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  1. Alopecia areata

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, C. Herbert; King, Lloyd E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Christiano, Angela M.; Sundberg, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by transient, non-scarring hair loss and preservation of the hair follicle. Hair loss can take many forms ranging from loss in well-defined patches to diffuse or total hair loss, which can affect all hair bearing sites. Patchy alopecia affecting the scalp is the most common type. Alopecia areata affects nearly 2% of the general population at some point during their lifetime. Skin biopsies of alopecia areata affected skin show a lymphocytic infiltrate in and around the bulb or the lower part of the hair follicle in anagen (hair growth) phase. A breakdown of immune privilege of the hair follicle is thought to be an important driver of alopecia areata. Genetic studies in patients and mouse models showed that alopecia areata is a complex, polygenic disease. Several genetic susceptibility loci were identified associated with signaling pathways that are important to hair follicle cycling and development. Alopecia areata is usually diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, but dermoscopy and histopathology can be helpful. Alopecia areata is difficult to manage medically, but recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms have revealed new treatments and the possibility of remission in the near future. PMID:28300084

  2. National Alopecia Areata Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... areata. GET THE GUIDE Alopecia Marketplace Homepage Section Shop for products and accessories Find eyelashes, eyebrows, hairpieces, ... by others with alopecia areata here. When you shop the vendors in our Alopecia Areata Marketplace, just ...

  3. Systemic treatment for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Otberg, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Of the world population, 1.7% is suffering from alopecia areata at some point in their lives. The exact etiology of this disease is still unknown, and the course of the disease is unpredictable. Effective treatments, especially for severe multifocal alopecia areata, alopecia areata totalis, and alopecia areata universalis, are lacking. The present article will discuss side effects and relapse rates of different systemic agents for treatment of severe and rapid progressive alopecia areata. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An update on alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Conlon, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Alopecia areata is one of the most frequent organ-restricted autoimmune diseases, yet its pathogenesis is still unclear. In addition, although alopecia areata often results in significant psychological distress, effective treatment is lacking. New potential susceptibility loci have been implicated, but the strongest evidence points to certain class II human leukocyte antigen alleles. There is new evidence for the collapse of hair follicle immune privilege as a key step in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. There is also new basic science evidence for stress as a contributing factor in the development of alopecia areata. Few treatments for alopecia areata have been well evaluated in randomized trials. Although multiple potential susceptibility loci have been implicated, the genetics of alopecia areata is still unclear. The role of any potential environmental contributors is also unclear. Quality evidence for efficacy of currently used treatments for alopecia areata is lacking.

  5. Living with Alopecia Areata

    MedlinePlus

    ... areata, which may impact their self-esteem and social interaction. Learn more about the different experiences that children with alopecia areata may have and resources to help you and your child cope with their disease. WOMEN AND MEN WITH ... Copyright 2018 National Alopecia Areata ...

  6. Efficacy and safety of methotrexate in alopecia areata*

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschmidt, Mariana; Mulinari Brenner, Fabiane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alopecia areata is a chronic disorder of the hair follicles and nails, of unknown etiology, with clear autoimmune components and genetic factors. Several therapeutic options have been suggested; however, no treatment is able to modify the disease course. Methotrexate is an immunosuppressant used in various dermatoses and recently introduced as a therapeutic option for alopecia areata. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of methotrexate in alopecia areata. METHODS In a retrospective, non-controlled study, we evaluated 31 patients with alopecia areata in current or prior treatment with methotrexate to assess the therapeutic response according to sex, age, pattern of alopecia areata, disease duration, cumulative dose of methotrexate, use of systemic corticosteroids or other treatments, and drug safety. RESULTS Regrowth greater than 50% was observed in 67.7% of patients, with the best responses observed in those with <5 years of disease progression (79%), age over 40 years (73.3%), male patients (72.8%), cumulative dose of methotrexate 1000-1500 mg, and multifocal alopecia areata (93%). Among patients receiving systemic corticosteroids in combination with methotrexate, 77.3% had greater than 50% regrowth, compared with 44.4% in those who used methotrexate alone. The therapeutic dose ranged from 10-25 mg/week. No patient had serious adverse effects. Relapse was observed in 33.3% of patients with more than 50% regrowth. CONCLUSION Methotrexate appears to be a promising and safe medication for the treatment of severe alopecia areata when used alone or in combination with corticosteroids. PMID:25184911

  7. Industry Perspective on Alopecia Areata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amanda T

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the autoimmune basis of alopecia areata provide an opportunity to create novel effective pharmaceutical interventions. The current lack of approved therapies for alopecia areata presents a high unmet medical need, as well as a potentially attractive market opportunity. From an industry perspective, achieving clinical proof of concept (PoC) gates investments into larger approval studies. Recent investigator-initiated experience suggests that it may be possible to demonstrate rigorous PoC for new therapies in an attractive time frame with relatively fewer patients than were believed necessary in the past. However, the lack of prior regulatory approval precedent for pharmaceuticals to treat alopecia areata poses significant development challenges, and early interaction with the FDA and other stakeholders will be critically important in evaluating the path to approval and reimbursement for new treatments for this indication. This paper presents a brief industry perspective on the potential development of new alopecia areata therapeutics.

  8. Alopecia areata universalis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ginel, Pedro J; Blanco, Beatriz; Pérez-Aranda, María; Zafra, Rafael; Mozos, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia areata is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that occurs in humans and various other mammalian species. When the disease progresses to total alopecia it is defined as alopecia areata universalis (AAU), although this outcome has only been described in humans. To describe a case of canine alopecia areata universalis and its clinical outcome after 22 months of follow-up. A 9-year-old intact male cross-breed hunting dog was presented with generalized and complete noninflammatory alopecia of 12-14 months duration. Clinical examination; histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies. There was loss of all body hair including eyelashes and vibrissae. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings supported a diagnosis of long-standing alopecia areata. Treatment with oral ciclosporin was associated with hair regrowth but muzzle hair, most eyelashes and whiskers were still lacking after 17 months of therapy. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first documented case of canine AAU. The clinical and histopathological features were consistent with a diagnosis of AAU as defined in humans. Treatment with oral ciclosporin resulted in near complete resolution of the alopecia, but after 5 months without treatment the alopecia did not relapse and spontaneous resolution cannot be ruled out. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Treatment of alopecia areata with 308-nm excimer lamp.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Akiko; Hasegawa, Toshio; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2010-12-01

    Alopecia areata is considered to be a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder. The 308-nm excimer lamp is thought to be capable of inducing T-cell apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that the lamp might be effective for the treatment of alopecia areata. We examined the effectiveness of the 308-nm excimer lamp for the treatment of alopecia areata. We recruited three patients with single alopecia areata lesions that were resistant to conventional treatment. The lesions were exposed to a 308-nm excimer lamp at 2-weekly intervals. Hair regrowth was observed in all three patients after approximately 10 treatment sessions. Our study showed that exposure to the 308-nm excimer lamp effectively induced hair regrowth in solitary alopecia areata lesions. Apart from erythema, there were no significant adverse effects. Therefore, we suggest that it may be considered as a treatment modality for recalcitrant alopecia areata. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Understanding Autoimmunity of Vitiligo and Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Rork, Jillian F.; Rashighi, Mehdi; Harris, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common, disfiguring skin diseases. Treatment options are limited and include non-targeted approaches such as corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, narrow band UVB phototherapy, and other immune-modifying agents. The purpose of this article is to review shared, novel mechanisms between vitiligo and alopecia areata, as well as discuss how they inform the development of future targeted treatments. Recent findings Vitiligo and alopecia areata are both autoimmune diseases, and striking similarities in pathogenesis have been identified at the level of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Increased reactive oxygen species and high cellular stress level have been suggested as the initiating trigger of the innate immune system in both diseases, and genome-wide association studies have implicated risk alleles that influence both innate and adaptive immunity. Most importantly, mechanistic studies in mouse models of vitiligo and alopecia areata have specifically implicated an IFN-γ-driven immune response, including IFN-γ, IFN-γ-induced chemokines, and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells as the main drivers of disease pathogenesis. These recent discoveries may reveal an effective strategy to develop new treatments, and several proof-of-concept clinical studies support this hypothesis. Summary The identification of IFN-γ-driven immune signaling pathways has enabled discoveries of potential new treatments for vitiligo and alopecia areata, and supports initiation of larger clinical trials. PMID:27191524

  11. Alopecia areata

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis and Therapy . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 24. Vivehanantha S, Berth-Jones J. Alopecia areata. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Updated by: David L. Swanson, MD, Vice Chair ...

  12. Immunological profiles in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, G M; Thiers, B H; Vasily, D B; Fudenberg, H H

    1984-02-01

    Cell-mediated immunity and auto-immune phenomena were investigated in sixty patients with active alopecia areata of various degrees of severity. Serum auto-antibodies to thyroid antigens were detected in twenty-three patients. Examination of T-lymphocyte populations, lymphocyte DNA synthesis, and lymphokine production in response to mitogen stimulation revealed no differences between the sixty patients and matched healthy control subjects. However, patients with thyroid auto-immunity and/or the presence of alopecia totalis or universalis showed significant reductions in interactive T lymphocytes (recognized by rosette formation with human B lymphoblastoid cells) and diminished production of leukocyte migration inhibition factor in response to stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin. This suggests that immune mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata which is associated with thyroid auto-immunity or which progresses to total hair loss.

  13. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2007-12-01

    Alopecia areata is loss of hair from localized or diffuse areas of hair-bearing area of the skin. Recently there are reports of efficacy of the 308-nm excimer radiation for this condition. To study the effect of the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata. Eighteen patients with 42 recalcitrant patches (including 1 adult with alopecia totalis) were enrolled in this study. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks; one lesion on each patient was left as a control for comparison. There were 7 males and 11 females in this study. Regrowth of hair was observed in 17 (41.5%) patches. Thirteen of the 18 lesions in scalp showed a complete regrowth of hair. The extremity regions failed to show a response. Atopic diatheses had an unfavorable effect on the outcome in our patients. The 308-nm excimer laser is an effective therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata of the scalp and for some cases with patchy alopecia areata of the beard area. It does not work for patchy alopecia areata of the extremities.

  14. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata in children.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common skin disease which is characterized by nonscarring localized or diffused hair loss. In this study we assessed the efficacy of 308-nm Excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata in children. A total of 9 children with 30 recalcitrant patches alopecia areata and two children with alopecia areata totalis were enrolled in this study which included seven male and four female patients, aged between 4 and 14 years and the durations of their disease were between 7 and 25 months. All of these patients had more than one lesion of alopecia areata and at least one of them was left as a control for comparison. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm Excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks. Regrowth of hair was observed in 18 (60%) alopecia patches in the scalp, while there was no response in the control patches and over the extremities. Only four patients with scalp lesions showed a recurrence of alopecia after 6 months post laser therapy. So, 308-nm Excimer laser is considered an effective safe therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata in children.

  15. Phototherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Oliverio

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is a useful therapeutic method for various skin diseases due to its modulatory effect on the cutaneous immune system. Alopecia areata is a dermatosis characterized by partial or complete hair loss. Collapse of the immune privilege of the hair follicle, which induces noncicatricial alopecia, is an important factor in its etiology. Several forms of phototherapy are used in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Different Trichoscopic Features of Tinea Capitis and Alopecia Areata in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Taweel, Abd-Elaziz; El-Esawy, Fatma; Abdel-Salam, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diagnosis of patchy hair loss in pediatric patients is often a matter of considerable debate among dermatologists. Trichoscopy is a rapid and noninvasive tool to detect more details of patchy hair loss. Like clinical dermatology, trichoscopy works parallel to the skin surface and perpendicular to the histological plane; like the histopathology, it thus allows the viewing of structures not discovered by the naked eye. Objective. Aiming to compare the different trichoscopic features of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. Patients and Methods. This study included 40 patients, 20 patients with tinea capitis and 20 patients with alopecia areata. They were exposed toclinical examination, laboratory investigations (10% KOH and fungal culture), and trichoscope examination. Results. Our obtained results reported that, in tinea capitis patients, comma shaped hairs, corkscrew hairs, and zigzag shaped hairs are the diagnostic trichoscopic features of tinea capitis. While in alopecia areata patients, the most trichoscopic specific features were yellow dots, exclamation mark, and short vellus hairs. Conclusion. Trichoscopy can be used as a noninvasive tool for rapid diagnosis of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. PMID:25024698

  17. VIEWPOINT – Vitiligo and alopecia areata: Apples and oranges?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments. PMID:24131336

  18. Trichostasis spinulosa of the scalp mimicking Alopecia Areata black dots*

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Flavianne Sobral Cardoso; Donati, Aline; Soares, Isabella Ibrahim Doche; Valente, Neusa Sakai; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common autoimmune disorder that leads to nonscarring hair loss. Black dots, also called comedo-like cadaver hairs, can be found in almost 50% of alopecia areata patients and indicate disease activity. Trichostasis spinulosa is a follicular disorder resulting from the retention of numerous hairs surrounded by a keratinous sheath in dilated follicles. Trichostasis spinulosa is a relatively common but underdiagnosed disorder of hair follicles. Here, we describe a man with alopecia areata of the eyebrows, androgenetic alopecia and trichostasis spinulosa at the vertex and show how dermoscopy can be useful in distinguishing black dots from Trichostasis spinulosa lesions. PMID:25054768

  19. Methotrexate for the treatment of pediatric alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Landis, Erin T; Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita O

    2018-03-01

    Alopecia areata is a form of nonscarring hair loss that occurs in pediatric and adult patients, with presentation varying from round or ovoid patches of alopecia to alopecia totalis or universalis. While frustrating for patients, it can also be frustrating for clinicians to treat, as there is no definitive treatment. Dermatologists are very familiar with the use of methotrexate for psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases, and this medication is generally well tolerated in children. This study presents a case series reviewing the efficacy of methotrexate in our pediatric patients with alopecia areata, making use of a retrospective chart review design from 2011 to 2016. In this data set, 8/14 subjects (57%) experienced good regrowth with methotrexate, while 3/14 (21%) had a response that could not be assessed due to loss to follow-up or premature discontinuation of the medication. No cases discontinued the medication due to recognized methotrexate side effects. This review suggests methotrexate is a generally safe and often effective medication in pediatric alopecia areata.

  20. Serum and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme in patients with alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Shabnam; Montazer, Fatemeh; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Naraghi, Zahra Safaei; Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Ghandi, Narges

    2018-03-27

    Alopecia areata is an immune-dependent disorder characterized by the interaction of T-lymphocytes with follicular antigens. Recent studies have shown the existence of a local renin-angiotensin system in the skin, where angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a role in autoimmunity and inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate serum and tissue ACE activity in patients with alopecia areata. This case-control study was conducted on patients with alopecia areata and healthy controls. Serum and tissue ACE activity were assessed and compared between the two groups. Twenty-five alopecia areata patients (60% male, mean age 32.1 ± 9.9 years) and 24 controls (50% male, mean age 37.4 ± 8.8 years) were included. Mean serum ACE activity was 52.1 ± 9 U/L in cases and 55.3 ± 14.7 U/L in controls (P = 0.37). Tissue ACE activity was significantly lower in cases in all parts of the skin i.e. epidermis (P = 0.016), follicular epithelium (P = 0.004), and endothelium (P = 0.037). Among cases, serum ACE activity was significantly higher in patients with more severe disease (P = 0.030), nonpatchy alopecia areata (alopecia universalis; ophiasis, patchy and ophiasis, diffuse) (P = 0.029), and with nail involvement (P = 0.027). The sample size was too small to draw definite conclusions. Further, most of the patients had only mild or moderate alopecia areata. Unlike in some other inflammatory diseases, the tissue level of ACE seems to be significantly lower in alopecia areata compared to normal controls. Serum ACE was significantly higher in patients with more severe disease.

  1. Introduction to innovations in the immunology and clinical science of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Kalabokes, Victoria D; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Christiano, Angela M

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune skin disease resulting in the loss of hair on the scalp and elsewhere on the body. The disease most often occurs in childhood and affects males and females of all ages. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation conducts research summits every 2 years to review progress and create new directions in its funded and promoted research. The Foundation brings together scientists from all disciplines to get a broad and varied perspective. These summits are part of the Foundation's main strategic initiative, the Alopecia Areata Treatment Development Program to accelerate progress toward a viable alopecia areata treatment.

  2. Alopecia areata treated with hydroxychloroquine: A retrospective study of nine pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Yun, Duri; Silverberg, Nanette B; Stein, Sarah L

    2018-05-01

    Alopecia areata is a common hair loss condition that is often emotionally devastating for patients. There is a paucity of effective treatments available. Hydroxychloroquine has been reported as variably effective in inducing significant hair regrowth in adults with alopecia areata. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the benefit and tolerability of hydroxychloroquine in pediatric alopecia areata. We conducted a retrospective review of nine children with a history of alopecia areata treated with hydroxychloroquine. Clinical data were obtained from patients treated at two tertiary care centers in the United States between July 1, 2013, and July 1, 2015. Alopecia scores of five patients improved by 6 months of treatment. Four patients experienced no improvement from baseline evaluation. The most common side effect associated with treatment was gastrointestinal intolerance and headache. This retrospective series suggests that hydroxychloroquine can be considered as a treatment option for alopecia areata in children. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Association between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Alopecia Areata: A Study in Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Behrangi, Elham; Mansouri, Parvin; Agah, Shahram; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Mokhtare, Marjan; Azizi, Zahra; Ramezani Ghamsari, Mona; Rohani Nasab, Masoumeh; Azizian, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND Alopecia areata is an immune mediated inflammatory hair loss, which occurs in all ethnic and age groups, and both sexes. However no significant etiology has been known for this disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) , is an organism colonized in gastric mucosa. This bacterium has been associated with certain extra-digestive dermatological conditions. The causal relationship between alopecia areata and H. pylori infection has been discussed in literature. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with alopecia areata and assess the risk of this infection in patients with this disease in order to determine its potential roles in the physiopathology of this disease. METHODS Between 2014 and 2015, we prospectively studied 81 patients with alopecia areata and 81 healthy volunteers with similar age and sex. Patients without any history of H. pylori infection were included in the study and underwent urease breath test. All results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 21.0) and p value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS 81 patients and 81 controls with the mean age of 34.9±11.6 and 38.2±13.4 years were studied (p=0.097). 48 (59.3%) and 45 (55.6%) individuals were male, in cases and control groups respectively (p =0.634). The result of urea breath test (UBT) was positive in 43 (53.1%) patients in cases and 27 (33.3%) individuals in control group, which was significantly different (p =0.011). The risk of H. pylori infection in alopecia areata was 2.263 (95% CI: 1.199-4.273). CONCLUSION The results of our study showed significant difference between H. pylori infection in individuals with and without alopecia areata, which shows that H. pylori contamination may be effective in physiopathology of alopecia areata. Therefore these results should be tested in large multivariable cohorts and controlled trials to reach more accurate evidence in the future and to generalize this idea to

  4. Morphological changes of the hair roots in alopecia areata: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Karashima, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hamada, Takahiro; Ishii, Norito; Ono, Fumitake; Ueda, Akihiro; Abe, Toshifumi; Nakama, Takekuni; Dainichi, Teruki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory condition causing non-scarring patchy hair loss. Diagnosis of alopecia areata is made by clinical observations, hair pluck test and dermoscopic signs. However, because differentiation from other alopecia diseases is occasionally difficult, an invasive diagnostic method using a punch biopsy is performed. In this study, to develop a reliable, less invasive diagnostic method for alopecia areata, we performed scanning electron microscopy of the hair roots of alopecia areata patients. This study identified four patterns of hair morphology specific to alopecia areata: (I) long tapering structure with no accumulation of scales; (II) club-shaped hair root with fine scales; (III) proximal accumulation of scales; and (IV) sharp tapering of the proximal end of hair. On the basis of these results, we can distinguish alopecia areata by scanning electron microscopic observation of the proximal end of the hair shafts. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Alopecia areata incognita in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ong, S; Rodriguez-Garcia, C; Grabczynska, S; Carton, J; Osborn, M; Walters, J; Kubba, F; Stefanato, C M

    2017-08-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is an acquired inflammatory polyposis syndrome in which alopecia, onychomadesis and hyperpigmentation occur concurrently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The pathophysiology of alopecia in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome has not been definitively elucidated. We present evidence for alopecia areata incognita as a possible mechanism of hair loss. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Current Treatment Strategies in Pediatric Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Etienne; Lee, Joyce SS; Tang, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a non-scarring autoimmune disease of the hair follicle that can present at any age. Pediatric cases are commonly seen in a dermatology clinic, and management can potentially be challenging, with a small proportion of cases experiencing a chronic relapsing course marked by distressing hair loss that can bring about significant psychosocial morbidity. We review the established treatments for pediatric alopecia areata, alongside second and third line therapies that have shown to be efficacious. We also offer a treatment algorithm as a guide to the treatment of pediatric AA. PMID:23248364

  7. Topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, D A; Wilkinson, J D

    1983-01-01

    A modified double blind crossover study was performed to assess the effect of 1% topical minoxidil as compared with placebo in 30 patients with alopecia areata and alopecia totalis. The active preparation produced a highly significant incidence of hair regrowth. A cosmetically acceptable response was noted in 16 patients. No side effects were seen. The study confirmed that topical minoxidil will induce new hair growth in alopecia areata but that it is less likely to do so in more severe and extensive disease. Furthermore, patients with alopecia universalis and totalis may not respond at all. Nevertheless, as compared with other drugs minoxidil applied topically is relatively non-toxic, is easy to use, and has no systemic or local side effects. Images p1016-a PMID:6412929

  8. Pernicious anemia associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Zafad, Saadia; Madani, Abdellah; Harif, Mhamed; Quessar, Asmaa; Benchekroun, Said

    2007-12-01

    We report a 16-year-old male with a combination of pernicious anemia, auto-immune hemolytic anemia and alopecia areata. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia coexisted with pernicious anemia but was diagnosed only when the anemia failed to respond to cobalamin therapy. Alopecia areata occurred 9 years later. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  9. Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Hair Loss Disease Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is considered to be a cell-mediated autoimmune disease, in which autoreactive cytotoxic T cells recognize melanocyte-associated proteins such as tyrosinase. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of alopecia areata, focusing on immunobiology and hormonal aspects of hair follicles (HFs). The HF is a unique “miniorgan” with its own immune and hormonal microenvironment. The immunosuppressive milieu of the anagen hair bulb modulated by immunosuppressive factors is known as “hair follicle immune privilege.” The collapse of the hair follicle immune privilege leads to autoimmune reactions against hair follicle autoantigens. Alopecia areata is sometimes triggered by viral infections such as influenza that causes excess production of interferons (IFN). IFN-γ is one of the key factors that lead to the collapse of immune privilege. This paper reviews the interactions between the endocrine and immune systems and hair follicles in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. PMID:24151515

  10. Topical tacrolimus in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Price, Vera H; Willey, Andrea; Chen, Bryan K

    2005-01-01

    Eleven patients with alopecia areata affecting 10% to 75% of the scalp, average duration 6 years, had no terminal hair growth in response to tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily for 24 weeks. Treatment failure may reflect insufficient depth of penetration of the ointment formulation and less than optimal patient selection.

  11. Development of Uniform Protocol for Alopecia Areata Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Solomon, James A

    2015-11-01

    Developing a successful treatment for alopecia areata (AA), clearly has not been at the forefront of the agenda for new drug/device development among the pharmaceutical and medical device industry. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF), a patient advocacy group, initiated a plan to facilitate and drive clinical research toward finding safe and efficacious treatments for AA. As such, Alopecia Areata Uniform Protocols for clinical trials to test new treatments for AA were developed. The design of the uniform protocol is to accomplish the development of a plug-and-play template as well as to provide a framework wherein data from studies utilizing the uniform protocol can be compared through consistency of inclusions/exclusions, safety, and outcome assessment measures. A core uniform protocol for use by pharmaceutical companies in testing proof of concept for investigational products to treat AA. The core protocol includes standardized title, informed consent, inclusion/exclusion criteria, disease outcome assessments, and safety assessments. The statistical methodology to assess successful outcomes will also be standardized. The protocol as well as the informed consent form has been approved in concept by Liberty IRB and is ready to present to pharmaceutical companies.

  12. Genetic analysis of autoimmune regulator haplotypes in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Wengraf, D A; McDonagh, A J G; Lovewell, T R J; Vasilopoulos, Y; Macdonald-Hull, S P; Cork, M J; Messenger, A G; Tazi-Ahnini, R

    2008-03-01

    Alopecia areata is an immune-mediated disorder, occurring with the highest observed frequency in the rare recessive autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome caused by mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene on chromosome 21q22.3. We have previously detected association between alopecia areata and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the AIRE gene in patients without APECED, and we now report the findings of an extended examination of the association of alopecia areata with haplotype analysis including six SNPs in the AIRE gene: C-103T, C4144G, T5238C, G6528A, T7215C and T11787C. In Caucasian groups of 295 patients and 363 controls, we found strong association between the AIRE 7215C allele and AA [P = 3.8 x 10(-8), OR (95% CI): 2.69 (1.8-4.0)]. The previously reported association between AA and the AIRE 4144G allele was no longer significant on correction for multiple testing. The AIRE haplotypes CCTGCT and CGTGCC showed a highly significant association with AA [P = 6.05 x 10(-6), 9.47 (2.91-30.8) and P = 0.001, 3.51 (1.55-7.95), respectively]. To select the haplotypes most informative for analysis, we tagged the polymorphisms using SNPTag software. Employing AIRE C-103T, G6528A, T7215C and T11787C as tag SNPs, two haplotypes were associated with AA; AIRE CGCT and AIRE CGCC [P = 3.84 x 10(-7), 11.40 (3.53-36.9) and P = 3.94 x 10(-4), 2.13 (1.39-3.24) respectively]. The AIRE risk haplotypes identified in this study potentially account for a major component of the genetic risk of developing alopecia areata.

  13. [Immunization and bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx as risk factors for alopecia areata].

    PubMed

    Morales-Sánchez, M A; Domínguez-Gómez, M A; Jurado-Santa Cruz, F; Peralta-Pedrero, M L

    2010-06-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting the hair follicles. Researchers are currently interested in whether the presence of bacterial pathogens and/or a history of immunization can trigger an autoimmune response in patients who are genetically predisposed. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between the development of alopecia areata and throat carriage of bacterial pathogens or a history of immunization. Sixty-five men and women with alopecia areata and 65 control patients with other skin diseases were studied at the Dr Ladislao de la Pascua Dermatology Clinic between September 2008 and February 2009. The patients ranged in age from 18-59 years. Patients with scalp diseases were excluded from the control group. In all cases, the patient was questioned about immunizations received in the previous 6 months, and a throat swab was cultured. A history of immunization (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.7; P=.001), the presence of bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.2; P=.033), and being a carrier of Streptococcus pyogenes (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.7-2.5; P=.042) were risk factors for alopecia areata. Klebsiella pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli were isolated from cultures. This is the first study to show an association between alopecia areata and throat carriage of bacterial pathogens or history of immunization, as risk factors for development of the disease. Given the characteristics of our study population, the association appears valid for patients with less than 25% hair loss and a course of disease under 1 year.

  14. Co-existent Presence of Alopecia Areata in Siblings: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sandip; Rohatgi, Pallavi C; Manchanda, Kajal

    2014-04-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease with multifactorial etiology resulting in partial and total nonscarring alopecia. We hereby report a case of two brothers (aged 7 and 5 years) presenting with coincidental AA over scalp which is a rare presentation.

  15. Alopecia Areata: Review of Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and New Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Darwin, Evan; Hirt, Penelope A; Fertig, Raymond; Doliner, Brett; Delcanto, Gina; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2018-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a complex autoimmune condition that causes nonscarring hair loss. It typically presents with sharply demarcated round patches of hair loss and may present at any age. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, and new treatment options of AA, with a focus on the immunologic mechanism underlying the treatment. While traditional treatment options such as corticosteroids are moderately effective, a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis may lead to the development of new treatments that are more directed and effective against AA. Sources were gathered from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database using the keywords: alopecia, alopecia areata, hair loss, trichoscopy, treatments, pathogenesis, and epidemiology. PMID:29769777

  16. Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Mark S; Smith, Victoria C

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S) of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedding of hair. Subsequently, she underwent endovenous laser ablation under local anaesthetic without incident. Seven months after the pelvic vein embolisation, she underwent foam sclerotherapy of leg and labial varicose veins using sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Two days following this procedure, she had a severe exacerbation of alopecia areata with gross shedding of hair. These two episodes of exacerbation of alopecia areata appear to be associated with sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy of veins.

  17. A Comparison of Vertical and Transverse Sections in the Histological Diagnosis of Alopecia Areata Scalp Biopsy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanika; Sharma, Sonal; Singh, Usha Rani; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath

    2016-01-01

    Both vertical and transverse sections are used for the diagnosis of alopecia areata. However when a single biopsy is submitted the pathologist has to decide which type is better. To compare the diagnostic histological features in vertical and transverse sections in alopecia areata scalp biopsy specimens. Tertiary Care Hospital. Comparative Study. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the study. Two four mm punch biopsy were taken. One was used to take vertical sections and the other for transverse section and histological features of alopecia areata noted in both. Chi-square test, percentage. Diagnosis of alopecia areata could be made in 30 (100%) cases in transverse sections and 28 cases (93.3%) in vertical sections. The number of hair follicles available for evaluation was more in the transverse section. Nanogen follicles and miniaturization of follicles were better visualized in the transverse sections. However the catagen and telogen follicles were noted in both vertical and transverse sections but the number and the ratio of anagen and telogen hair follicles could be better assessed in the transverse sections. Presence of peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrate, eosinophils and pigment casts were noted in both transverse and vertical sections. Transverse sections provide a better assessment of the histological features of alopecia areata than vertical sections and thus should be preferred.

  18. Successful treatment of alopecia areata-like hair loss with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt-Paul, P; Sundberg, J P; Happle, R; McElwee, K J; Metz, S; Boggess, D; Hoffmann, R

    1999-07-01

    A type of hair loss closely resembling human alopecia areata has been described in C3H/HeJ mice. In order to test the assumed analogy with human alopecia areata, we investigated the efficacy of treatment with the contact allergen squaric acid dibutylester. In 12 C3H/HeJ mice with alopecia areata an allergic contact dermatitis was induced and elicited weekly on one side of the back by topical applications of squaric acid dibutylester. Overt hair regrowth was observed only on the treated side of the back in nine of 12 mice. Histopathologic examination revealed a change in the distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate from a dense perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate around the mid and lower regions of hair follicles in untreated skin to a uniform presence in the upper dermis in treated skin. Immunohistomorphometric studies revealed that treatment with squaric acid dibutylester increased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio from approximately 1:2 in untreated alopecia areata to 1:1 in treated alopecia areata. Additional immunohistochemical investigations showed an aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I, major histocompatibility complex class II and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on keratinocytes of the mid and lower parts of hair follicles in untreated alopecia areata. In successfully treated skin ectopic major histocompatibility complex class I and II expression was clearly reduced, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression showed only minor changes. In conclusion, alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice responded to treatment with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester analogous to human alopecia areata. Moreover, successful treatment changes the aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II in a way similar to that observed in human alopecia areata. These observations support the concept that alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice can be utilized as an appropriate model for the study of

  19. A review on laser and light-based therapies for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Mlacker, Stephanie; Aldahan, Adam Souhail; Simmons, Brian James; Shah, Vidhi; McNamara, Colin Andrew; Samarkandy, Sahal; Nouri, Keyvan

    2017-04-01

    Alopecia areata is a form of non-scarring alopecia that results from a hyperactive immune response of T cells against hair follicles. Many patients with visible hair loss experience psychological and emotional distress, as a result of their cosmetic disfigurement, and frequently seek treatment. However, existing treatment methods, such as corticosteroids, topical irritants, sensitizing agents, immunosuppressants, and psoralen plus ultraviolet light A, may result in various adverse effects and often lack efficacy. Laser and light treatments offer a safe and effective alternative. This review aims to provide clinicians with a comprehensive summary of laser and light-based modalities used for the treatment of alopecia areata. Currently, the excimer laser is the most widely studied device and has shown positive results thus far. However, the development of future randomized controlled clinical trials will help determine the appropriate treatment protocols necessary, in order to achieve superior clinical outcomes.

  20. A Comparison of Vertical and Transverse Sections in the Histological Diagnosis of Alopecia Areata Scalp Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kanika; Sharma, Sonal; Singh, Usha Rani; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath

    2016-01-01

    Context: Both vertical and transverse sections are used for the diagnosis of alopecia areata. However when a single biopsy is submitted the pathologist has to decide which type is better. Aims: To compare the diagnostic histological features in vertical and transverse sections in alopecia areata scalp biopsy specimens. Settings and Design: Tertiary Care Hospital. Comparative Study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the study. Two four mm punch biopsy were taken. One was used to take vertical sections and the other for transverse section and histological features of alopecia areata noted in both. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, percentage. Results: Diagnosis of alopecia areata could be made in 30 (100%) cases in transverse sections and 28 cases (93.3%) in vertical sections. The number of hair follicles available for evaluation was more in the transverse section. Nanogen follicles and miniaturization of follicles were better visualized in the transverse sections. However the catagen and telogen follicles were noted in both vertical and transverse sections but the number and the ratio of anagen and telogen hair follicles could be better assessed in the transverse sections. Presence of peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrate, eosinophils and pigment casts were noted in both transverse and vertical sections. Conclusions: Transverse sections provide a better assessment of the histological features of alopecia areata than vertical sections and thus should be preferred. PMID:27625562

  1. Dermoscopic clues to distinguish trichotillomania from patchy alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol; Torres, Fernanda Nogueira; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2010-01-01

    Trichotillomania and patchy alopecia areata have similar clinical and dermoscopic features. In trichotillomania, dermoscopy shows decreased hair density, short vellus hair, broken hairs with different shaft lengths, coiled hairs, short vellus hair, trichoptilosis, sparse yellow dots, which may or may not contain black dots and no exclamation mark hairs. In the case of patchy alopecia and broken hairs, the absence of exclamation mark hairs suggests a diagnosis of trichotillomania. On the other hand, the finding of yellow dots without black dots does not exclude it.

  2. Trichotillomania: a case report with clinical and dermatoscopic differential diagnosis with alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte; Andrade, Tatiana Cristina Pedro Cordeiro de; Brito, Fernanda Freitas de; Silva, Gardênia Viana da; Cavalcante, Maria Lopes Lamenha Lins; Martelli, Antonio Carlos Ceribelli

    2017-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychodermatologic disorder characterized by uncontrollable urge to pull one's own hair. Differential diagnoses include the most common forms of alopecia such as alopecia areata. It is usually associated with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Trichotillomania treatment standardization is a gap in the medical literature. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (a glutamate modulator) for the treatment of the disease. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old female patient who received the initial diagnosis of alopecia areata, but presented with clinical and dermoscopic features of trichotillomania. She was treated with the combination of psychotropic drugs and N-acetylcysteine with good clinical response. Due to the chronic and recurring nature of trichotillomania, more studies need to be conducted for the establishment of a formal treatment algorithm.

  3. Trichotillomania: a case report with clinical and dermatoscopic differential diagnosis with alopecia areata*

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte; de Andrade, Tatiana Cristina Pedro Cordeiro; de Brito, Fernanda Freitas; da Silva, Gardênia Viana; Cavalcante, Maria Lopes Lamenha Lins; Martelli, Antonio Carlos Ceribelli

    2017-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychodermatologic disorder characterized by uncontrollable urge to pull one's own hair. Differential diagnoses include the most common forms of alopecia such as alopecia areata. It is usually associated with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Trichotillomania treatment standardization is a gap in the medical literature. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (a glutamate modulator) for the treatment of the disease. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old female patient who received the initial diagnosis of alopecia areata, but presented with clinical and dermoscopic features of trichotillomania. She was treated with the combination of psychotropic drugs and N-acetylcysteine with good clinical response. Due to the chronic and recurring nature of trichotillomania, more studies need to be conducted for the establishment of a formal treatment algorithm. PMID:28225970

  4. [Psychic factors in case histories of patients with alopecia areata--preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Wygledowska-Kania, M; Bogdanowski, T

    1996-01-01

    We tested the significance of psychic factors in the etiopathogenesis of alopecia areata. We analysed the patient on the basis of a detailed examination based on the case history, including important events in his/her life, personality traits, serious events and the loss of emotional attachment. General important events happened to 80% of the patients, personality traits able to cause the disease were present in 73%, serious events in 62% and the loss of emotional attachment was also found in 62% of the patients. We tested 60 patients (31 women and 29 men). The evidence obtained from the detailed examination based on case histories indicated significantly frequent occurrence of the psychic factors preceding the occurrence of alopecia areata.

  5. Bone mineral density in patients with alopecia areata treated with long-term intralesional corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Samrao, Aman; Fu, Jennifer M; Harris, Steven T; Price, Vera H

    2013-02-01

    Intralesional corticosteroid injections are a common treatment for patchy alopecia areata, the most prevalent subtype of this autoimmune hair disorder. To date, no studies have examined the potential adverse effects of this therapy on bone mineral density (BMD). In this retrospective, cross-sectional case series, 18 patients with patchy alopecia areata treated at 4- to 8-week intervals with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide for at least 20 months were evaluated for BMD using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Follow-up DXA measurements were obtained in those with abnormal findings. Nine out of 18 patients (50%) had abnormal DXA results. Patients with the following risk factors were more likely to have abnormal BMD: age older than 50 years, body mass index less than 18.5 kg/m2, lack of weight-bearing exercise, smoking history, postmenopausal status, past stress fracture, family history of osteopenia or osteoporosis, and a cumulative intralesional triamcinolone acetonide dose of greater than 500 mg. Patients with patchy alopecia areata who receive chronic intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy should be counseled on preventive measures for osteoporosis and monitored for effects on BMD.

  6. Platelets rich plasma versus minoxidil 5% in treatment of alopecia areata: A trichoscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    El Taieb, Moustafa A; Ibrahim, Hassan; Nada, Essam A; Seif Al-Din, Mai

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common cause of nonscarring alopecia that occurs in a patchy, confluent, or diffuse pattern. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique for the clinical diagnosis of many skin diseases. Topical minoxidil solution 5% and platelet rich plasma are important modalities used in treatment of alopecia areata. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PRP versus topical minoxidil 5% in the treatment of AA by clinical evaluation and trichoscopic examination. Ninety patients were allocated into three groups; the first was treated with topical minoxidil 5% solution, the second with platelets rich plasma injections, and the third with placebo. Diagnosis and follow up were done by serial digital camera photography of lesions and dermoscopic scan before and every 1 month after treatment for 3 months. Patients treated with minoxidil 5% and platelets rich plasma both have significant hair growth than placebo (p < .05). Patients treated with platelets rich plasma had an earlier response in the form of hair regrowth, reduction in short vellus hair and dystrophic hair unlike patients treated with minoxidil and control (p < .05). In conclusion, platelets rich plasma is more effective in the treatment of alopecia areata than topical minoxidil 5% as evaluated by clinical and trichoscopic examination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Alopecia areata: a new treatment plan

    PubMed Central

    Alsantali, Adel

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic modalities have been used to treat alopecia areata, with variable efficacy and safety profiles. Unfortunately, none of these agents is curative or preventive. Also, many of these therapeutic agents have not been subjected to randomized, controlled trials, and, except for topical immunotherapy, there are few published studies on long-term outcomes. The treatment plan is designed according to the patient’s age and extent of disease. In this paper, the therapeutic agents are organized according to their efficacy and safety profiles into first-line, second-line, and third-line options. PMID:21833161

  8. Hemorrhagic Ischemic Retinal Vasculitis and Alopecia Areata as a Manifestation of HLA-B27.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ravi; Randhawa, Sandeep

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old Indian boy presented with acute and severe vision loss in his right eye. He was being treated for scalp alopecia areata and rashes behind the ears and above the brow. The eye examination revealed unilateral hemorrhagic retinal vasculitis. The lab work was normal except for a positive HLA-B27 result. The patient was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and systemic immunosuppression. The retinal vasculitis improved with treatment, but visual acuity only mildly improved. The alopecia areata also improved with systemic immunosuppression. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:60-63.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. [Excimer laser therapy of alopecia areata--side-by-side evaluation of a representative area].

    PubMed

    Raulin, Christian; Gündogan, Cüneyt; Greve, Bärbel; Gebert, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    We report for the first time on hair regrowth in alopecia areata of the scalp achieved with the 308-nm xenon-chloride excimer laser in a prospective side-by-side trial. The alopecia areata had shown progression over a period of three years, and various treatments had not been effective. Out of a number of affected areas, one representative lesion was chosen; one half of it was treated, the other half remained untreated. After 27 sessions (200 - 4000 mJ/cm2, cumulative dose 52.6 J/cm2) over 3 months, only the treated area showed hair growth; which suggests that this was most probably not a spontaneous remission.

  10. Amelanocytic anhidrotic alopecia areata-like phenotype after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Edidong Celestine Ntuen; Larson, Richard A; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna

    2012-08-01

    Diffuse alopecia areata or canities subita is a rare variant of alopecia in which hair loss is associated with regrowth of white hairs and possible lightening of the skin. Preferential loss of pigmented hair in this disorder may be related to the melanin pigment system and/or melanocytes. Acquired generalized anhidrosis can be associated with autoimmune disease, cancer, graft-vs-host disease, or medications or can be idiopathic. Extensive anhidrosis may cause hyperpyrexia on exposure to heat, and protection from overheating is essential. A 38-year-old man with idiopathic autoimmune aplastic anemia developed permanent diffuse skin and hair whitening and generalized anhidrosis after a successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Results of a histopathologic examination, which has previously not been reported in this disease, demonstrated a complete lack of epidermal and follicular melanocytes and a dense perifollicular and periadnexal lymphocytic infiltrate. The hair- and skin-lightening phenomena in diffuse alopecia areata may be the result of an overstimulated immune system that targets epidermal and follicular melanocytes. Destruction results in irreversible pigmentary loss of the skin. In a patient with multiple risk factors for anhidrosis, a specific cause may be difficult to determine.

  11. Treatment of alopecia areata with the 308-nm xenon chloride excimer laser: case report of two successful treatments with the excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Cuneyt; Greve, Bärbel; Raulin, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common disease of unknown etiology; it causes significant cosmetic and psycho-social distress for most of the people it affects. We report on an innovative form of treatment in two patients with typical alopecia areata on the capillitium. We successfully treated two patients whose alopecia areata had worsened progressively for 3 and 14 weeks. The treatment involved the use of a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser (dosage 300-2,300 mJ/cm(2) per session). After 11 and 12 sessions within a 9-week and 11-week period, the entire affected focus showed homogenous and thick regrowth. No relapse was observed during the follow-up period of 5 and 18 months. The use of the excimer laser is an effective, elegant, and safe means of treatment and has good tolerability. Analogous to topical treatment of alopecia areata, the immunosuppressive mechanism of the excimer laser can be interpreted as an induction of T-cell apoptosis. This new means of treatment has yet to be discussed in medical literature. Further studies with greater numbers are needed to assess its potential more precisely and evaluate the excimer laser in treating alopecia areata. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Illness perception in patients with androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nan-Lan; Tan, Huan; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Xi-Chuan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide more information on the role of illness perception in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and those with alopecia areata (AA), and to further investigate the relationship of illness perception with psychological disorders and dermatological QoL. The study included 342 patients who were diagnosed with AGA (n=212) or AA (n=130) for the first time at our institution between October 2013 and December 2014. All patients were surveyed before clinical examination by several questionnaires including the Brief Illness Perception, Self-rating Depression Scale, Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). In the AGA patients, the illness perception and QoL were low, whereas the prevalence of clinical depression and anxiety was higher compared to the AA patients. Illness perception was associated with psychological distress and low QoL in both groups, and some illness perception dimensions were found to be significant predictors of the DLQI scores. Illness perception plays an important role in AGA and AA patients, and is associated with psychological distress and low QoL. The identification of critical components of illness perception in alopecia patients could help to understand alopecia specificities, to design consultations and interventions according to the perception, and to improve physical and mental outcomes as well as QoL in alopecia patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transepidermal drug delivery: a new treatment option for areata alopecia?

    PubMed

    Issa, Maria Claudia Almeida; Pires, Marianna; Silveira, Priscilla; Xavier de Brito, Esther; Sasajima, Cristiane

    2015-02-01

    Transepidermal drug delivery (TED) is a new potential method in dermatology. Permeability alterations induced by ablative fractional resurfacing have been described with the aim to increasing the delivery of different substances into the skin. To evaluate clinical response and side effects of TED in areata alopecia (AA) treatment using ablative fractional methods associated with acoustic pressure ultrasound (US) to deliver triamcinolone solution into the skin. Five cases of AA underwent treatment which comprised of 3 steps: 1) Ablative fractioned RF or CO2 laser 2) topical application of triamcinolone 3) acoustic pressure wave US. The number of sessions varied according to the clinical response, ranging from one to six sessions. All patients had complete recovery of the area treated. Two of them treated with ablative fractional RF + triamcinolone + US had complete response after three and six sessions. The other two treated with ablative fractional CO2 + triamcinolone + US had complete response after one session. Fractioned ablative resurfacing associated with acoustic pressure wave US is a new option to areata alopecia treatment with good clinical result and low incidence of side effects.

  14. Tofacitinib for the treatment of severe alopecia areata and variants: A study of 90 patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lucy Y; Craiglow, Brittany G; Dai, Feng; King, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disorder. There are no reliably effective therapies for AA. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Janus kinase 1/3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, in a series of patients over an extended period of time. This is a retrospective study of patients age 18 years or older with AA with at least 40% scalp hair loss treated with tofacitinib. The primary end point was the percent change in Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score during treatment. Ninety patients met inclusion criteria. Of 65 potential responders to therapy, defined as those with alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis with duration of current episode of disease of 10 years or less or alopecia areata, 77% achieved a clinical response, with 58% of patients achieving greater than 50% change in SALT score over 4 to 18 months of treatment. Patients with AA experienced a higher percent change in SALT score than did patients with alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis (81.9% vs 59.0%). Tofacitinib was well tolerated, and there were no serious adverse events. The retrospective nature of the data, the relatively small number of patients, and lack of a control group are limitations. Tofacitinib should be considered for the treatment of severe AA, alopecia totalis, and alopecia universalis; tofacitinib dose response will be better defined by randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alopecia Areata. Current situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rendón, Karina J; Rivera Sánchez, Gildardo; Reyes-López, Miguel Á; García-Ortiz, José E; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Guardiola-Avila, Iliana; Altamirano-García, María L

    2017-12-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a dermatological disease characterized by non-scarring hair loss of the scalp and/or body, with an unpredictable and variable evolution in the patients in which, despite multidisciplinary efforts, its etiology is not entirely known, although some evidence suggests that environmental, immunological and genetic factors could be generating the disease. The aim of this review is to provide an updated panorama of the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of AA, to analyze the mechanisms that could participate in its etiology, as well as to review some of the most important genetic variants that could confer susceptibility to the development of this disease. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  16. Non-scarring patchy alopecia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus differs from that of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Ye, Y; Zhao, Y; Gong, Y; Zhang, X; Caulloo, S; Zhang, B; Cai, Z; Yang, J; McElwee, K J; Zhang, X

    2013-12-01

    Non-scaring patchy alopecia associated with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is sometimes mis-diagnosed as alopecia areata (AA). Our aim was to differentiate non-scarring patchy SLE alopecia features from patchy AA. Clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological data from 21 SLE patients with patchy alopecia were compared with data from 21 patients with patchy AA. Incomplete alopecia was common in SLE alopecia patches, while AA patches exhibited complete alopecia. Exclamation-mark hairs, black dots, broken hair and yellow dots were common to AA, while hair shaft thinning and hypopigmentation, angiotelectasis, peripilar sign, perifollicular red dots, white dots and honeycomb pigment patterns were more common in SLE. Interfollicular polymorphous vessels were the most common angiotelectasis presentation in the SLE alopecia patches, but interfollicular arborizing vessels were significantly more common in non-hair-loss-affected SLE regions and in AA hair-loss regions. During follow-up, increased vellus hair was the earliest feature that emerged after treatment both in SLE and AA, while the earliest feature that disappeared was hair shaft hypopigmentation in SLE and broken hair in AA. After treatment, no SLE patients had relapse of alopecia, while 41.7% of AA patients did. Distinct clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological features were found in SLE-associated alopecia regions, which were different from those of AA. Serological autoantibody tests are of value to confirm the differential diagnosis. Local angiotelectasis and vasculitis close to hair follicles may be involved in the pathogenesis of alopecia in SLE.

  17. A review of monochromatic light devices for the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Darwin, Evan; Arora, Harleen; Hirt, Penelope A; Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2018-02-01

    There are many laser technologies that are being tested that claim to support hair regrowth for patients with alopecia areata (AA). In this paper, we will determine whether the body of evidence supports the use of devices using monochromatic light sources to treat AA. Articles were gathered from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database using these keywords: lasers, excimer laser, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), low-level light therapy, alopecia, alopecia areata, and hair loss with a category modifier of English. Ten clinical trials and seven case reports/abstracts were assessed. Eight clinical trials and two case reports demonstrated hair regrowth with the 308-nm excimer laser/light in men, women, and children. One case report demonstrated hair regrowth with the ALBA 355® laser. One clinical trial and two case reports demonstrated hair regrowth with LLLT. While two case reports demonstrated hair regrowth with fractional laser therapy, one clinical trial showed no improvement. The 308-nm excimer laser is a safe and effective treatment for men, women, and children with refractory AA of the scalp and beard. Larger, double-blinded clinical trials should be conducted to compare excimer laser therapy to standard treatments. More data is needed to determine the efficacy of LLLT and fractional laser therapy in the treatment of AA.

  18. Use of the pulsed infrared diode laser (904 nm) in the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Waiz, Makram; Saleh, Anmar Z; Hayani, Raafa; Jubory, Samar O

    2006-04-01

    Alopecia areata is a rapid and complete loss of hair in one or several patches, usually on the scalp, affecting both males and females equally. It is thought to be an autoimmune disease which is treated with different modalities with variable success. Laser treatment of different wavelengths has been used in the management of this problem. To study the effect of the pulsed infrared diode laser (904 nm) in the treatment of alopecia areata.Methods. Sixteen patients with 34 resistant patches that had not responded to different treatment modalities for alopecia areata were enrolled in this study. In patients with multiple patches, one patch was left as a control for comparison. Patients were treated on a four-session basis, once a week, with a pulsed diode laser (904 nm) at a pulse rate of 40/s. A photograph was taken of each patient before and after treatment. The treated patients were 11 males (68.75%) and five females (31.25%). Their ages ranged between 4 and 50 years with a mean of 26.6+/-SD of +/-13.8, and the durations of their disease were between 12 months and 6 years with a mean of 13.43+/-SD of +/-18.34. Regrowth of hair was observed in 32 patches (94%), while only two patches (6%) failed to show any response. No regrowth of hair was observed in the control patches. The regrowth of hair appeared as terminal hair with its original color in 29 patches (90.6%), while three patches (9.4%) appeared as a white villous hair. In patients who showed response, the response was detected as early as 1 week after the first session in 24 patches (75%), while eight patients (25%) started to show response from the second session. The pulsed infrared diode laser is an effective mode of therapy with a high success rate for resistant patches of alopecia areata.

  19. Pernicious anemia in a patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and alopecia areata universalis.

    PubMed

    Tzellos, Thrasivoulos G; Tahmatzidis, Dimitrios K; Lallas, Aimilios; Apostolidou, Kiriaki; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2009-01-01

    A 27-year-old male, who had developed diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1) since the age of eighteen and alopecia areata universalis nine months later, attended the outpatient clinics complaining of general fatigue and shortness of breath. A Schilling test was indicative of pernicious anemia. Antigastric parietal cell (AGPA) and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were positive, confirming diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Thyroid and Addison's disease were excluded. Gastroscopy revealed atrophic gastritis without any evidence of carcinoid tumors. The aim of this case, which, to our knowledge, is the first one to describe a correlation between diabetes mellitus Type 1 (DMT1), pernicious anaemia, and alopecia areata universalis, is to remind the clinician of the increased risk of pernicious anaemia and gastric carcinoids in DMT1 patients. Screening for AGPA followed by serum gastrin and vitamin B(12) levels constitute the most evidence-based diagnostic approach.

  20. Histologic features of alopecia areata other than peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Steven J; Sloan, Steven B; Elston, Dirk M

    2011-09-01

    Histologic features other than a lymphocytic infiltrate around follicular bulbs are now recognized as helpful clues to the diagnosis of alopecia areata, especially in long-standing lesions where the peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrate may be sparse or absent. We sought to determine the frequency of peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrates, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and melanin in fibrous tracts, pigment casts in follicles, the presence of catagen/telogen follicles, follicular miniaturization, and dystrophic ("nanogen") follicles in alopecia areata. Secondly, we sought to compare the diagnostic use of transversely sectioned versus horizontally sectioned specimens in those cases for which both were available (15 of 109 cases). The pathology archives of Geisinger Medical Center (Danville, PA), Wilford Hall US Air Force Medical Center (San Antonio, TX), and Brooke US Army Medical Center (San Antonio, TX) were searched for the term "alopecia areata" in the diagnostic field from the period of 1991 to 2006, which yielded 109 cases with sections suitable for review. Cases from the two military institutions from 1997 or earlier were excluded to avoid any overlap with data previously reported by our group. A peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrate was present in 92 specimens (84%), eosinophils in fibrous tracts in 48 (44%), lymphocytes in fibrous tracts in 102 (94%), melanin within fibrous tracts in 92 (84%), pigment casts within follicular canals in 46 (44%), catagen follicles in 101 (93%), and miniaturized follicles in 98 (90%). Dystrophic miniaturized follicles were rare (4 cases). In 14 of 15 cases with both vertical and transverse sections, either was diagnostic. One case showed diagnostic features only in vertical sections. Comparable vertical and transverse sections were only available for a limited number of the cases. We did not correlate duration of disease with individual findings. Our results were correlated with the clinical diagnosis but not with serologic tests for syphilis

  1. Correlation between serum IL-17A level and SALT score in patients with alopecia areata before and after NB-UVB therapy.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Hanan; Maher, Reham; Negm, Dalia

    2018-06-01

    There is strong evidence that alopecia areata is of immunological background; Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a Th17 pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been allied to the pathogenesis of different autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to measure serum IL-17A in patients with alopecia areata, and to study associations between IL-17A levels and disease severity before and after Narrowband-Ultraviolet B (NB-UVB), patient gender and age. Twenty patients with AA of the scalp were treated with (NB-UVB), and 15 healthy subjects' age and sex matched were enrolled as controls. Patients were assessed clinically by SALT score. Assay of serum levels of IL-17A by ELISA was done in patients and controls. The mean level of IL-17A was (15.63 Â ± 10.89 Pg/mL) in AA patient group, and (16.50 Â ± 5.02 Pg/mL) in control group. No statistically significant correlation was detected between SALT score and IL-17A level before (NB-UVB) treatment while a significant negative correlation between SALT score and IL-17A level was observed after treatment (r = -.448, P = .047). Mean SALT score for patients was (14.03 Â ± 13.48), and correlated positively with age (r = .446, P = .049). Although (NB-UVB) is an immune-modulatory type of treatment for alopecia areata of mild efficacy especially if it's used alone, it has shown significant decrease in serum IL-17A level among patients, and correlation to disease severity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Alopecia areata update: part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Alkhalifah, Abdullah; Alsantali, Adel; Wang, Eddy; McElwee, Kevin J; Shapiro, Jerry

    2010-02-01

    Various therapeutic agents have been described for the treatment of alopecia areata (AA), but none are curative or preventive. The aim of AA treatment is to suppress the activity of the disease. The high rate of spontaneous remission and the paucity of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies make the evidence-based assessment of these therapies difficult. The second part of this two-part series on AA discusses treatment options in detail and suggests treatment plans according to specific disease presentation. It also reviews recently reported experimental treatment options and potential directions for future disease management. After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to compare the efficacy and safety of various treatment options, formulate a treatment plan tailored to individual patients, and recognize recently described treatments and potential therapeutic approaches. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and pilot-testing of the Alopecia Areata Assessment Tool (ALTO).

    PubMed

    Li, David G; Huang, Kathie P; Xia, Fan Di; Joyce, Cara; Scott, Deborah A; Qureshi, Abrar A; Mostaghimi, Arash

    2018-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring hair loss. The lack of a definitive biomarker or formal diagnostic criteria for AA limits our ability to define the epidemiology of the disease. In this study, we developed and tested the Alopecia Areata Assessment Tool (ALTO) in an academic medical center to validate the ability of this questionnaire in identifying AA cases. The ALTO is a novel, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 8 closed-ended questions derived by the Delphi method. This prospective pilot study was administered during a 1-year period in outpatient dermatology clinics. Eligible patients (18 years or older with chief concern of hair loss) were recruited consecutively. No patients declined to participate. The patient's hair loss diagnosis was determined by a board-certified dermatologist. Nine scoring algorithms were created and used to evaluate the accuracy of the ALTO in identifying AA. 239 patients (59 AA cases and 180 non-AA cases) completed the ALTO and were included for analysis. Algorithm 5 demonstrated the highest sensitivity (89.8%) while algorithm 3 demonstrated the highest specificity (97.8%). Select questions were also effective in clarifying disease phenotype. In this study. we have successfully demonstrated that ALTO is a simple tool capable of discriminating AA from other types of hair loss. The ALTO may be useful to identify individuals with AA within large populations.

  4. Importance of Group Therapeutic Support for Family Members of Children with Alopecia Areata: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; McFarland, Sarah L; Hordinsky, Maria K; Lindgren, Bruce R; Farah, Ronda S

    2017-07-01

    The psychological effect of alopecia areata (AA) is well documented, but group interaction may help lessen this burden. We aimed to determine factors that draw patients with AA and their families to group events. Surveys were administered at the annual alopecia areata bowling social in 2015 and 2016. This event is a unique opportunity for children with AA and their families to meet others with the disease and connect with local support group resources from the Minnesota branch of the National Alopecia Areata Foundation. Data from 2015 and 2016 were combined. Comparisons of subgroups were performed using Fisher exact tests for response frequencies and percentages and two-sample t tests for mean values. An equal number of men and women participated in the study (n = 13 each). The average age was 41.1 years. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in survey responses based on respondent age or sex. Twenty-three (88.5%) attendees sought to connect with others with AA and met three or more people during the event. Seventeen (65.4%) also attended other support group events. Twelve respondents (46.2%) came to support a friend or family member. One hundred percent of attendees identified socializing with others with AA as important. Group interaction is an important source of therapeutic support for people with AA and their families. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Alopecia areata associated with abacavir therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Sung; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

    2014-06-01

    Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that has been approved for use in combination with other retroviral agents in the treatment of HIV infection. Common adverse reactions include headache, fatigue, nausea, and rash. A fatal hypersensitivity reaction may occur in 5% of patients receiving abacavir; therefore, screening for HLA-B5701 should be performed before starting abacavir. Alopecia areata (AA) is infrequently reported in HIV-infected patients. Certain underlying conditions have been associated with AA, including a decreased CD4:CD8 ratio related to the progression of HIV infection, some opportunistic infections, and syphilis. Several antiretroviral drugs, such as zidovudine, indinavir, indinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and atazanavir/ritonavir have been implicated in the development of AA. At present, the occurrence of AA has not been associated with abacavir use. We cannot exclude that the use of abacavir and the development of AA could be coincidental. Nevertheless, patients given abacavir should be monitored for hair loss and the drug discontinued promptly if such signs appear.

  6. Genetic analysis of interleukin 18 gene polymorphisms in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Celik, Sumeyya Deniz; Ates, Omer

    2018-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA), which appears as nonscarring hair shedding on any hair-bearing area, is a common organ-specific autoimmune condition. Cytokines have important roles in the development of AA. Interleukin (IL) 18 is a significant proinflammatory cytokine that was found higher in the patients with AA. We aimed to investigate whether the IL-18 (rs187238 and rs1946518) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with AA and/or clinical outcome of patients with AA in Turkish population. Genotyping of rs187238 and rs1946518 SNPs were detected using sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) method in 200 patients with AA and 200 control subjects. The genotype distribution of rs1946518 (-607C>A) SNP was found to be statistically significantly different among patients with AA and controls (P = .0008). Distribution of CC+CA genotypes and frequency of -607/allele C of rs1946518 SNP were higher in patients with AA (P = .001, P = .001, respectively). The genotype distribution of rs187238 (-137G>C) SNP was found to be statistically significantly different among patients with AA and control subjects (P = .0014). Distribution of GG genotype and frequency of -137/allele G of rs187238 SNP were higher in patients with AA (P = .0003, P = .001, respectively). The rs1946518 (-607C>A) and rs187238 (-137G>C) polymorphisms were found associated with alopecia areata disease. The study suggests that IL-18 rs187238 and rs1946518 SNPs may be the cause of the AA susceptibility. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Vitamin D Level in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Latif, Insha; Malik, Rauf; Hassan, Iffat; Sheikh, Gousia; Lone, Kouser Sideeq; Majeed, Sabiya; Sajad, Peerzada

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease in which autoantigens play an important part in activating T-lymphocytes. Vitamin D has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, and Vitamin D receptors are strongly expressed in hair follicles and their expression in keratinocytes is necessary for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the association between Vitamin D level and AA. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which 50 patients with clinically and trichoscopically diagnosed AA cases, and 35 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied in summer months. Blood samples were taken from both cases as well as controls and samples were immediately processed by centrifugation (4000 rpm) at room temperature. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analyzed by chemiluminescence method. A deficiency in Vitamin D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Results: The mean body mass index in cases was 20.96 ± 1.91, whereas in controls, it was 21.37 ± 1.70 (P = 0.31). The mean serum 25(OH)D levels of AA patients was 16.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml, whereas in control group, the mean level was 40.5 ± 5.7, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between severity of alopecia tool score and Vitamin D level (P < 0.001; r = −0.730) and also between the number of patches and Vitamin D level (P < 0.001, r = −0.670). Conclusion: In our study, we found that the levels of 25(OH)D were low in AA patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum Vitamin D and severity of AA. Thus, the study suggests the role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis of AA and hence a possible role of Vitamin D supplementation in treatment of same. Limitations: Our study was limited by the lesser number of patients and lack of therapeutic trial of Vitamin D

  8. Hair regrowth with topical triiodothyronine ointment in patients with alopecia areata: a double-blind, randomized pilot clinical trial of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, S; Haghpanah, V; Taheri, E; Heshmat, R; Larijani, B; Saeedi, M

    2012-05-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors are expressed in hair follicles and it is known that thyroid hormones can have a positive effect on hair growth, i.e. process which is disrupted in alopecia areata. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of topical triiodothyronine in patients with patchy alopecia areata. Ten patients with patchy alopecia areata were treated with triiodothyronine and placebo applied twice daily to either of two bilaterally symmetrical patches for 12 weeks. The two sides were randomly assigned following simple randomization procedure to one of the two treatment groups. The patients and the investigator were blinded to the content of the tubes. Hair regrowth was evaluated every 4 weeks. Blood samples for measurements of complete blood count along with thyroid function (T3, T4 and TSH) and liver function tests were taken at the baseline and at the end of study. After 12 weeks of treatment, there was no statistically significant difference between the outcome in terms of reduction of the patch size and hair regrowth. No adverse effects were noted. Triiodothyronine in the studied dosage and formulation was safe but not more effective than placebo. However, newer thyroid hormone analogues might be more effective and evaluating their effects probably warrants further consideration. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. What causes alopecia areata?

    PubMed Central

    McElwee, K. J.; Gilhar, A.; Tobin, D. J.; Ramot, Y.; Sundberg, J. P.; Nakamura, M.; Bertolini, M.; Inui, S.; Tokura, Y.; Jr, L. E. King; Duque-Estrada, B.; Tosti, A; Keren, A.; Itami, S.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Zlotogorski, A.; Paus, R.

    2014-01-01

    The pathobiology of alopecia areata (AA), one of the most frequent autoimmune diseases and a major unsolved clinical problem, has intrigued dermatologists, hair biologists and immunologists for decades. Simultaneously, both affected patients and the physicians who take care of them are increasingly frustrated that there is still no fully satisfactory treatment. Much of this frustration results from the fact that the pathobiology of AA remains unclear, and no single AA pathogenesis concept can claim to be universally accepted. In fact, some investigators still harbour doubts whether this even is an autoimmune disease, and the relative importance of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and NKGD2+ NK or NKT cells and the exact role of genetic factors in AA pathogenesis remain bones of contention. Also, is AA one disease, a spectrum of distinct disease entities or only a response pattern of normal hair follicles to immunologically mediated damage? During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in basic AA-related research, in the development of new models for translationally relevant AA research and in the identification of new therapeutic agents and targets for future AA management. This calls for a re-evaluation and public debate of currently prevalent AA pathobiology concepts. The present Controversies feature takes on this challenge, hoping to attract more skin biologists, immunologists and professional autoimmunity experts to this biologically fascinating and clinically important model disease. PMID:23947678

  10. [Testing the significance of psychic factors in the etiology of alopecia areata. II. Examination of personality by means of Eysenck's Personality Inventory (MPI) adapted by Choynowski].

    PubMed

    Wygledowska-Kania, M; Bogdanowski, T

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the role of psychic factors in the etiopathogenesis of alopecia areata on the basis of Eysenck's Personality Inventory adapted by Choynowski. 55 patients were tested (28 women and 27 men). The control group consisted of 50 volunteers. The analysis of the results showed that the neurotic type of personality was predominant in the group of patients (43.64%). Neurotic personality found in such a high percentage of the patients with alopecia areata may be an additional element in the group of psychic factors that possibly have some influence on the development of the disease.

  11. Treating Alopecia Areata: Current Practices Versus New Directions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Carviel, Jessie; Abramovits, William

    2017-02-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune disorder. Severity varies from patchy hair loss that often spontaneously resolves to severe and chronic cases that can progress to total loss of scalp and body hair. Many treatments are available; however, the efficacy of these treatments has not been confirmed, especially in severe cases, and relapse rates are high. First-line treatment often includes corticosteroids such as intralesional or topical steroids for mild cases and systemic steroids or topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone or squaric acid dibutylester in severe cases. Minoxidil and bimatoprost may also be recommended, usually in combination with another treatment. Ongoing research and new insights into mechanisms have led to proposals of innovative therapies. New directions include biologics targeting immune response as well as lasers and autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy. Preliminary data are encouraging, and it is hoped this research will translate into new options for the treatment of AA in the near future.

  12. Halo naevi, vitiligo and diffuse alopecia areata associated with tocilizumab therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nadesalingam, Kavitha; Goodfield, Mark; Emery, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a follow-up case report of a 33-year-old lady with juvenile onset arthritis who developed halo naevi while on treatment with tocilizumab. This case report describes the development of halo naevi, vitiligo and diffuse alopecia areata associated with tocilizumab therapy following infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Panton–Valentine leukocidin positivity. This is the first case that describes these events and supports previous theories on cellular and humoral immunity as causative factors. The regression of melanocytes during treatment with tocilizumab could also implicate IL-6 and sIL-6R as future targets in the treatment of melanoma through its direct effect of melanocytic cytotoxicity, which supports previous studies. PMID:27516894

  13. [Alopecia areata: a retrospective study of the paediatric dermatology department (2000-2008)].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joana; Ventura, Filipa; Vieira, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana Raquel; Fernandes, Susana; Brito, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    Alopecia areata usually presents as patchy, nonscarring hair loss. It seems to be an immune mediated disease, whereas genetic predisposition, environmental and psychological triggers may be involved in its aetiology. To study the epidemiology, clinical aspects, associations, and treatment of alopecia areata in the paediatric population of Peadiatric Dermatology outpatients over a 9-year period. Some psychologic characteristics were also assessed. Descriptive and retrospective study of all newly diagnosed AA cases seen from January 2000 to December 2008 at the Hospital de São Marcos' Paediatric Dermatology Department. Fifteen patients with AA were interviewed for psycologic evaluation. Forty-eight cases (54% male/46% female) were identified. Mean age at presentation was 7.8 years. Family history of AA was reported in 10% of the cases, and in 25% there was a personal and/or family history of atopy. The majority of patients (82%) had mild disease and topical corticotherapy was the first-line treatment for limited AA. Fifty-four percent of these patients had a complete resolution of the lesions with treatment. Systemic treatment (corticosteroids and/or ciclosporin) was used in 71% of patients with extensive disease (more than 50% hair loss). Only one of these patients had a sustained clinical improvement after treatment. Twelve out of 15 respondents (80%) recalled stressful events preceding hair loss. Our findings are similar to those reported in other studies. Epidemiologic studies of AA are available in adulthood but there is a paucity of literature on children with AA. A holistic approach is important in the management of childhood AA as the disease can have a severe psychologic impact on an individual's well-being.

  14. Retrospective review of diphencyprone in the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R C; Young, D; Holmes, S

    2016-06-01

    Contact immunotherapy with diphencyprone (DCP) is used to treat alopecia areata (AA). Its reported efficacy is variable, and individual response cannot be predicted. To identify patient and treatment course variables that may affect treatment outcome, and to review DCP service to identify potential areas for development and improvement. This was a retrospective review of a DCP service over a 20-year period (1991-2010). Complete data was available for 205 treatment courses, and 162 (79%) treatment courses were completed for 133 patients. Overall, 72.2% (96/133) of patients had some hair regrowth (any grade). In 15.8% of cases (21/133), response was > 90% regrowth. However, 27.1% (36/133) had no response. We found that extent of alopecia at baseline and duration of disease were statistically significant when comparing patients with an optimal outcome to those without (P < 0.05). In contrast to other reports, atopy, age at onset and nail dystrophy were not statistically significant. For patients receiving more than one course, response to DCP treatment was broadly consistent. Extent of alopecia at baseline and duration of disease are important factors in predicting response. Our results suggest that atopy should not be considered a predictor of poor outcome with respect to DCP treatment. A need for improved data collection, particularly regarding longer-term outcomes, was identified. The role of maintenance therapy requires objective assessment. Opportunities for DCP self-administration by patients should be explored. Limitations of this study include the retrospective nature of the review and lack of long-term follow-up data. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Tofacitinib for the treatment of alopecia areata and variants in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Craiglow, Brittany G; Liu, Lucy Y; King, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    There are no reliably effective therapies for alopecia areata (AA). We sought to evaluate the benefit and adverse effects of the Janus kinase 1/3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, in a series of adolescent patients with AA. We reviewed the records of 13 adolescent patients with AA treated with tofacitinib. Severity of disease was assessed using the Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT). Adverse events were evaluated by laboratory monitoring, physical examinations, and review of systems. Thirteen patients, aged 12 to 17 years, with AA were treated with tofacitinib. Nine patients experienced clinically significant hair regrowth. Median percent change in SALT score was 93% (mean 61%; 1%-100%) at an average of 6.5 months of treatment. Adverse events were mild. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the data, small sample size, and lack of a control group. Tofacitinib is a promising therapy for AA in adolescents. The use of tofacitinib and other Janus kinase inhibitors for the treatment of AA in this age group should be further evaluated in prospective clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D Level in Alopecia Areata.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Latif, Insha; Malik, Rauf; Hassan, Iffat; Sheikh, Gousia; Lone, Kouser Sideeq; Majeed, Sabiya; Sajad, Peerzada

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease in which autoantigens play an important part in activating T-lymphocytes. Vitamin D has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, and Vitamin D receptors are strongly expressed in hair follicles and their expression in keratinocytes is necessary for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. The aim of this study was to find the association between Vitamin D level and AA. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which 50 patients with clinically and trichoscopically diagnosed AA cases, and 35 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied in summer months. Blood samples were taken from both cases as well as controls and samples were immediately processed by centrifugation (4000 rpm) at room temperature. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analyzed by chemiluminescence method. A deficiency in Vitamin D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/ml. The mean body mass index in cases was 20.96 ± 1.91, whereas in controls, it was 21.37 ± 1.70 ( P = 0.31). The mean serum 25(OH)D levels of AA patients was 16.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml, whereas in control group, the mean level was 40.5 ± 5.7, the difference being statistically significant ( P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between severity of alopecia tool score and Vitamin D level ( P < 0.001; r = -0.730) and also between the number of patches and Vitamin D level ( P < 0.001, r = -0.670). In our study, we found that the levels of 25(OH)D were low in AA patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum Vitamin D and severity of AA. Thus, the study suggests the role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis of AA and hence a possible role of Vitamin D supplementation in treatment of same. Our study was limited by the lesser number of patients and lack of therapeutic trial of Vitamin D for these patients.

  17. Multiple courses of pulse corticosteroid therapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-09-01

    Various systemic corticosteroid therapies are used for alopecia areata (AA). Pulse therapy using methylprednisolone is a treatment approach for AA. The efficacy of multiple courses of pulse therapy for various severities of AA was evaluated. AA patients with less than 50% hair loss, less than or equal to 6 months after AA onset, needed 1.9 courses of pulse therapy for vellus hair to develop. On the other hand, AA patients with more than 50% hair loss, less than 6 months after AA onset, needed more courses of pulse therapy for vellus hair to develop. Regardless of the disease duration, AA patients with less than 50% hair loss showed a good response rate (100%) after both a short period and a long period after therapy. After receiving multiple courses of pulse therapy, the AA patients with more than 50% hair loss also showed improvement with limited adverse reactions. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Toward the Clonotype Analysis of Alopecia Areata-Specific, Intralesional Human CD8+ T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Marta; Uchida, Youhei; Paus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-restricted autoimmune disease that mainly affects the hair follicle (HF). Several findings support a key primary effector role of CD8+ T cells in the disease pathogenesis. Autoreactive CD8+ T cells are not only present in the characteristic peribulbar inflammatory cell infiltrate of lesional AA HFs but are also found to be infiltrating in lesional HF epithelium where they are thought to recognize major histocompatibility complex class I-presented (auto-)antigens. However, the latter still remain unidentified. Therefore, one key aim in AA research is to identify the clonotypes of autoaggressive, intralesional CD8+ T cells. Therapeutically, this is important (a) so that these lymphocytes can be selectively eliminated or inhibited, (b) to identify the-as yet elusive-key (auto-)antigens in AA, and/or (c) to induce peripheral tolerance against the latter. Therefore, we have recently embarked on a National Alopecia Areata Foundation-supported project that attempts to isolate disease-specific, intralesional CD8+ T cells from AA skin in order to determine their TCR clonotype, using two complementary strategies. The first method is based on the enzymatic skin digestion from lesional AA skin, followed by either MACS technology and single-cell picking or FACS cell sorting, while the second method on laser microdissection. The identification of disease-specific TCRs can serve as a basis for specific AA immunotherapy along the lines sketched above and may possibly also provide prognostic biomarkers. If successful, this research strategy promises to permit, at long last, the causal therapy of AA.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: alopecia areata

    MedlinePlus

    ... areata the immune system targets hair follicles , stopping hair growth. However, the condition does not permanently damage the follicles, which is why hair may later regrow. Many of the genes that ...

  20. The Role of Lymphocytes in the Development and Treatment of Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Cheng, Yabin; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alopecia areata (AA) development is associated with both innate and adaptive immune cell activation, migration to peri-and intra-follicular regions, and hair follicle disruption. Both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes are abundant in AA lesions; however, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes are more likely to enter inside hair follicles, circumstantially suggesting that they have a significant role to play in AA development. Several rodent models recapitulate important features of the human autoimmune disease and demonstrate that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes are fundamentally required for AA induction and perpetuation. However, the initiating events, the self-antigens involved, and the molecular signaling pathways, all need further exploration. Studying CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and their fate decisions in AA development may reveal new and improved treatment approaches. PMID:26548356

  1. Alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-Lun E; Leung, Alexander K C

    2011-05-01

    Alopecia aerata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that presents as well defined patches of nonscarring hair loss with no overt epidermal changes. The life-time risk of AA in the general population is approximately 1.7%. As many as 60% of patients with AA have disease onset before 20 years of age. AA most commonly manifests as sudden loss of hair in well demarcated, localized area in the scalp. The hair loss is usually limited to a single patch. The lesion is usually round or oval. "Exclamation point hairs" are frequently seen at the periphery of the lesion. Because of the high rate of spontaneous recovery especially in those with small areas of hair loss or with a recent onset, not all patients require pharmacological treatment. A "watch-and-wait" approach is often recommended. Psychological support may be offered if necessary. For patients who actively desire treatment, topical corticosteroids and/or minoxidil are the treatment of choice. Interleukin (IL)-31 antibodies and 308-nm Excimer laser as novel treatment modalities appear promising in the armamentarium against this distressing disease. The review also outlined recent patents on the treatment of alopecia.

  2. Treatment of Alopecia Areata in the United States: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Farhangian, Michael E; McMichael, Amy J; Huang, Karen E; Feldman, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a non-scarring alopecia that affects millions of Americans, however the way it is treated and which patients seek treatment is not well characterized. To better understand how AA was being treated in the United States, what type of patients are seen for AA, and what physicians treated them. We analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) from 2001 to 2010. We tabulated patient characteristics, the physicians who treated AA and what treatments were prescribed for AA. There were an estimated 2.6 million outpatient visits for AA. Patients with AA were most commonly treated by a dermatologists (84.8%). Patients were most commonly treated with topical and injected corticosteroids (61.0%) followed by minoxidil (5.9%) and topical tacrolimus (5.7%). Males made fewer visits per 1,000 capita compared to females (P=0.01). The NAMCS and NHAMCS do not record severity of disease data. Topical and injected corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for AA, however the use of steroid sparing agents such as minoxidil is low. Despite no studies demonstrating efficacy, topical tacrolimus was used almost as frequently as minoxidil.

  3. Efficacy of topical latanoprost versus minoxidil and betamethasone valerate on the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Amal Ahmad; El-Maadawy, Iman Hamed; El-Maghraby, Gamal Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most common causes of localized hair loss. There is no universally proven therapy that induces and sustains remission of hair growth in AA. To compare the efficacy and safety of topical latanoprost, minoxidil and betamethasone valerate on hair growth in patients with AA. Hundred patients with AA classified into five groups of 20 treated with: Group I, latanoprost 0.1% lotion; Group II, minoxidil 5% lotion; Group III, betamethasone valerate 0.1% solution; Group IV, combination of latanoprost lotion and betamethasone valerate solution and Group V, a vehicle lotion control group. There was a statistically significant improvement in all therapeutic groups when compared with control group and reduction of severity of alopecia tool score of scalp and beard before and after treatment for all therapeutic groups. Latanoprost, minoxidil and betamethasone valerate are effective and safe in the treatment of patchy AA. The use of latanoprost added to the therapeutic efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate in the treatment of AA and could be an effective adjunctive topical therapy for AA.

  4. Alopecia: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lynne J; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia is a disorder that affects all patients, young and old. Many diagnoses, particularly the scarring alopecias, are more common in adults; however, others, such as tinea capitis, are more common in children, and some, such as alopecia areata, often affect both age groups. The approach to, and evaluation of, an alopecia patient is thus highly dependent on his or her age. In adults with diffuse, non-scarring hair loss, a part-width examination can help detect pattern hair loss, the most common cause of diffuse loss in this age group. In children this is much less likely, and a careful evaluation for tinea capitis is in order. The same holds true for patchy alopecia in children, as well as scarring alopecia-tinea needs to always be considered. In adults, patchy alopecia is often due to alopecia areata and sometimes to one of the primary scarring alopecias. A laboratory evaluation, and especially a biopsy, would be a more appropriate undertaking for an adult than a child, and an adult would be more likely to tolerate certain therapeutic regimens such as intralesional injections. In a conversational manner, the authors discuss their individual approaches to the alopecia patient, highlighting the differences in diagnosis, workup, and management that depend on whether the affected individual is an adult or a child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Excimer laser: a module of the alopecia areata common protocol.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Amy J

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by T cell-mediated attack of the hair follicle. The inciting antigenic stimulus is unknown. A dense perbulbar lymphocytic infiltrate and reproducible immunologic abnormalities are hallmark features of the condition. The cellular infiltrate primarily consists of activated T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells. The xenon chloride excimer laser emits its total energy at the wavelength of 308 nm and therefore is regarded as a "super-narrowband" UVB light source. Excimer laser treatment is highly effective in psoriasis, another T cell-mediated disorder that shares many immunologic features with AA. The excimer laser is superior in inducing T cell apoptosis in vitro compared with narrowband UVB, with paralleled improved clinical efficacy. The excimer laser has been used successfully in patients with AA. In this context, evaluation of the potential benefit of 308-nm excimer laser therapy in the treatment of AA is clinically warranted. Herein, the use of a common treatment protocol with a specifically designed module to study the outcome of excimer laser treatment on moderate-to-severe scalp AA in adults is described.

  6. Reported Experiences of Persons with Alopecia Areata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N = 62) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…

  7. Reported Experiences of Persons with Alopecia Areata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N=162) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…

  8. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    PubMed

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  9. Naked Hair Shafts as a Marker of Cicatricial Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Doytcheva, Kristina; Tan, Timothy; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram; Yazdan, Pedram

    2018-07-01

    Naked hair shafts (NHS) are free-floating hair shafts devoid of surrounding epithelium, supporting structures, and/or embedded in inflammation that may result from destruction of hair follicles by scarring processes such as inflammation and fibroplasia. Extensive examination of NHS has not been performed in scalp biopsies of alopecia. We retrospectively evaluated 622 scalp biopsies of alopecia [345 cicatricial alopecias (central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, lichen planopilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus, acne keloidalis nuchae, and folliculitis decalvans] and 277 non-cicatricial alopecias [alopecia areata, androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and psoriatic alopecia)] for the presence of NHS. NHS occurred in 0.72% (2/277) of non-cicatricial alopecias (1/102 of alopecia areata, 1/150 of androgenic alopecia, 0/17 of telogen effluvium, and 0/8 of psoriatic alopecia) and 20% (72/345) of cicatricial alopecias (27/118 of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, 29/109 of lichen planopilaris, 2/75 of discoid lupus erythematosus, 11/16 of acne keloidalis nuchae, and 3/27 of folliculitis decalvans). The presence of NHS was significantly increased in cicatricial alopecias in comparison with non-cicatricial alopecias; P value <0.0001. Among the cicatricial alopecias, 26% (92/345) had mild inflammation and/or fibrosis, of which 9% (9/92) had NHS. There were 73% (253/345) that had moderate to severe inflammation and/or fibrosis, of which 24% (63/253) had NHS, indicating that as the severity of inflammation and fibrosis increases, so does the presence of NHS. NHS rarely occurs in non-cicatricial alopecias. This variation may result from destruction of hair follicles by the inflammatory and scarring processes. The presence of NHS may be a useful adjunctive histopathologic feature in the diagnosis of cicatricial alopecia.

  10. Koebner phenomenon in alopecia areata: rapid appearance after trichogram. Implications for the pathogenesis and therapy.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, R

    2013-04-01

    Anecdotical experiences indicate that Koebner phenomenon (KP) can also be observed in alopecia areata (AA). The present short report gives an account of what has been observed in some patients with remitting-relapsing AA in multiple patches, in whom the phenomenon was accidentally caused by perilesional Trichogram. The almost immediate appearance of relapses of the disease (1-7 days) and their evolution can be useful to understand the physiopathology of AA and and emphasize the compelling need for a rapid and appropriate diagnosis and treatment in the acute phase of AA, even with the active participation of the patient adequately trained. The method of trichogram should be reserved for cases in which non-invasive methods such as the Pull Test or Trichoscopy are not sufficient to verify the activity of the disease.

  11. Trichohyalin is a potential major autoantigen in human alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Leung, Man Ching; Sutton, Chris W; Fenton, David A; Tobin, Desmond J

    2010-10-01

    Several lines of evidence support an autoimmune basis for alopecia areata (AA), a common putative autoimmune hair loss disorder. However, definitive support is lacking largely because the identity of hair follicle (HF) autoantigen(s) involved in its pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we isolated AA-reactive HF-specific antigens from normal human scalp anagen HF extracts by immunoprecipitation using serum antibodies from 10 AA patients. Samples were analyzed by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, which indicated strong reactivity to the hair growth phase-specific structural protein trichohyalin in all AA sera. Keratin 16 (K16) was also identified as another potential AA-relevant target HF antigen. Double immunofluorescence studies using AA (and control sera) together with a monoclonal antibody to trichohyalin revealed that AA sera contained immunoreactivity that colocalized with trichohyalin in the growth phase-specific inner root sheath of HF. Furthermore, a partial colocalization of AA serum reactivity with anti-K16 antibody was observed in the outer root sheath of the HF. In summary, this study supports the involvement of an immune response to anagen-specific HFs antigens in AA and specifically suggests that an immune response to trichohyalin and K16 may have a role in the pathogenesis of the enigmatic disorder.

  12. Diffuse alopecia in an adolescent female: tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Ellen; English, Joseph C

    2014-02-01

    "Black dot" tinea capitis is a common cause of alopecia in young patients. It is most commonly caused by a dermatophyte infection with Trichophyton tonsurans. This entity can be easily distinguished from alopecia areata with the use of hair/scalp dermoscopy. The use of oral terbinafine is effective in resolving the infection.

  13. Treatments options for alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Hair disorders have a very high social and psychological impact. Treatment is often frustrating and time-consuming both for the patients and the clinicians and requires special skills and expertise. This paper aims to provide an overview of available treatments for the most common forms of alopecia in adults (androgenetic alopecia [AGA], alopecia areata and cicatricial alopecias) after reviewing the literature in PubMed, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrial.gov. Before starting treatment, it is very important to confirm diagnosis and discuss patient's expectations. Treatment of hair disorders requires time and first results are usually visible a few months after beginning of therapy. Treatment of most hair disorders is mostly not evidenced-based as randomized controlled trials are available only for AGA.

  14. Alopecia: a review of laser and light therapies.

    PubMed

    Rangwala, Sophia; Rashid, Rashid M

    2012-02-15

    Since the 1980s, laser technology has become increasingly popular to treat a variety of cutaneous conditions. Its successful use as an epilator comes with the rare but interesting side effect of paradoxical hypertrichosis. In this review, we summarize cases describing hair growth after photoepilation, as well as studies testing laser and light sources as treatment for alopecia, particularly androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. We also discuss the possible biologic mechanisms by which phototherapy induces hair regeneration.

  15. Common phenotype and different non-HLA genes in Graves' disease and alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Taketomo, Yasunori; Noso, Shinsuke; Babaya, Naru; Hiromine, Yoshihisa; Ito, Hiroyuki; Kanto, Kousei; Niwano, Fumimaru; Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira; Kawabata, Yumiko; Ikegami, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Our previous observations clarified that Graves' disease (GD) is the most frequent autoimmune disease in patients with alopecia areata (AA), and 42.7% of patients with AA were positive for thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb). A class II HLA haplotype DRB1 ∗ 15:01-DQB1 ∗ 06:02 was suggested to contribute to autoimmunity against the thyroid gland in AA. To further clarify the genetic factors contributing to organ specificity in autoimmune diseases, we studied the contribution of non-HLA genes to organ specificity in GD and AA. A high frequency of AA (13.4%) was observed in patients with GD, indicating strong phenotypic association between GD and AA. CTLA4 and TSHR were significantly associated with GD (Pc=0.007 and Pc<0.002, respectively), but not with AA, even in TRAb-positive patients. The difference in the association between GD and AA suggests that the CTLA4 and TSHR are not main factors contributing to determining common genetic basis among GD and AA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thyroid Disorders Associated with Alopecia Areata in Egyptian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bakry, Ola A; Basha, Mohamed A; El Shafiee, Maather K; Shehata, Wafaa A

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common form of localized, non-scarring hair loss. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear, but the role of autoimmunity is strongly suggested. AA is commonly associated with various autoimmune disorders; the most frequent among them is autoimmune thyroid disorders. Aim: To determine whether AA is associated with thyroid autoimmunity or thyroid function abnormalities in Egyptian patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects with AA (37 males and 13 females) without clinical evidence of thyroid disorders were selected from Dermatology Outpatient Clinic, Menoufiya University Hospital, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt, during the period from June 2009 to February 2010. They were divided into 3 groups according to severity of AA. Fifty age and sex-matched healthy volunteers (35 males and 15 females) were selected as a control group. Every case and control were subjected to history taking, complete general and dermatological examination. Venous blood samples were taken from cases and controls after taking their consents for measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T3, freeT4 and detection of Anti-thyroglobulin Antibody (Tg-Ab) and Anti-thyroid Peroxidase Antibody (TPO-Ab). Results: Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 16% of cases. There were statistically significant differences between cases and controls regarding levels of TSH, free T3 and free T4. There were significant differences between cases and controls regarding the presence of Tg-Ab and TPO-Ab. Conclusions: Every patient with AA should be screened for thyroid functions and presence of thyroid autoantibodies even in absence of clinical manifestations suggestive of thyroid affection. PMID:24470660

  17. iNKT cells ameliorate human autoimmunity: Lessons from alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Ghraieb, Amal; Keren, Aviad; Ginzburg, Alex; Ullmann, Yehuda; Schrum, Adam G; Paus, Ralf; Gilhar, Amos

    2018-04-18

    Alopecia areata (AA) is understood to be a CD8+/NKG2D+ T cell-dependent autoimmune disease. Here, we demonstrate that human AA pathogenesis of is also affected by iNKT10 cells, an unconventional T cell subtype whose number is significantly increased in AA compared to healthy human skin. AA lesions can be rapidly induced in healthy human scalp skin xenotransplants on Beige-SCID mice by intradermal injections of autologous healthy-donor PBMCs pre-activated with IL-2. We show that in this in vivo model, the development of AA lesions is prevented by recognized the iNKT cell activator, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which stimulates iNKT cells to expand and produce IL-10. Moreover, in pre-established humanized mouse AA lesions, hair regrowth is promoted by α-GalCer treatment through a process requiring both effector-memory iNKT cells, which can interact directly with CD8+/NKG2D+ T cells, and IL-10. This provides the first in vivo evidence in a humanized model of autoimmune disease that iNKT10 cells are key disease-protective lymphocytes. Since these regulatory NKT cells can both prevent the development of AA lesions and promote hair re-growth in established AA lesions, targeting iNKT10 cells may have preventive and therapeutic potential also in other autoimmune disorders related to AA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coexistence of giant blue nevus of the scalp with hair loss and alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Sachiko; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Murao, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Natsuko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Arase, Seiji

    2011-04-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with a 13-year history of a grayish macule measuring 7 cm in diameter with sparse hairs on the vertex. Histopathological examination demonstrated two types of melanocytes, spindle-shaped and ovoid cells, with abundant melanin aggregated around the upper part of the pilosebaceous apparatus. Fibrous, thick collagen bundles were also seen surrounding the upper part of the small hair follicles. There was no infiltration of melanocytes or lymphocytes in the lower dermis or adipose tissue. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of blue nevus, cellular type, was made. Giant cellular blue nevi on the scalp are rare, and 11 cases reported in the published work have shown characteristic features such as hair loss and cranial invasion of nevus cells. It should be noted that melanocytes of giant blue nevi have a high potential to damage other organs such as underlying bone and hair follicles. The patient also showed a typical lesion of alopecia areata on the left temporal which was successfully treated with topical corticosteroid. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. [Examination of the significance of psychological factors in the etiology of alopecia areata. I. Examining Type A behavior].

    PubMed

    Wygledowska-Kania, M; Bogdanowski, T

    1995-01-01

    We tested the significance of psychic factors in the etiology of alopecia areata by means of the assessment of the Behaviour Pattern A (BPA)--a particular way of regulation of the relations between the individual and the environment, the basis of which is a great need for achievement in the individual who realizes this need by means of domination and aggressiveness. The testing was carried out by means of the Polish Questionnaire for the Assessment of the Behaviour Pattern A in adults. 60 patients were tested (31 women and 29 men). The results were compared with the normative groups described by Wrześniewski. The frequency of the occurrence of the Behaviour Pattern A in the tested patients may indicate the connection of this type of regulation of relations between the individual and the environment with the susceptibility to this disease.

  20. Incident alopecia areata and vitiligo in adult women with atopic dermatitis: Nurses' Health Study 2.

    PubMed

    Drucker, A M; Thompson, J M; Li, W-Q; Cho, E; Li, T; Guttman-Yassky, E; Qureshi, A A

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to determine the risk of alopecia areata (AA) and vitiligo associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) in a large cohort of US women, the Nurses' Health Study 2. We used logistic regression to calculate age- and multivariate-adjusted odds ratios to determine the risk of incident AA and vitiligo associated with AD diagnosed in or before 2009. A total of 87 406 and 87 447 participants were included in the AA and vitiligo analyses, respectively. A history of AD in 2009 was reported in 11% of participants. There were 147 incident cases of AA and 98 incident cases of vitiligo over 2 years of follow-up. AD was associated with increased risk of developing AA (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.18-2.76) and vitiligo (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.29-3.54) in multivariate models. In this study of US women, AD was associated with increased risk of incident vitiligo and AA in adulthood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clinical characteristics and HLA alleles of a family with simultaneously occurring alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Emre, Selma; Metin, Ahmet; Caykoylu, Ali; Akoglu, Gulsen; Ceylan, Gülay G; Oztekin, Aynure; Col, Esra S

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease resulting in partial or total noncicatricial hair loss. HLA class II antigens are the most important markers that constitute genetic predisposition to AA. Various life events and intense psychological stress may play an important role in triggering AA attacks. We report an unusual case series of 4 family members who had simultaneously occurring active AA lesions. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and psychiatric features of 4 cases of active AA lesions occurring simultaneously in a family and determine HLA alleles. The clinical and psychological features of all patients were examined. HLA antigen DNA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. All patients had typical AA lesions over the scalp and/or beard area. Psychological examinations revealed obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in the proband's parents as well as anxiety and lack of self-confidence in both the proband and his sister. HLA antigen types were not commonly shared with family members. These findings suggest that AA presenting concurrently in members of the same family was not associated with genetic predisposition. Shared psychological disorders and stressful life events might be the major key points in the concurrent presentation of these familial AA cases and development of resistance against treatments.

  2. Development of a disease-specific instrument to measure quality of life in patients with alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yuichiro; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Arakawa, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common hair loss disorder that frequently follows a chronic course. Although AA is apparently associated with disturbance of quality of life (QoL), no disease-specific instrument to measure the QoL has been developed. This study was conducted to develop a disease-specific self-administered instrument to measure AA patients' QoL (AAQ). A two-step cross-sectional study was conducted. Items were generated from qualitative interviews with five patients with AA (two men and three women, age 28±6.4 years). Then, a preliminary questionnaire was produced and delivered to the patients (n=122). The AAQ was examined in terms of statistical performance. The AAQ included 7 items in the following three subscales: 'restriction of activity', 'concealment' and 'adaptation'. The reliability of internal consistency was fair with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.59-81 for each subscale. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis demonstrated that the AAQ had good construct validity. Interestingly, the AAQ was only correlated with subjective severity scores as rated by the patients, but not with objective disease severity assessed by investigators.

  3. The Effect of Neodymium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Lasers on Alopecia Areata: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Yalici-Armagan, Basak; Elcin, Gonca

    2016-04-01

    Effective treatment options for alopecia areata (AA) are missing. Whether lasers might be effective is a topic of debate. We aimed to evaluate whether neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) or fractional carbon dioxide lasers might stimulate the development of new hair. Thirty-two patients who had long-standing and treatment refractory diseases were recruited for the study. Three different patches on the scalp were selected, 1 of which served as control. The mean outcome measure was the hair count, which was calculated with the digital phototrichogram. Response was defined as at least 25% increase in the mean hair count at the treated patch compared with the control patch. At the end of the study, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean hair count for the 3 patches. In 7 of 32 patients (22%), an increase in the mean hair count was observed on the whole scalp including the control patch, which resulted in an improved Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score. We have observed that Nd:YAG or fractional carbon dioxide lasers did not increase the mean hair count on the treated AA patches when compared with the control patch. However, an SALT score improvement in 22% of the patients suggested spontaneous remission.

  4. Molecular genetics of alopecias.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in research methods and techniques, such as whole-exome and -genome sequencing, have substantially improved our understanding of genetic conditions. Special progress has been made in the field of genotrichoses, or hereditary hair diseases, a field that has been obscure for many years. The underlying genes for many of the monogenic hair diseases are now known. Additionally, complex analyses of large cohorts of patients have given us the first clues to the genes associated with polygenic hair disorders, such as androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. Thanks to these major findings, the sophisticated regulation of the morphogenesis, development and growth of hair follicles has begun to be revealed, and new players in this delicate molecular interplay have been exposed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. TNF-α -308G/A gene polymorphism in bullous pemphigoid and alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Moravvej, Hamideh; Tabatabaei-Panah, Pardis-Sadat; Ebrahimi, Elaheh; Esmaeili, Nafiseh; Ghaderian, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein; Ludwig, Ralf J; Akbarzadeh, Reza

    2018-05-11

    TNF-α -308G/A polymorphism has been investigated in few studies for an association with susceptibility to bullous pemphigoid (BP) and alopecia areata (AA). Yet, these findings had so far not been independently replicated, and no data on a possible association of TNFα -308G/A polymorphism with these diseases in Iranian population were available. In the present study, a possible effect of TNF-α -308G/A variation on susceptibility to BP or AA disease was evaluated. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of the patients with BP and AA as well as control subjects which genotyped for the TNF-α -308 G/A polymorphism. TNF-α gene expression levels were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. No association was observed between the TNF-α -308 G/A variation and susceptibility to BP or AA diseases in our Iranian cohort. In contrast to AA patients, expression of TNF-α gene was significantly higher in BP patients compared to control group. TNF-α gene was found to be similarly expressed in mutant and wild-type genotypes. TNF-α -308G/A polymorphism is not associated with the risk to develop of BP and AA in our Iranian cohort. Furthermore, this polymorphism is not contributed to altering the levels of gene expression in both diseases.

  6. Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy in Recalcitrant Alopecia Areata: A Study of 11 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zawar, Vijay P; Karad, Gayatri Mukund

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recalcitrant alopecia areata (AA) is not uncommon in clinical practice. In certain patients, treatment failures are known with almost every conventional therapy either singly or in combination. Aims: To study the efficacy of liquid nitrogen (LN) cryotherapy in patients with recalcitrant AA. Subjects and Methods: We present series of eleven patients of recalcitrant AA, who consulted us after getting no response to various modalities of treatment for 6 months. We treated them with LN cryotherapy every 2 weeks till significant hair regrowth or maximum five sittings (at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks) whichever was earlier. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Each patient was counseled and a written consent was taken. Every session consisted of dual freeze and thaw cycles of 15 s each with a cryo unit spray. Two months of follow-up after last treatment was done to observe sustained re-growth of hair. Statistical Analysis Used: The clinical response was evaluated by using regrowth scale at 4th, 8th, and 16th week. Results: 11 patients were recruited, one patient dropped due to inability to attend follow-ups. Remaining ten patients completed the treatment and follow-up. Out of 10 patients, five patients (50%) showed an excellent response, three (30%) had a satisfactory response, one (10%) had a fair response, and one patient (10%) had a poor response. No serious adverse effects were seen. Sustained hair regrowth was seen in 80% of patients at the 16th week. Conclusions: LN cryotherapy may be worth trying treatment in the management of recalcitrant AA. PMID:27127370

  7. Genome-wide meta-analysis in alopecia areata resolves HLA associations and reveals two new susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hailiang; Menelaou, Androniki; Redler, Silke; Becker, Tim; Heilmann, Stefanie; Yamany, Tarek; Duvic, Madeliene; Hordinsky, Maria; Norris, David; Price, Vera H.; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian; de Jong, Annemieke; DeStefano, Gina M.; Moebus, Susanne; Böhm, Markus; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Wolff, Hans; Lutz, Gerhard; Kruse, Roland; Bian, Li; Amos, Christopher I.; Lee, Annette; Gregersen, Peter K.; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Altshuler, David; Clynes, Raphael; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Daly, Mark J.; Christiano, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a prevalent autoimmune disease with ten known susceptibility loci. Here we perform the first meta-analysis in AA by combining data from two genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and replication with supplemented ImmunoChip data for a total of 3,253 cases and 7,543 controls. The strongest region of association is the MHC, where we fine-map 4 independent effects, all implicating HLA-DR as a key etiologic driver. Outside the MHC, we identify two novel loci that exceed statistical significance, containing ACOXL/BCL2L11(BIM) (2q13); GARP (LRRC32) (11q13.5), as well as a third nominally significant region SH2B3(LNK)/ATXN2 (12q24.12). Candidate susceptibility gene expression analysis in these regions demonstrates expression in relevant immune cells and the hair follicle. We integrate our results with data from seven other autoimmune diseases and provide insight into the alignment of AA within these disorders. Our findings uncover new molecular pathways disrupted in AA, including autophagy/apoptosis, TGFß/Tregs and JAK kinase signaling, and support the causal role of aberrant immune processes in AA. PMID:25608926

  8. Traction alopecia: the root of the problem.

    PubMed

    Billero, Victoria; Miteva, Mariya

    2018-01-01

    Traction alopecia (TA) affects one-third of women of African descent who wear various forms of traumatic hairstyling for a prolonged period of time. The risk of TA is increased by the extent of pulling and duration of traction, as well as the use of chemical relaxation. The frequent use of tight buns or ponytails, the attachment of weaves or hair extensions, and tight braids (such as cornrows and dreadlocks) are believed to be the highest risk hairstyles. TA can also occur in the setting of religious and occupational traumatic hairstyling. In its later stages, the disease may progress into an irreversible scarring alopecia if traumatic hairstyling continues without appropriate intervention. The most common clinical presentation includes marginal alopecia and non-marginal patchy alopecia. A clue to the clinical diagnosis is the preservation of the fringe sign as opposed to its loss in frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA). Dermoscopy can be helpful in the diagnosis and can detect the ongoing traction by the presence of hair casts. Histopathology can distinguish TA from alopecia areata, FFA, and patchy central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Currently, there is no cure. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians educate high-risk populations about TA and those practices that may convey the risk of hair loss.

  9. Traction alopecia: the root of the problem

    PubMed Central

    Billero, Victoria; Miteva, Mariya

    2018-01-01

    Traction alopecia (TA) affects one-third of women of African descent who wear various forms of traumatic hairstyling for a prolonged period of time. The risk of TA is increased by the extent of pulling and duration of traction, as well as the use of chemical relaxation. The frequent use of tight buns or ponytails, the attachment of weaves or hair extensions, and tight braids (such as cornrows and dreadlocks) are believed to be the highest risk hairstyles. TA can also occur in the setting of religious and occupational traumatic hairstyling. In its later stages, the disease may progress into an irreversible scarring alopecia if traumatic hairstyling continues without appropriate intervention. The most common clinical presentation includes marginal alopecia and non-marginal patchy alopecia. A clue to the clinical diagnosis is the preservation of the fringe sign as opposed to its loss in frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA). Dermoscopy can be helpful in the diagnosis and can detect the ongoing traction by the presence of hair casts. Histopathology can distinguish TA from alopecia areata, FFA, and patchy central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Currently, there is no cure. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians educate high-risk populations about TA and those practices that may convey the risk of hair loss. PMID:29670386

  10. Experiences and coping behaviours of adolescents in Pakistan with alopecia areata: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Rafia; Hunt, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The study explored experiences of adolescents aged 15–19 with alopecia areata (AA) and investigated their accounts of coping behaviours. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to provide an in-depth and holistic perspective of their accounts. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a volunteer sample of eight respondents diagnosed with AA. Four key themes were identified: loss (self/social), concerns (physical/future), negative (emotions/thoughts), and coping styles (adaptive/maladaptive). Females experienced greater feelings of loss, were more concerned about their looks and their future, and reported more negative thoughts and emotions. Females felt angry and blamed God for their fate; males blamed both their fate and luck. Action-oriented and practical coping styles were adopted by all of them. After the realization that initial coping behaviours were ineffective, self-distraction, acceptance, and humour were used. Psychological relief followed with the practice of religion and planning for treatments to be undertaken in the future. The findings here are similar to research conducted in the West, though with more emphasis on religion. Health care providers and student counsellors need to understand the negative psychosocial consequences for adolescents living with a visible disfigurement and provide appropriate psychological and social support. PMID:25636795

  11. Comparison of azelaic acid and anthralin for the therapy of patchy alopecia areata: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sasmaz, Sezai; Arican, Ozer

    2005-01-01

    Although topical azelaic acid has been previously used for the treatment of alopecia, no controlled trials of azelaic acid for this condition have been conducted to date. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of azelaic acid treatment in patients with patchy alopecia areata (AA) in comparison with anthralin (dithranol) treatment. This study included 31 subjects with patchy AA who did not receive any treatment for at least 1 month prior to the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics of these subjects were recorded at baseline. Subjects were randomized to apply either 20% azelaic acid (15 subjects) or 0.5% anthralin (16 subjects) for 12 consecutive weeks. In a subsequent 8-week follow-up period no cream was applied. Two independent investigators performed an efficacy evaluation with clinical examination using a terminal hair regrowth score (RGS) with a scale ranging from 0 (inadequate response) to 2 (complete response) at week 20. Partial response was accepted as score 1. Both groups were well matched for the relevant demographic and clinical indicators affecting treatment response at baseline. All subjects completed the trial. At week 20 the RGS was 1.27 +/- 0.9 in the azelaic acid group versus 1.37 +/- 0.8 in the anthralin group (p > 0.05). A complete response was observed in 53.3% of cases in the azelaic acid group (8 of 15) compared with 56.2% (9 of 16) in the anthralin group (p > 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed in either group during the study. The present pilot study showed that the use of azelaic acid gave similar results to anthralin with regard to hair regrowth, and that it can be an effective topical therapy for patchy AA. More extensive trials are necessary, however, to reach a definitive conclusion.

  12. Efficacy and safety of topical calcipotriol in management of alopecia areata: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Narang, Tarun; Daroach, Manju; Kumaran, M Sendhil

    2017-05-01

    Reports have highlighted serum vitamin D deficiency and reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptors(VDR) expression on hair follicles of alopecia areata(AA) patients. Very few studies have demonstrated efficacy of topical calcipotriol (vitamin D analogue) in AA. We intended to study the efficacy of calcipotriol lotion 0.005% in AA and correlate its outcome with serum vitamin D levels. We conducted a prospective study, in which 22 patients with AA were treated with calcipotriol lotion 0.005% twice daily for 3 months. Clinico-epidemiological parameters including severity of AA and SALT score were calculated at baseline and at 12 weeks. Hair regrowth was assessed monthly at 4, 8, 12 weeks. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at baseline. After 12 weeks of treatment, hair regrowth was observed in 13 (59.1%) patients. Mean period for onset of disease stabilization and hair regrowth was 4 weeks and 4.21± 2.13 weeks, respectively. Among these 13 patients, SALT 50 and SALT 100 was observed in 6(46.2%) and 2(9%) patients, respectively. Response to treatment was better in patients with lower vitamin D levels (p < .009). Topical calcipotriol can be an alternative treatment in AA and it could prove to be more useful in patients who are vitamin D deficient. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Alopecia universalis in a dog with testicular neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D; Affolter, Verena K

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case of testicular neoplasia and alopecia universalis in a dog, and successful treatment of the latter with ciclosporin. Twelve-year-old intact male wirehaired fox terrier. Castration, skin biopsy for histopathology, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and clonality analysis of the canine T-cell receptor gamma locus (TCRγ) rearrangement. The dog presented with symmetrical generalized alopecia. Testicular enlargement was noted which on castration was determined to be caused by bilateral interstitial cell tumours, Sertoli cell tumours and a unilateral seminoma. During the four months after castration the alopecia became more severe and widespread. Histopathology of the skin showed moderate, multifocal, mural folliculitis, peribulbar mucinosis and lymphocytic bulbitis, and targeting of anagen hair follicles. Immunophenotyping of the infiltrate showed a population of well-differentiated, small CD3-positive T lymphocytes, some expressing CD4 and others CD8. Molecular analysis revealed a polyclonal lymphocytic infiltrate, substantiating the diagnosis of alopecia areata rather than lymphoma. Treatment with ciclosporin (4.6 mg/kg) and ketoconazole (4.6 mg/kg) resulted in complete hair regrowth. Ciclosporin treatment, in combination with ketoconazole, can be effective for treatment of alopecia universalis in the dog. Alopecia universalis may present with clinically noninflammatory, symmetrical, generalized alopecia, mimicking an endocrine alopecia, and skin biopsies are needed to confirm the diagnosis. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Genome-wide meta-analysis in alopecia areata resolves HLA associations and reveals two new susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Betz, Regina C; Petukhova, Lynn; Ripke, Stephan; Huang, Hailiang; Menelaou, Androniki; Redler, Silke; Becker, Tim; Heilmann, Stefanie; Yamany, Tarek; Duvic, Madeliene; Hordinsky, Maria; Norris, David; Price, Vera H; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian; de Jong, Annemieke; DeStefano, Gina M; Moebus, Susanne; Böhm, Markus; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Wolff, Hans; Lutz, Gerhard; Kruse, Roland; Bian, Li; Amos, Christopher I; Lee, Annette; Gregersen, Peter K; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Altshuler, David; Clynes, Raphael; de Bakker, Paul I W; Nöthen, Markus M; Daly, Mark J; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-01-22

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a prevalent autoimmune disease with 10 known susceptibility loci. Here we perform the first meta-analysis of research on AA by combining data from two genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and replication with supplemented ImmunoChip data for a total of 3,253 cases and 7,543 controls. The strongest region of association is the major histocompatibility complex, where we fine-map four independent effects, all implicating human leukocyte antigen-DR as a key aetiologic driver. Outside the major histocompatibility complex, we identify two novel loci that exceed the threshold of statistical significance, containing ACOXL/BCL2L11(BIM) (2q13); GARP (LRRC32) (11q13.5), as well as a third nominally significant region SH2B3(LNK)/ATXN2 (12q24.12). Candidate susceptibility gene expression analysis in these regions demonstrates expression in relevant immune cells and the hair follicle. We integrate our results with data from seven other autoimmune diseases and provide insight into the alignment of AA within these disorders. Our findings uncover new molecular pathways disrupted in AA, including autophagy/apoptosis, transforming growth factor beta/Tregs and JAK kinase signalling, and support the causal role of aberrant immune processes in AA.

  15. Effectiveness of 308-nm Excimer Laser Therapy in Treating Alopecia Areata, Determined by Examining the Treated Sides of Selected Alopecic Patches.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ji Won; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Bang, Chan Yl; Shin, Jeonghyun; Choi, Gwang Seong

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have reported the use of 308-nm excimer laser therapy for treating alopecia areata (AA); however, the effectiveness of this therapy on a theoretical basis has not yet been comparatively analyzed. To determine the therapeutic effect of excimer laser therapy on AA. One alopecic patch was divided into control and treated sides in 10 patients with AA. Then, 308-nm excimer laser therapy was administered twice a week for 12 weeks. Photograph and phototrichogram analyses were performed. Photographic assessments by both dermatologists and individuals of the general population showed objective improvements after excimer laser therapy. On the treated side, the hair count and hair diameter had statistically increased after treatment. However, only the hair diameter was found to be significantly high in the treated half when it was compared with the control side. The 308-nm excimer laser has a therapeutic effect on AA, which is proven by photograph and phototrichogram analysis by a side-by-side comparison. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Hair regrowth in alopecia areata patients following Stem Cell Educator therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjia; Yan, Baoyong; Wang, Hepeng; Li, Heng; Li, Quanhai; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Ye; Li, Wenxia; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shanfeng; Shen, Jie; Li, Yunxiang; Guindi, Edward; Zhao, Yong

    2015-04-20

    Alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and targets the hair follicles, with high impact on the quality of life and self-esteem of patients due to hair loss. Clinical management and outcomes are challenged by current limited immunosuppressive and immunomodulating regimens. We have developed a Stem Cell Educator therapy in which a patient's blood is circulated through a closed-loop system that separates mononuclear cells from the whole blood, allows the cells to briefly interact with adherent human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SC), and returns the "educated" autologous cells to the patient's circulation. In an open-label, phase 1/phase 2 study, patients (N = 9) with severe AA received one treatment with the Stem Cell Educator therapy. The median age was 20 years (median alopecic duration, 5 years). Clinical data demonstrated that patients with severe AA achieved improved hair regrowth and quality of life after receiving Stem Cell Educator therapy. Flow cytometry revealed the up-regulation of Th2 cytokines and restoration of balancing Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine production in the peripheral blood of AA subjects. Immunohistochemistry indicated the formation of a "ring of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)" around the hair follicles, leading to the restoration of immune privilege of hair follicles and the protection of newly generated hair follicles against autoimmune destruction. Mechanistic studies revealed that co-culture with CB-SC may up-regulate the expression of coinhibitory molecules B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) on CD8β(+)NKG2D(+) effector T cells and suppress their proliferation via herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) ligands and programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L1) on CB-SCs. Current clinical data demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the Stem Cell Educator therapy for the treatment of AA. This innovative approach produced lasting improvement in hair regrowth in

  17. Is there an association of ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor with alopecia areata?

    PubMed

    İslamoğlu, Zeynep Gizem Kaya; Unal, Mehmet

    2018-01-15

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by noncicatricial hair loss localized on hair, beard, mustache, eyebrow, eyelash, and sometimes on the body. Although etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, many studies show remarkable associations between various diseases and ABO blood groups. However, there is no study with AA and blood groups. Healthy people and patients with AA were included in this study. A total of 155 patients with AA and 299 healthy controls were included in the study. ABO blood group distribution in patients with AA and distribution of healthy donors were similar. However, Rhesus factor positivity in the AA group was significantly higher than in healthy donors. The relationship between stress and AA was high as known. But, ABO blood group and Rhesus factor were not in a significant connection with stress. We conclude that there was no association between ABO blood group and AA, but the observed distribution of Rhesus blood group differed slightly but significantly from that of the healthy population. The result of the study shows a small but statistically significant difference in the Rh blood group between patients with AA and the healthy population blood groups. This result is important because it suggests that genetic factors may influence the development of AA. The role of blood groups in the development of AA remains to be determined. We believe that the studies which will be carried out in other centers with wider series will be more valuable to support this hypothesis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Substance P as an immunomodulatory neuropeptide in a mouse model for autoimmune hair loss (alopecia areata).

    PubMed

    Siebenhaar, Frank; Sharov, Andrey A; Peters, Eva M J; Sharova, Tatyana Y; Syska, Wolfgang; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Freyschmidt-Paul, Pia; Sundberg, John P; Maurer, Marcus; Botchkarev, Vladimir A

    2007-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disorder of the hair follicle characterized by inflammatory cell infiltrates around actively growing (anagen) hair follicles. Substance P (SP) plays a critical role in the cutaneous neuroimmune network and influences immune cell functions through the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). To better understand the role of SP as an immunomodulatory neuropeptide in AA, we studied its expression and effects on immune cells in a C3H/HeJ mouse model for AA. During early stages of AA development, the number of SP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in skin is increased, compared to non-affected mice. However, during advanced stages of AA, the number of SP-immunoreactive nerves and SP protein levels in skin are decreased, whereas the expression of the SP-degrading enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is increased, compared to control skin. In AA, NK-1R is expressed on CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages accumulating around affected hair follicles. Additional SP supply to the skin of AA-affected mice leads to a significant increase of mast cell degranulation and to accelerated hair follicle regression (catagen), accompanied by an increase of CD8+ cells-expressing granzyme B. These data suggest that SP, NEP, and NK-1R serve as important regulators in the molecular signaling network modulating inflammatory response in autoimmune hair loss.

  19. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a survey in 16 patients.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ramírez, D; Camacho Martínez, F

    2005-11-01

    Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia (PFFA) was described by Kossard et al. as a progressive recession of the frontal hairline affecting particularly postmenopausal women. Further cases of PFFA have been reported to date, all of them considering it as a variant of lichen planopilaris on the basis of its clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features. To describe clinical features, and response to treatment of 16 cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia diagnosed at our department in the last 6 years. In addition to clinical data, biopsies and laboratory tests (antinuclear antibodies, sex hormones, thyroid hormones) were performed in order to rule out other causes of scarring alopecia. Patients were treated with intralesional corticosteroids, finasteride, and minoxidil, depending on the stage of the disease and association to androgenetic alopecia. All patients presented progressive alopecia localized to the frontal and temporal hairlines. Eight patients (50%) had loss of eyebrows, and six patients (37.5%) had axillar alopecia. Ages ranged from 45 to 79. Three of these women were premenopausal. Androgenetic alopecia was evident in seven patients (43.8%). All patients biopsied showed perifollicular lymphocitic infiltrate with lamelar fibrosis limited to the upper portions of the follicle. The progression of the condition stopped in most patients after a variable period on treatment. When treatment was abandoned the alopecia progressed to 'clown alopecia' appearance. Cases of Kossard's type scarring alopecia affecting premenopausal women made us consider that this condition is not exclusive of postmenopausal women. Differential diagnosis should take into account conditions like female androgenetic alopecia, fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution, alopecia areata, and chronic lupus erythematosus. Except for the pattern of alopecia, lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia are indistinguishable, thus the latter is included as a variant of lichen

  20. Effects of the Lexington LaserComb on hair regrowth in the C3H/HeJ mouse model of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Rodriguez, Rosa; Choudhary, Sonal; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2012-03-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease that presents with non-scarring alopecia. It is characterized by intra- or peri-follicular lymphocytic infiltrates composed of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells on histology. To this day, few treatments are effective for AA. Here we present findings of using a low-level laser comb to alleviate the symptoms of AA in a C3H/HeJ mouse model for AA. Fourteen C3H/HeJ mice with induced AA were used in this study. Two were killed to confirm AA through histology. The remaining 12 mice were randomized into two groups; group I received HairMax LaserComb (wavelength: 655 nm, beam diameter <5 mm; divergence 57 mrad; nine lasers) for 20 s daily, three times per week for a total of 6 weeks; group II was treated similarly, except that the laser was turned off (sham-treated). After 6 weeks of LaserComb treatment, hair regrowth was observed in all the mice in group I (laser-treated) but none in group II (sham-treated). On histology, increased number of anagen hair follicles was observed in laser-treated mice. On the other hand, sham-treated mice demonstrated hair follicles in the telogen phase with no hair shaft. LaserComb seems to be an effective and convenient device for the treatment of AA in the C3H/HeJ mouse model. Human studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of this device for AA therapy.

  1. Genome-wide association study in alopecia areata implicates both innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Petukhova, Lynn; Duvic, Madeleine; Hordinsky, Maria; Norris, David; Price, Vera; Shimomura, Yutaka; Kim, Hyunmi; Singh, Pallavi; Lee, Annette; Chen, Wei V; Meyer, Katja C; Paus, Ralf; Jahoda, Colin A B; Amos, Christopher I; Gregersen, Peter K; Christiano, Angela M

    2010-07-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is among the most highly prevalent human autoimmune diseases, leading to disfiguring hair loss due to the collapse of immune privilege of the hair follicle and subsequent autoimmune attack. The genetic basis of AA is largely unknown. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a sample of 1,054 cases and 3,278 controls and identified 139 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are significantly associated with AA (P

  2. Squalene-containing nanostructured lipid carriers promote percutaneous absorption and hair follicle targeting of diphencyprone for treating alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Ku; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Leu, Yann-Lii; Shen, Feng-Ming; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-02-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a therapeutic agent for treating alopecia areata. To improve skin absorption and follicular targeting nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were developed. Nanoparticles were characterized by size, zeta potential, molecular environment, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In vitro and in vivo skin absorption experiments were performed. Fluorescence and confocal microscopes for imaging skin distribution were used. NLCs with different designs were 208 ~ 265 nm with  > 77% DPCP encapsulation. NLCs incorporating a cationic surfactant or more soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) showed higher lipophilicity compared to typical NLCs by Nile red emission. All NLCs tested revealed controlled DPCP release; burst release was observed for control. The formulation with more SPC provided 275 μg/g DPCP skin retention, which was greater than control and other NLCs. Intersubject deviation was reduced after DPCP loading into NLCs. Cyanoacrylate skin biopsy demonstrated greater follicular deposition for NLCs with more SPC compared to control. Cationic NLCs but not typical or SPC-containing carriers were largely internalized into keratinocytes. In vivo skin retention of NLCs with more SPC was higher than free control. Confocal imaging confirmed localization of NLCs in follicles and intercellular lipids of stratum corneum. This work encourages further investigation of DPCP absorption using NLCs with a specific formulation design.

  3. Cancer risk in patients with alopecia areata: a nationwide population-based matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Chang, Yun-Ting; Liu, Han-Nan; Chen, Yi-Ju

    2018-05-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder. Defective immune system related disorders are prone to increase the risk of cancer formation. However, the association among AA and variety of cancer types had never been studied. A nationwide population-based matched cohort study was conducted to evaluate the cancer risk in patients with AA. Records from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. Cases of AA from 1997 to 2013 and cancers registered in the catastrophic illness profile from the same time period were collected. The standard incidence ratio (SIR) of each cancer was calculated. In total, 2099 cancers among 162,499 patients with AA and without prior cancers were identified. The overall cancer risks in AA patients were slightly decreased, especially among male subjects (SIR: 0.89). Refer to individual cancer, the cancer risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (SIR: 0.59), upper GI cancer (SIR: 0.70), liver cancer (SIR: 0.82), uterine, and cervix cancer (SIR: 0.84) were significantly lower in patients with AA. In contrast, AA patients were inclined to have lymphoma, breast cancer, kidney, and urinary bladder cancer with the SIR of 1.55, 2.93, and 2.95, respectively. Age stratified analyses revealed female AA patients younger than 50 years old have even higher risk of breast cancer (SIR: 3.37). Further sensitivity analysis showed similar results after excluding major autoimmune disorders. Cancer risk in AA patients is organ specific, and it is not associated with the underlying autoimmune disorders in patients with AA. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Organ specificity in autoimmune diseases: thyroid and islet autoimmunity in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Noso, Shinsuke; Park, Choongyong; Babaya, Naru; Hiromine, Yoshihisa; Harada, Takeshi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Taketomo, Yasunori; Kanto, Kousei; Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira; Suzuki, Tamio; Kawabata, Yumiko; Ikegami, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Multiple autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmunity against the thyroid gland and pancreatic islets, are often observed in a single patient. Although alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most frequent organ-specific autoimmune diseases, the association of AA with other autoimmune diseases and the genetic basis of the association remain to be analyzed. The aim of this study was to clarify the similarities and differences in HLA and clinical characteristics of thyroid and islet autoimmunity in patients with AA. A total of 126 patients with AA were newly recruited. Anti-islet and antithyroid autoantibodies were tested, and genotypes of HLA genes were determined. Among the autoimmune diseases associated with AA, autoimmune thyroid disease was most frequent (10.0%), followed by vitiligo (2.7%) and rheumatoid arthritis (0.9%) but not type 1 diabetes (0.0%). The prevalence of thyroid-related autoantibodies in patients with AA was significantly higher than that in controls (TSH receptor antibody [TRAb]: 42.7% vs 1.2%, P = 1.6 × 10(-46); thyroid peroxidase antibody: 29.1% vs 11.6%; P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), whereas the prevalence of islet-related autoantibodies was comparable between patients with AA and control subjects. The frequency of DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02, a protective haplotype for type 1 diabetes, was significantly higher in TRAb-positive (12.8%, P = .0028, corrected P value [Pc] = .02) but not TRAb-negative (7.1%, not significant) patients with AA than in control subjects (4.5%). The frequency of DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01, a susceptible haplotype for type 1 diabetes, was significantly lower in patients with AA (TRAb-positive: 8.5%; TRAb-negative: 11.9%) than in those with type 1 diabetes (29.5%, Pc < .0003 and Pc < .0008, respectively). AA was associated with thyroid autoimmunity but not islet autoimmunity, which correlated with class II HLA haplotypes susceptible or resistant to each autoimmune disease.

  5. Association of HLA haplotype with alopecia areata in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, F-L; Ye, D-Q; Yang, S; Zhou, F-S; Zhou, S-M; Zhu, Y-G; Liang, Y-H; Ren, Y-Q; Zhang, X-J

    2006-11-01

    Some studies have shown discrepancies in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) associated with alopecia areata (AA) between different ethnic populations. To investigate whether HLA-I, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles and the HLA haplotype are associated with AA, and the correlation between the HLA haplotype profile, age of onset and severity of AA in Chinese Hans. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method was used to analyse the frequencies of HLA class I, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles in 192 patients with AA and 252 controls in Chinese Hans. The linkage disequilibrium was calculated using the 2 x 2 table. The 24 two-locus haplotypes [including A*02-B*18, A*02-B*27, A*02-B*52, A*02-Cw*0704, A*02-DQA1*0104, A*02-DQB1*0604, A*02-DQB1*0606, B*18-Cw*0704, B*18-DQA1*0104, B*18-DQA1*0302, B*18-DQB1*0606, B*27-Cw*0704, B*27-DQA1*0104, B*27-DQA1*0302, B*52-Cw*0704, B*52-DQA1*0104, B*52-DQA1*0302, B52-DQB1*0606, Cw*0704-DQA1*0104, Cw*0704-DQA1*0302, Cw*0704-DQB1*0606, DQA1*0104-DQB1*0604, DQA1*0104-DQB1*0606, DQA1*0302-DQB1*0606 (P<0.05)] were associated with AA, while eight extended haplotypes (A*02-B*18-DQA1*0104, A*02-B*27-DQA1*0104, A*02-B*52-DQA1*0104, A*02-B*52-DQA1*0302, A*02-B*52-DQB1*0606, B*52-Cw*0704-DQA1*0104, B*52-Cw*0704-DQA1*0302, A*02-B*52-DQA1*0302-DQB1*0606) were found to be related to AA in Chinese Hans. Through stratified analysis, we found that the extended haplotype B*52-Cw*0704-DQA1*0302 was related to early onset of AA, and no haplotype was only associated with severe AA. This is the first detailed report to elucidate HLA haplotypes associated with AA and that demonstrates the significant HLA haplotypes in Chinese Hans AA. The haplotype B*52-Cw*0704-DQA1*0302 was identified to be related to early onset of AA. Our results provide some information for future research on predisposing genes in HLA regions in Chinese Hans.

  6. Efficacy of fractional lasers in treating alopecia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perper, Marina; Aldahan, Adam S; Fayne, Rachel A; Emerson, Christopher P; Nouri, Keyvan

    2017-11-01

    Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. While less is known about the effectiveness of fractional lasers for combating hair loss, research suggests that by creating microscopic thermal injury zones, fractional lasers may cause an increase in hair growth from a wound healing process, making them potential therapeutic options for alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional lasers on hair regrowth. The specific fractional laser therapies include the 1550-nm nonablative fractional erbium-glass laser, the ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser, and the ablative fractional CO 2 fractional laser. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of the lasers, as well as to establish appropriate parameters and treatment intervals.

  7. T-helper 17 cytokines (interleukins 17, 21, 22, and 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in patients with alopecia areata: association with clinical type and severity.

    PubMed

    Atwa, Mona A; Youssef, Nahed; Bayoumy, Nervana M

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by T-cell infiltrates and cytokine production. T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Our aim was to assess the association of Th17 with AA. We examined interleukin (IL)-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in the serum of patients with AA and studied their association with clinical type and severity of AA. The serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-6, and TNF-α were measured in 47 patients with AA and 40 healthy controls. The clinical type of AA was determined, and the severity of hair loss was assessed in accordance with the Alopecia Areata Investigational Assessment Guideline criteria. The serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with AA as compared with healthy controls (mean: IL-17 33.23 ± 11.58 vs. 4.62 ± 1.88 pg/ml; P = 0.000, IL-21 62.10 ± 6.11 vs. 48.38 ± 3.31 pg/ml; P = 0.000, IL-22 19.27 ± 3.36 vs. 7.09 ± 1.62 pg/ml; P = 0.000, IL-6 17.18 ± 3.08 vs. 4.59 ± 1.66 pg/ml; P = 0.000, TNF-α 19.94 ± 3.59 vs. 9.95 ± 2.42 pg/ml; P = 0.000, respectively). There were significant positive correlations between serum IL-17, TNF-α, and disease severity. There was also significant positive correlation between serum IL-22 and duration of AA. Our results showed high serum levels of Th17 cytokines among patients with AA that may suggest a functional role of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of this important skin disease. It could also provide the rationale for new treatment strategies in AA. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Kombinierte Hoch-/Niedrig-Dosis-Therapie mit systemischen Glukokor-tikoiden bei schweren Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata im Kindesalter.

    PubMed

    Jahn-Bassler, Karin; Bauer, Wolfgang Michael; Karlhofer, Franz; Vossen, Matthias G; Stingl, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Schwere Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata (AA) im Kindesalter sind aufgrund limitierter Optionen therapeutisch herausfordernd. Systemische, hochdosierte Glukokortikoide weisen die schnellste Ansprechrate auf, nach dem Absetzen kommt es allerdings zu Rezidiven. Eine längerfristige Hochdosis-Anwendung ist aufgrund der zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen nicht empfehlenswert. Eine dauerhafte Steroiderhaltungstherapie unterhalb der Cushing-Schwellen-Dosis nach Bolustherapie könnte die Krankheitsaktivität ohne Nebenwirkungen längerfristig unterdrücken. Im Rahmen einer offenen Anwendungsbeobachtung wurden 13 Kinder mit schweren Formen der AA in diese Studie eingeschlossen. Bei sieben Kindern lag eine AA totalis/universalis vor, bei sechs eine multifokale AA mit Befall von mehr als 50 % der Kopfhaut. Das Therapieregime sah eine initiale Prednisolon-Dosierung von 2 mg/kg Körpergeweicht (KG) vor und wurde innerhalb von neun Wochen auf eine Erhaltungsdosierung unter der individuellen Cushing-Schwelle reduziert. Der Nachbeobachtungszeitraum betrug ein bis drei Jahre. Wir beobachteten in 62 % aller Fälle ein komplettes Nachwachsen der Haare. Die mittlere Dauer bis zum Ansprechen lag bei 6,6 Wochen und konnte mit der Erhaltungstherapie über den gesamten Beobachtungszeitraum aufrechterhalten werden. An Nebenwirkungen wurden ausschließlich eine Gewichtszunahme (1-3 kg) bei allen Behandelten sowie eine milde Steroidakne in 23 % der Fälle beobachtet. Die kombinierte Hoch-/Niedrig-Dosis-Therapie mit systemischen Glukokortikoiden mittels Prednisolon zeigte eine hohe, dauerhafte Ansprechrate ohne signifikante Nebenwirkungen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Case reports: alopecia universalis: hair growth following initiation of simvastatin and ezetimibe therapy.

    PubMed

    Robins, Douglas N

    2007-09-01

    Alopecia areata is an organ specific autoimmune disease in which hair is lost in various patterns. Its most extreme form, alopecia universalis, is the total loss of all scalp and body hair. This form of the condition is very resistant to treatment and spontaneous remission is quite rare. The following is a case of a 54-year-old male with longstanding alopecia universalis who began to grow dense hair on his scalp as well as patchy hair growth on his face, pubic and axillary areas one month after starting a course of simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg daily prescribed for his hyperlipidemia. For 2 years prior to starting the combination drug, he had taken simvastatin 40 mg alone without evidence of any hair growth. The combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe has previously demonstrated synergistic immunomodulatory effects, which most likely accounts for the clinical response in this case.

  10. Autoimmune, atopic, and mental health comorbid conditions associated with alopecia areata in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kathie P; Mullangi, Samyukta; Guo, Ye; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of comorbid conditions among patients with alopecia areata (AA) seen at tertiary care hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts, during an 11-year period. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Tertiary care hospitals in Boston, including Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. We identified 3568 individuals with AA seen in the Partners health care system in Boston between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2011. We performed comprehensive searches of the Research Patient Data Repository using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 704.01. We randomly selected 350 patients and manually reviewed their medical records to train and validate a novel artificial intelligence program. This program then used natural language processing to review free-text medical records and confirm a diagnosis of AA. To confirm the algorithm, we manually reviewed a subset of records and found 93.9% validity. The prevalence of comorbid conditions was assessed. Common comorbid conditions included autoimmune diagnoses (thyroid disease in 14.6%, diabetes mellitus in 11.1%, inflammatory bowel disease in (2.0%) [corrected], systemic lupus erythematosus in 4.3%, rheumatoid arthritis in 3.9%, and psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in (6.3%) [corrected], atopy (allergic rhinitis, asthma, and/or eczema in 38.2% and contact dermatitis and other eczema in 35.9%), and mental health problems (depression or anxiety in 25.5%). We also found high prevalences of hyperlipidemia (24.5%), hypertension (21.9%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (17.3%). This profile was different from that seen in a comparison psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis group. We found a high prevalence of comorbid conditions among individuals with AA presenting to academic medical centers in Boston. Physicians caring for patients with AA should consider screening for comorbid conditions.

  11. Randomized Comparison of Topical Betamethasone Valerate Foam, Intralesional Triamcinolone Acetonide and Tacrolimus Ointment in Management of Localized Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Kuldeep, CM; Singhal, Himanshu; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Mittal, Asit; Gupta, Lalit K; Garg, Anubhav

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring, patchy loss of hair at scalp and elsewhere. Its pathogenesis is uncertain; however, auto-immunity has been exemplified in various studies. Familial incidence of AA is 10-42%, but in monozygotic twins is 50%. Local steroids (topical / intra-lesional) are very effective in treatment of localized AA. Aim: To compare hair regrowth and side effects of topical betamethasone valerate foam, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and tacrolimus ointment in management of localized AA. Materials and Methods: 105 patients of localized AA were initially registered but 27 were drop out. So, 78 patients allocated at random in group A (28), B (25) and C (25) were prescribed topical betamethasone valerate foam (0.1%) twice daily, intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/ml) every 3 weeks and tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) twice daily, respectively, for 12 weeks. They were followed for next12 weeks. Hair re-growth was calculated using “HRG Scale”; scale I- (0-25%), S II-(26-50%), S III - (51-75%) and S IV- (75-100%). Results: Hair re-growth started by 3 weeks in group B (Scale I: P<0.03), turned satisfactory at 6 weeks in group A and B (Scale I: P<0.005, Scale IV: P<0.001)), good at 9 weeks (Scale I: P<0.0005, Scale IV: P<0.00015), and better by 12 weeks of treatment (Scale I: P<0.000021, Scale IV: P<0.000009) in both A and B groups. At the end of 12 weeks follow-up hair re-growth (>75%, HRG IV) was the best in group B (15 of 25, 60%), followed by A (15 of 28, 53.6%) and lastly group-C (Nil of 25, 0%) patients. Few patients reported mild pain and atrophy at injection sites, pruritus and burning with betamethasone valerate foam and tacrolimus. Conclusion: Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide is the best, betamethasone valerate foam is better than tacrolimus in management of localized AA. PMID:21769231

  12. Vitiligo and alopecia areata associated with subclinical/clinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N

    2011-01-01

    /dL (86-186); total thyroxine (T4), 6.54 microg/dL (4.5-12.5 microg/dL); and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 0.32 microIU/mL (0.3-5.6 microIU/mL), supplemented by antithyroid microsomal peroxidase antibodies (thyroid microsomal antibody and thyroid peroxidase), 21.9 IU/mL (1-40 IU/mL), and antithyroglobulin antibodies, 78.1 U/mL (1-100 U/mL). During the patient's treatment period, 4 other patients with clinical symptoms and signs of long-standing hypothyroidism developed vitiligo, the duration of which was variable in each patient (Table I). All of the patients were taking thyroxin. Thyroid and lipid profiles were performed periodically to evaluate the progress (Table I). These patients were also treated with PUVA therapy and thyroxin. During the course of treatment, 2 of the patients noticed asymptomatic, progressive, localized, and well-circumscribed hair loss at the temporal region of the scalp that extended to involve the vertex, conforming to findings of alopecia areata (Figure 2A and Figure 2B).

  13. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Drug discovery for alopecia: gone today, hair tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Santos, Zenildo; Avci, Pinar; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss or alopecia affects the majority of the population at some time in their life, and increasingly, sufferers are demanding treatment. Three main types of alopecia (androgenic [AGA], areata [AA] and chemotherapy-induced [CIA]) are very different, and have their own laboratory models and separate drug-discovery efforts. In this article, the authors review the biology of hair, hair follicle (HF) cycling, stem cells and signaling pathways. AGA, due to dihydrotesterone, is treated by 5-α reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers and ATP-sensitive potassium channel-openers. AA, which involves attack by CD8(+)NK group 2D-positive (NKG2D(+)) T cells, is treated with immunosuppressives, biologics and JAK inhibitors. Meanwhile, CIA is treated by apoptosis inhibitors, cytokines and topical immunotherapy. The desire to treat alopecia with an easy topical preparation is expected to grow with time, particularly with an increasing aging population. The discovery of epidermal stem cells in the HF has given new life to the search for a cure for baldness. Drug discovery efforts are being increasingly centered on these stem cells, boosting the hair cycle and reversing miniaturization of HF. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune attack in AA will yield new drugs. New discoveries in HF neogenesis and low-level light therapy will undoubtedly have a role to play.

  15. Drug discovery for alopecia: gone today, hair tomorrow

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Zenildo; Avci, Pinar; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hair loss or alopecia affects the majority of the population at some time in their life, and increasingly, sufferers are demanding treatment. Three main types of alopecia (androgenic [AGA], areata [AA] and chemotherapy-induced [CIA]) are very different, and have their own laboratory models and separate drug-discovery efforts. Areas covered In this article, the authors review the biology of hair, hair follicle (HF) cycling, stem cells and signaling pathways. AGA, due to dihydrotesterone, is treated by 5-α reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers and ATP-sensitive potassium channel-openers. AA, which involves attack by CD8+NK group 2D-positive (NKG2D+) T cells, is treated with immunosuppressives, biologics and JAK inhibitors. Meanwhile, CIA is treated by apoptosis inhibitors, cytokines and topical immunotherapy. Expert opinion The desire to treat alopecia with an easy topical preparation is expected to grow with time, particularly with an increasing aging population. The discovery of epidermal stem cells in the HF has given new life to the search for a cure for baldness. Drug discovery efforts are being increasingly centered on these stem cells, boosting the hair cycle and reversing miniaturization of HF. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune attack in AA will yield new drugs. New discoveries in HF neogenesis and low-level light therapy will undoubtedly have a role to play. PMID:25662177

  16. Permanent alopecia in patients with breast cancer after taxane chemotherapy and adjuvant hormonal therapy: Clinicopathologic findings in a cohort of 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Fonia, Athina; Cota, Carlo; Setterfield, Jane F; Goldberg, Lynne J; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2017-05-01

    Anagen effluvium with reversible scalp alopecia is a known side effect of chemotherapy. However, there are an increasing number of reports in the literature documenting permanent alopecia in patients treated with taxanes. We sought to describe the clinicopathologic features in breast cancer patients who underwent treatment with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. We reviewed the clinical and histopathologic information of a cohort of 10 patients treated with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. We have observed 3 types of clinical patterns of alopecia (types A, B, and C), and have validated the histopathologic features showing alopecia areata-like and female pattern hair loss. The study was based on a small sample size and retrospective retrieval of clinical information and histopathologic review of posttreatment slides. We hypothesize a clinicopathologic model of hair follicle cycle disruption in response to the chemoinflammatory and hormonal insults to the hair follicles resulting in permanent alopecia. Clinicopathologic correlation is paramount to the understanding of the morphobiologic pathways in chemotherapy-induced alopecia caused by taxanes and adjuvant hormonal treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detailed clinicopathological characterization of progressive alopecia areata patients treated with i.v. corticosteroid pulse therapy toward optimization of inclusion criteria.

    PubMed

    Sato, Misato; Amagai, Masayuki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2014-11-01

    The management of progressive alopecia areata (AA) is often challenging. Recently, i.v. corticosteroid pulse therapy has been reported to be effective for acute and severe AA, however, inclusion criteria have not been sufficiently precise, leaving a chance that its efficacy could be further improved by optimizing therapeutic indications. In our attempts to delineate the factors that correlate with favorable outcomes, we minutely evaluated the clinicopathological findings and the prognoses of single-round steroid pulse-treated progressive AA cases with full sets of image and pathology records during the course. Almost complete hair regrowth has been achieved and maintained up to 2 years in five out of seven AA patients with varying degrees of clinical severity. Interestingly, the worst clinical presentation observed during the course correlated with the size of the area where hairs with dystrophic roots were pulled rather than the extent of visible hair loss on the first visit. Dermoscopy detected disease spread but contributed little in assessing prognoses. Dense perifollicular cell infiltration was detected in all cases treated within 4 weeks of onset and those treated later but with excellent response. Importantly, the cases with poor or incomplete hair regrowth were treated 6-8 weeks of onset and showed moderate inflammatory change with high telogen conversion rate. These findings mandate global dermoscopy and hair pull test for judging the treatment indication and suggest that early administration of high-dose corticosteroid, ideally within 4 weeks of onset, enable efficient suppression of active inflammation and maximize the effectiveness of the remedy. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. The -2T/C polymorphism in the adrenocorticotropin receptor gene affects stress perception of patients with alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong-Wei; Guo, Hong; Li, Ke-Shen; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Shao-Yan; Liu, Bao-Heng; Hao, Fei; Bai, Yun

    2013-04-01

    Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response involved in the pathogenesis of stress-associated alopecia areata (AA) has been reported. A novel polymorphism -2T>C of the adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTHR) can result in an insufficient HPA response to stress; therefore, the functional polymorphism may underlie a role in stress-associated AA. To investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and the risk of developing AA and to detect the association between the -2T>C polymorphism of ACTHR and AA. Stressful situations were evaluated using Holmes and Rahe's social readjustment rating scale. The ACTHR -2T>C polymorphism was examined in 263 patients with AA and 241 controls. Significant elevation of psychological stress experienced by some patients with AA compared with controls (Z = 6.628, P < 0.01). The frequency of the ACTHR C allele showed a significant difference between patients with AA and controls (P = 0.004). Allele C is the risk allele with a dominant model as the -2C allele occurred more often in patients with AA (P = 0.001). There were significant differences between patients with AA with a severe stress attack versus patients with AA with no obvious stress (P < 0.001), whereas the genotype frequencies were not correlated with the type, duration of disease, and age at onset. Notably, the C allele carrier was significantly associated with stress risk in both AA and controls (P = 0.002, OR = 1.576, 95% CI: 1.148-2.162; P = 0.042, OR = 1.529, 95% CI: 1.022-2.288). These findings suggest AA in some patients may be associated with stress. The ACTHR gene -2T>C variant may be one important factor that influences stress perception of patients with AA. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Use of low-level laser therapy in treatment of the androgenic alopecia, the first systematic review.

    PubMed

    Najem, Ibrahim; Chen, Hongxiang

    2017-12-11

    Alopecia is a common disease affecting more than half of the world total number of people. Alopecia exists in different types, but one of the most common of these types is the Androgenic Alopecia which has affected approximately 51% of the total number of males ranging between the age bracket of 40 years and 75 years. This type of alopecia is more common in females who are above the age of 65 years and above. Despite this widespread effect, much has not been done regarding identifying the possible drugs for treating this disease. At present, there exist only two possible medications that have been scientifically approved to cure this disease, include finasteride and minoxidil. Also, another possible form of treatment has been the case of hair transplantation. Despite the new possible treatment options available for treatment of different types of hair loss, there is a need for the invention for more efficient management and treatment options that are less costly, environmentally friendly, and most importantly human consumption friendly. Due to the recent evaluation that low-level laser therapy stimulated hair growth. This systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether the use of low-level laser therapy is an effective therapy for treatment of the Androgenic alopecia and also to some degree we reviewed the level of the patient's satisfaction. Some earlier studies had shown that the use of low-level laser therapy stimulated the hair growth when mice were treated with chemotherapy which was induced by the alopecia and also the other type of alopecia called alopecia areata. The researchers hypothesized that the primary mechanism of treating Androgenic alopecia to be the stimulation of the epidermal stem cells which are in the hair follicle making them bulge and shift the follicles into the anagen phase.

  20. Low-level laser treatment accelerated hair regrowth in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA).

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Villasante, Alexandra C; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Perez, Carmen I; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2013-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy for which there is no effective interventional approach. A low-level laser (LLL) device, the HairMax LaserComb®, has been cleared by the FDA to treat androgenetic alopecia. Its effects may be extended to other settings; we have demonstrated that LaserComb treatment induced hair regrowth in a mouse model for alopecia areata. In the current study, we tested whether LLL treatment could promote hair regrowth in a rat model for CIA. Chemotherapy agents cyclophosphamide, etoposide, or a combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin were administered in young rats to induce alopecia, with or without LLL treatment. As expected, 7-10 days later, all the rats developed full body alopecia. However, rats receiving laser treatment regrew hair 5 days earlier than rats receiving chemotherapy alone or sham laser treatment (with the laser turned off). The accelerated hair regrowth in laser-treated rats was confirmed by histology. In addition, LLL treatment did not provide local protection to subcutaneously injected Shay chloroleukemic cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that LLL treatment significantly accelerated hair regrowth after CIA without compromising the efficacy of chemotherapy in our rat model. Our results suggest that LLL should be explored for the treatment of CIA in clinical trials because LLL devices for home use (such as the HairMax LaserComb®) provide a user-friendly and noninvasive approach that could be translated to increased patient compliance and improved efficacy.

  1. Promising alternative clinical uses of prostaglandin F2α analogs: beyond the eyelashes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young M; Diehl, Joseph; Levins, Paul C

    2015-04-01

    Prostaglandin F2α analogs, commonly prescribed for glaucoma treatment, have been shown to induce side effects such as cutaneous hypertrichosis and hyperpigmentation. Therefore, these medications have theoretic applications in the treatment of alopecia and disorders of hypopigmentation. We reviewed the literature to find original studies assessing the use of prostaglandin F2α analogs in these settings. Studies and reports were analyzed in regards to androgenic alopecia, alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, vitiligo, and hypopigmented scarring. Based on the results of these studies, and consideration of pathophysiologic mechanism, the most promising applications for prostaglandin F2α analogs include androgenic alopecia, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, and alopecia areata concurrently treated with corticosteroids. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kerry; White, Caroline; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence. Design A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media. Participants Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of alopecia, aged 13 or above and sufficient English to complete the survey. Exclusion criteria included experiencing hair loss as a result of chemotherapy treatment or psychological disorder. Participants (n=338) were predominantly female (97.3%), Caucasian (93.5%) and aged between 35 and 54 years (49.4%) with a diagnosis of alopecia areata (82.6%). Main outcome measures The Social Phobia Inventory measured symptoms of social anxiety, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression. Survey questions were designed to measure the use of wigs. Open-ended questions enabled participants to comment on their experiences of wearing wigs. Results Clinically significant levels of social anxiety (47.5%), anxiety (35.5%) and depression (29%) were reported. Participants who reported worries about not wearing a wig reported significantly higher levels of depression: t(103)=3.40, p≤0.001; anxiety: t(109)=4.80, p≤0.001; and social anxiety: t(294)=3.89, p≤0.001. Wearing wigs was reported as increasing social confidence; however, the concealment it afforded was also reported as both reducing fear of negative evaluation and maintaining anxiety. Discussion Overall, 46% of participants reported that wearing a wig had a positive impact on their everyday life with negative experiences related to fears of the wig being noticed. Psychological interventions alongside wig provision would be beneficial for people living with alopecia. PMID:28473521

  3. [Psychological approach to different skin diseases: life events and tendency to complain].

    PubMed

    Tordeurs, D; Poot, F; Janne, P; Reynaert, C; Salamon, V

    2001-01-01

    For nearly two decades, dermatology has associated with psychology to find a better way to care for dermatology conditions. A scientific trend called psychosomatics is creating a link between dermatology and psychology. The purpose of this article was to examine two concepts closely linked to psychodermatology (life events and tendency to complain) and to emphasize the difference between factors playing a role in the onset of certain skin diseases (psoriasis, alopecia areata, benign tumors, eczema). We found that psoriasis patients have a greater tendency to complain than people with the other disease. This point to the importance of taking emotions into account when studying psoriasis. We also found that life events play a role in the onset of psoriasis and alopecia areata. Moreover, these events were anterior by more than 12 months in alopecia patients. We propose exploring emotions in psoriasis patients and life events over the prior year in alopecia areata patients.

  4. Development of Alopecia Areata Is Associated with Higher Central and Peripheral Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Tone in the Skin Graft Induced C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingqi; Yu, Mei; Yu, Wayne; Weinberg, Joanne; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of the stress response to the pathogenesis of alopecia areata (AA) was investigated by subjecting normal and skin graft-induced, AA-affected C3H/HeJ mice to light ether anesthesia or restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and estradiol (E2) levels were determined by RIA, whereas gene expression in brains, lymphoid organs, and skin was measured by quantitative RT-PCR for corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), arginine vasopressin (Avp), proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1), mineralo corticoid receptor (Nr3c2), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor types 1 and 2 (Crhr1, Crhr2), interleukin-12 (Il12), tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfα), and estrogen receptors type-1 (Esr1) and type-2 (Esr2). AA mice had a marked increase in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) tone and activity centrally, and peripherally in the skin and lymph nodes. There was also altered interaction between the adrenal and gonadal axes compared with that in normal mice. Stress further exacerbated changes in AA mouse HPA activity both centrally and peripherally. AA mice had significantly blunted CORT and ACTH responses to acute ether stress (physiological stressor) and a deficit in habituation to repeated restraint stress (psychological stressor). The positive correlation of HPA hormone levels with skin Th1 cytokines suggests that altered HPA activity may occur as a consequence of the immune response associated with AA. PMID:19020552

  5. Female-patterned alopecia in teenage brothers with unusual histologic features.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J Andrew; Malysz, Jozef; Schwartz, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Patterned hair loss, follicular miniaturization, and increased telogen hair counts characterize androgenic alopecia (AGA). Follicular inflammation in AGA has been associated with treatment resistance and progressive hair loss. Brothers, 15 and 18 years old, presented with frontal and mid-scalp hair loss with an intact frontal hairline noted over a 1-year period. The elder reported past use of androgenic steroids. Laboratory assessment for metabolic and hormonal abnormalities was unrevealing, and hair pull test was negative. Scalp biopsies revealed decreased terminal hairs, marked diameter variation of anagen hairs, decreased terminal to vellus hair ratios (3.7:1/3.4:1, older/younger), and increased telogen counts (23%/21%). Infrabulbar and peri-isthmic (follicular bulge region) lymphocytic infiltrates were present. Hair loss has progressed, unabated by daily topical 0.5% clobetasol (for 6 months), daily 5% minoxidil (1 year), and latter, daily oral finasteride (2 years - older brother only). Based on patterned hair loss and miniaturized hairs, these brothers have AGA. The female pattern of hair loss (diffuse hair loss affecting the central scalp with preservation of frontal hair line) coupled with follicular isthmic lymphocytic inflammation represents an unusual presentation, possibly a treatment resistant, inflammatory variant of AGA. The differential diagnosis includes exogenous androgen-mediated hair loss, cicatricial pattern hair loss, or the superimposition of alopecia areata.

  6. Abnormal Interactions between Perifollicular Mast Cells and CD8+ T-Cells May Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Marta; Zilio, Federica; Rossi, Alfredo; Gilhar, Amos; Keren, Aviad; Meyer, Katja C.; Wang, Eddy; Funk, Wolfgang; McElwee, Kevin; Paus, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a CD8+ T-cell dependent autoimmune disease of the hair follicle (HF) in which the collapse of HF immune privilege (IP) plays a key role. Mast cells (MCs) are crucial immunomodulatory cells implicated in the regulation of T cell-dependent immunity, IP, and hair growth. Therefore, we explored the role of MCs in AA pathogenesis, focusing on MC interactions with CD8+ T-cells in vivo, in both human and mouse skin with AA lesions. Quantitative (immuno-)histomorphometry revealed that the number, degranulation and proliferation of perifollicular MCs are significantly increased in human AA lesions compared to healthy or non-lesional control skin, most prominently in subacute AA. In AA patients, perifollicular MCs showed decreased TGFβ1 and IL-10 but increased tryptase immunoreactivity, suggesting that MCs switch from an immuno-inhibitory to a pro-inflammatory phenotype. This concept was supported by a decreased number of IL-10+ and PD-L1+ MCs, while OX40L+, CD30L+, 4–1BBL+ or ICAM-1+ MCs were increased in AA. Lesional AA-HFs also displayed significantly more peri- and intrafollicular- CD8+ T-cells as well as more physical MC/CD8+ T-cell contacts than healthy or non-lesional human control skin. During the interaction with CD8+ T-cells, AA MCs prominently expressed MHC class I and OX40L, and sometimes 4–1BBL or ICAM-1, suggesting that MC may present autoantigens to CD8+ T-cells and/or co-stimulatory signals. Abnormal MC numbers, activities, and interactions with CD8+ T-cells were also seen in the grafted C3H/HeJ mouse model of AA and in a new humanized mouse model for AA. These phenomenological in vivo data suggest the novel AA pathobiology concept that perifollicular MCs are skewed towards pro-inflammatory activities that facilitate cross-talk with CD8+ T-cells in this disease, thus contributing to triggering HF-IP collapse in AA. If confirmed, MCs and their CD8+ T-cell interactions could become a promising new therapeutic target in the future

  7. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kerry; White, Caroline; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-05-04

    This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence. A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of alopecia, aged 13 or above and sufficient English to complete the survey. Exclusion criteria included experiencing hair loss as a result of chemotherapy treatment or psychological disorder. Participants (n=338) were predominantly female (97.3%), Caucasian (93.5%) and aged between 35 and 54 years (49.4%) with a diagnosis of alopecia areata (82.6%). The Social Phobia Inventory measured symptoms of social anxiety, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression. Survey questions were designed to measure the use of wigs. Open-ended questions enabled participants to comment on their experiences of wearing wigs. Clinically significant levels of social anxiety (47.5%), anxiety (35.5%) and depression (29%) were reported. Participants who reported worries about not wearing a wig reported significantly higher levels of depression: t(103)=3.40, p≤0.001; anxiety: t(109)=4.80, p≤0.001; and social anxiety: t(294)=3.89, p≤0.001. Wearing wigs was reported as increasing social confidence; however, the concealment it afforded was also reported as both reducing fear of negative evaluation and maintaining anxiety. Overall, 46% of participants reported that wearing a wig had a positive impact on their everyday life with negative experiences related to fears of the wig being noticed. Psychological interventions alongside wig provision would be beneficial for people living with alopecia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  8. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Histologic features of alopecias-part I: nonscarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the first part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of nonscarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Vertical vs. transverse sections of scalp biopsy specimens: a pilot study on the comparison of the diagnostic value of two techniques in alopecia.

    PubMed

    Özcan, D; Özen, Ö; Seçkin, D

    2011-12-01

    Using both vertical and transverse sections is preferred for histopathological diagnosis of alopecia. However, in cases in which only a single biopsy is taken, it is not clear which type of sectioning is better. To compare the diagnostic value of transverse and vertical sections. In total, 53 patients with alopecia were enrolled in the study. Two biopsies were taken from each patient, and cut into either transverse or vertical sections. The clinical and histopathological findings were evaluated together for the definitive diagnosis. After the study period, a pathologist randomly re-evaluated the sections. We compared the histopathological diagnoses with the definitive diagnoses, and determined the sensitivity and specificity of each method. A definitive diagnosis was made for 47 patients (88.7%). Of these, 30 (63.8%) had noncicatricial and 17 (36.2%) had cicatricial alopecia, and the diagnosis was made by transverse and vertical sections for 43 (91.5%) and 39 (88%), respectively (P > 0.05; sensitivity; 91.5% vs. 82%). All 30 patients with noncicatricial alopecia were diagnosed by transverse sections, and 25 (83.3%) of the 30 were diagnosed with vertical sections (P = 0.05; sensitivity 100% vs. 83.3%). Of the 17 patients with cicatricial alopecia, 13 (76.5%) and 14 (82.4%) patients were diagnosed by transverse and vertical sections, respectively (P > 0.05; sensitivity 76.5% vs. 82.4%). Five patients with lichen planopilaris were diagnosed by vertical sections, and one by transverse sections. There were several limitations to the study: (i) statistical subtype analysis could be performed only for alopecia areata; (ii) no conclusion could be drawn about the interobserver reliability of two sections; and (iii) having the pathologist-blinded study performed retrospectively might have caused a recall bias. If only a single biopsy specimen is available, it may be preferable to have transverse sections in cases of suspected noncicatricial alopecia, and vertical sections in

  11. Alopecia secondary to mesotherapy.

    PubMed

    Duque-Estrada, Bruna; Vincenzi, Colombina; Misciali, Cosimo; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-10-01

    Mesotherapy has recently become an advertised method for the treatment of different types of alopecia despite the lack of any data regarding its efficacy and possible side effects. The substances injected into the scalp include "cocktails" of natural plant extracts, homoeopathic agents, vitamins, vasodilators, and drugs that may stimulate hair growth, such as finasteride and minoxidil. We report two cases of patchy alopecia that developed after mesotherapy for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. In the first patient, alopecia developed after injections of the heparinoid vasodilator mesoglycan; the 3-month follow-up examination revealed a small residual area of cicatricial alopecia. The second patient developed reversible alopecia after multiple scalp injections of homeopathic agents. These cases underline the possible risks of mesotherapy as a therapeutic technique for hair loss.

  12. Three hundred and eight nanometer excimer light therapy for alopecia universalis that is resistant to other treatments: A clinical study of 11 patients.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yukiyasu; Nomiyama, Tomoko; Katoh, Norito

    2016-12-01

    Three hundred and eight nanometer excimer light therapy has recently been reported to be effective against patchy alopecia areata (AA) in several clinical studies. However, these studies only included a few patients with severe forms of AA, and all of them exhibited poor outcomes. We further investigated the use of excimer light as a therapeutic option for cases of alopecia universalis (AU) that are resistant to other treatments. Eleven treatment-resistant AU patients were treated with a 308-nm excimer light at 2-week intervals for more than 16 sessions. Four patients achieved good responses and two patients exhibited poor responses. Three patients had Japanese skin type 1 and all of them achieved good responses. The radiation dose was increased until the patients exhibited marked erythema. The patients with Japanese skin type 3 who achieved good responses exhibited strong pigmentation at the irradiated sites. In conclusion, 308-nm excimer light therapy has significant effects on some AU patients who are resistant to other treatments and may be an alternative therapeutic option for AU. During the treatment of AU, high doses of radiation should be administrated until a strong inflammatory skin reaction is seen. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Tofacitinib, an Oral Janus Kinase Inhibitor: Perspectives in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Kostovic, Kresimir; Gulin, Sandra J; Mokos, Zrinka B; Ceovic, Romana

    2017-05-31

    Tofacitinib (formerly known as CP-690,550, CP690550, tasocitinib), a novel selective immunosuppressant, is a small molecule classified as Janus kinase inhibitor. The aim of this review article is to present updated data summary on the tofacitinib in the field of dermatology. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed scientific articles, including review articles, original research articles as well as case report articles based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Technical reports on tofacitinib from U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medical Agency were also included. Forty-three papers were included in this review. We report current data on tofacitinib chemical properties, pharmacology, non-clinical toxicity, as well as efficacy and safety in potential new indications in dermatology: psoriasis, alopecia areata, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis and nail dystrophy associated with alopecia areata. JAK/STAT pathway has an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, and vitiligo. Despite encouraging efficacy, due to concerns about the overall safety profile of tofacitinib, additional studies will have to determine the adequate risk-to-benefit ratio. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Occipital alopecia following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Lwason, N W; Mills, N L; Ochsner, J L

    1976-03-01

    Postoperative alopecia is a minor complication of surgery but a cosmetic disaster to the patient. Over a 3 year period, 60 cases of occipital alopecia were discovered in patients following open-heart surgery and 5 cases on other surgical services. In contrast to previous reports, 29 patients had alopecia one year later, presumed to be permanent. Extensive operations, with prolonged recovery and elective overnight mechanical ventilation, were common to all. Retrospective analysis and prospective studies clearly demonstrated that localized scalp pressure was the cause of the alopecia and that the duration of pressure determined the extent of the damage. Moving the patient's head at regular intervals during operation and recovery eliminated the alopecia. The type of head rest used did not modify the development of alopecia. Electrical injury and the use of heparin, hypothermia, electrocautery, or hypotension were eliminated as possible causes. Conclusive evidence correlating periperative events with the formation of pressure sores in man has not been previously reported.

  15. A new technique for quantitative analysis of hair loss in mice using grayscale analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Gulati, Rohan; Gensure, Robert

    2015-03-09

    Alopecia is a common form of hair loss which can occur in many different conditions, including male-pattern hair loss, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and alopecia areata. Alopecia can also occur as a side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. In this study, our goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method to quantify hair loss in mice, which will allow investigators to accurately assess and compare new therapeutic approaches for these various forms of alopecia. The method utilizes a standard gel imager to obtain and process images of mice, measuring the light absorption, which occurs in rough proportion to the amount of black (or gray) hair on the mouse. Data that has been quantified in this fashion can then be analyzed using standard statistical techniques (i.e., ANOVA, T-test). This methodology was tested in mouse models of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, alopecia areata and alopecia from waxing. In this report, the detailed protocol is presented for performing these measurements, including validation data from C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ strains of mice. This new technique offers a number of advantages, including relative simplicity of application, reliance on equipment which is readily available in most research laboratories, and applying an objective, quantitative assessment which is more robust than subjective evaluations. Improvements in quantification of hair growth in mice will improve study of alopecia models and facilitate evaluation of promising new therapies in preclinical studies.

  16. Stem Cell Markers (Cytokeratin 17 and Cytokeratin 19) in Scarring and Nonscarring Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    El Sakka, Dalia; Gaber, Mohamed Abdel Wahed; Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Wahed, Moshira Abdel; Saleh, Ahmed Abdel-Wahab; Shehata, Walla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alopecia is one of the most important hair follicle (HF) disorders, which is divided into scarring (cicatricial) and nonscarring (noncicatricial) types. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of stem cell (SC) markers such as cytokeratin (CK) 17 and CK19 in scarring and nonscarring alopecia. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with scalp alopecia (15 with scarring alopecia and 15 without) together with ten healthy volunteers were included in this study. Biopsies were taken from all participants and stained for CK17 and CK19 using immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the nonscarring group and the control group with regard to CK17 expression in the outer layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) and CK19 staining of the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.008). There was a statistically significant difference between the scarring and the control groups regarding CK17 expression in the outer (P = 0.00) and the inner layers (P = 0.00) of the HFs and CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00). CK17 expression in the outer layers (P = 0.02) and the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) together with CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) showed statistically significant differences between scarring and nonscarring alopecia groups. Conclusions: The presence of SC markers (CK17 and CK19) in the HFs was affected in both scarring and nonscarring alopecia, but the defect in scarring alopecia is more evident than that of nonscarring alopecia. The persistence of SC markers in some types of scarring alopecia could give a hope for the recovery of these lesions. Further studies are recommended to clarify the benefit from using HF SCs in the treatment of alopecia. PMID:27761086

  17. What Is Alopecia Areata?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sun and dust , when eyebrows or eyelashes are missing. Wear wigs, hats, or scarves to protect your ... help keep germs out if nostril hair is missing. Reduce the disease’s effects on your looks. Try ...

  18. An Overview of Alopecias

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ji; Garza, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss is a topic of enormous public interest and understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of various alopecias will likely make a large impact on patients’ lives. The investigation of alopecias also provides important insight in the basic sciences; for instance, the abundance of stem cell populations and regenerative cycles that characterize a hair follicle render it an excellent model for the study of stem cell biology. This review seeks to provide a concise summary of the major alopecias with regard to presentation and management, and correlate these to recent advances in relevant research on pathogenesis. PMID:24591533

  19. Prevalence of skin diseases in civilian and military population in a Turkish military hospital in the central Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Şenel, Engin; Doğruer Şenel, S; Salmanoğlu, M

    2015-06-01

    There are no epidemiological studies comparing the prevalence of skin diseases between civilian and military populations. We sought to determine and compare the prevalence of skin conditions between civilian and military populations. A total of 3382 male patients (1148 military and 2234 civilian) were retrospectively and consecutively evaluated at Merzifon Military Hospital in the central Black Sea Region of Turkey. The most frequent dermatological condition was tinea pedis (15.8%) followed by acne vulgaris, allergic contact dermatitis and alopecia areata in the military population (15.7%, 7.7% and 5.4%, respectively). Acne vulgaris, xerosis cutis and allergic contact dermatitis were the most common diagnoses in the civilian group (19.4%, 14.1% and 9.1%, respectively). The prevalence of tinea pedis, alopecia areata, pityriasis versicolor, ingrown nail (unguis incarnatus) and callus were statistically significantly higher in the military group (15.8% vs 4.4%, p<0.001; 5.4% vs 1.7%, p<0.05; 3.5% vs 0.7%, p<0.001; 3.3% vs 0.3%, p<0.001 and 4.6% vs 0.9%, p<0.001; respectively). Xerosis cutis was found to be significantly higher in the civilian group (14.1% vs 5.8%, p<0.001). Superficial fungal disease was the most prevalent disorder as in the previous literature. Preventive measures should be taken to improve the health of troops and reduce the prevalence of the common disorders such as tinea pedis, alopecia areata and callus. Troops should wear boots only when necessary in base camps. Clothing which reduces ventilation is not recommended. Depression and anxiety should be recognised and treated in soldiers with alopecia areata, as a solely dermatological approach without psychological support may reduce treatment success. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Symptoms Alopecia areata (Al-uh-PEE-shuh AR-ee-AYT-uh) The immune system attacks hair ... spine is involved. Rheumatoid arthritis (ROO-muh-toid ar-THREYE-tuhss) A disease in which the immune ...

  1. How to Reach Emotions with Psychosomatic Patients: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Colaianni, Gwenaëlle; Poot, Francoise

    2016-08-23

    Alopecia areata (patchy hairloss) often indicates to the dermatologist the existence of psychological disorders, mostly anxiety and depression. Psychosomatic conditions are usually associated with difficulty in expressing emotions, as is the case in alexithymia, and this difficulty is often seen in patients with alopecia areata. This case study aims to show how to help these patients connect with their emotions and how the somatic symptom can become meaningful by using a unifying approach, which challenges the beliefs, the rules and the interactions of both the individual and the family, as well as the emotions expressed or suppressed. In this particular case we used a systemic family therapy tool, "the family blazon" that helped to discover the unconscious myth of unity and the fear of family disaggregation that is involved in psychosomatic families.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive primary microcephaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... microcephaly (MCPH): a review of clinical, molecular, and evolutionary findings. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 May;76( ... genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Alopecia areata ...

  3. Primary Cicatricial Alopecias: A Review of Histopathologic Findings in 38 Patients from a Clinical University Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moure, Emanuella Rosyane Duarte; Romiti, Ricardo; Machado, Maria Cecília da Matta Rivitti; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Scarring alopecias are classified into primary and secondary types according to the initial site of inflammation. In primary scarring alopecias, the hair follicle is the main target of destruction; the term secondary cicatricial alopecia implies that follicular destruction is not the primary pathologic event. AIMS To review the histopathologic diagnoses of cases of cicatricial alopecia in order to classify them according to the North American Hair Research Society. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with biopsy specimens diagnosed as cicatricial alopecia seen from 2000 to 2005 at the Dermatologic Department of Hospital das Clinicas, São Paulo University Medical School had hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stained slides reevaluated and sub-typed into different primary cicatricial alopecias. RESULTS Thirty-eight cases of primary cicatricial alopecias were reclassified as: chronic cutaneous lupus (17), lichen planus pilaris (4), pseudopelade of Brocq (12), folliculitis decalvans (3), dissecting folliculitis (1), and non-specific scarring alopecia (1). In our cases, the methods employed allowed an accurate diagnosis in 12 of 13 cases (92.3%) previously classified as non-specific cicatricial alopecias. CONCLUSIONS Even in the late, pauci or non-inflammatory phases, an approach with systematic evaluation of a constellation of criteria in routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stain allowed for a more accurate diagnosis of cicatricial alopecias. PMID:19060995

  4. Hair diseases: a big problem on a small surface

    PubMed Central

    Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    Civilizational progress initially contributes to the problem of hair loss and then to alopecia as regards both frequency and therapeutic dilemmas. The work presents trichological problems which occur more rarely, i.e. drug-induced, anagen and telogen alopecia, congenital and acquired structural hair disorders, psychic disturbances concerning the hair as well as the hair during menopause. Then, the article briefly describes contagious (infectious) diseases as well as diseases with inflammatory etiology which are accompanied by exfoliation and (frequently) pruritus. Finally, alopecia cicatricans is discussed. Alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia are omitted herein because they occur more often and will be described in another work. Any disproportions and upset balance concerning correct functioning of mechanisms within the scalp hair system are the evidence of pathologies. PMID:27881935

  5. Hair diseases: a big problem on a small surface.

    PubMed

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia A; Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Civilizational progress initially contributes to the problem of hair loss and then to alopecia as regards both frequency and therapeutic dilemmas. The work presents trichological problems which occur more rarely, i.e. drug-induced, anagen and telogen alopecia, congenital and acquired structural hair disorders, psychic disturbances concerning the hair as well as the hair during menopause. Then, the article briefly describes contagious (infectious) diseases as well as diseases with inflammatory etiology which are accompanied by exfoliation and (frequently) pruritus. Finally, alopecia cicatricans is discussed. Alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia are omitted herein because they occur more often and will be described in another work. Any disproportions and upset balance concerning correct functioning of mechanisms within the scalp hair system are the evidence of pathologies.

  6. Dermal Titanium Dioxide Deposition Associated With Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Cole, Christine; Abraham, Jerrold L; Ragsdale, Bruce; Ngo, Binh

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous discoloration secondary to dermal deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles is recognized but seldom reported in the literature. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 61-year-old gentleman, with a long history of alopecia areata, who presented with numerous, discrete dark blue macules on the scalp. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis ultimately identified the macules as deposits of TiO2. The patient had a history of intralesional triamcinolone injections for management of alopecia areata. A sample of generic 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide paste was analyzed and found to contain many TiO2 particles analogous to those seen in the patient's biopsy sample. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of TiO2 deposition in the dermis likely resulting from topical combined with intralesional triamcinolone injection.

  7. Yellow dots in trichoscopy: relevance, clinical significance and peculiarities*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Caren dos Santos; Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Yellow dots are follicular ostium filled with keratin and/or sebum. Initially, they were exclusively associated with alopecia areata. Currently they have also been described in androgenetic alopecia, chronic cutaneous (discoid) lupus erythematosus, and dissecting cellulitis. Due to the growing importance of trichoscopy and its findings in the evaluation of the scalp, this article describes the main diseases in which yellow dots are a common trichoscopic finding, highlighting its characteristics in each dermatosis. PMID:29166518

  8. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  9. Sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia.

    PubMed

    Dan, Luke; Relic, John

    2016-08-01

    In this article we describe a 39-year-old man who presented with non-scarring non-scalp alopecia of his limbs as the initial presentation of sarcoidosis. Alopecia is a rare cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. A literature review has found only one other example of sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia in an area other than the scalp in a patient who was otherwise asymptomatic. Several reported cases have described scarring alopecia of the scalp, which is the area of skin most commonly affected by sarcoidosis. There has been one documented case of sarcoidosis manifesting as total body non-scarring alopecia in a patient who had systemic symptoms of sarcoidosis. Other cases have presented rare cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis but in all these cases several other organ systems have been involved, and the patient has had systemic symptoms on presentation or the cutaneous presentation did not include non-scalp non-scarring alopecia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. Frontal fibrosing alopecia in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Lee, W S; Hwang, S M; Ahn, S K

    1997-12-01

    A case is presented of a 52-year-old woman in whom clinical and histopathologic findings suggested cicatricial alopecia. Our patient had an uncommon, but distinctive, clinical presentation. It was characterized by bandlike frontal hair loss. This was recently described as patterned cicatricial alopecia, presented in a recent study as postmenopausal frontal hairline recession with scarring. Our patient's case should be differentiated from recognized forms of scarring alopecia.

  11. Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia.

    PubMed

    Naz, E; Vidaurrázaga, C; Hernández-Cano, N; Herranz, P; Mayor, M; Hervella, M; Casado, M

    2003-01-01

    Recently a new entity, postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia, was added to the established subtypes of scarring alopecias affecting postmenopausal women. This condition is characterized by a progressive frontal hairline recession associated with scarring. We studied the clinical and histopathologic features in four women with this disorder. Of note, a history of bilateral oophorectomy in two of them appears to be a new association. All four cases had frontoparietal recession of the hairline and two of them also had loss of their eyebrows. None of our four patients had any mucous membrane or other skin lesions. Histological examination showed perifollicular fibrosis and lymphocytic inflammation around the isthmus and infundibular areas of the follicles. No effective treatments have emerged for this type of postmenopausal alopecia, but progression of the hair loss and scarring appears to be self-limiting. We believe that this condition is a distinct clinicopathological variant of lichen planopilaris.

  12. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

    MedlinePlus

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  13. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

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  14. Psoriatic alopecia - fact or fiction? A clinicohistopathologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudine Yap; Brown, Katherine L; Kurban, Amal K; Mahalingam, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of psoriatic alopecia in psoriatic patients is underwhelming, given the prevalence of psoriasis in the North American population. Recently, a 60-year-old Albanian female, lacking a significant medical history for psoriasis, presented to our clinic with a 1-year history of "dandruff" associated with itch, hair thinning, and histopathologic evidence consistent with prior reports of "psoriatic alopecia." The absence of preceding or concomitant psoriasis suggests that the patient's alopecia is an antecedent manifestation of psoriasis, thus prompting this retrospective study to ascertain better the relationship between alopecia and psoriasis. We performed a retrospective review of 33 scalp biopsies on 31 patients having histopathologic diagnosis of psoriasis belonging to 31 patients seen between 2007 and 2010. Alopecia was a presenting feature in 48% of cases with definitive clinical and/or histopathologic diagnosis of psoriasis (scale crust with neutrophils, psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia, and hypogranulosis). The most common follicular-related changes were infundibular dilatation (87%) followed by perifollicular fibrosis (77%), perifollicular lymphocytic inflammation (68%), thinning of the follicular infundibulum (55%), and fibrous tracts (28%). Of interest, sebaceous glands were absent in 60% and atrophic in 25% of cases. While a major limitation of this study is that it is a retrospective one, given that these changes are common to varying degrees in all lymphocytic scarring alopecias, we posit that psoriatic alopecia likely represents a secondary clinical change to a primary process and is not a unique histopathologic entity. A prospective study with a control group that includes lymphocytic scarring alopecias from non-psoriatic patients is required to support our findings.

  15. Pediatric Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Skin changes are common in children. Common concerns are birthmarks (e.g., hemangiomas and port wine stains), atopic and contact dermatitis, acne, and alopecia areata. The authors review advances in common and not so common skin changes in pediatric patients. PMID:28360970

  16. Hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E A

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the hair are commonplace in the primary care practice. Among these disorders are male pattern baldness, Telogen effluvium, alopecia areata, Trichotillomania, and fungal infections involving the hair shaft. A review of the normal anatomy and life cycle of hair also is presented.

  17. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on androgen-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shweta; Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Dixit, V K

    2008-09-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically distressing condition. Androgenetic alopecia, which affects millions of men and women, is an androgen-driven disorder. Here, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb is evaluated for hair growth activity in androgen-induced alopecia. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa was studied for its hair growth-promoting activity. Alopecia was induced in albino mice by testosterone administration for 20 days. Its inhibition by simultaneous administration of extract was evaluated using follicular density, anagen/telogen ratio, and microscopic observation of skin sections. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed to study the effect of extract and its major component on activity of 5alpha-reductase enzyme. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa exhibited promising hair growth-promoting activity as reflected from follicular density, anagen/telogen ratio, and skin sections. Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase activity by extract and isolate suggest that the extract reversed androgen-induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa and its isolate is useful in treatment of androgen-induced alopecia by inhibiting the enzyme 5alpha-reductase.

  18. Hair loss at injection sites of mesotherapy for alopecia.

    PubMed

    El-Komy, Mohamed; Hassan, Akmal; Tawdy, Amira; Solimon, Mohamed; Hady, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-12-01

    The side effects of mesotherapy for treatment of various forms of alopecia are often underreported, while scientific data for its efficacy are severely lacking. To demonstrate the late onset side effects of mesotherapy for alopecia. Three patients with androgenetic alopecia showed hair loss after previously uneventful mesotherapy sessions up to 1 year. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological findings suggested an inflammatory scaring process at sites of mesotherapy injections. Mesotherapy for androgenetic alopecia may paradoxically induce hair loss and scarring. Proper regulation and monitoring of the use of mesotherapy products for treating hair loss in women, needs to be addressed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Role for the epidermal growth factor receptor in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  20. A Practical Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Hair Loss in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liwen; Liu, Kevin X.; Senna, Maryanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss or alopecia is a common and distressing clinical complaint in the primary care setting and can arise from heterogeneous etiologies. In the pediatric population, hair loss often presents with patterns that are different from that of their adult counterparts. Given the psychosocial complications that may arise from pediatric alopecia, prompt diagnosis and management is particularly important. Common causes of alopecia in children and adolescents include alopecia areata, tinea capitis, androgenetic alopecia, traction alopecia, trichotillomania, hair cycle disturbances, and congenital alopecia conditions. Diagnostic tools for hair loss in children include a detailed history, physical examination with a focused evaluation of the child’s hair and scalp, fungal screens, hair pull and tug test, and if possible, light microscopy and/or trichoscopy. Management of alopecia requires a holistic approach including psychosocial support because treatments are only available for some hair loss conditions, and even the available treatments are not always effective. This review outlines the clinical presentations, presents a diagnostic algorithm, and discusses management of these various hair loss disorders. PMID:28791288

  1. Alopecia in four kittens caused by abnormal maternal licking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fanton, N; Michelazzi, M; Cornegliani, L

    2015-11-01

    Abnormal maternal behaviour has been reported in cats, but is generally not included among the causes of alopecia in kittens. A litter of four kittens, 2 months old, was referred for evaluation of facial alopecia of differing severity. The 2-year-old queen was unaffected. Dermatological examination of the kittens did not find any infectious cause. Trichograms showed broken hair shafts with longitudinal splitting. Congenital alopecia was unlikely based on the clinical presentation. A behavioural consultation revealed abnormal grooming behaviour by the mother, who chewed and removed the hair from the kittens. The kittens were separated from the queen and alopecia resolved within a few weeks. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of alopecia caused by abnormal maternal licking behaviour. Abnormal maternal behaviour should be considered in cases of alopecia affecting a litter of kittens, when infectious and congenital causes have been ruled out. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Frontal fibrosing alopecia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Antonella; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Iorizzo, Matilde; Misciali, Cosimo

    2005-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variety of cicatricial alopecia characterized by a band of frontal/frontoparietal hair recession and marked decrease or a complete loss of the eyebrows, typically observed in women who are postmenopausal. The purpose of this study was to report clinical and histopathologic findings and results of treatment in a group of women affected by the disease. A total of 14 women with alopecia of the frontal hairline were evaluated from June 2000 through July 2003 in our outpatient consultation for hair disorders. Clinical examination revealed a band of symmetric recession of the frontoparietal hairline extending to the preauricular areas associated with loss of follicular orifices, mild skin atrophy, and perifollicular erythema at the scalp margin. In all, 9 patients also had partial or total loss of the eyebrows. The histologic features of the scalp specimens were similar in all our patients with a reduction of the number of hair follicles, and a high number of intermediate and velluslike follicles. Intemediate and velluslike follicles were more commonly affected than terminal follicles by the lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate and perifollicular fibrosis. Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a cicatricial alopecia that follows destruction of hair follicles by an inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate that is localized around the upper portion of the hair follicle. It differs from lichen planopilaris because the lymphocytic infiltrate and fibrosis affect selectively the intermediate and the velluslike follicles of the frontal margin and eyebrows. The reason for this selective involvement is still unknown. Frontal fibrosing alopecia may represent a variety of lichen planopilaris with selective involvement of certain androgen-dependent areas. The affected follicles may have typical biologic markers that could explain the clinical and histologic features found in the disease. It is interesting to note that some of the patients treated with finasteride

  3. Dose-dependent valproate-induced alopecia in patients with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced hair loss may occur as a side effect in patients treated with valproate. However, few studies have reported a relationship between the blood levels of valproate and the occurrence of hair loss. We report three cases of alopecia that occurred in patients who received sodium valproate for mental disorders. In all three cases, alopecia appeared after long-term valproate exposure with a plasma concentration of 100 µg/ml approximately. However, the alopecia resolved in all cases after dose reduction or treatment discontinuation. Therefore, alopecia may develop in patients with chronic exposure to high plasma concentrations of valproate. Based on these findings, we believe that patients with high plasma concentrations of valproate should be closely monitored for the occurrence of side effects, particularly alopecia.

  4. Frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus: diagnosis and therapeutic challenge*

    PubMed Central

    Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Guilherme, Marina Riedi; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Werner, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variant of lichen planopilaris with marginal progressive hair loss on the scalp, eyebrows and axillae. We report a case of frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus in a postmenopausal woman, that started with alopecia on the eyebrows and then on the frontoparietal region, with periocular and cervical hyperpigmentation of difficult management. The condition was controlled with systemic corticosteroid therapy and finasteride. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus frequently associated with frontal fibrosing alopecia in darker phototipes. It should be considered in patients affected by scarring alopecia with a pattern of lichen planopilaris and areas of skin hyperpigmentation revealing perifollicular hyperpigmentation refractory to multiple treatments. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in face of scarring alopecia and perifollicular hyperpigmentation. PMID:29267454

  5. Frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus: diagnosis and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Guilherme, Marina Riedi; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Werner, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variant of lichen planopilaris with marginal progressive hair loss on the scalp, eyebrows and axillae. We report a case of frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus in a postmenopausal woman, that started with alopecia on the eyebrows and then on the frontoparietal region, with periocular and cervical hyperpigmentation of difficult management. The condition was controlled with systemic corticosteroid therapy and finasteride. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus frequently associated with frontal fibrosing alopecia in darker phototipes. It should be considered in patients affected by scarring alopecia with a pattern of lichen planopilaris and areas of skin hyperpigmentation revealing perifollicular hyperpigmentation refractory to multiple treatments. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in face of scarring alopecia and perifollicular hyperpigmentation.

  6. A Study of the Accuracy and Reliability of Articles about Alopecia in Newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Ho; Kim, Do Hyeong; Park, So Hee; Cho, Gyeong Je; Seol, Jung Eun

    2018-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in alopecia among the general population. Many people obtain information from easily accessible media rather than from doctors; thus, the media can play an important role in shaping public opinion. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the content and reliability of newspaper articles on alopecia. Methods Newspapers were categorized into three groups: one group of print newspapers and two groups of online newspapers. Online newspapers were further divided into two groups according to type of publishing company; one publishes both print and online newspapers and the other publishes online newspapers only. The most frequently subscribed or circulated newspaper in each group was selected. Articles containing information on alopecia were selected from 3 years of each newspaper and evaluated for reliability. Results Most articles in each group used the general term “alopecia” instead of naming a specific hair loss disease. The majority of articles were based on consultation with experts. Assessment of the accuracy of articles with three grade scales showed that the percentage with high accuracy was 38.9%, 47.2%, and 23.3%. Assessment of reliability scores for five selected articles in each group showed that there were statistically significant differences between common readers and dermatologists (p<0.05). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that closer monitoring of the media is required to supply easily accessible, balanced, and trustworthy information regarding alopecia. PMID:29853745

  7. Quantitative and ultrastructural analysis of inflammatory infiltrates in male pattern alopecia.

    PubMed

    Sueki, H; Stoudemayer, T; Kligman, A M; Murphy, G F

    1999-09-01

    In order to determine whether lymphocytic inflammation around the lower infundibula in male pattern alopecia is incidental or a general phenomenon, we performed morphometric and ultrastructural analysis of inflammatory infiltrates in the transitional zones of the vertex and occipital hairy scalps of 19 patients with male pattern alopecia. Six normal subjects served as controls. The number of inflammatory infiltrates around the follicular infundibula of the alopecic vertices and non-alopecic occiputs of male pattern alopecia patients was significantly greater than the corresponding control value. The number of mast cells in the widened fibrous tracts in the vertices of male pattern alopecia patients was significantly greater than those in the adventitial fibrotic sheaths of control subjects and the non-alopecic occiputs of male pattern alopecia patients. These data support the idea that the inflammatory process may be, at least in part, responsible for the development of male pattern alopecia.

  8. Age-dependent associations between androgenetic alopecia and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Muller, David C; Giles, Graham G; Sinclair, Rod; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Severi, Gianluca

    2013-02-01

    Both prostate cancer and androgenetic alopecia are strongly age-related conditions that are considered to be androgen dependent, but studies of the relationship between them have yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to assess whether androgenetic alopecia at ages 20 and 40 years are associated with risk of prostate cancer. At a follow-up of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, men were asked to assess their hair pattern at ages 20 and 40 years relative to eight categories in showcards. Cases were men notified to the Victorian Cancer Registry with prostate cancer diagnosed between cohort enrollment (1990-1994) and follow-up attendance (2003-2009). Flexible parametric survival models were used to estimate age-varying HRs and predicted cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer by androgenetic alopecia categories. Of 9,448 men that attended follow-up and provided data on androgenetic alopecia, we identified 476 prostate cancer cases during a median follow-up of 11 years four months. Cumulative probability of prostate cancer was greater at all ages up to 76 years, for men with vertex versus no androgenetic alopecia at age of 40 years. At age of 76 years, the estimated probabilities converged to 0.15. Vertex androgenetic alopecia at 40 years was also associated with younger age of diagnosis for prostate cancer cases. Vertex androgenetic alopecia at age of 40 years might be a marker of increased risk of early-onset prostate cancer. If confirmed, these results suggest that the apparently conflicting findings of previous studies might be explained by failure to adequately model the age-varying nature of the association between androgenetic alopecia and prostate cancer.

  9. Alopecia: Possible Causes and Treatments, Particularly in Captive Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce alopecia. Numerous factors may be related to hair loss and range from naturally occurring processes (for example, seasonality, aging) to various biologic dysfunctions, including vitamin and mineral imbalances, endocrine disorders, immunologic diseases, and genetic mutations. We also address bacterial and fungal infections, infestation by parasites, and atopic dermatitis as possible causes of alopecia. Finally, we examine the role of psychogenic factors, such as stress. Depending on the presumed cause of the hair loss, various treatment strategies can be pursued. Alopecia in nonhuman primates is a multifaceted disorder with many potential sources. For this reason, appropriate testing for various disease conditions should be completed before alopecia is considered to be related to stress. PMID:19295051

  10. 38 CFR 4.118 - Schedule of ratings-skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... percent of the scalp 0 7831Alopecia areata: With loss of all body hair 10 With loss of hair limited to... other disfigurement of the head, face, or neck: With visible or palpable tissue loss and either gross... With visible or palpable tissue loss and either gross distortion or asymmetry of two features or paired...

  11. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-05-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success.

  12. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed

    PubMed Central

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success. PMID:19436637

  13. Minoxidil (Mx) as a prophylaxis of doxorubicin--induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R; Machiavelli, M; Leone, B; Romero, A; Cuevas, M A; Langhi, M; Romero Acuña, L; Romero Acuña, J; Amato, S; Barbieri, M

    1994-10-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is known to induce hair growth in men with male-pattern baldness. Based on this potential, the effectiveness of Mx 2% topical solution was evaluated in cancer patients (pts) to prevent doxorubicin-induced alopecia. 48 female pts with different types of solid tumors treated with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in a dose range of 50-60 mg/m2/cycle were randomly assigned to receive Mx 2% topical solution or placebo. 88% and 92% of pts in both arms showed severe alopecia (p = ns). No adverse effects were observed. In this study Mx 2% topical solution was non-toxic but was not effective in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  14. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Joaquin J.; Roberts, Stephen M.; Mejia, Jessica; Mauro, Lucia M.; Munson, John W.; Elgart, George W.; Connelly, Elizabeth Alvarez; Chen, Qingbin; Zou, Jiangying; Goldenberg, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) is experienced by thousands of cancer patients every year. Substantial-to-severe alopecia is induced by anthracyclines (e.g., adriamycin), taxanes (e.g., taxol), alkylating compounds (e.g., cyclophosphamide), and the topisomerase inhibitor etoposide, agents that are widely used in the treatment of leukemias and breast, lung, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Currently, no treatment appears to be generally effective in reliably preventing this secondary effect of chemotherapy. We observed in experiments using different rodent models that localized administration of heat or subcutaneous/intradermal injection of geldanamycin or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induced a stress protein response in hair follicles and effectively prevented alopecia from adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, taxol, and etoposide. Model tumor therapy experiments support the presumption that such localized hair-saving treatment does not negatively affect chemotherapy efficacy. PMID:18347939

  15. A hypothetical pathogenesis model for androgenic alopecia: clarifying the dihydrotestosterone paradox and rate-limiting recovery factors.

    PubMed

    English, Robert S

    2018-02-01

    Androgenic alopecia, also known as pattern hair loss, is a chronic progressive condition that affects 80% of men and 50% of women throughout a lifetime. But despite its prevalence and extensive study, a coherent pathology model describing androgenic alopecia's precursors, biological step-processes, and physiological responses does not yet exist. While consensus is that androgenic alopecia is genetic and androgen-mediated by dihydrotestosterone, questions remain regarding dihydrotestosterone's exact role in androgenic alopecia onset. What causes dihydrotestosterone to increase in androgenic alopecia-prone tissues? By which mechanisms does dihydrotestosterone miniaturize androgenic alopecia-prone hair follicles? Why is dihydrotestosterone also associated with hair growth in secondary body and facial hair? Why does castration (which decreases androgen production by 95%) stop pattern hair loss, but not fully reverse it? Is there a relationship between dihydrotestosterone and tissue remodeling observed alongside androgenic alopecia onset? We review evidence supporting and challenging dihydrotestosterone's causal relationship with androgenic alopecia, then propose an evidence-based pathogenesis model that attempts to answer the above questions, account for additionally-suspected androgenic alopecia mediators, identify rate-limiting recovery factors, and elucidate better treatment targets. The hypothesis argues that: (1) chronic scalp tension transmitted from the galea aponeurotica induces an inflammatory response in androgenic alopecia-prone tissues; (2) dihydrotestosterone increases in androgenic alopecia-prone tissues as part of this inflammatory response; and (3) dihydrotestosterone does not directly miniaturize hair follicles. Rather, dihydrotestosterone is a co-mediator of tissue dermal sheath thickening, perifollicular fibrosis, and calcification - three chronic, progressive conditions concomitant with androgenic alopecia progression. These conditions remodel

  16. Low-power laser use in the treatment of alopecia and crural ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuchita, Tavi; Usurelu, Mircea; Antipa, Ciprian; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Ionescu, Elena

    1998-07-01

    The authors tried to verify the efficacy of Low Power Laser (LPL) in scalp alopecia and crural ulcers of different causes. Laser used was (red diode, continuous emission, 8 mW power, wave length 670 nm spot size about 5 mm diameter on some points 1 - 2 minutes per point. We also use as control classical therapy. Before, during and after treatment, histological samples were done for alopecia. For laser groups (alopecia and ulcers) the results were rather superior and in a three or twice time shorter than control group. We conclude that LPL therapy is a very useful complementary method for the treatment of scalp alopecia and crural ulcers.

  17. [Management of androgenetic alopecia in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Rivera, R; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2008-05-01

    Female androgenetic alopecia or female-pattern alopecia is one of the most common causes of hair loss, affecting 50 % of women over their lifetime. The appearance of this condition is the cause of significant stress and psychological problems, making appropriate management important. Cases exist in which it is associated with hyperandrogenism. Here, we review the different clinical forms (diffuse, male-pattern, and Christmas-tree pattern), discuss the most appropriate laboratory tests (complete blood count, thyroid stimulating hormone, ferritin, prolactin, free and/or total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), and the different treatments, including finasteride.

  18. [Two cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Anke; Bormann, Gisela; Marsch, Wolfgang Christian; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2004-08-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an uncommon, slowly progressive, cicatricial alopecia which mainly affects postmenopausal women. It is considered to be a variant of lichen planopilaris. We describe two postmenopausal women who developed over 11 and 24 months an asymptomatic atrophic alopecia, restricted to the frontal hairline. The diagnosis of FFA was confirmed by biopsy showing a perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate with fibrosis. Topical corticosteroids, in one case combined with minoxidil, administered for 3 months arrested the hair loss. The treatment of FFA is often difficult. In most cases, the disease resolves spontaneously after several years. Immunomodulators such as corticosteroids and calcineurin antagonists should be tried in the early stage of FFA (frontal effluvium with perifollicular erythema) in order to arrest the disease in its inflammatory phase.

  19. Frontal fibrosing alopecia.

    PubMed

    Clark-Loeser, Lesley; Latkowski, Jo-Ann

    2005-12-30

    A 75-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of progressive loss of her eyebrow hair and with frontal-parietal hairline recession. Multiple biopsy specimens supported a histopathologic diagnosis of lichen planopilaris. With these histolopathologic findings, and the patient's clinical presentation, a diagnosis of frontal fibrosing alopecia was made. Treatment to date with topical glucocorticoid preparations, intralesional triamcinolone injections, and tacrolimus ointment have been unsuccessful.

  20. Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia: a frontal variant of lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Kossard, S; Lee, M S; Wilkinson, B

    1997-01-01

    Lichen planopilaris usually produces multifocal areas of scarring alopecia. Recently, a condition in postmenopausal women characterized by progressive frontal hairline recession associated with scarring has been described. Our purpose was to study the clinical and histopathologic features and results of treatment in a group of women with the frontal variant of lichen planopilaris and to compare the immunohistochemical profile of scalp biopsy specimens from this subset with that found in the multifocal variant of lichen planopilaris. The clinical data as well as the histopathologic findings in 16 women with frontal fibrosing alopecia were collated. The immunohistochemical profile of six scalp biopsy specimens from the frontal hairline were compared with six specimens from women with multifocal lichen planopilaris. In addition to the progressive frontal fibrosing alopecia in all 16 women, total loss or a marked decrease of the eyebrows was observed in 13. No evidence of lichen planus was observed at other sites. In one patient multifocal areas of lichen planopilaris developed in the scalp. The frontal fibrosing alopecia was slowly progressive but has stabilized in five patients. Biopsy specimens from the frontal hairline showed histologic changes identical to lichen planopilaris. Immunophenotyping failed to reveal any significant differences between the frontal and multifocal variants. No effective treatments emerged although oral steroids and antimalarials may temporarily slow the course. Hormone replacement therapy did not appear to influence the course of the alopecia. Progressive frontal fibrosing alopecia is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris that affects in particular elderly women and frequently involves the eyebrows. The basis for this lichenoid tissue reaction targeting frontal scalp follicles and eyebrows is unknown.

  1. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  2. Assessment of the usefulness of dihydrotestosterone in the diagnostics of patients with androgenetic alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Urysiak-Czubatka, Izabela; Broniarczyk-Dyła, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss. Clinically observed hair loss is due to the continuous miniaturization of affected hair follicles. Genetic factors and androgenic factors especially dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is a testosterone tissue metabolite, play major roles in the pathogenesis of AGA. However, expert opinions about the usefulness of DHT in the diagnosis of this type of alopecia are divided. Aim To evaluate the usefulness of DHT level in patients with androgenetic alopecia compared with the control group. Material and methods The study comprised 49 subjects: 19 women and 9 men with androgenetic alopecia. The control group consisted of 17 healthy women and 4 men without hair loss. Results Increased serum concentrations of DHT were observed in patients with androgenetic alopecia (17 women, 5 men), but also in the control group. The differences in mean values of DHT were not significant according to the types of alopecia and the control group. Increased serum concentrations of DHT were not correlated with the advance of alopecia. Conclusions Dihydrotestosterone is the most influential androgen and seems to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia. Based on the results of our study and others, the most important factors would appear to be the genetically-determined sensitivity of the follicles to DHT and their different reactions to androgen concentration. PMID:25254005

  3. Er:YAG laser-assisted hair transplantation in cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Podda, M; Spieth, K; Kaufmann, R

    2000-11-01

    Autologous hair transplantation and its combination with flap or reduction procedures is a common surgical approach to cover defects in cicatricial alopecias. Due to the poor recipient conditions present in scar tissue, it is crucial to minimize the trauma exerted on implantation holes in order to achieve good transplantation results. We sought to evaluate the "cold"-ablative properties of the Er:YAG laser for the generation of recipient holes in cicatricial alopecia. Patients with cicatricial alopecia of diverse etiology were treated with Er:YAG laser-assisted hair transplantation. Mini- or micrografts were inserted into recipient holes ablated with a pulse energy of 900-1200 mJ and a spot size of 1.0-1.6 mm. A fluence of 80-120 J/cm2 and 8-12 pulses gave an almost ideal combination of minimal thermal damage and tissue ablation down to the subcutis. With an apparent mini- and micrograft survival of 95% we achieved good cosmetic results after two to five transplant sessions in all patients. The Er:YAG laser is a novel effective tool to ablate recipient holes for autologous hair transplantation in cicatricial alopecia.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of inflammatory skin diseases: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Hwang, Se Won; Lee, Young Bok; Park, Hyun Jeong; Bae, Jung Min

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract attributed to aberrant activity of the immune system. Increasing evidence suggests that patients with IBD are at an increased risk of inflammatory skin diseases (ISDs). We sought to clarify the association between IBD and ISDs using a nationwide health claims database maintained in Korea. We interrogated Korean health claim database data from 2009 to 2013. We enrolled all patients with IBD, and age- and sex-matched control subjects, and evaluated the risks of ISDs, including psoriasis, rosacea, and atopic dermatitis, and the risks of autoimmune skin diseases, including vitiligo and alopecia areata. We used multivariable logistic regression to this end. ISDs including rosacea, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis were significantly associated with IBD, whereas the associations between IBD and autoimmune skin diseases including vitiligo and alopecia areata were less marked or nonexistent. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were both associated with ISDs. We were unable to distinguish phenotypes and severities of skin diseases. IBD was significantly associated with ISDs, but less so or not at all with autoimmune skin diseases. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Smith, F P; McCabe, M S

    1983-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is now potentially preventable. Although scalp tourniquets and hypothermia are neither universally applicable nor always successful, they represent simple and relatively inexpensive methods for reducing hair loss. When successful, these techniques help maintain the patient's self-image and thereby diminish the devastating psychologic effects that accompany a diagnosis of cancer.

  6. Male frontal fibrosing alopecia with generalised hair loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenchieh; Kigitsidou, Evanthia; Prucha, Hanna; Ring, Johannes; Andres, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is regarded as a variant of lichen planopilaris. Male cases have rarely been reported. Here we describe a 66-year-old man with a typical receding fronto-temporal hair line in a form of scarring alopecia, which shows features of lichen planopilaris in histology. An extensive loss of body hair involving bilateral axillae, limbs and pubic area was also observed. © 2012 The Authors Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. Color-dilution alopecia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Kyung Il; Sohn, Hyun Joo; Woo, Gye Hyeong; Jean, Young Hwa; Hwang, Eui Kyung

    2005-09-01

    Color-dilution alopecia is a relatively uncommon hereditary skin disease seen in "Blue" and other color-diluted dogs. This syndrome is associated with a color-dilution gene. The initial clinical signs are the gradual onset of a dry, dull and poor hair coat quality. Hair shafts and hair regrowth are poor, and follicular papules may develop and progress to frank comedones. Hair loss and comedo formation are usually most severe on the trunk, especially color-diluted area on the skin. Six cases of color-dilution alopecia are reported in 3 months to 10 years old dogs. The breeds of dogs are blue Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Dachshund, and Schnauzer. Grossly, extensive partial hair loss was seen on the skin. Histopathologically, the epidermis is relatively normal but may be hyperplastic. Hair follicles are characterized by atrophy and distortion. Heavily clumped melanin is present in the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles.

  8. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: clinical presentations and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, K T; Messenger, A G

    2009-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is an uncommon condition characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Little is known about the natural history of this disease. To determine the clinical features and natural history of frontal fibrosing alopecia. We studied the cases notes of patients diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia from 1993 to 2008 at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield. There were 18 patients aged between 34 and 71 years. Three were premenopausal. All had frontotemporal recession with scarring. This was associated with partial or complete loss of eyebrows in 15 patients while four had hair loss at other sites. One had keratosis pilaris-like papules on the face, and one had follicular erythema on the cheeks. Three patients had oral lichen planus, of whom two also had cutaneous lichen planus affecting other sites of the body. Treatments given included intralesional triamcinolone acetonide, 0.1% tacrolimus ointment and oral hydroxychloroquine. Progression of frontotemporal recession was seen in some patients, but not all. In one patient the hair line receded by 30 mm over 72 months, whereas in another patient there was no positional change in the hair line after 15 years. Frontal fibrosing alopecia is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. It may be associated with mucocutaneous lichen planus. Recession of the hair line may progress inexorably over many years but this is not inevitable. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease - the disease stabilized with time in most of the patients with or without continuing treatment.

  9. Female androgenetic alopecia: a review.

    PubMed

    Spindler, J R; Data, J L

    1992-04-01

    This review of androgenetic alopecia (AA) in women provides a summary of hair physiology and biochemistry, a general discussion of AA, and a brief description of other types of hair loss in women. AA associated with signs of virilization is distinguished from AA alone.

  10. [Prevention of adriamycin-induced alopecia by scalp hypothermia with a deep-frozen Duncool-Cap].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Y; Kuroki, T

    1988-11-01

    In order to prevent Adriamycin (ADM)-induced alopecia, scalp hypothermia with a Duncool-Cap frozen in a freezer at -70 degrees C was carried out. Of the 18 patients studied, one patient given total ADM doses of 240 mg developed alopecia of moderate degree, and another patient treated with ADM at a dose level of 50 mg developed mild alopecia. Alopecia could be almost completely prevented in 10 of the 11 patients given total ADM doses of 100 mg or less, and in 6 of the 7 patients given total doses of 200 mg or more.

  11. Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) for Treatment of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Methods and Materials Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Results Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. Conclusion LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. PMID:23970445

  12. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for treatment of hair loss.

    PubMed

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A novel rat model for chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, T C; Amini, S; Simon, J; Mauro, L M; Elgart, G; Schachner, L A; Jimenez, J J

    2012-04-01

    More than half of all people diagnosed with cancer receive chemotherapy, and approximately 65% of these develop chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), a side-effect that can have considerable negative psychological repercussions. Currently, there are very few animal models available to study the mechanism and prevention of CIA. To develop a clinically relevant adult rat model for CIA. We first tested whether neonatal pigmented Long-Evans (LE) rats developed alopecia in response to the chemotherapeutic agents etoposide and cyclophosphamide. We then determined whether the rats developed CIA as adults. In the latter experiment, rat dorsal hair was clipped during the early telogen stage to synchronize the hair cycle, and starting 15 days later, the rats were treated with etoposide for 3 days. Neonatal LE pups developed CIA in response to etoposide and cyclophosphamide, similar to other murine models for CIA. Clipping of the hair shaft during early telogen resulted in synchronized anagen induction and subsequent alopecia after etoposide treatment in the clipped areas only. Hair follicles in the clipped areas had the typical chemotherapy-induced follicular dystrophy (dystrophic catagen). When the hair in the pigmented alopecic areas regrew, it had normal pigmentation. A novel, pigmented adult rat model has been established for CIA. By hair-shaft clipping during early telogen, synchronized anagen entry was induced, which resulted in alopecia in response to chemotherapy. This is the first clinically relevant adult rat model for CIA, and will be a useful tool to test agents for the prevention and treatment of CIA. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Association Between Androgenetic Alopecia and Coronary Artery Disease in Young Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kamal H; Jindal, Anchal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and cardiovascular disease. Still controversies exist regarding the association. Are they truly associated? Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of AGA and establish its association in young (<45 years) Asian Indian Gujarati male patients having coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods: Case-control prospective multicentric study was carried out on 424 men. Case group consisted of 212 male subjects having CAD (Group 1) and another 212, either sibling or first degree male relative of the case subjects (having no evidence of CAD) were considered as the control group (Group 2). Age, total cholesterol, incidence of diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were similar in both groups. The degree of alopecia was assessed using the Norwood-Hamilton scale for men. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. Results: AGA was found in 80 (37.73%) young CAD patients (Group 1), whereas 44 (20.7%) of patients had alopecia in the control group (Group 2). There was statistically significant association between male AGA and CAD (P = 0.001). Odds ratio was 2.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 ± 4.26). Statistically significant association was found between high grade baldness (Grades IV-VII) and CAD in young men (P < 0.05). Odds ratio = 2.36 (95% CI, 1.108 ± 5.033). There is statistically significant association of AGA in young Asian Gujarati male with CAD and the prevalence of AGA in young CAD patient is 37.73%. Conclusion: This study implies early onset AGA in male is independently associated with CAD, though mechanisms need to be investigated. PMID:25114445

  15. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Hematological and hepatic effects of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) used to stimulate hair growth in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata is the hair loss usually reversible, in sharply defined areas. The treatment of alopecia using growth factors shows interesting activity in promoting hair growth. In this concept, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a marker of angiogenesis, stimulating hair growth by facilitating the supply of nutrients to the hair follicle, increasing follicular diameter. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a topical gel enriched with VEGF liposomes on the hair growth stimulation and its toxicological aspects. Methods Mesocricetus auratus were randomly divided into three groups. Control group was treated with Aristoflex® gel, 1% group with the same gel but added 1% VEGF and 3% group with 3% VEGF. Biochemical, hematological and histological analyses were done. Results At the end of the experiment (15th day of VEGF treatment) efficacy was determined macroscopically by hair density dermatoscopy analysis, and microscopically by hair diameter analysis. They both demonstrated that hair of the VEGF group increased faster and thicker than control. On the other hand, biochemical and hematological results had shown that VEGF was not 100% inert. Conclusions VEGF increased hair follicle area, but more studies are necessary to confirm its toxicity. PMID:24168457

  17. Expanding the spectrum of frontal fibrosing alopecia: a unifying concept.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ai-Lean; Bashir, Saqib J; Wain, E Mary; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2010-10-01

    In frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), scalp alopecia dominates the clinical picture. However, eyebrow loss and hair loss in other body sites may also occur; this has been documented clinically, but rarely histopathologically. We describe the clinicopathological findings of 13 cases of FFA, with histopathologic data from the scalp, eyebrow, and body hair. Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of FFA, seen between 2006 and 2008, were included. Scalp biopsies were performed in all patients for histology and direct immunofluorescence (DIF). Biopsy specimens for histology were taken from the eyebrow in 6 patients and from the upper limb in 5 patients. All 13 patients were female, 11 of whom were postmenopausal. The median age at onset of alopecia was 57 years. Clinical examination revealed a band of frontal hairline recession in all patients. Eyebrow loss was present clinically in all patients, with loss of body hair in 10 of 13. Histopathologic examination of the scalp, eyebrow, and upper limb skin biopsy specimens showed similar features, including a marked reduction in the number of hair follicles and a perifollicular lymphoid cell infiltrate with perifollicular fibrosis. Direct immunofluorescence was negative in all cases. Not all patients consented to biopsies of the eyebrows or upper limbs. Eyebrow and peripheral body hair loss is not uncommon in FFA-a finding that is likely underreported. We have demonstrated that alopecia of the upper limbs in FFA is indeed common and, histopathologically, shows features of lichen planopilaris and scarring, similar to findings in the scalp and eyebrows. Consequently, the process of lichen planopilaris with scarring alopecia is generalized rather than localized only to the frontal scalp and eyebrows.

  18. [Effect of minoxidil on hair growth in androgenic alopecia in women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out clinical and trichological examination (trichogram and assessment of hair loss) before and after treatment in 17 women aged 41-50 years with androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil (Loxon) was topically applied twice a day massaging the solution into the scalp over 6-12 months. It was revealed on the ground of clinical and trichological examination that the medication containing 2% solution of minoxidil externally applied on the scalp with androgenic alopecia over a few months caused normalization of hair root condition and decrease of hair loss in some patients of the observed group. The drug has a stimulating influence on hair growth and should be administered as an adjuvant therapy in androgenic alopecia in women.

  19. Experimental and early investigational drugs for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Gao, Wendi Victor; Endo, Hiromi; McElwee, Kevin John

    2017-08-01

    Treatments for androgenetic alopecia constitute a multi-billion-dollar industry, however, currently available therapeutic options have variable efficacy. Consequently, in recent years small biotechnology companies and academic research laboratories have begun to investigate new or improved treatment methods. Research and development approaches include improved formulations and modes of application for current drugs, new drug development, development of cell-based treatments, and medical devices for modulation of hair growth. Areas covered: Here we review the essential pathways of androgenetic alopecia pathogenesis and collate the current and emerging therapeutic strategies using journal publications databases and clinical trials databases to gather information about active research on new treatments. Expert opinion: We propose that topically applied medications, or intra-dermal injected or implanted materials, are preferable treatment modalities, minimizing side effect risks as compared to systemically applied treatments. Evidence in support of new treatments is limited. However, we suggest therapeutics which reverse the androgen-driven inhibition of hair follicle signaling pathways, such as prostaglandin analogs and antagonists, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), promotion of skin angiogenesis and perfusion, introduction of progenitor cells for hair regeneration, and more effective ways of transplanting hair, are the likely near future direction of androgenetic alopecia treatment development.

  20. Androgens and alopecia.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Keith D

    2002-12-30

    Androgens have profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans. Scalp hair grows constitutively in the absence of androgens, while body hair growth is dependent on the action of androgens. Androgenetic alopecia, referred to as male pattern hair loss (MPHL) in men and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in women, is due to the progressive miniaturization of scalp hair. Observations in both eunuchs, who have low levels of testicular androgens, and males with genetic 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) deficiency, who have low levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), implicate DHT as a key androgen in the pathogenesis of MPHL in men. The development of finasteride, a type 2-selective 5alphaR inhibitor, further advanced our understanding of the role of DHT in the pathophysiology of scalp alopecia. Controlled clinical trials with finasteride demonstrated improvements in scalp hair growth in treated men associated with reductions in scalp DHT content, and a trend towards reversal of scalp hair miniaturization was evident by histopathologic evaluation of scalp biopsies. In contrast to its beneficial effects in men, finasteride did not improve hair growth in postmenopausal women with FPHL. Histopathological evaluation of scalp biopsies confirmed that finasteride treatment produced no benefit on scalp hair in these women. These findings suggest that MPHL and FPHL are distinct clinical entities, with disparate pathophysiologies. Studies that elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which androgens regulate hair growth would provide greater understanding of these differences. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  1. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of facial hypertrichosis during topical minoxidil therapy.

    PubMed

    Benmously Mlika, Rym; Ben Hamida, Myriam; Hammami, Houda; Dorbani Ben Thabet, Imen; Rouatbi, Mondher; Mokhtar, Inçaf

    2013-08-01

    Hypertrichosis is a well-recognized adverse effect of therapy with either oral or topical minoxidil. We report a case of fronto-temporal hypertrichosis occurring in an 8-year-old girl treated for patchy alopecia areata of the frontal area of the scalp with 2% minoxidil solution. After failure of 5-months minoxidil-discontinuation, hair removal with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm line) (Smartepil II, Deka) was tested leading to complete resolution within 2 sessions.

  2. Steven Kossards postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia (PFFA)--a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Tronnier, M

    2010-01-01

    Steven Kossard described a new type of hair loss that he named frontal postmenopausal fibrosing alopecia (PFFA). In some of his patients he observed a symmetric regression of the frontal hair line. The eyebrows of the patients were also often affected. The histology of the lesions showed lichen planopilaris. Several cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia have been described- almost all of them in elderly women. We report a women with postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia of Kossard. In our patient there were no other clinical signs of lichen planus on the rest of the body After systemic and local therapy with corticosteroids we were able to observe a termination in the disease. In the subsequent 6-month control period no regrowth of the hair follicles was found. Even if there is no proof for a hormonal basis of the disease, the effectiveness of finasteride in some patients may indicate that androgens might be partially responsible of the pathogenesis of the disease. The local and systemic medication with corticosteroids are not able to bring to a permanent remission and secondary growth of the hair follicles in the affected areas and this brings to the necessity of more invasive or innovative therapeutic methods, like skin transplantation and additional application of medicaments like blockers of the 5/alpha reductase, which have proven their capacity in the androgenetic male alopecia.

  3. Canine noninflammatory alopecia: a comprehensive evaluation of common and distinguishing histological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Müntener, Tabitha; Schuepbach-Regula, Gertraud; Frank, Linda; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Welle, Monika M

    2012-06-01

    Noninflammatory alopecia is a frequent problem in dogs, and the pathogenesis is still unclear. The objective of this study was a comparative histological description of skin biopsies from dogs with different alopecic disorders and control dogs matched for coat type, season and disease duration. Twenty-one cases of alopecia X in plush-coated dogs, 12 cases of recurrent flank alopecia, three cases of hyperestrogenism, 15 cases of hyperadrenocorticism, 12 cases of hypothyroidism and 12 cases of primary alopecic disorders of unknown cause were evaluated. The controls were biopsies from 38 dogs of different coat types. We evaluated five serial sections of each biopsy histologically and immunohistologically to compare the histological findings within the disease groups and with the control. All the dogs with hair cycle disorders had a significant increase in the number of hairless hair follicles, which we assigned to kenogen. In addition, dogs with alopecia X had the lowest percentage of anagen follicles and the highest percentage of telogen follicles. The marked increase in kenogen follicles is a strong indication that the induction of the new anagen phase is impaired in hair cycle disorders. The findings in dogs with alopecia X further suggest that premature catagen is also involved in the pathogenesis. Further work to investigate the stem cell compartment and possible initiating factors for the different cycle phases is required to elucidate the exact pathogenesis. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Azathioprine-induced alopecia and leukopenia associated with NUDT15 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Nomura, H; Kurihara, Y; Saito, M; Fukushima, A; Shintani, Y; Shiiyama, R; Toshima, S; Kamata, A; Yamagami, J; Funakoshi, T; Kameyama, K; Amagai, M; Kubo, A; Umegaki-Arao, N

    2018-04-28

    Azathioprine (AZA), a widely used immunosuppressant, can induce cytotoxic effects including myelosuppression and alopecia. 1 Recent studies revealed that polymorphisms of NUDT15 are associated with thiopurine-induced alopecia and leukopenia. 2-5 The frequency of NUDT15 polymorphisms in East and South Asians is high (22.6% and 13.6%, respectively). 5 Thus, adverse event management during AZA treatment is essential for Asian populations with these polymorphisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-section Trichometry: A Clinical Tool for Assessing the Progression and Treatment Response of Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Mauro, Lucia M; Tabas, Irene A; Chen, Anne L; Llanes, Isabel C; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2012-01-01

    Background: To properly assess the progression and treatment response of alopecia, one must measure the changes in hair mass, which is influenced by both the density and diameter of hair. Unfortunately, a convenient device for hair mass evaluation had not been available to dermatologists until the recent introduction of the cross-section trichometer, which directly measures the cross-sectional area of an isolated bundle of hair. Objective: We sought to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of the HairCheck® device, a commercial product derived from the original cross-section trichometer. Materials and Methods: Bundles of surgical silk and human hair were used to evaluate the ability of the HairCheck® device to detect and measure small changes in the number and diameter of strands, and bundle weight. Results: Strong correlations were observed between the bundle's cross-sectional area, displayed as the numeric Hair Mass Index (HMI), the number of strands, the silk/hair diameter, and the bundle dry weight. Conclusion: HMI strongly correlated with the number and diameter of silk/hair, and the weight of the bundle, suggesting that it can serve as a valid indicator of hair mass. We have given the name cross-section trichometry (CST) to the methodology of obtaining the HMI using the HairCheck® system. CST is a simple modality for the quantification of hair mass, and may be used as a convenient and useful tool to clinically assess changes in hair mass caused by thinning, shedding, breakage, or growth in males and females with progressive alopecia or those receiving alopecia treatment. PMID:23766610

  6. A Study of the Accuracy and Reliability of Articles about Alopecia in Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Park, In Ho; Kim, Do Hyeong; Park, So Hee; Cho, Gyeong Je; Seol, Jung Eun

    2018-06-01

    There is growing interest in alopecia among the general population. Many people obtain information from easily accessible media rather than from doctors; thus, the media can play an important role in shaping public opinion. The goal of this study was to evaluate the content and reliability of newspaper articles on alopecia. Newspapers were categorized into three groups: one group of print newspapers and two groups of online newspapers. Online newspapers were further divided into two groups according to type of publishing company; one publishes both print and online newspapers and the other publishes online newspapers only. The most frequently subscribed or circulated newspaper in each group was selected. Articles containing information on alopecia were selected from 3 years of each newspaper and evaluated for reliability. Most articles in each group used the general term "alopecia" instead of naming a specific hair loss disease. The majority of articles were based on consultation with experts. Assessment of the accuracy of articles with three grade scales showed that the percentage with high accuracy was 38.9%, 47.2%, and 23.3%. Assessment of reliability scores for five selected articles in each group showed that there were statistically significant differences between common readers and dermatologists ( p <0.05). The results of this study suggest that closer monitoring of the media is required to supply easily accessible, balanced, and trustworthy information regarding alopecia.

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  8. Is seborrhoeic dermatitis associated with a diffuse, low-grade folliculitis and progressive cicatricial alopecia?

    PubMed

    Pitney, Lucy; Weedon, David; Pitney, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An association between adult scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis and cicatricial hair loss has not previously been convincingly established. This study seeks to demonstrate a unique relationship between a clinically identifiable chronic scalp dermatitis-folliculitis with the characteristic histological features of low-grade inflammatory fibrosing alopecia, resulting in a distinctive progressive cicatricial alopecia which we believe is prevalent and hitherto unrecognised, and befits the description of seborrhoeic folliculitis. The clinical, epidemiological and histopathological features of seborrhoeic folliculitis are demonstrated to establish its unique status among the disorders of adult diffuse cicatricial alopecia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Alopecia with perineural lymphocytes: a clue to linear scleroderma en coup de sabre.

    PubMed

    Goh, Carolyn; Biswas, Asok; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2012-05-01

    Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre ('the stroke of the sword') is an uncommon form of morphea with onset typically in childhood or adolescence. Involvement is usually located on the paramedian forehead and is associated with alopecia. It is microscopically indistinguishable from other forms of scleroderma. We present a 51-year-old woman who presented with alopecia and subsequently developed linear scleroderma en coup de sabre on her adjacent forehead. Histopathology revealed a strikingly perineural lymphocytic and plasmacytic infiltrate, extending deeply into the subcutis and fascia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alopecia with perineural lymphocytic inflammation as a presenting sign of linear scleroderma en coup de sabre. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Hair breakage as a presenting sign of early or occult central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: clinicopathologic findings in 9 patients.

    PubMed

    Callender, Valerie D; Wright, Dakara Rucker; Davis, Erica C; Sperling, Leonard C

    2012-09-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is the most common form of cicatricial alopecia in African American women. Treatment options are limited and mostly aimed at halting further hair loss but rarely result in hair regrowth. Therefore, it is important to recognize early clinical signs, perform a confirmatory biopsy, and begin treatment promptly. We have observed that hair breakage may be a key sign of early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, and this association is not clearly described in the literature. Nine patients with hair breakage on the vertex with or without scalp symptoms underwent scalp biopsies as part of their evaluation. Of these, 8 had histologic samples adequate for complete interpretation: 5 specimens (63%) showed histologic changes typical of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, with 1 of these showing advanced end-stage changes of cicatricial alopecia. Two (25%) revealed premature desquamation of the inner root sheath as the sole finding suggestive of early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and 1 (13%) was normal. Although hair breakage can have multiple causes, early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia must be considered in the differential diagnosis, particularly in women of African ancestry. Histologic evaluation may reveal early or late findings that can help establish the diagnosis.

  11. Immunofluorescence findings in rapid whitening of scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Kumar, V; Petersen, B H

    1981-09-01

    Rapid whitening of scalp hair developed during a three-month period along with a diffuse, subtotal alopecia in a patient. Immunofluorescence microscopy of biopsy material showed prominent deposits of IgG and IgM in a granular pattern in the epithelium of the lower portions of hair follicles. Some return of the color and amount of scalp hair occurred within a year, but occasional bouts of hair loss continued to occur. It is theorized that the rapid graying was caused by a selective loss of pigmented hair, which was perhaps caused by an immunologic mechanism. Some of the findings suggest that the cause of this patient's loss of hair color may be different from those of patients who have been previously described as having rapid whitening of scalp hair because of alopecia areata or vitiligo.

  12. Treatment of permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia with low dose oral minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyi; Thai, Keng-Ee

    2016-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a well-established cause of major distress to patients. Permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (PCIA) is the absence of or incomplete hair regrowth lasting longer than 6 months after the cessation of chemotherapy and it does not respond to standard treatments of scalp cooling or topical minoxidil. The increasing numbers of reports of PCIA highlight the need for research into an effective treatment. We report a case of a 39 year-old woman with cosmetically significant regrowth after continuous therapy with oral minoxidil. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. Epidermal Cadm1 expression promotes autoimmune alopecia via enhanced T cell adhesion and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Adam; Hoste, Esther; Takai, Yoshimi; Rosewell, Ian; Watt, Fiona M

    2012-02-01

    Autoimmune alopecia is characterized by an extensive epidermal T cell infiltrate that mediates hair follicle destruction. We have investigated the role of cell adhesion molecule 1 (Cadm1; Necl2) in this disease. Cadm1 is expressed by epidermal cells and mediates heterotypic adhesion to lymphocytes expressing class 1-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM). Using a murine autoimmune alopecia model, we observed an increase in early-activated cytotoxic (CD8-restricted, CRTAM-expressing) T cells, which preferentially associated with hair follicle keratinocytes expressing Cadm1. Coculture with Cadm1-transduced MHC-matched APCs stimulated alopecic lymph node cells to release IL-2 and IFN-γ. Overexpression of Cadm1 in cultured human keratinocytes did not promote cytokine secretion, but led to increased adhesion of alopecic cytotoxic T cells and enhanced T cell cytotoxicity in an MHC-independent manner. Epidermal overexpression of Cadm1 in transgenic mice led to increased autoimmune alopecia susceptibility relative to nontransgenic littermate controls. Our findings reveal that Cadm1 expression in the hair follicle plays a role in autoimmune alopecia.

  14. Deslorelin Implant Treatment for Hair Cycle Arrest (Alopecia X) in Two Intact Male Keeshonden.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; Richmond, Renee V

    Alopecia in dogs occurs secondary to a variety of underlying inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions. Hair cycle arrest (alopecia X) is a noninflammatory alopecia that is frustrating to diagnose and treat due to lack of understanding of disease pathogenesis. A variety of therapies for hair cycle arrest have been described with inconsistent efficacy in different dog breeds and sexes; no definitive treatment is available. This report describes the use of a deslorelin acetate implant in two sexually intact adult male keeshonden, both diagnosed with hair cycle arrest. The dogs had progressive alopecia of the trunk that spared the head and distal limbs present for at least 2 yr. Diagnosis of hair cycle arrest was made based on clinical features, dermatohistopathology, and lack of systemic abnormalities. Treatment with a single subcutaneous 4.7 mg deslorelin acetate implant resulted in profuse hair regrowth within 3.5 mo that endured for at least 14 mo. Deslorelin implantation is a management option that is safe, affordable, and appears effective for sexually intact male keeshonden with hair cycle arrest.

  15. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia and Vitiligo: Coexistence or True Association?

    PubMed

    Katoulis, Alexandros C; Diamanti, Konstantina; Sgouros, Dimitrios; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Alevizou, Antigoni; Bozi, Evangelia; Damaskou, Vasileia; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia characterized by a progressive band-like recession of the frontotemporal hairline and frequent loss of the eyebrows. It predominantly affects postmenopausal women. Coexistence of FFA and vitiligo is rarely reported in the literature. We retrospectively studied 20 cases diagnosed with FFA in a 14-month period in our Department. Among them, there were 2 cases, a 72-year-old woman and a 48-year-old man, who developed FFA on preexisting vitiligo of the forehead. Anatomical colocalization of the two dermatoses supports the notion that a causal link may exist and their association may not be coincidental. We suggest that interrelated immunologic events and pathologic processes may underlie both these skin conditions.

  16. Association of HLA class I alleles with aloplecia areata in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng-Li; Yang, Sen; Yan, Kai-lin; Cui, Yong; Liang, Yan-Hua; Zhou, Fu-Sheng; Du, Wen-Hui; Gao, Min; Sun, Liang-Dan; Fan, Xing; Chen, Jian-Jun; Wang, Pei-Guang; Zhu, Ya-Gang; Zhou, Shun-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2006-02-01

    Some studies suggested that human HLA status may potentiate development of the AA phenotype and exists ethic differences. No report has been published about HLA class I alleles associated with AA in Chinese Hans. To study the distribution of HLA class I alleles and haplotypes in Chinese Hans AA patients and the relation of HLA class I profile with age of onset, severity, duration of current attack, past history and family history. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method was used to analyze the distribution of HLA class I alleles in 192 patients with AA and 252 healthy controls in Chinese Hans. The frequencies of HLA-A*02, -A*03, -B*18, -B*27, -B*52 and -Cw*0704 were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The A*2-B*18, A*2-B*27, A*2-B*52, A*2-Cw*0704, B*18-Cw*0704, B*27-Cw*0704, B*52-Cw*0704 were found as high-risk haplotypes in developing AA in this study. The HLA-A*02 and -A*03 were observed increased frequencies in patients less than 50% hair loss, and HLA-B*27 equally in patients of 50-99% hair loss, alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis. The frequencies of HLA-A*02 and -B*27 were significantly raised in recurrent patients, and ones of HLA-A*02, -A*03 and -B*27 similarly in patients without a positive family history. This study demonstrated the positive association of HLA class I alleles and haplotypes with AA. There may be differences in genetic background in patients with different age of onset, grade of scalp hair loss, duration of current attack, a past history and a family history.

  17. Low-level laser therapy for the treatment of androgenic alopecia: a review.

    PubMed

    Darwin, Evan; Heyes, Alexandra; Hirt, Penelope A; Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2018-02-01

    There are many new low-level laser technologies that have been released commercially that claim to support hair regrowth. In this paper, we will examine the clinical trials to determine whether the body of evidence supports the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to treat androgenic alopecia (AGA). A literature search was conducted through Pubmed, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov for clinical trials using LLLT to treat AGA. Thirteen clinical trials were assessed. Review articles were not included. Ten of 11 trials demonstrated significant improvement of androgenic alopecia in comparison to baseline or controls when treated with LLLT. In the remaining study, improvement in hair counts and hair diameter was recorded, but did not reach statistical significance. Two trials did not include statistical analysis, but showed marked improvement by hair count or by photographic evidence. Two trials showed efficacy for LLLT in combination with topical minoxidil. One trial showed efficacy when accompanying finasteride treatment. LLLT appears to be a safe, alternative treatment for patients with androgenic alopecia. Clinical trials have indicated efficacy for androgenic alopecia in both men and women. It may be used independently or as an adjuvant of minoxidil or finasteride. More research needs to be undertaken to determine the optimal power and wavelength to use in LLLT as well as LLLT's mechanism of action.

  18. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  19. The effectiveness of treatments for androgenetic alopecia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adil, Areej; Godwin, Marshall

    2017-07-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern hair loss, is a hair loss disorder mediated by dihydrotestosterone, the potent form of testosterone. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and HairMax LaserComb, which is FDA-cleared, are the only treatments recognized by the FDA as treatments of androgenetic alopecia. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of nonsurgical treatments of androgenetic alopecia in comparison to placebo for improving hair density, thickness, growth (defined by an increased anagen:telogen ratio), or subjective global assessments done by patients and investigators. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were searched up to December 2016, with no lower limit on the year. We included only randomized controlled trials of good or fair quality based on the US Preventive Services Task Force quality assessment process. A meta-analysis was conducted separately for 5 groups of studies that tested the following hair loss treatments: low-level laser light therapy in men, 5% minoxidil in men, 2% minoxidil in men, 1 mg finasteride in men, and 2% minoxidil in women. All treatments were superior to placebo (P < .00001) in the 5 meta-analyses. Other treatments were not included because the appropriate data were lacking. High heterogeneity in most studies. This meta-analysis strongly suggests that minoxidil, finasteride, and low-level laser light therapy are effective for promoting hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia and that minoxidil is effective in women with androgenetic alopecia. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-energy laser in the treatment of alopecia of the scalp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuchita, Tavi; Usurelu, Mircea; Antipa, Ciprian

    1997-12-01

    The authors tried to verify the efficacy of low energy laser (LEL) in scalp alopecia. Sixty patients were divided in two groups: A) laser group, 33 patients treated with both LEL and classical therapy; B) control group, 27 patients treated only with classical therapy, Before, during and after treatment, historical samples were done. For the group A the results were rather superior but in a twice shorter time shorter time than group B. The maintenance of the good results needed classical therapy for a long period. We conclude that LEL therapy could have a useful complementary method for the treatment of scalp alopecia.

  1. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  2. Differences in reproductive toxicology between alopecia drugs: an analysis on adverse events among female and male cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological condition with limited therapeutic options. Only two drugs, finasteride and minoxidil, are approved by FDA for alopecia treatment. However, little is known about the differences in adverse effects between these two drugs. We examined the clinical reports submitted to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from 2004 to 2014. For both female and males, finasteride was found to be more associated with reproductive toxicity as compared to minoxidil. Among male alopecia cases, finasteride was significantly more concurrent with several forms of sexual dysfunction. Among female alopecia cases, finasteride was significantly more concurrent with harm to fetus and disorder of uterus. In addition, drug-gene network analysis indicated that finasteride could profoundly disturb pathways related to sex hormone signaling and oocyte maturation. These findings could provide clues for subsequent toxicological research. Taken together, this analysis suggested that finasteride could be more liable to various reproductive adverse effects. Some of these adverse effects have yet to be warned in FDA-approved drug label. This information can help improve the treatment regimen of alopecia and post-marketing regulation of drug products. PMID:27738338

  3. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in rats by CDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Davis, S T; Benson, B G; Bramson, H N; Chapman, D E; Dickerson, S H; Dold, K M; Eberwein, D J; Edelstein, M; Frye, S V; Gampe, R T; Griffin, R J; Harris, P A; Hassell, A M; Holmes, W D; Hunter, R N; Knick, V B; Lackey, K; Lovejoy, B; Luzzio, M J; Murray, D; Parker, P; Rocque, W J; Shewchuk, L; Veal, J M; Walker, D H; Kuyper, L F

    2001-01-05

    Most traditional cytotoxic anticancer agents ablate the rapidly dividing epithelium of the hair follicle and induce alopecia (hair loss). Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), a positive regulator of eukaryotic cell cycle progression, may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) by arresting the cell cycle and reducing the sensitivity of the epithelium to many cell cycle-active antitumor agents. Potent small-molecule inhibitors of CDK2 were developed using structure-based methods. Topical application of these compounds in a neonatal rat model of CIA reduced hair loss at the site of application in 33 to 50% of the animals. Thus, inhibition of CDK2 represents a potentially useful approach for the prevention of CIA in cancer patients.

  4. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics of alopecia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomorokha, Diana P.; Pigoreva, Yulia N.; Salmin, Vladimir V.

    2016-04-01

    Development of optical biopsy methods has a great interest for medical diagnostics. In clinical and experimental studies it is very important to analyze blood circulation quickly and accurately, thereby laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is widely used. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (UV LIFS) is express highly sensitive and widely-spread method with no destructive impact, high excitation selectivity and the possibility to use in highly scattering media. The goal of this work was to assess a correlation of UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry parameters, and a possibility to identify or to differentiate various types of pathological changes in tissues according to their autofluorescence spectra. Three groups of patients with diffuse (symptomatic) alopecia, androgenic alopecia, and focal alopecia have been tested. Each groups consisted of not less than 20 persons. The measurements have been done in the parietal and occipital regions of the sculls. We used the original automated spectrofluorimeter to record autofluorescence spectra, and standard laser Doppler flowmeter BLF-21 (Transonic Systems, Inc., USA) to analyze the basal levels of blood circulation. Our results show that UV LIFS accurately distinguishes the zones with different types of alopecia. We found high correlation of the basal levels of blood circulation and the integrated intensity of autofluorescence in the affected tissue.

  5. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice. Induction by cyclophosphamide, inhibition by cyclosporine A, and modulation by dexamethasone.

    PubMed Central

    Paus, R.; Handjiski, B.; Eichmüller, S.; Czarnetzki, B. M.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia (CYP-IA) in C57BL-6 mice as a clinically relevant model for studying the biology of chemotherapy-induced alopecia and for developing anti-alopecia drugs. One injection of CYP to mice with all back skin follicles in anagen VI induces severe alopecia that strikingly reproduces the follicle response, recovery, and histopathology seen in human CYP-IA. CYP dose-dependently induces abnormal follicular melanogenesis and dystrophic anagen or, in more severely damaged follicles, dystrophic catagen. Both dystrophy forms are followed by an extremely shortened telogen phase, but differ in the associated hair loss and in recovery patterns, which determines hair regrowth. This follicular response to CYP can be manipulated pharmacologically: systemic cyclosporine A shifts it toward a mild form of dystrophic anagen, thus retarding CYP-IA and prolonging "primary recovery". Topical dexamethasone, in contrast, forces follicles into dystrophic catagen, which augments CYP-IA, but accelerates the regrowth of normally pigmented hair ("secondary recovery"). Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:8160773

  6. [Preliminary approach to the mental component in dermatologic patients].

    PubMed

    Di Prima, T M; De Pasquale, R; Gilotta, S M; Cravotta, A

    1989-04-01

    The aim of this study was to approach on a psychical point of view 27 patients suffering from chronic idiopathic urticaria (14), pruritus sine materia (6), alopecia areata (3), pathomimia (4), in order to examine the possibility that psychic disorders could act as triggering or aggravating the dermatological affection. Psychical assessment was evaluated by colloquy and by the administration of some psychodiagnostic tests: EPI, MMPI, Zung. The role of psychogenic factors in skin diseases is emphasized and the results obtained from the use of antidepressant and minor tranquilizer drugs are discussed.

  7. Utilizing electromagnetic radiation for hair growth: a critical review of phototrichogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss has a high prevalence in the general population and can have significant medical and psychological sequelae. Pattern hair loss and alopecia areata represent the major reasons patients present to dermatologists in relation to hair loss. Because conventional treatment options are generally incompletely effective, novel methods for hair grown induction are being developed. The role of using electromagnetic radiation, including low-level laser therapy for the management of hair loss through phototrichogenesis, is reviewed in this article. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Promising therapies for treating and/or preventing androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    McElwee, K J; Shapiro, J S

    2012-06-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) may affect up to 70% of men and 40% of women at some point in their lifetime. While men typically present with a distinctive alopecia pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding, women normally exhibit a diffuse hair thinning over the top of their scalps. The treatment standard in dermatology clinics continues to be minoxidil and finasteride with hair transplantation as a surgical option. Here we briefly review current therapeutic options and treatments under active investigation. Dutasteride and ketoconazole are also employed for AGA, while prostaglandin analogues latanoprost and bimatoprost are being investigated for their hair growth promoting potential. Laser treatment products available for home use and from cosmetic clinics are becoming popular. In the future, new cell mediated treatment approaches may be available for AGA. While there are a number of potential treatment options, good clinical trial data proving hair growth efficacy is limited.

  9. [What is the value of low-energie lasers in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia ?

    PubMed

    Paquet, Ph; Orduz, M; Franchimont, C; Nikkels, A F

    2017-12-01

    Male and female androgenetic alopecia is a common, chronic, psychologically stressful disorder affecting more than 50 % of the individuals by 50 years of age. Despite the current topical (minoxidil) or oral (the inhibitors of 5-? reductase finasteride or dutasteride) treatments, there is a need for more effective management options. The current clinical evidence, the possible mechanisms of action and the rare adverse events of the low level laser therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia are presented.

  10. Novel insights into the pathways regulating the canine hair cycle and their deregulation in alopecia X.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Magdalena A T; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Waluk, Dominik P; Roosje, Petra; Linek, Monika; Panakova, Lucia; Leeb, Tosso; Wiener, Dominique J; Welle, Monika M

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia X is a hair cycle arrest disorder in Pomeranians. Histologically, kenogen and telogen hair follicles predominate, whereas anagen follicles are sparse. The induction of anagen relies on the activation of hair follicle stem cells and their subsequent proliferation and differentiation. Stem cell function depends on finely tuned interactions of signaling molecules and transcription factors, which are not well defined in dogs. We performed transcriptome profiling on skin biopsies to analyze altered molecular pathways in alopecia X. Biopsies from five affected and four non-affected Pomeranians were investigated. Differential gene expression revealed a downregulation of key regulator genes of the Wnt (CTNNB1, LEF1, TCF3, WNT10B) and Shh (SHH, GLI1, SMO, PTCH2) pathways. In mice it has been shown that Wnt and Shh signaling results in stem cell activation and differentiation Thus our findings are in line with the lack of anagen hair follicles in dogs with Alopecia X. We also observed a significant downregulation of the stem cell markers SOX9, LHX2, LGR5, TCF7L1 and GLI1 whereas NFATc1, a quiescence marker, was upregulated in alopecia X. Moreover, genes coding for enzymes directly involved in the sex hormone metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, HSD17B14) were differentially regulated in alopecia X. These findings are in agreement with the so far proposed but not yet proven deregulation of the sex hormone metabolism in this disease.

  11. Platelet rich plasma for the management of hair loss: Better alone or in combination?

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pino, Ander; Jaén, Pedro; Navarro, Mª Rogelia

    2018-06-14

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autologous protein-based treatments have recently emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for hair loss-related disorders including androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. The safety and efficacy of repeated intradermal injections of PRP has proved to promote hair growth in a number of randomized clinical trials. Biologically active proteins and cytokines released upon platelet activation have shown to induce folliculogenesis and activate the anagen growing phase of dormant bulbs. Interestingly, further studies have revealed that combining PRP with other hair loss-related products may enhance the final performance of the treatment. These synergistic approaches include Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs such as finasteride or minoxidil, bioactive macromolecules and cell-based therapies. Here, recent research involving alone or combined therapy with platelet-rich plasma for the management of hair loss-related disorders are outlined and future prospects are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of alopecia on body image and quality of life of Turkish cancer women with or without headscarf.

    PubMed

    Erol, Ozgul; Can, Gulbeyaz; Aydıner, Adnan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effects of chemotherapy-related alopecia on body image and quality of life of Turkish women who have cancer with or without headscarves and factors affecting them. This descriptive study was conducted with 204 women who received chemotherapy at the Istanbul University Institute of Oncology, Turkey. The Patient Description Form, Body Image Scale and Nightingale Symptom Assessment Scale were used in data collection. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Logistic regression analysis was done to predict the factors affecting body image and quality of life of the patients. No difference was found between women wearing headscarves and those who did not in respect of their body image. However, women who wore headscarves who had no alopecia felt less dissatisfied with their scars, and women not wearing headscarves who had no alopecia have been feeling less self-conscious, less dissatisfied with their appearance. There was difference in terms of quality of life: women wearing headscarves had worse physical, psychological and general well-being than others. Although there were many important factors, multivariate analysis showed that for body image, having alopecia and wearing headscarves; and for quality of life, having alopecia were the variables that had considerable effects.

  13. Primary cicatricial alopecia: clinical features and management.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elizabeth K

    2007-04-01

    The primary cicatricial alopecias are an uncommon, complex group of disorders that result in permanent destruction of the hair follicle, usually involving scalp hair alone. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed to help thwart continued hair loss and the distress that often accompanies this hair loss. Nurses can facilitate the diagnostic and treatment process and, through educational and emotionally supportive measures, have a meaningful, positive impact on the patient's well being.

  14. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Biotin Deprivation Induce Alopecia through Overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Atsushi; Mikami, Yohei; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Mizuno, Shinta; Naganuma, Makoto; Teratani, Toshiaki; Aoki, Ryo; Fukuda, Shinji; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Amagai, Masayuki; Ohyama, Manabu; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-08-15

    Metabolism by the gut microbiota affects host physiology beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we find that antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, in particular, overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus (L. murinus), impaired gut metabolic function and led to the development of alopecia. While deprivation of dietary biotin per se did not affect skin physiology, its simultaneous treatment with vancomycin resulted in hair loss in specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Vancomycin treatment induced the accumulation of L. murinus in the gut, which consumes residual biotin and depletes available biotin in the gut. Consistently, L. murinus induced alopecia when monocolonized in germ-free mice fed a biotin-deficient diet. Supplementation of biotin can reverse established alopecia symptoms in the SPF condition, indicating that L. murinus plays a central role in the induction of hair loss via a biotin-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that luminal metabolic alterations associated with gut dysbiosis and dietary modifications can compromise skin physiology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Temporal triangular alopecia and a review of 52 past cases.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masashi; Irisawa, Ryokichi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2010-04-01

    Temporal triangular alopecia (TTA) is a circumscribed, non-cicatricial form of alopecia confined to the frontotemporal region. The patient, a 15-year-old boy, was noticed at birth to have an alopecial area, sized 1.5 cm x 2.5 cm, in the right temporal region. Microscopic examination revealed miniaturized hair follicles accompanied by differentiated sebaceous glands. We have provided a synopsis of the past 52 cases. Of the 53 cases of TTA including our case, more than half (55.8%) were detected in childhood between the ages of 2 and 9 years, while 36.5% were detected at birth and only 3.8% (only two cases) in adulthood. There were three familial cases. Several congenital diseases were associated with the condition, for example, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, Down syndrome and Dandy-Walker malformation. This information suggests that TTA can be recognized as a hamartomatous mosaic disease.

  16. 'My wig has been my journey's companion': perceived effects of an aesthetic care programme for Italian women suffering from chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Zannini, L; Verderame, F; Cucchiara, G; Zinna, B; Alba, A; Ferrara, M

    2012-09-01

    This study explored the perceived effects of an aesthetic care/wig programme for Italian women suffering from chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Despite advances in the treatment of many side effects of chemotherapy, alopecia remains difficult to resolve. Literature suggests that patients' reactions to alopecia and camouflaging strategies depend on their gender, individual characteristics, social context, and culture. A qualitative study was designed involving 20 patients from Sicily (Italy), who participated in an aesthetic care programme. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was conducted on transcriptions. Our findings showed that, even if expected, alopecia is experienced as a traumatic event that challenges a woman's femininity, as reported by many other enquiries. Diverging from other studies, the wig is perceived as very helpful, since it camouflages baldness and reduces the 'sick aspect' related to alopecia. Patients consider their wig to be a 'friend', and it appears that through the aesthetic care programme they received support they otherwise would not have sought. We conclude that aesthetic care/wig programmes can help women affected by alopecia to cope with cancer 'stigma', especially in those rural contexts where psychosocial programmes are not frequently embraced by patients due to environmental and cultural barriers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Impact of chemotherapy-induced alopecia distress on body image, psychosocial well-being, and depression in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Im-Ryung; Chang, Oliver; Kang, Danbee; Nam, Seok-Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Se Kyung; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Cho, Juhee

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) distress on body image, psychosocial well-being, and depression among breast cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the breast cancer advocacy events held at 16 hospitals in Korea. Alopecia distress was assessed using the 'Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia Distress Scale', body image and psychosocial well-being were measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 and breast specific module (BR23), and depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Means of outcomes were compared between low and high CIA distress groups. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the CIA distress and body image, psychosocial well-being, and depression. One hundred sixty-eight breast cancer patients participated in the study; the mean age was 48.4 (SD = 8.4) years, and 55.3% of the patients experienced higher distress from alopecia. In fully adjusted models, the high distress group was more likely to have a poorer body image than the low distress group (35.2 vs. 62.0; p < 0.001). Distressed patients were also more likely to report lower emotional (55.3 vs. 76.9; p < 0.001), role (58.6 vs. 72.0; p < 0.001), and social functioning (51.3 vs. 70.9; p < 0.001). The high distress group was also more likely to have depression compared with the low distress group (19.6 vs. 14.8; p < 0.001). Chemotherapy-induced alopecia distress was negatively associated with body image, psychosocial well-being, and depression in women with breast cancer. It is necessary to develop specific interventions to minimize distress due to alopecia for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Primary Follicular Dystrophy with Scarring Dermatitis in C57BL/6 Mouse Substrains Resembles Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Taylor, Douglas; Lorch, Gwendolen; Miller, Jim; Silva, Kathleen A.; Sundberg, Beth A.; Roopenian, Derry; Sperling, Leonard; Ong, David; King, Lloyd E.; Everts, Helen

    2011-01-01

    A number of C57BL/6 (B6) substrains are commonly used by scientists for basic biomedical research. One of several B6 strain specific background diseases is focal alopecia that may resolve or progress to severe, ulcerative dermatitis. Clinical and progressive histologic changes of skin disease commonly observed in C57BL/6J and preliminary studies in other closely related substrains are presented. Lesions develop due to a primary follicular dystrophy with rupture of severely affected follicles leading to formation of secondary foreign body granulomas (trichogranulomas) in affected B6 substrains of mice. Histologically these changes resemble the human disease called central centrifugal cicatrical alopecia (CCCA). Four B6 substrains tested have a polymorphism in alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (Adh4) that reduces its activity and potentially affects removal of excess retinol. Using immunohistochemistry, differential expression of epithelial retinol dehydrogenase (DHRS9) was detected which may partially explain anecdotal reports of frequency differences between B6 substrains. The combination of these two defects have the potential to make high dietary vitamin A levels toxic in some B6 substrains while not affecting most other commonly used inbred strains. PMID:20861494

  19. A bibliometric study of scientific literature in Scopus on botanicals for treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Peroni, Gabriella; Guido, Davide

    2016-06-01

    In androgenetic alopecia, a number of botanicals are available that can effectively slow or reduce hair loss and inflammation or stimulate partial hair regrowth. The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of the impact and production of literature on botanicals used for androgenetic alopecia and to perform a citation analysis of the related research articles. We searched for "alopecia" OR "androgenetic alopecia" OR "hair loss" AND "Camelia sinensis" OR (and other 15 botanicals) in ARTICLE (Title/Abstract/Keyword) in Scopus database. A total of 29 references, that is, research articles, were retrieved by SCOPUS search, and 93.1% had been published since 2000. The majority (48.3%) describe applications of hair grow stimulants, followed by inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase applications (27.6%), and studies concerning inhibitors of inflammation (24.1%). The citation analysis revealed a growing interest for this topic and the papers on hair grow stimulants are most cited. Citation trend of inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase articles is growing in the last years. This study has highlighted three important aspects: (1) growing interest for this topic; (2) evidences mainly in hair grow stimulants and recently in the inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase, as demonstrated by article and citation counts across years; (3) in addition, all major studies have been focused on green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Serenoa repens, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuscuta reflexa. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Frontal fibrosing alopecia: case series and literature review].

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Fragoso, Fátima; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a disease characterized by a symmetric and progressive loss of hair in the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal lines that generally affects postmenopausal women. It is considered a variant of lichen planus pilaris for its clinical and histopathological features; although, its etiopathology is still unknown. In this report, we analyzed 4 cases of this disease and we discussed its clinical and histopathological characteristics, as well as their course after initiating treatment.

  1. Frontal fibrosing alopecia associated with generalized hair loss.

    PubMed

    Armenores, Paul; Shirato, Kyoko; Reid, Catherine; Sidhu, Shireen

    2010-08-01

    We present six cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia, in which generalized hair loss is a feature. Although this variant of lichen planopilaris has been reported clinically in a number of patients, there is very little histological evidence that the condition exists in peripheral sites. We believe this pattern of involvement may be more common than is reported, and have provided histological evidence of lichen planopilaris being present at sites beyond the scalp and eyebrows.

  2. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA AND DEMODEX INFESTATION

    PubMed Central

    Zari, Javidi; Abdolmajid, Fata; Masood, Maleki; Vahid, Mashayekhi; Yalda, Nahidi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically (P = 0.0787). Most of patients (85.4%) had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex. PMID:19881989

  4. Alopecia with foreign body granulomas induced by Radiesse injection: A case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Feng; Kuo, Tseng-Tong; Chao, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yu-Huei

    2018-02-26

    Radiesse is a soft tissue filler which has been widely used for cosmetic enhancement. The safety of Radiesse has been thoroughly investigated via numerous studies. A late-onset complication of Radiesse injection consists of foreign body granulomas, with only three case reports in over 10 years of clinical use. Herein, we describe the case of a patient who experienced alopecia with foreign body granulomas at the injection region one month after receiving a Radiesse injection. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of alopecia as an adverse event associated with Radiesse injection. The present case reminded physicians to evaluate more cautiously the necessity of injecting filler into hair-bearing area for lifting purpose. This procedure may cause foreign body granulomatous reaction, which may result in hair loss at the injection region.

  5. Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia: New Insights and a Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Dlova, Ncoza C; Salkey, Kimberly S; Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J

    2017-10-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a common and progressive form of lymphocyte predominant scarring alopecia which impacts negatively on the quality of life of those affected. It is seen more commonly in women of African descent with prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 5.7%. Current postulates include genetic inheritance, with traction inducing hairstyling practices and hair chemicals as aggravating factors. Histology reveals a perifollicular lymphocytic inflammation of the lower infundibulum, premature desquamation of the inner root sheath, and fibrous connective tissue. Treatment remains challenging and is directed at suppressing and preventing the inflammation, thus aborting scarring, with surgical intervention reserved for those who have stable disease or absence of histological inflammation. Future research with more patient numbers, focusing on the genetics of CCCA may prove useful in order to fully understand the etiology, thus providing more effective treatments for CCCA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dosimetric analysis of the alopecia preventing effect of hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Anand; Sampson, Carrie; LaRosa, Salvatore; Floyd, Scott R; Wong, Eric T; Uhlmann, Erik J; Sengupta, Soma; Kasper, Ekkehard M

    2015-11-26

    Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is widely used for the treatment of brain metastases. Cognitive decline and alopecia are recognized adverse effects of WBRT. Recently hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation therapy (HS-WBRT) has been shown to reduce the incidence of memory loss. In this study, we found that multi-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with strict constraints to the brain parenchyma and to the hippocampus, reduces follicular scalp dose and prevents alopecia. Suitable patients befitting the inclusion criteria of the RTOG 0933 trial received Hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation. On follow up, they were noticed to have full scalp hair preservation. 5 mm thickness of follicle bearing scalp in the radiation field was outlined in the planning CT scans. Conventional opposed lateral WBRT radiation fields were applied to these patient-specific image sets and planned with the same nominal dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The mean and maximum dose to follicle bearing skin and Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) data were analyzed for conventional and HS-WBRT. Paired t-test was used to compare the means. All six patients had fully preserved scalp hair and remained clinically cognitively intact 1-3 months after HS-WBRT. Compared to conventional WBRT, in addition to the intended sparing of the Hippocampus, HS-WBRT delivered significantly lower mean dose (22.42 cGy vs. 16.33 cGy, p < 0.0001), V24 (9 cc vs. 44 cc, p < 0.0000) and V30 (9 cc vs. 0.096 cc, p = 0.0106) to follicle hair bearing scalp and prevented alopecia. There were no recurrences in the Hippocampus area. HS-WBRT, with an 11-field set up as described, while attempting to conserve hippocampus radiation and maintain radiation dose to brain inadvertently spares follicle-bearing scalp and prevents alopecia.

  7. Can you pull it off? Appearance modifying behaviours adopted by wig users with alopecia in social interactions.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Sally; Moore-Millar, Karena; Thomson, Avril

    2014-03-01

    In the academic and medical literature on alopecia, wigs (hair prostheses) are typically recommended as a coping strategy: a device to camouflage, conceal, or cover hair loss, and cope with the psychological impact of a dramatic change in body image. This paper used Goffman's (1959) theory of impression management to demonstrate (a) the social significance of self-presentation, and (b) how adults with alopecia managed their wig use in their daily lives. Data from 14 interviews, two focus groups and six video diaries with 22 Caucasian adults (19 females, 3 males; 29-74 years, SD=13.75) with alopecia in Scotland were analysed using discursive psychology. The analysis detailed how participants managed their wig use and behaviours in relation to social interaction with different categories of people. The paper raises concerns about health and medical discourse about wigs as a coping mechanism, and provides practical suggestions for wig users in social settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expansion of the spectrum of ITGB6-related disorders to adolescent alopecia, dentogingival abnormalities and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Muhammad; Jan, Abid; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Wang, Xin; Suliman, Muhammad; Acharya, Anushree; Habib, Rabia; Abbe, Izoduwa; Ali, Ghazanfar; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Smith, Joshua D; Nickerson, Deborah A; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) is a very rare disorder. In this study, we report on a consanguineous Pakistani family (AP91) with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, adolescent alopecia and dentogingival abnormalities. Using homozygosity mapping, linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we identified a novel rare missense variant c.898G>A (p.(Glu300Lys)) in ITGB6, which co-segregates with the phenotype within the family and is predicted to be deleterious. Structural modeling shows that Glu300 lies in the β-propeller domain, and is surrounded by several residues that are important for heterodimerization with α integrin. Previous studies showed that ITGB6 variants can cause amelogenesis imperfecta in humans, but patients from family AP91 who are homozygous for the c.898G>A variant present with neurological and dermatological features, indicating a role for ITGB6 beyond enamel formation. Our study demonstrates that a rare deleterious variant within ITGB6 causes not only dentogingival anomalies but also intellectual disability and alopecia.

  9. [Central aleolar choroidal dystrophy in sibilings coexisting with alopecia].

    PubMed

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Dróbecka-Brydak, Ewa; Paćkowska, Maria; Kecik, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Central areolar choroidal dystrophy is localized in macular region and is characterized by atrophy of pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and choriocapillaris. This paper presents the history of two sibilings at the age of 23 and 30, with central aleolar choroidal dystrophy coexisting with alopecia. The results of erg, eog and fluorescein angiography are presented. The results of therapy for glaucoma associated with the Sturge-Weber syndrome are often disappointing.

  10. The protective role of the immunomodulator AS101 against chemotherapy-induced alopecia studies on human and animal models.

    PubMed

    Sredni, B; Xu, R H; Albeck, M; Gafter, U; Gal, R; Shani, A; Tichler, T; Shapira, J; Bruderman, I; Catane, R; Kaufman, B; Whisnant, J K; Mettinger, K L; Kalechman, Y

    1996-01-03

    The immunomodulator AS101 has been demonstrated to exhibit radioprotective and chemoprotective effects in mice. Following phase-I studies, preliminary results from phase-II clinical trials on non-small-cell-lung-cancer patients showed a reduction in the severity of alopecia in patients treated with AS101 in combination with chemotherapy. To further substantiate these findings, the present study was extended to include 58 patients treated either with the optimal dose of 3 mg/m2 AS101 combined with carboplatin and VP-16, or with chemotherapy alone. As compared with patients treated with chemotherapy alone, there was a significant decrease in the level of alopecia in patients receiving the combined therapy. The newly developed rat model was used to elucidate the protective mechanism involved in this effect. We show that significant prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia is obtained in rats treated with Ara-C combined with AS101, administered i.p. or s.c. or applied topically to the dorsal skin. We show that this protection by AS101 is mediated by macrophage-derived factors induced by AS101. Protection by AS101 can be ascribed, at least in part, to IL-1, since treatment of rats with IL-1 RA largely abrogated the protective effect of AS101. Moreover, we demonstrate that in humans there is an inverse correlation between the grade of alopecia and the increase in IL-1 alpha. In addition, protection by AS101 could be related to PGE2 secretion, since injection of indomethacin before treatment with AS101 and Ara-C partly abrogated the protective effect of AS101. To assess the ability of AS101 to protect against chemotherapy-induced alopecia, phase-II clinical trials have been initiated with cancer patients suffering from various malignancies.

  11. Multi-therapies in androgenetic alopecia: review and clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Anzalone, Alessia; Fortuna, Maria Caterina; Caro, Gemma; Garelli, Valentina; Pranteda, Giulia; Carlesimo, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a genetically determined progressive hair-loss condition which represents the most common cause of hair loss in men. The use of the medical term androgenetic alopecia reflects current knowledge about the important role of androgens and genetic factors in its etiology. In addition to androgen-dependent changes in the hair cycle, sustained microscopic follicular inflammation contributes to its onset. Furthermore, Prostaglandins have been demonstrated to have the ability in modulating hair follicle cycle; in particular, PGD2 inhibits hair growth while PGE2/F2a promote growth. Due to the progressive nature of AGA, the treatment should be started early and continued indefinitely, since the benefit will not be maintained upon ceasing therapy. To date, only two therapeutic agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AGA: topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Considering the many pathogenetic mechanisms involved in AGA, various treatment options are available: topical and systemic drugs may be used and the choice depends on various factors including grading of AGA, patients' pathological conditions, practicability, costs and risks. So, the treatment for AGA should be based on personalized therapy and targeted at the different pathophysiological aspects of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Androgenetic alopecia. Battling a losing proposition.

    PubMed

    Rubin, M B

    1997-08-01

    Some degree of hair loss with aging is inevitable in both men and women. The exact underlying mechanism is not well understood. Although genetic factors have a role in the development of androgenetic alopecia, the outcome in an individual patient cannot be reliably predicted on the basis of family history. Balding tends to begin earlier in men and to develop in well-recognized patterns. Women have more diffuse hair loss that often occurs after menopause. The available treatment options, such as topical minoxidil therapy, hair transplantation, and other surgical techniques, are not very successful. Lessening patients' anxiety about hair loss by reassuring them that they will not go totally bald immediately may be the most effective management.

  13. Prevalence and spatio-temporal variation of an alopecia syndrome in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Todd; Peacock, Elizabeth; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Bodenstein, Barbara; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Durner, George

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) has been observed in several marine mammal species and has potential energetic consequences for sustaining a normal core body temperature, especially for Arctic marine mammals routinely exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) rely on a thick layer of adipose tissue and a dense pelage to ameliorate convective heat loss while moving between sea ice and open water. From 1998 to 2012, we observed an alopecia syndrome in polar bears from the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska that presented as bilaterally asymmetrical loss of guard hairs and thinning of the undercoat around the head, neck, and shoulders, which, in severe cases, was accompanied by exudation and crusted skin lesions. Alopecia was observed in 49 (3.45%) of the bears sampled during 1,421 captures, and the apparent prevalence varied by years with peaks occurring in 1999 (16%) and 2012 (28%). The probability that a bear had alopecia was greatest for subadults and for bears captured in the Prudhoe Bay region, and alopecic individuals had a lower body condition score than unaffected individuals. The cause of the syndrome remains unknown and future work should focus on identifying the causative agent and potential effects on population vital rates.

  14. Prevalence and spatio-temporal variation of an alopecia syndrome in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwood, Todd C.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Burek, K.A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Durner, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) has been observed in several marine mammal species and has potential energetic consequences for sustaining a normal core body temperature, especially for Arctic marine mammals routinely exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) rely on a thick layer of adipose tissue and a dense pelage to ameliorate convective heat loss while moving between sea ice and open water. From 1998 to 2012, we observed an alopecia syndrome in polar bears from the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska that presented as bilaterally asymmetrical loss of guard hairs and thinning of the undercoat around the head, neck, and shoulders, which, in severe cases, was accompanied by exudation and crusted skin lesions. Alopecia was observed in 49 (3.45%) of the bears sampled during 1,421 captures, and the apparent prevalence varied by years with peaks occurring in 1999 (16%) and 2012 (28%). The probability that a bear had alopecia was greatest for subadults and for bears captured in the Prudhoe Bay region, and alopecic individuals had a lower body condition score than unaffected individuals. The cause of the syndrome remains unknown and future work should focus on identifying the causative agent and potential effects on population vital rates.

  15. Androgenic alopecia may have evolved to protect men from prostate cancer by increasing skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Kabai, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia affects populations adapted to colder climate, and individuals at an age and hormonal status susceptible to prostate cancer. Male pattern baldness enhances absorption of UV radiation on the top of the head, an area directly exposed to sunlight during everyday activities. Ultraviolet radiation is reported to reduce the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Here I propose that progression of androgenic alopecia rather than being a risk factor is a finely tuned mechanism evolved to protect against prostate cancer.

  16. Systematic review of low-level laser therapy for adult androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Sean W; Zhang, Paul

    2017-12-29

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting over half of the world's population. Within this condition, androgenic alopecia (AA) is the most common type, affecting 50% of males over 40 and 75% of females over 65. Anecdotal paradoxical hypertrichosis noted during laser epilation has generated interest in the possibility of using laser to stimulate hair growth. In this study, we aimed to critically appraise the application of low-level laser therapy for the treatment of AA in adults. A systematic review was performed on studies identified on Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane database, and clinicaltrials.org. Double-blinded randomized controlled trials were selected and analyzed quantitatively (meta-analysis) and qualitatively (quality of evidence, risk of bias). Low-level laser therapy appears to be a promising noninvasive treatment for AA in adults that is safe for self-administration in the home setting. Although shown to effectively stimulate hair growth when compared to sham devices, these results must be interpreted with caution. Further studies with larger samples, longer follow-up, and independent funding sources are necessary to determine the clinical effectiveness of this novel therapy.

  17. Frontal fibrosing alopecia treatment options.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Raymond; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-11-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a rare dermatologic disease that causes scarring and hair loss and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. FFA patients typically present with hair loss in the frontal scalp region and eyebrows which may be associated with sensations of itching or burning. FFA is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP) that affects predominantly postmenopausal women, although men and premenopausal women may also be affected. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent definitive scarring and permanent hair loss. Data from retrospective studies indicate that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) are effective in stabilizing the disease. In our clinical experience, we have seen optimal results treating FFA patients with oral finasteride in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine, topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus) and excimer laser in patients with signs of active inflammation.

  18. Chemoprevention of doxorubicin-induced alopecia in mice by dietary administration of L-cystine and vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, Francesco; Fiallo, Paolo; Ghio, Massimo; De Flora, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is one of the most serious and feared adverse effects of cancer therapy. Almost all traditional chemotherapeutic agents induce a more or less severe alopecia. At present, there is no effective treatment capable of preventing this damage. Several different experimental approaches, using various animal models, have been investigated over the last years, with promising results. Sulphur-containing amino acids (cystine, cysteine) are essential components for the health of normal hair. L-Cystine is used in the treatment of various forms of alopecia. Vitamin B6 plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the skin and it is useful in reducing hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combined oral administration at high dosages of L-cystine (1,600 or 800 mg/kg body weight/day) and vitamin B6 (160 or 80 mg/kg body weight/day) is an effective chemopreventive treatment against alopecia induced by doxorubicin treatment (1.1 mg/kg body weight intravenously) in C57BL/6 mice.

  19. Expansion of the spectrum of ITGB6-related disorders to adolescent alopecia, dentogingival abnormalities and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Ansar, Muhammad; Jan, Abid; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Wang, Xin; Suliman, Muhammad; Acharya, Anushree; Habib, Rabia; Abbe, Izoduwa; Ali, Ghazanfar; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Smith, Joshua D; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Anderson, Peter; Annable, Marcus; Beightol, Mallory; Browning, Brian L; Buckingham, Kati J; Chen, Christina; Chin, Jennifer; Chong, Jessica X; Cooper, Gregory M; Davis, Colleen; Felker, Lindsay; Frazar, Christopher; Hanna, David; He, Zongxiao; Jain, Preti; Jarvik, Gail P; Johanson, Eric; Jun, Goo; Kircher, Martin; Kolar, Tom; Leal, Suzanne M; Luksic, Daniel; McMillin, Margaret J; McGee, Sean; Munson, Brenton; O'Roak, Brian J; Paeper, Bryan; Patterson, Karynne; Phillips, Eric; Pijoan, Jessica; Poel, Christa; Robertson, Peggy D; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Shaffer, Tristan; Shephard, Cindy; Siegel, Deborah L; Smith, Joshua D; Staples, Jeffrey C; Tabor, Holly K; Tackett, Monica; Wang, Gao T; Yi, Qian; Nickerson, Deborah A; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) is a very rare disorder. In this study, we report on a consanguineous Pakistani family (AP91) with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, adolescent alopecia and dentogingival abnormalities. Using homozygosity mapping, linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we identified a novel rare missense variant c.898G>A (p.(Glu300Lys)) in ITGB6, which co-segregates with the phenotype within the family and is predicted to be deleterious. Structural modeling shows that Glu300 lies in the β-propeller domain, and is surrounded by several residues that are important for heterodimerization with α integrin. Previous studies showed that ITGB6 variants can cause amelogenesis imperfecta in humans, but patients from family AP91 who are homozygous for the c.898G>A variant present with neurological and dermatological features, indicating a role for ITGB6 beyond enamel formation. Our study demonstrates that a rare deleterious variant within ITGB6 causes not only dentogingival anomalies but also intellectual disability and alopecia. PMID:26695873

  20. Reversible Alopecia with Localized Scalp Necrosis After Accidental Embolization of the Parietal Artery with Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Qiu, Lihong; Yi, Chenggang; Xue, Ping; Yu, Zhou; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Guo, Shuzhong

    2017-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection is widely used for soft-tissue augmentation. Complications associated with HA filling are not uncommon; however, HA-induced alopecia is a rarely reported complication that could result in severe secondary psychological trauma. The etiology, clinical traits, treatment strategies, outcomes, and possible reversibility of HA-induced alopecia have not been characterized. Here, we report a case in which bilateral temple injections of 6.5 mL of HA led to persistent pain over the left scalp for several days. Although the pain was relieved at day 9 after 600 U of hyaluronidase were injected in the left temple, the patient developed localized alopecia at the left temporoparietal region with central skin necrosis at day 15. After topical applications of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel and 2% minoxidil spay, the necrotic skin wound was healed at day 42. Hair regrowth and normal hair density were restored at day 74. Analyses of Doppler ultrasound examinations and histopathology of the skin biopsy suggested that mild ischemia of the left temporoparietal region led to reversible alopecia, while the permanent hair loss in the left parietal area was associated with severe skin ischemia. Therefore, the key to treatment would be to focus on the effective correction of severe ischemia-induced skin necrosis to prevent permanent hair loss. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  1. [Efficacy and tolerability of 5% minoxidil solution (Carexidil®) in male and female androgenetic alopecia: a 6-month open multicentric study].

    PubMed

    Piraccini, B; Starace, M; Alessandrini, A; Guarrera, M; Fiorucci, M C; Lorenzi, S

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of 5% Carexidil solution®, applied twice a day on the scalp, on male and female androgenetic alopecia. The 6 month-study was performed in three Italian dermatological centers. Evaluation of efficacy was performed with subjective and objective methods, including operator and patient assessments, global photography and videodermoscopy. Global photography revealed that after 6 months of treatment with 5% Carexidil solution®, androgenetic alopecia was improved in all 32 females and 16 males. Alopecia stopped to progress in 6 males. Scalp videodermoscopy confirmed the results. Some patients complained of increased hair greasiness, others complained of mild scalp itching. Two female patients developed contact sensitization to minoxidil, confirmed by patch test, 2 a mild malar-temporal hypertrichosis. All patients were satisfied by treatment and continued it after the end of the study. Our study confirms the data of the literature and the evidence coming from years of clinical experience, that twice a day topical application of 5% minoxidil solution, Carexidil ®, is effective in the treatment of male and female androgenetic alopecia, with evident efficacy already after 6 months.

  2. Association between androgenetic alopecia and coronary artery disease in young male patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kamal H; Jindal, Anchal

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and cardiovascular disease. Still controversies exist regarding the association. Are they truly associated? The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of AGA and establish its association in young (<45 years) Asian Indian Gujarati male patients having coronary artery disease (CAD). Case-control prospective multicentric study was carried out on 424 men. Case group consisted of 212 male subjects having CAD (Group 1) and another 212, either sibling or first degree male relative of the case subjects (having no evidence of CAD) were considered as the control group (Group 2). Age, total cholesterol, incidence of diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were similar in both groups. The degree of alopecia was assessed using the Norwood-Hamilton scale for men. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. AGA was found in 80 (37.73%) young CAD patients (Group 1), whereas 44 (20.7%) of patients had alopecia in the control group (Group 2). There was statistically significant association between male AGA and CAD (P = 0.001). Odds ratio was 2.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 ± 4.26). Statistically significant association was found between high grade baldness (Grades IV-VII) and CAD in young men (P < 0.05). Odds ratio = 2.36 (95% CI, 1.108 ± 5.033). There is statistically significant association of AGA in young Asian Gujarati male with CAD and the prevalence of AGA in young CAD patient is 37.73%. This study implies early onset AGA in male is independently associated with CAD, though mechanisms need to be investigated.

  3. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  4. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Randomized clinical trial comparing 5% and 1% topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Ryoji; Arano, Osamu; Nishikawa, Tooru; Yamada, Hidekazu; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2009-08-01

    Minoxidil is efficacious in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by inducing hair follicles to undergo transition from the early to late anagen phase. Although the efficacy of 1% topical minoxidil has been confirmed in Japan, no controlled study of 5% topical minoxidil has been conducted using male Japanese subjects. The objective of this trial was to verify the superiority in clinical efficacy of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in a double-blind controlled study with male, Japanese androgenetic alopecia patients as the subjects. The trial included 300 Japanese male patients aged 20 years or older with androgenetic alopecia who were administered either 5% topical minoxidil (n = 150) or 1% topical minoxidil (n = 150) for 24 weeks. The mean change from the baseline in non-vellus hair/cm(2), the primary efficacy variable, was 26.4 (n = 142) in the 5% topical minoxidil group and 21.2 (n = 144) in the 1% topical minoxidil group at 16 weeks, the main time point for the evaluation. The difference between the groups was significant (P = 0.020). The incidence of adverse events was 8.7% (13/150) in the 5% group and 5.3% (8/150) in the 1% group, with no significant difference between the groups (chi(2)-test: P = 0.258). Our findings confirmed the superiority of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in treating Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

  6. Photobiomodulation therapy for androgenetic alopecia: A clinician's guide to home-use devices cleared by the Federal Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Erin M; Winter, Margo A; Hordinsky, Maria K; Sadick, Neil S; Farah, Ronda S

    2018-06-01

    The market for home-use photobiomodulation devices to treat androgenetic alopecia has rapidly expanded, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently cleared many devices for this purpose. Patients increasingly seek the advice of dermatologists regarding the safety and efficacy of these hair loss treatments. The purpose of this guide was threefold: (1) to identify all home-use photobiomodulation therapy devices with FDA-clearance for treatment of androgenetic alopecia; (2) to review device design, features and existing clinical evidence; and (3) to discuss practical considerations of photobiomodulation therapy, including patient suitability, treatment goals, safety, and device selection. A search of the FDA 510(k) Premarket Notification database was conducted using product code "OAP" to identify all home-use devices that are FDA-cleared to treat androgenetic alopecia. Thirteen commercially available devices were identified and compared. Devices varied in shape, wavelength, light sources, technical features, price, and level of clinical evidence. To date, there are no head-to-head studies comparing the efficacy of these devices. Photobiomodulation therapy devices have an excellent safety profile and mounting evidence supporting their efficacy. However, long-term, high quality studies comparing these devices in diverse populations are lacking. As these devices become increasingly popular, dermatologists should be familiar with this treatment modality to add to their therapeutic armamentarium. AGA, androgenetic alopecia; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; IEC, International Electrotechnical Commission; LED, light-emitting diode; PBMT, photobiomodulation therapy.

  7. Effects of minoxidil 2% vs. cyproterone acetate treatment on female androgenetic alopecia: a controlled, 12-month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Vexiau, P; Chaspoux, C; Boudou, P; Fiet, J; Jouanique, C; Hardy, N; Reygagne, P

    2002-06-01

    Hormone studies have demonstrated the androgen-dependent character of female androgenetic alopecia, but there have been few controlled studies of therapies for alopecia in women. To compare topical minoxidil 2% and cyproterone acetate in the treatment of female alopecia. Sixty-six women with female-pattern alopecia were randomly assigned for 12 cycles into two groups, 33 received two local applications (2 mL day-1) of topical minoxidil 2% plus combined oral contraceptive and 33 received cyproterone acetate 52 mg day-1 plus ethinyl oestradiol 35 microg for 20 of every 28 days. A mean reduction of 2.4 +/- 6.2 per 0.36 cm2 in hairs of diameter > 40 microm was observed in the cyproterone acetate group (P = 0.05) and a mean increase of 6.5 +/- 9 per 0.36 cm2 in the minoxidil group (P < 0.001). Comparison of the total number of hairs at 12 months and the body mass index (BMI) revealed a borderline positive correlation in the cyproterone acetate group (r = 0.39, P = 0.06) and a negative correlation in the minoxidil group (r = -0.42, P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the total number of hairs among cyproterone acetate patients according to the presence or absence of other symptoms of hyperandrogenism, whereas in the minoxidil group, the total number of new hairs was higher in patients with isolated alopecia (Delta = 8.1; P < 0.05). Variations in scalp seborrhoea were significant in both groups, but the result was better (for acne and hirsutism as well) in the cyproterone acetate group than in the minoxidil group (P < 0.001). Minoxidil treatment was more effective in the absence of other signs of hyperandrogenism, hyperseborrhoea, and menstrual cycle modifications when the BMI was low, and when nothing argued in favour of biochemical hyperandrogenism. Cyproterone acetate treatment was more effective when other signs were present and when the BMI was elevated, factors that favoured a diagnosis of biochemical hyperandrogenism.

  8. JAK3 as an Emerging Target for Topical Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Alves de Medeiros, Ana Karina; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Desmet, Eline; Van Gele, Mireille; De Schepper, Sofie; Lambert, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The recent interest and elucidation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway created new targets for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases (ISDs). JAK inhibitors in oral and topical formulations have shown beneficial results in psoriasis and alopecia areata. Patients suffering from other ISDs might also benefit from JAK inhibition. Given the development of specific JAK inhibitors, the expression patterns of JAKs in different ISDs needs to be clarified. We aimed to analyze the expression of JAK/STAT family members in a set of prevalent ISDs: psoriasis, lichen planus (LP), cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), atopic dermatitis (AD), pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) and alopecia areata (AA) versus healthy controls for (p)JAK1, (p)JAK2, (p)JAK3, (p)TYK2, pSTAT1, pSTAT2 and pSTAT3. The epidermis carried in all ISDs, except for CLE, a strong JAK3 signature. The dermal infiltrate showed a more diverse expression pattern. JAK1, JAK2 and JAK3 were significantly overexpressed in PG and AD suggesting the need for pan-JAK inhibitors. In contrast, psoriasis and LP showed only JAK1 and JAK3 upregulation, while AA and CLE were characterized by a single dermal JAK signal (pJAK3 and pJAK1, respectively). This indicates that the latter diseases may benefit from more targeted JAK inhibitors. Our in vitro keratinocyte psoriasis model displayed reversal of the psoriatic JAK profile following tofacitinib treatment. This direct interaction with keratinocytes may decrease the need for deep skin penetration of topical JAK inhibitors in order to exert its effects on dermal immune cells. In conclusion, these results point to the important contribution of the JAK/STAT pathway in several ISDs. Considering the epidermal JAK3 expression levels, great interest should go to the investigation of topical JAK3 inhibitors as therapeutic option of ISDs.

  9. Cold thermal injury from cold caps used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Belum, Viswanath Reddy; de Barros Silva, Giselle; Laloni, Mariana Tosello; Ciccolini, Kathryn; Goldfarb, Shari B; Norton, Larry; Sklarin, Nancy T; Lacouture, Mario E

    2016-06-01

    The use of scalp cooling for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is increasing. Cold caps are placed onto the hair-bearing areas of the scalp for varying time periods before, during, and after cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although not yet reported, improper application procedures could result in adverse events (AEs). At present, there are no evidence-based scalp cooling protocols, and there is no regulatory oversight of their use. To report the occurrence of cold thermal injury (frostbite) on the scalp, following the use of cold caps for the prevention of CIA. We identified four patients who developed cold thermal injuries on the scalp following the application of cold caps. Medical records were analyzed to retrieve the demographic and clinical characteristics. The cold thermal injuries in our patients were grade 1/2 in severity and improved with topical interventions and interruption of cold cap use, although grade 1 persistent alopecia ensued in 3 patients. The true incidence of such injuries in this setting, however, remains unknown. Cold thermal injuries are likely infrequent and preventable AEs that may result from improper device application procedures during cold cap use. Although these untoward events are usually mild to moderate in severity, the potential occurrence of long-term sequelae (e.g., permanent alopecia and scarring) or the need to discontinue cold cap use, are not known. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the risk and standardize healthcare delivery methods, and to improve patient/supportive/healthcare provider education.

  10. Cold thermal injury from cold caps used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Belum, Viswanath Reddy; de Barros Silva, Giselle; Laloni, Mariana Tosello; Ciccolini, Kathryn; Sklarin, Nancy T.; Lacouture, Mario E.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of scalp cooling for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is increasing. Cold caps are placed onto the hair-bearing areas of the scalp for varying time periods before, during, and after cytotoxic chemotherapy cycles. Although not yet reported, improper application procedures could result in undesirable adverse events (AEs). At present, there are no evidence-based scalp cooling protocols, and there is no regulatory oversight of their use. OBJECTIVE To report the occurrence of cold thermal injury (frostbite) on the scalp, following the use of cold caps for the prevention of CIA. MATERIALS AND METHODS We identified four patients who developed cold thermal injuries on the scalp following the application of cold caps. Medical records were analyzed to retrieve the demographic, clinical, and histologic characteristics. RESULTS The cold thermal injuries in our patients were grade 1/2 in severity and improved with topical interventions, although mild persistent alopecia ensued in 3 patients. The true incidence of such injuries in this setting however, remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS Cold thermal cold injuries are likely an infrequent and preventable AE that may result from improper device application procedures during scalp cooling. Although these untoward events are usually mild to moderate in severity, the potential occurrence of long-term sequelae (e.g. permanent alopecia, scarring) are not known. Future prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the risk and standardized delivery methods, and patient/clinical education. PMID:27146710

  11. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria João; Martins, Susana; Ferreira, Domingos; Segundo, Marcela A; Reis, Salette

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder, commonly known as hair loss, which affects up to half of the Caucasian male population by middle age, and almost all (95%) Caucasian men by old age. Considering that alopecia affects so many people and that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers) with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil and finasteride) into the dermis and hair follicles. Lipid nanoparticles, prepared by ultrasonication method, showed mean particle sizes around 200 nm, which is sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles, and zeta potential values around −30 mV, which indicates good physical stability. Over 28 days of storage, no significant variations in these parameters were observed, which indicates that all nanoformulations are stable in storage over that period. Cryo-scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the lipid nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. Differential scanning calorimetry studies allowed the determination of phase transition temperatures and confirmed the recrystallization of the lipid nanoparticles (recrystallization index between 11% and 86%). A high loading efficiency was achieved for finasteride (between 70% and 90%), while less than 30% was achieved for minoxidil nanoparticles, over 28 days. Controlled release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil yielded a prolonged release, as desired. Penetration assays through pig ear skin demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil and finasteride had low levels of penetration. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics

  12. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria João; Martins, Susana; Ferreira, Domingos; Segundo, Marcela A; Reis, Salette

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder, commonly known as hair loss, which affects up to half of the Caucasian male population by middle age, and almost all (95%) Caucasian men by old age. Considering that alopecia affects so many people and that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers) with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil and finasteride) into the dermis and hair follicles. Lipid nanoparticles, prepared by ultrasonication method, showed mean particle sizes around 200 nm, which is sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles, and zeta potential values around -30 mV, which indicates good physical stability. Over 28 days of storage, no significant variations in these parameters were observed, which indicates that all nanoformulations are stable in storage over that period. Cryo-scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the lipid nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. Differential scanning calorimetry studies allowed the determination of phase transition temperatures and confirmed the recrystallization of the lipid nanoparticles (recrystallization index between 11% and 86%). A high loading efficiency was achieved for finasteride (between 70% and 90%), while less than 30% was achieved for minoxidil nanoparticles, over 28 days. Controlled release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil yielded a prolonged release, as desired. Penetration assays through pig ear skin demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil and finasteride had low levels of penetration. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics

  13. Vitiligo: Pathogenesis, clinical variants and treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Giannicola; Greco, Antonio; Didona, Dario; Didona, Biagio; Granata, Guido; Manno, Alessandra; Pasquariello, Benedetta; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Vitiligo is a common chronic acquired disease of pigmentation whose etiology is unknown, which usually occurs with asymptomatic whitish patch or macule. Although several hypotheses have been proposed in the literature, the leading theory is still the auto-immune etiology linked to specific genetic mutations. Vitiligo can also be associated with several autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid diseases, alopecia areata, and halo nevi. Sensorineural hearing loss was reported in several vitiligo patients due to a reduction in the number of melanocytes contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. Because of its complexity, several therapeutic options are available to treat this systemic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Testicular leiomyosarcoma and marked alopecia in a cryptorchid ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Kammeyer, P; Ziege, S; Wellhöner, S; Cichowski, S; Baumgärtner, W

    2014-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old male ferret, bought as male castrated, was presented to the veterinarian with marked alopecia of back, neck, abdomen and tail, a pronounced sexual behaviour and weight loss. An inguinal mass of about 2.5 cm in diameter was diagnosed as potentially tumorous inguinal testicle by ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration. Adrenal glands and prostate were ultrasonographically unremarkable. The surgically removed cryptorchid testicle contained a greyish tumour that was histologically composed of spindle-shaped cells with elongated nuclei, embedded in a fibro-vascular stroma. Up to two mitotic figures per high power field were noted. Additionally, an interstitial cell hyperplasia and marked reactive proliferation of a collagen-rich fibrous tissue were observed. Tumour cells were positive for α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and occasionally vimentin and S-100, leading to the diagnosis of an intratesticular leiomyosarcoma. As an adrenal-associated endocrinopathy was excluded and a complete fur recovery was observed after removal of the cryptorchid testicle the alopecia was eventually due to hormones produced by the hyperplastic interstitial (Leydig) cells.

  15. Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Type II with Alopecia: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vupperla, Divya; Lunge, Snehal Balvant; Elaprolu, Praveen

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II is a rare hereditary disorder. It occurs due to mutations in the gene chr. 12q12-q14, which codes for vitamin D receptor. End-organ resistance to 1,25-(OH) 2 vitamin D3 and alopecia in severe cases are the characteristic features. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy with loss of hair over the scalp and body - first observed after 1 month of birth. The boy also developed difficulty in walking at the age of 2 year. On analysis, reduced serum calcium level (7.5 mg/dL) and elevated alkaline phosphatase level (625 IU/L) were reported. Initially, the treatment included intramuscularly administered single dose of 600,000 IU vitamin D, followed by 400 IU of vitamin D along with 1 g of supplemental calcium every day. Periodic follow-up was conducted for 2 months. Improvement was observed in the biochemical parameters and X-rays of the distal radial and ulnar metaphyses, although no improvement was observed in alopecia.

  16. Neem oil: an herbal therapy for alopecia causes dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Reutemann, Patricia; Ehrlich, Alison

    2008-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, the neem tree has been considered one of the most useful and versatile plants in the world. Neem oil has been used for both homeopathic remedies and as a pesticide. Both systemic and contact reactions have occurred with the use of neem oil. We report a patient who presented with an acute case of contact dermatitis on the scalp and face after the use of neem oil for alopecia and present a review of the literature regarding its uses, toxicity, and regulation.

  17. Permanent scalp alopecia related to breast cancer chemotherapy by sequential fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and docetaxel: a prospective study of 20 patients.

    PubMed

    Kluger, N; Jacot, W; Frouin, E; Rigau, V; Poujol, S; Dereure, O; Guillot, B; Romieu, G; Bessis, D

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the clinical and histological features of permanent alopecia following a sequential fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and docetaxel regimen for adjuvant breast cancer treatment. Women treated for breast cancer by a sequential adjuvant FEC and docetaxel regimen who developed permanent alopecia diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 were identified from the Department of Dermatology (Saint-Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France) and the Department of Medical Oncology (CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France). Data were collected regarding demographics, type of cancer, delay of onset after chemotherapy, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), clinical description of the lesions, scalp biopsies, laboratory explorations investigating steroid hormonal, iron, zinc and thyroid status, therapy and outcome. Twenty white Caucasian females were included. Hair loss presented with a moderate or intense androgenetic-like pattern of scalp alopecia. Biopsy specimen examinations were normal or displayed the androgenetic-like pattern. Laboratory explorations ruled out iron or zinc deficiency and thyroid disorders and confirmed hormonal menopause without hyperandrogenism. The overall mean DLQI score reflected the distressing psychological consequences in the patients' lives. No spontaneous regrowth of the scalp hair was noted. Treatment including vitamins, minoxidil, psoralen and ultraviolet A therapy and spironolactone proved to be ineffective. Permanent and severe alopecia is a newly reported complication of the FEC 100-docetaxel breast cancer regimen.

  18. The use of low-level light therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Daigle, Deanne

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. Despite its common occurrence, our understanding of the etiology of AGA and FPHL remains incomplete. As such, traditional therapies demonstrate modest efficacies and new therapies continue to be sought. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is a relatively new technique used to promote hair growth in both men and women with AGA and FPHL. Currently, there exist several LLLT devices marketed for the treatment of alopecia, which claim to stimulate hair growth; yet marketing these devices only requires that safety, not efficacy, be established. A handful of studies have since investigated the efficacy of LLLT for alopecia with mixed results. These studies suffered from power, confounding and analysis issues which resulted in a high risk of bias in LLLT studies. Due to the paucity of well-conducted randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of LLLT devices remains unclear. Randomized controlled trials of LLLT conducted and reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement would greatly increase the credibility of the evidence and clarify the ambiguity of the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of AGA and FPHL.

  19. Prevention of temporal alopecia following rhytidectomy: the prophylactic use of minoxidil. A study of 60 patients.

    PubMed

    Eremia, Sorin; Umar, Sanusi H; Li, Cindy Y

    2002-01-01

    Temporal hair loss that results from traumatized hair follicles following rhytidectomy is an unsightly complication that can distress both the patient and the operating surgeon. Topical minoxidil is a proven therapy for androgenic alopecia and female senile alopecia. It has also been found to be useful in preventing the hair loss that commonly follows hair transplantation. To analyze through a retrospective study the effect of topical minoxidil on the incidence of temporal hair loss following facelift procedures. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the role of minoxidil in preventing post-rhytidectomy temporal alopecia. The charts of 60 women with a mean age of 58 years who underwent primary cervicofacial rhytidectomy were studied. Either a standard SMAS/flap technique or pliation was done in all cases. Each patient received either 2% or 5% topical minoxidil for 2 weeks before surgery and for 4 weeks after surgery, with a 5-day break period beginning on the day of surgery. Patients were monitored for complications immediately postoperatively and in 3-6 months of follow-up. Almost 80% of the patients underwent SMAS/flap procedures. Transient temporal alopecia was noted in only one patient, 6 weeks after discontinuing minoxidil. This resolved within 4 weeks of its reintroduction. The only other complications noted included minor hematomas (3.3%), skin slough/infection (1.7%), minor transient and localized edema (8.3%), minor ecchymosis (1.7%), a unilateral neuropraxia of the buccal nerve lasting 3 months (1.7%), and a minor temporary unilateral skin depression (1.7%). Side effects of minoxidil were not observed. On comparing our findings to results of larger rhytidectomy series in which minoxidil was not used prophylactically, and our experience before using minoxidil, we conclude that minoxidil plays a role in effectively preventing the temporal hair loss that occurs following primary cervicofacial rhytidectomies. We also found that minoxidil did

  20. A Retrospective Review of Treatment Results for Patients With Central Centrifugal Cicatrical Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Eginli, Ariana; Dothard, Emily; Bagayoko, Courtney W; Huang, Karen; Daniel, Alyssa; McMichael, Amy J

    2017-04-01

    INTRODUCTION: Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a form of scarring alopecia primarily affecting women of African descent on the crown of the scalp. Limited data exists regarding evidence-based treatment for CCCA.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine photos of subjects with CCCA before and after treatment in order to evaluate results of treatment and compare results of different treatment regimens.

    METHODS: Photographs of 15 subjects with CCCA before and after treatment were evaluated by two blinded investigators who assigned disease severity scores to photographs based on a published scale: Central Scalp Alopecia Photographic Scale in African American Women.

    RESUTLS: Median change in severity score (post-treatment severity score - pre-treatment severity score) was 0.5 (P = 0.58) for all 15 subjects receiving a series of 7 to 8 intralesional steroid injections along with topical steroids (Class I/II) +/- minoxidil and +/- anti-dandruff shampoo, indicating worsening of disease after treatment. Subjects receiving minoxidil versus those who did not (0.25 vs 0.5; P = 0.38) and subjects receiving anti-dandruff shampoo versus those who did not (0.0 vs 0.5; P = 0.42) demonstrated no statistically significant difference in pre- and post-treatment severity scores. Of 15 subjects, 5/15 (33.3%) had decreased severity scores, 8/15 (53.3%) had increased severity scores, and 2/15 (13.3%) had no change in severity scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although no statistically significant difference was found in pre- versus post-treatment disease severity, this may indicate intralesional steroid injections and topical steroids +/- minoxidil and +/- anti-dandruff shampoo halt disease progression.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):317-320.

    .

  1. Ruxolitinib-conjugated gold nanoparticles for topical administration: An alternative for treating alopecia?

    PubMed

    Boca, Sanda; Berce, Cristian; Jurj, Ancuta; Petrushev, Bobe; Pop, Laura; Gafencu, Grigore-Aristide; Selicean, Sonia; Moisoiu, Vlad; Temian, Daiana; Micu, Wilhelm-Thomas; Astilean, Simion; Braicu, Cornelia; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2017-11-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological condition for which Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have recently emerged as potential therapy options, but with limited practical use because of the systemic side effects. The topical use of Ruxolitinib in alopecia universalis has been demonstrated, but little is known about the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of this way of administration. Nanomedicine provides improved therapeutics. In the current paper we present preliminary data regarding the potential use of Ruxolitinib-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in dermatological conditions, as GNPs have been proven to have a reduced absorption rate into the systemic blood flow for cutaneous administration. Internalization of the newly formed bioconjugate was assessed by electron microscopy and the functional effects of the drug were investigated by cell counting, flow cytometry and western blotting. Our data show that gold nanoparticles conjugated with Ruxolitinib inhibit the proliferation of fibroblasts by inhibiting JAK2 protein. Ruxolitinib carried by gold nanoparticles alters the proliferation of human fibroblasts, which is of great clinical importance as it can be readily administered on the skin with minimal risk of systemic side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hematological and hepatic effects of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) used to stimulate hair growth in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Gnann, Laís Angelo; Castro, Rafael Ferreira; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Feder, David; Perazzo, Fabio Ferreira; Pereira, Edimar Cristiano; Rosa, Paulo César Pires; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Rocha, Katya Cristina; Machado, Carlos D' Aparecida; Paschoal, Francisco Camargo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2013-10-29

    Alopecia areata is the hair loss usually reversible, in sharply defined areas. The treatment of alopecia using growth factors shows interesting activity in promoting hair growth. In this concept, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a marker of angiogenesis, stimulating hair growth by facilitating the supply of nutrients to the hair follicle, increasing follicular diameter. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a topical gel enriched with VEGF liposomes on the hair growth stimulation and its toxicological aspects. Mesocricetus auratus were randomly divided into three groups. Control group was treated with Aristoflex® gel, 1% group with the same gel but added 1% VEGF and 3% group with 3% VEGF. Biochemical, hematological and histological analyses were done. At the end of the experiment (15th day of VEGF treatment) efficacy was determined macroscopically by hair density dermatoscopy analysis, and microscopically by hair diameter analysis. They both demonstrated that hair of the VEGF group increased faster and thicker than control. On the other hand, biochemical and hematological results had shown that VEGF was not 100% inert. VEGF increased hair follicle area, but more studies are necessary to confirm its toxicity.

  3. p53 Involvement in the Control of Murine Hair Follicle Regression

    PubMed Central

    Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Komarova, Elena A.; Siebenhaar, Frank; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Sharov, Andrei A.; Komarov, Pavel G.; Maurer, Marcus; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    p53 is a transcription factor mediating a variety of biological responses including apoptotic cell death. p53 was recently shown to control apoptosis in the hair follicle induced by ionizing radiation and chemotherapy, but its role in the apoptosis-driven physiological hair follicle regression (catagen) remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that p53 protein is strongly expressed and co-localized with apoptotic markers in the regressing hair follicle compartments during catagen. In contrast to wild-type mice, p53 knockout mice show significant retardation of catagen accompanied by significant decrease in the number of apoptotic cells in the hair matrix. Furthermore, p53 null hair follicles are characterized by alterations in the expression of markers that are encoded by p53 target genes and are implicated in the control of catagen (Bax, Bcl-2, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3). These data suggest that p53 is involved in the control of apoptosis in the hair follicle during physiological regression and imply that p53 antagonists may be useful for the management of hair growth disorders characterized by premature entry into catagen, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and telogen effluvium. PMID:11395365

  4. Analysis of the Genetic Basis of Disease in the Context of Worldwide Human Relationships and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Erik; Chen, Rong; Sikora, Martin; Morgan, Alexander A.; Patel, Chirag J.; Ramesh, Aditya; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Butte, Atul J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity across different human populations can enhance understanding of the genetic basis of disease. We calculated the genetic risk of 102 diseases in 1,043 unrelated individuals across 51 populations of the Human Genome Diversity Panel. We found that genetic risk for type 2 diabetes and pancreatic cancer decreased as humans migrated toward East Asia. In addition, biliary liver cirrhosis, alopecia areata, bladder cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, membranous nephropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, ulcerative colitis, and vitiligo have undergone genetic risk differentiation. This analysis represents a large-scale attempt to characterize genetic risk differentiation in the context of migration. We anticipate that our findings will enable detailed analysis pertaining to the driving forces behind genetic risk differentiation. PMID:23717210

  5. Macrolides in Chronic Inflammatory Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alzolibani, Abdullateef A.; Zedan, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Long-term therapy with the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin was shown to alter the clinical course of diffuse panbronchiolitis in the late 1980s. Since that time, macrolides have been found to have a large number of anti-inflammatory properties in addition to being antimicrobials. These observations provided the rationale for many studies performed to assess the usefulness of macrolides in other inflammatory diseases including skin and hair disorders, such as rosacea, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, alopecia areata, bullous pemphigoid, and pityriasis lichenoides. This paper summarizes a collection of clinical studies and case reports dealing with the potential benefits of macrolides antibiotics in the treatment of selected dermatoses which have primarily been classified as noninfectious and demonstrating their potential for being disease-modifying agents. PMID:22685371

  6. Expanding the phenotype of alopecia-contractures-dwarfism mental retardation syndrome (ACD syndrome): description of an additional case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schell-Apacik, Chayim; Hardt, Michael; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Klopocki, Eva; Möhrenschlager, Matthias; Heinrich, Uwe; von Voss, Hubertus

    2008-09-01

    Alopecia-contractures-dwarfism mental retardation syndrome (ACD syndrome; OMIM 203550) is a very rare genetic disorder with distinct features. To our knowledge, there have been four cases documented to date. In addition, another three patients, previously described as having IFAP syndrome (OMIM %308205), may also have ACD syndrome. We report on one patient with short stature, total alopecia, ichthyosis, photophobia, seizures, ectrodactyly, vertebral anomalies, scoliosis, multiple contractures, mental retardation, and striking facial and other features (e.g. microdolichocephaly, missing eyebrows and eyelashes, long nose, large ears) consistent with ACD syndrome. Results of laboratory testing in the literature case reports were normal, although in none of them, array-CGH (microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization) analysis was performed. In conclusion, the combination of specific features, including total alopecia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and skeletal anomalies are suggestive of ACD syndrome. We propose that children with this syndrome undergo a certain social pediatric protocol including EEG diagnostics, ophthalmological investigation, psychological testing, management of dermatologic and orthopedic problems, and genetic counseling.

  7. [Localized inflammatory alopecia of the scalp: an unusual presentation of tularemia].

    PubMed

    Berton, M; Nojavan, H; Bens, G; Estève, E

    2012-04-01

    Tularaemia is a rare arthropod-borne zoonotic infection with 20 to 70 new cases being seen each year in France. Cutaneous ulceration and regional lymphadenopathy are the classical dermatological signs. Diagnosis of atypical forms is more complex. A 48-year-old woman was admitted for an erythematous papular alopecic lesion of the scalp accompanied by fever, chills and cervical lymphadenopathy. Initial antibiotic therapy for 20 days with amoxicillin clavulanate was ineffective. The patient's history included an episode of hunting in the forest three days before the onset of signs. Finally, serology led to the diagnosis of tularaemia. Combined levofloxacin and doxycycline resulted in regression of the scalp lesion and lymph node disorder. The existence of alopecia and location on the scalp did not initially suggest a diagnosis of tularaemia to us. The clinical presentation was highly suggestive of impetigo with satellite lymphadenopathies. However, resistance to antibiotics and the absence of inflammation militated against this diagnosis, and other possible diagnoses such as a tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), borreliosis and tularaemia were discussed. The most common clinical presentation of tularaemia is ulceroglandular tularaemia, which predominates in 80% of cases. The inoculation chancre at the point of initial infection is most often located in the upper limbs. An inflammatory plaque on the scalp with alopecia may reveal tularaemia, a potentially fatal disease resulting from inoculation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia.

    PubMed

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6-834.3 nm) and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.

  9. Iontophoresis-targeted, follicular delivery of minoxidil sulfate for the treatment of alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Tais; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Vianna Lopez, Renata Fonseca

    2013-05-01

    Although minoxidil (MX) is a drug known to stimulate hair growth, the treatment of androgenic alopecia could be improved by delivery strategies that would favor drug accumulation into the hair follicles. This work investigated in vitro the potential of iontophoresis to achieve this objective using MX sulfate (MXS), a more water-soluble derivative of MX. Passive delivery of MXS was first determined from an ethanol-water solution and from a thermosensitive gel. The latter formulation resulted in greater accumulation of MXS in the stratum corneum (skin's outermost layer) and hair follicles and an overall decrease in absorption through the skin. Anodal iontophoresis of MXS from the same gel formulation was then investigated at pH 3.5 and pH 5.5. Compared with passive delivery, iontophoresis increased the amount of drug reaching the follicular infundibula from 120 to 600 ng per follicle. In addition, drug recovery from follicular casts was threefold higher following iontophoresis at pH 5.5 compared with that at pH 3.5. Preliminary in vivo experiments in rats confirmed that iontophoretic delivery of MXS facilitated drug accumulation in hair follicles. Overall, therefore, iontophoresis successfully and significantly enhanced follicular delivery of MX suggesting a useful opportunity for the improved treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Further Clinical Evidence for the Effect of IGF-1 on Hair Growth and Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2018-04-01

    Observations on the Laron syndrome originally offered the opportunity to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency on human hair growth and differentiation. According to its expression in the dermal hair papilla, IGF-1 is likely involved in reciprocal signaling. It has been shown to affect follicular proliferation, tissue remodeling, and the hair growth cycle, as well as follicular differentiation, identifying IGF-1 signaling as an important mitogenic and morphogenetic regulator in hair follicle biology. Of all the cytokines or growth factors that have been postulated to play a role in hair follicles, ultimately IGF-1 is known to be regulated by androgens. Accordingly, dermal papillary cells from balding scalp follicles were found to secrete significantly less IGF-1 than their counterparts from nonbalding scalp follicles. Herein, hypotrichosis in primary growth hormone deficiency, and a lack of response of female and male androgenetic-type alopecia to treatment with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride in patients who had undergone surgical resection of the pituitary gland, provide further evidence for an effect of IGF-1 on hair growth and alopecia.

  11. Low level laser therapy and hair regrowth: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2016-02-01

    Despite the current treatment options for different types of alopecia, there is a need for more effective management options. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth. Here, we reviewed the current evidence on the LLLT effects with an evidence-based approach, focusing more on randomized controlled studies by critically evaluating them. In order to investigate whether in individuals presenting with hair loss (male pattern hair loss (MPHL), female pattern hair loss (FPHL), alopecia areata (AA), and chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA)) LLLT is effective for hair regrowth, several databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database were searched using the following keywords: Alopecia, Hair loss, Hair growth, Low level laser therapy, Low level light therapy, Low energy laser irradiation, and Photobiomodulation. From the searches, 21 relevant studies were summarized in this review including 2 in vitro, 7 animal, and 12 clinical studies. Among clinical studies, only five were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which evaluated LLLT effect on male and female pattern hair loss. The RCTs were critically appraised using the created checklist according to the Critical Appraisal for Therapy Articles Worksheet created by the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford. The results demonstrated that all the performed RCTs have moderate to high quality of evidence. However, only one out of five studies performed intention-to-treat analysis, and only another study reported the method of randomization and subsequent concealment of allocation clearly; all other studies did not include this very important information in their reports. None of these studies reported the treatment effect of factors such as number needed to treat. Based on this review on all the available evidence about effect of LLLT in alopecia, we found that the FDA-cleared LLLT devices are both safe and effective in patients with MPHL and FPHL

  12. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  13. Fatigue, alopecia and stomatitis among patients with breast cancer receiving cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lasheen, Shaimaa; Shohdy, Kyrillus S; Kassem, Loay; Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors emerge as efficacious agents in hormone positive metastatic breast cancer with more acceptable toxicity profiles than cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, some adverse effects such as fatigue, alopecia and stomatitis, vastly concern patients. The search was conducted in PubMed, American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting library, European Society for Medical Oncology meeting abstract, and the San Antonio meeting abstract databases. We identified phase 2 or 3 trials recruiting patients with breast cancer, randomized to receive hormonal treatment plus either CDK4/6 inhibitors or placebo. We considered studies providing incidence of fatigue, alopecia and stomatitis relevant. One thousand records were screened. 34 studies were considered relevant. Four studies were found to be eligible for meta-analysis with a total of 2007 patients. The relative risk for all grade fatigue was 1.34 [95% CI: 1.17-1.54, p < 0.0001], for all grade alopecia was 2.14 [95% CI: 1.23-3.73, p = 0.007], and for all grade stomatitis 4.87 [95% CI: 2.11-11.24, p = 0.0002]. In addition, the relative risk for high grade fatigue was 2.40 [95% CI: 1.10-5.26, p = 0.03]. CDK4/6 inhibitors were associated with an increased risk of fatigue, alopecia and stomatitis. Further studies with self-reported questionnaires may elucidate the impact of the increased risk of these selected adverse effects on the patients' quality of life.

  14. Patient-reported outcome assessment and objective evaluation of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Komen, Manon M C; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Nortier, Johan W R; van der Ploeg, T; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M

    2018-04-01

    Alopecia is one of the most distressing side effects of chemotherapy. Evaluating and comparing the efficacy of potential therapies to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) has been complicated by the lack of a standardized measurement for hair loss. In this study we investigated the correlation between patient-reported outcome assessments and quantitative measurement with the hair check to assess CIA in clinical practice. Scalp cooling efficacy was evaluated by patients by World Health Organisation (WHO) of CIA, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and wig use. The Hair Check was used to determine the amount of hair (in mm 2 ) per unit of scalp skin area (in cm 2 ) (Hair Mass Index, HMI). CIA was also evaluated by doctors, nurses and hairdressers. Baseline HMI was not predictive for hair loss. HMI declined throughout all chemotherapy cycles, which was not reflected by patient-reported measures. HMI correlated with patient-reported hair quantity before the start of the therapy, but not with WHO and/or VAS during therapy. Patient's opinion correlated moderately with the opinion of doctors and nurses (ρ = 0.50-0.56 respectively), but strongly with hair dressers (ρ = 0.70). The Hair check is suitable to quantify the amount of hair loss and could complement research on refining outcome of scalp cooling, but the patient's opinion should be considered as the best method to assess hair loss in clinical practice. Trialregister.nl NTR number 3082. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia with PTH-CBD, a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog, in a non-depilated mouse model.

    PubMed

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically devastating complication of chemotherapy for which there is currently no effective therapy. PTH-CBD is a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog that has shown promise as a therapy for alopecia disorders. This study compared the efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic administration of PTH-CBD in chemotherapy-induced alopecia using a mouse model that mimics the cyclic chemotherapy dosing used clinically. C57BL/6J mice were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of PTH-CBD (320 mcg/kg) or vehicle control before or after hair loss developing from three courses of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50-150 mg/kg/week). Mice receiving chemotherapy alone developed hair loss and depigmentation over 6-12 months. Mice pretreated with PTH-CBD did not develop these changes and maintained a normal-appearing coat. Mice treated with PTH-CBD after development of hair loss showed a partial recovery. Observations of hair loss were confirmed quantitatively by gray scale analysis. Histological examination showed that in mice receiving chemotherapy alone, there were small, dystrophic hair follicles mostly in the catagen phase. Mice receiving PTH-CBD before chemotherapy showed a mix of normal-appearing telogen and anagen hair follicles with no evidence of dystrophy. Mice receiving PTH-CBD therapy after chemotherapy showed intermediate histological features. PTH-CBD was effective in both the prevention and the treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice, but pretreatment appears to result in a better cosmetic outcome. PTH-CBD shows promise as an agent in the prevention of this complication of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life for cancer patients.

  16. Scalp cooling to prevent alopecia after chemotherapy can be considered safe in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, C J G; van de Poll-Franse, L V; Breed, W P M; Coebergh, J W W; Nortier, J W R

    2013-10-01

    With modern scalp cooling equipment cytotoxic damage of hair root cells can be prevented in half of the patients with cancer at high risk of alopecia. However, traditionally doubt has existed whether scalp cooling might facilitate hiding and disseminating scalp skin metastases and thus decrease survival. We discuss this risk using frequency data on metastases in breast cancer from observational and autopsy studies and the Munich cancer registry. They showed the incidence of scalp skin metastases to be very low and not differ between scalp-cooled (0.04-1%) and non scalp-cooled (0.03-3%) patients with breast cancer and in need of chemotherapy. We found it rather unlikely that the incidence of scalp skin metastases might increase at all after scalp cooling, whereas a very small proportion of patients receiving chemotherapy are at risk to develop metastases at this site. Scalp cooling can thus safely be offered to patients treated with alopecia-inducing chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Rice Bran Supercritical CO2 Extract for Hair Growth in Androgenic Alopecia: A 16-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Jae Beom; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope(®). Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  18. TREATMENT SUCCESS IN THREE ANDEAN BEARS (TREMARCTOS ORNATUS) WITH ALOPECIA SYNDROME USING OCLACITINIB MALEATE (APOQUEL®).

    PubMed

    Drake, Gabby J; Nuttall, Tim; López, Javier; Magnone, William; Leclerc, Antoine; Potier, Romain; Lécu, Alexis; Guézénec, Maëlle; Kolter, Lydia; Nicolau, Amélie; Lemberger, Karin; Pin, Didier; Cosgrove, Sallie B

    2017-09-01

    Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. This paper describes the successful management of ABAS in three female Andean bears. Skin biopsies and cytology revealed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and Malassezia dermatitis. Allergen specific serology was positive for environmental allergens in one case. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thyroid and adrenal function were normal in all cases. There was no consistent response to novel diet trials, antifungals, antihistamines, allergen specific immunotherapy, or topical antimicrobials. There was a partial response to ciclosporin (Atopica® cat, Novartis Animal Health; 5 mg/kg po, sid) in one case and oral glucocorticoids in all cases (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, [Colvasone 0.2%, Norbrook], 0.15 mg/kg po, sid or prednisolone [Deltacortene, Bruno Farmaceutici, and Megasolone 20, Coophavet], 0.3-1.2 mg/kg po, sid), but treatment was withdrawn following adverse effects. Treatment with oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel®, Zoetis; 0.46-0.5 mg/kg po, bid) resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the pruritus with subsequent improvement in demeanor and fur regrowth. After 5 mo, the bears were almost fully furred and off all other medication. Treatment was tapered to the lowest dose that prevented relapse of the pruritus (0.23-0.4 mg/kg po, sid). No adverse effects have been noted. ABAS is usually an intractable condition, and, to our knowledge, oclacitinib is the first treatment shown to result in sustained clinical improvement. Further studies on the etiology of ABAS, and on efficacy and long-term safety of oclacitinib are needed.

  19. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6–834.3 nm) and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles. PMID:25473283

  20. Novel Approach to Treating Androgenetic Alopecia in Females With Photobiomodulation (Low-Level Laser Therapy).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Shelly; Schnoor, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Photobiomodulation, also referred to as low-level laser therapy (LLLT), has been studied and used for (among other diseases) the promotion of hair regrowth. A clinical study was developed to define the physiologic effects that occur when the human hair follicle and surrounding tissue structures are exposed to laser light using a novel device that is fitted with an array of laser diode sources operating at 650 nm and placed inside a sports cap to promote discretion while in use. The study demonstrates that low-level laser treatment of the scalp every other day for 17 weeks using the HANDI-DOME LASER device is a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia in healthy females between the ages of 18 to 60 with Fitzpatrick skin Types I to IV and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2 to II-2 baldness patterns. Subjects receiving LLLT at 650 nm achieved a 51% increase in hair counts as compared with sham-treated control patients in this multicenter randomized controlled trial. These results suggest that the emerging technology of low-level laser therapy may play a potentially significant role in health care providers' armamentarium for the disease androgenic alopecia.

  1. Scalp cooling successfully prevents alopecia in breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ines; Wiesske, Alexandra; Schoenegg, Winfried

    2018-04-13

    Chemotherapy for breast cancer induces alopecia, representing a major source of patient distress. This study assesses whether a scalp-cooling device is effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia, and assesses adverse treatment effects. A prospective observational study including women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and scalp cooling using a Paxman device. The primary efficacy end points were: successful hair preservation (no hair loss; <30% hair loss not requiring a wig; or <50% hair loss not requiring a wig) at the completion of chemotherapy. Secondary end points included adverse effects such as headache, pain, nausea or dizziness. The study enrolled 131 participants. Mean patient age was 49.8 years; 74% received anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy and 26% received taxane-monotherapy based chemotherapy. Hair preservation was successful in 102 women who underwent scalp cooling (71.0%; 95% CI = 63-79%). Only adverse events related to device use were collected, representing 7% (95% CI = 3-11%) of cases. Scalp cooling is effective in preventing hair loss among breast cancer patients undergoing standard chemotherapy treatment, and has minimal adverse effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Hypnotherapy and Skin Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2018-07-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive hypnotherapy integrates mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and hypnotherapy to improve physical, emotional, mental, and/or spiritual aspects of skin disorders. Meditation, including mindfulness meditation, and hypnosis both utilize trance phenomena to help produce focalization and specific improvements in skin disorders through psycho-neuro-endocrine-immunologic mechanisms. Hypnosis, cognitive hypnotherapy, focused meditation, and mindfulness meditation are discussed with respect to improving various skin disorders including acne, acne excoriée, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, dyshidrotic dermatitis, erythema nodosum, erythromelalgia, furuncles, glossodynia, herpes simplex, hyperhidrosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, lichen planus, neurodermatitis, nummular dermatitis, postherpetic neuralgia, prurigo nodularis, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, trichotillomania, urticaria, verruca vulgaris, and vitiligo. Their integration into mindfulness-based cognitive hypnotherapy is then discussed and illustrated with improvement in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  3. Autoantibodies and their clinical significance in a black vitiligo population.

    PubMed

    Grimes, P E; Halder, R M; Jones, C; Chakrabarti, S G; Enterline, J; Minus, H R; Kenney, J A

    1983-04-01

    The frequency of autoantibodies was determined in 70 black vitiligo patients and controls. Both groups were screened for antithyroid, antinuclear, antigastric parietal cell, anti-smooth muscle cell, and antimitochondrial autoantibodies. The significance of autoantibodies was determined in vitiligo patients by correlating their presence or absence with various clinical features of the patients. The overall frequencies of autoimmune and endocrine diseases were also assessed in vitiligo patients, controls, and their respective families. Vitiligo patients had an increased frequency of antithyroid antibodies and an increased frequency of autoimmune and/or endocrine diseases. These diseases included, especially, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and alopecia areata. Autoantibody-positive vitiligo patients had an increased frequency of first- and second-degree relatives having autoimmune and/or endocrine diseases. These findings tend to support an autoimmune cause of vitiligo in black patients.

  4. Treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia with PTH-CBD, a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog, in a non-depilated mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically devastating complication of chemotherapy for which there is currently no effective therapy. PTH-CBD is a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog that has shown promise as a therapy for alopecia disorders. To compare the efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic administration of PTH-CBD in chemotherapy-induced alopecia using a mouse model that mimics the cyclic chemotherapy dosing used clinically. C57BL/6J mice were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of PTH-CBD (320 mcg/kg) or vehicle control before or after hair loss developing from three courses of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50–150 mg/kg/week). Mice receiving chemotherapy alone developed hair loss and depigmentation over 6–12 months. Mice pretreated with PTH-CBD did not develop these changes and maintained a normal-appearing coat. Mice treated with PTH-CBD after development of hair loss showed a partial recovery. Observations of hair loss were confirmed quantitatively by gray scale analysis. Histological examination showed that in mice receiving chemotherapy alone, there were small, dystrophic hair follicles mostly in the catagen phase. Mice receiving PTH-CBD before chemotherapy showed a mix of normal-appearing telogen and anagen hair follicles with no evidence of dystrophy. Mice receiving PTH-CBD therapy after chemotherapy showed intermediate histological features. PTH-CBD was effective in both the prevention and the treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice, but pretreatment appears to result in a better cosmetic outcome. PTH-CBD shows promise as an agent in the prevention of this complication of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life for cancer patients. PMID:24025564

  5. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Stott, Jeffrey; Waters, Shannon; Atwood, Todd

    2015-10-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Stott, Jeffrey L.; Waters, Shannon C.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans.

  7. Efficacy of a cosmetic phyto-caffeine shampoo in female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bussoletti, Carolina; Tolaini, Maria V; Celleno, Leonardo

    2018-03-06

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in both males as well as females, occurring in up to 57% of women by the age of 80 years. Androgenetic alopecia is associated with a high psychological burden and often results in substantially reduced quality of life, poor body image and low self-esteem, particularly in women. Caffeine-based products have shown promise, both in vitro and in vivo, as potential treatments for AGA. This study was performed to determine the efficacy of a phyto-caffeine- containing shampoo used over a 6-month period in female subjects with AGA. This was a single-centre, double-blind parallel trial in which female subjects with AGA were randomized to either a phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo or a control shampoo. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in the number of hairs pulled in a hair pull test at 6 months. Hair loss intensity, hair strength, subject satisfaction and tolerability were also assessed. Subjects using the phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo had significantly fewer hairs pulled in a hair pull test at 6 months, compared with subjects using the control shampoo (-3.1 vs -0.5 hairs; p<0.001). The majority of pre-specified secondary endpoints were also significantly improved for subjects using the phyto-caffeine- containing shampoo, compared with controls. Both products were very well tolerated. Compared with a control shampoo, a phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo was more efficacious, with respect to the number of hairs being pulled out at 6 months, hair loss intensity and hair strength in subjects with AGA.

  8. Platelet-rich plasma-an 'Elixir' for treatment of alopecia: personal experience on 117 patients with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Garg, Suruchi; Manchanda, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery and dermatology. PRP is a simple, cost-effective and feasible treatment option with high patient satisfaction for hair loss and can be regarded as a valuable adjuvant treatment modality for androgenic alopecia and other types of non-scarring alopecias. Authors have proposed a hair model termed "Golden anchorage with 'molecular locking' of ectodermal and mesenchymal components for survival and integrity of hair follicle (HF)" in this article. Golden anchorage comprises of bulge stem cells, ectodermal basement membrane and bulge portion of APM. PRP with its autologous supply of millions of growth factors works on 'Golden anchorage' along with keratinocytes (PDGF), dermal papilla (IGF and fibroblast growth factor), vasculature (VEGF and PDGF) and neural cells (Nerve Growth Factor) in a multipronged manner serving as an 'elixir' for hair growth and improving overall environment.

  9. Randomized trial of electrodynamic microneedle combined with 5% minoxidil topical solution for the treatment of Chinese male Androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bao, Linlin; Gong, Lin; Guo, Menger; Liu, Taoming; Shi, Anyu; Zong, Haifeng; Xu, Xuegang; Chen, Hongduo; Gao, Xinghua; Li, Yuanhong

    2017-10-13

    In treating androgenetic alopecia, 5% minoxidil is a commonly used topical drug. By using electrodynamic microneedle at the same time may increase absorption of minoxidil and further stimulate hair growth. A 24-week, randomized, evaluator blinded, comparative study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of treating Chinese male androgenetic alopecia using microneedle combined with 5% minoxidil topical solution. Randomized subjects received topical 5% minoxidil (group 1, n = 20), local electrodynamic microneedle treatments (group 2, n = 20), or local electrodynamic microneedle treatments plus topical 5% minoxidil (group 3, n = 20). A total of 12 microneedle treatments were performed every 2 weeks with 2ml 5% minoxidil delivery in group 3 during each microneedle treatment. Patient receiving topical 5% minoxidil applied 1 ml of the solution twice daily over the course of the study. A total of 60 Chinese male subjects with Norwood-Hamilton type III-VI androgenetic alopecia were treated. The mean improvement in total hair density from baseline to 24 weeks was 18.8/cm 2 in group 1, 23.4/cm 2 in group 2, and 38.3/cm 2 in group 3. The hair growth in the 3 groups was significantly different (P = 0.002), but there were no significant differences in toxicity found between the 3 groups. Treatment with microneedle plus topical 5% minoxidil was associated with the best hair growth.

  10. The Influence of Various Parameters on the Success of Sensor-Controlled Scalp Cooling in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Schaffrin-Nabe, Dörthe; Schmitz, Inge; Josten-Nabe, Anke; von Hehn, Ulrike; Voigtmann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The influence of systemic comorbidities on the success of scalp cooling during chemotherapy (CT) is widely unexplored. Comorbidities often require additional medication which itself can occasionally cause alopecia. This study investigates the influence of selected parameters on the efficacy of scalp cooling for the prevention of CT-induced alopecia. 226 cancer patients were treated with various CT regimens in combination with sensor-controlled scalp cooling. 136 breast cancer patients received (neo)adjuvant therapy, and 76 of these patients received epirubicine and cyclophosphamide (4× EC 3w) followed by paclitaxel (12× T w). The following parameters were prospectively investigated: chemotherapy-induced alopecia, systemic comorbidities and co-medication, nicotine abuse, hair treatment, menopausal status, and trichologic status. Scalp cooling was successful (no or not visible hair loss; common toxicity criteria 0-1) in 65% of all patients, in 65% of the 136 breast cancer patients, and in 68% of the 76 patients receiving EC/T. In this subgroup, premenopausal patients (p = 0.009) and those without systemic comorbidities (p = 0.003), without co-medication (p < 0.001) and with high hair density (p = 0.038) showed less hair loss during CT; an effect was also seen for nicotine abuse (p = 0.023). Hair length and hair treatment had no significant influence. Sensor-controlled scalp cooling represents an effective addition to supportive cancer therapy. The success of scalp cooling depends on the applied CT regimen. Parameters like menopausal status, systemic comorbidities, medication, nicotine abuse, and original hair density also influence the outcome of hair loss prevention. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Mechanism of action of minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is likely mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase-induced stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Goren, A; Naccarato, T; Situm, M; Kovacevic, M; Lotti, T; McCoy, J

    2017-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only topical drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. However, the exact mechanism by which minoxidil stimulates anagen phase and promotes hair growth is not fully understood. In the late telegen phase of the hair follicle growth cycle, stem cells located in the bulge region differentiate and re-enter anagen phase, a period of growth lasting 2-6 years. In androgenetic alopecia, the anagen phase is shortened and a progressive miniaturization of hair follicles occurs, eventually leading to hair loss. Several studies have demonstrated that minoxidil increases the amount of intracellular Ca2+, which has been shown to up-regulate the enzyme adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase. A recent study demonstrated that ATP synthase, independent of its role in ATP synthesis, promotes stem cell differentiation. As such, we propose that minoxidil induced Ca2+ influx can increase stem cell differentiation and may be a key factor in the mechanism by which minoxidil facilitates hair growth. Based on our theory, we provide a roadmap for the development of a new class of drugs for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  12. Efficacy of non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Mays, Rachel R; Dotzert, Michelle S; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H; Piguet, Vincent

    2018-05-24

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male/female pattern baldness, is the most common type of progressive hair loss disorder. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia and identify the most effective treatments. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted of the available literature of the six most common non-surgical treatment options for treating androgenetic alopecia in both men and women; dutasteride 0.5mg, finasteride 1mg, low level laser therapy (LLLT), minoxidil 2%, minoxidil 5% and platelet rich plasma (PRP). Seventy-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and twenty-two studies had the data necessary for a network meta-analysis. Relative effects show LLLT as the superior treatment. Relative effects show PRP, finasteride 1 mg (male), finasteride 1 mg (female), minoxidil 5%, minoxidil 2% and dutasteride (male) are approximately equivalent in mean change hair count following treatment. Minoxidil 5% and minoxidil 2% reported the most drug-related adverse events (n=45 and n=23, respectively). The quality of evidence of minoxidil 2% vs. minoxidil 5% was high; minoxidil 5% vs. placebo was moderate; dutasteride (male) vs. placebo, finasteride (female) vs placebo, minoxidil 2% vs. placebo, minoxidil 5% vs. LLLT was low and finasteride (male) vs. placebo, LLLT vs. sham, PRP vs. placebo, finasteride vs. minoxidil 2% was very low. Results of this NMA indicate the emergence of novel, non-hormonal therapies as effective treatments for hair loss; however, the quality of evidence is generally low. High quality randomized controlled trials and head to head trials are required to support these findings and aid in the development of more standardized protocols, particularly for PRP. Regardless, this analysis may aid physicians in clinical decision making and highlight the variety of non-surgical hair restoration options for patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by

  13. “Cold” X5 Hairlaser™ used to treat male androgenic alopecia and hair growth: an uncontrolled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources. Methods For this feasibility study, the population was composed of males between the ages of 20 and 60 years who have been experiencing active hair loss within the last 12 months and the diagnosis of AGA. They also had a Norwood-Hamilton classification of 3, 3A, 3 V, 4, 4A, or 5 for the hair thinning patterns and skin type I, II, III, or IV on the Fitzpatrick skin type scale. This two-arm randomized, parallel group study design employed stratifying randomization to balance treatment assignment within three investigational centers with at least 2 subjects enrolled in each Fitzpatrick skin type. Results A statistically significant positive trend in hair growth was observed from this pilot study, to evaluate the efficacy of the novel cold X5 hairlaser device for treating male androgenic alopecia. From the repeated measures analysis of variance, difference in mean hair counts over time was statistically significant (F = 7.70; p-value < 0.0001). Subsequent, linear regression of mean hair counts at each time point was performed, and post-hoc analysis found an increasing trend of hair growth over time that was statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001) with the estimated slope of 1.406. Increased hair counts from the baseline to the end of the 26-week period were found to be strongly significant (p-value = 0.0003). Conclusion Albeit, sham device failure and resultant missing data from the control group, the positive trend hair growth, was observed due to the chronic use of X5hairlaser device. This positive benefit while in full agreement with other low laser hair devices requires intensive further investigation. Trial registration NCT02067260 PMID:24559020

  14. The dominant alopecia phenotypes Bareskin, Rex-denuded, and Reduced Coat 2 are caused by mutations in gasdermin 3.

    PubMed

    Runkel, F; Marquardt, A; Stoeger, C; Kochmann, E; Simon, D; Kohnke, B; Korthaus, D; Wattler, F; Fuchs, H; Hrabé de Angelis, M; Stumm, G; Nehls, M; Wattler, S; Franz, T; Augustin, M

    2004-11-01

    Reduced Coat 2 (Rco2) is an ENU-induced mutation affecting hair follicle morphogenesis by an abnormal and protracted catagen. We describe chromosomal mapping and molecular identification of the autosomal dominant Rco2 mutation. The Rco2 critical region on mouse chromosome 11 encompasses the alopecia loci, Bareskin (Bsk), Rex-denuded (Re(den)), Recombination induced mutation 3 (Rim3), and Defolliculated (Dfl). Recently, the gasdermin (Gsdm) gene was described as predominantly expressed in skin and gastric tissues. We provide evidence for a murine-specific gene cluster consisting of Gsdm and two closely related genes which we designate as Gsdm2 and Gsdm3. We show that Gsdm3 reflects a mutation hotspot and that Gsdm3 mutations cause alopecia in Rco2, Re(den), and Bsk mice. We infer a role of Gsdm3 during the catagen to telogen transition at the end of hair follicle morphogenesis and the formation of hair follicle-associated sebaceous glands.

  15. Alopecia of IFN-gamma knockout mouse as a model for disturbance of the hair cycle: a unique arrest of the hair cycle at the anagen phase accompanied by mitosis.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Ryuichiro; Tajima, Sadao; Yoneda, Yukio; Tamayama, Takumi; Watanabe, Masahito; Ueda, Kouichi; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2002-09-01

    Interferon-gamma(-/-) (IFN-gamma(-/-)) and IFN-gamma(+/+) C57BL/6 mice (3 weeks of age) completed the production of morphogenesis-derived hair. Around 6 weeks of age, however, most of the IFN-gamma(-/-) but none of the IFN-gamma(+/+) mice began to lose hairs in the dorsal and occipital areas in the absence of inflammatory reactions, and the alopecia was sustained for at least several 10-week periods of observation. A single subcutaneous injection of IFN-gamma to IFN-gamma(-/-) mice at 3, but not 4, 5, or 8 weeks of age could protect all the mice from alopecia, revealing that the lack of IFN-gamma around 3 weeks of age is directly responsible for the alopecia. Histologic features showed that the hair follicles of the IFN-gamma(+/+) mice passed through the anagen (4-5 weeks of age) and catagen/telogen ( approximately 6 weeks of age) phases, whereas those of IFN-gamma(-/-) mice (5 weeks of age or older) stayed in the anagen phase. TUNEL and bromodeoxyuridine experiments suggested that an arrest with unlimited DNA synthesis of the hair cycle in the anagen phase by the lack of IFN-gamma-dependent apoptosis in the midfollicle region and diffuse shedding of previously formed hair induced alopecia in IFN-gamma(-/-) mice.

  16. A Review of Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Cinats, A; Heck, E

    2018-05-01

    The class of medications known as Janus kinase inhibitors block cytokine-mediated signaling via the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway, which plays an important role in immunoregulation and normal cell growth. This class includes the drugs tofacitinib, approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and ruxolitinib, approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis and polycythemia rubra vera. The most common adverse events (AEs) reported in patients taking tofacitinib are infections, whereas the most common AEs in patients taking ruxolitinib are anemia and thrombocytopenia. Both first and second generation Janus kinase inhibitors have become promising treatment modalities for dermatologic conditions such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, vilitigo, dermatomyositis, and graft-versus-host disease. Future promising areas of investigation include treatment of cutaneous lupus, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, melanoma, allergic contact dermatitis, and lichen planus.

  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 1% topical minoxidil solution in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Ryoji; Tanaka, Takao; Nishikawa, Tooru; Ueki, Rie; Yamada, Hidekazu; Katsuoka, Kensei; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takeda, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil is effective in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by stimulating hair follicles to undergo transition from early to late anagen phase. However, there have been no controlled studies of topical minoxidil in Asian women. The objective of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of 1% topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia in Japanese female patients using a double-blind controlled method. This trial included 280 Japanese female patients aged 20 years or older with androgenetic alopecia who were administered either 1% topical minoxidil (n = 140) or placebo (n = 140) for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was mean change from baseline in non-vellus hair count/cm(2). The mean change was 8.15 in the 1% topical minoxidil group and 2.03 in the placebo group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.001) [difference: 6.12 (two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.29-8.96)]. Secondary variables included investigators' assessments and patients' self-assessments. As assessed by investigators, 29.2% (40/137) of the patients had moderate or better improvement in the 1% topical minoxidil group compared to 11.8% (16/136) in the placebo group (p < 0.001 versus placebo). The effect on hair growth was assessed as improved or better by 36.5% (50/137) of the patients themselves in the 1% topical minoxidil group compared to 23.5% (32/136) in the placebo group (p = 0.019 versus placebo). The patients tolerated treatment with 1% topical minoxidil well without significant adverse effects.

  18. Histological assessment of follicular delivery of flutamide by solid lipid nanoparticles: potential tool for the treatment of androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Hamishehkar, Hamed; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Sepehran, Sasan; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Adib, Zahra Mardhiah; Kouhsoltani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen with the several unwanted side effects in systemic administration, therefore, it has attracted special interest in the development of topically applied formulations for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of Flutamide for follicular targeting in the treatment of the androgenic alopecia. Flutamide-loaded SLNs, promising drug carriers for topical application were prepared by hot melt homogenization method. Drug permeation and accumulation in the exercised rat skin and histological study on the male hamsters were performed to assess drug delivery efficiency in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The optimized Flutamide-loaded SLNs (size 198 nm, encapsulation efficiency percentage 65% and loading efficiency percentage 3.27%) exhibited a good stability during the period of at least 2 months. The results of X-ray diffraction showed Flutamide amorphous state confirming uniform drug dispersion in the SLNs structure. Higher skin drug deposition (1.75 times) of SLN formulation compared to Flutamide hydroalcoholic solution represented better localization of the drug in the skin. The in vivo studies showed more new hair follicle growth by utilizing Flutamide-loaded SLNs than Flutamide hydroalcoholic solution which could be due to the higher accumulation of SLNs in the hair follicles as well as slowly and continues release of the Flutamide through the SLNs maximizing hair follicle exposure by antiandrogenic drug. It was concluded Flutamide-loaded SLN formulation can be used as a promising colloidal drug carriers for topical administration of Flutamide in the treatment of androgenic alopecia.

  19. An analysis of gene expression data involving examination of signaling pathways activation reveals new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jeff; Pappas, Apostolos; Mirmirani, Paradi; McCormick, Thomas S.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Schastnaya, Jane; Ozerov, Ivan V.; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. Minoxidil has been approved for the treatment of hair loss, however its mechanism of action is still not fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of 5% minoxidil topical foam on gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in vertex and frontal scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. We identified regional variations in gene expression and perturbed signaling pathways using in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) before and after treatment with minoxidil. Vertex and frontal scalp of patients showed a generally similar response to minoxidil. Both scalp regions showed upregulation of genes that encode keratin associated proteins and downregulation of ILK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways after minoxidil treatment. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28594262

  20. An analysis of gene expression data involving examination of signaling pathways activation reveals new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Wu, Jeff; Pappas, Apostolos; Mirmirani, Paradi; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Consolo, Mary; Schastnaya, Jane; Ozerov, Ivan V; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. Minoxidil has been approved for the treatment of hair loss, however its mechanism of action is still not fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of 5% minoxidil topical foam on gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in vertex and frontal scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. We identified regional variations in gene expression and perturbed signaling pathways using in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) before and after treatment with minoxidil. Vertex and frontal scalp of patients showed a generally similar response to minoxidil. Both scalp regions showed upregulation of genes that encode keratin associated proteins and downregulation of ILK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways after minoxidil treatment. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

  1. Platelet-rich plasma—an ‘Elixir’ for treatment of alopecia: personal experience on 117 patients with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery and dermatology. PRP is a simple, cost-effective and feasible treatment option with high patient satisfaction for hair loss and can be regarded as a valuable adjuvant treatment modality for androgenic alopecia and other types of non-scarring alopecias. Authors have proposed a hair model termed “Golden anchorage with ‘molecular locking’ of ectodermal and mesenchymal components for survival and integrity of hair follicle (HF)” in this article. Golden anchorage comprises of bulge stem cells, ectodermal basement membrane and bulge portion of APM. PRP with its autologous supply of millions of growth factors works on ‘Golden anchorage’ along with keratinocytes (PDGF), dermal papilla (IGF and fibroblast growth factor), vasculature (VEGF and PDGF) and neural cells (Nerve Growth Factor) in a multipronged manner serving as an ‘elixir’ for hair growth and improving overall environment. PMID:28815175

  2. Hair transplantation in burn scar alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Farjo, Bessam; Farjo, Nilofer; Williams, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Treating patients with burn alopecia or hair loss can often be a challenge to both the surgeon and the patient. As with other reconstructive procedures that are required in the post-burn phase, this is usually a multiple stage process often requiring surgery over several years. This is because graft take is not as reliable as in healthy non-scarred skin and may need repeating to achieve adequate density. Also, different areas of hair loss may need to be addressed in separate procedures. There are several limiting factors that will determine whether or not a patient is a candidate for hair restoration which includes but is not limited to the amount of hair loss and the availability of suitable donor hair. Here we discuss how the current surgical technique of hair transplant surgery by follicular unit extraction (FUE) or strip follicular unit transplant (FUT) has become the treatment of choice for alopecic areas that require a more refined aesthetic result. Eyebrow, eyelash, beard and scalp hair loss can all have a negative impact on a burn survivor’s self-esteem and even if surgery is not a possibility, there are non-surgical options available for hair restoration and these are also discussed. PMID:29799573

  3. An Open-Label Randomized Multicenter Study Assessing the Noninferiority of a Caffeine-Based Topical Liquid 0.2% versus Minoxidil 5% Solution in Male Androgenetic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Dhurat, Rachita; Chitallia, Jill; May, Theodor W; Jayaraaman, Ammani M; Madhukara, Jithendriya; Anandan, Subbu; Vaidya, Pradyumna; Klenk, Adolf

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is a condition with a high prevalence worldwide and affects both males and females. Currently, only 2 approved treatments exist: finasteride (males only) and minoxidil 2 or 5% solution (males and females). We conducted a randomized, open-label, multicenter noninferiority study to determine whether a caffeine-based 0.2% topical liquid would be no less effective than minoxidil 5% solution in males (n = 210) with androgenetic alopecia. The primary end point was the percentage change in the proportion of anagen hairs from baseline to 6 months using a frontal and occipital trichogram. At 6 months, the group of the 5% minoxidil solution showed a mean improvement in anagen ratio of the trichogram of 11.68%, and the group of the 0.2% caffeine solution had an anagen improvement of 10.59%. The difference of mean values between both groups was 1.09%. The statistical analysis was performed and reported in accordance with the CONSORT Guidelines 2010 for reporting of noninferiority and equivalence randomized trials. A caffeine-based topical liquid should be considered as not inferior to minoxidil 5% solution in men with androgenetic alopecia. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. NUDT15 p.R139C variant is common and strongly associated with azathioprine-induced early leukopenia and severe alopecia in Korean patients with various neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Jin-Hong; Park, Jin-Sung; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Ki-Jong; Huh, So-Young; Oh, Ji Seon; Kang, Boram; Kim, Dae-Seong

    2017-07-15

    Azathioprine (AZA)-induced leukopenia is a relatively common complication in Korean patients. In addition to variation in TPMT (thiopurine S-methyltransferase), the NUDT15 p.R139C variant was recently identified to have a strong association with AZA-induced leukopenia. We investigated these associations in Korean patients undergoing AZA treatment with various neurological diseases. Among 84 enrolled patients, 20 (23.8%; 7 early, 13 late) exhibited leukopenia. The NUDT15 p.R139C variant was associated with leukopenia (OR: 11.844, 95% CI 3.984-36.024, p=1.327 × 10 -5 ). The allelic frequency of NUDT15 p.R139C was as high as 10.7% and the frequency of the C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes was 84.5, 10.7, and 5.9%, respectively. All T/T homozygous patients (5/5) developed early severe-grade leukopenia (white blood cells <1000mm -3 ) and severe alopecia. NUDT15 p.R139C was strongly associated with early leukopenia and severe alopecia (OR for early leukopenia: 107.624, 95% CI 18.857-614.250, p=1.403 × 10 -7 , OR for severe alopecia: 77.152, 95% CI 17.378-342.526, p=1.101 × 10 -8 ). The sensitivity and specificity for predicting AZA-induced early leukopenia were 85.7% and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, the NUDT15 p.R139C variant is common and strongly associated with AZA-induced early leukopenia and severe alopecia in Korean patients with various neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide and the hair cycle - is it the agonists or the antagonists that cause hair growth?

    PubMed

    Gensure, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    While the effects of PTHrP have been studied for almost 20 years, most of these studies have focused on effects on the termination of the anagen phase, giving an incomplete picture of the overall effect of PTHrP on the hair cycle. PTHrP was determined in several experimental models to promote transition of hair follicles from anagen to catagen phase, which by itself would suggest that PTHrP blockade might prolong the anagen phase and promote hair growth. However, clinical trials with topically applied PTHrP antagonists have been disappointing, leading to a reconsideration of this model. Additional studies performed in mouse models where hair follicles are damaged (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia) suggest that PTHrP has effects early in the hair cycle as well, promoting hair follicles' entry into anagen phase and initiates the hair cycle. While the mechanism of this has yet to be elucidated, it may involve activation of the Wnt pathway. Thus, the overall effect of PTHrP is to stimulate and accelerate the hair cycle, and in the more clinically relevant models of hair loss where hair follicles have been damaged or become quiescent, it is the agonists, not the antagonists, which would be expected to promote hair growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ponto, K A; Schuppan, D; Zwiener, I; Binder, H; Mirshahi, A; Diana, T; Pitz, S; Pfeiffer, N; Kahaly, G J

    2014-01-01

    Common autoimmune disorders tend to co-exist in the same subjects and cluster in families. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune co-morbidity in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with and without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic tertiary referral centre. Of 1310 patients with AITD [n = 777 or 59% with Graves' disease (GD) and n = 533, 41% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)] followed at a specialized joint thyroid–eye out-patient clinic, 176 (13·4%) had an adult type of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, 129 (9·8%) type 1 diabetes, 111 (8·5%) coeliac disease, 60 (4·6%) type A autoimmune gastritis, 57 (4·4%) vitiligo and 25 (1·9%) Addison's disease. Coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis were associated positively with GD [odds ratio (OR) = 2·18; P = 0·002 and OR = 6·52; P < 0·001], whereas type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease, autoimmune primary hypogonadism, alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome were ‘protective’ for GD and thus linked to HT, OR = 0·49 (P < 0·001), 0·06 (P < 0·001), 0·25 (P < 0·001), 0·50 (P = 0·090) and 0·32 (P = 0·003), respectively. Of 610 (46·6%) AITD patients with TAO, 584 (95·7%) and 26 (4·3%) had GD and HT, respectively (P < 0·001). TAO was most prevalent in GD patients with coeliac disease (94%, OR = 1·87, P < 0·001). Multivariate analysis showed high OR for coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis (3·4 and 4·03, both P < 0·001) pertaining to the association with TAO while type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and alopecia areata were protective for TAO. In patients with TAO, coeliac disease is the most prevalent co-morbid autoimmune condition and rates are increased compared to GD patients without TAO. PMID:24903731

  7. Combined treatment with oral finasteride and topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia: a randomized and comparative study in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiming; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Youyu; Qi, Sisi; Han, Yumei; Miao, Ying; Rui, Wenlong; Yang, Qinping

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride at 1 mg/day and 5% topical minoxidil are effective in male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). However, studies describing their effects in Chinese individuals are scarce. 450 Chinese MAGA patients were randomly assigned to receive finasteride (n = 160), minoxidil (n = 130) and combined medication (n = 160) for 12 months. The patients returned to the clinic every 3 months for efficacy evaluation. And efficacy was evaluated in 428 men at treatment end, including 154, 122, and 152 in the finasteride, 5% minoxidil, and combination groups, respectively. All groups showed similar baseline characteristics, including age at enrollment, and duration and severity of alopecia (p > 0.05). At 12 months, 80.5, 59, and 94.1% men treated with finasteride, 5% minoxidil and the combination therapy showed improvement, respectively. Adverse reactions were rare (finasteride, 1.8%; minoxidil, 6.1%), and disappeared right after drug withdrawal. In conclusion, finasteride is superior to 5% minoxidil, while the combined medication showed the best efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 308nm Excimer Laser in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mehraban, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  9. Garlic in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far. PMID:25386259

  10. Low-level laser/light therapy for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Lyons, Danika C A; Abramovits, William

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a persistent and pervasive condition that affects men worldwide. Some common treatment options for AGA include hair prosthetics, oral and topical medications, and surgical hair restoration (SHR). Pharmaceutical and SHR treatments are associated with limitations including adverse side effects and significant financial burden. Low-level laser or light (LLL) devices offer alternative treatment options that are not typically associated with adverse side effects or significant costs. There are clinic- and home-based LLL devices. One home-based laser comb device has set a standard for others; however, this device requires time devoted to carefully moving the comb through the hair to allow laser penetration to the scalp. A novel helmet-like LLL device for hair growth has proven effective in preliminary trials and allows for hands-free use. Regardless, there are few clinical trials that have been conducted regarding LLL devices for AGA and results are mixed. Further research is required to establish the true efficacy of these devices for hair growth in comparison to existing alternative therapies.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of a multimodal minoxidil microemulsion versus minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia of mixed etiology: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Farouk M; Gado, Ali MI; Mohammed, Haseebur R; Adam, Abdel Nasser Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background: The variable success of topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia has led to the hypothesis that other pathways could mediate this form of hair loss, including infection and/or microinflammation of the hair follicles. In this study, we prepared a multimodal microemulsion comprising minoxidil (a dihydrotestosterone antagonist), diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and tea tree oil (an anti-infective agent). We investigated the stability and physicochemical properties of this formulation, and its therapeutic efficacy compared with a formulation containing minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Methods: We developed a multimodal oil/water (o/w) microemulsion, a formulation containing minoxidil alone, and another containing vehicle. A three-phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimal concentrations of the selected oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Thirty-two men aged 18–30 years were randomized to apply 1 mL of microemulsion containing the multimodal formulation (formulation A, n = 11), minoxidil alone (formulation B, n = 11) or placebo (formulation C, n = 10) twice daily to the affected area for 32 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by mean hair count, thickness, and weight on the targeted area of the scalp. Global photographs were taken, changes in the area of scalp coverage were assessed by patients and external investigators, and the benefits and safety of the study medications were evaluated. The physical stability of formula A was examined after a shelf storage period of 24 months. Results: Formulation A achieved a significantly superior response than formulations B and C in terms of mean hair count (P < 0.001), mean hair weight (P < 0.001), and mean hair thickness (P < 0.05). A patient self-assessment questionnaire demonstrated that the multimodal minoxidil formulation significantly (P < 0.001) slowed hair loss, increased hair growth, and improved appearance, and showed no appreciable side

  12. Nail involvement in patients with moderate-to-severe alopecia areata treated with oral tofacitinib.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Su; Huh, Chang-Hun; Kwon, Ohsang; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun; Park, Hyun-Sun

    2018-05-07

    A few anecdotal case reports demonstrated that tofacitinib improved nail changes associated with AA. To investigate nail changes in patients with AA treated with tofacitinib and evaluate the relationship between nail and hair responses to tofacitinib. This is a retrospective study of 33 adult patients with moderate-to-severe AA treated with oral tofacitinib monotherapy for at least 4 months. Fifteen patients had nail involvement and demonstrated more severe hair loss than those without nail involvement (p = .040). However, there was no significant difference in hair regrowth between two groups. Of 15 patients with nail involvement, 11 (73.3%) showed improvement regardless of type of nail change; the first improvement was observed at a median of 5 months (range, 1-11) after administration. Nail improvement was associated with neither initial severity of hair loss nor hair response to tofacitinib. Nail improvement tended to occur later than hair regrowth. Oral tofacitinib monotherapy improves nail involvement associated with AA. Nail involvement is not a poor prognosis factor in hair regrowth with tofacitinib treatment and there is no evident relationship between nail and hair responses.

  13. Influence of feeding hay on the alopecia of breeding guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gerold, S; Huisinga, E; Iglauer, F; Kurzawa, A; Morankic, A; Reimers, S

    1997-08-01

    Animals with partial alopecia were seen frequently in a breeding colony of guinea pigs. No pathologic aetiology could be determined. An influence of nutrition on the density of the hair coat was considered. Breeding groups were fed one of the commercial guinea pig diets of differing composition, with or without the addition of hay. Observation occurred over a period of months and the quality of the hair coat was evaluated periodically using a semi-quantitative scoring system. More extensive and more frequent fur defects were found is guinea pigs receiving a breeding diet with a high content of crude protein (23%) and a low level of crude fibre (12%), offered hay only restrictively compared with animals receiving a diet with a lower content of crude protein (15.5%) and a higher level of crude fibre (19.5%), offered the same amount of hay. The amount of hay offered is of paramount importance. Animals fed only the diet with the higher level of crude fibre (19.5%), according to the manufacturer's instructions as a complete food, without the addition of hay, showed a less dense hair coat within 4 weeks. In our colony a group of five breeding animals and their young required 200 g of hay daily in order to improve their hair coat quality to normal. Conversely, animals receiving less hay had progressively deteriorating hair coat density. Not only the amount of hay offered, but also the accessibility for all animals plays a role in preventing alopecia in guinea pigs. In larger cages (twice the usual ground surface area) fur defects were seen when the same amount of hay (200 g) was offered in only one central area, rather than spread out evenly throughout the cage. Hair loss was observed to be the result of trichophagia between adult animals kept in the same cage. The need for crude fibre of breeding animals does not appear to be completely met by pellets rich in fibre segments.

  14. Comparison of the efficacy of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% solutions on male androgenetic alopecia and measuring patient satisfaction rate.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Rajaee Harandi, Manijeh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad-Ali; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    According to the hypothesis on the stimulating effect of adenosine on increasing fibroblast growth factor 7 in dermal papilla cells and its vasorelaxant effect, we performed this study to compare the effect of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% on male pattern androgenetic alopecia. This prospective-randomized study recruited 110 male patients suffering from grade II-V Hamilton androgenetic alopecia. Fifty-five patients received minoxidil 5% (group 1) and adenosine 0.75% (group 2) each. Later, 16 patients were excluded due to allergic reactions or loss to follow up. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, complete and relative recovery rates alongside patient satisfaction rate (faster prevention of primary hair loss and appearance of newly grown hair) were compared between the groups. After 3 months of treatment, relative recovery was achieved in 2.4% and 1.9% of patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was not significantly different (p=0.17). During 6 months, the relative recovery rate did not change either within or between the groups (p=0.99) and after 6 months none of the patients achieved complete recovery. However, the patient satisfaction rate was significantly higher in group 2 (p=0.003). In the light of the results, adenosine has no statistically superiority to minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia according to recovery rates. However, the patients were significantly more satisfied with adenosine because of faster prevention of hair loss and appearance of the newly grown hairs. It seems further studies with larger sample size or different drug dosages are required to clarify the findings.

  15. Use of Low-Level Laser Therapy as Monotherapy or Concomitant Therapy for Male and Female Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Munck, Andréia; Gavazzoni, Maria Fernanda; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb®, in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Results: Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusions: LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth. PMID:25191036

  16. Study of gene expression alteration in male androgenetic alopecia: evidence of predominant molecular signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Reygagne, P; Benech, P; Jean-Louis, F; Scalvino, S; Ly Ka So, S; Hamidou, Z; Bianovici, S; Pouch, J; Ducos, B; Bonnet, M; Bensussan, A; Patatian, A; Lati, E; Wdzieczak-Bakala, J; Choulot, J-C; Loing, E; Hocquaux, M

    2017-11-01

    Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men. It is characterized by a distinct pattern of progressive hair loss starting from the frontal area and the vertex of the scalp. Although several genetic risk loci have been identified, relevant genes for AGA remain to be defined. To identify biomarkers associated with AGA. Molecular biomarkers associated with premature AGA were identified through gene expression analysis using cDNA generated from scalp vertex biopsies of hairless or bald men with premature AGA, and healthy volunteers. This monocentric study reveals that genes encoding mast cell granule enzymes, inflammatory mediators and immunoglobulin-associated immune mediators were significantly overexpressed in AGA. In contrast, underexpressed genes appear to be associated with the Wnt/β-catenin and bone morphogenic protein/transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways. Although involvement of these pathways in hair follicle regeneration is well described, functional interpretation of the transcriptomic data highlights different events that account for their inhibition. In particular, one of these events depends on the dysregulated expression of proopiomelanocortin, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In addition, lower expression of CYP27B1 in patients with AGA supports the notion that changes in vitamin D metabolism contributes to hair loss. This study provides compelling evidence for distinct molecular events contributing to alopecia that may pave the way for new therapeutic approaches. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. A mouse model of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Judy S; Kilbourne, Edward J; Peano, Bryan J; Chippari, Susan; Kenney, Thomas; McNally, Christopher; Wang, Wei; Harris, Heather A; Winneker, Richard C; Nagpal, Sunil; Thompson, Catherine C

    2010-05-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), commonly known as male pattern baldness, is a form of hair loss that occurs in both males and females. Although the exact cause of AGA is not known, it is associated with genetic predisposition through traits related to androgen synthesis/metabolism and androgen signaling mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Current therapies for AGA show limited efficacy and are often associated with undesirable side effects. A major hurdle to developing new therapies for AGA is the lack of small animal models to support drug discovery research. Here, we report the first rodent model of AGA. Previous work demonstrating that the interaction between androgen-bound AR and beta-catenin can inhibit Wnt signaling led us to test the hypothesis that expression of AR in hair follicle cells could interfere with hair growth in an androgen-dependent manner. Transgenic mice overexpressing human AR in the skin under control of the keratin 5 promoter were generated. Keratin 5-human AR transgenic mice exposed to high levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone showed delayed hair regeneration, mimicking the AGA scalp. This effect is AR mediated, because treatment with the AR antagonist hydroxyflutamide inhibited the effect of dihydrotestosterone on hair growth. These results support the hypothesis that androgen-mediated hair loss is AR dependent and suggest that AR and beta-catenin mediate this effect. These mice can now be used to test new therapeutic agents for the treatment of AGA, accelerating the drug discovery process.

  18. Association Between Use of a Scalp Cooling Device and Alopecia After Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Hope S; Klein, Paula; Melin, Susan Anitra; Hurvitz, Sara A; Melisko, Michelle E; Moore, Anne; Park, Glen; Mitchel, Jules; Bågeman, Erika; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Esserman, Laura; Cigler, Tessa

    2017-02-14

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a common and distressing adverse effect. In previous studies of scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia, conclusions have been limited. To evaluate whether use of a scalp cooling system is associated with a lower amount of hair loss among women receiving specific chemotherapy regimens for early-stage breast cancer and to assess related changes in quality of life. A prospective cohort study conducted at 5 US medical centers of women with stage I or II breast cancer receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens excluding sequential or combination anthracycline and taxane (106 patients in the scalp cooling group and 16 in the control group; 14 matched by both age and chemotherapy regimen). The study was conducted between August 2013 and October 2014 with ongoing annual follow-up for 5 years. Use of a scalp cooling system. Scalp cooling was initiated 30 minutes prior to each chemotherapy cycle, with scalp temperature maintained at 3°C (37°F) throughout chemotherapy and for 90 minutes to 120 minutes afterward. Self-estimated hair loss using the Dean scale was assessed 4 weeks after the last dose of chemotherapy by unblinded patient review of 5 photographs. A Dean scale score of 0 to 2 (≤50% hair loss) was defined as treatment success. A positive association between scalp cooling and reduced risk of hair loss would be demonstrated if 50% or more of patients in the scalp cooling group achieved treatment success, with the lower bound of the 95% CI greater than 40% of the success proportion. Quality of life was assessed at baseline, at the start of the last chemotherapy cycle, and 1 month later. Median follow-up was 29.5 months. Among the 122 patients in the study, the mean age was 53 years (range, 28-77 years); 77.0% were white, 9.0% were black, and 10.7% were Asian; and the mean duration of chemotherapy was 2.3 months (median, 2.1 months). No participants in the scalp cooling group received anthracyclines. Hair

  19. Biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral methods, and hypnosis in dermatology: is it all in your mind?

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2003-01-01

    Biofeedback can improve cutaneous problems that have an autonomic nervous system component. Examples include biofeedback of galvanic skin resistance (GSR) for hyperhidrosis and biofeedback of skin temperature for Raynaud's disease. Hypnosis may enhance the effects obtained by biofeedback. Cognitive-behavioral methods may resolve dysfunctional thought patterns (cognitive) or actions (behavioral) that damage the skin or interfere with dermatologic therapy. Responsive diseases include acne excoriée, atopic dermatitis, factitious cheilitis, hyperhidrosis, lichen simplex chronicus, needle phobia, neurodermatitis, onychotillomania, prurigo nodularis, trichotillomania, and urticaria. Hypnosis can facilitate aversive therapy and enhance desensitization and other cognitive-behavioral methods. Hypnosis may improve or resolve numerous dermatoses. Examples include acne excoriée, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, dyshidrotic dermatitis, erythromelalgia, furuncles, glossodynia, herpes simplex, hyperhidrosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, lichen planus, neurodermatitis, nummular dermatitis, postherpetic neuralgia, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, trichotillomania, urticaria, verruca vulgaris, and vitiligo. Hypnosis can also reduce the anxiety and pain associated with dermatologic procedures.

  20. Hair follicle is a target of stress hormone and autoimmune reactions.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taisuke

    2010-11-01

    Interest in the hair follicle (HF) has recently increased, yet the detailed mechanisms of HF function and immune privilege (IP) have not yet been elucidated. This review discusses the critical points of immunobiology and hormonal aspects of HFs. The HF is a unique mini-organ because it has its own immune system and hormonal milieu. In addition, the HF immune and hormonal systems may greatly affect skin immunobiology. Therefore, knowledge of HF immunobiology and hormonal aspects will lead to a better understanding of skin biology. The HF has a unique hair cycle (anagen, catagen and telogen) and contains stem cells in the bulge area. The HF is closely related to sebaceous glands and the nervous system. This article reviews the interaction between the endocrine/immune system and HFs, including the pathogenesis of alopecia areata associated with stress. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leprosy in the Bible.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Nita, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    For many years, the biblical term tzaraat has referred to leprosy. In fact, the disease or diseases described under this name have no relationship to leprosy, as it was known in the Middle Ages or today; moreover, the term referred not only to skin disease, but also to the state of the ritual impurity and punishment for the sins. Although the real nature of tzaraat remains unknown, the differential diagnosis might include the following: Psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, favus, dermatophyte infections, nummular dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, crusted scabies, syphilis, impetigo, sycosis barbae, alopecia areata, furuncles, scabies, neurodermatitis, scarlet fever, lupus erythematosus, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, folliculitis decalvans, morphea, sarcoidosis, and lichen planopilaris. Leprosy became interchangeable with the biblical leprosy due to two inaccurate translations: The Hebrew tzaraat was first translated into Greek as leprosy in the sixth century, and later, the word leprosy was translated into Arabic as lepra in the ninth century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-interferon-gamma antibodies in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Skurkovich, Boris; Skurkovich, Simon

    2003-02-01

    Interferon (IFN)-gamma is an important immune regulator in normal immunity. When IFN gamma production is disturbed, various autoimmune diseases (ADs) can develop, in which we suggest that anti-IFN gamma could have a beneficial effect. Depending on the cell type in which IFN gamma synthesis is disturbed, different clinical manifestations may result. We have also proposed to remove tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, together with certain types of IFNs, to treat various ADs and AIDS, also an autoimmune condition. Anti-IFN gamma has been tested in several T-helper cell (Th1) ADs, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), corneal transplant rejection, uveitis, Type I diabetes, schizophrenia (anti-IFN gamma and anti-TNF alpha), and various autoimmune skin diseases (alopecia areata, psoriasis vulgaris, vitiligo, pemphigus vulgaris and epidermolysis bullosa). A strong, sometimes striking, therapeutic response followed administration of anti-IFN gamma, indicating that it may be a promising therapy for Th1 ADs.

  3. Clinical utility and validity of minoxidil response testing in androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Goren, Andy; Shapiro, Jerry; Roberts, Janet; McCoy, John; Desai, Nisha; Zarrab, Zoulikha; Pietrzak, Aldona; Lotti, Torello

    2015-01-01

    Clinical response to 5% topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is typically observed after 3-6 months. Approximately 40% of patients will regrow hair. Given the prolonged treatment time required to elicit a response, a diagnostic test for ruling out nonresponders would have significant clinical utility. Two studies have previously reported that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts a patient's response to topical minoxidil therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility and validity of minoxidil response testing. In this communication, the present authors conducted an analysis of completed and ongoing studies of minoxidil response testing. The analysis confirmed the clinical utility of a sulfotransferase enzyme test in successfully ruling out 95.9% of nonresponders to topical minoxidil for the treatment of AGA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Keratin 17 null mice exhibit age- and strain-dependent alopecia

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Kevin M.; Tong, Xuemei; Colucci-Guyon, Emma; Langa, Francina; Babinet, Charles; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2002-01-01

    Onset of type I keratin 17 (K17) synthesis marks the adoption of an appendageal fate within embryonic ectoderm, and its expression persists in specific cell types within mature hair, glands, and nail. We report that K17 null mice develop severe alopecia during the first week postbirth, correlating with hair fragility, alterations in follicular histology, and apoptosis in matrix cells. These alterations are incompletely penetrant and normalize starting with the first postnatal cycle. Absence of a hair phenotype correlates with a genetic strain-dependent compensation by related keratins, including K16. These findings reveal a crucial role for K17 in the structural integrity of the first hair produced and the survival of hair-producing cells. Given that identical inherited mutations in this gene can cause either pachyonychia congenita or steatocystoma multiplex, the features of this mouse model suggest that this clinical heterogeneity arises from a cell type-specific, genetically determined compensation by related keratins. PMID:12050118

  5. Keratin 17 null mice exhibit age- and strain-dependent alopecia.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Kevin M; Tong, Xuemei; Colucci-Guyon, Emma; Langa, Francina; Babinet, Charles; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2002-06-01

    Onset of type I keratin 17 (K17) synthesis marks the adoption of an appendageal fate within embryonic ectoderm, and its expression persists in specific cell types within mature hair, glands, and nail. We report that K17 null mice develop severe alopecia during the first week postbirth, correlating with hair fragility, alterations in follicular histology, and apoptosis in matrix cells. These alterations are incompletely penetrant and normalize starting with the first postnatal cycle. Absence of a hair phenotype correlates with a genetic strain-dependent compensation by related keratins, including K16. These findings reveal a crucial role for K17 in the structural integrity of the first hair produced and the survival of hair-producing cells. Given that identical inherited mutations in this gene can cause either pachyonychia congenita or steatocystoma multiplex, the features of this mouse model suggest that this clinical heterogeneity arises from a cell type-specific, genetically determined compensation by related keratins.

  6. Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Luis A.; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A.; Norberg, Scott M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment. PMID:22440736

  7. A comparative study of a new food supplement, ViviScal, with fish extract for the treatment of hereditary androgenic alopecia in young males.

    PubMed

    Lassus, A; Eskelinen, E

    1992-11-01

    A controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study compared the effects of ViviScal (a new food supplement incorporating special marine extracts and a silica compound) with those of a fish extract in the treatment of young males with hereditary androgenic alopecia. The pretreatment histological diagnosis was alopecia with a mild to moderate perifollicular inflammation zone. The study consisted of 20 subjects who received two tablets of ViviScal once daily and 20 who received two tablets of fish extract once daily for 6 months. The mean patient age and mean duration and severity of baldness compared well between the two groups. Most patients had been treated with long-term topical 2% minoxidil for 1 year or more prior to the study. At baseline and after 6 months' treatment, a biopsy was taken for histological examination. A non-vellus hair count was performed at baseline and after 2, 4 and 6 months. In the fish extract treatment group three patients withdrew from the study before the fourth month due to lack of therapeutic effect. After 6 months' treatment, patients receiving ViviScal showed a mean increase in non-vellus hair of 38% compared with a 2% increase in the fish extract treatment group (P < 0.0001). In the ViviScal group, 19 (95%) subjects showed both clinical and histological cure, whereas none treated with fish extract showed any clinical or histological difference after 6 months' treatment (P < 0.0001). In both groups, a minimal decrease in the erythemal index was observed. In conclusion, ViviScal appears to be the first highly active treatment for androgenic alopecia in young males.

  8. [What's new in dermatological research?].

    PubMed

    Humbert, P

    2008-12-01

    Medical literature is rich with new and relevant information, resulting from basic or applied research. Some strong arguments are presented in this document. Firstly, the discovery and role of a virus, the polyomavirus, in the development of Merkel tumours. It is a small virus with double bit DNA strand, coding for a oncoprotein. If the polyomavirus plays a causal role in the tumorigenesis, it acts by various mechanisms. The micro-RNAs represent an abundant class of small RNA not coding for proteins, but which control the gene expression coding for proteins on a post-transcriptional level. The first obvious sign of the role of the micro-RNAs in the inflammatory dermatoses appeared recently, in particular when these micro-RNAs associated with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis were identified through a broad genomic analysis of the expression of these micro-RNAs. A new giant virus strain sheltering another unknown tiny virus to date has just been discovered. This virus infinitely small called Sputnik enables to deteriorate a much larger virus baptized Mama, at the point of preventing it to manufacture normal viral particles and also preventing it from reproducing. This discovery raises a crucial question: Is Sputnik a new system of transfer of genes of a species of one virus to another? A group of blood cells expressing E-cadherin, the dot cells, found in the fetal blood of the dermis, contributes to tissue repair through the mechanisms of cellular differentiation and their action allows healing without scar. CD4+ T helper lymphocytes producing interleukin 17 (IL17) play a pathogenic part in atopic dermatitis. The genes of the beta defensins could be involved in the genetic susceptibility of the psoriatic disease. The autoimmune origin of the alopecia areata is supported by a great number of observations, the role of neuropeptides in the initiation of the autoimmunity during alopecia areata has just been demonstrated. The dendritic cells are cells presenting antigens

  9. Conventional and novel stem cell based therapies for androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Talavera-Adame, Dodanim; Newman, Daniella; Newman, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of androgenic alopecia (AGA) increases with age and it affects both men and women. Patients diagnosed with AGA may experience decreased quality of life, depression, and feel self-conscious. There are a variety of therapeutic options ranging from prescription drugs to non-prescription medications. Currently, AGA involves an annual global market revenue of US$4 billion and a growth rate of 1.8%, indicating a growing consumer market. Although natural and synthetic ingredients can promote hair growth and, therefore, be useful to treat AGA, some of them have important adverse effects and unknown mechanisms of action that limit their use and benefits. Biologic factors that include signaling from stem cells, dermal papilla cells, and platelet-rich plasma are some of the current therapeutic agents being studied for hair restoration with milder side effects. However, most of the mechanisms exerted by these factors in hair restoration are still being researched. In this review, we analyze the therapeutic agents that have been used for AGA and emphasize the potential of new therapies based on advances in stem cell technologies and regenerative medicine.

  10. Pathologic diagnosis of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia on horizontal sections.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-11-01

    The pathologic findings in Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA) have not been studied systematically in horizontal sections. Our objective was to establish the pathologic features, and their frequency in horizontal sections of scalp biopsies obtained from patients with clinically and histologically proven CCCA. Serial horizontal sections of 51 cases were evaluated retrospectively. All biopsies were assessed at 4 levels and at least on 24 horizontal sections. The most common pathologic findings were follicular miniaturization (81% of the cases); premature desquamation of the inner root sheath (96%), focal preservation of the sebaceous glands (94%), which in most of these cases appeared as surrounding "in a hug" an intact vellus follicle; compound follicular structures with perifollicular fibrosis and/or inflammation (89%), lamellar hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis in the hair canal (79%), absent or mild inflammation (77%), and naked hair shafts (68%). Horizontal sections are useful in CCCA to identify early or focal disease and to provide the clinician with better information on the presence of follicular miniaturization, inflammation, and scarring, which can be used to tailor the treatment to the individual patient.

  11. Evaluation of thyroid function in dogs suffering from recurrent flank alopecia.

    PubMed Central

    Daminet, S; Paradis, M

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function was assessed in euthyroid dogs (n = 20), dogs suffering from canine recurrent flank alopecia (CRFA, n = 18), and hypothyroid dogs (n = 21). Blood samples obtained from all dogs in each group were assayed for total thyroxine (TT4), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAA) serum concentrations. Total T4 and TSH serum concentrations were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the hypothyroid group compared with the other 2 groups. No significant differences in TT4 and TSH serum values were found between the euthyroid and CRFA groups. Thyroglobulin autoantibodies were detected in 10, 11.1, and 61.9% of euthyroid dogs, dogs with CRFA, and hypothyroid dogs, respectively. In conclusion, dogs suffering from CRFA have a normal thyroid function, and the determination of TT4 and TSH serum concentrations allows differentiation of these dogs from dogs with hypothyroidism, in most cases. Occasionally, the 2 diseases can be concomitant. PMID:10992988

  12. A Proposal of an Effective Platelet-rich Plasma Protocol for the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Juan; García-García, Sandra Cecilia; González-de-Cossío, Ana Cecilia; Bou, Lola; Navarra, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a promising treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). In spite of the several studies previously reported, to date, a standardized protocol for PRP preparation and application, as well as a standard method for evaluating results has not been established. Aims: The aim of this study is to propose a standardized method for preparation and application of PRP for male AGA (MAGA) and female AGA (FAGA) and assess its safety and efficacy as a co-adjuvant therapy. Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight patients, 19 men and 59 women with AGA Grades II–IV in Ebling's scale, currently on treatment with topical minoxidil and/or oral finasteride for more than a year without improvement, were included in this study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method, and injected in affected areas for 3 monthly sessions, followed by 3 bimonthly sessions. A decrease of at least one grade in Ebling's scale was considered a successful result. Results: After the 6° session, 71.4% of MAGA and 73.4% of FAGA patients reached a successful outcome while 21.4% and 16.3%, respectively, remained without changes. Only 7.1% of MAGA and 10.2% of FAGA presented worsening of their condition. Conclusions: PRP together with a periodical application protocol can be considered effective as a coadjuvant therapy in patients who no longer respond to pharmacological treatments. Ebling's scale was a practical and reliable parameter to allow a better evaluation in both MAGA and FAGA. PMID:29118521

  13. Development of a Model for Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia: Profiling of Histological Changes in Human Hair Follicles after Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Seon; Choi, Mira; Shin, Chang Yup; Paik, Seung Hwan; Kim, Kyu Han; Kwon, Ohsang

    2016-03-01

    Optimized research models are required to further understand the pathogenesis and prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Our aim was to develop a mouse model for chemotherapy-induced alopecia by follicular unit transplantation of human hair follicles onto immunodeficient mice. Twenty-two weeks after transplantation, a single dose of cyclophosphamide (Cph) was administered to mice in the Cph100 (100 mg/kg) and Cph150 (150 mg/kg) groups. On day 6, hair follicles showed dystrophic changes, with swollen dermal papilla and ectopic melanin clumping in the hair bulb. In addition, upregulated expression of apoptotic regulators [P53, Fas/Fas-ligand, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL/TRAIL receptor), and Bax], increased apoptotic matrix keratinocytes, downregulated Ki67 expression, and decreased melanogenic protein in the hair bulb were noted in both groups. After 12 treatment days, hair follicles in Cph100 mice appeared to diminish dystrophic changes. In contrast, hair follicles of Cph150 mice prematurely entered a dystrophic catagen phase after 9 treatment days, and immunofluorescence staining for Ki67 and melanogenic protein expressions was barely visible. Two hair follicle damage response pathways were observed in this model, namely dystrophic anagen (Cph100) and catagen (Cph150) pathways. Our model might be useful for further understanding the impact of chemotherapy on human hair follicles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [A case of myasthenia gravis with invasive thymoma associated with diffuse panbronchiolitis, alopecia, dysgeusia, cholangitis and myositis].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Risa; Shibuya, Hideki; Hideyama, Takuto; Shiio, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of diplopia, ptosis, and dysphagia that had begun three years previously. He was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) and invasive thymoma and treated with corticosteroid, thymectomy, and radiation therapy. Ten years after the thymectomy, computed tomography (CT) showed metastasis of the thymoma in the left lower lobe of the lung. Two years after this recurrence, when the patient was 55, respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, persistent cough, and dyspnea appeared. Chronic sinusitis, diffuse centrilobular opacities on CT, and positivity for HLA-B54 led to a diagnosis of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Despite treatment with clarithromycin, the respiratory symptoms worsened. The patient developed alopecia and body hair loss at the age of 56 followed by dysgeusia, cholangitis, and myositis with positivity for anti-Kv1.4 antibodies. Although treatment with an increased dose of corticosteroid improved hair loss, dysgeusia, cholangitis, and myositis, he died of progression of DPB and serious respiratory infection at the age of 58. In this case, various autoimmune disorders occurred together with MG as complications of thymoma. Although alopecia, dysgeusia, and myositis are already known as complications of MG associated with thymoma, cholangitis is not well-recognized since there have been few reports suggesting a causal relationship between cholangitis and thymoma. Furthermore, DPB caused by immunodeficiency and respiratory tract hypersensitivity associated with thymoma and HLA-B54, respectively, is the distinctive feature of our case. Neurologists should be aware that various organs can be damaged directly and indirectly by abnormal T cells from thymoma in patients with MG.

  15. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a multicenter review of 355 patients.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, Sergio; Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Serrano-Falcón, Cristina; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Rodrigues-Barata, Ana R; Garnacho-Saucedo, Gloria; Martorell-Calatayud, Antonio; Fernández-Crehuet, Pablo; Grimalt, Ramón; Aranegui, Beatriz; Grillo, Emiliano; Diaz-Ley, Blanca; Salido, Rafael; Pérez-Gala, Sivia; Serrano, Salvio; Moreno, Jose Carlos; Jaén, Pedro; Camacho, Francisco M

    2014-04-01

    To our knowledge, there are no large multicenter studies concerning frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) that could give clues about its pathogenesis and best treatment. We sought to describe the epidemiology, comorbidities, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and therapeutic choices in a large series of patients with FFA. This retrospective multicenter study included patients given the diagnosis of FFA. Clinical severity was classified based on the recession of the frontotemporal hairline. In all, 355 patients (343 women [49 premenopausal] and 12 men) with a mean age of 61 years (range 23-86) were included. Early menopause was detected in 49 patients (14%), whereas 46 (13%) had undergone hysterectomy. Severe FFA was observed in 131 patients (37%). Independent factors associated with severe FFA after multivariate analysis were: eyelash loss, facial papules, and body hair involvement. Eyebrow loss as the initial clinical presentation was associated with mild forms. Antiandrogens such as finasteride and dutasteride were used in 111 patients (31%), with improvement in 52 (47%) and stabilization in 59 (53%). The retrospective design is a limitation. Eyelash loss, facial papules, and body hair involvement were associated with severe FFA. Antiandrogens were the most useful treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclic Alopecia and Abnormal Epidermal Cornification in Zdhhc13-Deficient Mice Reveal the Importance of Palmitoylation in Hair and Skin Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shen, Li-Fen; Haddad, Amir N S; Song, I-Wen; Chen, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yen, Jeffrey J Y; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many biochemical pathways involved in hair and skin development have not been investigated. Here, we reported on the lesions and investigated the mechanism underlying hair and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice with a deficiency in DHHC13, a palmitoyl-acyl transferase encoded by Zdhhc13. Homozygous affected mice showed ragged and dilapidated cuticle of the hair shaft (CUH, a hair anchoring structure), poor hair anchoring ability, and premature hair loss at early telogen phase of the hair cycle, resulting in cyclic alopecia. Furthermore, the homozygous affected mice exhibited hyperproliferation of the epidermis, disturbed cornification, fragile cornified envelope (CE, a skin barrier structure), and impaired skin barrier function. Biochemical investigations revealed that cornifelin, which contains five palmitoylation sites at cysteine residues (C58, C59, C60, C95, and C101), was a specific substrate of DHHC13 and that it was absent in the CUH and CE structures of the affected mice. Furthermore, cornifelin levels were markedly reduced when two palmitoylated cysteines were replaced with serine (C95S and C101S). Taken together, our results suggest that DHHC13 is important for hair anchoring and skin barrier function and that cornifelin deficiency contributes to cyclic alopecia and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice.

  17. Conventional and novel stem cell based therapies for androgenic alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Talavera-Adame, Dodanim; Newman, Daniella; Newman, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of androgenic alopecia (AGA) increases with age and it affects both men and women. Patients diagnosed with AGA may experience decreased quality of life, depression, and feel self-conscious. There are a variety of therapeutic options ranging from prescription drugs to non-prescription medications. Currently, AGA involves an annual global market revenue of US$4 billion and a growth rate of 1.8%, indicating a growing consumer market. Although natural and synthetic ingredients can promote hair growth and, therefore, be useful to treat AGA, some of them have important adverse effects and unknown mechanisms of action that limit their use and benefits. Biologic factors that include signaling from stem cells, dermal papilla cells, and platelet-rich plasma are some of the current therapeutic agents being studied for hair restoration with milder side effects. However, most of the mechanisms exerted by these factors in hair restoration are still being researched. In this review, we analyze the therapeutic agents that have been used for AGA and emphasize the potential of new therapies based on advances in stem cell technologies and regenerative medicine. PMID:28979149

  18. A randomized, single-blind trial of 5% minoxidil foam once daily versus 2% minoxidil solution twice daily in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Hillmann, Kathrin; Dietz, Ekkehart; Canfield, Douglas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2011-12-01

    Although twice-daily application of propylene glycol-containing 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) stimulates new hair growth, higher concentrations of minoxidil in a once-daily, propylene glycol-free formulation may improve efficacy and reduce unpleasant side effects. We sought to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability and to show noninferiority of once-daily 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) with twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia. A total of 113 women with androgenetic alopecia were randomized to 24 weeks of treatment with 5% MTF or 2% MTS. The primary efficacy parameter was change from baseline in nonvellus target area hair count at week 24. Secondary end points included change in nonvellus target area hair width, overall efficacy by global photographic review as assessed by treatment-blinded evaluators and the subject herself, adverse events, and participants' assessment of product aesthetics. After 24 weeks, women randomized to 5% MTF once daily showed noninferior target area hair count and target area hair width and experienced greater, but nonsignificant, improvements in target area hair count, target area hair width, and overall efficacy by global photographic review than those randomized to 2% MTS used twice daily. 5% MTF was significantly superior to 2% MTS in participants' agreement with "the treatment does not interfere with styling my hair" (P = .002). Women randomized to 5% MTF experienced significantly lower rates of local intolerance (P = .046) especially in pruritus and dandruff compared with 2% MTS. Because of differences in the formulations tested, study participants were not blinded to treatment. Once-daily 5% MTF is noninferior and as effective for stimulating hair growth as twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia and is associated with several aesthetic and practical advantages. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nothing is more important than my partner's health: Turkish men's perspectives on partner's appearance after mastectomy and alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Ayla; Koçan, Sema; Aktuğ, Cemile

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to acquire a deeper understanding of male experiences on the emotional and social impact of their partners' mastectomy and chemotherapy-induced alopecia. A purposive sample of 16 males whose partners had undergone mastectomy and alopecia due to chemotherapy was chosen. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview method. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of tape-recorded interviews was employed. Two main themes emerged from the data: facing the changes and my wife and I at present. Male partners were affected differently by the change in the physical appearance of their female partners. Our study participants said it was a difficult experience to see their partners for the first time after the surgery, but they emphasized that it was more important that their partners were healthy than the fact that they did not have a breast and hair. They also said they did not know how to behave towards their partners after surgery and/or chemotherapy. Nevertheless, they felt that the disease process of their partners had strengthened their bond and had not negatively influenced their relationship with others. The changes in the partners' physical appearance after mastectomy and chemotherapy affected males differently in psychological, emotional and social terms. Since nurses working in this field are in contact with patients during all phases of treatment and care, it would be positive and beneficial to plan nursing interventions that give emotional support for male partners of patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on hair regrowth in dogs with noninflammatory alopecia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Lara; Cavina, Damiano; Radicchi, Giada; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Abramo, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    Canine noninflammatory alopecia (CNA) is a heterogeneous group of skin diseases with different underlying pathogenesis. The therapeutic approach is challenging, and new options for treatment are desirable. To test the clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on hair regrowth in CNA. Seven dogs of different ages, breeds and genders with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of noninflammatory alopecia. Each dog was treated twice weekly for a maximum of 2 months with a therapeutic laser producing the following three different wavelengths emerging simultaneously from 21 foci: 13 × 16 mW, 470 nm; 4 × 50 mW, 685 nm; and 4 × 200 mW, 830 nm. The fluence given was 3 J/cm(2) , frequency 5 Hz, amplitude of the irradiated area was 25 cm(2) and application time was 1.34 min. A predetermined alopecic area was left untreated and served as a control area. From one dog, post-treatment biopsies of treated and untreated sites were obtained for histological evaluation of hair density and the percentage of haired and nonhaired follicles. At the end of the study, coat regrowth was greatly improved in six of seven animals and improved in one of seven. By morphometry, the area occupied by hair follicles was 18% in the treated sample and 11% in the untreated one (11%); haired follicles were (per area) 93% in the treated sample and only 9% in the control sample. Our clinical and histological data document promising effects of LLLT on hair regrowth in CNA. Further studies investigating the biological mechanism underlying the effect of LLLT on hair follicle cycling are warranted. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Anti-PDGF receptor β antibody-conjugated squarticles loaded with minoxidil for alopecia treatment by targeting hair follicles and dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Pan, Tai-Long; Sung, Calvin T; Chang, Shu-Hao; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-08-01

    This study developed lipid nanocarriers, called squarticles, conjugated with anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-receptor β antibody to determine whether targeted Minoxidil (MXD) delivery to the follicles and dermal papilla cells (DPCs) could be achieved. Squalene and hexadecyl palmitate (HP) were used as the matrix of the squarticles. The PDGF-squarticles showed a mean diameter and zeta potential of 195 nm and -46 mV, respectively. Nanoparticle encapsulation enhanced MXD porcine skin deposition from 0.11 to 0.23 μg/mg. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles ameliorated follicular uptake of MXD by 3-fold compared to that of the control solution in the in vivo mouse model. Both vertical and horizontal skin sections exhibited a wide distribution of nanoparticles in the follicles, epidermis, and deeper skin strata. The encapsulated MXD moderately elicited proliferation of DPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. The active targeting of PDGF-squarticles may be advantageous to improving the limited success of alopecia therapy. Topical use of minoxidil is only one of the very few treatment options for alopecia. Nonetheless, the current delivery method is far from ideal. In this article, the authors developed lipid nanocarriers with anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? antibody to target dermal papilla cells, and showed enhanced uptake of minoxidil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. "Cold" X5 Hairlaser™ used to treat male androgenic alopecia and hair growth: an uncontrolled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Han, David; Madigan, Margaret A; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R

    2014-02-24

    Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources. For this feasibility study, the population was composed of males between the ages of 20 and 60 years who have been experiencing active hair loss within the last 12 months and the diagnosis of AGA. They also had a Norwood-Hamilton classification of 3, 3A, 3 V, 4, 4A, or 5 for the hair thinning patterns and skin type I, II, III, or IV on the Fitzpatrick skin type scale. This two-arm randomized, parallel group study design employed stratifying randomization to balance treatment assignment within three investigational centers with at least 2 subjects enrolled in each Fitzpatrick skin type. A statistically significant positive trend in hair growth was observed from this pilot study, to evaluate the efficacy of the novel cold X5 hairlaser device for treating male androgenic alopecia. From the repeated measures analysis of variance, difference in mean hair counts over time was statistically significant (F = 7.70; p-value < 0.0001). Subsequent, linear regression of mean hair counts at each time point was performed, and post-hoc analysis found an increasing trend of hair growth over time that was statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001) with the estimated slope of 1.406. Increased hair counts from the baseline to the end of the 26-week period were found to be strongly significant (p-value = 0.0003). Albeit, sham device failure and resultant missing data from the control group, the positive trend hair growth, was observed due to the chronic use of X5hairlaser device. This positive benefit while in full agreement with other low laser hair devices requires intensive further investigation. NCT02067260.

  3. Results of 20- versus 45-min post-infusion scalp cooling time in the prevention of docetaxel-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Komen, Manon M C; Breed, Wim P M; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Goey, S H; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M; Nortier, Johan W R; van den Hurk, Corina J G

    2016-06-01

    For patients, chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of treatment. Scalp cooling can prevent or minimise CIA; the results may depend on the duration of cooling. Since a previous study on post-infusion cooling time in patients treated with docetaxel chemotherapy found no difference between 90 and 45 min, we investigated whether hair-preserving results could be maintained with a shorter post-infusion cooling time. In this prospective, multi-centre randomised study, 134 patients who started treatment with docetaxel 75-100 mg/m(2) in a 3-weekly schedule were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a post-infusion cooling time of 45 or 20 min. The primary end point was the need for a wig or other head covering as assessed by the patient. A visual analogue scale (VAS) with a range from 0 (not tolerable) to 10 (very tolerable) was used to measure tolerance. Scalp cooling results were similar for 45- and 20-min post-infusion cooling times. Thirty-three out of 45 patients (73 %) treated with 20 min of post-infusion cooling did not need a form of head covering, compared with 41 out of 52 patients (79 %) treated with 45 min of post-infusion cooling (p = 0.5). The procedure was well tolerated (mean visual analogue score 8.3). Six patients stopped due to intolerance during the first treatment cycle. A 20-min post-infusion cooling time is effective and tolerable for patients treated with scalp cooling to prevent docetaxel-induced alopecia. Trialregister.nl Identifier, NTR 1856.

  4. Novel enzymatic assay predicts minoxidil response in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Goren, Andy; Castano, Juan Antonio; McCoy, John; Bermudez, Fernando; Lotti, Torello

    2014-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the most common drug used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men and women. Although topical minoxidil exhibits a good safety profile, the efficacy in the overall population remains relatively low at 30-40%. To observe significant improvement in hair growth, minoxidil is typically used daily for a period of at least 3-4 months. Due to the significant time commitment and low response rate, a biomarker for predicting patient response prior to therapy would be advantageous. Minoxidil is converted in the scalp to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by the sulfotransferase enzyme SULT1A1. We hypothesized that SULT1A1 enzyme activity in the hair follicle correlates with minoxidil response for the treatment of AGA. Our preliminary retrospective study of a SULT1A1 activity assay demonstrates 95% sensitivity and 73% specificity in predicting minoxidil treatment response for AGA. A larger prospective study is now under way to further validate this novel assay. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Similar Response Patterns to 5%Topical Minoxidil Foam in Frontal and Vertex Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mirmirani, P.; Consolo, M.; Oyetakin-White, P.; Baron, E.; Leahy, P.; Karnik, P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background There are regional variations in scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions are less well studied. Methods A placebo controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs placebo was conducted in sixteen healthy men ages 18-49 with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for eight weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were done at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo and microarray analysis was done using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Results Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. Conclusions These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. PMID:25204361

  6. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the efficacy of a 24-week topical treatment by latanoprost 0.1% on hair growth and pigmentation in healthy volunteers with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Lönnfors, Sanna; Hillmann, Kathrin; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2012-05-01

    Latanoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used to treat glaucoma. It can cause adverse effects, such as iridial and periocular hyperpigmentation, and eyelash changes including pigmentation and increased thickness, length, and number. Latanoprost has been used to treat eyelash alopecia, but knowledge on its effects on human scalp hair growth is not available. The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy of latanoprost on hair growth and pigmentation. The secondary objectives were to assess the effect on scalp pigmentation; investigate the treatment duration needed to affect hair growth, hair pigmentation, and scalp pigmentation; and assess safety of latanoprost. Sixteen men with mild androgenetic alopecia (Hamilton II-III) were included. Latanoprost 0.1% and placebo were applied daily for 24 weeks on two minizones on the scalp. Measurements on hair growth, density, diameter, pigmentation, and anagen/telogen ratio were performed throughout the study. At 24 weeks, an increased hair density on the latanoprost-treated site was observed compared with baseline (n = 16, P < .001) and placebo-treated site (P = .0004). Only young men with mild androgenetic alopecia were included. The results may not be applicable to other patient groups. Choice of investigational site may have affected the results. Latanoprost significantly increased hair density (terminal and vellus hairs) at 24 weeks compared with baseline and the placebo-treated area. Latanoprost could be useful in stimulating hair follicle activity and treating hair loss. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Androgenic alopecia is associated with less dietary soy, lower [corrected] blood vanadium and rs1160312 1 polymorphism in Taiwanese communities.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Chu, Nain-Feng; Chang, Chi-Wen; Wang, Shu-Li; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chu, Chi-Ming; Chang, Chu-Ting; Lin, Ming-Huang; Chien, Wu-Chien; Su, Sui-Lung; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Kang-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ming; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors. This study investigated blood and urine heavy metals concentrations, environmental exposure factors, personal behaviors, dietary intakes and the genotypes of related susceptibility genes in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA). Age, AGA level, residence area, work hours, sleep patterns, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, betel nut usage, hair treatments, eating habits, body heavy metals concentrations and rs1998076, rs913063, rs1160312 and rs201571 SNP genotype data were collected from 354 men. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether any of the factors displayed odds ratios (ORs) indicating association with moderate to severe AGA (≥ IV). Subsequently, Hosmer-Lemeshow, Nagelkerke R(2) and accuracy tests were conducted to help establish an optimal model. Moderate to severe AGA was associated with the AA genotype of rs1160312 (22.50, 95% CI 3.99-126.83), blood vanadium concentration (0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.04), and regular consumption of soy bean drinks (0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.85), after adjustment for age. The results were corroborated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.73), Nagelkerke R(2) (0.59), accuracy test (0.816) and area under the curve (AUC; 0.90, 0.847-0.951) analysis. Blood vanadium and frequent soy bean drink consumption may provide protect effects against AGA. Accordingly, blood vanadium concentrations, the AA genotype of rs1160312 and frequent consumption of soy bean drinks are associated with AGA.

  8. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). The change in vellus hair proportion (<40 μm) was significantly lower in the adenosine group than that in the placebo group (P = 0.0154). The change in hair density compared with baseline of the adenosine group was also significantly higher compared with that of the placebo group (P = 0.0470). No adverse effects due to treatment were noted during this study by dermatological evaluation. Adenosine is effective in increasing the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724

  10. Alopecia due to an allergic reaction to metal head-pins used in a neurosurgical operation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hajime; Takasuna, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Allergic reactions to the metal head-pins of a head fixation holder are rare. A 45-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. She underwent successful surgical treatment using four head-pins of the Sugita frame. At her first outpatient visit 3 weeks after discharge, redness, sores, and focal hair loss were noted at all four areas where the pinning had been performed. The pin fixation was considered to be responsible for the alopecia because the condition of the scalp lesions was even in all four parts. Six months later, the scalp regained hair. The head-pins were made of stainless steel, containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other components. A previous history of contact dermatitis to metal jewellery was later proven. The history of metal allergy should have been carefully elicited because head fixation with head-pins is essential for neurosurgical procedures.

  11. Finasteride topical delivery systems for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Zia Ullah; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Ubaid, Muhammad; Shah, Aamna; Kousar, Rozina; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2018-01-23

    Androgenetic alopecia, generally recognized as male pattern baldness, is a gradually developing medical and physiological change, which is manifested by continuous hair-loss from scalp. Finasteride (4-aza-3-oxosteroid) is a potent anti-baldness compound that selectively and competitively inhibits the 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Prolonged oral use of finasteride leads to the emergence of sexual disorders including decrease in libido, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, orgasm disorders and mood disturbances. Since, hair follicles widely home in 5α-reductase, topical formulations of finasteride in comparison to its oral formulations are expected to potentially reduce its systemic adverse effects. The analysis of literature has revealed some delivery systems developed for the enhanced and localized penetration of finasteride into the skin. These finasteride delivery systems include polymersomes, vesicular nanocarriers, vesicular ethosomal carriers, liposomes and niosomes, liquid crystalline nanoparticles, topical solutions and gels. The aim of this review article is to briefly amass all literature on topical delivery of finasteride to elaborate best dosage form, i.e. formulation having maximum permeation rate. This study will serve as a future perspective regarding topical delivery of finasteride. The literature analysis has exhibited that most of the previous investigators have used propylene glycol in their finasteride-loaded topical formulations, while poloxamer P407, monoolein, transcutol P and choline was used in few formulations. Moreover among all drug delivery systems, finasteride liposomal gel system consisting of 2% methyl cellulose and gel system containing poloxamer P407 exhibited the highest flux with a value of 28.4 ± 1.3 µg/cm2h and 23.1 ± 1.4 µg/cm2h, respectively. Several topical drug delivery techniques such as topical microneedles, aerosol foams, nanoemulsions, microsponges, and emulsifier free formulations, fullerenes

  12. [Dermatologic toxicities of immune checkpoint inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Sibaud, V; Boulinguez, S; Pagès, C; Riffaud, L; Lamant, L; Chira, C; Boyrie, S; Vigarios, E; Tournier, E; Meyer, N

    2018-05-01

    The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4) represents a significant advance in the treatment of multiple cancers. Given their particular mechanism of action, which involves triggering CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation and proliferation, they are associated with a specific safety profile. Their adverse events are primarily immune-related, and can affect practically all organs. In this context, dermatological toxicity is the most common, though it mostly remains mild to moderate and does not require discontinuation of treatment. More than a third of patients are faced with cutaneous adverse events, usually in the form of a maculopapular rash, pruritus or vitiligo (only in patients treated for melanoma). Much more specific dermatologic disorders, however, may occur such as lichenoid reactions, induced psoriasis, sarcoidosis, auto-immune diseases (bullous pemphigoid, dermatomyositis, alopecia areata), acne-like rash, xerostomia, etc. Rigorous dermatological evaluation is thus mandatory in the case of atypical, persistent/recurrent or severe lesions. In this article, we review the incidence and spectrum of dermatologic adverse events reported with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Finally, a management algorithm is proposed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections.

    PubMed

    Ely, John W; Rosenfeld, Sandra; Seabury Stone, Mary

    2014-11-15

    Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). The clinical diagnosis can be unreliable because tinea infections have many mimics, which can manifest identical lesions. For example, tinea corporis can be confused with eczema, tinea capitis can be confused with alopecia areata, and onychomycosis can be confused with dystrophic toenails from repeated low-level trauma. Physicians should confirm suspected onychomycosis and tinea capitis with a potassium hydroxide preparation or culture. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis generally respond to inexpensive topical agents such as terbinafine cream or butenafine cream, but oral antifungal agents may be indicated for extensive disease, failed topical treatment, immunocompromised patients, or severe moccasin-type tinea pedis. Oral terbinafine is first-line therapy for tinea capitis and onychomycosis because of its tolerability, high cure rate, and low cost. However, kerion should be treated with griseofulvin unless Trichophyton has been documented as the pathogen. Failure to treat kerion promptly can lead to scarring and permanent hair loss.

  14. Dietary vitamin A regulates wingless-related MMTV integration site signaling to alter the hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liye; Sundberg, John P; Everts, Helen B

    2015-05-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune hair loss disease caused by a cell-mediated immune attack of the lower portion of the cycling hair follicle. Feeding mice 3-7 times the recommended level of dietary vitamin A accelerated the progression of AA in the graft-induced C3H/HeJ mouse model of AA. In this study, we also found that dietary vitamin A, in a dose dependent manner, activated the hair follicle stem cells (SCs) to induce the development and growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen), which may have made the hair follicle more susceptible to autoimmune attack. Our purpose here is to determine the mechanism by which dietary vitamin A regulates the hair cycle. We found that vitamin A in a dose-dependent manner increased nuclear localized beta-catenin (CTNNB1; a marker of canonical wingless-type Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus integration site family (WNT) signaling) and levels of WNT7A within the hair follicle bulge in these C3H/HeJ mice. These findings suggest that feeding mice high levels of dietary vitamin A increases WNT signaling to activate hair follicle SCs. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  15. [Hospitalization due to skin diseases at Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital (Beirut), 1998-2007].

    PubMed

    Maatouk, Ismaël; Moutran, Roy; Tomb, Roland

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine retrospectively the nature and frequency of dermatological diseases leading to hospitalization at Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital (HDF) in Beirut, between 1998 and 2007 and to compare them with literature data. For the patients who were hospitalized in dermatology at HDF, we studied: demographics, diagnosis of hospitalization, length of stay, service, mode of financial support, in-hospital evolution, diagnostic tests and treatment. The data were processed by SPSS program. Alopecia areata, psoriatic erythroderma, acute urticaria and vasculitic purpura are the top four diagnoses (85% of hospitalizations). The third of the patients was admitted to same day care. The financial support of the hospitalization is based primarily on public insurance (57.6%). Corticosteroids are the most widely used treatment for patients in dermatology hospital with a frequency of 59.8%. The number of hospitalizations peaked at 44 in 2002 and since then has been declining (11 hospitalizations in 2007). Pathologies encountered in hospital are different from those encountered during consultation. Management of skin diseases on an outpatient basis is often insufficient. In the literature, no profile of skin diseases leading to hospitalization is similar to our study.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of a multimodal minoxidil microemulsion versus minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia of mixed etiology: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Farouk M; Gado, Ali Mi; Mohammed, Haseebur R; Adam, Abdel Nasser Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The variable success of topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia has led to the hypothesis that other pathways could mediate this form of hair loss, including infection and/or microinflammation of the hair follicles. In this study, we prepared a multimodal microemulsion comprising minoxidil (a dihydrotestosterone antagonist), diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and tea tree oil (an anti-infective agent). We investigated the stability and physicochemical properties of this formulation, and its therapeutic efficacy compared with a formulation containing minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. We developed a multimodal oil/water (o/w) microemulsion, a formulation containing minoxidil alone, and another containing vehicle. A three-phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimal concentrations of the selected oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Thirty-two men aged 18-30 years were randomized to apply 1 mL of microemulsion containing the multimodal formulation (formulation A, n = 11), minoxidil alone (formulation B, n = 11) or placebo (formulation C, n = 10) twice daily to the affected area for 32 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by mean hair count, thickness, and weight on the targeted area of the scalp. Global photographs were taken, changes in the area of scalp coverage were assessed by patients and external investigators, and the benefits and safety of the study medications were evaluated. The physical stability of formula A was examined after a shelf storage period of 24 months. Formulation A achieved a significantly superior response than formulations B and C in terms of mean hair count (P < 0.001), mean hair weight (P < 0.001), and mean hair thickness (P < 0.05). A patient self-assessment questionnaire demonstrated that the multimodal minoxidil formulation significantly (P < 0.001) slowed hair loss, increased hair growth, and improved appearance, and showed no appreciable side effects, such as itching and

  17. The relationship between thyroxine, oestradiol, and postnatal alopecia, with relevance to women's health in general.

    PubMed

    Pringle, T

    2000-11-01

    Post-partum hair loss is possibly due to a reduction in the levels of oestradiol and thyroxine postnatally. Alopecia and/or a persistent loss of hair condition postnatally is associated with a group of symptoms (a syndrome), wherein postnatal depression is significant, as a result of physiologically inadequate levels of thyroxine (T4) and oestradiol (E2), secondary to physiological postnatal anterior pituitary dysfunction. Using this hypothesis, the author began to apply the same hypothesis to other female patients, who were not postpartum, but with similar symptomatology. The author became aware of the necessity for an adequate level of T4 to be present for correct oestrogenization to occur. He then goes on to hypothesize on the synergistic relationship that T4 and oestradiol may have in premenstrual syndrome (PMS), infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, poor placental function, osteoporosis, and anorexia nervosa. He also discusses the role lowering T4 could play in the treatment of terminal cancer breast in premenopausal women.

  18. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lause, Michael; Kamboj, Alisha

    2017-01-01

    candidiasis, vitiligo, and alopecia areata. This paper highlights the underlying pathophysiology, dermatologic manifestations, and treatment of the aforementioned endocrine disorders. PMID:29184811

  19. Factors influencing the effectiveness of scalp cooling in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Komen, Manon M C; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Nortier, Johan W R

    2013-01-01

    The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients and chemotherapy regimens. The outcome of hair preservation is often unpredictable and depends on various factors. Methods. We performed a structured search of literature published from 1970 to February 2012 for articles that reported on factors influencing the effectiveness of scalp cooling to prevent CIA in patients with cancer. Results. The literature search identified 192 reports, of which 32 studies were considered relevant. Randomized studies on scalp cooling are scarce and there is little information on the determinants of the result. The effectiveness of scalp cooling for hair preservation depends on dose and type of chemotherapy, with less favorable results at higher doses. Temperature seems to be an important determinant. Various studies suggest that a subcutaneous scalp temperature less than 22 °C is required for hair preservation. Conclusions. The effectiveness of scalp cooling for hair preservation varies by chemotherapy type and dose, and probably by the degree and duration of cooling.

  20. Topical Minoxidil: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Its Efficacy in Androgenetic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Charrette, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Topical minoxidil has become a mainstay in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Despite being a longstanding treatment for AGA, relatively few reviews of its efficacy have been published. The current study sought to synthesize the available efficacy data by performing a systematic review of the literature and conducting random-effects pairwise meta-analyses for the outcomes percent increase in hair count from baseline, investigator assessment, and patient self-assessment. Results showed that minoxidil is more effective than placebo in promoting total and nonvellus hair growth (mean difference [MD], 16.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.34-24.03 and MD, 20.90; 95% CI, 9.07-32.74). A significantly higher proportion of participants in the minoxidil group had greater hair growth than participants in the placebo group as judged by both investigators and self-reports (relative risk [RR], 2.28; 95% CI, 1.58-3.31 and RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.80). Despite significant clinical efficacy, cosmetically acceptable results are present in only a subset of patients. Compliance is thought to be a major limiting factor and is being addressed by novel formulations and combinations.

  1. Evaluation of androgen receptor gene as a candidate gene in female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    el-Samahy, May H; Shaheen, Maha A; Saddik, Dina E B; Abdel-Fattah, Nermeen S A; el-Sawi, Mohammad A; Mahran, Manal Z; Shehab, Abeer A A

    2009-06-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of the androgen receptor (AR) gene have been studied in male androgenetic alopecia (AGA); however, little is known about gene polymorphism and female AGA. To evaluate the AR gene as a candidate gene for female AGA. Thirty premenopausal Egyptian female patients with AGA (mean age, 32.3 +/- 7 years) and 11 age- and sex-matched controls were included. All subjects underwent laboratory and pelvic ultrasound evaluation to exclude other precipitating cause(s) of hair loss. Scalp biopsy was taken and the AR gene was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). According to Ludwig's classification, all patients had type II AGA. Statistical analysis showed no statistically significant difference in genotype (chi(2) = 5.513, P > or = 0.05) or allele frequency (chi(2) = 1.312, P > or = 0.05) between patients and controls. There was also no statistically significant difference between the genotype and allele frequency with disease duration. In contrast with male AGA, no association was found between type II AGA in Egyptian women and the AR gene. Therefore, the genetic study of this gene does not serve as a biomarker for the identification of women with a predisposition to AGA.

  2. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Transgenic Mouse Develops Cardiac Hypertrophy, Lean Body Mass and Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Nuglozeh, Edem

    2017-07-01

    compelled us to work at the level of hemizygosity. The histological characterisation of left ventricle shows cardiac hypertrophy together with decrease in body mass and alopecia, this compared to the wild type. The immunohistochemical staining of aorta root showed hyperplasia with increased expression and colocalisation of renin and CTGF demonstrating that CTGF may be involved in vascular tone control. Genetic engineering is a noble avenue to investigate the function of new or existing genes. Our data have shown that CTGF transgenic mouse has cardiac and aorta root hypertrophy and abnormal renin accumulation in aorta root as compared to the wild-type animals. The transgenic animals developed alopecia and lean body mass adding two new functions on pre-existing CTGF multiple functions.

  3. Mechanical and Controlled PRP Injections in Patients Affected by Androgenetic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Garcovich, Simone; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2018-01-27

    23 patients (18 male and 5 female) aged 21-70 years who displayed male pattern hair loss (MPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 5 as determined by the Norwood-Hamilton classification scale, and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 2 as determined by the Ludwig classification scale, were treated with non-activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (A-PRP). Autologous blood (55 mL) was harvested using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. A-PRP (23 mL) was produced for all cases using a closed system according to the transfusion service protocol. Following centrifugation (260 x g for 10 min) the A-PRP was inserted in a laser light selector device, and after the centrifugation, 9 mL of A-PRP was collected. The scalp of the patients affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA) was divided into four areas (frontal, parietal, vertex, and occipital); local anesthesia was not performed. Interfollicular A-PRP injections (0.2 mL x cm 2 ) were performed by controlled and mechanical injections scheduled at a depth of 5 mm using a medical injector gun. Treatment sessions were performed with a 30-day interval. For each patient, three treatment sessions were performed. PRP was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp affected by hair loss. Placebo (normal saline solution) was loaded in another syringe (10 mL) and injected on the adjacent side in a similar fashion.

  4. Ascorbigen induces dermal papilla cell proliferation in vitro, but fails to modulate chemotherapy-induced alopecia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hsiu; Huang, Hsu-Shan; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Chang, Deh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Ascorbigen (ABG) is the predominant indole-derived compound from Brassica vegetables. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of ABG on hair growth. To this end, we examined the proliferation of isolated human dermal papilla (DP) cells and keratinocytes after incubation in various concentrations (0-1.25 mM) of ABG. Furthermore, hair shaft regrowth was monitored in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), and hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological analyses. We found that 1.25 mM ABG induced a 1.2-fold increase in the growth of DP cells, but not keratinocytes. However, ABG did not exert significant protective effects against CIA in the mouse model. These findings suggest that ABG may not be able to counteract CIA and that further investigation of the therapeutic potential of ABG in disease models is required. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of a Scalp Cooling Device on Alopecia in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: The SCALP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Julie; Wang, Tao; Osborne, Cynthia; Niravath, Polly; Otte, Kristen; Papish, Steven; Holmes, Frankie; Abraham, Jame; Lacouture, Mario; Courtright, Jay; Paxman, Richard; Rude, Mari; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Osborne, C Kent; Rimawi, Mothaffar

    2017-02-14

    Chemotherapy may induce alopecia. Although scalp cooling devices have been used to prevent this alopecia, efficacy has not been assessed in a randomized clinical trial. To assess whether a scalp cooling device is effective at reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia and to assess adverse treatment effects. Multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Patients were enrolled from December 9, 2013, to September 30, 2016. One interim analysis was planned to allow the study to stop early for efficacy. Data reported are from the interim analysis. This study was conducted at 7 sites in the United States, and 182 women with breast cancer requiring chemotherapy were enrolled and randomized. Participants were randomized to scalp cooling (n = 119) or control (n = 63). Scalp cooling was done using a scalp cooling device. The primary efficacy end points were successful hair preservation assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 scale (grade 0 [no hair loss] or grade 1 [<50% hair loss not requiring a wig] were considered to have hair preservation) at the end of 4 cycles of chemotherapy by a clinician unaware of treatment assignment, and device safety. Secondary end points included wig use and scores on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a summary scale of the Body Image Scale. At the time of the interim analysis, 142 participants were evaluable. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 52.6 (10.1) years; 36% (n = 51) received anthracycline-based chemotherapy and 64% (n = 91) received taxane-based chemotherapy. Successful hair preservation was found in 48 of 95 women with cooling (50.5%; 95% CI, 40.7%-60.4%) compared with 0 of 47 women in the control group (0%; 95% CI, 0%-7.6%) (success rate difference, 50.5%; 95% CI, 40.5%-60.6%). Because the 1-tailed P value from the Fisher

  6. Mutations in the Endothelin Receptor Type A Cause Mandibulofacial Dysostosis with Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Weaver, K. Nicole; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria; Madsen, Erik C.; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Oufadem, Myriam; Kurihara, Yukiko; Adameyko, Igor; Picard, Arnaud; Breton, Sylvain; Pierrot, Sébastien; Biosse-Duplan, Martin; Voisin, Norine; Masson, Cécile; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschké, Patrick; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Lacombe, Didier; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Moura, Priscila Padilha; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Munnich, Arnold; Ernfors, Patrik; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Kurihara, Hiroki; Saal, Howard M.; Weaver, David D.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Golzio, Christelle; Clouthier, David E.; Amiel, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) signaling pathway is essential for the establishment of mandibular identity during development of the first pharyngeal arch. We report four unrelated individuals with the syndrome mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA) who have de novo missense variants in EDNRA. Three of the four individuals have the same substitution, p.Tyr129Phe. Tyr129 is known to determine the selective affinity of EDNRA for endothelin 1 (EDN1), its major physiological ligand, and the p.Tyr129Phe variant increases the affinity of the receptor for EDN3, its non-preferred ligand, by two orders of magnitude. The fourth individual has a somatic mosaic substitution, p.Glu303Lys, and was previously described as having Johnson-McMillin syndrome. The zygomatic arch of individuals with MFDA resembles that of mice in which EDNRA is ectopically activated in the maxillary prominence, resulting in a maxillary to mandibular transformation, suggesting that the p.Tyr129Phe variant causes an EDNRA gain of function in the developing upper jaw. Our in vitro and in vivo assays suggested complex, context-dependent effects of the EDNRA variants on downstream signaling. Our findings highlight the importance of finely tuned regulation of EDNRA signaling during human craniofacial development and suggest that modification of endothelin receptor-ligand specificity was a key step in the evolution of vertebrate jaws. PMID:25772936

  7. Short post-infusion scalp cooling time in the prevention of docetaxel-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, C J G; Breed, W P M; Nortier, J W R

    2012-12-01

    The patient impact of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is high. Scalp cooling is applied to reduce CIA. The potential optimum post-infusion cooling times (PICTs) are currently unknown. Scalp cooling was applied in 53 patients receiving docetaxel chemotherapy with 90-min PICT (observational part). Also 15 non-scalp-cooled patients were included. If hair preservation was observed in >80 % of the patients, randomisation between 45 and 90-min PICT was planned. Patients reported tolerance of scalp cooling and use of head covering. Observational study: 81 % of scalp-cooled patients did not require head covering versus 27 % of non-scalp-cooled patients. Randomised study: 79 % of 38 patients with 90-min PICT did not need head covering versus 95 % of 38 patients with 45-min PICT (p = 0.04). Scalp cooling was very well tolerated (visual analogue scale = 79). A 45-min PICT can be recommended in 3-weekly docetaxel regimens with a dose of 75 or 100 mg/m(2), administered in 60 min. The shorter PICT is a major advantage in time investment for patients. Patients (women and men) who receive docetaxel, except combined with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (taxotere, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (TAC)) should be informed about the protective effect and high tolerability of scalp cooling in avoiding CIA.

  8. Low-level laser therapy as a treatment for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ladan; Maranda, Eric L; Zarei, Mina; Delcanto, Gina M; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Kluijfhout, Wouter P; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) affects 50% of males by age 50 and 50% of females by age 80. Recently, the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been proposed as a treatment for hair loss and to stimulate hair regrowth in AGA. This paper aims to review the existing research studies to determine whether LLLT is an effective therapy for AGA based on objective measurements and patient satisfaction. A systematic literature review was done to identify articles on Medline, Google Scholar, and Embase that were published between January 1960 and November 2015. All search hits were screened by two reviewers and examined for relevant abstracts and titles. Articles were divided based on study design and assessed for risk of bias. Eleven studies were evaluated, which investigated a total of 680 patients, consisting of 444 males and 236 females. Nine out of 11 studies assessing hair count/hair density found statistically significant improvements in both males and females following LLLT treatment. Additionally, hair thickness and tensile strength significantly improved in two out of four studies. Patient satisfaction was investigated in five studies, and was overall positive, though not as profound as the objective outcomes. The majority of studies covered in this review found an overall improvement in hair regrowth, thickness, and patient satisfaction following LLLT therapy. Although we should be cautious when interpreting these findings, LLLT therapy seems to be a promising monotherapy for AGA and may serve as an effective alternative for individuals unwilling to use medical therapy or undergo surgical options. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:27-39, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [The treatment of cicatricial alopecia after burn with the technique of synchronously perforating and transplanting hair follicular-units].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-ping; Fan, Jin-cai; Chai, Jia-ke

    2009-12-01

    To study the effect of the technique of synchronously perforating and transplanting hair follicular-units in the treatment of cicatricial alopecia after burn. One hundred and sixty-six patients with 217 bald scar areas after burn were treated with above-mentioned technique from January 2002 to April 2008. Scalp strips, with conforming the necessity for grafting, were harvested from the occipital or temporal region. A series of follicular-units, each composing 1 - 3 hairs, were dissected from the strips under microscope or magnifying glass. Size-matching micro-slots were made in the scarred recipient area with 16 - 20 G needles to accept the grafts. The prepared follicular-unit was synchronously implanted into the bottom of the micro-slot as the needle being withdrawn. Patients who were not satisfactory with the density of hairs after I stage surgery underwent II stage surgery a half year later. Ten recipient areas with clear boundary in 10 patients were optionally chosen to observe the density of follicular-units and hair amount with naked eyes after I stage surgery. Survived transplanted hairs in above-mentioned 10 areas were counted to calculate hair survival rate at follow-up. Patients' postoperative satisfaction ratings were surveyed with questionnaire. In one half of the patients, treatment was finished after I stage surgery, the other one half received 2 stages of surgery. The follicular-unit density reached 15 - 25 grafts/cm(2) with 40 - 70 hairs/cm(2) after I stage surgery. All patients were followed up for over 8 months. Grafted hairs grew well in a natural way. 96.5% mean hair survival rate was observed in the 10 recipient areas. From patients who received only I stage surgery, 61 patients (73.5%) were very satisfactory and 22 patients (26.5%) satisfactory with the results. From the other half of patients, 76 patients (91.6%) were very satisfactory and 7 patients (8.4%) satisfactory with the results. The technique of perforating and transplanting

  10. A gluten-free diet effectively reduces symptoms and health care consumption in a Swedish celiac disease population.

    PubMed

    Norström, Fredrik; Sandström, Olof; Lindholm, Lars; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2012-09-17

    A gluten-free diet is the only available treatment for celiac disease. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a gluten-free diet on celiac disease related symptoms, health care consumption, and the risk of developing associated immune-mediated diseases. A questionnaire was sent to 1,560 randomly selected members of the Swedish Society for Coeliacs, divided into equal-sized age- and sex strata; 1,031 (66%) responded. Self-reported symptoms, health care consumption (measured by health care visits and hospitalization days), and missed working days were reported both for the year prior to diagnosis (normal diet) and the year prior to receiving the questionnaire while undergoing treatment with a gluten-free diet. Associated immune-mediated diseases (diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatic disease, thyroid disease, vitiligo, alopecia areata and inflammatory bowel disease) were self-reported including the year of diagnosis. All investigated symptoms except joint pain improved after diagnosis and initiated gluten-free diet. Both health care consumption and missed working days decreased. Associated immune-mediated diseases were diagnosed equally often before and after celiac disease diagnosis. Initiated treatment with a gluten-free diet improves the situation for celiac disease patients in terms of reduced symptoms and health care consumption. An earlier celiac disease diagnosis is therefore of great importance.

  11. Bimatoprost in the treatment of eyelash hypotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Law, Simon K

    2010-01-01

    Eyelashes hypotrichosis is a condition indicated by an inadequate amount of eyelashes. Hypertrichosis of eyelashes, characterized by excessive eyelash growth, is a regular phenomenon associated with ophthalmic prostaglandin and prostamide analogs. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Latisse® (bimatoprost 0.03% solution), identical to the ophthalmic solution for glaucoma treatment, for increasing eyelash length, thickness and darkness in patients with hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. When prostaglandin and prostamide analogs interact with the prostanoid receptors in the hair follicle, this most likely stimulates the resting follicles (telogen phase) to growing follicles (anagen phase). Prostaglandin and prostamide analogs may also prolong the anagen phase of eyelashes, leading to an increase of eyelash length. Although bimatoprost is effective in promoting increased growth of healthy eyelashes and adnexal hairs, its effectiveness in patients with eyelash alopecia areata is debatable and its protective effect is not yet studied in patients with eyelash loss secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Bimatoprost is generally safe when applied to the base of the eyelashes at the lid margin with minimum side effects. However, other ocular or systemic side effects associated with ophthalmic prostaglandin and prostamide analogs may occur when instilled on the surface of the eye, and patients must be informed and monitored. PMID:20463804

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Wen; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Liu, Chun-Kai; Chang, Ching-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N = 11,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn's disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted. PMID:27822287

  13. The global burden of skin disease in 2010: an analysis of the prevalence and impact of skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Hay, Roderick J; Johns, Nicole E; Williams, Hywel C; Bolliger, Ian W; Dellavalle, Robert P; Margolis, David J; Marks, Robin; Naldi, Luigi; Weinstock, Martin A; Wulf, Sarah K; Michaud, Catherine; J L Murray, Christopher; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2014-06-01

    The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2010 estimated the GBD attributable to 15 categories of skin disease from 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. For each of the following diseases, we performed systematic literature reviews and analyzed resulting data: eczema, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, pruritus, alopecia areata, decubitus ulcer, urticaria, scabies, fungal skin diseases, impetigo, abscess, and other bacterial skin diseases, cellulitis, viral warts, molluscum contagiosum, and non-melanoma skin cancer. We used disability estimates to determine nonfatal burden. Three skin conditions, fungal skin diseases, other skin and subcutaneous diseases, and acne were in the top 10 most prevalent diseases worldwide in 2010, and eight fell into the top 50; these additional five skin problems were pruritus, eczema, impetigo, scabies, and molluscum contagiosum. Collectively, skin conditions ranged from the 2nd to 11th leading cause of years lived with disability at the country level. At the global level, skin conditions were the fourth leading cause of nonfatal disease burden. Using more data than has been used previously, the burden due to these diseases is enormous in both high- and low-income countries. These results argue strongly to include skin disease prevention and treatment in future global health strategies as a matter of urgency.

  14. Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Laurel L; Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2018-01-29

    Understanding the effects of age on the epidemiology of diseases primarily affecting the skin is important to the practice of dermatology, both for proper allocation of resources and for optimal patient-centered care. To fully appreciate the effect that age may have on the population-based calculations of incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and worldwide, we performed a review of all relevant Rochester Epidemiology Project-published data and compared them to similar reports in the worldwide English literature. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, population-based epidemiologic studies have been performed to estimate the incidence of specific skin diseases over the past 50 years. In older persons (>65 years), nonmelanoma skin cancer, lentigo maligna, herpes zoster, delusional infestation, venous stasis syndrome, venous ulcer, and burning mouth syndrome were more commonly diagnosed. In those younger than 65 years, atypical nevi, psoriatic arthritis, pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, genital warts, alopecia areata, hidradenitis suppurativa, infantile hemangioma, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis (isolated cutaneous, with sarcoidosis-specific cutaneous lesions and with erythema nodosum) had a higher incidence. Many of the incidence rates by age group of diseases primarily affecting the skin derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project were similar to those reported elsewhere. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Follicular vitiligo: A report of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Gan, Emily Yiping; Cario-André, Muriel; Pain, Catherine; Goussot, Jean-Francois; Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Follicular vitiligo, a recently proposed new subtype of vitiligo, has primary involvement of the hair follicle melanocytic reservoir. We sought to characterize follicular vitiligo through a case series of 8 patients. Patients with features of follicular vitiligo who were seen at the vitiligo clinic in the National Center for Rare Skin Disorders in Bordeaux, France, were recruited. A retrospective review of case records and clinical photographs was carried out. There were 8 male patients with a mean age of 48 years. All patients reported significant whitening of their body and, in some, scalp hairs before cutaneous depigmentation. Examination revealed classic generalized depigmented lesions of vitiligo and an impressive presence of leukotrichia, not only in the vitiliginous areas, but also in areas with clinically normal-appearing skin. Punch biopsy specimen of the leukotrichia and vitiligo lesions demonstrated loss of melanocytes and precursors in the basal epidermis and hair follicle. This was a cross-sectional study based on a single-center experience. Follicular vitiligo is a distinct entity within the spectrum of vitiligo. This entity may serve as the missing link between alopecia areata and vitiligo, with probable physiopathological similarities between these conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of androgenetic alopecia with topical Sophora flavescens Aiton extract, and identification of the two active compounds in the extract that stimulate proliferation of human hair keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Ishino, A; Arai, T; Hamada, C; Nakazawa, Y; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2016-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a hair loss disorder that commonly affects middle-aged men. To date, the properties of a number of natural or synthetic substances have been investigated for their ability to improve the condition. To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activities of an extract from the root of Sophora flavescens Aiton. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and ex vivo organ cultures of human hair follicle to examine the potential of the extract to stimulate hair growth via anagen elongation. We isolated the compounds promoting the growth of epithelial cells, and determined their chemical structures. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study for S. flavescens extract was carried out for 6 months with patients with AGA. The extract stimulated the proliferation of hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 0.1 ng/mL, while 100 ng/mL of the extract had a marked effect on hair shaft elongation in an organ culture of human hair follicle. Cell proliferation assay-directed fractionation led to the identification of two pterocarpan derivatives, L-maackiain and medicarpin, as active compounds that promote the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes. Studies in human subjects showed that improvement in the inspected alopecia scores in the lotion plus extract group were significant over a period of 6 months (P < 0.01). S. flavescens root extract is effective for the treatment of AGA. The isolated two pterocarpans might have important role in this effect. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Determinants of marginal traction alopecia in African girls and women.

    PubMed

    Khumalo, Nonhlanhla P; Jessop, Susan; Gumedze, Freedom; Ehrlich, Rodney

    2008-09-01

    Our recent population studies reported a prevalence of traction alopecia (TA) of 17.1% in African schoolgirls (6-21 years) and of 31.7% in women (18-86 years). More schoolgirls had chemically treated hair than women and disease presence was associated with hairstyles. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of TA presence and severity in girls and women using data from both studies. Clinical assessment and a Marginal TA Severity score were used for diagnosis and disease severity, respectively. The data used included 574 schoolgirls and 604 women. The first analysis was multiple logistic regression for disease presence. Exploratory associations for disease severity were assessed using the Spearman rank correlation test. Adults were defined as age 18 years or older, irrespective of study. The odds ratio for TA was higher in adults than in children (<18 years) (1.87 [P < .001, 95% confidence interval 1.28-2.72]) and was higher with braiding-related than chemical-related symptoms. The highest risk of TA, compared with natural hair, occurred when traction was added to relaxed hair (odds ratio 3.47 [P < .001, 95% confidence interval 1.94-6.20]). Only 18.9% of patients with TA had never had symptoms related to hairdressing. TA severity was associated with age group, current hairstyle, and hairdressing symptoms. Participants with severe disease were too few to estimate determinants. There is a need for the validation of the Marginal TA Severity score with larger numbers and for future studies to include more participants with severe disease. Our findings suggest that avoiding both hairdressing symptoms and the addition of traction, especially to chemically processed hair, may reduce the risk of developing TA.

  18. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Timothy B; Li, Hong; Rosenburg, Stuart R; Norhausen, Robert W; Garner, Michael M

    2002-09-15

    Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses. Disease in these deer was substantially different from that typically seen following infection with ovine herpesvirus-2, the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus. Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species.

  19. Comparison of the effects of 665 nm low level diode Laser Hat versus and a combination of 665 nm and 808nm low level diode Laser Scanner of hair growth in androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Barikbin, Behrooz; Khodamrdi, Zeinab; Kholoosi, Leila; Akhgri, Mohammad Reza; Haj Abbasi, Majid; Hajabbasi, Mojgan; Razzaghi, Zahra; Akbarpour, Samaneh

    2017-05-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia. 90 patients (18 to 70 years) with androgenic alopecia were randomized into three groups. The first group (n=30) received 655 nm red light using laser hat, the second group (n=30) received 655 nm red laser plus 808 nm infrared laser using a laser scanner of hair growth device (with the patent number: 77733) and the third group (n=30) received no laser as the control group. Patients in laser scanner group had better results and showed a higher increase in terminal hair density compared with laser hat group (mean of 9.61 versus 9.16 per cm 2 ). We found significant decrease in terminal hair density from baseline in control group (mean -1.8 per cm 2 , p<0.0001). Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the laser scanner of the hair growth group compared with laser hat and the control group. The study showed that treatment with new laser devise had a promising result without any observable adverse effects.

  20. [Status of scalp hair and therapy of alopecia in men in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; de Viragh, P A

    2001-02-15

    A community-based interview and a questionnaire of men visiting the dermatologist for treatment of hair loss were conducted in Switzerland, to characterize the significance of scalp hair and self-perception of hair loss in Swiss men, and to evaluate current treatment of hair loss. 508 men, aged 15-74 years, regardless of the degree of hair loss, were interviewed by telephone, and 308 patient questionnaires were completed by 19 dermatologists. The questions addressed by the interview were: degree of self-rated hair loss, time invested for hair care, use or reasons for rejecting hair growing agents, relevant criteria for scalp hair, self-assessment with respect to different "hair communication types". The questionnaire analysed the causes of hair loss, prior and current treatment modalities, and follow-up at the dermatologist. Respondents rated their hair loss on a 5-point, textual scale that ranged from 'no hair loss' to 'bald areas'. 43% reported hair loss to some extent. For 42% a full head of hair was very important, especially for men under 29 years, who invested more time for hair care and had not lost hair. Of men with hair loss, 26% previously applied hair growing agents. Of men consulting the dermatologist for hair loss, 90% had androgenetic alopecia. 37% were previously treated: prior treatment was in 59% minoxidil, in 4% finasteride (Propecia), in 7% Aminexil, in 7% dietary supplements, and in 6% conducted by the hair dresser. In 79% treatment was switched to Propecia: of these, 73% adhered to the follow-up consultations at the dermatologist.

  1. Simulation of scalp cooling by external devices for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Pliskow, Bradley; Mitra, Kunal; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hypothermia of the scalp tissue during chemotherapy treatment (scalp cooling) has been shown to reduce or prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss. In this study, numerical models are developed to investigate the interaction between different types of external scalp cooling devices and the human scalp tissue. This work focuses on improving methods of modeling scalp cooling devices as it relates specifically to the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. First, the cooling power needed for any type of device to achieve therapeutic levels of scalp hypothermia is investigated. Subsequently, two types of scalp cooling devices are simulated: a pre-cooled/frozen cap design and a liquid-cooled cap design. For an average patient, simulations show that 38.5W of heat must be extracted from the scalp tissue for this therapy in order to cool the hair follicle to 22°C. In practice, the cooling power must be greater than this amount to account for thermal losses of the device. Simulations show that pre-cooled and liquid-cooled cap designs result in different tissue temperatures over the course of the procedure. However, it is the temperature of the coolant that largely determines the resulting tissue temperature. Simulations confirm that the thermal resistance of the hair/air layer has a large impact on the resulting tissue temperatures. The results should be correlated with experimental data as an effort to determine the optimal parameter choices for this model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical calcitriol enhances normal hair regrowth but does not prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Schilli, M B; Handjiski, B; Menrad, A; Henz, B M; Plonka, P

    1996-10-01

    Using a murine model that mimics chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) in humans particularly well, we show here that in contrast to previously reported CIA-protective effects in neonatal rats, topical calcitriol does not prevent CIA in adolescent mice but enhances the regrowth of normally pigmented hair shafts. When, prior to injecting 1 X 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide i.p., 0.2 microg calcitriol or vehicle alone were administered topically to the back skin of C57BL/6 mice with all hair follicles in anagen, no significant macroscopic differences in the onset and severity of CIA were seen. However, hair shaft regrowth after CIA, which is often retarded and patchy, thus displaying severe and sometimes persistent pigmentation disorders, was significantly accelerated, enhanced, and qualitatively improved in test compared with control mice. Histomorphometric analysis suggests that this is related to the fact that calcitriol-pretreated follicles favor the "dystrophic catagen pathway" of response to chemical injury, ie., a follicular repair strategy allowing for the unusually fast reconstruction of a new, undamaged anagen hair bulb. Thus, it may be unrealistic to expect that topical calcitriol can prevent human CIA, but topical calcitriols may well enhance the regrowth of a normal hair coat.

  3. Drug Treatment for Androgenetic Alopecia: First Italian Questionnaire Survey on What Dermatologists Think about Finasteride.

    PubMed

    Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2018-06-01

    Treatment with finasteride 1 mg/day represents the therapy of choice for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). We investigated how Italian dermatologists approach use of finasteride for treatment of AGA and common side effects reported by patients. A tablet-based survey was conducted from February 2017 to January 2018 in Italy to investigating use of 1 mg/day finasteride in the treatment of AGA. Approximately 1153 Italian dermatologists were surveyed about prescription frequency, therapy duration, treatment practices, and side effects eventually reported. Dermatologists considered treatment with 1 mg/day finasteride to be the most efficacious treatment for AGA, as reflecting by its long-term (5 years) prescription. Data on sexual side effects from our survey are in line with previous scientific evidence, especially regarding loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, and problems with ejaculation, but also in the psychological sphere and regarding physical impairments such as myalgia and loss of muscle tone. This is the first preliminary observational study on how Italian dermatologists approach use of finasteride to treat AGA. Although side effects have been reported, especially in the sexual sphere, lack of alternative treatments with the same efficacy leads dermatologists to prescribe 1 mg/day finasteride with a tendency to prolong therapy in the long term. Giuliani S.p.A.

  4. Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia in Children: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Eginli, Ariana N; Dlova, Ncoza C; McMichael, Amy

    2017-03-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a form of scarring hair loss most commonly seen in middle-aged African and African American women. It is rarely reported in children. The objective of the current study was to document the presence of CCCA in children and to encourage physicians to recognize early signs of CCCA in children of affected adults. Six children presented with biopsy-proven CCCA to the Department of Dermatology at Wake Forest Baptist Health and the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine from 2012 to 2015. Demographic characteristics, hair styling history, and family history of CCCA were noted. Examination included complete history, skin and scalp examination, photographs of the scalp, and scalp biopsies. Patient ages ranged from 14 to 19 years (mean age at onset 14 years). Five patients reported scalp symptoms such as tender papules, pruritus, and scaling. Four patients reported appreciable hair loss on the vertex of the scalp. One patient had used chemical relaxers and hair dyes in the past. Five patients had a known family history of CCCA. Because CCCA is not typically seen or suspected in children, it is likely to be misdiagnosed or underreported. The findings in these cases add weight to the concept that genetic susceptibility rather than hair care practices may play a significant role in causing CCCA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Tinea capitis in eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jha, Bibeka Nand; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Agrawal, Sudha; Khanal, Basudha; Agarwalla, Arun

    2006-02-01

    Tinea capitis is an increasing public health concern throughout the world. The clinical types and etiological agents vary from time to time and place to place. This study was undertaken to identify the etiological agents and to determine the clinico-etiological correlation of tinea capitis in eastern Nepal. Sixty-nine clinically diagnosed cases of tinea capitis were enrolled in this study. Hair roots and skin scrapings were collected from each patient and subjected to microscopy and culture for identification of fungal hyphae and spores. Tinea capitis accounted for 4.6% of all dermatophyte infections: 68.1% occurred in patients below the age of 11 years with a male to female ratio of 1 : 1.9. "Gray patch" was the most common clinical type (52.2%), followed by "black dot" (17.4%), seborrhoeic dermatitis (13%), alopecia areata (11.6%) and pustular (4.3%). Direct microscopy of hair was positive in 62.3% of patients. Culture positivity was found in 56.7% of patients. Common isolated organisms were Trichophyton violaceum (48.71%), T. mentagrophytes (15.38%), T. tonsurans (12.82%), Microsporum canis (7.69%), T. rubrum and M. gypseum (5.12% each), and M. audouinii and M. nanum (2.56% each). Trichophyton violaceum was the most common pathogen of tinea capitis. The clinical manifestations were variable and "gray patch" was the most common clinical presentation in this part of the world.

  6. Narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy in children.

    PubMed

    Jury, C S; McHenry, P; Burden, A D; Lever, R; Bilsland, D

    2006-03-01

    While narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy is a well-established treatment for a range of skin conditions in adults, there is little in the literature about its use in children and data regarding its long-term carcinogenic potential are lacking. We undertook a retrospective review of the use of narrowband UVB phototherapy in a paediatric population attending two Glasgow Hospitals. Phototherapy case notes for all children aged 16 years and under at time of treatment were reviewed at two hospital sites between 1996 and 2002. In total, 77 children had been treated (median age 12 years, range 4-16). The conditions treated most frequently were psoriasis (45%) and atopic eczema (32%). Other dermatoses treated included alopecia areata, acne, hydroa vacciniforme and polymorphic light eruption. Treatment courses for atopic conditions were longer than those required for psoriatic conditions: median number of treatments 24 for atopic eczema (range 3-46), and 17.5 for psoriasis (range 9-35). By the end of treatment, 68% of the atopic patients and 63% of the patients with psoriasis had cleared. The adverse event profile was similar to that in adults, with erythema, herpes simplex reactivation and PLE all recorded. Anxiety was a problem for five patients. We conclude that narrowband UVB phototherapy is a useful and well-tolerated treatment for children with severe or intractable inflammatory skin disease, but concerns remain regarding long-term side-effects.

  7. Probing the Effects of Stress Mediators on the Human Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Eva M.J.; Liotiri, Sofia; Bodó, Enikő; Hagen, Evelin; Bíró, Tamás; Arck, Petra C.; Paus, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Stress alters murine hair growth, depending on substance P-mediated neurogenic inflammation and nerve growth factor (NGF), a key modulator of hair growth termination (catagen induction). Whether this is of any relevance in human hair follicles (HFs) is completely unclear. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of substance P, the central cutaneous prototypic stress-associated neuropeptide, on normal, growing human scalp HFs in organ culture. We show that these prominently expressed substance P receptor (NK1) at the gene and protein level. Organ-cultured HFs responded to substance P by premature catagen development, down-regulation of NK1, and up-regulation of neutral endopeptidase (degrades substance P). This was accompanied by mast cell degranulation in the HF connective tissue sheath, indicating neurogenic inflammation. Substance P down-regulated immunoreactivity for the growth-promoting NGF receptor (TrkA), whereas it up-regulated NGF and its apoptosis- and catagen-promoting receptor (p75NTR). In addition, MHC class I and β2-microglobulin immunoreactivity were up-regulated and detected ectopically, indicating collapse of the HF immune privilege. In conclusion, we present a simplistic, but instructive, organ culture assay to demonstrate sensitivity of the human HF to key skin stress mediators. The data obtained therewith allow one to sketch the first evidence-based biological explanation for how stress may trigger or aggravate telogen effluvium and alopecia areata. PMID:18055548

  8. The Molecular Revolution in Cutaneous Biology: Emerging Landscape in Genomic Dermatology: New Mechanistic Ideas, Gene Editing, and Therapeutic Breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Titeux, Matthias; Izmiryan, Araksya; Hovnanian, Alain

    2017-05-01

    Stunning technological advances in genomics have led to spectacular breakthroughs in the understanding of the underlying defects, biological pathways and therapeutic targets of skin diseases leading to new therapeutic interventions. Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the identification of disease-causing genes and has a profound impact in deciphering gene and protein signatures in rare and frequent skin diseases. Gene addition strategies have shown efficacy in junctional EB and in recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB). TALENs and Cripsr/Cas9 have emerged as highly efficient new tools to edit genomic sequences to creat new models and to correct or disrupt mutated genes to treat human diseases. Therapeutic approaches have not been limited to DNA modification and strategies at the mRNA, protein and cellular levels have also emerged, some of which have already proven clinical efficacy in RDEB. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of skin disorders has led to the development of specific drugs or repurposing of existing medicines as in basal cell nevus syndrome, alopecia areata, melanoma and EB simplex. These discoveries pave the way for improved targeted personalized medicine for rare and frequent diseases. It is likely that a growing number of orphan skin diseases will benefit from combinatory new therapies in a near future. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of low-level laser therapy as monotherapy or concomitant therapy for male and female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Munck, Andréia; Gavazzoni, Maria Fernanda; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb(®), in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth.

  10. Rooster feathering, androgenic alopecia, and hormone dependent tumor growth: What is in common?

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Julie Ann; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Widelitz, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Different epithelial organs form as a result of epithelial - mesenchymal interactions and share a common theme modulated by variations (Chuong edit. In Molecular Basis of Epithelial Appendage Morphogenesis, 1998). One of the major modulators is the sex hormone pathway that acts on the prototype signaling pathway to alter organ phenotypes. Here we focus on how the sex hormone pathway interfaces with epithelia morphogenesis related signaling pathways. We first survey these sex hormone regulated morphogenetic processes in various epithelial organs. Sexual dimorphism of hairs and feathers has implications in sexual selection. Diseases of these pathways result in androgenic alopecia, hirsutism, henny feathering, etc. The growth and development of mammary glands, prostate glands and external genitalia essential for reproductive function are also dependent on sex hormones. Diseases affecting these organs include congenital anomalies and hormone dependent type of breast and prostate cancers. To study the role of sex hormones in new growth in the context of system biology / pathology, an in vivo model in which organ formation starts from stem cells is essential. With recent developments (Yu et al., The morphogenesis of feathers. Nature 420:308–312, 2002), the growth of tail feathers in roosters and hens has become a testable model in which experimental manipulations are possible. We show exemplary data of differences in their growth rate, proliferative cell population and signaling molecule expression. Working hypotheses are proposed on how the sex hormone pathways may interact with growth pathways. It is now possible to test these hypotheses using the chicken model to learn fundamental mechanisms on how sex hormones affect organogenesis, epithelial organ cycling, and growth related tumorigenesis. PMID:15617560

  11. Oral Finasteride Presents With Sexual-Unrelated Withdrawal in Long-Term Treated Androgenic Alopecia in Men.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Velasco, Carlos; Bermüdez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Side effects associated with oral finasteride (FT) (1 mg/d) and topical 5% minoxidil (M5) have been previously described. The authors have evaluated long-term adverse effects and causes of long-term therapy withdrawal in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA) treated with M5+FT vs M5 without FT. A total of 130 AGA patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up volunteered to complete a questionnaire on side effects. Patients' responses were classified as "never," "rarely," "sometimes," "often," and "all the time." An adverse effect was considered in the presence of an "often" or "all the time" response. A total of 100 patients received combined M5+FT and were compared with 30 patients receiving single-therapy M5 according to the physician's clinical criteria. Erectile dysfunction (3%), diminished libido (4%), and reduced ejaculation (7%) were present in patients taking M5+FT but were absent in patients taking M5. Only 1 of 100 patients taking M5+FT quit long-term therapy due to sexual adverse effects (diminished libido). The main causes for therapy withdrawal in the FT group were lack of positive results in 11% and in the M5 group side effects in 4% (P < .02). Increased body hair was different between groups: with 6.6% in the M5 group and 4% in the M5+FT group (P < .03). FT demonstrates sexual-unrelated reasons as the main cause of therapy withdrawal in long-term treated AGA patients.

  12. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Low-level light therapy for androgenetic alopecia: a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Jee Woong; Kim, Jun Young; Shin, Jung Won; Lee, Seok-Jong; Huh, Chang-Hun

    2013-08-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common disorder affecting men and women. Finasteride and minoxidil are well-known, effective treatment methods, but patients who exhibit a poor response to these methods have no additional adequate treatment modalities. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-level light therapy (LLLT) device for the treatment of AGA. This study was designed as a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled trial. Forty subjects with AGA were enrolled and scheduled to receive treatment with a helmet-type, home-use LLLT device emitting wavelengths of 630, 650, and 660 nm or a sham device for 18 minutes daily. Investigator and subject performed phototrichogram assessment (hair density and thickness) and global assessment of hair regrowth for evaluation. After 24 weeks of treatment, the LLLT group showed significantly greater hair density than the sham device group. Mean hair diameter improved statistically significantly more in the LLLT group than in the sham device group. Investigator global assessment showed a significant difference between the two groups, but that of the subject did not. No serious adverse reactions were detected. LLLT could be an effective treatment for AGA. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Profile of tofacitinib citrate and its potential in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Di Lernia, V; Bardazzi, F

    2016-01-01

    The outlook for patients with psoriasis has improved significantly over the last 10 years with the introduction of targeted therapies. Cytokines exert their effects by activating intracellular signaling and transcription pathways, among which there are Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathways. JAKs are intracellular second messengers that are crucial for transmitting extracellular cytokine signals to the cell. JAK inhibition interrupts intracellular signaling and can suppress immune cell activation and inflammation in T-cell-mediated disorders, such as psoriasis. Consequently, JAKs are the subject of intensive research activity, since they represent possible therapeutic targets. Tofacitinib is an orally available compound belonging to a novel category of nonbiologic drugs, the “JAK inhibitors”, which target JAKs. Recently, oral and topical formulations of tofacitinib have been demonstrated to be safe and effective for the treatment of plaque psoriasis in randomized clinical trials. In particular, a 10 mg bid dose of tofacitinib was shown to be noninferior to etanercept 50 mg subcutaneously twice weekly. Questions remain unresolved regarding the safety risk beyond the 5 mg bid dose. This review, assessing the available scientific literature, focuses on the profile of tofacitinib, as investigational compound in the treatment of plaque psoriasis. An overview of the efficacy and safety data from randomized clinical trials is provided. In addition, the authors highlight future potential applications of tofacitinib in other skin diseases, in particular alopecia areata and vitiligo. PMID:26889081

  15. Comorbid autoimmune diseases in patients with vitiligo: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Liza; Zarbo, Allison; Isedeh, Prescilia; Jacobsen, Gordon; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2016-02-01

    Few large-scale studies have quantified the burden of comorbid autoimmune diseases in patients with vitiligo. We sought to determine the prevalence of comorbid autoimmune diseases in patients with vitiligo. We conducted a manual chart review on a cohort of 1873 patients with vitiligo seen between January 2002 and October 2012 at the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, MI. Patients were excluded if they had fewer than 2 dermatology notes (N = 595) or if they were never given a diagnosis of vitiligo by a dermatologist (N = 180). Of 1098 patients with vitiligo, nearly 20% had at least 1 comorbid autoimmune disease. Compared with the general US population, we found a higher prevalence of thyroid disease (12.9%, P < .001), alopecia areata (3.8%, P < .001), inflammatory bowel disease (0.9%, P = .046), pernicious anemia (0.5%, P = .007), systemic lupus erythematosus (0.3%, P = .048), Guillain-Barre syndrome (0.3%, P < .001), discoid lupus (0.2%, P = .003), linear morphea (0.2%, P < .001), myasthenia gravis (0.2%, P = .002), and Sjögren syndrome (0.2%, P = .011). The study lacked a control group. This was a single-institution study with possible selection bias, and thus the findings may not be representative of the overall population of patients with vitiligo. We observed a high prevalence of comorbid autoimmune diseases in patients with vitiligo and report several new associations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sterol intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibit hair growth and trigger an innate immune response in cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Sreejith P; Ganguly, Taneeta; Consolo, Mary; Price, Vera; Mirmirani, Paradi; Honda, Kord; Karnik, Pratima

    2012-01-01

    Primary cicatricial alopecia (PCA) is a group of inflammatory hair disorders that cause scarring and permanent hair loss. Previous studies have implicated PPARγ, a transcription factor that integrates lipogenic and inflammatory signals, in the pathogenesis of PCA. However, it is unknown what triggers the inflammatory response in these disorders, whether the inflammation is a primary or secondary event in disease pathogenesis, and whether the inflammatory reaction reflects an autoimmune process. In this paper, we show that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is impaired in the skin and hair follicles of PCA patients. Treatment of hair follicle cells with BM15766, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, or 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), a sterol precursor, stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine genes. Painting of mouse skin with 7-DHC or BM15766 inhibits hair growth, causes follicular plugging and induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the interfollicular dermis. Our results demonstrate that cholesterologenic changes within hair follicle cells trigger an innate immune response that is associated with the induction of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interferon (IFN) gene expression, and the recruitment of macrophages that surround the hair follicles and initiate their destruction. These findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for cholesterol precursors in PCA pathogenesis and identify a novel link between sterols and inflammation that may prove transformative in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  17. Bioactives in Chinese Proprietary Medicine Modulates 5α-Reductase Activity and Gene Expression Associated with Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Justin J. Y.; Pan, Jing; Sun, Lihan; Zhang, Junying; Wu, Chunyong; Kang, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by a progressive and patterned transformation of thick, pigmented terminal scalp hairs into short, hypo-pigmented vellus-like hairs. The use of Minoxidil and Finasteride to treat AGA are often associated with complications in safety and efficacy. However, herbal remedies are deemed to have lesser side effects in many societies. This study aims to identify potential hair growth properties of individual compounds from a Chinese proprietary medicine known as Yangxue Shengfa capsule (YSC), used in China for many years for improving AGA. Six marker compounds, including 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), Chlorogenic acid, Emodin, Ferulic acid, Isoimperatorin, and Paeoniflorin were used for simultaneous HPLC quantification and anti-AGA in-vitro screening. Simultaneous quantification of these components was performed on 75% (v/v) methanol extracts of YSC, using a Welch Ultimate XB-C18 column and gradient elution. Five compounds significantly promoted cell proliferation in cultured immortalized human Dermal Papilla Cells (DPC). Multiple genes associated with the progression of AGA, including IGF-1, DKK-1, and TGF-β1, were found to be regulated by some of these compounds. Interestingly, Ferulic acid and Emodin demonstrated good pharmacological properties against AGA, thereby concluding the potential of these bioactives to be used in the treatment against AGA. PMID:28450835

  18. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1). She had originally been examined by a pediatrician with the diagnosis of alopecia areata. The patient`s personal history included hay fever and shortsightedness, and she suffered from varicella and mononucleosis. Nobody in the family history suffered from alopecia areata, but her father has male androgenetic alopecia (Norwood/Hamilton MAGA C3F3). The mother noticed that the child had had changeable mood for about 2 months and did not want to communicate with other persons in the family. The family did not have any pet at home. At school, her favorite subjects were Math and Computer Studies. She did not like Physical Education and did not participate in any sport activities during her free time. This was very strange because she was obese (body-mass index (BMI) 24.69). She was sometimes angry with her 13-year-old sister who had better results at school. The girl had suddenly started to wear a blue scarf. The parents did not notice that she pulled out her hair at home. Dermatological examination of the capillitium found a zone of incomplete alopecia in the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area, without inflammation, desquamation, and scaring. Hairs were of variable length (Figure 1). There was a patch of incomplete alopecia above the forehead between two stripes of hair of variable length (Figure 2). The hair pull test was

  19. The clinical effect of JetpPeel-assisted topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lin; Bao, Linlin; Tian, Tian; Li, Yuanhong

    2018-02-01

    We used JetPeel, combined with topical minoxidil to treat patients with AGA, in order to observe whether the JetPeel can accelerate the recovery of the disease and find a new method for AGA treatment. Thirty patients who met the standard were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was treated with JetPeel-assisted topical minoxidil. The second group received topical minoxidil monotherapy. The third group was not given any treatment. We used objective evaluation (amount and diameter of hair, oil secretion level) and subjective evaluation (hair growth score marked by dermatologist and patient) to evaluate the hair growth condition before treatment and every other month. The calculated p values of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. All of the 30 patients finished the study. There was no difference in age, sex, and duration and severity of the disease among groups prior to treatment (p > 0.05). And there was greater improvement in scores of hair growth in the first group compared to the second and third group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Compared with topical minoxidil monotherapy, JetPeel-assisted topical minoxidil is more effective during the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  20. Prescribing Habits for Androgenic Alopecia Among Dermatologists in Spain in 2017: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Pindado-Ortega, C; Saceda-Corralo, D; Buendía-Castaño, D; Fernández-González, P; Moreno-Arrones, Ó M; Fonda-Pascual, P; Alegre-Sánchez, A; Rodrigues-Barata, A R; Vañó-Galván, S

    2018-04-12

    Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride are the only drugs approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Spain. However, the management of this condition is highly variable because numerous treatments are used off-label. The main aim of this study was to describe the prescribing habits of dermatologists in Spain for male AGA (MAGA) and female AGA (FAGA). Descriptive cross-sectional study using online questionnaires completed by dermatologists working in Spain. The responses of 241 dermatologists were analyzed. The most common treatments prescribed for MAGA were minoxidil (98%), oral finasteride (96%), nutricosmetics (44%), topical finasteride (37%), oral dutasteride (33%), platelet-rich plasma (14%), and low-level laser therapy (8%). For premenopausal FAGA, the most common treatments were topical minoxidil (98%), oral contraceptives (81%), nutricosmetics (72%), cyproterone acetate (58%), oral finasteride (39%), topical finasteride (39%), spironolactone (27%), platelet-rich plasma (20%), oral dutasteride (20%), oral flutamide (18%), and low-level laser therapy (7%). Finally, for postmenopausal FAGA, the most common treatments prescribed were topical minoxidil (98%), oral finasteride (84%), nutricosmetics (68%), topical finasteride (50%), oral dutasteride (35%), platelet-rich plasma (21%), spironolactone (16%), cyproterone acetate (16%), oral flutamide (9%), and low-level laser therapy (9%). A limitation of our study is that we did not analyze novel AGA treatments such as oral minoxidil and dutasteride mesotherapy. The most common treatments prescribed for AGA by dermatologists in Spain are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and nutricosmetics for MAGA and postmenopausal FAGA and topical minoxidil, oral contraceptives, and nutricosmetics for premenopausal FAGA. Copyright © 2018 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to male alopecia: a study of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Gatherwright, James; Liu, Mengyuan T; Amirlak, Bardia; Gliniak, Christy; Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of environmental factors and testosterone on male alopecia. Ninety-two identical male twins were recruited from 2009 to 2011. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed followed by the acquisition of sputum samples for testosterone analysis and standardized digital photography. Frontal, temporal, and vertex hair loss was assessed from these photographs. Hair loss was then correlated with survey responses and testosterone levels between twin pairs. Two independent, blinded observers also rated the photographs for hair thinning. Increased smoking duration (p < 0.001) and the presence of dandruff (p = 0.028) were significantly associated with increased frontal hair loss. Increased exercise duration (p = 0.002), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.042), and increased money spent on hair loss products (p = 0.050) were all associated with increased temporal hair loss. Daily hat use (p = 0.050), higher body mass index (p = 0.012), and higher testosterone levels (p = 0.040) were associated with decreased temporal hair loss. Factors that were significantly associated with increased vertex hair loss included abstinence from alcohol consumption (p = 0.030), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.004), increased smoking duration (p = 0.047), increased exercise duration (p = 0.050), and increased stress duration (p = 0.010). Lower body mass index, more children, increased caffeine consumption, history of skin disease, and abstinence from alcohol were significantly associated with increased hair thinning scores (p < 0.05). This study offers substantial evidence that exogenous factors may have a clinically significant impact on hair loss. Risk, III.

  2. Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with diverse activities including enhancement microcapillary perfusion. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and compare its effects with minoxidil 2%. Patients with AGA were randomly assigned to rosemary oil (n = 50) or minoxidil 2% (n = 50) for a period of 6 months. After a baseline visit, patients returned to the clinic for efficacy and safety evaluations every 3 months. A standardized professional microphotographic assessment of each volunteer was taken at the initial interview and after 3 and 6 months of the trial. No significant change was observed in the mean hair count at the 3-month endpoint, neither in the rosemary nor in the minoxidil group (P > .05). In contrast, both groups experienced a significant increase in hair count at the 6-month endpoint compared with the baseline and 3-month endpoint (P < .05). No significant difference was found between the study groups regarding hair count either at month 3 or month 6 (> .05). The frequencies of dry hair, greasy hair, and dandruff were not found to be significantly different from baseline at either month 3 or month 6 trial in the groups (P > .05). The frequency of scalp itching at the 3- and 6-month trial points was significantly higher compared with baseline in both groups (P < .05). Scalp itching, however, was more frequent in the minoxidil group at both assessed endpoints (P < .05). The findings of the present trial provided evidence with respect to the efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of AGA.

  3. Background characterization of an ultra-low background liquid scintillation counter

    DOE PAGES

    Erchinger, J. L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, C. E.; ...

    2017-01-26

    The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will expand the application of liquid scintillation counting by enabling lower detection limits and smaller sample volumes. By reducing the overall count rate of the background environment approximately 2 orders of magnitude below that of commercially available systems, backgrounds on the order of tens of counts per day over an energy range of ~3–3600 keV can be realized. Finally, initial test results of the ULB LSC show promising results for ultra-low background detection with liquid scintillation counting.

  4. Androgenetic alopecia in men aged 40-69 years: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Severi, G; Sinclair, R; Hopper, J L; English, D R; McCredie, M R E; Boyle, P; Giles, G G

    2003-12-01

    The epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is not fully understood. Although a strong genetic basis has long been identified, little is known of its non-genetic causes. To estimate the prevalence of and to determine risk factors for AGA in men aged 40-69 years in Australia. Men (n = 1390) were recruited at random from the electoral rolls to serve as controls in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. All were interviewed in person and direct observations of AGA were made. Men were grouped into the following categories; no AGA, frontal AGA, vertex AGA and full AGA (frontal and vertex AGA). Epidemiological data collected from these men were used for an analysis of risk factors for each AGA category using unconditional logistic regression with AGA category as the response variable adjusting for age, education and country of birth. The prevalence of vertex and full AGA increased with age from 31% (age 40-55 years) to 53% (age 65-69 years). Conversely, the proportion of men with only frontal AGA was very similar across all age groups (31-33%). No associations were found between pubertal growth spurt or acne, reports of adult body size at time of interview, urinary symptom score, marital status, or current smoking status or duration of smoking and the risk of any form of AGA. The consumption of alcohol was associated with a significant increase in risk of frontal and vertex AGA but not full AGA. Men with vertex AGA had fewer female sexual partners but average ejaculatory frequency did not differ between men in different AGA categories. Reported weight and lean body mass at reaching maturity at about 21 years of age were negatively associated with vertex balding (P for trend < 0.05) but not with frontal AGA or full AGA. Evidence for environmental influences on AGA remains very slight. Our study failed to confirm previously reported or hypothesized associations with smoking and benign prostatic hypertrophy. The associations that we found with alcohol

  5. Effect of Pumpkin Seed Oil on Hair Growth in Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Cha, Hyeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has been shown to block the action of 5-alpha reductase and to have antiandrogenic effects on rats. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of PSO for treatment of hair growth in male patients with mild to moderate androgenetic alopecia (AGA). 76 male patients with AGA received 400 mg of PSO per day or a placebo for 24 weeks. Change over time in scalp hair growth was evaluated by four outcomes: assessment of standardized clinical photographs by a blinded investigator; patient self-assessment scores; scalp hair thickness; and scalp hair counts. Reports of adverse events were collected throughout the study. After 24 weeks of treatment, self-rated improvement score and self-rated satisfaction scores in the PSO-treated group were higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.013, 0.003). The PSO-treated group had more hair after treatment than at baseline, compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). Mean hair count increases of 40% were observed in PSO-treated men at 24 weeks, whereas increases of 10% were observed in placebo-treated men (P < 0.001). Adverse effects were not different in the two groups. PMID:24864154

  6. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of topical minoxidil and topical alfatradiol in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kunte, Christian; Krisp, Andreas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Ellwanger, Ulf; Hoffmann, Rolf

    2007-05-01

    Two drugs which are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women in Germany were compared with regard to their influence on hair growth. Patients were randomized to group I (n = 52) who used 2% minoxidil solution twice daily for a period of 12 months or to group II (n = 51) who used 0.025% alfatradiol solution once daily for 6 months and were then switched to 2% minoxidil solution for months 7-12. Changes in hair growth parameters were determined using the TrichoScan. Topical treatment with 2% minoxidil solution for 6 months resulted in a significant increase of cumulative hair thickness (p < 0.0001) and absolute hair density (p < or = 0.0025), whereas these parameters of hair growth remained nearly unchanged after 6 months of treatment with alfatradiol solution. Evaluation of the same parameters from month 7 to month 12 demonstrated that 12 months minoxidil treatment resulted in an increasing stabilization (group I). After the alfatradiol-->minoxidil switch in group II a significant increase in cumulative hair thickness (p < 0.0001) and absolute hair density (p < 0.0001) was achieved. Both study medications were well tolerated. Treatment with minoxidil can induce an increase in hair density and hair thickness,whereas treatment with alfatradiol results in deceleration or stabilization of hair loss.

  7. Associated Variables of Myositis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Leng, Rui-Xue; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2017-05-26

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to estimate the point prevalence of myositis and identify associated variables of myositis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical date of patients hospitalized with lupus at the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University and Anhui Provincial Hospital were collected. Patients were defined as having myositis if they reported the presence of persistent invalidating muscular weakness combined with increased levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and abnormal electromyography (EMG). RESULTS The study sample comprised 1701 lupus patients, of which 44 had myositis. Patients with SLE-associated myositis are more likely to have skin rash, alopecia, pericarditis, vasculitis, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-dsDNA, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, low C3, low C4, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high D-dimer, and active disease. Multivariate logistic regression found positive associations between leukopenia, alopecia, and active disease with myositis. Negative associations between myositis with the use of corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs were revealed in univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS The point prevalence of myositis was 2.6% in SLE patients. The significant association of alopecia, leukopenia, and active disease with myositis suggests that organ damage, hematological abnormality, and high disease activity promote the progression of myositis in lupus patients.

  8. Associated Variables of Myositis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Leng, Rui-Xue; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the point prevalence of myositis and identify associated variables of myositis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Material/Methods Clinical date of patients hospitalized with lupus at the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University and Anhui Provincial Hospital were collected. Patients were defined as having myositis if they reported the presence of persistent invalidating muscular weakness combined with increased levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and abnormal electromyography (EMG). Results The study sample comprised 1701 lupus patients, of which 44 had myositis. Patients with SLE-associated myositis are more likely to have skin rash, alopecia, pericarditis, vasculitis, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-dsDNA, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, low C3, low C4, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high D-dimer, and active disease. Multivariate logistic regression found positive associations between leukopenia, alopecia, and active disease with myositis. Negative associations between myositis with the use of corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs were revealed in univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions The point prevalence of myositis was 2.6% in SLE patients. The significant association of alopecia, leukopenia, and active disease with myositis suggests that organ damage, hematological abnormality, and high disease activity promote the progression of myositis in lupus patients. PMID:28548078

  9. PSYCHOSOMATIC ASPECTS IN PATIENTS WITH DERMATOLOGIC DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, N; Beridze, L; Tsintsadze, N; Krichun, Y; Tsivadze, N; Tsintsadze, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to find out the magnitude of anxiety and depression in our common dermatological patients and its correlation with age, sex. For this purpose, we used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. The psychometric validity of HADS has been established by validating the questionnaire against the structured psychiatric interviews. A study of anxiety and depression in patients with dermatologic diseases was conducted on the basis of outpatients department in 211 patients with dermatologic diseases; among them were 107 male and 104 female, aged 16 to 75 years. Among them were patients with Acne, Alopecia Areata, Psoriasis, Vitiligo, Neurodermatitis, Scabies, Eczema and Other diseases (Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria, Lichen Planus, Herpes Zoster, Melasma, Warts and Etc.). Based on studies of patients reveals that 65.4% of them are anxiety, depression - 56.2%, both anxiety and depression in 24.7%, there figures higher than the dates of other authorizes. As a result of a direct link research risk disorder depressive spectrum with sex, age; in woman anxiety and depression occurs more frequently than men, and anxiety occurs more frequently in young age. Especially there are hight frequencies of manifestation of abuse in patients with Psoriasis (anxiety - 83.3%, depression - 69.4%, both - 38.8%), Eczema (anxiety - 73.3%, depression - 56.6%, both - 26.7%), Acne (anxiety - 78.4%, depression - 54%, both - 21.6%), Vitiligo (anxiety - 66.7%, depression - 60%, both - 33.3%). Our study noticed higher dates of anxiety and depression than the dates of other outhorizes.

  10. The autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) is strongly associated with vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Tazi-Ahnini, R; McDonagh, A J G; Wengraf, D A; Lovewell, T R J; Vasilopoulos, Y; Messenger, A G; Cork, M J; Gawkrodger, D J

    2008-09-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder that occurs with greatly increased frequency in the rare recessive autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (APECED) caused by mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene on chromosome 21q22.3. We have previously detected an association between alopecia areata and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AIRE gene. To report the findings of an extended study including haplotype analysis on six AIRE polymorphisms (AIRE C-103T, C4144G, T5238C, G6528A, T7215C and T11787C) in vitiligo, another APECED-associated disease. A case-control analysis was performed. Results showed a strong association between AIRE 7215C and vitiligo [P = 1.36 x 10(-5), odds ratio (OR) 3.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.87-5.46]. We found no significant association with the other polymorphisms individually. However, haplotype analysis revealed that the AIRE haplotype CCTGCC showed a highly significant association with vitiligo (P = 4.14 x 10(-4), OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.70-5.28). To select the most informative minimal haplotypes, we tagged the polymorphisms using SNP tag software. Using AIRE C-103T, G6528A, T7215C and T11787C as tag SNPs, the haplotype AIRE CGCC was associated with vitiligo (P = 0.003, OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.45-4.26). The link between vitiligo and AIRE raises the possibility that defective skin peripheral antigen selection in the thymus is involved in the changes that result in melanocyte destruction in this disorder.

  11. The role of natural killer cells in autoimmune blistering diseases.

    PubMed

    Zakka, L R; Fradkov, E; Keskin, D B; Tabansky, I; Stern, J N H; Ahmed, A R

    2012-02-01

    The major focus of this paper is to describe and evaluate current information on the role of natural killer cells (NK cells) in the pathogenesis of blistering diseases. Until now, only pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been studied. One co-culture study demonstrated that CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood or perilesional skin of patients with active disease proliferate and secrete cytokines in the presence of major histocompatibility class II-expressing NK cells loaded with antigenic desmoglein self-peptides. Another study showed that NK cells can contribute to a T helper type 2-biased immune response through impaired interleukins (IL)-12 signaling and upregulation of IL, IL-10 and IL-5. Although significant data on other blistering diseases are unavailable at present, some studies implicate NK cells in disease progression. For instance, information on the role of NK cells in psoriasis and their production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) will be provided since several TNF-α-inhibitors are used in its treatment. Studies on alopecia areata are also included in this paper because NK cells seem to play a key role in its pathogenesis. This review highlights the potential importance of NK cells and NKT cells as members of the large repertoire of cells and soluble mediators that play a critical role in pathogenesis of blistering diseases and other autoimmune diseases involving the skin. Therefore, the authors advocate a greater focus and interest on the study of the interaction of NK cells and the skin.

  12. Statins: novel additions to the dermatologic arsenal?

    PubMed

    Namazi, M R

    2004-06-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins), atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin and simvastatin, reduce atherogenesis and cardiovascular morbidity. Besides, there is growing evidence that statins have immunomodulatory activities. Statins downregulate the expression of adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MAC-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), on leucocytes and endothelial cells and, through binding to LFA-1, interfere with ICAM-1-LFA-1 interaction, which is crucial for activation of lymphocytes by antigen-presenting cells, ingress of leucocytes into the inflammation sites and immunologic cytotoxicity. Statins inhibit the inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex class II in several cell types including macrophages and downregulate the expression of T-helper-1 (Th1) chemokine receptors on T cells, leading further to inhibition of activation of lymphocytes and their infiltration into the inflammation sites. Statins block the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma in macrophages and possess antioxidant effects. These agents inhibit the proliferation of immunocytes and the activation of natural killer cells. Regarding the above facts and in view of their safety and inexpensiveness, statins may prove invaluable in the treatment of a multiplicity of dermatologic disorders, especially those characterized by ingress of activated leucocytes into the skin, such as alopecia areata, vitiligo, lichen planus, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, erythema multiforme, psoriasis, bullous pemphigoid, systemic sclerosis, mycosis fungoides, toxic epidermal necrolysis and Behcet's disease.

  13. [Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Bajkin, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a single patient or in the same family. Numerous autoimmune diseases have been shown to coexist frequently with thyroid autoimmune diseases. AUTOIMMNUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: This part of the study reviews the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease coexisting with: pernicious anaemia, vitiligo, celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, miastenia gravis, alopecia areata and sclerosis multiplex, and several recommendations for screening have been given. AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN NON-SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Special attention is given to the correlation between autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome Sjögren, systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Screening for autoimmune thyroid diseases should be recommended in everyday clinical practice, in patients with primary organ-specific or organ non-specific autoimmune disease. Otherwise, in patients with primary thyroid autoimmune disease, there is no good reason of seeking for all other autoimmune diseases, although these patients have a greater risk of developing other autoimmune disease. Economic aspects of medicine require further analyzing of these data, from cost/benefit point of view to justified either mandatory screening or medical practitioner judgment.

  14. Hair and cancer chemotherapy: consequences and nursing care--a literature study.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, D

    2001-09-01

    Hair is a body appendage that throughout history has been a symbol of the social, cultural and political climate, in addition to connoting religious affiliation. Hair loss on the other hand has been associated with a loss of attractiveness, individuality, a state of disgrace and illness, in addition to the ageing process, death and a loss of sexuality. One of the most common side-effects of chemotherapy is hair loss (alopecia). Alopecia can range from sporadic thinning of the hair to complete baldness. Several factors may contribute to the severity of hair loss including drug, dose and schedule as well as hair care practices. Prevention of alopecia has been a focus in the medical and nursing literature since the late 1960s. Mechanical, physical and biological measures have been used with varying success. The goal of prevention is primarily the reduction of patient distress caused by chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Patient reactions to alopecia vary and may be dependent on the individual importance of hair, prognosis, degree of expected hair loss, the amount of information and preparation given, and physical and psychological coping mechanisms. Nurses play an important role in assisting the patient to cope with alopecia by giving the needed information and teaching self-care strategies to minimize alopecia, cope with alopecia, and protect the skin and eyes following alopecia. These interventions are aimed at helping the patient move through a potentially devastating experience to a renewed sense of well-being.

  15. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection.

  16. Understanding patient and physician perceptions of male androgenetic alopecia treatments in Asia-Pacific and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lulic, Zrinka; Inui, Shigeki; Sim, Woo-Young; Kang, Hoon; Choi, Gwang Seong; Hong, Woosung; Hatanaka, Toshiki; Wilson, Timothy; Manyak, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This survey aimed to explore patient and physician attitudes towards male androgenetic alopecia (AGA), satisfaction with currently available male AGA treatments and investigate the factors affecting treatment choice. The survey was carried out in five countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil) between November and December 2015 using a standard market research methodology. Questionnaires were completed by patients with male AGA or hair loss/thinning and practicing physicians who were responsible for prescribing AGA treatment. In total, 835 patients and 338 physicians completed the questionnaire. Overall, 37.6% of patients reported satisfaction with the treatments they had used. The highest patient satisfaction was reported for 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (53.9% of patients satisfied). In all countries, physicians were more likely than patients to think that male AGA has a major impact on patient confidence (89.3% vs 70.4%, respectively). There was agreement by physicians and patients that male AGA patients who are involved in their treatment decisions have better outcomes. Patients who were satisfied with AGA treatments were more likely to have the level of involvement they desired in treatment decisions (69.1% of satisfied patients) than dissatisfied patients (56.4% of dissatisfied patients). This survey provides valuable insights into the attitudes of patients and physicians in Asia and Latin America about male AGA and its treatments. The survey identified areas of disconnect between physicians and patients regarding the impact of male AGA, treatment consultations and the importance of treatment attributes. It also highlights the need for physicians to spend sufficient time with patients discussing AGA treatment approaches. © 2017 GlaxoSmithKline. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 5% Foam in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Men With Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Keaney, Terrence C; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men, characterized by hair miniaturization, hairline recession, and vertex balding. It affects approximately 50% of men, negatively affecting self-esteem and sociability. Topical minoxidil formulations are approved up to a 5% concentration for men, but patient adherence to treatment is challenged by gradual results that may be perceived as a lack of initial benefit. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 5% minoxidil foam used in combination with a novel botanical hair solution was evaluated in a 12-week, multicenter, single-arm, open label study in 56 subjects with mild to moderate AGA. Assessments included investigator ratings of improvement and subject self-ratings of satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in scalp hair coverage and perception of overall treatment benefit in as early as 4 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings were significant for improved hair growth and hair appearance in as few as 4 weeks (P<.05). The regimen was well tolerated, and subjects indicated a high degree of satisfaction. Investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this novel regimen provide clinicians with an effective treatment option for AGA that also provides a high level of patient satisfaction, which may help promote patient adherence to long-term treatment.

  18. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    PubMed

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Efficacy of topical tofacitinib in promoting hair growth in non-scarring alopecia: possible mechanism via VEGF induction.

    PubMed

    Meephansan, Jitlada; Thummakriengkrai, J; Ponnikorn, S; Yingmema, W; Deenonpoe, R; Suchonwanit, P

    2017-11-01

    Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor that promotes hair growth; however, the efficacy and mechanism of this effect are not yet understood. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of topical tofacitinib on hair growth in mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided equally into four groups and treated topically with tofacitinib, minoxidil, or vehicle once daily for 21 days. Weekly photographs were taken to determine the area and rate of hair growth, and tissue samples were collected for histopathological evaluation. mRNA and protein expression of anagen-maintaining growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), were determined via RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Tofacitinib-treated mice exhibited more hair regrowth than either minoxidil-treated or control mice did between day 7 and 21 (P < 0.05). Topical tofacitinib also promoted more rapid hair growth rate than topical minoxidil or control did (P < 0.001). Histopathology showed a distinct increase in the number of hair follicles, mostly in the anagen phase, in the tofacitinib-treated group. Hair follicles in the minoxidil- and vehicle-treated groups were more often classified as catagen and anagen. VEGF mRNA and protein expression in the tofacitinib-treated group was significantly greater than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). IGF-1 mRNA expression was not upregulated in tofacitinib-treated mice. Topical tofacitinib is effective in promoting hair growth, and the possible mechanism involves increased VEGF levels and lowered inflammation. This study will help develop a new therapeutic option for non-scarring alopecia.

  20. Valproic Acid Induces Hair Regeneration in Murine Model and Activates Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Yoon, Juyong; Shin, Seung Ho; Zahoor, Muhamad; Kim, Hyoung Jun; Park, Phil June; Park, Won-Seok; Min, Do Sik; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2012-01-01

    Background Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA), a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/ Principal Findings Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX), a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice. Conclusions/ Significance Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth. PMID:22506014

  1. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Backgrounds in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.; Long, Barbara K.

    "Backgrounds in Language," a field-tested inservice course designed for use by groups of 15 or 25 language arts teachers, provides the subject matter background teachers need to make informed decisions about what curriculum materials to use in what way, at what time, and with which students. The course is comprised of eight 2-hour sessions,…

  3. When all you have is a dermatoscope— start looking at the nails

    PubMed Central

    Haenssle, Holger A.; Blum, Andreas; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Kreusch, Juergen; Stolz, Wilhelm; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Brehmer, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented and non-pigmented nail alterations are a frequent challenge for dermatologists. A profound knowledge of clinical and dermatoscopic features of nail disorders is crucial because a range of differential diagnoses and even potentially life-threatening diseases are possible underlying causes. Nail matrix melanocytes of unaffected individuals are in a dormant state, and, therefore, fingernails and toenails physiologically are non-pigmented. The formation of continuous, longitudinal pigmented streaks (longitudinal melanonychia) may either be caused by a benign activation of matrix melanocytes (e.g., as a result of trauma, inflammation, or adverse drug reactions) or by a true melanocytic proliferation (e.g., in a nevus or melanoma). In general, non-continuous nail alterations, affecting only limited parts of the nail apparatus, are most frequently of non-melanocytic origin. Important and common differential diagnoses in these cases are subungual hemorrhage or onychomycosis. In addition, foreign bodies, bacterial infections, traumatic injuries, or artificial discolorations of the nail unit may less frequently cause non-continuous nail alterations. Many systemic diseases that may also show involvement of the nails (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, alopecia areata) tend to induce alterations in numerous if not all nails of the hands and feet. A similar extensive and generalized alteration of nails has been reported after treatment with a number of systemic drugs, especially antibiotics and cytostatics. Benign or malignant neoplasms that may also affect the nail unit include glomus tumor, Bowen’s disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and rare collision tumors. This review aims to assist clinicians in correctly evaluating and diagnosing nail disorders with the help of dermatoscopy. PMID:25396079

  4. Digit-Length Ratios (2D:4D) as a Phenotypic Indicator of in Utero Androgen Exposure is Not Prognostic for Androgenic Alopecia: a Descriptive-Analytic Study of 1200 Iranian Men.

    PubMed

    Feily, Amir; Hosseinpoor, Masoomeh; Bakhti, Ali; Nekuyi, Mohamad; Sobhanian, Saeed; Fathinezhad, Zahra; Sahraei, Reza; Ramirez-Fort, Marigdalia K

    2016-06-15

    The etiology of androgenic alopecia (AGA) involves several factors, including genetics, androgens, age and nutrition. Digit-length ratio of the index and ring finger (2D:4D) is an indicator of prenatal exposure to sex hormones. There is a paucity of studies that systemically review the possible positive predictive value of 2D:4D in the development of AGA. We performed a single-site, descriptive-analytical study among a racially homogeneous population. Our results revealed that no significant association was determined between right 2D:4D and AGA severity within our entire population (P=0.384, r=0.025), however a positive correlation coefficient was identified in subjects above the age of 40. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 2D:4D does not predict the development of AGA. AGA is truly a multifactorial disease. Further, our findings suggest that increased in utero exposure to androgens as a fetus does not predispose men to develop AGA.

  5. Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstein, M. P.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background.

  6. Illuminating the Background: Topics in Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathan J.

    The cosmic microwave background provides a wealth of information about the origin and history of the universe. The statistics of the anisotropy and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, among other things, can tell us about the distribution of matter, the redshift of reionization, and the nature of the primordial uctuations. From the lensing of cosmic microwave background due to intervening matter, we can extract information about neutrinos and the equation of state of dark energy. A measurement of the large angular scale B-mode polarization has been called the "smoking gun" of in ation, a theory that describes a possible early rapid expansion of the universe. The focus of current experiments is to measure this B-mode polarization, while several experiments, such as POLARBEAR, are also looking to measure the lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This dissertation will discuss several different topics in cosmic microwave background polarization research. I will make predictions for future experiments and I will also show analysis for two current experiments, POLARBEAR and BICEP. I will show how beam systematics affect the measurement of cosmological parameters and how well we must limit these systematics in order to get unbiased constraints on cosmological parameters for future experiments. I will discuss a novel way of using the temperature-polarization cross correlation to constrain the amount of inflationary gravitational waves. Through Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, I will determine how well future experiments will be able to constrain the neutrino masses and their degeneracy parameters. I will show results from current data analysis and calibration being done on the Cedar Flat deployment for the POLARBEAR experiment which is currently being constructed in the Atacama desert in Chile. Finally, I will analyze the claim of detection of cosmological birefringence in the BICEP data and show that there is reason to believe it is due to

  7. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  8. Dilatonic parallelizable NS-NS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2003-08-01

    We complete the classification of parallelizable NS-NS backgrounds in type II supergravity by adding the dilatonic case to the result of Figueroa-O'Farrill on the non-dilatonic case. We also study the supersymmetry of these parallelizable backgrounds. It is shown that all the dilatonic parallelizable backgrounds have sixteen supersymmetries.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 2% Solution in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss/Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Amy; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), also known as female androgenic alopecia, affects over 21 million women in the United States with devastating effects on self-esteem and psychosocial functioning. Topical minoxidil 2% and 5% formulations are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for FPHL. The length of time it typically takes to observe the benefits is a challenge for many patients, and may affect adherence to treatment. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 2% minoxidil solution used in combination with the botanical hair solution for 12 weeks in 54 subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Assessments included investigator and subject ratings of improvement and subject satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in hair growth and overall treatment benefits in as early as 6 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings indicated significant satisfaction with hair volume and quality improvement at week 6 (P<.001). Subjects also indicated an increase in self-confidence and attractiveness at week 12 (P<.001). The investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this regimen provides clinicians with an effective treatment option for FPHL that also provides a high level of patient acceptance, which ultimately may help promote minoxidil treatment adherence.

  10. Hair and Scalp Changes in Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Udompanich, Siriorn; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat

    2018-06-09

    Cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) commonly involves the hair and scalp. Alopecia can result from direct activity of disease on the scalp or from the state of physical stress in the form of telogen effluvium. Discoid lupus erythematosus and lupus panniculitis/profundus are known to cause scarring alopecia, while accumulation of recent studies has shown that non-scarring alopecia in SLE may have different subtypes, comprising lupus erythematosus-specific and lupus erythematosus-nonspecific changes on histology. This review aims to summarize the clinical pattern, trichoscopic, histopathological, and direct immunofluorescence features of different types of alopecia in cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as exploring their relationship with SLE disease activity.

  11. Clinical effects of non-ablative and ablative fractional lasers on various hair disorders: a case series of 17 patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Suhyun; Choi, Min Ju; Zheng, Zhenlong; Goo, Boncheol; Kim, Do-Young; Cho, Sung Bin

    2013-04-01

    Both ablative and non-ablative fractional lasers have been applied to various uncommon hair disorders. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical effects of fractional laser therapy on the course of primary follicular and perifollicular pathologies and subsequent hair regrowth. A retrospective review of 17 patients with uncommon hair disorders - including ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, various secondary cicatricial alopecias, pubic hypotrichosis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens - was conducted. All patients had been treated with non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser therapies. The mean clinical improvement score in these 17 patients was 2.2, while the mean patient satisfaction score was 2.5. Of the 17 subjects, 12 (70.6%) demonstrated a clinical response to non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser treatments, including individuals with ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, secondary cicatricial alopecia (scleroderma and pressure-induced alopecia), frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens. Conversely, patients with long-standing ophiasis, surgical scar-induced secondary cicatricial alopecia, and pubic hypotrichosis did not respond to fractional laser therapy. Our findings demonstrate that the use of non-ablative and/or ablative fractional lasers promoted hair growth in certain cases of uncommon hair disorders without any remarkable side effects.

  12. Topical valproic acid increases the hair count in male patients with androgenetic alopecia: a randomized, comparative, clinical feasibility study using phototrichogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Park, Young Woon; Paik, Seung Hwan; Park, Won Seok; Jeong, Yeon Su; Shin, Hong Ju; Kwon, Ohsang

    2014-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a widely used anticonvulsant, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is associated with hair growth cycle and anagen induction. To assess the efficacy of topical VPA for treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Male patients with moderate AGA underwent treatment with either VPA (sodium valproate, 8.3%) or placebo spray for 24 weeks. The primary end-point for efficacy was the change in hair count during treatment, which was assessed by phototrichogram analysis. Of the 40 patients enrolled in the study, 27 (n = 15, VPA group; n = 12, placebo group) completed the entire protocol with good compliance. No statistical differences in age, hair loss duration and total hair count at baseline were found between the groups. The mean change in total hair count was significantly higher in the VPA group than in the placebo group (P = 0.047). Both groups experienced mostly mild and self-limited adverse events, but their differences in prevalence rates were similar between the two groups (P = 0.72). A subject treated with topical VPA developed ventricular tachycardia, but it did not seem to be related to the VPA spray. Topical VPA increased the total hair counts of our patients; therefore, it is a potential treatment option for AGA. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Unsupervised background-constrained tank segmentation of infrared images in complex background based on the Otsu method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulong; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan; Zhang, Baoquan

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to implement fast and effective tank segmentation from infrared images in complex background, the threshold of the maximum between-class variance method (i.e., the Otsu method) is analyzed and the working mechanism of the Otsu method is discussed. Subsequently, a fast and effective method for tank segmentation from infrared images in complex background is proposed based on the Otsu method via constraining the complex background of the image. Considering the complexity of background, the original image is firstly divided into three classes of target region, middle background and lower background via maximizing the sum of their between-class variances. Then, the unsupervised background constraint is implemented based on the within-class variance of target region and hence the original image can be simplified. Finally, the Otsu method is applied to simplified image for threshold selection. Experimental results on a variety of tank infrared images (880 × 480 pixels) in complex background demonstrate that the proposed method enjoys better segmentation performance and even could be comparative with the manual segmentation in segmented results. In addition, its average running time is only 9.22 ms, implying the new method with good performance in real time processing.

  14. Identification of a new plant extract for androgenic alopecia treatment using a non-radioactive human hair dermal papilla cell-based assay.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ruchy; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Tengamnuay, Parkpoom; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2016-01-21

    Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is a major type of human scalp hair loss, which is caused by two androgens: testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). Both androgens bind to the androgen receptor (AR) and induce androgen-sensitive genes within the human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs), but 5α-DHT exhibits much higher binding affinity and potency than T does in inducing the involved androgen-sensitive genes. Changes in the induction of androgen-sensitive genes during AGA are caused by the over-production of 5α-DHT by the 5α-reductase (5α-R) enzyme; therefore, one possible method to treat AGA is to inhibit this enzymatic reaction. RT-PCR was used to identify the presence of the 5α-R and AR within HHDPCs. A newly developed AGA-relevant HHDPC-based assay combined with non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection was used for screening crude plant extracts for the identification of new 5α-R inhibitors. HHDPCs expressed both 5α-R type 1 isoform of the enzyme (5α-R1) and AR in all of the passages used in this study. Among the thirty tested extracts, Avicennia marina (AM) displayed the highest inhibitory activity at the final concentration of 10 μg/ml, as the production of 5α-DHT decreased by 52% (IC50 = 9.21 ± 0.38 μg/ml). Avicennia marina (AM) was identified as a potential candidate for the treatment of AGA based on its 5α-R1-inhibitory activity.

  15. Similar response patterns to topical minoxidil foam 5% in frontal and vertex scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia: a microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, P; Consolo, M; Oyetakin-White, P; Baron, E; Leahy, P; Karnik, P

    2015-06-01

    There are regional variations in the scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions have been less well studied. To determine whether scalp biopsies from men with AGA show variable gene expression before and after 8 weeks of treatment with minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs. placebo. A placebo-controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of MTF vs. placebo was conducted in 16 healthy men aged 18-49 years with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for 8 weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits, to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were taken at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo, and microarray analysis was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of patients with AGA. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin-associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of patients with AGA. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Effect of minoxidil topical foam on frontotemporal and vertex androgenetic alopecia in men: a 104-week open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kanti, V; Hillmann, K; Kottner, J; Stroux, A; Canfield, D; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2016-07-01

    Topical minoxidil formulations have been shown to be effective in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 12 months. Efficacy and safety in both frontotemporal and vertex regions over longer application periods have not been studied so far. To evaluate the effect of 5% minoxidil topical foam (5% MTF) in the frontotemporal and vertex areas in patients with moderate AGA over 104 weeks. An 80-week, open-label extension phase was performed, following a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with AGA grade IIIvertex to VI. Group 1 (n = 22) received ongoing 5% MTF for 104 weeks, Group 2 (n = 23) received placebo topical foam (plaTF) until week 24, followed by 5% MTF until week 104 during the extension phase. Frontotemporal and vertex target area non-vellus hair counts (f-TAHC, v-TAHC) and cumulative hair width (f-TAHW, v-TAHW) were assessed at baseline and at weeks 24, 52, 76 and 104. In Group 1, f-TAHW and f-TAHC showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to week 52 and week 76, respectively, returning to values comparable to baseline at week 104. No significant differences were found between baseline and week 104 in v-TAHC in Group 1 as well as f-TAHC, v-TAHC, f-TAHW and v-TAHW values in Group 2. 5% MTF is effective in stabilizing hair density, hair width and scalp coverage in both frontotemporal and vertex areas over an application period of 104 weeks, while showing a good safety and tolerability profile with a low rate of irritant contact dermatitis. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  18. An open, randomized, comparative study of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Arca, Ercan; Açikgöz, Gürol; Taştan, Halis Bülent; Köse, Osman; Kurumlu, Zafer

    2004-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is undoubtedly the most common form of hair loss in males. It is a condition which may cause cosmetic and psychosocial problems in androgen-dependent cases. In this open, randomized and comparative study we evaluated the efficacy of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil treatment for 12 months in 65 male patients with mild to severe AGA. We randomly assigned 40 (61.53%) patients to receive 1 mg/day oral finasteride for 12 months, and 25 (38.47%) patients applied 5% topical minoxidil solution twice daily for 12 months. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups considering age, age of onset of hair loss, family history and type of hair loss (p > 0.05). In the clinical evaluation at the endpoint of treatment, the clinical cure rates (i.e. increased intensity of hair) were 80% (32/40) for the oral finasteride group and 52% (13/25) for the 5% topical minoxidil group. Encountered side effects were all mild, and there was no need to stop the treatment. In the group given oral finasteride, side effects were noted in 7 patients: 6 patients suffered from loss of libido, and 1 patient had an increase in other body hairs; irritation of the scalp was seen in 1 patient in the group administered 5% minoxidil. These adverse events disappeared as soon as the treatment was stopped. The laboratory data on both drug groups did not show any statistically or clinically significant intragroup changes from baseline values to the endpoint (p > 0.05), except the level of serum total testosterone which was increased, and free testosterone and serum prostate-specific antigen in the finasteride group which were statistically decreased from baseline values to the endpoint (p < 0.05). In this comparative study of systemic finasteride and topical minoxidil, it was concluded that both drugs were effective and safe in the treatment of mild to severe AGA, although oral finasteride treatment was more effective (p < 0.05). Adverse events were not

  19. Genetic background effects in Neuroligin-3 mutant mice: Minimal behavioral abnormalities on C57 background.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Escamilla, Christine Ochoa; Liu, Shunan; Peca, Lauren; Birnbaum, Shari G; Powell, Craig M

    2018-02-01

    Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein that interacts with presynaptic ligands including neurexin-1 (NRXN1) [Ichtchenko et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2676-2682, 1996]. Mice harboring a mutation in the NLGN3 gene (NL3R451C) mimicking a mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were previously generated and behaviorally phenotyped for autism-related behaviors. In these NL3R451C mice generated and tested on a hybrid C57BL6J/129S2/SvPasCrl background, we observed enhanced spatial memory and reduced social interaction [Tabuchi et al., Science, 318, 71-76, 2007]. Curiously, an independently generated second line of mice harboring the same mutation on a C57BL6J background exhibited minimal aberrant behavior, thereby providing apparently discrepant results. To investigate the origin of the discrepancy, we previously replicated the original findings of Tabuchi et al. by studying the same NL3R451C mutation on a pure 129S2/SvPasCrl genetic background. Here we complete the behavioral characterization of the NL3R451C mutation on a pure C57BL6J genetic background to determine if background genetics play a role in the discrepant behavioral outcomes involving NL3R451C mice. NL3R451C mutant mice on a pure C57BL6J background did not display spatial memory enhancements or social interaction deficits. We only observed a decreased startle response and mildly increased locomotor activity in these mice suggesting that background genetics influences behavioral outcomes involving the NL3R451C mutation. Autism Res 2018, 11: 234-244. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Behavioral symptoms of autism can be highly variable, even in cases that involve identical genetic mutations. Previous studies in mice with a mutation of the Neuroligin-3 gene showed enhanced learning and social deficits. We replicated these findings on the same and different genetic backgrounds. In this study, however, the

  20. A cohort study of the relationship between anger and chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Altınöz, Ali Ercan; Taşkıntuna, Nilgün; Altınöz, Sengül Tosun; Ceran, Selvi

    2014-09-01

    Anger plays a major role in psychodermatological diseases. Researchers have reported that anger and other psychological factors play a role in the etiology of chronic urticaria. This study aimed to examine symptoms of anger, anger-related behavioral patterns, thoughts associated with anger, situations that cause anger and experiences of interpersonal anger in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). The authors hypothesized that patients with CSU react to more situations with anger and experience more anger symptoms as compared to alopecia areata (AA) patients and healthy controls. The cohort study population consisted of literate adult patients aged <65 years that were diagnosed with CSU at the outpatient dermatology clinics of Başkent and Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, between September 2011 and October 2012. The first control group included individuals without any physical or mental disorders and the second one included literate adult patients diagnosed with AA. The patients and controls were matched according to age, gender, and level of education. A sociodemographic data form, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Multi-Dimensional Anger Inventory were administered to the participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.17.0 for Windows. The primary outcome was to determine whether there was a relationship between anger and CSU. The CSU group consisted of 30 participants; AA group consisted of 30 participants; and the healthy group consisted of 39 participants. Anxiety and depression scores in the CSU group were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group. Symptoms of anger, situations that cause anger, and thoughts associated with anger were significantly more common in the CSU group compared to AA group and healthy group. More of the CSU patients were observed to respond with excessive anger to most situations, to have high levels of anxiety anger and passive aggressive interpersonal relationships.

  1. CD8+ T-Cell Deficiency, Epstein-Barr Virus Infection, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Steps to Autoimmunity: A Unifying Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pender, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    CD8+ T-cell deficiency is a feature of many chronic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, vitiligo, bullous pemphigoid, alopecia areata, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, and pernicious anaemia. It also occurs in healthy blood relatives of patients with autoimmune diseases, suggesting it is genetically determined. Here it is proposed that this CD8+ T-cell deficiency underlies the development of chronic autoimmune diseases by impairing CD8+ T-cell control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, with the result that EBV-infected autoreactive B cells accumulate in the target organ where they produce pathogenic autoantibodies and provide costimulatory survival signals to autoreactive T cells which would otherwise die in the target organ by activation-induced apoptosis. Autoimmunity is postulated to evolve in the following steps: (1) CD8+ T-cell deficiency, (2) primary EBV infection, (3) decreased CD8+ T-cell control of EBV, (4) increased EBV load and increased anti-EBV antibodies, (5) EBV infection in the target organ, (6) clonal expansion of EBV-infected autoreactive B cells in the target organ, (7) infiltration of autoreactive T cells into the target organ, and (8) development of ectopic lymphoid follicles in the target organ. It is also proposed that deprivation of sunlight and vitamin D at higher latitudes facilitates the development of autoimmune diseases by aggravating the CD8+ T-cell deficiency and thereby further impairing control of EBV. The hypothesis makes predictions which can be tested, including the prevention and successful treatment of chronic autoimmune diseases by controlling EBV infection.

  2. CD8+ T-Cell Deficiency, Epstein-Barr Virus Infection, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Steps to Autoimmunity: A Unifying Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Pender, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    CD8+ T-cell deficiency is a feature of many chronic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, vitiligo, bullous pemphigoid, alopecia areata, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, and pernicious anaemia. It also occurs in healthy blood relatives of patients with autoimmune diseases, suggesting it is genetically determined. Here it is proposed that this CD8+ T-cell deficiency underlies the development of chronic autoimmune diseases by impairing CD8+ T-cell control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, with the result that EBV-infected autoreactive B cells accumulate in the target organ where they produce pathogenic autoantibodies and provide costimulatory survival signals to autoreactive T cells which would otherwise die in the target organ by activation-induced apoptosis. Autoimmunity is postulated to evolve in the following steps: (1) CD8+ T-cell deficiency, (2) primary EBV infection, (3) decreased CD8+ T-cell control of EBV, (4) increased EBV load and increased anti-EBV antibodies, (5) EBV infection in the target organ, (6) clonal expansion of EBV-infected autoreactive B cells in the target organ, (7) infiltration of autoreactive T cells into the target organ, and (8) development of ectopic lymphoid follicles in the target organ. It is also proposed that deprivation of sunlight and vitamin D at higher latitudes facilitates the development of autoimmune diseases by aggravating the CD8+ T-cell deficiency and thereby further impairing control of EBV. The hypothesis makes predictions which can be tested, including the prevention and successful treatment of chronic autoimmune diseases by controlling EBV infection. PMID

  3. Dermatologic Reactions to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors : Skin Toxicities and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sibaud, Vincent

    2018-06-01

    The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors [monoclonal antibodies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)] represents a major breakthrough in cancer therapy. Although they present a favorable risk/benefit ratio, immune checkpoint blockade therapies have a very specific safety profile. Due to their unique mechanism of action, they entail a new spectrum of adverse events that are mostly immune related [immune-related adverse events (irAEs)], notably mediated by the triggering of cytotoxic CD4+/CD8+ T cell activation. Cutaneous toxicities appear to be one of the most prevalent irAEs, both with anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 agents or with the newly developed anti-PD-L1 agents, which corresponds to a class effect. They are observed in more than one-third of the treated patients, mainly in the form of a maculopapular rash (eczema-like spongiotic dermatitis) and pruritus. A wide range of other dermatologic manifestations can also occur, including lichenoid reactions, psoriasis, acneiform rashes, vitiligo-like lesions, autoimmune skin diseases (e.g., bullous pemphigoid, dermatomyositis, alopecia areata), sarcoidosis or nail and oral mucosal changes. In addition, the use of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 therapies in combination is associated with the development of more frequent, more severe and earlier cutaneous irAEs compared to single agents. In most cases, these dysimmune dermatologic adverse events remain self-limiting and readily manageable. Early recognition and adequate management, however, are critical to prevent exacerbation of the lesions, to limit treatment interruption and to minimize quality of life impairment. This review describes the variable clinical and histopathologic aspects of dermatologic irAEs induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors. Appropriate treatment and counseling are also proposed, with a step-by-step approach for optimized management by both

  4. Background Light Bluer Than Expected

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    This plot shows data from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, or CIBER, rockets launched in 2010 and 2012. The experiment measures a diffuse glow of infrared light in the sky, known as the cosmic infrared background.

  5. The background in the $$0\

    DOE PAGES

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; ...

    2014-04-04

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the Q ββ value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around Q ββ. The main parameters needed for the 0νββ analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains severalmore » contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around Qββ with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 × 10 -3 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at Q ββ is dominated by close sources, mainly due to 42 K, 214 Bi, 228 60 Co and α emitting isotopes from the 226 Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known γ peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around Q ββ with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.« less

  6. Topical application of the Wnt/β-catenin activator methyl vanillate increases hair count and hair mass index in women with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Antonella; Zaiac, Martin N; Canazza, Agnese; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Alis, Rafael; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-12-01

    Activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Methyl vanillate (MV) - a safe plant-derived ingredient - has been recently shown to activate the WNT/β-catenin signaling. Objectives Two distinct substudies were conducted. First, we designed a 6-month, uncontrolled, open-label clinical study to investigate whether topically applied MV may increase hair count and hair mass index (HMI) in female AGA. Second, we conducted a molecular study on the effect of MV on WNT10B mRNA expression in scalp biopsies of women with AGA. A total of 20 Caucasian women (age range: 25-57 years) with AGA (Sinclair grade 1-2) were included. The research product was an alcohol-free formulation supplied in the form of a spray containing 0.2% MV as the active ingredient. In the clinical study, hair count and HMI were found to increase at 6 months by 6% (P < 0.01) and 12% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with baseline. No participant discontinued treatment due to adverse effects, and the overall patient satisfaction was good. At the molecular level, the topical application of the research product resulted in a 32% increase in WNT10B mRNA expression levels in the temporal scalp area (P < 0.001). Our pilot data suggest that topical MV can increase hair count and HMI by inducing WNT10B expression in the scalp, potentially serving as a novel treatment strategy for female AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Flexible Cosmic Ultraviolet Background Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    HST studies of the IGM, of the CGM, and of reionization-era galaxies are all aided by ionizing background models, which are a critical input in modeling the ionization state of diffuse, 10^4 K gas. The ionization state in turn enables the determination of densities and sizes of absorbing clouds and, when applied to the Ly-a forest, the global ionizing emissivity of sources. Unfortunately, studies that use these background models have no way of gauging the amount of uncertainty in the adopted model other than to recompute their results using previous background models with outdated observational inputs. As of yet there has been no systematic study of uncertainties in the background model and there unfortunately is no publicly available ultraviolet background code. A public code would enable users to update the calculation with the latest observational constraints, and it would allow users to experiment with varying the background model's assumptions regarding emissions and absorptions. We propose to develop a publicly available ionizing background code and, as an initial application, quantify the level of uncertainty in the ionizing background spectrum across cosmic time. As the background model improves, so does our understanding of (1) the sources that dominate ionizin