in Shanghai have affected whole population iodine nutrition. Objective To assess dietary iodine intake, UIC and the prevalence of thyroid disease in the general population of Shanghai. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted with general participants aged 5–69 years (n = 7,904) plus pregnant and lactating women (n = 380 each) selected by stratified multistage sampling. The iodine concentrations in their salt, drinking water and urine were measured. Daily iodine intake was estimated using the total diet study approach. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations and thyroid-related antibodies were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Results The median iodine concentration in salt was 29.5 mg/kg, and 12.8 µg/L in drinking water. Iodized salt, used by 95.3% of participants, contributed 63.5% of total dietary iodine. Estimated daily iodine intake was 225.96 µg. The median UIC of general participants was 146.7 µg/L; UIC <100 µg/L (iodine insufficiency) was seen in 28.6%; UIC >300 µg/L (iodine excess) in 10.1%. Pregnant women had a median UIC of 135.9 µg/L, with UIC <150 µg/L in 55.4%. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were found in 27.44% and 9.17%, respectively. Conclusions According to published criteria, the current dietary iodine intake in Shanghai was generally sufficient and safe, but insufficient in pregnant women. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were the commonest thyroid diseases identified. PMID:22911705

  18. Dictionary learning-based CT detection of pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Panpan; Xia, Kewen; Zhang, Yanbo; Qian, Xiaohua; Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2016-10-01

    Segmentation of lung features is one of the most important steps for computer-aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules with computed tomography (CT). However, irregular shapes, complicated anatomical background and poor pulmonary nodule contrast make CAD a very challenging problem. Here, we propose a novel scheme for feature extraction and classification of pulmonary nodules through dictionary learning from training CT images, which does not require accurately segmented pulmonary nodules. Specifically, two classification-oriented dictionaries and one background dictionary are learnt to solve a two-category problem. In terms of the classification-oriented dictionaries, we calculate sparse coefficient matrices to extract intrinsic features for pulmonary nodule classification. The support vector machine (SVM) classifier is then designed to optimize the performance. Our proposed methodology is evaluated with the lung image database consortium and image database resource initiative (LIDC-IDRI) database, and the results demonstrate that the proposed strategy is promising.

  19. Papillary carcinoma in ectopic thyroid detected by Tl-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Michigishi, T.; Mizukami, Y.; Mura, T.

    1991-05-01

    A 37-year-old man with papillary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid is presented. Excisional biopsy revealed the cervical mass to be a metastasis from thyroid cancer. X-ray, ultrasonography, and computed tomography, however, failed to identify the primary tumor in the thyroid. Incidental TI-201 uptake was noted in the midline of the anterior neck, and a palpable nodule