Science.gov

Sample records for background reduction strategy

  1. Background Reduction in Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.

    2005-09-08

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  2. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  3. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  4. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François

    2015-08-17

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  5. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François; Savvidis, Ilias

    2015-08-01

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal 210Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  6. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  7. Emissions reductions strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper consists of the series of viewgraphs used by the author during his presentation. They tabulate nitrogen oxide reduction techniques, technical evaluation of NOx control techniques, critical system design parameters for SNCR processes, major concerns for SCR retrofit applications, integrating technologies, sulfur dioxide control for a coal fired power plant, heavy metals on US EPA`s HAPs list, and mercury emissions. Other slides show flow charts of some of these processes, as well as diagrams of equipment.

  8. Background Reduction For Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H.; Cebrian, S.; Morales, J.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-03-28

    The new generation experiments to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge (Q{beta}{beta}=2039keV) using enriched germanium detectors, need to reach a background level of {approx}10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the Region of Interest (RoI: 2-2.1 MeV) that would have, for 70 kg of germanium enriched to 86% in 76Ge, 3 keV of FWHM and 5 years of measuring time, a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of {<=} 40 meV. To reduce the background level close to the value needed, we have to combine several techniques. Three of the most important points to study are: segmentation and granularity of the crystal and spatial resolution of the detector directly correlated with an offline Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). Preliminary studies about these strategies for background reduction were developed during last months, obtaining some promising results.

  9. Background current reduction and biobarcode amplification for label-free, highly sensitive electrochemical detection of pathogenic DNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Jiang, Bingying; Su, Jiao; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2012-04-01

    By using exonuclease I and biobarcode nanoparticles, we describe a novel background current reduction strategy for amplified electrochemical detection of uropathogen specific sequences at ultralow concentrations.

  10. Robust Derivation of Risk Reduction Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Port, Daniel; Feather, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Effective risk reduction strategies can be derived mechanically given sufficient characterization of the risks present in the system and the effectiveness of available risk reduction techniques. In this paper, we address an important question: can we reliably expect mechanically derived risk reduction strategies to be better than fixed or hand-selected risk reduction strategies, given that the quantitative assessment of risks and risk reduction techniques upon which mechanical derivation is based is difficult and likely to be inaccurate? We consider this question relative to two methods for deriving effective risk reduction strategies: the strategic method defined by Kazman, Port et al [Port et al, 2005], and the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool [Feather & Cornford, 2003]. We performed a number of sensitivity experiments to evaluate how inaccurate knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques affect the performance of the strategies computed by the Strategic Method compared to a variety of alternative strategies. The experimental results indicate that strategies computed by the Strategic Method were significantly more effective than the alternative risk reduction strategies, even when knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques was very inaccurate. The robustness of the Strategic Method suggests that its use should be considered in a wide range of projects.

  11. Background Defect Density Reduction Using Automated Defect Inspection And Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirauch, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    Yield maintenance and improvement is a major area of concern in any integrated circuit manufacturing operation. A major aspect of this concern is controlling and reducing defect density. Obviously, large defect excursions must be immediately addressed in order to maintain yield levels. However, to enhance yields, the subtle defect mechanisms must be reduced or eliminated as well. In-line process control inspections are effective for detecting large variations in the defect density on a real time basis. Examples of in-line inspection strategies include after develop or after etch inspections. They are usually effective for detecting when a particular process segment has gone out of control. However, when a process is running normally, there exists a background defect density that is generally not resolved by in-line process control inspections. The inspection strategies that are frequently used to monitor the background defect density are offline inspections. Offline inspections are used to identify the magnitude and characteristics of the background defect density. These inspections sample larger areas of product wafers than the in-line inspections to allow identification of the defect generating mechanisms that normally occur in the process. They are used to construct a database over a period of time so that trends may be studied. This information enables engineering efforts to be focused on the mechanisms that have the greatest impact on device yield. Once trouble spots in the process are identified, the data base supplies the information needed to isolate and solve them. The key aspect to the entire program is to utilize a reliable data gathering mechanism coupled with a flexible information processing system. This paper describes one method of reducing the background defect density using automated wafer inspection and analysis. The tools used in this evaluation were the KLA 2020 Wafer Inspector, KLA Utility Terminal (KLAUT), and a new software package developed

  12. Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray-induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 μs) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux

  13. Real-time active cosmic neutron background reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray‒induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the lowenergy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 μs) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of manmade neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux

  14. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  15. Single and Multiple Microphone Noise Reduction Strategies in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi; Friedland, David R.

    2012-01-01

    To restore hearing sensation, cochlear implants deliver electrical pulses to the auditory nerve by relying on sophisticated signal processing algorithms that convert acoustic inputs to electrical stimuli. Although individuals fitted with cochlear implants perform well in quiet, in the presence of background noise, the speech intelligibility of cochlear implant listeners is more susceptible to background noise than that of normal hearing listeners. Traditionally, to increase performance in noise, single-microphone noise reduction strategies have been used. More recently, a number of approaches have suggested that speech intelligibility in noise can be improved further by making use of two or more microphones, instead. Processing strategies based on multiple microphones can better exploit the spatial diversity of speech and noise because such strategies rely mostly on spatial information about the relative position of competing sound sources. In this article, we identify and elucidate the most significant theoretical aspects that underpin single- and multi-microphone noise reduction strategies for cochlear implants. More analytically, we focus on strategies of both types that have been shown to be promising for use in current-generation implant devices. We present data from past and more recent studies, and furthermore we outline the direction that future research in the area of noise reduction for cochlear implants could follow. PMID:22923425

  16. Single and multiple microphone noise reduction strategies in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi; Friedland, David R

    2012-06-01

    To restore hearing sensation, cochlear implants deliver electrical pulses to the auditory nerve by relying on sophisticated signal processing algorithms that convert acoustic inputs to electrical stimuli. Although individuals fitted with cochlear implants perform well in quiet, in the presence of background noise, the speech intelligibility of cochlear implant listeners is more susceptible to background noise than that of normal hearing listeners. Traditionally, to increase performance in noise, single-microphone noise reduction strategies have been used. More recently, a number of approaches have suggested that speech intelligibility in noise can be improved further by making use of two or more microphones, instead. Processing strategies based on multiple microphones can better exploit the spatial diversity of speech and noise because such strategies rely mostly on spatial information about the relative position of competing sound sources. In this article, we identify and elucidate the most significant theoretical aspects that underpin single- and multi-microphone noise reduction strategies for cochlear implants. More analytically, we focus on strategies of both types that have been shown to be promising for use in current-generation implant devices. We present data from past and more recent studies, and furthermore we outline the direction that future research in the area of noise reduction for cochlear implants could follow.

  17. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  18. Reduction of background clutter in structured lighting systems

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Jr., Patrick A.; Novick, David K.; Wilson, Christopher W.

    2010-06-22

    Methods for segmenting the reflected light of an illumination source having a characteristic wavelength from background illumination (i.e. clutter) in structured lighting systems can comprise pulsing the light source used to illuminate a scene, pulsing the light source synchronously with the opening of a shutter in an imaging device, estimating the contribution of background clutter by interpolation of images of the scene collected at multiple spectral bands not including the characteristic wavelength and subtracting the estimated background contribution from an image of the scene comprising the wavelength of the light source and, placing a polarizing filter between the imaging device and the scene, where the illumination source can be polarized in the same orientation as the polarizing filter. Apparatus for segmenting the light of an illumination source from background illumination can comprise an illuminator, an image receiver for receiving images of multiple spectral bands, a processor for calculations and interpolations, and a polarizing filter.

  19. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  20. Reduction of thermal emission background in high temperature microheaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Philip R.; Mah, Merlin L.; Olson, Kyle D.; Taylor, Lucas N.; Talghader, Joseph J.

    2016-05-01

    High temperature microheaters have been designed and constructed to reduce the background thermal emission radiation produced by the heater. Such heaters allow one to probe luminescence with very low numbers of photons where the background emission would overwhelm the desired signal. Two methods to reduce background emission are described: one with low emission materials and the other with interference coating design. The first uses platforms composed of material that is transparent to mid-infrared light and therefore of low emissivity. Heating elements are embedded in the periphery of the heater. The transparent platform is composed of aluminum oxide, which is largely transparent for wavelengths less than about 8 μm. In the luminescent microscopy used to test the heater, an optical aperture blocks emission from the heating coils while passing light from the heated objects on the transparent center of the microheater. The amount of infrared light transmitted through the aperture was reduced by 90% as the aperture was moved from the highly emissive heater coils at 450 °C to the largely transparent center at the same temperature. The second method uses microheaters with integrated multilayer interference structures designed to limit background emission in the spectral range of the low-light luminescence object being measured. These heaters were composed of aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, and platinum and were operated over a large range of temperatures, from 50 °C to 600 °C. At 600 °C, they showed a background photon emission only 1/800 that of a comparison heater without the multilayer interference structure. In this structure, the radiation background was sufficiently reduced to easily monitor weak thermoluminescent emission from CaSO4:Ce,Tb microparticles.

  1. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  2. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), already sold in USA and in some European Countries, are low-nitrosamine cigarettes, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., the Swedish Snus), cigarette-like products, and medicinal nicotine products. Even e-cigarette delivers nicotine. With the exception of snus and medicinal nicotine, studies on the health effects of PREPs have not been carried out, although some PREPs are already sold and promoted as products that effectively reduce health risks. Thus, a second disaster similar to that occurred for light cigarettes could happen in the next years. Only medicinal nicotine and snus could be valid candidates to become PREPs, even if they pose some significant health risks. The World Health Organization, following a precautionary approach, has recently published a list of 9 carcinogens or toxicants recommended for mandated lowering (the tobacco-specific nitrosamines NNN and NNK, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, 1-3 butadiene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), and 9 carcinogens or toxicants for monitoring in usual cigarettes (not PREPs), underlining that tobacco companies cannot use this reduction strategy as a promotional message, as it occurred for light cigarettes in the 70s and 80s. The present status quo, in which cigarettes are freely available, medicinal nicotine, being a drug, is available under a regulated market, and Snus is prohibited, actually denies smokers the right to choose safer nicotine products. The solution suggested by the UK Royal College of Physicians is to balance the nicotine market, framing tobacco products and medicinal nicotine in the same regulation system; establishing a nicotine and tobacco regulatory authority;making medicinal nicotine more available; evaluating the feasibility of the introduction in the English market of Swedish Snus. California Government remarks that the nicotine maintenance is not a valid strategy, because it could induce smokers not to try to quit

  3. Concerning evaluation of eco-geochemical background in remediation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical concept of biosphere developed by V.I. Vernadsky states the geological role of the living organisms in the course of their active chemical interaction with the inert matter (Vernadsky, 1926, 1960). Basing on this theory it is reasonable to suggest that coevolution of living organisms and their environment led to development of the dynamically stable biogeocenoses precisely adequate to their geochemical environment. Soil cover was treated by V.I. Vernadsky as a balanced bio-inert matter resulting from this interaction. Appearance of human mind and then a civilization led to global expansion of human beings, first able to survive in unfavorable geochemical conditions and then starting chemical transformation of the environment to satisfy the growing demands of mankind in food and energy. The residence in unfavorable environment and local contamination was followed by appearance of endemic diseases of plants, animals and man. Therefore zonal, regional and local chemical composition of the soil cover formed in natural conditions may be used for estimation of the optimum geochemical background, most adequate for the corresponding zonal biogeocenoses and species. Moreover, the natural geochemical background and technogenic fields have unequal spatial structure and this facilitates their identification that may be relatively easy realized in remediation strategy. On the assumption of the foregoing, the adequate methodical approach to remediation of technogenically affected areas should account of the interaction of the existing natural and the newly formed technogenic geochemical fields and include the following steps: 1) the study and mapping of geochemical structure of the natural geochemical background basing on soil maps; 2) the study of contaminants and mapping spatial distribution of technogenic releases; 3) construction of risk maps for the target risk groups with due regard to natural ecological threshold concentration in context of risk degree for

  4. Voluntary heart rate reduction following yoga using different strategies

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, BR; Telles, S; Manjunath, NK; Deepak, KK; Naveen, KV; Subramanya, P

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: One month of yoga training has been shown to reduce the pulse rate voluntarily without using external cues. Hence, the present study was designed to understand the strategies used by yoga practitioners and autonomic changes associated with voluntary heart rate reduction. Materials and Methods: Fifty volunteers (group mean age ± S.D., 25.4 ± 4.8 years; 25 males) were assessed in two trials on separate days. Each trial was for 12 minutes, with a ‘pre’ state and ‘during’ state of 6 minutes each. For both trials the ‘pre’ state was relaxation with eyes closed. In the ‘during’ state of Trial I, subjects were asked to voluntarily reduce their heart rate using a strategy of their choice. From their responses to specific questions it was determined that 22 out of 50 persons used breath regulation as a strategy. Hence, in the ‘during’ state of Trial II, subjects were asked to voluntarily reduce their heart rate by breath regulation. Results: In the first trial, the heart rate was reduced by an average of 19.6 beats per minute and in the second trial (with breath regulation exclusively) an average decrease of 22.2 beats per minute was achieved. Conclusions: Hence, the strategy used did not markedly alter the outcome. PMID:23440267

  5. Developing a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Batjargal, Jamayan; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Tsogzolmaa, Bayandorj; Anderson, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increase in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension has contributed to an incremental rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mongolia over recent decades, such that they now account for 80% of all deaths in the country. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs. Methods In 2011, the Ministry of Health (MOH) instigated the development of a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia. As part of a 2-week national consultation and training program on salt reduction, it established an inter-sectoral working party and organized a series of bilateral meetings and visits to factories. Actions arising included a baseline survey of population salt consumption patterns and the implementation of a series of pilot salt reduction initiatives. Results The results of the baseline assessment revealed that average daily intake of salt, based on 24 hour urine samples from a representative national sample (n=1,027), was 11.06±5.99 g in 2011, more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) five grams recommendation. Moreover, while most participants knew that salt was bad for health, few were taking efforts to reduce intake, and many were consuming highly salty meals and tea; salt in tea alone was estimated to contribute 30% of daily salt intake. A pilot Pinch Salt intervention to reduce salt consumption of factory workers was undertaken in Ulaanbaatar (UB) city between 2012 and 2013, and was associated with a reduction of 2.8 g of salt intake. Ongoing food industry initiatives have led to significant reductions in salt levels in bread, and companies producing processed meat have indicated a willingness to reduce salt. Relevant stakeholders have also supported the campaign by participating in annual World Salt Awareness Week events. The activities to date have demonstrated the potential for action and there is now a need scale these up to a national level to ensure that Mongolia is in a strong

  6. Comprehensive Shuttle Foam Debris Reduction Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.

    2007-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was clear in its assessment of the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 3, 2003. Foam liberated from the External Tank (ET) impacting the brittle wing leading edge (WLE) of the orbiter causing the vehicle to disintegrate upon re-entry. Naturally, the CAB pointed out numerous issues affecting this exact outcome in hopes of correcting systems of systems failures any one of which might have altered the outcome. However, Discovery s recent return to flight (RTF) illustrates the primacy of erosion of foam and the risk of future undesirable outcomes. It is obvious that the original RTF focused approach to this problem was not equal to a comprehensive foam debris reduction activity consistent with the high national value of the Space Shuttle assets. The root cause is really very simple when looking at the spray-on foam insulation for the entire ET as part of the structure (e.g., actual stresses > materials allowable) rather than as some sort of sizehime limited ablator. This step is paramount to accepting the CAB recommendation of eliminating debris or in meeting any level of requirements due to the fundamental processes ensuring structural materials maintain their integrity. Significant effort has been expended to identify root cause of the foam debris In-Flight Anomaly (FA) of STS-114. Absent verifiable location specific data pre-launch (T-0) and in-flight, only a most probable cause can be identified. Indeed, the literature researched corroborates NASNTM-2004-2 13238 disturbing description of ill defined materials characterization, variable supplier constituents and foam processing irregularities. Also, foam is sensitive to age and the exposed environment making baseline comparisons difficult without event driven data. Conventional engineering processes account for such naturally occurring variability by always maintaining positive margins. Success in a negative margin range is not consistently achieved

  7. Lifestyle strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2014-10-01

    Daily lifestyle practices and habits profoundly affect the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant research and multiple recent consensus documents support the role of regular physical activity, not smoking cigarettes, maintaining a healthy body weight, controlling cholesterol levels, and controlling blood pressure to lower the risk of CVD. These strategies also play important roles in avoiding ever developing risk factors. Despite overwhelming knowledge in this area, adherence to lifestyle strategies remains suboptimal. Challenges remain in helping the public to act upon the current knowledge in this area. Recent guidelines for managing cholesterol and blood pressure provide new guidance in these areas. Controversy, however, exists related to specific recommendations in both of these areas. Similar strategies that are applied to adults for improving lifestyle habits and practices to lower CVD risk also apply to children and adolescents. A clear consensus exists that lifestyle strategies play a critical role in preventing, managing, and reducing cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.

  8. Ultrasensitive detection of uranyl by graphene oxide-based background reduction and RCDzyme-based enzyme strand recycling signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hui; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Cao, Jin-Xiu; Chen, Si-Han; Tang, Xian; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Yan-Qin

    2015-10-15

    We proposed a novel strategy which combines graphene oxide-based background reduction with RCDzyme-based enzyme strand recycling amplification for ultrahigh sensitive detection of uranyl. The RCDzyme is designed to contain a guanine (G)-rich sequence that replaces the partial sequence in an uranyl-specific DNAzyme. This multifunctional probe can act as the target recognition element, DNAzyme and the primer of signal amplification. The presence of UO2(2+) can induce the cleavage of the substrate strands in RCDzyme. Then, each released enzyme strand can hybridize with another substrate strands to trigger many cycles of the cleavage by binding uranyl, leading to the formation of more G-quadruplexes by split guanine-rich oligonucleotide fragments. The resulting G-quadruplexes could bind to N-methyl-mesoporphyrin IX (NMM), causing an amplified detection signal for the target uranyl. Next, graphene oxide-based background reduction strategy was further employed for adsorbing free ssDNA and NMM, thereby providing a proximalis zero-background signal. The combination of RCDzyme signal amplification and proximalis zero-background signal remarkably improves the sensitivity of this method, achieving a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude and giving a detection limit down to 86 pM, which is much lower than those of related literature reports. These achievements might be helpful in the design of highly sensitive analytical platform for wide applications in environmental and biomedical fields. PMID:26000462

  9. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Aircraft Flight Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Li, Jinhua; Ng, Hok Kwan

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on the flight range of aircraft as contrail reduction strategies have different impacts on aircraft depending on how they plan to fly. In general, aircraft with longer flight distances cruise at the altitudes where contrails are more likely to form. The concept of the contrail frequency index is used to quantify contrail impacts. The strategy for reducing the persistent contrail formation is to minimize the contrail frequency index by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. A user-defined factor is used to trade off between contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. Results show that contrail reduction strategies using various tradeo factors behave differently from short-range flights to long-range ights. Analysis shows that short-distance flights (less than 500 miles) are the most frequent flights but contribute least to contrail reduction. Therefore these aircraft have the lowest priority when applying contrail reduction strategies. Medium-distance flights (500 to 1000 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction in total; long-distance flights (1000 to 1500 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction per flight. The characteristics of transcontinental flights (greater than 1500 miles) vary with different weather days so the priority of applying contrail reduction strategies to the group needs to be evaluated based on the locations of the contrail areas during any given day. For the days tested, medium-distance ights contribute up to 42.6% of the reduction among the groups during a day. The contrail frequency index per 1,000 miles for medium-distance, long-distance, and transcontinental flights can be reduced by an average of 75%. The results provide a starting point for developing operational policies to reduce the impact of

  10. Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V

    2011-10-18

    An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

  11. A reductive coupling strategy towards ripostatin A.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Kristin D; Jamison, Timothy F

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic studies on the antibiotic natural product ripostatin A have been carried out with the aim to construct the C9-C10 bond by a nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of an enyne and an epoxide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting dienylcyclopropane intermediate to afford the skipped 1,4,7-triene. A cyclopropyl enyne fragment corresponding to C1-C9 has been synthesized in high yield and demonstrated to be a competent substrate for the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling with a model epoxide. Several synthetic approaches toward the C10-C26 epoxide have been pursued. The C13 stereocenter can be set by allylation and reductive decyanation of a cyanohydrin acetonide. A mild, fluoride-promoted decarboxylation enables construction of the C15-C16 bond by an aldol reaction. The product of this transformation is of the correct oxidation state and potentially three steps removed from the targeted epoxide fragment.

  12. Reduction of the Background Magnetic Field Inhibits Ability of Drosophila melanogaster to Survive Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Lucas; Madapatha, Dinu; Martino, Carlos; Hernandez, Mark; Barnes, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The effects of exposure to an environment where the background magnetic field has been reduced were studied on wild-type Drosophila melanogaster by measuring its ability to survive a single exposure to ionizing radiation during its larval stage. The experimental design presented shows a timeframe, ionizing radiation dose and background magnetic field parameters that will cause a significant and reproducible reduction of survival on this insect model. These results suggest that background magnetic fields may play a fundamental role in the recovery or harm of a biological system that is exposed to single doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:22532126

  13. A reductive coupling strategy towards ripostatin A

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Kristin D

    2013-01-01

    Summary Synthetic studies on the antibiotic natural product ripostatin A have been carried out with the aim to construct the C9−C10 bond by a nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of an enyne and an epoxide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting dienylcyclopropane intermediate to afford the skipped 1,4,7-triene. A cyclopropyl enyne fragment corresponding to C1−C9 has been synthesized in high yield and demonstrated to be a competent substrate for the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling with a model epoxide. Several synthetic approaches toward the C10−C26 epoxide have been pursued. The C13 stereocenter can be set by allylation and reductive decyanation of a cyanohydrin acetonide. A mild, fluoride-promoted decarboxylation enables construction of the C15−C16 bond by an aldol reaction. The product of this transformation is of the correct oxidation state and potentially three steps removed from the targeted epoxide fragment. PMID:23946853

  14. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  15. Pixel detectors in double beta decay experiments, a new approach for background reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, J. M.; Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Fiederle, M.; Fauler, A.; Loaiza, P.

    2013-08-08

    Double beta decay (ββ) experiments are challenging frontiers in contemporary physics. These experiments have the potential to investigate more about neutrinos (eg. nature and mass). The main challenge for these experiments is the reduction of background. The group at IEAP, CTU in Prague is investigating a new approach using pixel detectors Timepix. Pixel detector offer background reduction capabilities with its ability to identify the particle interaction (from the 2D signature it generates). However, use of pixel detectors has some challenges such as the presence of readout electronics near the sensing medium and heat dissipation. Different aspects of pixel setup (identification of radio-impurities, selection of radio-pure materials) and proposed experimental setup are presented. Also, results of preliminary background measurements (performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories) using the prototype setups are presented.

  16. Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imboela, Bruce Lubinda

    2005-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utilization of World Bank loans and grants to alleviate debt under the bank's programs of action for poverty reduction in highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs). This article argues that structural transformation is a prerequisite for poverty…

  17. Chesapeake Bay basinwide toxics reduction strategy reevaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The 1987 Chesapeake Bay Agreement committed the signatories to 'develop, adopt and begin implementation of a basinwide strategy to achieve a reduction of toxics, consistent with the Clean Water Act of 1987, which will ensure protection of human health and living resources.' The resultant Chesapeake Bay Basinwide Toxics Reduction Strategy, adopted by the Chesapeake Executive Council in January 1989, initiated a multi-jurisdictional effort to define the nature, extent, and magnitude of Chesapeake Bay toxics problems more accurately and initiate specific toxics reduction and prevention actions. The Chesapeake Bay Agreement signatories also committed to reevaluate the strategy during 1992. The objectives of this strategy reevaluation were to define: what we now know about the nature, extent, and magnitude of Bay toxics problems; what steps should be taken to reduce and prevent impacts from chemical contaminants; and what information is still needed to determine future actions. The Chesapeake Bay Program's Toxics Subcommittee investigated and evaluated the complex nature of the Bay's toxics problems through a two-year schedule of meetings, research workshops, and information-gathering forums. This report not only documents the findings of the two-year information gathering process of the strategy reevaluation but also recommends an approach for undertaking future toxics reduction and prevention actions in the Bay watershed.

  18. Optimized background reduction in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry at a surface laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, S; García-León, M; García-Tenorio, R

    2006-09-01

    The background of a coaxial Ge detector placed at a surface laboratory has been reduced by means of a background reduction setup consisting of a passive shield of low-activity lead, a simple radon suppression system and an active shield with a plastic scintillation plate. In particular, we have devoted our efforts to in-depth optimization of each parameter associated with different anticoincidence setups and to their subsequent intercomparison. The overall performance of the active shield was improved by using the optimum time parameters for each setup. The final objective is to decrease the cosmic-ray background and, by this way, to reduce the detection limits of gamma-ray spectrometers at conventional laboratories, and consequently make them competitive for different measurements like (210)Pb dating.

  19. Reducing Fatal Opioid Overdose: Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Kathryn F.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The opioid overdose epidemic is a major threat to the public’s health, resulting in the development and implementation of a variety of strategies to reduce fatal overdose [1-3]. Many strategies are focused on primary prevention and increased access to effective treatment, although the past decade has seen an exponential increase in harm reduction initiatives. To maximize identification of opportunities for intervention, initiatives focusing on prevention, access to effective treatment, and harm reduction are examined independently, although considerable overlap exists. Particular attention is given to harm reduction approaches, as increased public and political will have facilitated widespread implementation of several initiatives, including increased distribution of naloxone and policy changes designed to increase bystander assistance during a witnessed overdose [4-7]. PMID:26339206

  20. A Background Noise Reduction Technique Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation for Microphone Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background noise in wind tunnel environments poses a challenge to acoustic measurements due to possible low or negative Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) present in the testing environment. This paper overviews the application of time domain Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) to microphone array signals with an intended application of background noise reduction in wind tunnels. An experiment was conducted to simulate background noise from a wind tunnel circuit measured by an out-of-flow microphone array in the tunnel test section. A reference microphone was used to acquire a background noise signal which interfered with the desired primary noise source signal at the array. The technique s efficacy was investigated using frequency spectra from the array microphones, array beamforming of the point source region, and subsequent deconvolution using the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm. Comparisons were made with the conventional techniques for improving SNR of spectral and Cross-Spectral Matrix subtraction. The method was seen to recover the primary signal level in SNRs as low as -29 dB and outperform the conventional methods. A second processing approach using the center array microphone as the noise reference was investigated for more general applicability of the ANC technique. It outperformed the conventional methods at the -29 dB SNR but yielded less accurate results when coherence over the array dropped. This approach could possibly improve conventional testing methodology but must be investigated further under more realistic testing conditions.

  1. Simulation of background reduction and Compton suppression in a low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Shun-Li; Cai, Xiao; Wu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Fang, Jian; Sun, Xi-Lei; Sun, Li-Jun; Liu, Ying-Biao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; Lü, Jun-Guang; Hu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are well suited to analyse the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background for an ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside the probe to shield from gamma radiation, with an outer plastic scintillator to veto cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector to improve the peak-to-Compton ratio. Using Geant4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of these detectors to reach the design requirements. A set of experimental data from an existing HPGe spectrometer was used to compare with the simulation. For the future low-background HPGe detector simulation, considering different thicknesses of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal BGO thickness is 5.5 cm, and the peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. In the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0024 cps/100 cm3 Ge (50 keV-2.8 MeV), which is about 10-5 of the environmental background.

  2. Applicability of salt reduction strategies in pizza crust.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Eva; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2016-02-01

    In an effort to reduce population-wide sodium intake from processed foods, due to major health concerns, several different strategies for sodium reduction in pizza crust without any topping were evaluated by sensory analyses. It was possible to reduce sodium by 10% in one single step or to replace 30% of NaCl by KCl without a noticeable loss of salty taste. The late addition of coarse-grained NaCl (crystal size: 0.4-1.4 mm) to pizza dough led to an enhancement of saltiness through taste contrast and an accelerated sodium delivery measured in the mouth and in a model mastication simulator. Likewise, the application of an aqueous salt solution to one side of the pizza crust led to an enhancement of saltiness perception through faster sodium availability, leading to a greater contrast in sodium concentration. Each of these two strategies allowed a sodium reduction of up to 25% while maintaining taste quality. PMID:26304455

  3. Applicability of salt reduction strategies in pizza crust.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Eva; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2016-02-01

    In an effort to reduce population-wide sodium intake from processed foods, due to major health concerns, several different strategies for sodium reduction in pizza crust without any topping were evaluated by sensory analyses. It was possible to reduce sodium by 10% in one single step or to replace 30% of NaCl by KCl without a noticeable loss of salty taste. The late addition of coarse-grained NaCl (crystal size: 0.4-1.4 mm) to pizza dough led to an enhancement of saltiness through taste contrast and an accelerated sodium delivery measured in the mouth and in a model mastication simulator. Likewise, the application of an aqueous salt solution to one side of the pizza crust led to an enhancement of saltiness perception through faster sodium availability, leading to a greater contrast in sodium concentration. Each of these two strategies allowed a sodium reduction of up to 25% while maintaining taste quality.

  4. Simulation results of Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) for background reduction in INTEGRAL Spectrometer (SPI) germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slassi-Sennou, S. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Feffer, P. T.; Lin, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) for background reduction will be used in the INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) imaging spectrometer (SPI) to improve the sensitivity from 200 keV to 2 MeV. The observation of significant astrophysical gamma ray lines in this energy range is expected, where the dominant component of the background is the beta(sup -) decay in the Ge detectors due to the activation of Ge nuclei by cosmic rays. The sensitivity of the SPI will be improved by rejecting beta(sup -) decay events while retaining photon events. The PSD technique will distinguish between single and multiple site events. Simulation results of PSD for INTEGRAL-type Ge detectors using a numerical model for pulse shape generation are presented. The model was shown to agree with the experimental results for a narrow inner bore closed end cylindrical detector. Using PSD, a sensitivity improvement factor of the order of 2.4 at 0.8 MeV is expected.

  5. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-12-31

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy.

  6. Are there dangers in biologic dose reduction strategies?

    PubMed

    Chan, Christopher K Y; Holroyd, Christopher R; Mason, Alice; Zarroug, Jalaa; Edwards, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Biologic dose reduction strategies, for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, have been assessed in multiple studies to assess outcomes compared to ongoing maintenance dosing. Whilst cessation in established disease usually leads to disease flare, dose tapering approaches for those achieving low disease activity often appear to be successful in the short term. However, tapering can be associated with a higher risk of losing disease control and rates of recapture of disease control using the original biologic dose vary between studies. Over relatively short periods of follow-up, a number of studies have shown no statistical difference in radiographic progression in patients tapering or discontinuing biologics. However, a Cochrane review found that radiographic and functional outcomes may be worse after TNF inhibitor discontinuation, and over long-term disease follow-up flares have been associated with radiographic progression and worse patient reported outcomes. To date, no studies of biological therapy dose reduction have specifically investigated the risk of increased immunogenicity or the effects on cardiovascular risk and other co-morbidities, although these remain important potential risks. In addition, whether there are greater dangers in certain dose reduction approaches such as a reduction in dose at the same frequency or a spacing of doses is not established.

  7. [Stressor and stress reduction strategies for computer software engineers].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Takashi

    2002-07-01

    First, in this article we discuss 10 significant occupational stressors for computer software engineers, based on the review of the scientific literature on their stress and mental health. The stressors include 1) quantitative work overload, 2) time pressure, 3) qualitative work load, 4) speed and diffusion of technological innovation, and technological divergence, 5) low discretional power, 6) underdeveloped career pattern, 7) low earnings/reward from jobs, 8) difficulties in managing a project team for software development and establishing support system, 9) difficulties in customer relations, and 10) personality characteristics. In addition, we delineate their working and organizational conditions that cause such occupational stressors in order to find strategies to reduce those stressors in their workplaces. Finally, we suggest three stressor and stress reduction strategies for software engineers. PMID:12229224

  8. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

  9. The Educational Strategies of Danish University Students from Professional and Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Munk, Martin D.; Eiberg-Madsen, Misja; Hansen, Gro Inge

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the educational strategies adopted by university students from different class backgrounds in a Scandinavian welfare regime. Studies show distinct differences among classes relating to economic considerations, risk-averse behavior, and patterns of socialization among university students. We investigate these differences…

  10. Optimized Herschel/PACS photometer observing and data reduction strategies for moving solar system targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, C.; Müller, T. G.; Vilenius, E.; Pál, A.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Marton, G.; Verebélyi, E.; Szalai, N.; Hartogh, P.; Stansberry, J.; Henry, F.; Delsanti, A.

    2014-07-01

    The "TNOs are Cool!: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region" is a Herschel Open Time Key Program that aims to characterize planetary bodies at the outskirts of the Solar System using PACS and SPIRE data, mostly taken as scan-maps. In this paper we summarize our PACS data reduction scheme that uses a modified version of the standard pipeline for basic data reduction, optimized for faint, moving targets. Due to the low flux density of our targets the observations are confusion noise limited or at least often affected by bright nearby background sources at 100 and 160 m. To overcome these problems we developed techniques to characterize and eliminate the background at the positions of our targets and a background matching technique to compensate for pointing errors. We derive a variety of maps as science data products that are used depending on the source flux and background levels and the scientific purpose. Our techniques are also applicable to a wealth of other Herschel solar system photometric observations, e.g. comets and near-Earth asteroids. The principles of our observing strategies and reduction techniques for moving targets will also be applicable for similar surveys of future infrared space projects.

  11. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  12. Opportunities and strategies for breast cancer prevention through risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Martin C; Bevers, Therese; Linos, Eleni; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    Due to the high incidence of breast cancer among US females, risk-reduction strategies are essential. Before considering approaches to breast cancer risk reduction, it is important for clinicians to complete individualized qualitative and quantitative assessments of risk for their patients in order to inform physicians' clinical decision making and management and to engage patients collaboratively in a thorough discussion of risks and benefits. This review will summarize information on potential pharmacologic, nutritional, surgical, and behavioral approaches to reducing breast cancer risk. While there is no clear evidence that specific dietary components can effectively reduce breast cancer risk, weight gain and obesity in adulthood are risk factors for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer. Alcohol consumption, even at moderate levels, increases breast cancer risk, although some of the detrimental effects may be reduced by sufficient folate intake. Women at increased risk of breast cancer can opt to reduce their breast cancer risk through the use of tamoxifen or raloxifene; other chemopreventive agents remain under investigation. Surgical approaches to risk reductions are restricted to those patients with a substantially increased risk of developing breast cancer. Patients should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle for their overall well-being and to remain up to date with recommendations for screening and surveillance. PMID:18981297

  13. Simple automatic strategy for background drift correction in chromatographic data analysis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai-Yan; Li, He-Dong; Yu, Yong-Jie; Wang, Bing; Lu, Peng; Cui, Hua-Peng; Liu, Ping-Ping; She, Yuan-Bin

    2016-06-01

    Chromatographic background drift correction, which influences peak detection and time shift alignment results, is a critical stage in chromatographic data analysis. In this study, an automatic background drift correction methodology was developed. Local minimum values in a chromatogram were initially detected and organized as a new baseline vector. Iterative optimization was then employed to recognize outliers, which belong to the chromatographic peaks, in this vector, and update the outliers in the baseline until convergence. The optimized baseline vector was finally expanded into the original chromatogram, and linear interpolation was employed to estimate background drift in the chromatogram. The principle underlying the proposed method was confirmed using a complex gas chromatographic dataset. Finally, the proposed approach was applied to eliminate background drift in liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight samples used in the metabolic study of Escherichia coli samples. The proposed method was comparable with three classical techniques: morphological weighted penalized least squares, moving window minimum value strategy and background drift correction by orthogonal subspace projection. The proposed method allows almost automatic implementation of background drift correction, which is convenient for practical use.

  14. Strategies for reduction of radiation dose in cardiac multislice CT.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-François; Abada, Hicham T

    2007-08-01

    Because cardiac computed tomography (CT) (mainly coronary CT angiography) is a very promising technique, used more and more for coronary artery evaluation, the benefits and risks of this new low-invasive technique must be balanced. Radiation dose is a major concern for coronary CT angiography, especially in case of repeated examinations or in particular subgroups of patients (for example young female patients). Radiation dose to patient tends to increase from 16- to 64-slice CT. Radiation exposure in ECG-gated acquisitions may reach up to 40 mSv; considerable differences are attributable to the performance of CT machines, to technical dose-sparing tools, but also to radiological habits. Setting radiation dose at the lowest level possible should be a constant goal for the radiologist. Current technological tools are detailed in regard to their efficiency. Optimisation is necessary, by a judicious use of technological tools and also by individual adaptation of kV or mAs. This paper reviews the different current strategies for radiation dose reduction, keeping image quality constant. Data from the literature are discussed, and future technological developments are considered in regards to radiation dose reduction. The particular case of paediatric patients with congenital heart disease is also addressed.

  15. Background Noise Reduction Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation Determined by the Cross-Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Background noise due to flow in wind tunnels contaminates desired data by decreasing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The use of Adaptive Noise Cancellation to remove background noise at measurement microphones is compromised when the reference sensor measures both background and desired noise. The technique proposed modifies the classical processing configuration based on the cross-correlation between the reference and primary microphone. Background noise attenuation is achieved using a cross-correlation sample width that encompasses only the background noise and a matched delay for the adaptive processing. A present limitation of the method is that a minimum time delay between the background noise and desired signal must exist in order for the correlated parts of the desired signal to be separated from the background noise in the crosscorrelation. A simulation yields primary signal recovery which can be predicted from the coherence of the background noise between the channels. Results are compared with two existing methods.

  16. Nitrogen oxide reduction strategies for compression ignition engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Elana M.

    2008-05-01

    The scope of this investigation is to explore strategies to reduce NOx emissions from compression ignition engines. Two methods are presented in this collection of studies: (1) NOx reduction accomplished through a change in fuel formulation, specifically through a change in the saturated fuel carbon chains of biodiesel; and (2) NOx reduction accomplished through a mixed mode combustion process utilizing a fumigated fuel and a pilot injection of diesel fuel. In the first study, a light duty diesel engine was used to investigate the change in saturation of a biodiesel fuel and its impact on NOx emissions. Previous studies have shown that a reduction in the iodine value of a biodiesel fuel produces a reduction in NOx emissions. The iodine value of the fuel is reduced through the saturation of the C18 molecules via hydrogenation of biodiesel fuel. Experiments were performed at several speeds and loads without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a NOx reduction with the hydrogenated diesel fuel was observed. For all the modes studied, the NOx emission was higher for the biodiesel and lower for the hydrogenated biodiesel in comparison to the ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Results from the calculation of the adiabatic flame temperature shows that the results could be explained by the difference in adiabatic flame temperature of the fuel, thus influencing the prompt NOx contribution in addition to the thermal contribution. Since the adiabatic flame temperatures are similar for the hydrogenated biodiesel and the ULSD, yet the NOx reduction with the hydrogenated biodiesel is much lower than the ULSD levels, another explanation for the reduction is suggested: the additional prompt NOx contribution from the change in fuel chemistry. The second study investigated the NOx reductions which could be achieved with a mixed mode combustion process utilizing a fumigated fuel and a pilot injection of diesel fuel. In this research, the fumigated fuel was dimethyl ether (DME) and

  17. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

  18. ASTARTE: Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.

    2014-12-01

    enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning and forecast, governance and resilience. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  19. Variation in Second Language Learners' Strategies among Non-Native English Speakers from Three Language/Culture Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein; Tang, Frank Lixing; Razavi, Nikta; Aiello, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of cultural and linguistic background, L2 proficiency, and gender on language learning strategies for 263 college-level learners from Chinese, Russian, and Latino backgrounds. Data based on the SILL (Oxford, 2001) revealed that Russian students used significantly more strategies than the Chinese students in three…

  20. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  1. Reduction of Background Noise in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, Stephen M.; Allen, Christopher S.; Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Background noise in both open-jet and closed wind tunnels adversely affects the signal-to-noise ratio of acoustic measurements. To measure the noise of increasingly quieter aircraft models, the background noise will have to be reduced by physical means or through signal processing. In a closed wind tunnel, such as the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel, the principle background noise sources can be classified as: (1) fan drive noise; (2) microphone self-noise; (3) aerodynamically induced noise from test-dependent hardware such as model struts and junctions; and (4) noise from the test section walls and vane set. This paper describes the steps taken to minimize the influence of each of these background noise sources in the 40 x 80.

  2. Landslide risk reduction strategies: an inventory for the Global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Liesbet; Poesen, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced. An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction (DRR) is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts (e.g. discussions on the Post-2015 Framework for DRR). The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries. The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago (2013), landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk. In addition, these measures can be combined with education and/or awareness raising and are influenced by governance structures and cultural beliefs. Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index (HDI) but with a similar climate. Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson (2013) that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries

  3. Background gradient reduction of an infrared scene projector mounted on a flight motion simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark H.; Ballard, Gary

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) recently developed an infrared projector mounted on a flight motion simulator (FMS) that is used for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing. The initial application of this system within a HWIL environment required variations in the projected background radiance level to be very low. This paper describes the investigation into the causes of the variations in background radiance levels and the steps employed to reduce the background variance to an acceptable level. Test data collected before and after the corrective techniques are provided. The procedures discussed provide insight into the types of practical problems encountered when integrating infrared scene projector technologies into actual test facilities.

  4. Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers and techniques for its reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers is presented. The calculations are based on newly available interaction cross sections and new analytic techniques, and are the most detailed and accurate published to date. Results compare well with measurements made in the 20 keV to 10 MeV energy range by the Goddard Low Energy Gamma-ray Spectrometer (LEGS). The principal components of the continuum background in spectrometers with GE detectors and thick active shields are: (1) elastic neutron scattering of atmospheric neutrons on the Ge nuclei; (2) aperture flux of atmospheric and cosmic gamma rays; (3) beta decays of unstable nuclides produced by nuclear interactions of atmospheric protons and neutrons with Ge nuclei; and (4) shield leakage of atmospheric gamma rays. The improved understanding of these components leads to several recommended techniques for reducing the background.

  5. Measurement and reduction of low-level radon background in the KATRIN experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fränkle, F. M.

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale experiment to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino by investigating the kinematics of tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. The measurement setup consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous molecular tritium source (WGTS), a differential and cryogenic pumped electron transport and tritium retention section, a tandem spectrometer section (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a detector system for counting transmitted beta decay electrons. Measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup showed that the decay of radon (Rn) atoms in the volume of the KATRIN spectrometers is a major background source. Rn atoms from low-level radon emanation of materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the alpha decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn alpha decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. Lowenergy electrons (< 100 eV) directly contribute to the background in the signal region. High-energy electrons can be stored magnetically inside the volume of the spectrometer and are able to create thousands of secondary electrons via subsequent ionization processes with residual gas molecules. In order to reduce the Rn induced background different active and passive counter measures were developed and tested. This proceeding will give an overview on Rn sources within the KATRIN spectrometer, describes how Rn decays inside the spectrometer produce background events at the detector and presents different counter measures to reduce the Rn induced background.

  6. Objective Measures of Listening Effort: Effects of Background Noise and Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent; Hafter, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This work is aimed at addressing a seeming contradiction related to the use of noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in hearing aids. The problem is that although some listeners claim a subjective improvement from NR, it has not been shown to improve speech intelligibility, often even making it worse. Method: To address this, the hypothesis…

  7. A method for the background reduction of solid state detectors during low-flux periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, E.

    The pulse height analysis of the signals in traditional energetic particle telescopes provides a tool to separate a background arising from various factors from "genuine" particles. Commonly used methods, however, prove unsatisfactory at low intensity levels. A method based on the distribution of pulse heights of coincident signals in two detectors, approximating them by a 5-parameter function, is suggested. The method can effectively reduce the background at low-flux times as demonstrated for energetic particle intensity measurements by ERNE and EPHIN aboard SOHO during the recent solar activity minimum.

  8. Complexity reduction in the use of evolutionary algorithms to function optimization: a variable reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guohua; Pedrycz, Witold; Li, Haifeng; Qiu, Dishan; Ma, Manhao; Liu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Discovering and utilizing problem domain knowledge is a promising direction towards improving the efficiency of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) when solving optimization problems. We propose a knowledge-based variable reduction strategy (VRS) that can be integrated into EAs to solve unconstrained and first-order derivative optimization functions more efficiently. VRS originates from the knowledge that, in an unconstrained and first-order derivative optimization function, the optimal solution locates in a local extreme point at which the partial derivative over each variable equals zero. Through this collective of partial derivative equations, some quantitative relations among different variables can be obtained. These variable relations have to be satisfied in the optimal solution. With the use of such relations, VRS could reduce the number of variables and shrink the solution space when using EAs to deal with the optimization function, thus improving the optimizing speed and quality. When we apply VRS to optimization problems, we just need to modify the calculation approach of the objective function. Therefore, practically, it can be integrated with any EA. In this study, VRS is combined with particle swarm optimization variants and tested on several benchmark optimization functions and a real-world optimization problem. Computational results and comparative study demonstrate the effectiveness of VRS. PMID:24250256

  9. Complexity Reduction in the Use of Evolutionary Algorithms to Function Optimization: A Variable Reduction Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Pedrycz, Witold; Qiu, Dishan; Ma, Manhao; Liu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Discovering and utilizing problem domain knowledge is a promising direction towards improving the efficiency of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) when solving optimization problems. We propose a knowledge-based variable reduction strategy (VRS) that can be integrated into EAs to solve unconstrained and first-order derivative optimization functions more efficiently. VRS originates from the knowledge that, in an unconstrained and first-order derivative optimization function, the optimal solution locates in a local extreme point at which the partial derivative over each variable equals zero. Through this collective of partial derivative equations, some quantitative relations among different variables can be obtained. These variable relations have to be satisfied in the optimal solution. With the use of such relations, VRS could reduce the number of variables and shrink the solution space when using EAs to deal with the optimization function, thus improving the optimizing speed and quality. When we apply VRS to optimization problems, we just need to modify the calculation approach of the objective function. Therefore, practically, it can be integrated with any EA. In this study, VRS is combined with particle swarm optimization variants and tested on several benchmark optimization functions and a real-world optimization problem. Computational results and comparative study demonstrate the effectiveness of VRS. PMID:24250256

  10. Possibilities of background-radiation-level reduction in proton-therapy rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, N. A.; Lebedeva, Zh. S.

    2014-08-01

    The system of proton-beam formation for proton ophthalmology has been numerically simulated using the Geant4 program package. Data on the efficiency of narrow- ("pencil") and wide proton-beam transport are presented. It is established that the use of a wide beam transport is advantageous, since it makes a significant decrease in the background-radiation level in a proton-therapy room possible and simplifies the beam-formation system.

  11. Background reduction for quiet time particle fluxes aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, E.; Kecskeméty, K.; Kunow, H.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Torsti, J.

    2001-06-01

    Two versions of a method are presented to determine the background of energetic particle telescopes during low-flux periods at low energies. Traditional procedures first evaluate pulse heights of particle sensors working in coincidence then select certain areas of the ΔE/Δx versus E plane, where E is energy, and finally, accept all events falling on those areas as real particles. Such methods, however, often fail during low-flux conditions, as the background may become comparable to the genuine particle flux. The alternative methods suggested here analyze the shape of the distribution near the track of genuine particles and provide statistical estimation of its parameters to separate the background from the real particle flux. Results are presented for protons and helium during quiet activity periods of the recent solar minimum using data from energetic particle telescopes Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) Low Energy Detector (LED) and Comprehensive Suprathermal and Energetic Particle Analyzer (COSTEP) Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. SOHO is a project of international collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA.

  12. An innovative, multidisciplinary strategy to improve retention of nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Igbo, Immaculata N; Straker, Kathleen C; Landson, Margie J; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian F; Hughes, Lisa A; Carroll, Theresa L

    2011-01-01

    Nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds must overcome many barriers in order to succeed. This article will focus on how a multidisciplinary team helped 76 percent of these high-risk students persist in their nursing programs by addressing some of these barriers. Three baccalaureate nursing schools in the Texas Medical Center embarked on a three-year retention program designed to enhance the success of students identified by federal criteria as being at risk. Multidisciplinary teams led various activities, including a study skills component, which included preparing for lectures, taking notes, critical thinking, and test-taking strategies. Also addressed were written and oral communication skills, medical terminology, critical thinking, career coaching, and socialization activities. Collaboration among faculty and students at the three schools was key to the success of the program. PMID:22235693

  13. An innovative, multidisciplinary strategy to improve retention of nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Igbo, Immaculata N; Straker, Kathleen C; Landson, Margie J; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian F; Hughes, Lisa A; Carroll, Theresa L

    2011-01-01

    Nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds must overcome many barriers in order to succeed. This article will focus on how a multidisciplinary team helped 76 percent of these high-risk students persist in their nursing programs by addressing some of these barriers. Three baccalaureate nursing schools in the Texas Medical Center embarked on a three-year retention program designed to enhance the success of students identified by federal criteria as being at risk. Multidisciplinary teams led various activities, including a study skills component, which included preparing for lectures, taking notes, critical thinking, and test-taking strategies. Also addressed were written and oral communication skills, medical terminology, critical thinking, career coaching, and socialization activities. Collaboration among faculty and students at the three schools was key to the success of the program.

  14. The Influence of Gender on the Uncertainty Reduction Strategies of Disclosure, Interrogation, and Nonverbal Immediacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Judith A.; And Others

    A study examined gender differences in the uses of uncertainty reduction strategies (self-disclosure, interrogative strategies, nonverbal immediacy, and other's self-disclosure) and their interrelationships with attributional confidence (uncertainty reduction). The subjects, 853 students from three western universities, participated in a survey…

  15. Why They Stay - Retention Strategies for Students from Diverse Backgrounds in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker, R.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences have had a chronic problem of underrepresentation of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, and socio-economic backgrounds. While many programs and efforts focus on the recruitment of minorities, a strategic approach to increase retention is equally important for a student's success. Students from diverse backgrounds often face isolation in majority schools, and lack role models and guidance as they navigate through the academic system. Research has shown that continuous and individualized support can greatly strengthen a student's performance and chance of staying in the field. Successful strategies include a strong mentoring system, early involvement in research, cohort building, and creating a welcoming campus climate. At the SOARS Center for Undergraduate Research, we have found that offering students research topics that allow them to give back to society increases engagement and retention significantly. All interventions need to be applied early, often and on a continuous basis in a student's college experience. A long-term mentor assigned to the student beyond a class or a summer research experience can provide follow-up and champion the student's progress. This presentation will share successful approaches of retaining diverse students in the geosciences and discuss how we can support each other in the community to provide such resources.

  16. Observational Strategies of Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature and Polarization Interferometry Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Ng, Kin-Wang; Park, Changbom; Liu, Guo-Chin; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2003-05-01

    We have simulated the interferometric observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations. We have constructed data pipelines from the time-ordered raw visibility samples to the CMB power spectra that utilize the methods of data compression, maximum likelihood analysis, and optimal subspace filtering. They are customized for three observational strategies: the single pointing, the mosaicking, and the drift-scanning. For each strategy, derived are the optimal strategy parameters that yield band power estimates with minimum uncertainty. The results are general and can be applied to any close-packed array on a single platform such as the CBI and the forthcoming AMiBA experiments. We have also studied the effect of rotation of the array platform on the band power correlation by simulating the CBI single-pointing observation. It is found that the band power anticorrelations can be reduced by rotating the platform and thus densely sampling the visibility plane. This enables us to increase the resolution of the power spectrum in the l-space down to the limit of the sampling theorem (Δl=226~π/θ), which is narrower by a factor of about sqrt(2) than the resolution limit (Δl~300) used in the recent CBI single-pointing observation. The validity of this idea is demonstrated for a two-element interferometer that samples visibilities uniformly in the uv-annulus. From the fact that the visibilities are the Fourier modes of the CMB field convolved with the beam, a fast unbiased estimator (FUE) of the CMB power spectra is developed and tested. It is shown that the FUE gives results very close to those from the quadratic estimator method without requiring large computer resources even though uncertainties in the results increase.

  17. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.; Overman, Nicole R.; Reeves, James H.

    2014-07-07

    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  18. The Extension-Reduction Strategy: Activating Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloyer, Cliff W.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical problem is solved using the extension-reduction or build it up-tear it down tactic. This technique is implemented in reviving students' earlier knowledge to enable them to apply this knowledge to solving new problems.

  19. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Hong; Goodwin, Peter M; Keller, Richard A.; Nolan, Rhiannon L.

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  20. Spatially selective photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence and application to background reduction for biomolecule detection assays

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhery, Vikram; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Polans, James; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    By combining photonic crystal label-free biosensor imaging with photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence, it is possible to selectively enhance the fluorescence emission from regions of the PC surface based upon the density of immobilized capture molecules. A label-free image of the capture molecules enables determination of optimal coupling conditions of the laser used for fluorescence imaging of the photonic crystal surface on a pixel-by-pixel basis, allowing maximization of fluorescence enhancement factor from regions incorporating a biomolecule capture spot and minimization of background autofluorescence from areas between capture spots. This capability significantly improves the contrast of enhanced fluorescent images, and when applied to an antibody protein microarray, provides a substantial advantage over conventional fluorescence microscopy. Using the new approach, we demonstrate detection limits as low as 0.97 pg/ml for a representative protein biomarker in buffer. PMID:22109210

  1. Enhancement of ion transmission and reduction of background and interferences in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ke

    1992-06-09

    An inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (four stages of differential pumping) is described. The large sampling orifice (1.31 mm dia.) improves signals for metal ions and resists plugging. The ion lens deflects ions off center and then back on center into the differential pumping orifice; there is no photon stop in the center. Ion trajectories calculations SIMION show that only those ions that leave the skimmer on center are transmitted, whereas most other lenses used in ICP-MS transmit only ions that leave the skimmer off axis. Background with the Daly detector is 4 counts s{sup {minus}1}. This ICP-MS yields low levels of many troublesome polyatomic ions. Signals from refractory metal oxide ions are about 1% of the corresponding metal ion signals. Grounding the first electrode of the ion lens reduces matrix effects to {approx_lt} 20% loss in signal for Co{sup +}, Y{sup +} or Cs{sup +} in presence of 10 mM Sr, Tm or Pb. This latter lens setting causes only 30% loss in sensitivity compared to biassing the first lens. Matrix effects can also be mitigated by re-adjusting the voltage on the first lens with matrix present. Floating the metal cones at various potentials can improve the ion transmission by a factor of at least four to six. Also, floating the cones extends the upper end of linearity. Net result is more sensitivity and higher ion beam intensity than with a grounded skimmer and sampler. Furthermore, mass discrimination can be reduced.

  2. Enhancement of ion transmission and reduction of background and interferences in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ke.

    1992-06-09

    An inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (four stages of differential pumping) is described. The large sampling orifice (1.31 mm dia.) improves signals for metal ions and resists plugging. The ion lens deflects ions off center and then back on center into the differential pumping orifice; there is no photon stop in the center. Ion trajectories calculations SIMION show that only those ions that leave the skimmer on center are transmitted, whereas most other lenses used in ICP-MS transmit only ions that leave the skimmer off axis. Background with the Daly detector is 4 counts s{sup {minus}1}. This ICP-MS yields low levels of many troublesome polyatomic ions. Signals from refractory metal oxide ions are about 1% of the corresponding metal ion signals. Grounding the first electrode of the ion lens reduces matrix effects to {approx lt} 20% loss in signal for Co{sup +}, Y{sup +} or Cs{sup +} in presence of 10 mM Sr, Tm or Pb. This latter lens setting causes only 30% loss in sensitivity compared to biassing the first lens. Matrix effects can also be mitigated by re-adjusting the voltage on the first lens with matrix present. Floating the metal cones at various potentials can improve the ion transmission by a factor of at least four to six. Also, floating the cones extends the upper end of linearity. Net result is more sensitivity and higher ion beam intensity than with a grounded skimmer and sampler. Furthermore, mass discrimination can be reduced.

  3. Human breath analysis: methods for sample collection and reduction of localized background effects.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Jones, A Daniel; Frank, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath samples without requiring exhaled breath condensate collection. A new procedure, exhaled breath vapor (EBV) collection, involving the active sampling and preconcentration of a breath sample with a SPME fiber fitted inside a modified commercial breath-collection device, the RTube, is described. Immediately after sample collection, compounds are desorbed from the SPME fiber at 250 degrees C in the GC-MS injector. Experiments were performed using EBV collected at -80 degrees C and at room temperature, and the results compared to the traditional method of collecting exhaled breath condensate at -80 degrees C followed by passive SPME sampling of the collected condensate. Methods are compared in terms of portability, ease-of-use, speed of analysis, and detection limits. The need for a clean air supply for the study subjects is demonstrated using several localized sources of VOC contaminants including nail polish, lemonade, and gasoline. Various simple methods to supply clean inhaled air to a subject are presented. Chemical exposures are used to demonstrate the importance of providing cleaned air (organic vapor respirator) or an external air source (tubing stretched to a separate room). These techniques allow for facile data interpretation by minimizing background contaminants. It is demonstrated herein that this active SPME breath-sampling device provides advantages in the forms of faster sample collection and data analysis, apparatus portability and avoidance of power or cooling requirements, and performance for sample collection in a contaminated environment. PMID:19844696

  4. Strategies and Techniques for the Reduction of Sexual Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Barry W.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper 14 anxiety-reduction techniques are discussed. The sex therapist can integrate these techniques into the sex therapy contract with individuals or couples and use them either singly or in a sequential multiple technique format to reduce sexual anxiety. (Author)

  5. Existential risks: exploring a robust risk reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Jebari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously. PMID:24891130

  6. Cigarette Price Minimization Strategies in the United States: Price Reductions and Responsiveness to Excise Taxes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because cigarette price minimization strategies can provide substantial price reductions for individuals continuing their usual smoking behaviors following federal and state cigarette excise tax increases, we examined independent price reductions compensating for overlapping strategies. The possible availability of larger independent price reduction opportunities in states with higher cigarette excise taxes is explored. Methods: Regression analysis used the 2006–2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (N = 26,826) to explore national and state-level independent price reductions that smokers obtained from purchasing cigarettes (a) by the carton, (b) in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price than in the state of residence, and (c) in “some other way,” including online or in another country. Price reductions from these strategies are estimated jointly to compensate for known overlapping strategies. Results: Each strategy reduced the price of cigarettes by 64–94 cents per pack. These price reductions are 9%–22% lower than conventionally estimated results not compensating for overlapping strategies. Price reductions vary substantially by state. Following cigarette excise tax increases, the price reduction available from purchasing cigarettes by cartons increased. Additionally, the price reduction from purchasing cigarettes in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price is positively associated with state cigarette excise tax rates and border state cigarette excise tax rate differentials. Conclusions: Findings from this large, nationally representative study of cigarette smokers suggest that price reductions are larger in states with higher cigarette excise taxes, and increase as cigarette excise taxes rise. PMID:23729501

  7. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  8. Development of a Questionnaire to Assess University Students' Intentions to Use Behavioral Alcohol-Reduction Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students' intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online.…

  9. Wake Management Strategies for Reduction of Turbomachinery Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of our work was to evaluate and test several wake management schemes for the reduction of turbomachinery fan noise. Throughout the course of this work we relied on several tools. These include 1) Two-dimensional steady boundary-layer and wake analyses using MISES (a thin-shear layer Navier-Stokes code), 2) Two-dimensional unsteady wake-stator interaction simulations using UNSFLO, 3) Three-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes rotor simulations using NEWT, 4) Internal blade passage design using quasi-one-dimensional passage flow models developed at MIT, 5) Acoustic modeling using LINSUB, 6) Acoustic modeling using VO72, 7) Experiments in a low-speed cascade wind-tunnel, and 8) ADP fan rig tests in the MIT Blowdown Compressor.

  10. Bioastronautics Roadmap: A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap is the framework used to identify and assess the risks to crews exposed to the hazardous environments of space. It guides the implementation of research strategies to prevent or reduce those risks. Although the BCPR identifies steps that must be taken to reduce the risks to health and performance that are associated with human space flight, the BCPR is not a "critical path" analysis in the strict engineering sense. The BCPR will evolve to accommodate new information and technology development and will enable NASA to conduct a formal critical path analysis in the future. As a management tool, the BCPR provides information for making informed decisions about research priorities and resource allocation. The outcome-driven nature of the BCPR makes it amenable for assessing the focus, progress and success of the Bioastronautics research and technology program. The BCPR is also a tool for communicating program priorities and progress to the research community and NASA management.

  11. Medication errors in paediatric care: a systematic review of epidemiology and an evaluation of evidence supporting reduction strategy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marlene R; Robinson, Karen A; Lubomski, Lisa H; Rinke, Michael L; Pronovost, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Background Although children are at the greatest risk for medication errors, little is known about the overall epidemiology of these errors, where the gaps are in our knowledge, and to what extent national medication error reduction strategies focus on children. Objective To synthesise peer reviewed knowledge on children's medication errors and on recommendations to improve paediatric medication safety by a systematic literature review. Data sources PubMed, Embase and Cinahl from 1 January 2000 to 30 April 2005, and 11 national entities that have disseminated recommendations to improve medication safety. Study selection Inclusion criteria were peer reviewed original data in English language. Studies that did not separately report paediatric data were excluded. Data extraction Two reviewers screened articles for eligibility and for data extraction, and screened all national medication error reduction strategies for relevance to children. Data synthesis From 358 articles identified, 31 were included for data extraction. The definition of medication error was non‐uniform across the studies. Dispensing and administering errors were the most poorly and non‐uniformly evaluated. Overall, the distributional epidemiological estimates of the relative percentages of paediatric error types were: prescribing 3–37%, dispensing 5–58%, administering 72–75%, and documentation 17–21%. 26 unique recommendations for strategies to reduce medication errors were identified; none were based on paediatric evidence. Conclusions Medication errors occur across the entire spectrum of prescribing, dispensing, and administering, are common, and have a myriad of non‐evidence based potential reduction strategies. Further research in this area needs a firmer standardisation for items such as dose ranges and definitions of medication errors, broader scope beyond inpatient prescribing errors, and prioritisation of implementation of medication error reduction strategies. PMID:17403758

  12. Navigational strategy used to intercept fly balls under real-world conditions with moving visual background fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; McBeath, Michael K; Sugar, Thomas G

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the navigational strategy used to intercept fly balls in a real-world environment under conditions with moving visual background fields. Fielders ran across a gymnasium attempting to catch fly balls that varied in distance and direction. During each trial, the launched balls traveled in front of a moving background texture that was projected onto an entire wall of a gymnasium. The background texture consisted of a field of random dots that moved together, at a constant speed and direction that varied between trials. The fielder route deviation was defined as the signed area swept out between the actual running path and a straight-line path to the destination, and these route deviation values were compared as a function of the background motion conditions. The findings confirmed that the moving visual background fields systematically altered the fielder running paths, which curved more forward and then to the side when the background gradient moved laterally with the ball, and curved more to the side and then forward when the background gradient moved opposite the ball. Fielder running paths deviated systematically, in a manner consistent with the use of a geometric optical control strategy that helps guide real-world perception-action tasks of interception, such as catching balls. PMID:25425225

  13. Navigational strategy used to intercept fly balls under real-world conditions with moving visual background fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; McBeath, Michael K; Sugar, Thomas G

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the navigational strategy used to intercept fly balls in a real-world environment under conditions with moving visual background fields. Fielders ran across a gymnasium attempting to catch fly balls that varied in distance and direction. During each trial, the launched balls traveled in front of a moving background texture that was projected onto an entire wall of a gymnasium. The background texture consisted of a field of random dots that moved together, at a constant speed and direction that varied between trials. The fielder route deviation was defined as the signed area swept out between the actual running path and a straight-line path to the destination, and these route deviation values were compared as a function of the background motion conditions. The findings confirmed that the moving visual background fields systematically altered the fielder running paths, which curved more forward and then to the side when the background gradient moved laterally with the ball, and curved more to the side and then forward when the background gradient moved opposite the ball. Fielder running paths deviated systematically, in a manner consistent with the use of a geometric optical control strategy that helps guide real-world perception-action tasks of interception, such as catching balls.

  14. Strategies for the reduction of Legionella in biological treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, R; Utecht, K-U; Exner, M; Verstraete, W; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2016-01-01

    A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster. Additionally, to gain insight into the factors that promote the growth of Legionella in biological systems, growth experiments were made with different substrates and temperatures. The dosage rates of silver micro-particles, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone and pH stress to the activated sludge were not able to decrease the number of culturable Legionella spp. in the effluent. Nevertheless, the UV treatment of secondary treated effluent reduced Legionella spp. on average by 1.6-3.4 log units. Laboratory-scale experiments and full-scale measurements suggested that the aerobic treatment of warm wastewater (30-35 °C) rich in organic nitrogen (protein) is a possible source of Legionella infection. PMID:27533856

  15. Strategies for the reduction of Legionella in biological treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, R; Utecht, K-U; Exner, M; Verstraete, W; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2016-01-01

    A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster. Additionally, to gain insight into the factors that promote the growth of Legionella in biological systems, growth experiments were made with different substrates and temperatures. The dosage rates of silver micro-particles, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone and pH stress to the activated sludge were not able to decrease the number of culturable Legionella spp. in the effluent. Nevertheless, the UV treatment of secondary treated effluent reduced Legionella spp. on average by 1.6-3.4 log units. Laboratory-scale experiments and full-scale measurements suggested that the aerobic treatment of warm wastewater (30-35 °C) rich in organic nitrogen (protein) is a possible source of Legionella infection.

  16. Strategies for emission reduction from thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Prisyazhniuk, Vitaly A

    2006-07-01

    Major polluters of man's environment are thermal power stations (TPS) and power plants, which discharge into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO2, which results in a build-up of the greenhouse effect and global warm-up of our planet's climate. This paper is intended to show that the way to attain environmental safety of the TPS and to abide by the decisions of the Kyoto Protocol lies in raising the efficiency of the heat power stations and reducing their fuel consumption by using nonconventional thermal cycles. Certain equations have been derived to define the quantitative interrelationship between the growth of efficiency of the TPS, decrease in fuel consumption and reduction of discharge of dust, fuel combustion gases, and heat into the environment. New ideas and new technological approaches that result in raising the efficiency of the TPS are briefly covered: magneto-hydrodynamic resonance, the Kalina cycle, and utilizing the ambient heat by using, as the working medium, low-boiling substances.

  17. Maternal mortality in India: current status and strategies for reduction.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Swain, S; Seth, A

    1991-12-01

    The causes (medical, reproductive factors, health care delivery system, and socioeconomic factors) of maternal mortality in India and strategies for reducing maternal mortality are presented. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) are very high in Asia and Africa compared with Northern Europe's 4/100,000 live births. An Indian hospital study found the MMR to be 4.21/1000 live births. 50-98% of maternal deaths are caused by direct obstetric causes (hemorrhage, infection, and hypertensive disorders, ruptured uterus, hepatitis, and anemia). 50% of maternal deaths due to sepsis are related to illegal induced abortion. MMR in India has not declined significantly in the past 15 years. Age, primi and grande multiparity, unplanned pregnancy, and related illegal abortion are the reproductive causes. In 1985 WHO reported that 63-80% of maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes and 88-98% of all maternal deaths could probably have been prevented with proper handling. In India, coordination between levels in the delivery system and fragmentation of care account for the poor quality of maternal health care. Mass illiteracy is another cause. Effective strategies for reducing the MMR are 1) to place a high priority on maternal and child health (MCH) services and integrate vertical programs (e.g., family planning) related to MCH; 2) to give attention to care during labor and delivery, which is the most critical period for complications; 3) to provide community-based delivery huts which can provide a clean and safe delivery place close to home, and maternity waiting rooms in hospitals for high risk mothers; 4) to improve the quality of MCH care at the rural community level (proper history taking, palpation, blood pressure and fetal heart screening, risk factor screening, and referral); 5) to improve quality of care at the primary health care level (emergency care and proper referral); 6) to include in the postpartum program MCH and family planning services; 7) to examine the

  18. Integrating Health Into Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies: Key Considerations for Success

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Osman; Rokadiya, Sakib; Huda, Qudsia; Abrahams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The human and financial costs of disasters are vast. In 2011, disasters were estimated to have cost $378 billion worldwide; disasters have affected 64% of the world’s population since 1992. Consequently, disaster risk reduction strategies have become increasingly prominent on national and international policy agendas. However, the function of health in disaster risk reduction strategies often has been restricted to emergency response. To mitigate the effect of disasters on social and health development goals (such as risk reduction Millennium Development Goals) and increase resilience among at-risk populations, disaster strategies should assign the health sector a more all-encompassing, proactive role. We discuss proposed methods and concepts for mainstreaming health in disaster risk reduction and consider barriers faced by the health sector in this field. PMID:25122022

  19. Integrating health into disaster risk reduction strategies: key considerations for success.

    PubMed

    Dar, Osman; Buckley, Emmeline J; Rokadiya, Sakib; Huda, Qudsia; Abrahams, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The human and financial costs of disasters are vast. In 2011, disasters were estimated to have cost $378 billion worldwide; disasters have affected 64% of the world's population since 1992. Consequently, disaster risk reduction strategies have become increasingly prominent on national and international policy agendas. However, the function of health in disaster risk reduction strategies often has been restricted to emergency response. To mitigate the effect of disasters on social and health development goals (such as risk reduction Millennium Development Goals) and increase resilience among at-risk populations, disaster strategies should assign the health sector a more all-encompassing, proactive role. We discuss proposed methods and concepts for mainstreaming health in disaster risk reduction and consider barriers faced by the health sector in this field.

  20. Integrating health into disaster risk reduction strategies: key considerations for success.

    PubMed

    Dar, Osman; Buckley, Emmeline J; Rokadiya, Sakib; Huda, Qudsia; Abrahams, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The human and financial costs of disasters are vast. In 2011, disasters were estimated to have cost $378 billion worldwide; disasters have affected 64% of the world's population since 1992. Consequently, disaster risk reduction strategies have become increasingly prominent on national and international policy agendas. However, the function of health in disaster risk reduction strategies often has been restricted to emergency response. To mitigate the effect of disasters on social and health development goals (such as risk reduction Millennium Development Goals) and increase resilience among at-risk populations, disaster strategies should assign the health sector a more all-encompassing, proactive role. We discuss proposed methods and concepts for mainstreaming health in disaster risk reduction and consider barriers faced by the health sector in this field. PMID:25122022

  1. Telling the Technology Story: PR Strategies for School Leaders. Backgrounder Brief. CoSN Essential Leadership Skills Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for School Networking (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Backgrounder Brief is an executive summary of "Telling the Technology Story: PR Strategies for School Leaders," a component of the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) Essential Leadership Skills Series. Public relations is a critical component of a district's successful technology implementation--and it involves communicating on an…

  2. Infant mortality in rural India: a strategy for reduction.

    PubMed

    Pratinidhi, A K; Shrotri, A N; Shah, U; Chavan, H H

    1987-08-01

    A risk-approach-strategy project sponsored by WHO was undertaken in 22 villages of Surur, Pune, by BJ Medical College. All births in the study population of 47,000 were followed, comparing the 3 cohorts born between January 1981 to December 1983. Female village health guides were trained in screening for 11 maternal risk factors, infant risk factors, infant monitoring, and basic health support such as maternal nutrition, rest, breastfeeding and home cleaning, heating, humidifying and infant isolation. There were 123, 97 and 87 infant deaths in the 1981, 1982, and 1983 cohorts, giving infant mortality rats of 91.2, 72.3 and 67.3 respectively. The proportion of neonatal deaths remained at 61 to 62.1% over the period. The most common risk factors seen were illness, low birth weight and growth retardation, often associated with illness. Incidence of low birth weight and prolonged labor both decreased significantly over the duration of the program. Mortality was high among infants with feeding problems and prematurity. 40% of deaths were due to infections, 28% to low birth weight and prematurity, and 9% to birth asphyxia. The lower infant mortality rate achieved here is comparable to urban levels reported in India. These results show that primary health workers are capable of referring and managing risks, and risk management could be applied on a larger scale. PMID:3443502

  3. Control strategies for afterload reduction with an artificial vasculature device.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Cheng, Rolando Chip; Glower, Jacob S; Ewert, Daniel L; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been used successfully as a bridge to transplant in heart failure patients by unloading ventricular volume and restoring the circulation. An artificial vasculature device (AVD) is being developed that may better facilitate myocardial recovery than VAD by controlling the afterload experienced by the native heart and controlling the pulsatile energy entering into the arterial system from the device, potentially reconditioning the arterial system properties. The AVD is a valveless, 80 ml blood chamber with a servo-controlled pusher plate connected to the ascending aorta by a vascular graft. Control algorithms for the AVD were developed to maintain any user-defined systemic input impedance (IM) including resistance, elastance, and inertial components. Computer simulation and mock circulation models of the cardiovascular system were used to test the efficacy of two control strategies for the AVD: 1) average impedance position control (AIPC)-to maintain an average value of resistance during left ventricular (LV) systole and 2) instantaneous impedance force feedback (IIFF) and position control (IIPC)-to maintain a desired value or profile of resistance and compliance. Computer simulations and mock loop tests were performed to predict resulting cardiovascular pressures, volumes, flows, and the resistance and compliance experienced by the native LV during ejection for simulated normal, failing, and recovering LV. These results indicate that the LV volume and pressure decreased, and the LV stroke volume increased with decreasing IM, resulting in an increased ejection fraction. Although the AIPC algorithm is more stable and can tolerate higher levels of sensor errors and noise, the IIFF and IIPC control algorithms are better suited to maintain any instantaneous IM or an IM profile. The developed AVD impedance control algorithms may be implemented with current VADs to promote myocardial recovery and facilitate weaning. PMID:22635010

  4. Control strategies for afterload reduction with an artificial vasculature device.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Cheng, Rolando Chip; Glower, Jacob S; Ewert, Daniel L; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been used successfully as a bridge to transplant in heart failure patients by unloading ventricular volume and restoring the circulation. An artificial vasculature device (AVD) is being developed that may better facilitate myocardial recovery than VAD by controlling the afterload experienced by the native heart and controlling the pulsatile energy entering into the arterial system from the device, potentially reconditioning the arterial system properties. The AVD is a valveless, 80 ml blood chamber with a servo-controlled pusher plate connected to the ascending aorta by a vascular graft. Control algorithms for the AVD were developed to maintain any user-defined systemic input impedance (IM) including resistance, elastance, and inertial components. Computer simulation and mock circulation models of the cardiovascular system were used to test the efficacy of two control strategies for the AVD: 1) average impedance position control (AIPC)-to maintain an average value of resistance during left ventricular (LV) systole and 2) instantaneous impedance force feedback (IIFF) and position control (IIPC)-to maintain a desired value or profile of resistance and compliance. Computer simulations and mock loop tests were performed to predict resulting cardiovascular pressures, volumes, flows, and the resistance and compliance experienced by the native LV during ejection for simulated normal, failing, and recovering LV. These results indicate that the LV volume and pressure decreased, and the LV stroke volume increased with decreasing IM, resulting in an increased ejection fraction. Although the AIPC algorithm is more stable and can tolerate higher levels of sensor errors and noise, the IIFF and IIPC control algorithms are better suited to maintain any instantaneous IM or an IM profile. The developed AVD impedance control algorithms may be implemented with current VADs to promote myocardial recovery and facilitate weaning.

  5. Evolving Strategies, Opportunistic Implementation: HIV Risk Reduction in Tanzania in the Context of an Incentive-Based HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Packel, Laura; Keller, Ann; Dow, William H.; de Walque, Damien; Nathan, Rose; Mtenga, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Background Behavior change communication (BCC) interventions, while still a necessary component of HIV prevention, have not on their own been shown to be sufficient to stem the tide of the epidemic. The shortcomings of BCC interventions are partly due to barriers arising from structural or economic constraints. Arguments are being made for combination prevention packages that include behavior change, biomedical, and structural interventions to address the complex set of risk factors that may lead to HIV infection. Methods In 2009/2010 we conducted 216 in-depth interviews with a subset of study participants enrolled in the RESPECT study - an HIV prevention trial in Tanzania that used cash awards to incentivize safer sexual behaviors. We analyzed community diaries to understand how the study was perceived in the community. We drew on these data to enhance our understanding of how the intervention influenced strategies for risk reduction. Results We found that certain situations provide increased leverage for sexual negotiation, and these situations facilitated opportunistic implementation of risk reduction strategies. Opportunities enabled by the RESPECT intervention included leveraging conditional cash awards, but participants also emphasized the importance of exploiting new health status knowledge from regular STI testing. Risk reduction strategies included condom use within partnerships and/or with other partners, and an unexpected emphasis on temporary abstinence. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of increasing opportunities for implementing risk reduction strategies. We found that an incentive-based intervention could be effective in part by creating such opportunities, particularly among groups such as women with limited sexual agency. The results provide new evidence that expanding regular testing of STIs is another important mechanism for providing opportunities for negotiating behavior change, beyond the direct benefits of testing. Exploiting

  6. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  8. Eco-friendly selection of ship emissions reduction strategies with emphasis on SOx and NOx emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddiek, Ibrahim S.; Elgohary, Mohamed M.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing amounts of ships exhaust gases emitted worldwide forced the International Maritime Organization to issue some restricted maritime legislation for reducing the adverse environmental impacts arising from such emissions. Consequently, ships emission reduction became one of the technical and economical challenges that facing the ships, operators. The present paper addresses the different strategies that can be used to reduce those emissions, especially nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The strategies included: applying reduction technologies onboard, using of alternative fuels, and follows one of fuel saving strategies. Using of selective catalytic reduction and sea water scrubbing appeared as the best reduction technologies onboard ships. Moreover, among the various proposed alternative fuels, natural gas, in its liquid state; has the priority to be used instead of conventional fuels. Applying one of those strategies is the matter of ship type and working area. As a numerical example, the proposed methods were investigated at a high-speed craft operating in the Red Sea area between Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results obtained are very satisfactory from the point of view of environment and economic issues, and reflected the importance of applying those strategies

  9. Optimal strategies for gravitational wave stochastic background searches in pulsar timing data

    SciTech Connect

    Anholm, Melissa; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Ballmer, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    A low frequency stochastic background of gravitational waves may be detected by pulsar timing experiments in the next 5 to 10 yr. Using methods developed to analyze interferometric gravitational wave data, in this paper we lay out the optimal techniques to detect a background of gravitational waves using a pulsar timing array. We show that for pulsar distances and gravitational wave frequencies typical of pulsar timing experiments, neglecting the effect of the metric perturbation at the pulsar does not result in a significant deviation from optimality. We discuss methods for setting upper limits using the optimal statistic, show how to construct skymaps using the pulsar timing array, and consider several issues associated with realistic analysis of pulsar timing data.

  10. Have primary emission reduction measures reduced ozone across Europe? An analysis of European rural background ozone trends 1996-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. C.; Fleming, Z. L.; Monks, P. S.; Clain, G.; Henne, S.; Konovalov, I. B.; Szopa, S.; Menut, L.

    2012-01-01

    CHIMERE was used to simulate hourly O3 concentrations for the period 1996-2005. Comparisons between the 158 observed ozone trends to those equivalent sites extracted from regional simulations by CHIMERE better match the observed increasing annual ozone (predominantly in central and north-western Europe) for 5th percentiles, than for mean or 95th ozone percentiles. The European-averaged annual ozone trend in CHIMERE 5th percentiles (0.13±0.01 ppbv yr-1) matches the corresponding observed trend extremely well, but displays a negative trend for the 95th percentile (-0.03±0.02 ppbv yr-1) where a positive ozone trend is observed. Inspection of the EU-averaged monthly means of ozone shows that the CHIMERE model is overestimating the summer month O3 levels. In comparison to trends in EMEP emissions inventories, with the exception of Austria-Hungary, we do not find that anthropogenic NOx and VOC reductions have a substantial effect on observed annual mean O3 trends in the rest of Europe. On a ten year time-scale presented in this study, O3 trends related to anthropogenic NOx and VOC reductions are being masked as a result of a number of factors including meteorological variability, changes in background ozone and shifts in source patterns.

  11. Readout strategies for directional dark matter detection beyond the neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.; Green, Anne M.; Billard, Julien; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Strigari, Louis E.

    2015-09-01

    The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. As the sensitivity of these experiments improves, the question of how to best distinguish a dark matter signal from neutrinos will become increasingly important. A proposed method of overcoming this so-called "neutrino floor" is to utilize the directional signature that both neutrino- and dark-matter-induced recoils possess. We show that directional experiments can indeed probe WIMP-nucleon cross sections below the neutrino floor with little loss in sensitivity due to the neutrino background. In particular we find at low WIMP masses (around 6 GeV) the discovery limits for directional detectors penetrate below the nondirectional limit by several orders of magnitude. For high WIMP masses (around 100 GeV), the nondirectional limit is overcome by a factor of a few. Furthermore we show that even for directional detectors which can only measure one- or two-dimensional projections of the three-dimensional recoil track, the discovery potential is only reduced by a factor of 3 at most. We also demonstrate that while the experimental limitations of directional detectors, such as sense recognition and finite angular resolution, have a detrimental effect on the discovery limits, it is still possible to overcome the ultimate neutrino background faced by nondirectional detectors.

  12. Modeling nitrate-nitrogen load reduction strategies for the des moines river, iowa using SWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Des Moines River that drains a watershed of 16,175 km2 in portions of Iowa and Minnesota is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) due to concentrations that exceed regulatory limits for public water supplies. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to model streamflow and nitrate loads and evaluate a suite of basin-wide changes and targeting configurations to potentially reduce nitrate loads in the river. The SWAT model comprised 173 subbasins and 2,516 hydrologic response units and included point and nonpoint nitrogen sources. The model was calibrated for an 11-year period and three basin-wide and four targeting strategies were evaluated. Results indicated that nonpoint sources accounted for 95% of the total nitrate export. Reduction in fertilizer applications from 170 to 50 kg/ha achieved the 38% reduction in nitrate loads, exceeding the 34% reduction required. In terms of targeting, the most efficient load reductions occurred when fertilizer applications were reduced in subbasins nearest the watershed outlet. The greatest load reduction for the area of land treated was associated with reducing loads from 55 subbasins with the highest nitrate loads, achieving a 14% reduction in nitrate loads achieved by reducing applications on 30% of the land area. SWAT model results provide much needed guidance on how to begin implementing load reduction strategies most efficiently in the Des Moines River watershed. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings in cooling dominated climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Fady

    This investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings contributes to the global international efforts in reducing energy consumption and is related directly to energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings. Work reported here involves computer aided building energy simulation of energy efficient and non-energy efficient residential homes coupled with empirical energy consumption data gathered from monitoring an array of energy efficient residential homes. The latter have been implemented for peak load reduction strategies. In addition non-energy efficient residential homes have been monitored to compare performance to the energy efficient homes. This study demonstrates the crucial importance of energy efficiency and peak load reduction strategies in sustaining the energy needs of the southwest US region using Las Vegas for the actual setting. It provides the largest energy consumption data set examined, specifically peak consumption, from energy efficient and non-energy efficient homes at this location. The study demonstrates the peak load reduction benefits of a variety of strategies, namely roof-integrated PV panels, energy efficient building envelope, and substation battery storage. The study focuses on the month of August 2011 and shows how the load reduction can reach 75% at peak times during that month using the computer aided energy simulation. Moreover, the study compares the recorded electrical consumption data from the collection of energy efficient and non-energy efficient residential homes and proves the simulation results in reaching the 75% reduction in electrical consumption at peak times. The study also tries to marry the gathered electrical consumption data of the energy efficient and non-energy efficient homes with the computer simulation model. This is done to reach an actual representative model which behaves similarly to the average of the group of energy and non-energy efficient homes. The benefit of the

  14. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  15. College and University Waste Reduction and Recycled Product Procurement Activities, Barriers, and Assistance Strategies: Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    In response to an official request for information and evaluation of solid waste production and management at California's public colleges and universities, this study examined existing conditions and barriers to solid waste reduction and recycled product procurement, and suggested assistance strategies. The examination found that these…

  16. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  17. Internet-based information resource and discussion platform on GHG reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-28

    The website (www.ccasia.teri.res.in) provides a consolidated Internet based information source and platform for discussions on climate change issues in Asia. The effort has been successful in reaching the target audience and in stimulating awareness about the crucial debate on GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction strategies in Asia.

  18. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  19. Methadone diversion as a protective strategy: the harm reduction potential of 'generous constraints'.

    PubMed

    Harris, Magdalena; Rhodes, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment is evidenced as a successful harm reduction initiative in regard to the prevention of blood borne viruses and other injecting related harms. This is attributable to reductions in heroin use and injecting equipment sharing incidents, yet the means by which these are achieved are rarely elaborated. Methadone diversion is predominantly presented in a negative light; associated with overdose and other harms. In our qualitative London-based study with 37 people who inject drugs, 35 on substitution therapies, we found that methadone self regulation and diversion played a prominent role in helping participants to manage their drug use, prevent withdrawal, cement social relationships, and inadvertently protect against hepatitis C transmission. The ability of participants to enact these 'indigenous harm reduction strategies' was constrained to various degrees by their treatment dosing protocols. In this article we explore the strategies participants enacted with methadone, the role of 'generous constraints' in this enactment and the associated production and reduction of risk. In order to reengage people who inject drugs with harm reduction interventions, it is necessary for initiatives to take stock of the indigenous strategies that individuals are already utilising and - in the case of methadone self regulation - support them by the implementation of more generous constraints.

  20. Background field removal technique using regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying kernel sizes.

    PubMed

    Kan, Hirohito; Kasai, Harumasa; Arai, Nobuyuki; Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Hirose, Yasujiro; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    An effective background field removal technique is desired for more accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) prior to dipole inversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying spherical kernel sizes (REV-SHARP) method using a three-dimensional head phantom and human brain data. The proposed REV-SHARP method used the spherical mean value operation and Tikhonov regularization in the deconvolution process, with varying 2-14mm kernel sizes. The kernel sizes were gradually reduced, similar to the SHARP with varying spherical kernel (VSHARP) method. We determined the relative errors and relationships between the true local field and estimated local field in REV-SHARP, VSHARP, projection onto dipole fields (PDF), and regularization enabled SHARP (RESHARP). Human experiment was also conducted using REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. The relative errors in the numerical phantom study were 0.386, 0.448, 0.838, and 0.452 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. REV-SHARP result exhibited the highest correlation between the true local field and estimated local field. The linear regression slopes were 1.005, 1.124, 0.988, and 0.536 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP in regions of interest on the three-dimensional head phantom. In human experiments, no obvious errors due to artifacts were present in REV-SHARP. The proposed REV-SHARP is a new method combined with variable spherical kernel size and Tikhonov regularization. This technique might make it possible to be more accurate backgroud field removal and help to achive better accuracy of QSM.

  1. Background field removal technique using regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying kernel sizes.

    PubMed

    Kan, Hirohito; Kasai, Harumasa; Arai, Nobuyuki; Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Hirose, Yasujiro; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    An effective background field removal technique is desired for more accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) prior to dipole inversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying spherical kernel sizes (REV-SHARP) method using a three-dimensional head phantom and human brain data. The proposed REV-SHARP method used the spherical mean value operation and Tikhonov regularization in the deconvolution process, with varying 2-14mm kernel sizes. The kernel sizes were gradually reduced, similar to the SHARP with varying spherical kernel (VSHARP) method. We determined the relative errors and relationships between the true local field and estimated local field in REV-SHARP, VSHARP, projection onto dipole fields (PDF), and regularization enabled SHARP (RESHARP). Human experiment was also conducted using REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. The relative errors in the numerical phantom study were 0.386, 0.448, 0.838, and 0.452 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. REV-SHARP result exhibited the highest correlation between the true local field and estimated local field. The linear regression slopes were 1.005, 1.124, 0.988, and 0.536 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP in regions of interest on the three-dimensional head phantom. In human experiments, no obvious errors due to artifacts were present in REV-SHARP. The proposed REV-SHARP is a new method combined with variable spherical kernel size and Tikhonov regularization. This technique might make it possible to be more accurate backgroud field removal and help to achive better accuracy of QSM. PMID:27114339

  2. Unravelling the complex genetic background of atopic dermatitis: from genetic association results towards novel therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Stemmler, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease arising from complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. As the starting point of the so-called "atopic march", e.g. the progression towards allergic asthma in some but not all affected children, AD has come into focus for potential disease-modifying strategies. To elucidate the genetic factors influencing AD development, linkage, association as well as genome-wide association studies have been performed over the last two decades. The results suggest that besides variation in immune-mediated pathways, an intact skin barrier function plays a key role in AD development. Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin, a major structural protein in the epidermis, have been consistently associated with AD, especially the early-onset persistent form of disease, and are regarded as the most significant known risk factor for AD development to date. Additionally, variation in some other genes involved in skin integrity and barrier function have shown association with AD. However, the known genetic risk factors can only explain a small part of the heritability at the moment. Whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing studies have not been reported yet, but will probably soon evaluate the influence of rare variations for AD development. Additionally, large multi-centre studies comprehensively incorporating gene-gene and gene-environment interactions as well as epigenetic mechanisms might further elucidate the genetic factors underlying AD pathogenesis and, thus, open the way for a more individualized treatment in the future.

  3. Have primary emission reduction measures reduced ozone across Europe? An analysis of European rural background ozone trends 1996-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. C.; Fleming, Z. L.; Monks, P. S.; Clain, G.; Henne, S.; Konovalov, I. B.; Szopa, S.; Menut, L.

    2011-06-01

    National and European legislation over the past 20 years, and the modernisation or removal of industrial sources, have significantly reduced European ozone precursor emissions. This study quantifies observed and modelled European ozone annual and seasonal linear trends from 158 harmonised rural background monitoring stations over a constant time period of a decade (1996-2005). Mean ozone concentrations are investigated, in addition to the ozone 5th percentiles as a measure of the baseline or background conditions, and the 95th percentiles that are representative of the peak concentration levels. This study aims to characterise and quantify surface European ozone concentrations and trends and assess the impact of the changing anthropogenic emission tracers on the observed and modelled trends. Significant (p < 0.1) positive annual trends in ozone mean, 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 54 %, 52 % and 45 % of sites respectively (85 sites, 82 sites and 71 sites). Spatially, sites in Central and Northwestern Europe tend to display positive annual ozone trends in mean, 5th and 95th percentiles. Significant negative annual trends in ozone mean 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 11 %, 12 % and 12 % of sites respectively (18 sites, 19 sites and 19 sites) which tend to be located in the eastern and south-western extremities of Europe. European-averaged annual trends have been calculated from the 158 sites in this study. Overall there is a net positive annual trend in observed ozone mean (0.16 ± 0.02 ppbv yr-1 2σ error)), 5th (0.13 ± 0.02 ppbv yr-1) and 95th (0.16 ± 0.03 ppbv yr-1) percentiles, representative of positive trends in mean, baseline and peak ozone. Assessing the sensitivity of the derived overall trends to the constituent years shows that the European heatwave year of 2003 has significant positive influence and 1998 the converse effect; demonstrating the masking effect of inter-annual variability on decadal based ozone trends. The European scale

  4. Background choice as an anti-predator strategy: the roles of background matching and visual complexity in the habitat choice of the least killifish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2012-01-01

    Because background matching improves concealment, prey animals have traditionally been expected to prefer parts of the habitat that match their visual appearance. However, empirical support for this is scarce. Moreover, this idea has recently been challenged by an alternative hypothesis: visual complexity of the background impedes prey detection, and hence prey could instead prefer complex parts of the habitat. We used the least killifish to test, with and without predation threat, for the importance of the visual similarity between the fish and the background, and the level of visual complexity of the background. We observed their choice between backgrounds patterned with elements based on the longitudinal black stripe of the fish. Predation risk was important under some circumstances, and induced a preference for a background of matching horizontal stripes compared with mismatching vertical stripes. Interestingly, females under predation threat showed a preference for a complex background of randomly oriented and overlapping stripes compared with matching stripes, whereas males did not discriminate between these two. Additionally, males showed a preference for matching stripes compared with complex shapes, whereas females did not discriminate between these backgrounds. We conclude that matching is important in the choice for safe habitat, but some aspects of visual complexity may override or act together with background matching. PMID:22915675

  5. Population based strategy for dietary salt intake reduction: Italian initiatives in the European framework.

    PubMed

    Strazzullo, P; Cairella, G; Campanozzi, A; Carcea, M; Galeone, D; Galletti, F; Giampaoli, S; Iacoviello, L; Scalfi, L

    2012-03-01

    Excess dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake is etiologically related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moderate reduction of salt intake reduces blood pressure (BP) and is expected to contribute to reduce the risk of CVD. Previous community-based trials to reduce BP by means of salt reduction were very successful. The initial positive results of national strategies of dietary salt intake reduction in several European countries, driven by the initiative of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and non-governmental organisations such as the World Action of Salt and Health (WASH), have paved the way for action in other European Union (EU) member states. In Italy, several initiatives aiming at reduction of salt intake at the population level have been recently undertaken. These initiatives include i) the evaluation of current dietary habits promoted by the Working Group for Dietary Salt Reduction in Italy (GIRCSI); ii) the chemical analysis of the bread salt content, a major source of sodium intake in Italy, and the agreement between the bakers' associations and the Ministry of Health for a gradual reduction of the bread salt content; iii) the implementation of educational campaigns to increase population awareness, iv) the involvement of the food catering system. In the immediate future, food reformulation must be extended to other food categories in collaboration with industry, foods' salt targets ought to be defined, the food labelling system must be improved and population salt awareness must be further increased through educational campaigns. The GIRCSI Working Group is committed to pursue these objectives.

  6. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Hasenclever, Lia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation. PMID:26759969

  7. Optimization strategies for sediment reduction practices on roads in steep, forested terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, M.A.; Eschenbach, E.A.; Diaz, C.; Teasley, R.; Baker, K.

    2006-01-01

    Many forested steeplands in the western United States display a legacy of disturbances due to timber harvest, mining or wildfires, for example. Such disturbances have caused accelerated hillslope erosion, leading to increased sedimentation in fish-bearing streams. Several restoration techniques have been implemented to address these problems in mountain catchments, many of which involve the removal of abandoned roads and re-establishing drainage networks across road prisms. With limited restoration funds to be applied across large catchments, land managers are faced with deciding which areas and problems should be treated first, and by which technique, in order to design the most effective and cost-effective sediment reduction strategy. Currently most restoration is conducted on a site-specific scale according to uniform treatment policies. To create catchment-scale policies for restoration, we developed two optimization models - dynamic programming and genetic algorithms - to determine the most cost-effective treatment level for roads and stream crossings in a pilot study basin with approximately 700 road segments and crossings. These models considered the trade-offs between the cost and effectiveness of different restoration strategies to minimize the predicted erosion from all forest roads within a catchment, while meeting a specified budget constraint. The optimal sediment reduction strategies developed by these models performed much better than two strategies of uniform erosion control which are commonly applied to road erosion problems by land managers, with sediment savings increased by an additional 48 to 80 per cent. These optimization models can be used to formulate the most cost-effective restoration policy for sediment reduction on a catchment scale. Thus, cost savings can be applied to further restoration work within the catchment. Nevertheless, the models are based on erosion rates measured on past restoration sites, and need to be up-dated as

  8. The Effect of Tellurite on Highly Resistant Freshwater Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs and Their Strategies for Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Maltman, Chris; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Six fresh water aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (Erythromicrobium ezovicum, strain E1; Erythromicrobium hydrolyticum, E4(1); Erythromicrobium ramosum, E5; Erythromonas ursincola, KR99; Sandaracinobacter sibiricus, RB 16-17; and Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus, RB3) possessing high level resistance to TeO32− and the ability to reduce it to elemental Te were studied to understand their interaction with this highly toxic oxyanion. Tested organic carbon sources, pH, and level of aeration all had an impact on reduction. Physiological and metabolic responses of cells to tellurite varied among strains. In its presence, versus absence, cellular biomass either increased (KR99, 66.6% and E5, 21.2%) or decreased (RB3, 66.1%, E1, 57.8%, RB 16-17, 41.5%, and E4(1), 21.3%). The increase suggests a possible benefit from tellurite. Cellular ATP production was similarly affected, resulting in an increase (KR99, 15.2% and E5, 38.9%) or decrease (E4(1), 31.9%; RB 16-17, 48.8%; RB3, 55.9%; E1, 35.9%). Two distinct strategies to tellurite reduction were identified. The first, found in E4(1), requires de novo protein preparations as well as an undisturbed whole cell. The second strategy, in which reduction depended on a membrane associated constitutive reductase, was used by the remaining strains.

  9. The Effect of Tellurite on Highly Resistant Freshwater Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs and Their Strategies for Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Maltman, Chris; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Six fresh water aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (Erythromicrobium ezovicum, strain E1; Erythromicrobium hydrolyticum, E4(1); Erythromicrobium ramosum, E5; Erythromonas ursincola, KR99; Sandaracinobacter sibiricus, RB 16-17; and Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus, RB3) possessing high level resistance to TeO32− and the ability to reduce it to elemental Te were studied to understand their interaction with this highly toxic oxyanion. Tested organic carbon sources, pH, and level of aeration all had an impact on reduction. Physiological and metabolic responses of cells to tellurite varied among strains. In its presence, versus absence, cellular biomass either increased (KR99, 66.6% and E5, 21.2%) or decreased (RB3, 66.1%, E1, 57.8%, RB 16-17, 41.5%, and E4(1), 21.3%). The increase suggests a possible benefit from tellurite. Cellular ATP production was similarly affected, resulting in an increase (KR99, 15.2% and E5, 38.9%) or decrease (E4(1), 31.9%; RB 16-17, 48.8%; RB3, 55.9%; E1, 35.9%). Two distinct strategies to tellurite reduction were identified. The first, found in E4(1), requires de novo protein preparations as well as an undisturbed whole cell. The second strategy, in which reduction depended on a membrane associated constitutive reductase, was used by the remaining strains. PMID:27682119

  10. Development and evaluation of the Marijuana Reduction Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Leith, Jaclyn; Rosenberg, Harold; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Hawley, Anna; Bannon, Erin E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Cross, Nicole; Carhart, Victoria; Baik, Kyoung-deok

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess college students' self-efficacy to employ 21 cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the amount and/or frequency with which they consume marijuana, we recruited 273 marijuana-using students to rate their confidence that they could employ each of the strategies. Examination of frequency counts for each item, principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability, and mean interitem correlation supported retaining all 21 items in a single scale. In support of criterion validity, marijuana use-reduction self-efficacy scores were significantly positively correlated with cross-situational confidence to abstain from marijuana, and significantly negatively correlated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems. In addition, compared with respondents whose use of marijuana either increased or remained stable, self-efficacy was significantly higher among those who had decreased their use of marijuana over the past year. This relatively short and easily administered questionnaire could be used to identify college students who have low self-efficacy to employ specific marijuana reduction strategies and as an outcome measure to evaluate educational and skill-training interventions. PMID:24955675

  11. FAST PIXEL SPACE CONVOLUTION FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SURVEYS WITH ASYMMETRIC BEAMS AND COMPLEX SCAN STRATEGIES: FEBeCoP

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.; Rocha, G.; Gorski, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Eriksen, H. K.; Ashdown, M. A. J. E-mail: graca@caltech.edu E-mail: Charles.R.Lawrence@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.no

    2011-03-15

    Precise measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy can tightly constrain many cosmological models and parameters. However, accurate measurements can only be realized in practice provided all major systematic effects have been taken into account. Beam asymmetry, coupled with the scan strategy, is a major source of systematic error in scanning CMB experiments such as Planck, the focus of our current interest. We envision Monte Carlo methods to rigorously study and account for the systematic effect of beams in CMB analysis. Toward that goal, we have developed a fast pixel space convolution method that can simulate sky maps observed by a scanning instrument, taking into account real beam shapes and scan strategy. The essence is to pre-compute the 'effective beams' using a computer code, 'Fast Effective Beam Convolution in Pixel space' (FEBeCoP), that we have developed for the Planck mission. The code computes effective beams given the focal plane beam characteristics of the Planck instrument and the full history of actual satellite pointing, and performs very fast convolution of sky signals using the effective beams. In this paper, we describe the algorithm and the computational scheme that has been implemented. We also outline a few applications of the effective beams in the precision analysis of Planck data, for characterizing the CMB anisotropy and for detecting and measuring properties of point sources.

  12. Using risk elasticity to prioritize risk reduction strategies for geographical areas and industry sectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Chiun; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2016-01-25

    The total quantity of chemical emissions does not take into account their chemical toxicity, and fails to be an accurate indicator of the potential impact on human health. The sources of released contaminants, and therefore, the potential risk, also differ based on geography. Because of the complexity of the risk, there is no integrated method to evaluate the effectiveness of risk reduction. Therefore, this study developed a method to incorporate the spatial variability of emissions into human health risk assessment to evaluate how to effectively reduce risk using risk elasticity analysis. Risk elasticity analysis, the percentage change in risk in response to the percentage change in emissions, was adopted in this study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of risk reduction. The results show that the main industry sectors are different in each area, and that high emission in an area does not correspond to high risk. Decreasing the high emissions of certain sectors in an area does not result in efficient risk reduction in this area. This method can provide more holistic information for risk management, prevent the development of increased risk, and prioritize the risk reduction strategies.

  13. Launcher Systems Development Cost: Behavior, Uncertainty, Influences, Barriers and Strategies for Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will report on the activities of the IAA Launcher Systems Economics Working Group in preparations for its Launcher Systems Development Cost Behavior Study. The Study goals include: improve launcher system and other space system parametric cost analysis accuracy; improve launcher system and other space system cost analysis credibility; and provide launcher system and technology development program managers and other decisionmakers with useful information on development cost impacts of their decisions. The Working Group plans to explore at least the following five areas in the Study: define and explain development cost behavior terms and concepts for use in the Study; identify and quantify sources of development cost and cost estimating uncertainty; identify and quantify significant influences on development cost behavior; identify common barriers to development cost understanding and reduction; and recommend practical, realistic strategies to accomplish reductions in launcher system development cost.

  14. Harm-reduction strategies weapon of choice in BC's battle with drug addiction.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, H

    1996-01-01

    British Columbia, which holds the dubious distinction of being the country's heroin capital, has introduced a number of programs in an attempt to reduce the number of drug-overdose deaths. A BC coroner who headed a provincial government task force into overdose fatalities in 1994 has recommended a number of harm-reduction strategies such as needle exchanges to reduce the negative consequences associated with illicit drug use. In addition, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia is a world leader in methadone maintenance, with 1800 patients and 250 physicians registered in the program. PMID:8804264

  15. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  16. Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney

    2014-11-01

    Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages.

  17. Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney

    2014-11-01

    Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages. PMID:25314128

  18. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto,Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

    2003-08-26

    The effect of heat-island reduction (HIR) strategies on annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area is calculated, using an hourly building energy simulation model. Results show that ratepayers could realize potential annual energy savings of over $11M from the effects of HIR strategies. The residential sector accounts for over half (59%) of the total savings, offices 13% and retail stores 28%. Savings from cool roofs are about 20%, shade trees 30%, wind shielding of trees 37%, and ambient cooling by trees and reflective surfaces 12%. These results are preliminary and highly sensitive to the relative price of gas and electricity. Potential annual electricity savings are estimated at about 150GWh and potential peak-power avoidance at 250MW.

  19. Multi-microphone adaptive noise reduction strategies for coordinated stimulation in bilateral cochlear implant devices.

    PubMed

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Loizou, Philipos C

    2010-05-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (BI-CI) recipients achieve high word recognition scores in quiet listening conditions. Still, there is a substantial drop in speech recognition performance when there is reverberation and more than one interferers. BI-CI users utilize information from just two directional microphones placed on opposite sides of the head in a so-called independent stimulation mode. To enhance the ability of BI-CI users to communicate in noise, the use of two computationally inexpensive multi-microphone adaptive noise reduction strategies exploiting information simultaneously collected by the microphones associated with two behind-the-ear (BTE) processors (one per ear) is proposed. To this end, as many as four microphones are employed (two omni-directional and two directional) in each of the two BTE processors (one per ear). In the proposed two-microphone binaural strategies, all four microphones (two behind each ear) are being used in a coordinated stimulation mode. The hypothesis is that such strategies combine spatial information from all microphones to form a better representation of the target than that made available with only a single input. Speech intelligibility is assessed in BI-CI listeners using IEEE sentences corrupted by up to three steady speech-shaped noise sources. Results indicate that multi-microphone strategies improve speech understanding in single- and multi-noise source scenarios.

  20. Reduction of Salmonella enterica serotype Poona and background microbiota on fresh-cut cantaloupe by electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Palekar, Mangesh P; Taylor, T Matthew; Maxim, Joseph E; Castillo, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation processing to reduce Salmonella enterica serotype Poona on surfaces of fresh-cut cantaloupe, and the impact of e-beam irradiation processing on the numbers of indigenous microorganisms were determined. Additionally, the D10-value for S. Poona reduction on the cut cantaloupe was also determined. Fresh-cut cantaloupe pieces, inoculated with S. Poona to 7.8 log10 CFU/g, were exposed to 0.0, 0.7, or 1.5 kGy. Surviving S. Poona, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and fungi (yeasts, molds) were periodically enumerated on appropriate media over 21 days of storage at 5 °C. Cantaloupe surface pH was measured for irradiated cantaloupe across the 21 day storage period. To determine the D10-value of S. Poona, cantaloupe discs were inoculated and exposed to increasing radiation dosages between 0 and 1.06 kGy; surviving pathogen cells were selectively enumerated. S. Poona was significantly reduced by irradiation; immediate reductions following exposure to 0.7 and 1.5 kGy were 1.1 and 3.6 log10 CFU/g, respectively. After 21 days, S. Poona numbers were between 4.0 and 5.0 log10 CFU/g less than untreated samples at zero-time. Yeasts were not reduced significantly (p ≥ 0.05) by e-beam irradiation and grew slowly but steadily during storage. Counts of LAB and molds were initially reduced with 1.5 kGy (p<0.05) but then LAB recovered grew to high numbers, whereas molds slowly declined for irradiated and control samples. Cantaloupe pH declined during storage, with the greatest decrease in untreated control cantaloupe (p<0.05). The D10-value for S. Poona was determined to be 0.211 kGy, and this difference from the reductions observed in the cut cantaloupe studies may be due to the more precise dose distribution obtained in the thin and flat cantaloupe pieces used for the D10-value experiments. The effect of e-beam irradiation at the same doses used in this study was determined in previous studies to have no negative effect in the quality of

  1. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  2. Laboratory investigations of enhanced sulfate reduction as a groundwater arsenic remediation strategy.

    PubMed

    Keimowitz, A R; Mailloux, B J; Cole, P; Stute, M; Simpson, H J; Chillrud, S N

    2007-10-01

    Landfills have the potential to mobilize arsenic via induction of reducing conditions in groundwater and subsequent desorption from or dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases. Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted with materials from a landfill where such processes are occurring. These experiments explored the potential for induced sulfate reduction to immobilize dissolved arsenic in situ. The native microbial community at this site reduced sulfate in the presence of added acetate. Acetate respiration and sulfate reduction were observed concurrent with dissolved iron concentrations initially increasing from 0.6 microM (0.03 mg L(-1)) to a maximum of 111 microM (6.1 mg L(-1)) and subsequently decreasing to 0.74 microM (0.04 mg L(-1)). Dissolved arsenic concentrations initially covaried with iron but subsequently increased again as sulfide accumulated, consistent with the formation of soluble thioarsenite complexes. Dissolved arsenic concentrations subsequently decreased again from a maximum of 2 microM (148 microg L(-1)) to 0.3 microM (22 microg L(-1)), consistent with formation of sulfide mineral phases or increased arsenic sorption at higher pH values. Disequilibrium processes may also explain this second arsenic peak. The maximum iron and arsenic concentrations observed in the lab represent conditions most equivalent to the in situ conditions. These findings indicate that enhanced sulfate reduction merits further study as a potential in situ groundwater arsenic remediation strategy at landfills and other sites with elevated arsenic in reducing groundwater.

  3. Effects of in-plant interventions on reduction of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and background indicator microorganisms on veal calf hides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Koohmaraie, Mohammad; Luedtke, Brandon E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2014-05-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotypes in veal have recently been recognized as a problem. Because hides are considered to be the principal source of EHEC and hide interventions have been shown to be very efficacious in the control of EHEC in beef processing plants, various hide-directed intervention strategies have been implemented in several veal processing plants to mitigate contamination. We evaluated the effectiveness of three different hide interventions used at veal processing plants: A, a water rinse followed by a manual curry comb of the hide; B, application of 200 ppm of chlorine followed by a hot water rinse; and C, a 5-min treatment with chlorine foam followed by a rinse with 180 to 200 ppm of acidified sodium chlorite. The levels of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and E. coli, as well as the prevalence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 EHEC, were determined on hides pre- and postintervention. Interventions A, B, and C reduced indicator organisms (P < 0.05) by 0.8 to 3.5 log CFU, 2.1 to 2.7 log CFU, and 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU, respectively. No Salmonella was detected on hides prior to intervention. E. coli O157:H7 prevalence was observed at only one plant, so comparison was not possible. Other non-O157 EHECs (O26, O103, and O111) were observed for all interventions studied. Interventions A and B reduced culture-confirmed non-O157 EHEC by 29 and 21 % , respectively, whereas intervention C did not reduce non-O157 EHEC. Our results show that the most effective veal hide intervention for reducing indicator organisms and EHECs was the application of 200 ppm of chlorine followed by hot water rinse. These data provide options that veal processors can consider in their EHEC control program. PMID:24780328

  4. Odour reduction strategies for biosolids produced from a Western Australian wastewater treatment plant: results from Phase I laboratory trials.

    PubMed

    Gruchlik, Yolanta; Heitz, Anna; Joll, Cynthia; Driessen, Hanna; Fouché, Lise; Penney, Nancy; Charrois, Jeffrey W A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated sources of odours from biosolids produced from a Western Australian wastewater treatment plant and examined possible strategies for odour reduction, specifically chemical additions and reduction of centrifuge speed on a laboratory scale. To identify the odorous compounds and assess the effectiveness of the odour reduction measures trialled in this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS SPME-GC-MS) methods were developed. The target odour compounds included volatile sulphur compounds (e.g. dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide) and other volatile organic compounds (e.g. toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-cresol, indole and skatole). In our laboratory trials, aluminium sulphate added to anaerobically digested sludge prior to dewatering offered the best odour reduction strategy amongst the options that were investigated, resulting in approximately 40% reduction in the maximum concentration of the total volatile organic sulphur compounds, relative to control. PMID:24355840

  5. Public Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use as a Harm Reduction Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, David A.; Meyer, Roger E.; Tanzer, Jason M.; Mirvish, Sidney S.; Lewin, Freddi

    2006-01-01

    Harm reduction strategies involve promoting a product that has adverse health consequences as a substitute for one that has more severe adverse health consequences. Smokeless tobacco low in nitrosamine content offers potential benefits in reducing smoking prevalence rates. Possible harm arises from the potential for such products to serve as a gateway to more harmful tobacco products, public misinterpretation of “less harmful” as “safe,” distraction from the public health goal of tobacco elimination, and ethical issues involved in advising those marketing these harmful products. We offer a research agenda to provide a stronger basis for evaluating the risks and benefits of smokeless tobacco as a means of reducing the adverse health effects of tobacco. PMID:17018821

  6. Drug use in prisons: strategies for harm reduction (ANRS-PRIDE Program).

    PubMed

    Michel, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    The existence of risky practices related to drug use inside prisons is a reality everywhere and is a major issue for the community as a whole. The level of implementation of harm reduction (HR) measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is very often poor and reveals inadequate concern about public health issues in the prison environment, without any respect for the principle of equivalence for prevention and health assistance with the general community. In 2009, the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS) developed a comprehensive research program focusing on the prevention of infectious risks in prison settings. Different steps were defined and scheduled, and included i) an inventory of harm reduction (HR) measures, ii) a qualitative survey on the reality of risky practices, iii) an assessment of the social acceptability of HR measures, and iv) an intervention trial exploring the feasibility of upgrading existing HR strategies. A progressive implementation of this program has shown it is feasible, but in France, it requires tenacity, simple long-term objectives, support from a scientific authority, pedagogical interventions for all involved, as well as constant discussion with the authorities. The implementation of this program in other countries is equally simple to manage. PMID:27383342

  7. [Scientific statement] Report of the Salt Reduction Committee of the Japanese Society of Hypertension(2) Goal and strategies of dietary salt reduction in the management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miura, Katsuyuki; Ando, Katsuyuki; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Matsuura, Hideo; Kusaka, Miho; Kai, Hisashi; Kawamura, Minoru; Kawano, Yuhei

    2013-12-01

    In this section of the Report of the Salt Reduction Committee of the Japanese Society of Hypertension, the target level of dietary salt reduction and its scientific evidence, present status of salt consumption in Japan, salt-reducing measures/guidance methods in individuals and population strategies to reduce salt intake are introduced. In the Dietary Reference Intake for the general population in Japan (2010 version), the target levels of salt restriction in men and women were established as less than 9.0 per day and 7.5 g per day, respectively. The Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension 2009 recommended the target level of dietary salt restriction in patients with hypertension as less than 6 g per day. However, the National Health and Nutrition Survey of Japan in 2010 reported that the mean salt intake in adults was 10.6 g per day (men: 11.4 g per day and women: 9.8 g per day). To effectively decrease salt intake in Japan, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of high-salt foods (especially traditional foods) and replace high-salt seasonings (soy sauce and so on) with low-salt alternatives. Health-care professionals must effectively perform salt-reduction guidance for hypertensive patients in hospitals/administrative organizations. To promote population strategies for salt reduction in the whole society of Japan, social strategies, such as administrative policies, companies' cooperation and educational staff's cooperation, are necessary.

  8. A Linear Programming Approach to the Development of Contrail Reduction Strategies Satisfying Operationally Feasible Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Peng; Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Yi-Nan; Sun, Dengfent

    2012-01-01

    A class of strategies has been proposed to reduce contrail formation in the United States airspace. A 3D grid based on weather data and the cruising altitude level of aircraft is adjusted to avoid the persistent contrail potential area with the consideration to fuel-efficiency. In this paper, the authors introduce a contrail avoidance strategy on 3D grid by considering additional operationally feasible constraints from an air traffic controller's aspect. First, shifting too many aircraft to the same cruising level will make the miles-in-trail at this level smaller than the safety separation threshold. Furthermore, the high density of aircraft at one cruising level may exceed the workload for the traffic controller. Therefore, in our new model we restrict the number of total aircraft at each level. Second, the aircraft count variation for successive intervals cannot be too drastic since the workload to manage climbing/descending aircraft is much larger than managing cruising aircraft. The contrail reduction is formulated as an integer-programming problem and the problem is shown to have the property of total unimodularity. Solving the corresponding relaxed linear programming with the simplex method provides an optimal and integral solution to the problem. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the methodology.

  9. Risk-Reduction Strategies to Expand Radon Care Planning with Vulnerable Groups

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Residential radon is the cause of approximately 21,000 U.S. lung cancer deaths each year. Dangerous levels of radon are just as likely to be found in low-rise apartments and townhomes as single-family homes in the same area. The preferred radon mitigation strategy can be expensive and requires structural modifications to the home. The public health nurse (PHN) needs a collection of low-cost alternatives when working with low-income families or families who rent their homes. Method A review of the literature was performed to identify evidence-based methods to reduce radon risk with vulnerable populations. Results Fourteen recommendations for radon risk reduction were categorized into four strategies. Nine additional activities for raising awareness and increasing testing were also included. Discussion The results pair the PHN with practical interventions and the underlying rationale to develop radon careplans with vulnerable families across housing types. The PHN has both the competence and the access to help families reduce their exposure to this potent carcinogen. PMID:24547763

  10. A dynamic model for assessing the effects of management strategies on the reduction of construction and demolition waste

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hongping; Chini, Abdol R.; Lu Yujie; Shen Liyin

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposes a model for projecting C and D waste reduction of construction projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model can simulate effects of various management strategies on waste reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model integrates all essential variables that affect C and D waste reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By using the model, best strategies could be identified before being implemented. - Abstract: During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C and D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C and D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C and D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C and D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C and D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity - interrelationships and dynamics - of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C and D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C and D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to

  11. False-positive reduction in CAD mass detection using a competitive classification strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zheng, Y; Zhang, L; Clark, R A

    2001-02-01

    High false-positive (FP) rate remains to be one of the major problems to be solved in CAD study because too many false-positively cued signals will potentially degrade the performance of detecting true-positive regions and increase the call-back rate in CAD environment. In this paper, we proposed a novel classification method for FP reduction, where the conventional "hard" decision classifier is cascaded with a "soft" decision classification with the objective to reduce false-positives in the cases with multiple FPs retained after the "hard" decision classification. The "soft" classification takes a competitive classification strategy in which only the "best" ones are selected from the pre-classified suspicious regions as the true mass in each case. A neural network structure is designed to implement the proposed competitive classification. Comparative studies of FP reduction on a database of 79 images by a "hard" decision classification and a combined "hard"-"soft" classification method demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed classification strategy. For example, for the high FP sub-database which has only 31.7% of total images but accounts for 63.5% of whole FPs generated in single "hard" classification, the FPs can be reduced for 56% (from 8.36 to 3.72 per image) by using the proposed method at the cost of 1% TP loss (from 69% to 68%) in whole database, while it can only be reduced for 27% (from 8.36 to 6.08 per image) by simply increasing the threshold of "hard" classifier with a cost of TP loss as high as 14% (from 69% to 55%). On the average in whole database, the FP reduction by hybrid "hard"-"soft" classification is 1.58 per image as compared to 1.11 by "hard" classification at the TP costs described above. Because the cases with high dense tissue are of higher risk of cancer incidence and false-negative detection in mammogram screening, and usually generate more FPs in CAD detection, the method proposed in this paper will be very helpful in improving

  12. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Methods Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Results Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and

  13. From LEO, to the Moon and then Mars: Developing a Global Strategy for Exploration Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Most nations currently involved in human spaceflight, or with such ambitions, believe that space exploration will capture the imagination of our youth resulting in future engineers and scientists, advance technologies which will improve life on earth, increase the knowledge of our solar system, and strengthen bonds and relationships across the globe. The Global Exploration Strategy, published in 2007 by 14 space agencies, eloquently makes this case and presents a vision for space exploration. It argues that in order for space exploration to be sustainable, nations must work together to address the challenges and share the burden of costs. This paper will examine Mars mission scenarios developed by NASA, ESA and other agencies and show resulting conclusions regarding key challenges, needed technologies and associated mission risks. It will discuss the importance of using the International Space Station as a platform for exploration risk reduction and how the global exploration community will develop lunar exploration elements and architectures that enable the long term goal of human missions to Mars. The International Space Station (ISS) is a critical first step both from a technology and capability demonstration point of view, but also from a partnership point of view. There is much work that can be done in low earth orbit for exploration risk reduction. As the current "outpost at the edge of the frontier", the ISS is a place where we can demonstrate certain technologies and capabilities that will substantially reduce the risk of deploying an outpost on the lunar surface and Mars mission scenarios. The ISS partnership is strong and has fulfilled mission needs. Likewise, the partnerships we build on the moon will provide a strong foundation for establishing partnerships for the human Mars missions. On the moon, we build a permanently manned outpost and deploy technologies and capabilities to allow humans to stay for long periods of time. The moon is interesting from

  14. Highly active trialkoxymolybdenum(VI) alkylidyne catalysts synthesized by a reductive recycle strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kraft, Stefan; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2004-01-14

    A systematic study of alkyne metathesis catalyzed by trialkoxymolybdenum(VI) alkylidyne complexes is reported, in which substrate functional groups, alkynyl substituents, and catalyst ligands are varied. Sterically hindered trisamidomolybdenum(VI) propylidyne complex 5 was prepared conveniently through a previously communicated reductive recycle strategy. Alcoholysis of 5 with various phenols/alcohols provides a set of active catalysts for alkyne metathesis at room temperature, among which the catalyst with p-nitrophenol as ligand shows the highest catalytic activity and is compatible with a variety of functional groups and solvents. A key finding that enabled the use of highly active molybdenum(VI) catalysts is replacement of the commonly used propynyl substituents on the starting alkyne substrates with butynyl groups. Under reduced pressure using 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene as an involatile solvent, the alkyne metathesis of butynyl substituted compounds proceeds well at 30 degrees C providing high yields (83%-97%) of dimers. Rationalization of the special role played by butynyl substrates is discussed.

  15. Microbial metal reduction by members of the genus Shewanella: novel strategies for anaerobic respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Dichristina, Thomas; Bates, David J.; Burns, Justin L.; Dale, Jason R.; Payne, Amanda N.

    2006-01-01

    Metal-reducing members of the genus Shewanella are important components of the microbial community residing in redox-stratified freshwater and marine environments. Metal-reducing gram-negative bacteria such as Shewanella, however, are presented with a unique physiological challenge: they are required to respire anaerobically on terminal electron acceptors which are either highly insoluble (Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides) and reduced to soluble end-products or highly soluble (U(VI) and Tc(VII)) and reduced to insoluble end-products. To overcome physiological problems associated with metal solubility, metal-respiring Shewanella are postulated to employ a variety of novel respiratory strategies not found in other gram-negative bacteria which respire on soluble electron acceptors such as O2, NO3 and SO4. The following chapter highlights the latest findings on the molecular mechanism of Fe(III), U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction by Shewanella, with particular emphasis on electron transport chain physiology.

  16. Initiation process of earthquakes and its implications for seismic hazard reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H

    1996-04-30

    For the average citizen and the public, "earthquake prediction" means "short-term prediction," a prediction of a specific earthquake on a relatively short time scale. Such prediction must specify the time, place, and magnitude of the earthquake in question with sufficiently high reliability. For this type of prediction, one must rely on some short-term precursors. Examinations of strain changes just before large earthquakes suggest that consistent detection of such precursory strain changes cannot be expected. Other precursory phenomena such as foreshocks and nonseismological anomalies do not occur consistently either. Thus, reliable short-term prediction would be very difficult. Although short-term predictions with large uncertainties could be useful for some areas if their social and economic environments can tolerate false alarms, such predictions would be impractical for most modern industrialized cities. A strategy for effective seismic hazard reduction is to take full advantage of the recent technical advancements in seismology, computers, and communication. In highly industrialized communities, rapid earthquake information is critically important for emergency services agencies, utilities, communications, financial companies, and media to make quick reports and damage estimates and to determine where emergency response is most needed. Long-term forecast, or prognosis, of earthquakes is important for development of realistic building codes, retrofitting existing structures, and land-use planning, but the distinction between short-term and long-term predictions needs to be clearly communicated to the public to avoid misunderstanding.

  17. Evaluation of parallel reduction strategies for fusion of sensory information from a robot team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.; Leroy, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    The advantage of using a team of robots to search or to map an area is that by navigating the robots to different parts of the area, searching or mapping can be completed more quickly. A crucial aspect of the problem is the combination, or fusion, of data from team members to generate an integrated model of the search/mapping area. In prior work we looked at the issue of removing mutual robots views from an integrated point cloud model built from laser and stereo sensors, leading to a cleaner and more accurate model. This paper addresses a further challenge: Even with mutual views removed, the stereo data from a team of robots can quickly swamp a WiFi connection. This paper proposes and evaluates a communication and fusion approach based on the parallel reduction operation, where data is combined in a series of steps of increasing subsets of the team. Eight different strategies for selecting the subsets are evaluated for bandwidth requirements using three robot missions, each carried out with teams of four Pioneer 3-AT robots. Our results indicate that selecting groups to combine based on similar pose but distant location yields the best results.

  18. Transformation by design: nursing workforce innovation and reduction strategies in turbulent times of change.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Mary O

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of care delivery from an acute care and inpatient standard to the outpatient setting and health promotion model is generating the need for innovative workforce and infrastructure adjustments to meet the new paradigm of population health management. Successful transformation of the nursing workforce necessitates a positive style of thinking that addresses rational concerns during times of difficult transition. Nurse leaders are called to recognize and appreciate the strengths of the nursing workforce by involving them in the course of change through collaboration, planning, and discussion. One unique way to plan and develop new care delivery models is to adopt the framework used in health facility planning and design for new services, units, or hospitals. This framework is flexible and can be adjusted easily to meet the objectives of a small nursing workforce innovation project or expanded to encompass the needs of a large-scale hospital transformation. Structured questioning further helps the team to identify barriers to care and allows for the development of new concepts that are objective and in accord with evidence-based practice and data. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of implementing innovative workforce redesign and workforce reduction strategies.

  19. Transformation by design: nursing workforce innovation and reduction strategies in turbulent times of change.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Mary O

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of care delivery from an acute care and inpatient standard to the outpatient setting and health promotion model is generating the need for innovative workforce and infrastructure adjustments to meet the new paradigm of population health management. Successful transformation of the nursing workforce necessitates a positive style of thinking that addresses rational concerns during times of difficult transition. Nurse leaders are called to recognize and appreciate the strengths of the nursing workforce by involving them in the course of change through collaboration, planning, and discussion. One unique way to plan and develop new care delivery models is to adopt the framework used in health facility planning and design for new services, units, or hospitals. This framework is flexible and can be adjusted easily to meet the objectives of a small nursing workforce innovation project or expanded to encompass the needs of a large-scale hospital transformation. Structured questioning further helps the team to identify barriers to care and allows for the development of new concepts that are objective and in accord with evidence-based practice and data. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of implementing innovative workforce redesign and workforce reduction strategies. PMID:25714955

  20. Strategies for emission reduction of air pollutants produced from a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Woong

    2003-01-01

    Various air pollution control (APC) techniques were employed in order to reduce emissions of air pollutants produced from chemical plants, which have many different chemical production facilities. For an emission reduction of acid gases, this study employed a method to improve solubility of pollutants by decreasing the operating temperature of the scrubbers, increasing the surface area for effective contact of gas and liquid, and modifying processes in the acid scrubbers. To reduce emission of both amines and acid gases, pollutant gas components were first separated, then condensation and/or acid scrubbing, depending on the chemical and physical properties of pollutant components, were used. To reduce emission of solvents, condensation and activated carbon adsorption were employed. To reduce emission of a mixture gases containing acid gases and solvents, the mixed gases were passed into the first condenser, the acid scrubber, the second condenser, and the activated carbon adsorption tower in sequence. As a strategy to reduce emission of pollutants at the source, this study also employed the simple pollution prevention concept of modification of the previously operating APC control device. Finally, air emissions of pollutants produced from the chemical plants were much more reduced by applying proper APC methods, depending upon the types (physical or chemical properties) and the specific emission situations of pollutants. PMID:12447574

  1. Understanding and Confronting Our Mistakes: The Epidemiology of Error in Radiology and Strategies for Error Reduction.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Michael A; Walker, Eric A; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-10-01

    Arriving at a medical diagnosis is a highly complex process that is extremely error prone. Missed or delayed diagnoses often lead to patient harm and missed opportunities for treatment. Since medical imaging is a major contributor to the overall diagnostic process, it is also a major potential source of diagnostic error. Although some diagnoses may be missed because of the technical or physical limitations of the imaging modality, including image resolution, intrinsic or extrinsic contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio, most missed radiologic diagnoses are attributable to image interpretation errors by radiologists. Radiologic interpretation cannot be mechanized or automated; it is a human enterprise based on complex psychophysiologic and cognitive processes and is itself subject to a wide variety of error types, including perceptual errors (those in which an important abnormality is simply not seen on the images) and cognitive errors (those in which the abnormality is visually detected but the meaning or importance of the finding is not correctly understood or appreciated). The overall prevalence of radiologists' errors in practice does not appear to have changed since it was first estimated in the 1960s. The authors review the epidemiology of errors in diagnostic radiology, including a recently proposed taxonomy of radiologists' errors, as well as research findings, in an attempt to elucidate possible underlying causes of these errors. The authors also propose strategies for error reduction in radiology. On the basis of current understanding, specific suggestions are offered as to how radiologists can improve their performance in practice. PMID:26466178

  2. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  3. Reverse Auction: A Potential Strategy for Reduction of Pharmacological Therapy Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Sara Michelly Gonçalves; Issa, Victor Sarli; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Storer, Samantha; Gonçalves, Bianca Gigliotti; Santos, Valter Garcia; Carvas Junior, Nelson; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2015-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy is a significant economic burden. Objective We tested whether using reverse auction (RA) as compared with commercial pharmacy (CP) to purchase medicine results in lower pharmaceutical costs for heart failure (HF) and heart transplantation (HT) outpatients. Methods We compared the costs via RA versus CP in 808 HF and 147 HT patients followed from 2009 through 2011, and evaluated the influence of clinical and demographic variables on cost. Results The monthly cost per patient for HF drugs acquired via RA was $10.15 (IQ 3.51-40.22) versus $161.76 (IQ 86.05‑340.15) via CP; for HT, those costs were $393.08 (IQ 124.74-774.76) and $1,207.70 (IQ 604.48-2,499.97), respectively. Conclusion RA may reduce the cost of prescription drugs for HF and HT, potentially making HF treatment more accessible. Clinical characteristics can influence the cost and benefits of RA. RA may be a new health policy strategy to reduce costs of prescribed medications for HF and HT patients, reducing the economic burden of treatment. PMID:26200898

  4. HARLIE 3-D Aerosol Backscatter and Wind Profile Measurements During Recent Field Experiments: Background Noise Reduction with a Fabry-Perot Etalon Filter in the HARLIE System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Egbert, Cameron; Anderson, Mark; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Background noise reduction of War signals is one of the most important factors in achieving better signal to noise ratio and precise atmospheric data from Mar measurements. Fahey Perot etalons have been used in several lidar systems as narrow band pass filters in the reduction of scattered sunlight. An slalom with spectral bandwidth, (Delta)v=0.23/cm, free spectral range, FSR=6.7/cm, and diameter, d=24mm was installed in a fiber coupled box which included a 500 pm bandwidth interference Filter. The slalom box couples the telescope and detector with 200 pm core fibers and 21 mm focal length collimators. The angular magnification is M=48. The etalon box was inserted into the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) system and tested during the HARGLO-2 intercomparison campaign conducted in November 2001 at Wallops Island, Virginia. This paper presents the preliminary test results of the slalom and a complete analysis will be presented at the conference.

  5. Theoretical assessment of optical resolution enhancement and background fluorescence reduction by three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy using stimulated emission depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dake, Fumihiro

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (SIM) enlarges frequency cutoff laterally and axially by a factor of two, compared with conventional microscopy. However, its optical resolution is still fundamentally limited. It is necessary to introduce nonlinearity to enlarge frequency cutoff further. We propose three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) effect, which has a structured excitation pattern and a structured STED pattern, and both three-dimensional illumination patterns have the same lateral pitch and orientation. Theoretical analysis showed that nonlinearity induced by STED effect, which causes harmonics and contributes to enlarging frequency cutoff, depends on the phase difference between two structured illuminations and that the phase difference of π is the most efficient to increase nonlinearity. We also found that undesirable background fluorescence, which degenerates the contrast of structured pattern and limits the ability of SIM, can be reduced by our method. These results revealed that optical resolution improvement and background fluorescence reduction would be compatible. The feasibility study showed that our method will be realized with commercially available laser, having 3.5 times larger frequency cutoff compared with conventional microscopy.

  6. Evaluating Reduction of Sediment Pollution as a Strategy for Conservation of Coral Reef in High C02 World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maina, J. M.; de Moel, H.; Mora, C.; Ward, P.; Watson, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the key strategies for coral reef conservation in a high CO2 world is reduction of sediment and nutrient pollution. However, the reduction of sediment is a complicated planning issue as a result of the competing land uses from the demands to satisfy food production needs and from economic development, among others. Moreover, despite the significance of sedimentation as a threat to coral reefs, historical baseline and future estimates of sediment discharge on coral reefs remains poorly quantified. Therefore, the effectiveness of this strategy hinges upon (i) identifying the future sediment discharge on coral reefs relative to historical baseline, and (ii) on identifying spatially where sediment reduction actions are urgently needed and where they are likely to succeed. We provide this understanding by simulating sediment dynamics for historical and future time scales using models of land use and climate, for coastal watersheds adjacent coral reefs where they are found globally.

  7. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  8. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  9. Generating trust: Programmatic strategies to reach women who inject drugs with harm reduction services in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; Mahenge, Bathsheba; Saleem, Haneefa; Mbwambo, Jessie; Lambdin, Barrot H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of methadone-assisted therapy (MAT) to treat opioid dependence, reduce the risk of HIV transmission, and improve HIV related health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence reaches 71% in women who inject drugs (WWID) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; creating an urgent need for access to MAT. Despite the availability and potential benefits of treatment, few women have enrolled in services. This formative research sought to identify programmatic strategies to increase women’s participation in outreach and their subsequent enrollment in MAT. Methods We conducted twenty-five, in-depth interviews with patients and their providers at a MAT clinic. Open-ended interviews explored enrollment experiences, with a focus on contextual barriers and facilitators unique to women. Ethnographic observations of harm reduction education at outreach sites and the MAT clinic enriched interview data. Trust/mistrust emerged as an overarching theme cross cutting patient and provider accounts of the connective process to enroll PWID in the methadone program. We explore trust and mistrust in relationship to the interrelated themes of family loss, social isolation, vehement discrimination and motivation for treatment. Results Narratives delineated both the generation of mistrust against PWID and the generation of mistrust in PWID against outsiders and medical institutions. In order to enroll PWID in treatment, community base organizations engaged outreach strategies to overcome mistrust and connect eligible patients to care, which varied in their success at recruiting women and men. Greater discrimination against WWID pushed them into hiding, away from outreach teams that focus on outdoor areas where men who inject drugs congregate. Building trust through multiple encounters and making a personal connection facilitated entry into care for women. Only PWID were eligible for MAT, due to resource constraints and the higher

  10. New strategy toward dioxin risk reduction for local residents surrounding severe dioxin hotspots in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thi Tran, Tuyet-Hanh; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Le, Vu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Background A public health intervention program with active involvement of local related stakeholders was piloted in the Bien Hoa dioxin hotspot (2007–2009), and then expanded to the Da Nang dioxin hotspot in Vietnam (2009–2011). It aimed to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure of local residents through foods. This article presents the results of the intervention in Da Nang. Methodology To assess the results of this intervention program, pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were implemented in 400 households, randomly selected from four wards surrounding the Da Nang Airbase in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Results After the intervention, the knowledge on the existence of dioxin in food, dioxin exposure pathways, potential high-risk foods, and preventive measures significantly increased (P<0.05). Ninety-eight percent were willing to follow advice on preventing dioxin exposure. Practices to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure also significantly improved (P<0.05). After intervention, 60.4% of households undertook exposure preventive measures, significantly higher than that of the pre-intervention survey (39.6%; χ2=40.15, P<0.001). High-risk foods had quite low rates of daily consumption (from 0 to 2.5%) and were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Conclusions This is seen as an effective intervention strategy toward reducing the risk of human exposure to dioxin at dioxin hotspots. While greater efforts are needed for remediating dioxin-polluted areas inside airbases, there is also evidence to suggest that, during the past four decades, pollution has expanded to the surrounding areas. For this reason, this model should be quickly expanded to the remaining dioxin hotspots in Vietnam to further reduce the exposure risks in other areas. PMID:23791241

  11. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-11-30

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings [direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building [direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements [indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over $11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of $0.084/kWh and $5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent

  12. Strategies for Affecting the Affective Domain: A Math Anxiety Reduction Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Rosemary M.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses several of the strategies used to reduce math anxiety. Among the suggested strategies are using a first-day classroom card to obtain relevant information about the student, various study strategies including a journal of study habits and the spiraling technique for homework, and practicing at home under simulated test conditions. Color…

  13. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict implementation of harm reduction strategies among MDMA/ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to test whether the variables proposed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were associated with baseline intention to implement and subsequent use of 2 MDMA/ecstasy-specific harm reduction interventions: preloading/postloading and pill testing/pill checking. Using targeted Facebook advertisements, an international sample of 391 recreational ecstasy users were recruited to complete questionnaires assessing their ecstasy consumption history, and their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, habit strength (past strategy use), and intention to use these two strategies. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significantly associated with baseline intention to preload/postload and pill test/pill check. Out of the 391 baseline participants, 100 completed the two-month follow-up assessment. Baseline habit strength and frequency of ecstasy consumption during the three months prior to baseline were the only significant predictors of how often participants used the preloading/postloading strategy during the follow-up. Baseline intention to pill test/pill check was the only significant predictor of how often participants used this strategy during the follow-up. These findings provide partial support for TPB variables as both correlates of baseline intention to implement and predictors of subsequent use of these two strategies. Future investigations could assess whether factors related to ecstasy consumption (e.g., subjective level of intoxication, craving, negative consequences following consumption), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility and availability of harm reduction resources) improve the prediction of how often ecstasy users employ these and other harm reduction strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322805

  14. Gemitis : an integrated and participative risk reduction strategy for the sustainable development of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masure, P.

    2003-04-01

    The GEMITIS method has been implemented since 1995 into a global and integrated Risk Reduction Strategy for improving the seismic risk-assessment effectiveness in urban areas, including the generation of crisis scenarios and mid- to long term- seismic impact assessment. GEMITIS required us to provide more precise definitions of notions in common use by natural-hazard specialists, such as elements at risk and vulnerability. Until then, only the physical and human elements had been considered, and analysis of their vulnerability referred to their fragility in the face of aggression by nature. We have completed this approach by also characterizing the social and cultural vulnerability of a city and its inhabitants, and, with a wider scope, the functional vulnerability of the "urban system". This functional vulnerability depends upon the relations between the system elements (weak links in chains, functional relays, and defense systems) and upon the city's relations with the outside world (interdependence). Though well developed in methods for evaluating industrial risk (fault-tree analysis, event-tree analysis, multiple defense barriers, etc.), this aspect had until now been ignored by the "hard-science" specialists working on natural hazards. Based on the implementation of an Urban System Exposure methodology, we were able to identify specific human, institutional, or functional vulnerability factors for each urban system, which until had been very little discussed by risk-analysis and civil-protection specialists. In addition, we have defined the new concept of "main stakes" of the urban system, ranked by order of social value (or collective utility). Obviously, vital or strategic issues must be better resistant or protected against natural hazards than issues of secondary importance. The ranking of exposed elements of a city in terms of "main stakes" provides a very useful guide for adapting vulnerability studies and for orienting preventive actions. For this

  15. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-03-15

    We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2

  16. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-02-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  17. Pain-reduction strategies in hypnotic context and hypnosis: ERPs and SCRs during a secondary auditory task.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Bellusci, Anna; Gallo, Carlo; Magurano, Maria Rosaria; Chen, Andrew C N

    2004-10-01

    Pain-rating scores were obtained from 10 high, 10 medium, and 10 low hypnotizable subjects who were holding a painful cold bottle in their left hands and were exposed to pain reduction treatments while they were performing a secondary oddball task. All subjects received suggestions of dissociative imagery and focused analgesia as cognitive strategies for pain reduction. The following measures were obtained for tone targets of the auditory oddball task: (a) reaction time; (b) P300 peak amplitude of the event-related potentials; (c) skin conductance levels and skin conductance responses. Focused analgesia produced the most pain reduction in high, but not medium or low, hypnotizable subjects who showed shorter reaction times, higher central and parietal P300 peaks, and higher skin conductance responses. These findings were discussed vis-a-vis the dissociated-control model assuming that capacity demands of hypnotic suggestion are low. PMID:15590503

  18. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Somayeh; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Afrookhteh, Gita; Rahmani, Soheila; Hoveida, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP) in patients with hypertension. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga) or to the control group (recipient of yoga training). The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women) and control (53% women) groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05), emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension. PMID:26697087

  19. A Deep Reduction and Partial Oxidation Strategy for Fabrication of Mesoporous Si Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianwen; Li, Xiaona; Hou, Zhiguo; Zhang, Wanqun; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2016-02-23

    A deep reduction and partial oxidation strategy to convert low-cost SiO2 into mesoporous Si anode with the yield higher than 90% is provided. This strategy has advantage in efficient mesoporous silicon production and in situ formation of several nanometers SiO2 layer on the surface of silicon particles. Thus, the resulted silicon anode provides extremely high reversible capacity of 1772 mAh g(-1), superior cycling stability with more than 873 mAh g(-1) at 1.8 A g(-1) after 1400 cycles (corresponding to the capacity decay rate of 0.035% per cycle), and good rate capability (∼710 mAh g(-1) at 18A g(-1)). These promising results suggest that such strategy for mesoporous Si anode can be potentially commercialized for high energy Li-ion batteries.

  20. Effectiveness of Gross Model-Based Emotion Regulation Strategies Training on Anger Reduction in Drug-Dependent Individuals and its Sustainability in Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Massah, Omid; Sohrabi, Faramarz; A’azami, Yousef; Doostian, Younes; Farhoudian, Ali; Daneshmand, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Emotion plays an important role in adapting to life changes and stressful events. Difficulty regulating emotions is one of the problems drug abusers often face, and teaching these individuals to express and manage their emotions can be effective on improving their difficult circumstances. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training on anger reduction in drug-dependent individuals. Patients and Methods The present study had a quasi-experimental design wherein pretest-posttest evaluations were applied using a control group. The population under study included addicts attending Marivan’s methadone maintenance therapy centers in 2012 - 2013. Convenience sampling was used to select 30 substance-dependent individuals undergoing maintenance treatment who were then randomly assigned to the experiment and control groups. The experiment group received its training in eight two-hour sessions. Data were analyzed using analysis of co-variance and paired t-test. Results There was significant reduction in anger symptoms of drug-dependent individuals after gross model based emotion regulation training (ERT) (P < 0.001). Moreover, the effectiveness of the training on anger was persistent in the follow-up period. Conclusions Symptoms of anger in drug-dependent individuals of this study were reduced by gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training. Based on the results of this study, we may conclude that the gross model based emotion regulation strategies training can be applied alongside other therapies to treat drug abusers undergoing rehabilitation. PMID:27162759

  1. Indirect carbon reduction by residential vegetation and planting strategies in Chicago, USA.

    PubMed

    Jo, H K; McPherson, E G

    2001-02-01

    Concern about climate change has evoked interest in the potential for urban vegetation to help reduce the levels of atmospheric carbon. This study applied computer simulations to try to quantify the modifying effects of existing vegetation on the indirect reduction of atmospheric carbon for two residential neighborhoods in north-west Chicago. The effects of shading, evapotranspiration, and windspeed reduction were considered and were found to have decreased carbon emissions by 3.2 to 3.9% per year for building types in study block 1 where tree cover was 33%, and -0.2 to 3.8% in block 2 where tree cover was 11%. This resulted in a total annual reduction of carbon emission averaging 158.7 (+/- 12.8) kg per residence in block 1 and 18.1 (+/- 5.4) kg per residence in block 2. Windspeed reduction greatly contributed to the decrease of carbon emission. However, shading increased annual carbon emission from the combined change in heating and cooling energy use due to many trees in the wrong locations, which increase heating energy use during the winter. The increase of carbon emission from shading is somewhat specific to Chicago, due in part to the large amount of clean, nuclear-generated cooling energy and the long heating season. In Chicago, heating energy is required for about eight months from October to May and cooling energy is used for the remaining 4 months from June to September. If fossil fuels had been the primary source for cooling energy and the heating season had been shorter, the shading effects on the reduction of carbon emission would be greater. Planting of large trees close to the west wall of buildings, dense planting on the north, and avoidance of planting on the south are recommended to maximize indirect carbon reduction by residential vegetation, in Chicago and other mid and high-latitude cities with long heating seasons.

  2. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  3. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  4. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  5. Assessing University Students' Self-Efficacy to Employ Alcohol-Related Harm Reduction Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Kraus, Shane W.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bannon, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Develop and evaluate key psychometric properties of a self-report questionnaire specifically designed to assess student drinkers' self-confidence to employ a variety of strategies intended to reduce unhealthy consequences of high-risk drinking. Methods: Four hundred ninety-eight participants rated their confidence (from "not at all…

  6. Tobacco Smoke–Related Health Effects Induced by 1,3-Butadiene and Strategies for Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G.

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a smoke component selected by the World Health Organization (WHO) study group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) for mandated lowering. We examined the tobacco smoke–related health effects induced by BD and possible health impacts of risk reduction strategies. BD levels in mainstream smoke (MSS) from international and Canadian cigarettes and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were derived from scientific journals and international government reports. Dose-response analyses from toxicity studies from government reports were evaluated and the most sensitive cancer and noncancer endpoints were selected. The risks were evaluated by taking the ratio (margin of exposure, MOE) from the most sensitive toxicity endpoint and appropriate exposure estimates for BD in MSS and ETS. BD is a good choice for lowering given that MSS and ETS were at levels for cancer (leukemia) and noncancer (ovarian atrophy) risks, and the risks can be significantly lowered when lowering the BD concentrations in smoke. Several risk reduction strategies were analyzed including a maximum level of 125% of the median BD value per milligram nicotine obtained from international brands as recommended by the WHO TobReg, tobacco substitute sheets, dual and triple carbon filters, and polymer-derived carbon. The use of tobacco substitute sheet with a polymer-derived carbon filter resulted in the most significant change in risk for cancer and noncancer effects. Our results demonstrate that MOE analysis might be a practical way to assess the impact of risk reduction strategies on human health in the future. PMID:24014643

  7. Near-Roadway Air Pollution and Coronary Heart Disease: Burden of Disease and Potential Impact of a Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rakesh; Lurmann, Frederick; Perez, Laura; Penfold, Bryan; Brandt, Sylvia; Wilson, John; Milet, Meredith; Künzli, Nino; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have estimated the burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality from ambient regional particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The burden of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) generally has not been examined, despite evidence of a causal link with CHD. Objective We investigated the CHD burden from NRAP and compared it with the PM2.5 burden in the California South Coast Air Basin for 2008 and under a compact urban growth greenhouse gas reduction scenario for 2035. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction and number of CHD events attributable to residential traffic density, proximity to a major road, elemental carbon (EC), and PM2.5 compared with the expected disease burden if the population were exposed to background levels of air pollution. Results In 2008, an estimated 1,300 CHD deaths (6.8% of the total) were attributable to traffic density, 430 deaths (2.4%) to residential proximity to a major road, and 690 (3.7%) to EC. There were 1,900 deaths (10.4%) attributable to PM2.5. Although reduced exposures in 2035 should result in smaller fractions of CHD attributable to traffic density, EC, and PM2.5, the numbers of estimated deaths attributable to each of these exposures are anticipated to increase to 2,500, 900, and 2,900, respectively, due to population aging. A similar pattern of increasing NRAP-attributable CHD hospitalizations was estimated to occur between 2008 and 2035. Conclusion These results suggest that a large burden of preventable CHD mortality is attributable to NRAP and is likely to increase even with decreasing exposure by 2035 due to vulnerability of an aging population. Greenhouse gas reduction strategies developed to mitigate climate change offer unexploited opportunities for air pollution health co-benefits. Citation Ghosh R, Lurmann F, Perez L, Penfold B, Brandt S, Wilson J, Milet M, Künzli N, McConnell R. 2016. Near-roadway air pollution and coronary heart disease: burden of disease and potential

  8. A dimension reduction strategy for improving the efficiency of computer-aided detection for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bowen; Zhang, Guopeng; Wang, Huafeng; Zhu, Wei; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    Various types of features, e.g., geometric features, texture features, projection features etc., have been introduced for polyp detection and differentiation tasks via computer aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) for computed tomography colonography (CTC). Although these features together cover more information of the data, some of them are statistically highly-related to others, which made the feature set redundant and burdened the computation task of CAD. In this paper, we proposed a new dimension reduction method which combines hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) for false positives (FPs) reduction task. First, we group all the features based on their similarity using hierarchical clustering, and then PCA is employed within each group. Different numbers of principal components are selected from each group to form the final feature set. Support vector machine is used to perform the classification. The results show that when three principal components were chosen from each group we can achieve an area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics of 0.905, which is as high as the original dataset. Meanwhile, the computation time is reduced by 70% and the feature set size is reduce by 77%. It can be concluded that the proposed method captures the most important information of the feature set and the classification accuracy is not affected after the dimension reduction. The result is promising and further investigation, such as automatically threshold setting, are worthwhile and are under progress.

  9. A soft computing based approach using modified selection strategy for feature reduction of medical systems.

    PubMed

    Zuhtuogullari, Kursat; Allahverdi, Novruz; Arikan, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    The systems consisting high input spaces require high processing times and memory usage. Most of the attribute selection algorithms have the problems of input dimensions limits and information storage problems. These problems are eliminated by means of developed feature reduction software using new modified selection mechanism with middle region solution candidates adding. The hybrid system software is constructed for reducing the input attributes of the systems with large number of input variables. The designed software also supports the roulette wheel selection mechanism. Linear order crossover is used as the recombination operator. In the genetic algorithm based soft computing methods, locking to the local solutions is also a problem which is eliminated by using developed software. Faster and effective results are obtained in the test procedures. Twelve input variables of the urological system have been reduced to the reducts (reduced input attributes) with seven, six, and five elements. It can be seen from the obtained results that the developed software with modified selection has the advantages in the fields of memory allocation, execution time, classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values when compared with the other reduction algorithms by using the urological test data. PMID:23573172

  10. A soft computing based approach using modified selection strategy for feature reduction of medical systems.

    PubMed

    Zuhtuogullari, Kursat; Allahverdi, Novruz; Arikan, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    The systems consisting high input spaces require high processing times and memory usage. Most of the attribute selection algorithms have the problems of input dimensions limits and information storage problems. These problems are eliminated by means of developed feature reduction software using new modified selection mechanism with middle region solution candidates adding. The hybrid system software is constructed for reducing the input attributes of the systems with large number of input variables. The designed software also supports the roulette wheel selection mechanism. Linear order crossover is used as the recombination operator. In the genetic algorithm based soft computing methods, locking to the local solutions is also a problem which is eliminated by using developed software. Faster and effective results are obtained in the test procedures. Twelve input variables of the urological system have been reduced to the reducts (reduced input attributes) with seven, six, and five elements. It can be seen from the obtained results that the developed software with modified selection has the advantages in the fields of memory allocation, execution time, classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values when compared with the other reduction algorithms by using the urological test data.

  11. Integrating sodium reduction strategies in the procurement process and contracting of food venues in the County of Los Angeles government, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Mugavero, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County of Los Angeles government. The review used mixed methods, including a scan of the literature, key informant interviews, and lessons learned during 2010-2012 to assess program progress. Leveraging technical expertise and shared resources, the initiative strategically incorporated sodium reduction strategies into the overall work plan of a multipartnership food procurement program in Los Angeles County. To date, 3 County departments have incorporated new or updated nutrition requirements that included sodium limits and other strategies. The strategic coupling of sodium reduction to food procurement and general health promotion allowed for simultaneous advancement and acceleration of the County's sodium reduction agenda.

  12. Exercise without weight loss is an effective strategy for obesity reduction in obese individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoJung; Kuk, Jennifer L; Davidson, Lance E; Hudson, Robert; Kilpatrick, Katherine; Graham, Terry E; Ross, Robert

    2005-09-01

    It is unclear whether chronic exercise without caloric restriction or weight loss is a useful strategy for obesity reduction in obese men with and without Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the effects of exercise without weight loss on total and regional adiposity and skeletal muscle mass and composition in lean men and in obese men with and without T2D. Twenty-four men participated in 13 wk of supervised aerobic exercise, five times per week for 60 min at a moderate intensity (approximately 60% peak oxygen uptake). Total and regional body composition was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal muscle composition was determined using computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a graded maximal treadmill test. Body weight did not change within any group in response to exercise (P > 0.1). Significant reductions in total, abdominal subcutaneous, and visceral fat were observed within each group (P < 0.01). The reduction in total and abdominal subcutaneous fat was not different (P > 0.1) between groups; however, the reduction in visceral fat was greater (P < 0.01) in the obese and T2D groups by comparison to the lean group. A significant (P < 0.01) increase in total skeletal muscle, high-density muscle area, and mean muscle attenuation was observed independent of group, and these changes were not different between groups (P > 0.1). Accordingly, whole body fat-to-muscle ratio was increased (P < 0.01) independent of groups. In conclusion, regular exercise without weight loss is associated with a substantial reduction in total and visceral fat and in skeletal muscle lipid in both obesity and T2D.

  13. Ascorbate Efflux as a New Strategy for Iron Reduction and Transport in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Louis; Ouerdane, Laurent; Flis, Paulina; Hoang, Minh Thi Thanh; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Lobinski, Ryszard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for virtually all living organisms. The identification of the chemical forms of iron (the speciation) circulating in and between cells is crucial to further understand the mechanisms of iron delivery to its final targets. Here we analyzed how iron is transported to the seeds by the chemical identification of iron complexes that are delivered to embryos, followed by the biochemical characterization of the transport of these complexes by the embryo, using the pea (Pisum sativum) as a model species. We have found that iron circulates as ferric complexes with citrate and malate (Fe(III)3Cit2Mal2, Fe(III)3Cit3Mal1, Fe(III)Cit2). Because dicotyledonous plants only transport ferrous iron, we checked whether embryos were capable of reducing iron of these complexes. Indeed, embryos did express a constitutively high ferric reduction activity. Surprisingly, iron(III) reduction is not catalyzed by the expected membrane-bound ferric reductase. Instead, embryos efflux high amounts of ascorbate that chemically reduce iron(III) from citrate-malate complexes. In vitro transport experiments on isolated embryos using radiolabeled 55Fe demonstrated that this ascorbate-mediated reduction is an obligatory step for the uptake of iron(II). Moreover, the ascorbate efflux activity was also measured in Arabidopsis embryos, suggesting that this new iron transport system may be generic to dicotyledonous plants. Finally, in embryos of the ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc2-4, vtc5-1, and vtc5-2, the reducing activity and the iron concentration were reduced significantly. Taken together, our results identified a new iron transport mechanism in plants that could play a major role to control iron loading in seeds. PMID:24347170

  14. CZT smart dicing strategy for cost reduction using defect imaging and random-access machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkaczyk, J. Eric; Andreini, Kristian; Zhang, Tan; Harding, Kevin G.; Abramovich, Gil; Williams, Yana; Nafis, Christopher A.; Zhang, Wenwu

    2010-08-01

    Current spectroscopic detector crystals contain defects that prevent economic production of devices with sufficient energy resolution and stopping power for radioisotope discrimination. This is especially acute for large monolithic crystals due to increased defect opportunity. The proposed approach to cost reduction starts by combining stereoscopic IR and ultrasound (UT) inspection coupled with segmentation and 3D mapping algorithms. A "smart dicing" system uses "random-access" laser-based machining to obtain tiles free of major defects. Application specific grading matches defect type to anticipated performance. Small pieces combined in a modular sensor pack instead of a monolith will make the most efficient use of wafer area.

  15. Noise Reduction Using Wavelet Thresholding of Multitaper Estimators and Geometric Approach to Spectral Subtraction for Speech Coding Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kai Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Noise reduction using wavelet thresholding of multitaper estimators (WTME) and geometric approach to spectral subtraction (GASS) can improve speech quality of noisy sound for speech coding strategy. This study used Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) to assess the performance of the WTME and GASS for speech coding strategy. Methods This study included 25 Mandarin sentences as test materials. Environmental noises including the air-conditioner, cafeteria and multi-talker were artificially added to test materials at signal to noise ratio (SNR) of -5, 0, 5, and 10 dB. HiRes 120 vocoder WTME and GASS noise reduction process were used in this study to generate sound outputs. The sound outputs were measured by the PESQ to evaluate sound quality. Results Two figures and three tables were used to assess the speech quality of the sound output of the WTME and GASS. Conclusion There is no significant difference between the overall performance of sound quality in both methods, but the geometric approach to spectral subtraction method is slightly better than the wavelet thresholding of multitaper estimators. PMID:22701151

  16. Planning for future uncertainties in electric power generation; An analysis of transitional strategies for reduction of carbon and sulfur emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Tabors, R.D.; Monroe, B.L. III . Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify strategies for the U.S. electric utility industry for reduction of both acid rain producing and global warming gasses. The research used the EPRI Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System (EGEAS) utility optimization/simulation modeling structure and the EPRI developed regional utilities. It focuses on the North East and East Central region of the U.S. Strategies identified were fuel switching -- predominantly between coal and natural gas, mandated emission limits, and a carbon tax. The overall conclusions of the study are that using less (conservation) will always benefit Carbon Emissions but may or may not benefit Acid Rain emissions by the off setting forces of improved performance of new plant as opposed to reduced overall consumption of final product. Results of the study are highly utility and regional demand specific. The study showed, however, that significant reductions in both acid rain and global warming gas production could be achieved with relatively small increases in the overall cost of production of electricity and that the current dispatch logics available to the utility control rooms were adequate to reschedule dispatch to meet these objectives.

  17. Evaluation of total nitrogen pollution reduction strategies in a river basin: a case study.

    PubMed

    Drolc, A; Kondan, J Z; Cotman, M

    2001-01-01

    The enrichment of groundwater and rivers by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) and their consequences is one of the most severe problems across Europe as well in Slovenia. Transfer of nutrients from different sources into the environment causes eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate accumulation in groundwater, and others. In this paper, the methodology of the material flow analysis is presented and applied to develop a nitrogen balance in a river basin and to evaluate different scenarios for total nitrogen pollution reduction. Application of the methodology is illustrated by means of a case study on the Krka river, Slovenia. Different scenarios are to be considered: the present level of sewerage and treatment capacities, different stages of wastewater treatment and management of agricultural activities on land. The results show that beside effluents from wastewater treatment plants, agriculture contributes significantly to the total annual nitrogen load. Beside reduction of point sources by means of wastewater collection and implementation of nutrient removal technology, managing agricultural nitrogen in order to protect river water quality and drinking water supply should become a major challenge in the Krka river basin.

  18. Supply-side harm reduction strategies: Bolivia's experiment with social control.

    PubMed

    Farthing, Linda; Kohl, Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    Harm reduction approaches to drug control have almost exclusively focussed on consumers in northern countries. This article supports recent analysis that indicates that such policies also hold relevance for producer countries by drawing on recent policy innovations in Bolivia. When Evo Morales, the president of the national coca grower confederation, was elected the country's first indigenous president in 2005, he promised to fundamentally change 25 years of the U.S.-funded "drug war" that had generated repeated human rights violations. The new policy, which implicitly incorporates harm reduction principles combined with respect for human rights, recognizes coca leaf's traditional use and cultural importance and relies on vigorous local organizations to implement a community-based programme called social control. Results to date indicate that Bolivia's social control experience has reduced violence in coca growing communities, ensured small farmers a subsistence income from coca and increased sovereignty, while making a modest contribution to containing expansion of coca cultivation. The programme has registered 50,000 farmers who are allowed to cultivate limited quantities of coca to supply traditional users and helped them gain secure title to their land. This registration is combined with satellite surveillance to guarantee that farmers do not exceed limits established by law. To date, the programme's reach is incomplete and coca is still diverted to the drug trade. Nonetheless, the approach may offer lessons for other drug producer countries, particularly where strong socio-political organizations are found in combination with closeknit communities holding shared cultural values.

  19. Speed and Torque Control Strategies for Loss Reduction of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argent, Michael; McDonald, Alasdair; Leithead, Bill; Giles, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    This paper builds on the work into modelling the generator losses for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines from their intrinsic torque cycling to investigate the effects of aerodynamic inefficiencies caused by the varying rotational speed resulting from different torque control strategies to the cyclic torque. This is achieved by modelling the wake that builds up from the rotation of the VAWT rotor to investigate how the wake responds to a changing rotor speed and how this in turn affects the torque produced by the blades as well as the corresponding change in generator losses and any changes to the energy extracted by the wind turbine rotor.

  20. Tools and strategies for the reduction of inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks.

    PubMed

    Tzeis, Stylianos; Andrikopoulos, George; Kolb, Christof; Vardas, Panos E

    2008-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have been shown to provide a survival benefit in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death. A major problem associated with ICD therapy is the occurrence of inappropriate shocks which impair patients' quality of life and may also be arrhythmogenic. Despite recent technological advances, the incidence of inappropriate shocks remains high, thus posing a challenge that we have to meet. In the present review we summarise the available tools and the strategies that can be followed in order to reduce inappropriate ICD shocks.

  1. Non-Reductive Strategies for U Sequestration: Natural Analogues and Practical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, K.; Bethke, C. M.; Massey, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    A number of strategies have been proposed for the in situ remediation of U contaminated zones, including bioreduction, permeable reactive barriers, and incorporation into secondary phases such as phosphates. An alternative approach is to sequester U within amorphous Si phases such as opaline silica. We have investigated the isotopic and major element composition and structure of naturally occurring U-rich opaline silica in semi-arid soil environments across the western United States. These phases constitute a large natural reservoir of sequestered U. By combining these observations with geochemical considerations, we propose a remedial strategy for sequestering U in amorphous silica. The U-rich opal occurs as laminations, veins, and coatings on clasts in soils developed on a range of parent materials. U-rich opal deposits are also found as speleothems in caves, as silica-rich spring deposits, and as cavity fillings and hydrothermal veins in volcanic tuffs. Measurements of U, Th and Pb isotopes reveal the age of the opaline silica, demonstrating the long-term stability of U sequestration in open chemical environments. The isotopic data also suggest that opaline silica will retain the majority of the initial U over millions of years. U in naturally occurring opal generally ranges between 200 to 1000 ppm. In contrast, co-existing calcite contains less than 100 ppb U. From pore water chemistry, the distribution coefficient for U incorporation into opaline silica is approximately 20, whereas the coefficient for calcite is typically between 0.2 and 1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations confirm that hexavalent U is incorporated in amorphous silica as the UO22+ ion. Coexisting Fe-oxides provide a further sink for sequestering UO22+ from the pore water. However, preliminary calculations suggest that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may be a dominant mechanism for isolating UO22+from groundwater over long time scales. Nature's mechanism for sequestering UO

  2. Methane mitigation in cities: how new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Wiggins, E. B.; Miu, J. C. L.; Carranza, V.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Cities generate a large fraction of anthropogenic methane emissions that are increasing with urbanization and greater reliance on natural gas as fuel. New measurements of methane in cities suggest an as-yet unrealized potential for city-scale methane mitigation. We present high-resolution methane observations from four cities in North America to demonstrate the utility of methane surveys for identifying urban methane sources. We used portable, continuous on-road measurements to determine the spatial distribution of methane in Fairbanks, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, and San Diego. Across cities, methane tended to be highly concentrated in space, suggesting discrete, point emission sources. Elevated methane levels were found near known emission sources, such as landfills, wastewater treatment facilities, and natural gas-fueled power plants, and revealed the location of fugitive leaks in natural gas infrastructure. The mix of sources and sizes of methane leaks varied among cities, highlighting a need for locally adaptive emissions regulation. Urban methane observations can inform anthropogenic processes in development of methane mitigation strategies. We discuss specific examples of how continuous atmospheric measurements can enhance the design of mitigation strategies in these cities, and potential contributions of these approaches to cross-sectoral efforts to reduce methane emissions at the city level.

  3. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  4. Strategies for cost-effective carbon reductions: A sensitivity analysis of alternative scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Gumerman, Etan; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Brown, Marilyn

    2001-07-11

    Analyses of alternative futures often present results for a limited set of scenarios, with little if any sensitivity analysis to identify the factors affecting the scenario results. This approach creates an artificial impression of certainty associated with the scenarios considered, and inhibits understanding of the underlying forces. This paper summarizes the economic and carbon savings sensitivity analysis completed for the Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future study (IWG, 2000). Its 19 sensitivity cases provide insight into the costs and carbon-reduction impacts of a carbon permit trading system, demand-side efficiency programs, and supply-side policies. Impacts under different natural gas and oil price trajectories are also examined. The results provide compelling evidence that policy opportunities exist to reduce carbon emissions and save society money.

  5. Developments in pesticide packaging and management of bulk herbicides as elements in a container reduction strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.

    1994-12-31

    Pesticide packaging plays an important role in a broader area that can be called {open_quotes}Delivery Systems.{close_quotes} Delivery Systems can include all of the physical elements that enable a technical active ingredient or combination of ingredients to move from the manufacturing plant through the channels of distribution to the pesticide applicator, who generally further dilutes the product for use on a registered target pest or crop site. This article describes developments relating to three goals in pesticide packaging. Those goals are: reduction in the number of empty containers through the use of reusable containers, formulation modifications, and other container minimization approaches; recyling of empty containers for their material or energy value; and disposal of empty containers in accordance with environmentally sound and cost effective practices.

  6. Tumour-adapted Reduction Mammoplasty – a New (Old) Breast Conserving Strategy: Review

    PubMed Central

    Eichbaum, M.; Dietrich, A.; Reinhard, J.; Steinwasser, R.; Eichbaum, C.

    2016-01-01

    Today over 70 % of patients treated for primary breast carcinoma in certified breast centres are managed with breast conserving surgery. The classical semicircular incision directly above the tumour, though in many cases easily carried out and associated with good cosmetic results, does have limitations. Unsatisfactory aesthetic results often occur when tumour location is unfavourable or when there is unfavourable tumour size relative to breast size. Distortion of the nipple, changes to breast shape and retraction of skin overlying surgical defects can occur. Tumour-adapted reduction mammoplasty/mastopexy or the “modified B technique” offer excellent chances of combining the oncological demands of breast surgery with satisfactory symmetrical cosmetic results. This article reviews a traditional, old operative technique that has been re-embraced in various new forms. PMID:26855438

  7. Synthesis of Sequence-Specific DNA-Protein Conjugates via a Reductive Amination Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Mukherjee, Shivam; Villalta, Peter W.; Schärer, Orlando D.; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) are ubiquitous, structurally diverse DNA lesions formed upon exposure to bis-electrophiles, transition metals, UV light, and reactive oxygen species. Because of their super-bulky, helix distorting nature, DPCs interfere with DNA replication, transcription, and repair, potentially contributing to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. However, the biological implications of DPC lesions have not been fully elucidated due to the difficulty of generating site-specific DNA substrates representative of DPC lesions formed in vivo. In the present study, a novel approach involving post-synthetic reductive amination has been developed to prepare a range of hydrolytically stable lesions structurally mimicking the DPCs produced between the N7 position of guanine in DNA and basic lysine or arginine side chains of proteins and peptides. PMID:23885807

  8. Evaluation of FAD-associated purse seine fishery reduction strategies for bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yuhe; Chen, Xinjun; Xu, Liuxiong; Chen, Yong

    2013-07-01

    In the Indian Ocean, bigeye tuna supports one of the most important fisheries in the world. This fishery mainly consists of two components: longline and purse seine fisheries. Evidence of overfishing and stock depletion of bigeye tuna calls for an evaluation of alternative management strategies. Using an age-structured operating model, parameterized with the results derived in a recent stock assessment, we evaluated the effectiveness of applying constant fishing mortality (CF) and quasi-constant fishing mortality (QCF) strategies to reduce fishing effort of purse seining with fish aggregating devices (FADs) at different rates. Three different levels of productivity accounted for the uncertainty in our understanding of stock productivity. The study shows that the results of CF and QCF are similar. Average SSB and catch during simulation years would be higher if fishing mortality of FAD-associated purse seining was reduced rapidly. The banning or rapid reduction of purse seining with FAD resulted in a mean catch, and catch in the last simulation year, higher than that of the base case in which no change was made to the purse seine fishery. This could be caused by growth overfishing by purse seine fisheries with FADs according to the per-recruit analysis. These differences would be more obvious when stock productivity was low. Transferring efforts of FAD-associated purse seining to longline fisheries is also not feasible. Our study suggests that changes are necessary to improve the performance of the current management strategy.

  9. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  10. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y). The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)); four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation); and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow is lower.

  11. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H; Manuel, M J-E; Gatu Johnson, M; Schaeffer, J C; Frankel, R; Sinenian, N; Childs, R A; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Burke, M; Roberts, S

    2011-07-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  12. Metal artifact reduction strategies for improved attenuation correction in hybrid PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Abdoli, Mehrsima; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-06-15

    Metallic implants are known to generate bright and dark streaking artifacts in x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, which in turn propagate to corresponding functional positron emission tomography (PET) images during the CT-based attenuation correction procedure commonly used on hybrid clinical PET/CT scanners. Therefore, visual artifacts and overestimation and/or underestimation of the tracer uptake in regions adjacent to metallic implants are likely to occur and as such, inaccurate quantification of the tracer uptake and potential erroneous clinical interpretation of PET images is expected. Accurate quantification of PET data requires metal artifact reduction (MAR) of the CT images prior to the application of the CT-based attenuation correction procedure. In this review, the origins of metallic artifacts and their impact on clinical PET/CT imaging are discussed. Moreover, a brief overview of proposed MAR methods and their advantages and drawbacks is presented. Although most of the presented MAR methods are mainly developed for diagnostic CT imaging, their potential application in PET/CT imaging is highlighted. The challenges associated with comparative evaluation of these methods in a clinical environment in the absence of a gold standard are also discussed.

  13. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  14. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium), and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  15. Changes in phytoplankton communities along nutrient gradients in Lake Taihu: evidence for nutrient reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Ying; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

    2015-03-01

    An annual investigation on phytoplankton communities was conducted to reveal the effects of nutrients on phytoplankton assemblages in Lake Taihu, East China. A total of 78 phytoplankton taxa were identified. Phytoplankton biomass was higher in the northern part of the lake than in the southern part. Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta alternated dominance in the northern area, where algal blooms often appear, and co-dominated in the southern area. In the northern part, the proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta varied significantly in total biovolume, both along the phosphorus (P) gradient, and between total nitrogen levels (≤3 mg/L and >3 mg/L TN). The proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta had no significant variations in total biovolume along P and N (nitrogen) gradients in the southern part. Correlation analysis and CCA results revealed that P was the key factor regulating phytoplankton community structure. Nitrogen was also important for the phytoplankton distribution pattern. It was concluded that nutrient structure was heterogeneous in space and shaped the distribution pattern of phytoplankton in the lake. Both exogenous P and internally sourced P release needs to be considered. N reduction should be considered simultaneously with P control to efficiently reduce eutrophication and algal blooms.

  16. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium), and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  17. Metal artifact reduction strategies for improved attenuation correction in hybrid PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Mehrsima; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-06-01

    Metallic implants are known to generate bright and dark streaking artifacts in x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, which in turn propagate to corresponding functional positron emission tomography (PET) images during the CT-based attenuation correction procedure commonly used on hybrid clinical PET/CT scanners. Therefore, visual artifacts and overestimation and/or underestimation of the tracer uptake in regions adjacent to metallic implants are likely to occur and as such, inaccurate quantification of the tracer uptake and potential erroneous clinical interpretation of PET images is expected. Accurate quantification of PET data requires metal artifact reduction (MAR) of the CT images prior to the application of the CT-based attenuation correction procedure. In this review, the origins of metallic artifacts and their impact on clinical PET/CT imaging are discussed. Moreover, a brief overview of proposed MAR methods and their advantages and drawbacks is presented. Although most of the presented MAR methods are mainly developed for diagnostic CT imaging, their potential application in PET/CT imaging is highlighted. The challenges associated with comparative evaluation of these methods in a clinical environment in the absence of a gold standard are also discussed.

  18. Nevada's Class-Size Reduction Program. Nevada Revised Statutes 388.700-388.730: "Program To Reduce the Pupil-Teacher Ratio." Background Paper 97-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, H. Pepper

    In 1989, the Nevada Legislature enacted the Class-Size Reduction (CSR) Act. The measure was designed to reduce the pupil-teacher ratio in the public schools, particularly in the earliest grades. The program was scheduled to proceed in several phases. The first step reduced the student-teacher ratio in selected kindergartens and first grade classes…

  19. Mesoscale Biotransformations of Uranium: Identifying Sites and Strategies where Reductive Immobilization is Practical

    SciTech Connect

    Tetsu K. Tokunaga; Jiamin Wan; Terry C. Hazen; Mary K. Firestone; Eoin Brodie; Yongman Kim; Rebecca Daly

    2006-06-01

    Bioreduction of U in contaminated sediments is an attractive strategy because of its low cost, and because of short-term studies supporting its feasibility. However, any in-situ immobilization approach for U will require assurance of either permanent fixation, or of very low release rates into the biosphere. Our previous long-term (2 years) laboratory experiments have shown that organic carbon (OC) based U(VI) bioreduction to UO2 can be transient even under sustained reducing (methanogenic) conditions. The biogeochemical processes underlying this finding urgently need to be understood. The current research is designed to identify mechanisms responsible for anaerobic U oxidation, and identify conditions that will support long-term stability of bioreduced U. We are investigating: (1) effects of OC concentration and supply rate on remobilization of bioreduced U, (2) the roles of Fe- and Mn-oxides as potential U oxidants in sediments, and (3) the role of microorganisms in U reoxidation, and (4) influences of pH on U(IV)/U(VI) redox equilibrium.

  20. Detecting small attractors of large Boolean networks by function-reduction-based strategy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiben; Shen, Liangzhong; Shang, Xuequn; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    Boolean networks (BNs) are widely used to model gene regulatory networks and to design therapeutic intervention strategies to affect the long-term behaviour of systems. A central aim of Boolean-network analysis is to find attractors that correspond to various cellular states, such as cell types or the stage of cell differentiation. This problem is NP-hard and various algorithms have been used to tackle it with considerable success. The idea is that a singleton attractor corresponds to n consistent subsequences in the truth table. To find these subsequences, the authors gradually reduce the entire truth table of Boolean functions by extending a partial gene activity profile (GAP). Not only does this process delete inconsistent subsequences in truth tables, it also directly determines values for some nodes not extended, which means it can abandon the partial GAPs that cannot lead to an attractor as early as possible. The results of simulation show that the proposed algorithm can detect small attractors with length p = 4 in BNs of up to 200 nodes with average indegree K = 2.

  1. Climate Change Adaptation and Climate Related Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Zimbabwe and Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubaya, C. P.; Ngepah, N.; Seyama, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) have similar aims and mutual benefits, and there is a very strong rationale for adopting a more integrated approach to these issues rather than analysing each of them as distinct from the other. One of the gaps that have been noted in this context is the lack of evidence in systematic integration of CCA and DRR in Southern Africa. In this regard, this study builds on understanding CCA and DRR policies from the perspectives of vulnerable groups- women and smallholder farmers, and conducts institutional and policy analysis of CCA and DRR in southern Africa, with specific focus on Malawi and Zimbabwe. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed to collect data for this study in the two countries. The analysis is centred on the conceptualization of DRR in the context of recovery time and CCA on livelihood changes. Findings of the study show that drought is no longer viewed as a hazard as it is a perennial and chronic occurrence in selected climate hotspots, with heightened intensity in certain identified years. Households are able to quickly recover from slow onset hazards such as droughts and dry spells more than they are able to recover from sudden onset floods, implying more capacity towards CCA than DRR. Government programmes and policies are also focused more on CCA than on DRR efforts that appear not to be a priority. Findings point towards female vulnerability from perceptions and practice where males tend to dominate where they are set to benefit from external assistance. We need to strengthen government capacity in implementation of DRR programmes, which is currently limited and development initiatives must deliberately target building the resilience of women.

  2. Ash reduction strategies in corn stover facilitated by anatomical and size fractionation

    DOE PAGES

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Thompson, David N.; Westover, Tyler L.

    2016-04-22

    There is growing interest internationally to produce fuels from renewable biomass resources. Inorganic components of biomass feedstocks, referred to collectively as ash, damage equipment and decrease yields in thermal conversion processes, and decrease feedstock value for biochemical conversion processes. Decreasing the ash content of feedstocks improves conversion efficiency and lowers process costs. Because physiological ash is unevenly distributed in the plant, mechanical processes can be used to separate fractions of the plant based on ash content. This study focuses on the ash separation that can be achieved by separating corn stover by particle size and anatomical fraction. Baled corn stovermore » was hand-separated into anatomical fractions, ground to <19.1 mm, and size separated using six sieves ranging from 9.5 to 0.150 mm. Size fractions were analyzed for total ash content and ash composition. Particle size distributions observed for the anatomical fractions varied considerably. Cob particles were primarily 2.0 mm or greater, while most of the sheath and husk particles were 2.0 mm and smaller. Particles of leaves greater than 0.6 mm contained the greatest amount of total ash, ranging from approximately 8 to 13% dry weight of the total original material, while the fractions with particles smaller than 0.6 mm contained less than 2% of the total ash of the original material. As a result, based on the overall ash content and the elemental ash, specific anatomical and size fractions can be separated to optimize the feedstocks being delivered to biofuels conversion processes and minimize the need for more expensive ash reduction treatments.« less

  3. Yolk androgen deposition without an energetic cost for female rockhopper penguins: a compensatory strategy to accelerate brood reduction?

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Eens, Marcel; Chastel, Olivier; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Whether androgen deposition in eggs is physiologically costly for female birds has remained a crucial but unsolved question, despite a broad use of this assumption in functional studies. We tested whether females depositing high androgen concentrations experienced higher mass losses than females depositing low androgen concentrations. Analysing female body mass change during egg formation in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome), we observed no energetic cost to androgen deposition. Nevertheless, lighter females laid eggs with higher yolk androgen concentrations. This relationship existed only for the second-laid egg (B-egg), but not for the first-laid egg (A-egg). Since the B-egg is usually the first to hatch and the only one to produce a fledging chick, we hypothesize that differential yolk androgen deposition may be an adaptive strategy for females to affect brood reduction. PMID:21325311

  4. Synthesis strategies for disulfide bond-containing polymer-based drug delivery system for reduction-responsive controlled release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Tumor micro-environment responsive drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been developed as a potential approach to reduce the side effects of cancer chemotherapy. Glutathione (GSH) has been supposed to the most significant signal of the difference between the normal tissue and the tumor cells, besides the media pH and temperature. In recent years, the reduction-responsive DDSs have attracted more and more attention for delivery of anti-cancer drugs, based on such physiological signal. Among them, disulfide bond-containing polymers have been designed as the main tool for the purpose. The recent progress in the synthesis strategies for the disulfide bond-containing polymer-based DDS is focused in the present review.

  5. Non-target time trend screening: a data reduction strategy for detecting emerging contaminants in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Plassmann, Merle M; Tengstrand, Erik; Åberg, K Magnus; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Non-targeted mass spectrometry-based approaches for detecting novel xenobiotics in biological samples are hampered by the occurrence of naturally fluctuating endogenous substances, which are difficult to distinguish from environmental contaminants. Here, we investigate a data reduction strategy for datasets derived from a biological time series. The objective is to flag reoccurring peaks in the time series based on increasing peak intensities, thereby reducing peak lists to only those which may be associated with emerging bioaccumulative contaminants. As a result, compounds with increasing concentrations are flagged while compounds displaying random, decreasing, or steady-state time trends are removed. As an initial proof of concept, we created artificial time trends by fortifying human whole blood samples with isotopically labelled standards. Different scenarios were investigated: eight model compounds had a continuously increasing trend in the last two to nine time points, and four model compounds had a trend that reached steady state after an initial increase. Each time series was investigated at three fortification levels and one unfortified series. Following extraction, analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, and data processing, a total of 21,700 aligned peaks were obtained. Peaks displaying an increasing trend were filtered from randomly fluctuating peaks using time trend ratios and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The first approach was successful in flagging model compounds spiked at only two to three time points, while the latter approach resulted in all model compounds ranking in the top 11 % of the peak lists. Compared to initial peak lists, a combination of both approaches reduced the size of datasets by 80-85 %. Overall, non-target time trend screening represents a promising data reduction strategy for identifying emerging bioaccumulative contaminants in biological samples. Graphical abstract

  6. Non-target time trend screening: a data reduction strategy for detecting emerging contaminants in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Plassmann, Merle M; Tengstrand, Erik; Åberg, K Magnus; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Non-targeted mass spectrometry-based approaches for detecting novel xenobiotics in biological samples are hampered by the occurrence of naturally fluctuating endogenous substances, which are difficult to distinguish from environmental contaminants. Here, we investigate a data reduction strategy for datasets derived from a biological time series. The objective is to flag reoccurring peaks in the time series based on increasing peak intensities, thereby reducing peak lists to only those which may be associated with emerging bioaccumulative contaminants. As a result, compounds with increasing concentrations are flagged while compounds displaying random, decreasing, or steady-state time trends are removed. As an initial proof of concept, we created artificial time trends by fortifying human whole blood samples with isotopically labelled standards. Different scenarios were investigated: eight model compounds had a continuously increasing trend in the last two to nine time points, and four model compounds had a trend that reached steady state after an initial increase. Each time series was investigated at three fortification levels and one unfortified series. Following extraction, analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, and data processing, a total of 21,700 aligned peaks were obtained. Peaks displaying an increasing trend were filtered from randomly fluctuating peaks using time trend ratios and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The first approach was successful in flagging model compounds spiked at only two to three time points, while the latter approach resulted in all model compounds ranking in the top 11 % of the peak lists. Compared to initial peak lists, a combination of both approaches reduced the size of datasets by 80-85 %. Overall, non-target time trend screening represents a promising data reduction strategy for identifying emerging bioaccumulative contaminants in biological samples. Graphical abstract

  7. HIV testing behaviour and use of risk reduction strategies by HIV risk category among MSM in Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Bogowicz, Paul; Moore, David; Kanters, Steve; Michelow, Warren; Robert, Wayne; Hogg, Robert; Gustafson, Réka; Gilbert, Mark

    2016-03-01

    We carried out an analysis of a serobehavioural study of men who have sex with men >19 years of age in Vancouver, Canada to examine HIV testing behaviour and use of risk reduction strategies by HIV risk category, as defined by routinely gathered clinical data. We restricted our analysis to those who self-identified as HIV-negative, completed a questionnaire, and provided a dried blood spot sample. Of 842 participants, 365 (43.3%) were categorised as lower-risk, 245 (29.1%) as medium-risk and 232 (27.6%) as higher-risk. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was low (lower 0.8%, medium 3.3%, higher 3.9%; p = 0.032). Participants differed by risk category in terms of having had an HIV test in the previous year (lower 46.5%, medium 54.6%, higher 67.0%; p < 0.001) and in their use of serosorting (lower 23.3%, medium 48.3%, higher 43.1%; p < 0.001) and only having sex with HIV-positive men if those men had low viral loads or were taking HIV medication (lower 5.1%, medium 4.8%, higher 10.9%; p = 0.021) as risk reduction strategies. These findings speak to the need to consider segmented health promotion services for men who have sex with men with differing risk profiles. Risk stratification could be used to determine who might benefit from tailored multiple health promotion interventions, including HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

  8. Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins

    PubMed Central

    Crossin, Glenn T.; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Williams, Tony D.; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating concentrations of the primary yolk-precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and levels of yolk androgens. Previous work in Eudyptes penguins has shown that egg-size dimorphism is the product of migratory constraints on yolk precursor production. We predicted that if yolk precursors are constrained, androgen transport to developing yolks would be similarly constrained. We reveal positive linear relationships between maternal VTG and androgens in small A-eggs but not larger B-eggs, which is consistent with a migratory constraint operating on the A-egg. Results suggest that intra-clutch variation in total yolk androgen levels depends on the production and uptake of yolk precursors. The brood reduction strategy common to Eudyptes might thus be best described as the result of a migratory constraint. PMID:22809718

  9. [Total abstinence or harm reduction--different strategies of alcohol treatment in research studies and international guidelines].

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use is considered to be one of the major factors contributing to global health burden as well as social and economic harm. Only about 16% of alcohol dependent individuals enter addiction treatment programs in Poland, with only a few more in Western Europe. The aim of the paper was to present two main treatment strategies of alcohol dependence: total abstinence and harm reduction. The advantages and disadvantages of both treatment goals are presented, pointing to a possibility of treating them as complementary strategies. A need to choose a proper, personalised patient-oriented aim of a treatment program is emphasised, with an option to revise the objective during long-term therapy. The paper describes implications from investigating the problem of alcohol dependence from a population health perspective. The surprisingly high amount of individuals remitting spontaneously from alcohol dependence without treatment is also discussed, and a possible bias resulting from analysing data on alcoholic subjects coming only from addiction centres, not from general population is taken into consideration. In the second part of the paper, American as well as British alcohol treatment guidelines are presented.

  10. Laser line illumination scheme allowing the reduction of background signal and the correction of absorption heterogeneities effects for fluorescence reflectance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Frédéric; Hervé, Lionel; Poher, Vincent; Gioux, Sylvain; Mars, Jérôme I; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative fluorescence imaging in reflectance geometry is an attractive imaging modality as it allows to noninvasively monitor the fluorescence targeted tumors located below the tissue surface. Some drawbacks of this technique are the background fluorescence decreasing the contrast and absorption heterogeneities leading to misinterpretations concerning fluorescence concentrations. We propose a correction technique based on a laser line scanning illumination scheme. We scan the medium with the laser line and acquire, at each position of the line, both fluorescence and excitation images. We then use the finding that there is a relationship between the excitation intensity profile and the background fluorescence one to predict the amount of signal to subtract from the fluorescence images to get a better contrast. As the light absorption information is contained both in fluorescence and excitation images, this method also permits us to correct the effects of absorption heterogeneities. This technique has been validated on simulations and experimentally. Fluorescent inclusions are observed in several configurations at depths ranging from 1 mm to 1 cm. Results obtained with this technique are compared with those obtained with a classical wide-field detection scheme for contrast enhancement and with the fluorescence by an excitation ratio approach for absorption correction. PMID:26442963

  11. Relationship Dynamics and Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies Among Heterosexual Young Adults: A Qualitative Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendees at an Urban Chicago Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions.

  12. Light output function and assembly of the time-of-flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer plastic scintillators for background reduction by double kinematic selection at EAST.

    PubMed

    Peng, X Y; Chen, Z J; Zhang, X; Hu, Z M; Du, T F; Cui, Z Q; Xie, X F; Ge, L J; Yuan, X; Gorini, G; Nocente, M; Tardocchi, M; Hu, L Q; Zhong, G Q; Lin, S Y; Wan, B N; Li, X Q; Zhang, G H; Chen, J X; Fan, T S

    2014-11-01

    The 2.5 MeV neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time-Of-Flight Enhanced Diagnostics) has been constructed to perform advanced neutron emission spectroscopy diagnosis of deuterium plasmas on EAST. The instrument has a double-ring structure which, in combination with pulse shape digitization, allows for a dual kinematic selection in the time-of-flight/recoil proton energy (tof/Ep) space, thus improving the spectrometer capability to resolve fast ion signatures in the neutron spectrum, in principle up to a factor ≈100. The identification and separation of features from the energetic ions in the neutron spectrum depends on the detailed knowledge of the instrument response function, both in terms of the light output function of the scintillators and the effect of undesired multiple neutron scatterings in the instrument. This work presents the determination of the light output function of the TOFED plastic scintillator detectors and their geometrical assembly. Results from dedicated experiments with γ-ray sources and quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams are presented. Implications on the instrument capability to perform background suppression based on double kinematic selection are discussed. PMID:25430291

  13. Light output function and assembly of the time-of-flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer plastic scintillators for background reduction by double kinematic selection at EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, X. Y.; Chen, Z. J.; Zhang, X.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Cui, Z. Q.; Xie, X. F.; Ge, L. J.; Yuan, X.; Li, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.; Chen, J. X.; Fan, T. S.; Gorini, G.; Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.

    2014-11-15

    The 2.5 MeV neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time-Of-Flight Enhanced Diagnostics) has been constructed to perform advanced neutron emission spectroscopy diagnosis of deuterium plasmas on EAST. The instrument has a double-ring structure which, in combination with pulse shape digitization, allows for a dual kinematic selection in the time-of-flight/recoil proton energy (tof/E{sub p}) space, thus improving the spectrometer capability to resolve fast ion signatures in the neutron spectrum, in principle up to a factor ≈100. The identification and separation of features from the energetic ions in the neutron spectrum depends on the detailed knowledge of the instrument response function, both in terms of the light output function of the scintillators and the effect of undesired multiple neutron scatterings in the instrument. This work presents the determination of the light output function of the TOFED plastic scintillator detectors and their geometrical assembly. Results from dedicated experiments with γ-ray sources and quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams are presented. Implications on the instrument capability to perform background suppression based on double kinematic selection are discussed.

  14. Study of the Transverse Energy Sum Triggers and Leptonic Background Reduction in Searches for Supersymmetry in Fully Hadronic Multijet Events at the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Ricardo Manuel Ramos dos Santos

    Two studies searching for new physics have been conducted using high-activity events in 20 fb-1 of pp collision data at √s = 8TeV collected with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider during 2012. The first study analyzed data collected by the large transverse-energy sum triggers. Approximately 9800 events were collected with transverse-energy above 1600 GeV without jets with pT > 100 GeV. Detailed properties of these events are studied and compared with those of minimum-bias events. Large pileup from multiple interactions in bunch crossings, rather than new physics, was found to be the most likely interpretation of these events. The second study searched for new phenomena in events with large jet multiplicities in their final states. The results were interpreted in the context of supersymmetric models. This was an enhancement of a previous analysis, but uses more data and also considers b-jets and large-radius jets. The focus here is on the study of leptonic backgrounds and optimization of electron veto criteria. No statistically significant deviations from Standard Model predictions were found. Exclusion limits at 95% confidence-level drawn on supersymmetric particles masses for simplified gluino-squark models and mSUGRA/CMSSM m0 and m1/2 parameters substantially extended those from previous results.

  15. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed.

  16. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-11-12

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 (o)C) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.

  17. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  18. Nutrient concentrations and fluxes in the upper catchment of the Miyun Reservoir, China, and potential nutrient reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Du, Pengfei; Lang, Cong

    2015-03-01

    The Miyun Reservoir is Beijing's main drinking water source. Increased nutrient levels in the reservoir have resulted in an increased risk of harmful algal blooms. One hundred ten water samples were collected at a range of spatial scales in the upper catchment of the Miyun Reservoir and were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3 (-)-N), ammonium (NH4 (+)-N), total phosphorus (TP), and the potassium permanganate index (CODMn). Empirical equations were developed from relationships between nutrient concentrations and the main controls on nutrient, and were used to identify parts of the catchment that should be targeted with nutrient load reduction measures. Cropland was the main source of sediment for the streams, and much of the phosphorus was associated with sediment. The annual mean TP concentrations were closely correlated with both the annual mean suspended sediment concentrations and the ratio of the cropland area to the total basin area. There was a linear relationship between the annual mean TN concentration and the population density in the basins. Soil conservation may play an important role in reducing TP concentrations in the upper reaches of the Chao and Bai Rivers. It may be useful to (1) construct natural riparian buffers and vegetated buffers along croplands close to the watercourses, (2) implement management strategies to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications, and (3) construct additional wetlands to reduce nutrient loads in the study area.

  19. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  20. Nutrient concentrations and fluxes in the upper catchment of the Miyun Reservoir, China, and potential nutrient reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Du, Pengfei; Lang, Cong

    2015-03-01

    The Miyun Reservoir is Beijing's main drinking water source. Increased nutrient levels in the reservoir have resulted in an increased risk of harmful algal blooms. One hundred ten water samples were collected at a range of spatial scales in the upper catchment of the Miyun Reservoir and were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3 (-)-N), ammonium (NH4 (+)-N), total phosphorus (TP), and the potassium permanganate index (CODMn). Empirical equations were developed from relationships between nutrient concentrations and the main controls on nutrient, and were used to identify parts of the catchment that should be targeted with nutrient load reduction measures. Cropland was the main source of sediment for the streams, and much of the phosphorus was associated with sediment. The annual mean TP concentrations were closely correlated with both the annual mean suspended sediment concentrations and the ratio of the cropland area to the total basin area. There was a linear relationship between the annual mean TN concentration and the population density in the basins. Soil conservation may play an important role in reducing TP concentrations in the upper reaches of the Chao and Bai Rivers. It may be useful to (1) construct natural riparian buffers and vegetated buffers along croplands close to the watercourses, (2) implement management strategies to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications, and (3) construct additional wetlands to reduce nutrient loads in the study area. PMID:25673273

  1. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low sound transmission at high frequencies, low heat transmission, and low weight. The double panel structure is widely used, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nevertheless, the resonance of the cavity and the poor sound transmission loss at low frequencies limit the double panel's noise control performance. Applying active structural acoustic control to the panels or active noise control to the cavity has been discussed in many papers. In this paper, the resonances of the panels and the cavity are considered simultaneously to further reduce the transmitted noise through an existing double panel structure. A structural-acoustic coupled model is developed to investigate and compare various structural control and cavity control methods. Numerical analysis and real-time control results show that structural control should be applied to both panels. Three types of cavity control sources are presented and compared. The results indicate that the largest noise reduction is obtained with cavity control by loudspeakers modified to operate as incident pressure sources.

  2. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  3. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-11-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.

  4. LastQuake: a comprehensive strategy for rapid engagement of earthquake eyewitnesses, massive crowdsourcing and risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.; Frobert, L.

    2015-12-01

    LastQuake is a smartphone app, browser add-on and the most sophisticated Twitter robot (quakebot) for earthquakes currently in operation. It fulfills eyewitnesses' needs by offering information on felt earthquakes and their effects within tens of seconds of their occurrence. Associated with an active presence on Facebook, Pinterest and on websites, this proves a very efficient engagement strategy. For example, the app was installed thousands of times after the Ghorka earthquake in Nepal. Language barriers have been erased by using visual communication; for example, felt reports are collected through a set of cartoons representing different shaking levels. Within 3 weeks of the magnitude 7.8 Ghorka earthquakes, 7,000 felt reports with thousands of comments were collected related to the mainshock and tens of its aftershocks as well as 100 informative geo-located pics. The QuakeBot was essential in allowing us to be identified so well and interact with those affected. LastQuake is also a risk reduction tool since it provides rapid information. Rapid information is similar to prevention since when it does not exist, disasters can happen. When no information is available after a felt earthquake, the public block emergency lines by trying to find out the cause of the shaking, crowds form potentially leading to unpredictable crowd movement, rumors spread. In its next release LastQuake will also provide people with guidance immediately after a shaking through a number of pop-up cartoons illustrating "do/don't do" items (go to open places, do not phone emergency services except if people are injured…). LastQuake's app design is simple and intuitive and has a global audience. It benefited from a crowdfunding campaign (and the support of the Fondation MAIF) and more improvements have been planned after an online feedback campaign organized in early June with the Ghorka earthquake eyewitnesses. LastQuake is also a seismic risk reduction tools thanks to its very rapid

  5. Evaluation of Strategies for Balancing Water Use and Streamflow Reductions in the Upper Charles River Basin, Eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jack R.

    2004-01-01

    River as it exits the basin increased by 18 percent during July through September and an excess water-supply capacity of 13.4 cubic feet per second, above and beyond average use, would be available to all towns in the basin. These study results could help water suppliers and regulators evaluate strategies for balancing ground-water development and streamflow reductions in the basin.

  6. The economic burden of blindness in Pakistan: a socio-economic and policy imperative for poverty reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Awan, Haroon; Malik, Sadia Mariam; Khan, Niaz Ullah

    2012-01-01

    State and nonstate health programs in developing countries are often influenced by priorities that are defined in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the wake of recessionary pressures, policy makers in the health sector are often seen to divert significant budgets to some specific health programs and make only token allocations for other health problems that are important but do not fall under the traditional MDG box of health priorities. This paper illustrates the economic argument for investment in one such program: The eye health program and employs a country case study of Pakistan to demonstrate that there are significant economic gains that are being foregone by not addressing the needs of the blind in poverty reduction strategies. By applying appropriate growth and discounting factors and using the average wage rate, the paper estimates the total productivity gains that are realizable over a period of 10 years if the blind population in Pakistan is rehabilitated and their carers released to participate in the mainstream economic activity. Our findings indicate that significant productivity gains accumulated over 10 years, range from Rs. 61 billion (US$ 709 million) to Rs. 421 billion (US$ 4.9 billion) depending upon whether the entire blind population or only those affected by a specific cause are rehabilitated. The per annum productivity gains of rehabilitating the entire blind population represents 0.74% of the current gross domestic product of Pakistan, which is higher than the total public spending on health. In order to reap these benefits, the subsequent absorption of the rehabilitated blind and their carers into mainstream economic activity is as important as their effective rehabilitation.

  7. The use of geographical information systems for disaster risk reduction strategies: a case study of Volcan de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeg, O.

    Contemporary disaster risk management requires the analysis of vulnerability and hazard exposure, which is imperative at Volcan de Colima (VdC), Mexico, due to the predicted, large-magnitude eruption forecast to occur before 2025. The methods used to gauge social vulnerability included the development and application of proxies to census records, the undertaking of a building vulnerability survey and the spatial mapping of civil and emergency infrastructure. Hazard exposure was assessed using primary modelling of laharic events and the digitalisation of secondary data sources detailing the modelled extent of pyroclastic flows and tephra deposition associated with a large-magnitude (VEI 5) eruption at VdC. The undertaking and analysis of a risk perception survey of the population enabled an understanding of the cognitive behaviour of residents towards the volcanic risk. In comparison to the published hazard map, the GIS analysis highlighted an underestimation of lahar hazard on the western flank of VdC and the regional tephra hazard. Vulnerability analysis identified three communities where social deprivation is relatively high, and those with significant elderly and transient populations near the volcano. Furthermore, recognition of the possibility of an eruption in the near future was found to be low across the study region. These results also contributed to the analysis of emergency management procedures and the preparedness of the regional authorities. This multidisciplinary research programme demonstrates the success of applying a GIS platform to varied integrative spatial and temporal analysis. Furthermore, ascertaining the impact of future activity at VdC upon its surrounding populations permits the evaluation of emergency preparedness and disaster risk reduction strategies.

  8. Sustained Reduction of the Dengue Vector Population Resulting from an Integrated Control Strategy Applied in Two Brazilian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Lêda N.; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M. Nogueira.; da Silva, Juliana C. Serafim.; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M. F.; Barbosa, Rosângela M. R.; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N. M.; Ribeiro Jr., Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008–2009, with 96.8%–100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program’s success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program. PMID:23844059

  9. SLCP co-control approach in East Asia: Tropospheric ozone reduction strategy by simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kurokawa, Jun`ichi; Sudo, Kengo; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Takemura, Toshihiko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The emissions of NOx and CO2 in East Asia (Northeast and Southeast Asia) contribute more than 30% of the global total since 2008, and consequently the control of air pollutants and CO2 alleviating regional air pollution and global climate change is of great concern of not only in this region but also worldwide. In order to arrive at a rational view of the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) co-control approach in East Asia, the effectiveness of the reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions for the reduction of tropospheric O3 has been evaluated by individual and simultaneous 50%-reduction of the emissions in Northeast Asia (NEA) using both a global chemical climate model (CHASER/SPRINTARS-MIROC), and a regional chemical transport model (WRF-CMAQ). The simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions was found to reduce the regional concentration of surface O3 in NEA, and globally averaged net radiative forcing most effectively. Global mean RF and regional air quality change were also evaluated for the climate stabilization scenario ("450-ppm"), and climate stabilization with additional air pollution mitigation strengthened scenario ("450-ppm-cntr") developed in IIASA with the aid of GAINS model. In the 450 ppm-cntr scenario, emissions of NOx NMVOC, BC and OC were further reduced respectively, for East Asia from the emissions in 450 ppm. The improvement of air quality as well as the mitigation of climate change would grant to the basis of the SLCP co-control approach in East Asia.

  10. Relationship Dynamics and Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies Among Heterosexual Young Adults: A Qualitative Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendees at an Urban Chicago Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197

  11. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in

  12. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  13. Substance-Use and Sexual Harm-Reduction Strategies of Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men and Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Noor, Syed W.; Breckenridge, Ellen D.; Adeboye, Adeniyi A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that men who have sex with men (MSM), use methamphetamine, and inject drugs are at high risk of HIV infection and they employ multiple harm reduction strategies simultaneously to reduce that risk. In this study, we identified substances most commonly injected and harm reduction strategies most often employed by methamphetamine-using MSM, used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of harm reduction strategies, and differentiated MSM within each class by individual characteristics. We analyzed data from 284 participants who completed an online cross-sectional survey. Commonly injected substances were methamphetamine (93.70%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (41.55%), flunitrazepam (40.49%), and cocaine (35.56%). The substance-use strategies most often used were avoidance of sharing needles (85.92%) and use of bleach to clean drug paraphernalia (64.08%). The sexual strategy most often used was avoidance of condomless anal intercourse (CAS) while using drugs (77.11%). Using an LCA approach, we identified three classes distinguishable by age, race/ethnicity, and outness. One class (19%) employed lay strategies to reduce harm: they avoided sharing drug preparation equipment, serosorted when sharing needles and equipment or having CAS, and practiced withdrawal when having CAS. The largest class (53%) combined sexual and substance use strategies: they avoided sharing needles, used bleach to clean needles and equipment, avoided CAS when using drugs, and used extra lubricant when having CAS. The remaining class (28%) employed only substance-use rather than sexual strategies. More MSM of color were in the substance-use class, and more young, non-Hispanic White men were in the lay class. The low utilization of sexual strategies by younger, non-Hispanic White men in the lay class is concerning as they are just as likely as older, non-Hispanic White men in the combined class to have CAS with multiple male partners. Interventionists should

  14. Blue Collar and Beyond: The Experiences of Non-English Speaking Background Women in the Australian Labour Force [and] Strategies for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorso, Caroline; Harrison, Graham

    The report on women with non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB) in the Australian labor force was prepared to review the experience and needs of this population in recent years and to examine the various available sources of information. The first section reviews the standard statistical sources and their research methodologies. The second and…

  15. Strategies for Implementing AIDS/HIV Policy Guidelines in Developmental and Mental Health Services: A Background and Checklist for Advocates. AIDS Technical Report, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David C.

    This technical report is part of a series on AIDS/HIV (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and is intended to help link various legal advocacy organizations providing services to persons with mental illness or developmental disabilities. Through a series of case examples, questions, background information, and…

  16. Investigating the Impact of Early Institutional Deprivation on Development: Background and Research Strategy of the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Castle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the mid adolescent follow-up of a group of adoptees from Romania and from within the United Kingdom who were first assessed at the age of 4 years (or 6 years in the case of the oldest children). After describing the structure of this monograph, this chapter provides the background as it applied at the time that the…

  17. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: I. Background, experimental strategy and critique.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L

    2014-09-01

    The National Environmental Respiratory Center Program was initiated as an experiment to explore strategies for identifying the components of complex air pollution mixtures that cause health effects associated statistically with air pollution. A strategy involving multivariate analysis of a composition-concentration-response database was adopted. A novel database was created by exposing rodents daily for up to six months to one of four combustion-related mixtures and measuring respiratory, cardiovascular and general toxicological responses after one week or six months of exposure. The mixtures included multiple concentrations of diesel and gasoline engine exhaust, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal combustion emissions. After reporting the biological effects of each mixture and comparing effects among them, 47 significant effects were selected for multiple additive regression tree analysis to identify putative causal components. Although the four mixtures provided a database marginally sufficient for the analysis, the results suggested the putative causes of 19 significant effects with acceptable confidence. This article describes and critiques the Program and its strategy. The integrated results are presented in two accompanying papers, and mixture-specific results were presented in preceding papers, which are cited. The experiment demonstrated the potential utility of the general approach and identified certain cause-effect relationships for confirmatory studies. A follow-up study provided support for causation by the components implicated for one of those relationships. The advantages and disadvantages of the Program's management and funding strategies are discussed. PMID:25162718

  18. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  19. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power.

    PubMed

    Schivley, Greg; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Marriott, Joe; Hawkins, Troy R; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the cofired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in unintended increases in impacts to air and water quality and human health. This study provides a unique analysis of the potential environmental impact reductions from upgrading existing subcritical pulverized coal power plants to increase their efficiency, improving environmental controls, cofiring biomass, and exporting steam for industrial use. The climate impacts are examined in both a traditional-100 year GWP-method and a time series analysis that accounts for emission and uptake timing over the life of the power plant. Compared to fleet average pulverized bed boilers (33% efficiency), we find that circulating fluidized bed boilers (39% efficiency) may provide GHG reductions of about 13% when using 100% coal and reductions of about 20-37% when cofiring with 30% biomass. Additional greenhouse gas reductions from combined heat and power are minimal if the steam coproduct displaces steam from an efficient natural gas boiler. These upgrades and cofiring biomass can also reduce other life cycle impacts, although there may be increased impacts to water quality (eutrophication) when using biomass from an intensely cultivated source. Climate change impacts are sensitive to the timing of emissions and carbon sequestration as well as the time horizon over which impacts are considered, particularly for long growth woody biomass. PMID:26001040

  20. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power.

    PubMed

    Schivley, Greg; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Marriott, Joe; Hawkins, Troy R; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the cofired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in unintended increases in impacts to air and water quality and human health. This study provides a unique analysis of the potential environmental impact reductions from upgrading existing subcritical pulverized coal power plants to increase their efficiency, improving environmental controls, cofiring biomass, and exporting steam for industrial use. The climate impacts are examined in both a traditional-100 year GWP-method and a time series analysis that accounts for emission and uptake timing over the life of the power plant. Compared to fleet average pulverized bed boilers (33% efficiency), we find that circulating fluidized bed boilers (39% efficiency) may provide GHG reductions of about 13% when using 100% coal and reductions of about 20-37% when cofiring with 30% biomass. Additional greenhouse gas reductions from combined heat and power are minimal if the steam coproduct displaces steam from an efficient natural gas boiler. These upgrades and cofiring biomass can also reduce other life cycle impacts, although there may be increased impacts to water quality (eutrophication) when using biomass from an intensely cultivated source. Climate change impacts are sensitive to the timing of emissions and carbon sequestration as well as the time horizon over which impacts are considered, particularly for long growth woody biomass.

  1. Effectiveness of intervention strategies exclusively targeting reductions in children's sedentary time: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Kist-van Holthe, Joana; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of interventions targeting sedentary behaviour in children have emerged in recent years. Recently published reviews included sedentary behaviour and physical activity interventions. This review critically summarizes evidence on the effectiveness of intervention strategies that exclusively targeted reducing sedentary time in children and adolescents. We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library through November 2015. Two independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted relevant data and rated the methodological quality using the assessment tool for quantitative studies. We included 21 intervention studies, of which 8 studies scored moderate on methodological quality and 13 studies scored weak. Four out of eight moderate quality studies reported significant beneficial intervention effects.Although descriptions of intervention strategies were not always clearly reported, we identified encouragement of a TV turnoff week and implementing standing desks in classrooms as promising strategies. Due to a lack of high quality studies and inconsistent findings, we found no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of existing interventions targeting solely sedentary behaviour. We recommend that future studies apply mediation analyses to explore which strategies are most effective. Furthermore, to increase the effectiveness of interventions, knowledge of children's motives to engage in sedentary behavior is required, as well as their opinion on potentially effective intervention strategies. PMID:27276873

  2. Using SMS as a Harm Reduction Strategy: An Evaluation of the RAGE (Register and Get Educated) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Belinda; Keleher, Helen; Rudd, Annette; Klein, Ruth; Locke, Beth; Roussy, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    The RAGE (Register And Get Educated) project explored the feasibility of SMS (Short Messaging Service) as a means for communicating harm reduction messages in relation to alcohol and other drugs to young people residing in the City of Knox, Victoria. Almost 700 young people aged 12-26 years registered their mobile phone numbers to receive a series…

  3. High-Energy-Density Fuel Blending Strategies and Drop Dispersion for Fuel Cost Reduction and Soot Propensity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1998-01-01

    The idea that low soot propensity of high-energy-density (HED) liquid sooting fuels and cost reduction of a multicomponent energetic fuel can be achieved by doping a less expensive, less sooting liquid fuel with HED is tested through numerical simulations.

  4. Improving Fall Risk Factor Identification and Documentation of Risk Reduction Strategies by Rehabilitation Therapists through Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    This static group comparison study determined that an educational intervention was effective in increasing fall risk factor assessment, documentation of fall risk factors, and strategies devised to reduce fall risk factors by rehabilitation therapists for their older adult outpatients in clinics. Results showed that experimental group identified…

  5. Food reformulation and the (neo)-liberal state: new strategies for strengthening voluntary salt reduction programs in the UK and USA.

    PubMed

    Reeve, B; Magnusson, R

    2015-04-01

    Globally, excess salt intake is a significant cause of preventable heart disease and stroke, given the established links between high salt intake, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease. This paper describes and evaluates the voluntary approaches to salt reduction that operate in the United Kingdom and the United States, and proposes a new strategy for improving their performance. Drawing on developments in the theory and practice of public health governance, as well as theoretical ideas theoretical ideas from the field of regulatory studies, this paper proposes a responsive regulatory model for managing food reformulation initiatives, including salt reduction programs. This model provides a transparent framework for guiding industry behavior, making full use of industry's willingness to participate in efforts to create healthier products, but using 'legislative scaffolding' to escalate from self-regulation towards co-regulation if industry fails to play its part in achieving national goals and targets.

  6. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma.

  7. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma. PMID:25738952

  8. Evaluating operation strategies and process stability of a single stage nitritation-anammox SBR by use of the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP).

    PubMed

    Lackner, Susanne; Horn, Harald

    2012-03-01

    A single stage nitritation-anammox SBR was operated for 300 days to investigate the impact of cycle operation strategies on process performance and the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as process monitoring parameter. Different combinations of feeding (interval, continuous, one-time) and aeration (interval, continuous) strategies were tested revealing that interval feeding and interval aeration was the most suitable case in terms of process performance (ammonium removal, nitrate production and pH stability) and use of the ORP value as indicator parameter. Further investigations into the use of the ORP value showed clear correlations of the ORP slope with the air flow rate and the maximum ORP peak with the ammonium loading under varying operation conditions. Depletion of the main substrates (ammonium and oxygen) was also detectable fastest following the ORP value proofing its worth for process control.

  9. The application of SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) in the development of compensatory cognitive rehabilitation strategies for stroke patients with left and right brain damage.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charmayne M L; Baber, Chris; Bienkiewicz, Marta; Worthington, Andrew; Hazell, Alexa; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 33% of stroke patients have difficulty performing activities of daily living, often committing errors during the planning and execution of such activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the human error identification (HEI) technique SHERPA (Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach) to predict errors during the performance of daily activities in stroke patients with left and right hemisphere lesions. Using SHERPA we successfully predicted 36 of the 38 observed errors, with analysis indicating that the proportion of predicted and observed errors was similar for all sub-tasks and severity levels. HEI results were used to develop compensatory cognitive strategies that clinicians could employ to reduce or prevent errors from occurring. This study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of SHERPA in the design of cognitive rehabilitation strategies in stroke populations.

  10. Evaluation of Biostimulated Uranium Reduction as A Remediation Strategy for Deep Aquifers Following In-Situ Leaching And Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, C.; Akstin, K.; Fuhrmann, M.

    2013-12-01

    In situ leaching and recovery (ISR) currently is the primary method for extraction of deep roll front uranium (U) ore deposits. However, substantial levels of dissolved U in groundwater, [U], can remain after ISR extraction and long-term restorative pumping. Remediation of U contamination using in situ biostimulated microbial reduction is being evaluated for use following ISR. A key requirement for biostimulation-based remediation is the long-term stability of the sequestered U following cessation of biostimulation and the return to ambient groundwater conditions. Laboratory column experiments with sediments from an aquifer previously mined by ISR showed that 20 μM [U] influent was lowered to <0.1 μM through reduction and precipitation of U(IV) during biostimulation of the indigenous microbial population with lactate. The onset of [U] removal was concomitant with iron reduction and continued through 82 days (77 pore volumes, PV) well after the onset of sulfate reduction. XANES measurements showed that >95% of the sequestered U was U(IV). Following removal of electron donor and U(VI) from the influent, effluent [U] remained low (<0.1 μM) for over 32 days (30 PV). Upon addition of suboxic levels of dissolved oxygen (6 μM) to the influent, sequestered U was remobilized with effluent [U] increasing linearly to 0.6 μM after 35 days (33 PV) of suboxic elution. Subsequently, the rate of U remobilization increased rapidly with [U] reaching 13 μM after 87 days (82 PV), at which point about ~27% of the bioreduced U had been oxidized and remobilized. These results indicate that biostimulation is effective in lowering [U] following ISR but that maintaining reducing conditions is necessary to limit remobilization of sequestered U.

  11. A repeated cross-sectional study of socio-economic inequities in dietary sodium consumption among Canadian adults: implications for national sodium reduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many countries including Canada, excess consumption of dietary sodium is common, and this has adverse implications for population health. Socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption seem likely, but research is limited. Knowledge of socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption is important for informing population-level sodium reduction strategies, to ensure that they are both impactful and equitable. Methods We examined the association between socio-economic indicators (income and education) and sodium, using two outcome variables: 1) sodium consumption in mg/day, and 2) reported use of table salt, in two national surveys: the 1970/72 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. This permitted us to explore whether there were any changes in socio-economic patterning in dietary sodium during a time period characterized by modest, information-based national sodium reduction efforts, as well as to provide baseline information against which to examine the impact (equitable or not) of future sodium reduction strategies in Canada. Results There was no evidence of a socio-economic inequity in sodium consumption (mg/day) in 2004. In fact findings pointed to a positive association in women, whereby women of higher education consumed more sodium than women of lower education in 2004. For men, income was positively associated with reported use of table salt in 1970/72, but negatively associated in 2004. Conclusions An emerging inequity in reported use of table salt among men could reflect the modest, information-based sodium reduction efforts that were implemented during the time frame considered. However, for sodium consumption in mg/day, we found no evidence of a contemporary inequity, and in fact observed the opposite effect among women. Our findings could reflect data limitations, or they could signal that sodium differs from some other nutrients in terms of its socio-economic patterning, perhaps reflecting very

  12. Challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Part II. Feedback and occlusion effect reduction strategies, laser shell manufacturing processes, and other signal processing technologies.

    PubMed

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  13. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  14. A label-free fluorescence strategy for selective detection of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide based on a dumbbell-like probe with low background noise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuexu; Lin, Chunshui; Chen, Yiying; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-15

    In this work we developed a novel label-free fluorescence sensing approach for the detection of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) based on a dumbbell-like DNA probe designed for both ligation reaction and digestion reaction with low background noise. SYBR Green I (SG I), a double-helix dye, was chosen as the readout fluorescence signal. In the absence of NAD(+), the ligation reaction did not occur, but the probe was digested to mononucleotides after the addition of exonuclease I (Exo I) and exonuclease I (Exo III), resulting in a weak fluorescence intensity due to the weak interaction between SG I and mononucleotides. In the presence of NAD(+), the DNA probe was ligated by Escherichia coli DNA ligase, blocking the digestion by Exo I and Exo III. As a result, SG I was intercalated into the stem part of the DNA dumbbell probe and fluorescence enhancement was achieved. This method was simple in design, fast to operate, with good sensitivity and selectivity which could discriminate NAD(+) from its analogs. PMID:26454831

  15. Long-term Calibration Strategy for the Earth Networks CO2 and CH4 Sensor Network in Urban and Background Sites Using the Picarro CRDS Gas Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Lueker, T.; Kim, J.; Salameh, P.; Walker, S.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Sloop, C.; Callahan, W.; Bixler, D.; Long, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth Networks greenhouse-gas monitoring network initiated in 2010 has now expanded to nearly 35 stations across the United States. Building on this effort, the Megacities project funded by NIST has the goal of measuring CO2, CH4 and CO concentrations in the Los Angeles region to support quantitative emissions estimates. These efforts require precise concentration measurements that are internally consistent across the network so that small changes in concentration from one location to another are representative of emissions along the pathway. In this presentation, we examine the calibration strategy for these long-term monitoring efforts using data collected over the past few years. We will address the following issues as they apply to the Picarro G2301 CRDS CO2/CH4/H2O gas analyzer: (1) The frequency of calibration required. (2) The duration of calibration needed for the inlet system to stabilize. (3) The stability and linearity of the instrument span and options for monitoring with a high concentration tank or zero air tank in addition to an ambient concentration calibration tank. We will also outline the calibration tank overlap scheme employed to ensure a consistent long-term record of calibration.

  16. Chesapeake bay basinwide toxics reduction strategy: an agreement commitment report from the Chesapeake Executive Council. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Outlines steps to be taken to work towards a toxics-free Chesapeake Bay by eliminating the discharge of toxic substances from all controllable sources. Commitments in the strategy are to ensure that by the year 2000 the input of toxic substances from all controllable sources to the Chesapeake Bay will be reduced to levels that result in no toxic or bioaccumulative impacts on the living resources that inhabit the Bay or on human health.

  17. Wills Eye Hospital and surgical network: successful pre-positioning strategies for payment reduction and managed care pressures.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D M

    2001-01-01

    Through strategic clinical diversification, political activism, and bold expansion, Wills Eye Hospital, a teaching specialty surgical hospital, survives ravages of sudden onslaughts of managed care payment reductions while maintaining autonomy. Slack inpatient resources were re-utilized to create unique programs attractive to regional managed care organizations. Advocacy and lobbying for short-term favorable treatment from Medicare bought the Hospital valuable time and positioning. Building out a regional network of ambulatory surgical centers assures the growth and access to market required for Wills to maintain its autonomy in a managed care contracting environment. PMID:11372488

  18. Wills Eye Hospital and surgical network: successful pre-positioning strategies for payment reduction and managed care pressures.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D M

    2001-01-01

    Through strategic clinical diversification, political activism, and bold expansion, Wills Eye Hospital, a teaching specialty surgical hospital, survives ravages of sudden onslaughts of managed care payment reductions while maintaining autonomy. Slack inpatient resources were re-utilized to create unique programs attractive to regional managed care organizations. Advocacy and lobbying for short-term favorable treatment from Medicare bought the Hospital valuable time and positioning. Building out a regional network of ambulatory surgical centers assures the growth and access to market required for Wills to maintain its autonomy in a managed care contracting environment.

  19. REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings (RESTORE): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology—Participatory Learning and Action—to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice. Methods This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders—migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory’s four constructs—coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co-analysis with key stakeholders

  20. KAZAN: Will you survive the next geodisaster? An educational game for raising awareness about geohazards and risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossoux, Sophie; Delcamp, Audray; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters remain too often presented in the media as the results from extreme natural phenomena affecting helpless people. School students and stakeholders, especially in developing countries, have a limited awareness of the different components of disasters and of the complementary strategies existing to mitigate their impacts. Using the specific example of the Ngazidja Island (Comoros), we developed and tested a new board game aiming at raising awareness about geohazards (i.e. earthquake, tsunami, lava flow, volcanic ash fall). This game highlights the various and spatially-variable geohazard impacts on the exposed population, the key role played by livelihood strategies and the access to natural resources in controlling long term impacts, and the capacity of a community to act in reducing its vulnerability to natural hazards. The target public of this game are 1. secondary school students, 2. scientists and stakeholders involved to some degree in risk management activities, and 3. people exposed to these hazards. For the first group, the aim is to allow them to better interpret the disaster to which they are confronted in the media, whereas for the second group, the objective is to generate discussion about the efficiency and complementarity of contrasted risk management strategies. The objective for the last group is to help them to understand the hazard to which they are confronted in order to be better prepared. In this contribution, we will present the game board and the implemented rules. This game was tested with several groups of secondary school students in Belgium and with geologists and risk managers in Tanzania and in the Comores. On the basis of the analysis of the game strategies developed by the players, their reactions during the game and their answers to a short questionnaire, we analyse the main learning outcomes that are conveyed by this game. We compare these outcomes with key elements of the risk management, focusing on geohazards in

  1. Shelf-life Reduction as an Emerging Problem in Cooked Hams Underlines the Need for Improved Preservation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Cooked hams have gained an important position within the delicatessen market. Nowadays, consumers not only demand superior sensory properties but also request low levels of sodium and fat and the absence of conventional chemicals and preservatives used for the increase of the technological yield and shelf-life of the products. As a result, products that apply strict quality certificates or ''clean'' labels become increasingly important. However, such cooked hams suffer from a limited shelf-life. Besides some physicochemical effects, this is mainly due to microbial impact, despite the application of modified-atmosphere-packaging and chilling. Microbial spoilage is mostly due to the metabolic manifestation of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta, although Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts may occur too. Several preservation strategies have been developed to prolong the shelf-life of such vulnerable cooked meat products by targeting the microbial communities, with different rates of success. Whereas high-pressure treatments do not always pose a straightforward solution, a promising strategy relates to the use of bioprotective cultures containing lactic acid bacteria. The latter consist of strains that are deliberately added to the ham to outcompete undesirable microorganisms. Spoilage problems seem, however, to be specific for each product and processing line, underlining the importance of tailor-made solutions.

  2. Shelf-life Reduction as an Emerging Problem in Cooked Hams Underlines the Need for Improved Preservation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Cooked hams have gained an important position within the delicatessen market. Nowadays, consumers not only demand superior sensory properties but also request low levels of sodium and fat and the absence of conventional chemicals and preservatives used for the increase of the technological yield and shelf-life of the products. As a result, products that apply strict quality certificates or ''clean'' labels become increasingly important. However, such cooked hams suffer from a limited shelf-life. Besides some physicochemical effects, this is mainly due to microbial impact, despite the application of modified-atmosphere-packaging and chilling. Microbial spoilage is mostly due to the metabolic manifestation of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta, although Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts may occur too. Several preservation strategies have been developed to prolong the shelf-life of such vulnerable cooked meat products by targeting the microbial communities, with different rates of success. Whereas high-pressure treatments do not always pose a straightforward solution, a promising strategy relates to the use of bioprotective cultures containing lactic acid bacteria. The latter consist of strains that are deliberately added to the ham to outcompete undesirable microorganisms. Spoilage problems seem, however, to be specific for each product and processing line, underlining the importance of tailor-made solutions. PMID:24915326

  3. Identification of effective screening strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention in a developing country: using cardiovascular risk-estimation and risk-reduction tools for policy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent increases in cardiovascular risk-factor prevalences have led to new national policy recommendations of universal screening for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Malaysia. This study assessed whether the current national policy recommendation of universal screening was optimal, by comparing the effectiveness and impact of various cardiovascular screening strategies. Methods Data from a national population based survey of 24 270 participants aged 30 to 74 was used. Five screening strategies were modelled for the overall population and by gender; universal and targeted screening (four age cut-off points). Screening strategies were assessed based on the ability to detect high cardiovascular risk populations (effectiveness), incremental effectiveness, impact on cardiovascular event prevention and cost of screening. Results 26.7% (95% confidence limits 25.7, 27.7) were at high cardiovascular risk, men 34.7% (33.6, 35.8) and women 18.9% (17.8, 20). Universal screening identified all those at high-risk and resulted in one high-risk individual detected for every 3.7 people screened, with an estimated cost of USD60. However, universal screening resulted in screening an additional 7169 persons, with an incremental cost of USD115,033 for detection of one additional high-risk individual in comparison to targeted screening of those aged ≥35 years. The cost, incremental cost and impact of detection of high-risk individuals were more for women than men for all screening strategies. The impact of screening women aged ≥45 years was similar to universal screening in men. Conclusions Targeted gender- and age-specific screening strategies would ensure more optimal utilisation of scarce resources compared to the current policy recommendations of universal screening. PMID:23442728

  4. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the

  5. Integrating toxicity reduction strategies for materials and components into product design: a case study on utility meters.

    PubMed

    Lam, Carl W; Lim, Seong-Rin; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Shapiro, Andrew A; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Brock, Andrew; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-04-01

    Using RIO Tronics utility meter products as an industrial case study, the numeric Fraunhofer Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment tool is used to determine high impact materials with the aim of reducing the content of inherently toxic substances in these products. However, because product redesign with alternative materials affects entire components, overall component toxicity potential must also be explored. To achieve this, material TPI scores are aggregated into component TPI scores by 2 methods: 1) the Sum-Weighted Component TPI method, which considers the mass of materials in the component to assign an overall score, and 2) the Max Component TPI method, which scores the component with the highest impact material. With consideration of uncertainties from materials' toxicity information and mass estimates, key results from both scoring methods prioritized components that contain acrylonitrile-based polymers, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and stainless steel. Furthermore, an alternative materials assessment is carried out to identify less-toxic substitutes to meet cost and technical constraints. Substitute materials such as Al alloys for stainless steel and high-density polyethylene for PVC show promise for a combination of toxicity reduction and cost-effectiveness. The new screening methodology described can help product designers systematically benchmark toxicity potential in parallel to cost and functionality.

  6. OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

  7. Fishery induces sperm depletion and reduction in male reproductive potential for crab species under male-biased harvest strategy.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Luis Miguel; Rosas, Yenifer; Fuentes, Juan Pablo; Riveros, Marcela Paz; Chaparro, Oscar Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Sperm depletion in males can occur when polygynous species are intensively exploited under a male-biased management strategy. In fisheries involving crabs species, the effects of this type of management on the reproductive potential is far from being understood. This study tests whether male-biased management of the principal Chilean crab fishery is able to affect the potential capacity of Metacarcinus edwardsii males to transfer sperm to females. Five localities in southern Chile, recording contrasting crab fishery landing, were selected to assess the potential of sperm depletion triggered by fishery. Seasonally, male crabs from each locality were obtained. Dry weight and histological condition of vasa deferentia and the Vaso-Somatic Index (VSI) were determined in order to use them as proxies for sperm depletion and male reproductive condition. A manipulative experiment was performed in the laboratory to estimate vasa deferentia weight and VSI from just-mated males in order to obtain a reference point for the potential effects of the fishery on sperm reserves. Sperm storage capacity is significantly affected by fisheries; during the mating season vasa deferentia from localities with low fishery intensity were heavier than those from high intensity fisheries, and these differences were even more evident in large males. Histological section showed that this disparity in vasa deferentia weight was explained principally by differences in the quantity of spermatophores rather than other seminal material. VSI was always higher in males from localities with low fishery intensity. Males from localities with high fishery intensity showed little capacity to recover sperm reserves and the VSI of these males remained below the values of the just-mated males. Detriment in the capacity of males to transfer sperm is the first step to sperm limitation in an exploited population, thus detection of sperm depletion can be an alert to introduce changes in the current management of

  8. Fishery Induces Sperm Depletion and Reduction in Male Reproductive Potential for Crab Species under Male-Biased Harvest Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Luis Miguel; Rosas, Yenifer; Fuentes, Juan Pablo; Riveros, Marcela Paz; Chaparro, Oscar Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Sperm depletion in males can occur when polygynous species are intensively exploited under a male-biased management strategy. In fisheries involving crabs species, the effects of this type of management on the reproductive potential is far from being understood. This study tests whether male-biased management of the principal Chilean crab fishery is able to affect the potential capacity of Metacarcinus edwardsii males to transfer sperm to females. Five localities in southern Chile, recording contrasting crab fishery landing, were selected to assess the potential of sperm depletion triggered by fishery. Seasonally, male crabs from each locality were obtained. Dry weight and histological condition of vasa deferentia and the Vaso-Somatic Index (VSI) were determined in order to use them as proxies for sperm depletion and male reproductive condition. A manipulative experiment was performed in the laboratory to estimate vasa deferentia weight and VSI from just-mated males in order to obtain a reference point for the potential effects of the fishery on sperm reserves. Sperm storage capacity is significantly affected by fisheries; during the mating season vasa deferentia from localities with low fishery intensity were heavier than those from high intensity fisheries, and these differences were even more evident in large males. Histological section showed that this disparity in vasa deferentia weight was explained principally by differences in the quantity of spermatophores rather than other seminal material. VSI was always higher in males from localities with low fishery intensity. Males from localities with high fishery intensity showed little capacity to recover sperm reserves and the VSI of these males remained below the values of the just-mated males. Detriment in the capacity of males to transfer sperm is the first step to sperm limitation in an exploited population, thus detection of sperm depletion can be an alert to introduce changes in the current management of

  9. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  10. A Versatile Iron-Tannin-Framework Ink Coating Strategy to Fabricate Biomass-Derived Iron Carbide/Fe-N-Carbon Catalysts for Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yaoxin; Kong, Biao; Simon, George P; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, San Ping; Wang, Huanting

    2016-01-22

    The conversion of biomass into valuable carbon composites as efficient non-precious metal oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts is attractive for the development of commercially viable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell technology. Herein, a versatile iron-tannin-framework ink coating strategy is developed to fabricate cellulose-derived Fe3 C/Fe-N-C catalysts using commercial filter paper, tissue, or cotton as a carbon source, an iron-tannin framework as an iron source, and dicyandiamide as a nitrogen source. The oxygen reduction performance of the resultant Fe3C/Fe-N-C catalysts shows a high onset potential (i.e. 0.98 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)), and large kinetic current density normalized to both geometric electrode area and mass of catalysts (6.4 mA cm(-2) and 32 mA mg(-1) at 0.80 V vs RHE) in alkaline condition. This method can even be used to prepare efficient catalysts using waste carbon sources, such as used polyurethane foam. PMID:26661901

  11. A Versatile Iron-Tannin-Framework Ink Coating Strategy to Fabricate Biomass-Derived Iron Carbide/Fe-N-Carbon Catalysts for Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yaoxin; Kong, Biao; Simon, George P; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, San Ping; Wang, Huanting

    2016-01-22

    The conversion of biomass into valuable carbon composites as efficient non-precious metal oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts is attractive for the development of commercially viable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell technology. Herein, a versatile iron-tannin-framework ink coating strategy is developed to fabricate cellulose-derived Fe3 C/Fe-N-C catalysts using commercial filter paper, tissue, or cotton as a carbon source, an iron-tannin framework as an iron source, and dicyandiamide as a nitrogen source. The oxygen reduction performance of the resultant Fe3C/Fe-N-C catalysts shows a high onset potential (i.e. 0.98 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)), and large kinetic current density normalized to both geometric electrode area and mass of catalysts (6.4 mA cm(-2) and 32 mA mg(-1) at 0.80 V vs RHE) in alkaline condition. This method can even be used to prepare efficient catalysts using waste carbon sources, such as used polyurethane foam.

  12. A facile strategy to fabricate plasmonic Cu modified TiO{sub 2} nano-flower films for photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} to methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Enzhou; Qi, Lulu; Bian, Juanjuan; Chen, Yihan; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun; Liu, Hanchen; Zhu, Changjun; Wang, Qiuping

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Photoreduction of CO{sub 2} to CH{sub 3}OH over plasmonic Cu/TiO{sub 2} film. - Highlights: • Cu nanoparticles modified TiO{sub 2} nano-flower film was prepared by a facile strategy. • Cu nanoparticles can enhance the light absorption and the Raman scattering of TiO{sub 2}. • Cu nanoparticles can effectively restrain the recombination of the charge carriers. • A synergistic mechanism is proposed for photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} on Cu/TiO{sub 2} film. - Abstract: Cu nanoparticles (NPs) deposited TiO{sub 2} nano-flower films were fabricated using a combination of a hydrothermal method and a microwave-assisted reduction process. The investigations indicated that Cu NPs and TiO{sub 2} film both exhibit visible light harvesting properties based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Cu NPs and unique nanostructures of TiO{sub 2} film. Fluorescence quenching was observed because the recombination of charge carriers was effectively suppressed by Cu NPs deposition. The experimental results indicate that Cu/TiO{sub 2} films exhibit better activity for the photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} due to the charge transfer property and LSPR effect of Cu NPs. The CH{sub 3}OH production rate reached 1.8 μmol cm{sup −2} h{sup −1} (energy efficiency was 0.8%) over 0.5 Cu/TiO{sub 2} film under UV and visible light irradiation, which was 6.0 times higher than that observed over pure TiO{sub 2} film. In addition, a tentative photocatalytic mechanism is proposed to understand the experimental results over the Cu modified TiO{sub 2} nano-flower films.

  13. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  14. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  15. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  16. Gamma background discrimination in the XENON100 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgarejo, Antonio; Xenon100 Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments rely on the ability to have an expected background close to 0 in order to be able to identify possible WIMP signals. Among the multiple strategies to achieve this goal, most of the experiments use background reduction techniques which exploit the difference between electron-like signal (most radioactive backgrounds) and neutron-like signals (neutrons and WIMPs). In this talk we will show the studies and measurements within the XENON100 experiment to distinguish signals from electrons and neutrons by comparing their light to signal ratio. A straightforward prediction of this work is the amount of events expected in the dark matter region in this experiment. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF, DOE, SNF, the Volkswagen Foundation, FCT and STCSM. We are grateful to the LNGS for hosting and supporting the XENON program.

  17. Intra-Clutch Ratio of Yolk Progesterone Level Changes with Laying Date in Rockhopper Penguins: A Strategy to Influence Brood Reduction?

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Parenteau, Charline; Eens, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Hatching asynchrony in avian species generally leads to a size hierarchy among siblings, favouring the first-hatched chicks. Maternally deposited hormones affect the embryo and chick's physiology and behaviour. It has been observed that progesterone, a hormone present at higher levels than other steroid hormones in egg yolks, is negatively related to body mass in embryos, chicks and adults. A differential within-clutch progesterone deposition could therefore be linked to the size hierarchy between siblings and to the resulting brood reduction. We tested whether yolk progesterone levels differed between eggs according to future parental ability to feed the entire clutch in wild rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome. This species presents a unique reversed egg-size dimorphism and hatching asynchrony, with the larger second-laid egg (B-egg) hatching before the smaller first-laid egg (A-egg). Yolk progesterone levels increased only slightly with female body mass at laying. However, intra-clutch ratios were not related to female body mass. On the other hand, yolk progesterone levels increased significantly with the date of laying onset for A-eggs while they decreased for B-eggs. Early clutches therefore had proportionally more progesterone in the B-egg compared to the A-egg while late clutches had proportionally less progesterone in the B-egg. We propose that females could strategically regulate yolk progesterone deposition within clutches according to the expected food availability during chick growth, an adaptive strategy to adjust brood reduction to conditions. We also discuss these results, relating to yolk progesterone, in the broader context of other yolk steroids. PMID:22110758

  18. Strategies of Managing Budget Reductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert E.

    A tabular presentation of cost-cutting measures, this report by the school board chairman provides introductory data on York County Public Schools, Virginia, followed by the district's 1982-83 allocations and anticipated 5-year savings on a range of policies. Cost-saving personnel policies include employing part-time secondary teachers, combining…

  19. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  20. Peer support using a mobile access van promotes safety and harm reduction strategies among sex trade workers in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Patricia A; Gibson, Kate; Bowen, Raven; Spittal, Patricia M; Petersen, Karen L

    2009-09-01

    Women in the sex trade whose economic and social base are urban streets face multiple dangers of predation, isolation, and illness. A Mobile Access Project (MAP) to provide emergency medical help, peer counseling, condoms and clean needles, resource information and referral, and a place of respite and safety was initiated for sex trade workers in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We conducted surveys with 100 women sex workers who accessed MAP services and reviewed MAP logbooks to document use of services. We assessed the impact of MAP through review of data from a concurrent cohort study of injection drug users and a survey of 97 women at a drop-in center in the Downtown Eastside. Over 90% of MAP clients reported that the van made them feel safer on the street. Sixteen percent of surveyed MAP clients recalled a specific incident in which the van's presence protected them from a physical assault and 10% recalled an incident when its presence had prevented a sexual assault. Distribution of needles and condoms has increased steadily since the implementation of MAP. Eighty percent of women surveyed at a drop-in center in the Downtown Eastside had received services from MAP. The peer-led Mobile Access Project has emerged as a viable harm reduction strategy for serving the immediate health and trauma-related needs of women engaged in street-level sex work.

  1. Ultra-low-dose dual-source CT coronary angiography with high pitch: diagnostic yield of a volumetric planning scan and effects on dose reduction and imaging strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, B; Huppertz, A; Lembcke, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of an ultra-low-dose dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scan with high pitch for delimiting the range of the subsequent standard CTCA scan. Methods: 30 patients with an indication for CTCA were prospectively examined using a two-scan dual-source CTCA protocol (2.0 × 64.0 × 0.6 mm; pitch, 3.4; rotation time of 280 ms; 100 kV): Scan 1 was acquired with one-fifth of the tube current suggested by the automatic exposure control software [CareDose 4D™ (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using 100 kV and 370 mAs as a reference] with the scan length from the tracheal bifurcation to the diaphragmatic border. Scan 2 was acquired with standard tube current extending with reduced scan length based on Scan 1. Nine central coronary artery segments were analysed qualitatively on both scans. Results: Scan 2 (105.1 ± 10.1 mm) was significantly shorter than Scan 1 (127.0 ± 8.7 mm). Image quality scores were significantly better for Scan 2. However, in 5 of 6 (83%) patients with stenotic coronary artery disease, a stenosis was already detected in Scan 1 and in 13 of 24 (54%) patients with non-stenotic coronary arteries, a stenosis was already excluded by Scan 1. Using Scan 2 as reference, the positive- and negative-predictive value of Scan 1 was 83% (5 of 6 patients) and 100% (13 of 13 patients), respectively. Conclusion: An ultra-low-dose CTCA planning scan enables a reliable scan length reduction of the following standard CTCA scan and allows for correct diagnosis in a substantial proportion of patients. Advances in knowledge: Further dose reductions are possible owing to a change in the individual patient's imaging strategy as a prior ultra-low-dose CTCA scan may already rule out the presence of a stenosis or may lead to a direct transferal to an invasive catheter procedure. PMID:25710210

  2. Norms and practices within marriage which shape gender roles, HIV/AIDS risk and risk reduction strategies in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Bandali, S

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasing HIV/AIDS rates among married individuals, minimal research has been conducted on how men and women respond to risk in a marriage. This paper examines strategies used by married individuals to combat HIV/AIDS risk against prevailing gender norms. Qualitative data were gathered in four villages of Cabo Delgado province, Mozambique. Group discussions were held with 160 men and women to explore gender norms, HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk determinants. From the group discussions, 29 individuals were selected for further in-depth interviews to explore relationships between gender norms and risk reduction efforts within marriages. Findings illustrate how infidelity and social limitations placed on condom use not only increase HIV/AIDS risk but also entrench gender disparities. Although power differences between genders can make it difficult to negotiate safe sex, men and women are taking measures to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk in their marriage. Married men are reconstructing norms and taking responsibility to protect their family from HIV/AIDS by remaining faithful. For women, responses to HIV/AIDS risk in a marriage are more closely related to their ability to generate an income. Financially dependent women tend to leave a risky marriage altogether in contrast to financially autonomous women who will negotiate condom use with their husband. Factors such as experience with a risky partner, the desire to maintain a good social standing, fear of HIV/AIDS acquisition and parental guidance and support influence men and women to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk, despite constraining gender norms and power imbalances in a marriage. Nuanced understandings of the ways in which men and women are already taking measures to decrease noted HIV/AIDS risk, despite gender norms that make this a challenge, should be incorporated into localised responses.

  3. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  4. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power. Environmental Science and Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the co-fired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in ...

  5. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  6. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  7. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  8. Social Norms vs. Risk Reduction Approaches to 21st Birthday Celebrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Dodd, Virginia; Kenzik, Kelly; Miller, E. Maureen; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

    2010-01-01

    Background: Celebratory drinking among college students on their 21st birthday often involves dangerous levels of alcohol consumption. Purpose: This study utilized an experimental design to assess the efficacy of social norm and risk reduction strategies developed to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol related consequences among college students…

  9. Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Saving energy through energy efficiency improvements can cost less than generating, transmitting, and distributing energy from power plants, and provides multiple economic and environmental benefits. Local governments can promote energy efficiency in their jurisdictions by developing and implementing strategies that improve the efficiency of…

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  11. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  12. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  13. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  14. School Law: Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1988-01-01

    In an Oklahoma case, the district court ruled that the school district had failed to investigate the background of a teacher convicted of a second sexual abuse charge. School districts should examine personnel polices and practices, and the school lawyer should review state laws, regulations, and court cases. (MLF)

  15. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  16. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  17. Thermal background noise limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  18. A novel method to determine residual detergent in biological samples post endotoxin reduction treatment and evaluation of strategies for subsequent detergent removal.

    PubMed

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Japutra, Chietara; Planck, Kyle; Lihon, Michael; Nguyen, Andrew Anh

    2016-08-01

    Endotoxin removal using detergent washes and extractions are well-established, efficient, and cost-effective methods; however, removing residual detergent post treatment has been shown to be a challenge. In this communication, we show a simple and fast method for determining the detergent concentration in a protein solution post treatment and highlight strategies for detergent removal to achieve levels below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the minimum concentration at which detergent micelles form. PMID:26627559

  19. Diffuse UV Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

  20. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  1. Executive Summary: Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Background information on, and the objectives of, the NASA Global Biology Research Program are given. The following issues were addressed: (1) geographic distribution of wetland parameters, (2) the processes of wetland material fluxes, and (3) the relation of local fluxes with global processes. Wetland inventorying and categorizing, gas-phase exchanges with the atmosphere, material exchange with the aquatic environment, and material storage in wetland sediments were identified as topics requiring further research.

  2. Improving diabetes care: Multi-component CArdiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Strategies for People with Diabetes in South Asia - The CARRS Multi-center Translation Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema; Singh, Kavita; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mohan, V.; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Unnikrishnan, A.G.; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Varthakavi, Premlata; Dharmalingam, Mala; Viswanathan, Vijay; Masood, Qamar; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Desai, Ankush; Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Shivashankar, Roopa; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Reddy, K. Srinath; Narayan, K.M. Venkat; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil

    2012-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes in South Asia. The CARRS translation trial tests the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of a clinic-based multi-component CVD risk reduction intervention among people with diabetes in India and Pakistan. Methods We randomly assigned 1,146 adults with diabetes recruited from 10 urban clinic sites, to receive usual care by physicians or to receive an integrated multi-component CVD risk reduction intervention. The intervention involves electronic health record management, decision-support prompts to the healthcare team, and the support of a care coordinator to actively facilitate patient and provider adherence to evidence-based guidelines. The primary outcome is a composite of multiple CVD risk factor control (blood glucose and either blood pressure or cholesterol, or all three). Other outcomes include control of the individual CVD risk factors, process and patient-centered measures, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability/feasibility. Conclusion The CARRS translation trial tests a low-cost diabetes care delivery model in urban South Asia to achieve comprehensive cardio-metabolic disease case-management of high-risk patients (clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01212328). PMID:23084280

  3. Food-Wine Pairing Suggestions as a Risk Reduction Strategy: Reducing Risk and Increasing Wine by the Glass Sales in the Context of a Swiss Restaurant.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Lohyd; Jaquinet, Anne-Laure

    2016-08-01

    This study tests the effect of a pairing suggestion for food with wine by the glass directly placed on the menu. We made the assumption that these suggestions can, by reducing social and financial risk, increase wine by the glass sales. One hundred and fifty-nine customers of a Swiss restaurant participated in this experiment. For 82 customers, a food and wine by the glass suggestion was directly placed on the menu while the 77 others were given a normal menu (without a pairing suggestion). Results show that this type of suggestion significantly increases wine sold by the glass. Practical applications of this strategy are discussed. PMID:27431314

  4. Food-Wine Pairing Suggestions as a Risk Reduction Strategy: Reducing Risk and Increasing Wine by the Glass Sales in the Context of a Swiss Restaurant.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Lohyd; Jaquinet, Anne-Laure

    2016-08-01

    This study tests the effect of a pairing suggestion for food with wine by the glass directly placed on the menu. We made the assumption that these suggestions can, by reducing social and financial risk, increase wine by the glass sales. One hundred and fifty-nine customers of a Swiss restaurant participated in this experiment. For 82 customers, a food and wine by the glass suggestion was directly placed on the menu while the 77 others were given a normal menu (without a pairing suggestion). Results show that this type of suggestion significantly increases wine sold by the glass. Practical applications of this strategy are discussed.

  5. Stereopentads derived from a sequence of Mukaiyama aldolization and free radical reduction on alpha-methyl-beta-alkoxy aldehydes: a general strategy for efficient polypropionate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Jean-François; Mochirian, Philippe; Prévost, Michel; Guindon, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    In a stereodivergent manner, all 16 diastereomeric stereopentads 7-22 were synthesized starting with alpha-methyl-beta-alkoxy aldehydes 25 and 27. We designed an approach based on a sequence of a Mukaiyama aldolization with enoxysilane 24 followed by a hydrogen transfer reaction. Recent advancements concerning these reactions are described, and novel key intermediates are characterized in the aldol step. The synthesis of C(1)-C(11) fragment 60 of zincophorin, which contains a synthetically challenging stereopentad unit, is described attesting the usefulness of our strategy.

  6. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... strength of the national economy into U.S. national security strategy. ... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS GRADUATED MOBILIZATION RESPONSE § 334.3 Background. (a) The GMR system is designed to... take small or large, often reversible, steps to increase its national security emergency...

  7. Psychological Adaptation of Adolescents with Immigrant Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    2000-01-01

    Examines three theoretical perspectives (family values, acculturation strategies, and social group identity) as predictors of the psychological well-being of adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Reveals that the perspectives accounted for between 12% and 22% of variance of mental health, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, while social group…

  8. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  9. Trace metal variability, background levels and pollution status assessment in line with the water framework and Marine Strategy Framework EU Directives in the waters of a heavily impacted Mediterranean Gulf.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, V; Zeri, C; Kaberi, H; Chalkiadaki, O; Krasakopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Scoullos, M

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to assess trace metal pollution status (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the waters of Saronikos Gulf, Greece, in line with the WFD and MSFD European Directives, based on data collected over a decade (2000-2010). Dissolved metal background levels are estimated for the first time for Greek marine waters and the upper limits are: Cd: 0.574 nmol L(-1); Cu: 8.26 nmol L(-1); Ni: 7.94 nmol L(-1); Pb: 2.60 nmol L(-1); Zn: 115 nmol L(-1). The variability of dissolved and particulate metals reflected the presence of several point sources and revealed the importance of natural mechanisms acting as non-point sources. The status of Saronikos Gulf is classified as 'High' for most metals studied. An exception to this is the enclosed Elefsis Bay where Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations are found above background. Our work will assist the implementation of WFD and MSFD directives in Greece.

  10. Guiding Surge Reduction Strategies via Characterization of Coastal Surge Propagation and Internal Surge Generation within a Complex Bay/Estuary System, Galveston Bay, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, B.; Torres, J.; Irza, N.; Bedient, P. B.; Dawson, C.; Proft, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, Hurricane Ike (2008) and a suite of synthetic storms are simulated in order to evaluate how different hurricane landfalls, wind intensities, and radius to maximum winds influence the surge response in complex semi-enclosed bays such as Galveston Bay, located along the Texas Gulf Coast. The Advanced CIRCulation and Simulating Waves Nearshore (ADCIRC+SWAN) models are employed to quantify surge in terms of its relative coastal contributions that propagate across barrier islands and tidal inlets and subsequently into Galveston Bay, the surge generated locally within the Bay itself, and the interaction between these coastal and local components of surge. Results from this research will further the current understanding of surge interactions in bay systems and guide coastal engineering surge reduction projects that need to consider multiple lines of defense to protect complex bay/estuary systems such as Galveston Bay, TX.

  11. Implementation of the risk and harm reduction strategy against unsafe abortion in Uruguay: From a university hospital to the entire country.

    PubMed

    Labandera, Ana; Gorgoroso, Monica; Briozzo, Leonel

    2016-08-01

    The history of the creation of the risk and harm reduction model applied to unsafe abortion is reviewed, from its initial implementation by a small group of gynecologists at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center in Uruguay to its spread to the rest of the country. Its ethical rationale, its successful application in the hospital, the decision to disseminate it with the cooperation of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and the intervention procedures are explained. It was evaluated from the epidemiological and anthropological viewpoints, from the changes in professionals' and users' perception of the care offered and its impact on complications and maternal deaths. A very favorable change was seen in the number and quality of the services, the providers' attitude, and maternal morbidity and mortality were reduced. It also brought visibility to women with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies and an improved understanding of their problems, which contributed to the legislative changes that were made subsequently. PMID:27577026

  12. [The reduction of mother-child transmission of HIV infection in developing countries: potential intervention strategies, obstacles to implementation and perspectives. The Reduction of Mother-Child Transmission of HIV Infection in Africa Group].

    PubMed

    Meda, N; Msellati, P; Welffens-Ekra, C; Cartoux, M; Leroy, V; Van de Perre, P; Salamon, R

    1997-01-01

    Mother to child transmission (MCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the main cause of the spread of the HIV epidemic in the pediatric population. It is estimated that to date, three million children worldwide have been infected by HIV. The epidemic burden in developing countries is dramatic. Ninety-five percent of the world's HIV-infected women are living in developing countries. In industrialized countries, antiretroviral treatment of pregnant women and newborns with azidothymidine (AZT, ACTG 076 regimen) and discouraging breast feeding by HIV-infected mothers are effectively reducing MCT of HIV. However, there are three major obstacles to the systematic application of these strategies in developing countries: (a) difficulties in implementing the complex AZT administration and its corollary the avoidance of breast feeding; (b) the complexity of the logistics of the ACTG 076 regimen; (c) cost. Indeed, in developing countries the socioeconomic situation of the populations are precarious and health structures and services are underdeveloped. In addition, the anxiety and the reluctance of general population in the face of the HIV problem and the high prevalence of maternal anemia reduce the acceptability and safety of AZT treatment for pregnant women in developing regions. Only interventions that are applicable, acceptable, safe, affordable, of low cost and integrated into health system will be able to reduce HIV MCT. We now know that MCT occurs mostly during the perinatal period and the maternal viral load in blood, in cervical secretions and in breast milk appears to be the main determinant of transmission. Maternal vitamin A deficiency may also favor MCT of HIV. It is however possible that this association is confounded by the relationship between advanced maternal HIV disease (a known risk factor for transmission) and vitamin A deficiency. In spite of these uncertainties concerning determinants of MCT of HIV, several interventions have been designed. The

  13. Background level care.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice for routine caries care who, at present, appear to have no active or progressing caries lesions? It is proposed that, in addition to the use of criteria for lesion extent, treatment planning systems should also express the results of lesion assessments in terms of background level care (BLC), preventive treatment options and operative treatment options. The specific treatment options recommended for specific lesions and patients will depend upon a variety of other factors, including lesion activity, monitoring lesion behaviour over time and a range of other prognostic factors. Over recent decades, there has been comparatively little focus on appropriate BLC in a general practice setting. There are a range of issues around the need to support caries prevention and health maintenance from a behavioural and patient-focussed perspective. Even if a patient is deemed to be at low risk of future caries at a particular examination, there is a need for maintenance care. Intrinsic issues which need to be managed for both patients and their caries lesions in this patient group are: (1) the possibility of a change in caries risk status and (2) the impact of incorrect lesion assessments/diagnoses.

  14. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  15. Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

    1994-09-01

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

  16. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-17

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  17. In search of a tolerance-induction strategy for cow's milk allergies: significant reduction of beta-lactoglobulin allergenicity via transglutaminase/cysteine polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Celso Eduardo; dos Santos Lima, Regiane Patussi; Pinto, Daiana Guedes; dos Santos, Raquel Acácia Pereira Gonçalves; da Silva, Grayce Katlen Moreno; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Villas-Boas, Mariana Battaglin; Netto, Flávia Maria; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the use of β-lactoglobulin polymerized using microbial transglutaminase and heating to identify whether protein polymerization could reduce in vivo allergenicity and maintain in vitro and ex vivo immunoreactivity for use in tolerance-induction protocols. METHODS: Based on previous protocols applied in mice and children, we performed in vivo challenges (using a skin prick test) with native and polymerized β-lactoglobulin in adult patients with an IgE-mediated allergy to β-lactoglobulin. In vitro humoral immunoreactivity was analyzed using immunoblotting. Cell-mediated immunoreactivity was analyzed using ex vivo challenges with native and polymerized β-lactoglobulin and monitored by leukocyte adherence inhibition tests. RESULTS: The skin tests demonstrated that there was a significant reduction in immediate cutaneous reactivity after polymerization. Polymerization did not decrease the immunoblotting detection of s-IgE specific to β-lactoglobulin. Cell-mediated immunoreactivity, as assessed by ex vivo challenges and leukocyte adherence inhibition tests, did not exhibit significant differences between leukocytes challenged with native versus polymerized β-lactoglobulin. CONCLUSIONS: The polymerization of β-lactoglobulin decreased in vivo allergenicity and did not decrease in vitro humoral or ex vivo cell-mediated immunoreactivity. Therefore, we conclude that inducing polymerization using transglutaminase represents a promising technique to produce suitable molecules for the purpose of designing oral/sublingual tolerance induction protocols for the treatment of allergies. PMID:23070344

  18. Recording and analysis of electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) with MED-EL cochlear implants and different artifact reduction strategies in Matlab.

    PubMed

    Bahmer, Andreas; Peter, Otto; Baumann, Uwe

    2010-08-15

    Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) are used in auditory research to evaluate the response of the auditory nerve to electrical stimulation. Animal preparations are typically used for the recording. With the introduction of a new generation of cochlear implants, however it is possible to record the response of the auditory nerve to electrical stimulation in humans as well, which is used in the clinic to test whether the implant works properly and whether the auditory nerve is responsive. Currently, ECAPs are used to estimate thresholds for speech processor programs. In addition, ECAPs recordings allow new research to be addressed, e.g., to evaluate enhanced electrical stimulation patterns. Research platforms are required to test user-defined stimuli and algorithms for the ECAPs analysis. Clinical fitting software that records ECAPs is not flexible enough for this purpose. To enable a larger group of scientists to pursue research in this field, we introduce a flexible setup that allows to change stimulation and recording parameters. ECAP recording and analysis software was developed in Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) for standard PC, using a National instruments (PCI-6533, National Instruments, Austin, TX) card and a Research Interface Box 2 (RIB2, Department of Ion Physics and Applied Physics at the University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria) for MED-EL cochlear implants. ECAP recordings of a human subject with three different artifact reduction methods (alternating, Miller modified masker-probe, triphasic pulses) are presented and compared.

  19. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    PubMed

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  20. Lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC)/protease inhibitor dual therapy as a harm-reduction strategy in patients with tenofovir-related renal toxicity: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rossotti, Roberto; Moioli, Maria Cristina; Chianura, Leonardo; Errante, Isabella; Orcese, Carloandrea; Orso, Maurizio; Schiantarelli, Clara; Schlacht, Irene; Travi, Giovanna; Vigo, Beniamino; Villa, Maria Riccarda; Volonterio, Alberto; Puoti, Massimo

    2012-11-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used in HIV-infected patients. It is associated with tubular toxicity, but its management is controversial. A possible strategy is to switch to a dual therapy based on lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC) and protease inhibitors (PIs). A case-control study was designed to evaluate the switch to XTC + PI therapy in patients with TDF-related renal toxicity. A case was defined as a patient who was on TDF/XTC + PI and who switched to XTC + PI. A control was defined as a patient with the same clinical features who remained on TDF/XTC + PI. Twenty-one cases and 21 controls were included. After 48 weeks, no differences in efficacy were observed. No improvement in the glomerular filtration rate as estimated with the Cockroft-Gault formula (eGFR) was seen, but the number of times that patients had values below 60 ml/min was higher with standard TDF/XTC 1 PI treatment than with dual XTC + PI treatment. A switch to dual therapy could be an option for patients at risk of TDF-related renal damage with no relevant risk of virological or immunological failure.

  1. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in

  2. Self-perceived HIV risk and the use of risk reduction strategies among men who engage in transactional sex with other men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Closson, Elizabeth F; Perry, Nicholas; Perkovich, Brandon; Nguyen, Thi; Trang, Nguyen N N; Lan, Hang X; Thien, Dinh Duc; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn

    2013-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, with prevalence as high as 18%. Transactional sex represents a risk factor for HIV transmission/acquisition among MSM globally, particularly in urban contexts, but remains largely underinvestigated in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In 2010, 23 MSM who reported exchanging sex for money in the last month completed a brief survey and semistructured qualitative interview at The Life Centre, a non-governmental organization in HCMC, to assess sociodemographics, individual- and structural-level HIV risk factors and explore acceptable future prevention interventions. Participants' mean age was 24 years. Equal proportions of respondents self-identified as heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, and bisexual. Participants had a mean of 158 male clients in the past year, with a median of 60 male clients in the past year (interquartile range [IQR]=70) and reported inconsistent condom use and inaccurate perceptions of HIV risk. Nearly half of the sample reported engaging in unprotected anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months and one-third with a male client. Major themes that emerged for HIV prevention interventions with male sex workers were those that: (1) focused on individual factors (drug and alcohol use, barriers to condom use, knowledge of asymptomatic STIs, enhancement of behavioral risk-reduction skills, and addressing concomitant mental health issues); (2) incorporated interpersonal and relational contexts (led by peer educators, built interpersonal skills, attended to partner type and intimacy dynamics); and (3) considered the exogenous environments in which individual choices/relationships operate (stigma of being MSM in Vietnam, availability of alternative economic opportunities, and varied sexual venues). HIV prevention efforts are needed that address the specific needs of MSM who engage in transactional sex in HCMC. Universally, MSM endorsed HIV prevention

  3. High-energy radiation background in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

  4. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  5. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  6. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  7. Background of the workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

  8. Regional transportation network blocked by snowdrifts: assessment of risk reduction strategies by the example of the wind event of February 2015 in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2016-04-01

    where an accessibility is crucial to be maintained. We analyze then the road network to highlight the roads vulnerability from snowdrifts with topographic and meteorological indicators. We also assess the ratio cost/benefit of different measures limiting snowdrifts. We finally discuss strategies to reduce the risk of this winter meteorological event.

  9. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1951 to 2050: toward an integrated strategy for climate impacts reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Russo, Aniello; Marincioni, Fausto; Appiotti, Federica

    2013-04-01

    both wet and dry extremes. Such changes could alter the Region's hydro-geologic processes leading to increased intensity and frequency of landslide and flood hazards. These trends, considering the geomorphologic, social and economic characteristics of the Marche Region, suggest severe physical impacts scenario over the mountains band with subsequent socio-economic effects on hilly and coastal areas. Greater dry conditions are expected all over the Region, causing soil degradation and reducing river solid transport. In turn, this will impact agriculture productivity and natural beach nourishment likely causing a decline in beach tourism. On the other hand increased flood frequency would impact the several urban and economic settlements located on floodplains. Once these scenarios will be better defined, the next step could be mapping the vulnerability conditions within the Marche Region, thus highlighting exposure and resilience of infrastructures and population. Better knowledge of climate hazards and risks would support decision makers and legislators to implement, in the short terms, policies for the long term reduction of climate impacts in the Marche Region.

  10. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  11. Cosmic microwave background images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranz, D.; Vielva, P.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmology concerns itself with the fundamental questions about the formation, structure, and evolution of the Universe as a whole. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is one of the foremost pillars of physical cosmology. Joint analyses of CMB and other astronomical observations are able to determine with ever increasing precision the value of the fundamental cosmological parameters and to provide us with valuable insight about the dynamics of the Universe in evolution. The CMB radiation is a relic of the hot and dense first moments of the Universe: a extraordinarily homogeneous and isotropic blackbody radiation, which shows small temperature anisotropies that are the key for understanding the conditions of the primitive Universe, testing cosmological models and probing fundamental physics at the very dawn of time. CMB observations are obtained by imaging of the sky at microwave wavelengths. However, the CMB signal is mixed with other astrophysical signals of both Galactic and extragalactic origin. To properly exploit the cosmological information contained in CMB images, they must be cleansed of these other astrophysical emissions first. Blind source separation (BSS) has been a very active field in the last few years. Conversely, the term "compact sources" is often used in the CMB literature referring to spatially bounded, small features in the images, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. Compact sources and diffuse sources are usually treated separately in CMB image processing. We devote this tutorial to the case of compact sources. Many of the compact source-detection techniques that are widespread inmost fields of astronomy are not easily applicable to CMB images. In this tutorial, we present an overview of the fundamentals of compact object detection theory keeping in mind at every moment these particularities. Throughout the article, we briefly consider Bayesian object detection, model selection, optimal linear filtering, nonlinear filtering, and

  12. Experiences with active cosmic background suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Lamaze, G.P.

    1994-12-31

    The dominant source of background in a bare germanium gamma-ray detector is natural radiation originating from potassium, uranium, and thorium decay in the laboratory environment and from cosmic rays. Most of the background is removed by surrounding the detector with lead shielding, which is commonly 20 cm thick. In a well-shielded detector, the largest contributor to the integral counting rate is cosmic rays, and to a lesser extent beta particles from {sup 210}Pb. Most of the counting rate in the continuum is due to highly penetrating muons. Many of the characteristic peaks in the background also originate from fast tertiary neutrons of cosmic-ray origin, which generate neutron activation products or create gamma rays from inelastic scattering in materials of the detector and shield. Very massive shielding is required to remove this penetrating component of background; we have found a fivefold reduction in the cosmic components by moving the detector into a laboratory 20 m underground. However, lacking an underground lab, we have attempted to use active shielding to reduce the background of a Ge detector located above ground. The guard detector is a proportional counter forming a roof 23 cm above the detector. The counter is placed inside the lead shielding to reduce it`s background counting rate.

  13. Principles of harm reduction. Harm Reduction Coalition.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Harm reduction is a set of practical strategies used for working with drug users to help them choose behaviors that are less risky. The harm reduction approach accepts that illicit drug use occurs, and encourages input from drug users in designing programs and services to help educate themselves. Drug use is a complex problem related to poverty, class, racism, social isolation, and discrimination, and calls for non-judgmental, non-coercive services for the drug using population. Federal money for drug interventions is more often spent on incarcerations and prosecutions, than on education, research, prevention, or treatment. Public policy changes, such as teaching drug users how to lower their risks, may reduce the number of deaths and HIV transmissions among drug users and their partners.

  14. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  15. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGES

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  16. Tin and iron co-doping strategy for developing active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts from SrCoO3-δ for operating below 800 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yubo; Qian, Baoming; Shao, Zongping

    2015-10-01

    SrCoO3-δ has long been a promising catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, its rather unstable cubic phase structure greatly hinders its practical application. Stabilizing the simple cubic phase structure of SrCoO3-δ while preserving a suitable oxygen reduction activity is an important topic of research. Herein, we propose a Sn and Fe co-doping strategy for tuning the B-site of SrCoO3-δ to stabilize its oxygen vacancy-disordered cubic lattice structure at the operating temperatures of intermediate-temperature SOFCs (600-800 °C). Fe doping can greatly increase the solubility of Sn in SrCoO3-δ, which mainly acts as the dopant for cubic phase structure stabilization. Materials with a nominal composition of SrCo0.6(Fe0.4-xSnx)O3-δ (x = 0-0.15) are designed, and the solubility of Sn in SrCoO3-δ can reach x = 0.1. For the first time, we prepare a phase-pure Sn-doped and SrCoO3-δ-based cubic perovskite oxide of SrCo0.6(Fe0.3Sn0.1)O3-δ with long-term cubic structure stability. More importantly, the Sn doping does not harm the oxygen reduction activity of SrCo0.6Fe0.4O3-δ, and the electrode composed of SrCo0.6(Fe0.3Sn0.1)O3-δ possesses a low polarization resistance of ∼0.1 Ω cm2 at 600 °C. A 400-h-long stability test demonstrates that the SrCo0.6(Fe0.3Sn0.1)O3-δ material is a promising oxygen reduction catalyst for SOFCs.

  17. Strategies for the reduction of pattern effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kersch, A.; Schafbauer, T.; Deutschmann, L.

    1996-12-01

    The pattern effects in hot processes arise from a spatial variation of the radiative heat flux imbalance between emission and absorption. There are two scenarios to reduce the pattern effect: a very reflective chamber facing the patterned side with an illumination from the backside or a controlled double sided illumination on the other hand. The paper demonstrates the mechanism of both scenarios with a simple mathematical model and discusses the limitations of the approaches. The results will be exemplified with the help of reactor scale simulations involving a detailed Monte Carlo radiation model featuring continuous spectral dependence.

  18. Consumer Confusion: Reduction Strategies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Graeme

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights the increasingly important topic of consumer confusion. Drawing parallels with experiences in the private sector, the concept of consumer confusion is explored within the higher education sector; what causes the phenomenon, how do consumers react to it and how can it be negated/minimised? The expansion and commercialisation…

  19. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  20. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Plant cell technologies in space: Background, strategies and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkorian, A. D.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize work in plant cell technologies in space. The evolution of concepts and the general principles of plant tissue culture are discussed. The potential for production of high value secondary products by plant cells and differentiated tissue in automated, precisely controlled bioreactors is discussed. The general course of the development of the literature on plant tissue culture is highlighted.

  2. Cross Cultural Strategies: Background Information For Teachers of Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Yukon Indians, Whitehorse (Yukon). Curriculum Development Program.

    This booklet was designed as a source of information for teachers seeking a deeper understanding of Native American children and who want to take advantage of opportunities offered by a cross-cultural classroom. The first section is a collection of 13 articles from a wide variety of sources on various aspects of cross-cultural education. Each…

  3. Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Marilyn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that focus on waste reduction in the school and community. The ideas are divided into grade level categories. Sample activities include Techno-Trash, where children use tools to take apart broken appliances or car parts, then reassemble them or build new creations. Activities are suggested for areas including language arts and…

  4. University Student Access and Success. Go8 Backgrounder 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Group of Eight (Go8) universities currently provide a wide range of services and programs to facilitate access and support for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. However, Go8 Vice-Chancellors have also agreed to develop jointly a coordinated equity strategy to increase the participation and success of students from disadvantaged backgrounds.…

  5. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  6. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  7. Heterogeneity in background fitness acts as a suppressor of selection.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Oliver P; Traulsen, Arne; Nowak, Martin A

    2014-02-21

    We introduce the concept of heterogeneity in background fitness to evolutionary dynamics in finite populations. Background fitness is specific to an individual but not linked to its strategy. It can be thought of as a property that is related to the physical or societal position of an individual, but is not dependent on the strategy that is adopted in the evolutionary process under consideration. In our model, an individual's total fitness is the sum of its background fitness and the fitness derived from using a specific strategy. This approach has important implications for the imitation of behavioural strategies: if we imitate others for their success, but can only adopt their behaviour and not their social and economic ties, we may imitate in vain. We study the effect of heterogeneity in background fitness on the fixation of a mutant strategy with constant fitness. We find that heterogeneity suppresses selection, but also decreases the time until a novel strategy either takes over the population or is lost again. We derive analytical solutions of the fixation probability in small populations. In the case of large total background fitness in a population with maximum inequality, we find a particularly simple approximation of the fixation probability. Numerical simulations suggest that this simple approximation also holds for larger population sizes.

  8. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  9. Background Television and Reading Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting…

  10. Methods for clinical evaluation of noise reduction techniques in abdominopelvic CT.

    PubMed

    Ehman, Eric C; Yu, Lifeng; Manduca, Armando; Hara, Amy K; Shiung, Maria M; Jondal, Dayna; Lake, David S; Paden, Robert G; Blezek, Daniel J; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Hough, David M; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    Most noise reduction methods involve nonlinear processes, and objective evaluation of image quality can be challenging, since image noise cannot be fully characterized on the sole basis of the noise level at computed tomography (CT). Noise spatial correlation (or noise texture) is closely related to the detection and characterization of low-contrast objects and may be quantified by analyzing the noise power spectrum. High-contrast spatial resolution can be measured using the modulation transfer function and section sensitivity profile and is generally unaffected by noise reduction. Detectability of low-contrast lesions can be evaluated subjectively at varying dose levels using phantoms containing low-contrast objects. Clinical applications with inherent high-contrast abnormalities (eg, CT for renal calculi, CT enterography) permit larger dose reductions with denoising techniques. In low-contrast tasks such as detection of metastases in solid organs, dose reduction is substantially more limited by loss of lesion conspicuity due to loss of low-contrast spatial resolution and coarsening of noise texture. Existing noise reduction strategies for dose reduction have a substantial impact on lowering the radiation dose at CT. To preserve the diagnostic benefit of CT examination, thoughtful utilization of these strategies must be based on the inherent lesion-to-background contrast and the anatomy of interest. The authors provide an overview of existing noise reduction strategies for low-dose abdominopelvic CT, including analytic reconstruction, image and projection space denoising, and iterative reconstruction; review qualitative and quantitative tools for evaluating these strategies; and discuss the strengths and limitations of individual noise reduction methods. PMID:25019428

  11. A new dietary strategy for long-term treatment of the metabolic syndrome is compared with the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines: the MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) project.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Abete, Itziar; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Forga, Luis; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-02-01

    The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7%; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7%; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8%; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4%; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9%; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8%; P= 0·008 and - 14·0%; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9%; P= 0·011), AST (11·3%; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0%; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4%; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8%; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1%; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good

  12. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3π muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  13. Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-03-01

    Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

  14. Selective reduction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Krivchenia, Eric L; Gelber, Shari E; Wapner, Ronald J

    2003-03-01

    Multifetal pregnancy reduction continues to be controversial. Attitudes about MFPR have not, in our experience, followed a simple "pro-choice/pro-life" dichotomy. As far back as the mid to late 1980s, opinions about the subject were varied. Even then, when much less was known about the subject, opinions did not always parallel the usual pro-choice/theological boundaries. We believe that the real debate over the next 5 to 10 years will not be whether or not MFPR should be performed with triplets or more. The fact is that MFPR does improve those outcomes. A serious debate will emerge over whether or not it is appropriate to offer MFPR routinely for twins, even natural ones, for whom the outcome is commonly considered "good enough." Our data suggest that reduction of twins to a singleton improves the outcome of the remaining fetus. No consensus on appropriateness of routine 2-1 reductions is ever likely to emerge. The ethical issues surrounding MFPR will always be controversial. Over the years, much has been written on the subject. Opinions will always vary from outraged condemnation to complete acceptance. No short paragraph could do justice to the subject other than to state that most proponents do not believe this is a frivolous procedure but do believe in the principle of proportionality ie, therapy to achieve the most good for the least harm). Over the past 15 years, MFPR has become a well-established and integral part of infertility therapy and attempts to deal with the sequelae of aggressive infertility management. In the mid 1980s, the risks and benefits of the procedure could only be guessed. We now have clear and precise data on the risks and benefits of the procedure and an understanding that the risks increase substantially with the starting and finishing number of fetuses in multifetal pregnancies. The collaborative loss rate numbers (ie, 4.5% for triplets, 8% for quadruplets. 11% for quintuplets, and 15% for sextuplets or more) seem reasonable to present

  15. Low background techniques in XMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Atsushi

    2011-04-27

    The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

  16. Salt reduction in Australia: from advocacy to action

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Nowson, Caryl; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Greenland, Rohan; Reimers, Jenny; Bolam, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of its endorsement of the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan to prevent non-communicable diseases, the Federal Government of Australia has committed to a 30% reduction in average population salt intake by 2025. Currently, mean daily salt intake levels are 8-9 g, varying by sex, region and population group. A number of salt reduction initiatives have been established over the last decade, but key elements for a co-ordinated population-level strategy are still missing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing population-level salt reduction activities in Australia and identify opportunities for further action. Methods A review of the published literature and stakeholder activities was undertaken to identify and document current activities. The activities were then assessed against a pre-defined framework for salt reduction strategies. Results A range of initiatives were identified from the review. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) was established in 2005 and in 2007 launched its Drop the Salt! Campaign. This united non-governmental organisations (NGOs), health and medical and food industry organisations in a co-ordinated advocacy effort to encourage government to develop a national strategy to reduce salt. Subsequently, in 2010 the Federal Government launched its Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) with a remit to improve the health of the food supply in Australia through voluntary partnerships with food industry, government and non-government public health organisations. The focus of the FHD to date has been on voluntary reformulation of foods, primarily through salt reduction targets. More recently, in December 2014, the government’s Health Star Rating system was launched. This front of pack labelling scheme uses stars to highlight the nutritional profile of packaged foods. Both government initiatives have clear targets or criteria for industry to meet, however

  17. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  18. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  19. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  20. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuestra, Clara; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  1. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40- kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νβ β-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR’s germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  2. Background simulations and shielding calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2011-04-27

    Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

  3. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  4. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  5. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  6. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

  7. Low background techniques applied in the BOREXINO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzel, G.

    2015-08-17

    The BOREXINO detector, located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, has been designed for real-time spectroscopy of low-energy solar neutrinos. Within the experiment several novel background reduction and assay techniques have been established. In many cases they are still the most sensitive world-wide. Developed methods and apparatus provided tools for a strict quality control program during the construction phase of the BOREXINO detector, which was the key to meet the background requirements. Achievement of extremely low background rate opened the possibility to probe in realtime almost entire spectrum of the solar neutrinos.

  8. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background and Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina

    2010-11-24

    We discuss a brief history of atmospheric neutrinos, from background to proton decay searches to proving neutrino oscillations. We then discuss how high statistics atmospheric neutrino measurements in the IceCube Deep Core Array can provide useful information about neutrino oscillation parameters and other neutrino properties.

  9. Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, G.B.; Franklin, J.F.; Kohler, A.; Croze, H.; Boelcke, C.

    1986-12-01

    One of the more significant problems when trying to determine what impact is having on global cycles is not knowing what ''natural'' levels should be for both abiotic (gases, trace elements) and biotic (ecosystem functions) processes. The authors believe that a well designed, coordinated network of baseline stations in remote areas around the world can provide a data base will allow best current estimates to be made of biotic and abiotic baseline conditions. These baseline conditions will then help us make better comparisons with more impacted areas, and thus help us more fully understand the impact man is having on his world. This paper examines the history of background pollution monitoring at the international level, describes current activities in the field of ''integrated'' background monitoring, and proposes criteria for the development of a global network of baseline stations to coordinate background monitoring for the presence, accumulation and behavior of pollutants in remote ecosystems. In this paper, this network is called the Integrated Global Background Monitoring Network.

  10. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  11. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  12. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  13. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  14. Cleanliness, backgrounds and surface contamination in CUORE

    SciTech Connect

    Pirro, S.; Capelli, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Pavan, M.; Previtali, E.; Nisi, S.; Palmieri, E.

    2005-09-08

    CUORE is a proposed array of 988, 750 g, TeO2 crystal bolometers. The experiment has been approved by the Scientific Committee of Gran Sasso Laboratories and the special dilution refrigerator, that is intended to house the detector has been funded. The Experiment will search for the 0v-Double Beta Decay of 130Te. As in all the proposed next generation Double Beta Decay Experiments, the main task is the reduction of the radioactive background. A peculiar property of thermal detectors is that they are active over the entire volume and therefore strongly subject to radioactive surface contaminations. Unlike radioactive bulk contaminations, that can be measured through High-Purity Ge Detectors, radioactive surface contaminations are not easily measurable at very low levels. Different techniques were developed in order to reach the required sensitivity. Present results already achieved and studies that are underway are here presented and discussed.

  15. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  16. MERTIS: background signal removal and signal simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säuberlich, Thomas; Paproth, Carsten; Helbert, Jörn; Hiesinger, Harald

    2009-08-01

    MERTIS (MERcury Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer) is an advanced infrared remote sensing instrument that is part of the ESA mission BepiColombo to planet Mercury. The enabling technology that allows sending the first spectrometer for the thermal infrared spectral range to Mercury is an uncooled microbolometer. With this detector the instrument can be operated in the hot environment of Mercury without the need of a cryogenic cooling system. The challenge is the calibration of the instrument. A radiometric and a spectroscopic breadboard model of MERTIS were used to develop proper calibration methods and to derive system parameters that support the setup of an end-to-end simulation which can process spectra of planetary analog materials from the DLR Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) as input signal in order to create a realistic representation of the MERTIS output signal. In the context of the calibration we are reporting on the ongoing efforts to remove the background signal which is contained in the raw image data sets and actually being the dominating signal portion. A background measuring method with using a shutter together with a noise reduction method based on a pixel-by-pixel correlation approach - are discussed and related to the remaining errors of the emissivity spectra which were calculated from raw images of laboratory experiments using onground calibration data sets. The results of the error evaluation and new emissivity spectra from the PEL for high temperatures of planetary analog materials are input parameters for the end-to-end simulation of MERTIS. Regarding the instrument's SNR a comparison of the simulation results and the experimental data is given and the effect of the noise reduction method.

  17. Retention and Progression of Engineering Students with Diverse Mathematical Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamforth, Sarah E.; Robinson, Carol L.; Croft, Tony; Crawford, Adam

    2007-01-01

    There are increasing concerns about the mathematics ability of students entering higher education. This situation appears to be as a result of the perceived lowering standards of A Levels, a reduction in entry requirements on some courses with a strong mathematical component and the wide-ranging educational backgrounds of many of the students.…

  18. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  19. WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

  20. Quantum chromodynamics in background fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Huang, Zheng

    1989-02-01

    We try to build a framework for quantum chromodynamics in background fields. The nonvanishing vacuum condensates are described by the classical fields, while the corresponding quantum fields are quantized in the Furry representation and the physical states are defined in the physical QCD vacuum. The complete quark and gluon propagators are discussed in this framework and running condensate parameters are introduced by the renormalization requirement. A modified Callan-Symanzik equation is derived by taking account of the nonperturbative corrections.

  1. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  2. The isotropic radio background revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  3. Plutonium measurements near background levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

  4. Plutonium measurements near background levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

  5. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  6. Estimating background precipitation quality from network data.

    PubMed

    Hicks, B B; Artz, R S

    1992-01-01

    Assessments of the relative merits of alternative acid-rain control strategies revolve around considerations of potential benefit per unit effort and/or cost. A question that often arises concerns the changes in deposition that would follow if all industrial (or societal) emissions were eliminated, in which case precipitation chemistry would be dominated by emissions from natural sources. Estimates of the 'natural background' of precipitation chemistry can be based on (a) measurements made at distant locations, (b) reducing emissions to zero in numerical simulations, or (c) examinations of existing data. Each alternative is flawed because (a) of the assumption that natural emissions in one location are like those in another, (b) no existing model contains descriptions of chemical processes involving all of the chemical species of importance, and (c) all contemporary data records or relevance are affected by precisely the emissions we wish to reduce. Here, the third alternative is explored in detail, using event precipitation chemistry data from North America. The analysis reveals a background pH level that varies from site to site, but always lies in the range 5.0-5.3.

  7. A population-based, multifaceted strategy to implement antenatal corticosteroid treatment versus standard care for the reduction of neonatal mortality due to preterm birth in low-income and middle-income countries: the ACT cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Althabe, Fernando; Belizán, José M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Kodkany, Bhalachandra S; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Dhaded, Sangappa M; Katageri, Geetanjali M; Metgud, Mrityunjay C; Joshi, Anjali M; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya B; Honnungar, Narayan V; Derman, Richard J; Saleem, Sarah; Pasha, Omrana; Ali, Sumera; Hasnain, Farid; Goldenberg, Robert L; Esamai, Fabian; Nyongesa, Paul; Ayunga, Silas; Liechty, Edward A; Garces, Ana L; Figueroa, Lester; Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F; Patel, Archana; Bhandarkar, Anjali; Waikar, Manjushri; Hibberd, Patricia L; Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Waldemar A; Mwiche, Angel; Chiwila, Melody; Manasyan, Albert; Pineda, Sayury; Meleth, Sreelatha; Thorsten, Vanessa; Stolka, Kristen; Wallace, Dennis D; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Jobe, Alan H; Buekens, Pierre M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Antenatal corticosteroids for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth are among the most effective hospital-based interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. We aimed to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of a multifaceted intervention designed to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids at all levels of health care in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods In this 18-month, cluster-randomised trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) rural and semi-urban clusters within six countries (Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia) to standard care or a multifaceted intervention including components to improve identification of women at risk of preterm birth and to facilitate appropriate use of antenatal corticosteroids. The primary outcome was 28-day neonatal mortality among infants less than the 5th percentile for birthweight (a proxy for preterm birth) across the clusters. Use of antenatal corticosteroids and suspected maternal infection were additional main outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01084096. Findings The ACT trial took place between October, 2011, and March, 2014 (start dates varied by site). 51 intervention clusters with 47 394 livebirths (2520 [5%] less than 5th percentile for birthweight) and 50 control clusters with 50 743 livebirths (2258 [4%] less than 5th percentile) completed follow-up. 1052 (45%) of 2327 women in intervention clusters who delivered less-than-5th-percentile infants received antenatal corticosteroids, compared with 215 (10%) of 2062 in control clusters (p<0·0001). Among the less-than-5th-percentile infants, 28-day neonatal mortality was 225 per 1000 livebirths for the intervention group and 232 per 1000 livebirths for the control group (relative risk [RR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·87–1·06, p=0·65) and suspected maternal infection was reported in 236 (10%) of 2361 women in the intervention group and 133 (6%) of 2094 in the control group (odds ratio

  8. Campus Sustainability: Climate Change, Transport and Paper Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Alison; Giurco, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to detail the design of a campus climate change strategy, transport strategy and paper reduction strategy at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Design/methodology/approach: The approach to strategy development used desktop research and staff/student consultation to inform the development of objectives,…

  9. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  10. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    PubMed

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background. PMID:26181392

  11. Tax planning strategies for physicians.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thomas R; Schwartz, Richard W

    2002-07-01

    The development of tax reduction strategies is a critical aspect of both corporate and personal financial planning because taxes represent the largest annual expenditure for the majority of Americans. The categories of tax reduction strategies discussed include charitable-giving techniques, ways to maximize business deductions, shifting income to family members, education tax incentives, retirement planning, and small business tax considerations. One use for these tax savings is the enhancement of a corporation's capabilities to provide services to patients.

  12. New operation strategy for driving the selectivity of NOx reduction to N2, NH3 or N2O during lean/rich cycling of a lean NOx trap catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Mráček, David; Koci, Petr; Choi, Jae -Soon; Partridge, Jr., William P.

    2015-09-08

    Periodical regeneration of NOx storage catalyst (also known as lean NOx trap) by short rich pulses of CO, H2 and hydrocarbons is necessary for the reduction of nitrogen oxides adsorbed on the catalyst surface. Ideally, the stored NOx is converted into N2, but N2O and NH3 by-products can be formed as well, particularly at low-intermediate temperatures. The N2 and N2O products are formed concurrently in two peaks. The primary peaks appear immediately after the rich-phase inception, and tail off with the breakthrough of the reductant front accompanied by NH3 product. In addition, the secondary N2 and N2O peaks then appearmore » at the rich-to-lean transition as a result of reactions between surface-deposited reductants/intermediates (CO, HC, NH3, — NCO) and residual stored NOx under increasingly lean conditions.« less

  13. Computerized background-oriented schlieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, G. E. A.

    2002-06-01

    A schlieren measurement technique based on computer evaluation of image variations due to refractive index variations in the propagation medium is presented; in what follows, this concept is referred to as the "background-oriented schlieren" (BOS) method. The differences between BOS and other optical techniques for refractive index measurement are the governing role of numerical methods, the extremely small amount of optical equipment, the high accuracy, the bidirectional sensitivity, the fast evaluation, and the missing field limitations. The principle of the method is the numerical comparison of a schlieren distorted and an undistorted image of a deliberate background. The method has become usable in practice owing to the immense progress in computing power and to newly developed fast-correlation algorithms. The extension of this method to space resolving techniques is possible. Some experimental studies show the applicability. Examples are a mixing turbulent jet, a supersonic jet, a shed vortex, and the sound wave of a gun shot. These few results underline the encouraging prospect for the future applicability of this technique. The BOS method offers not only the possibility of qualitative and quantitative schlieren investigations but also has the potential to determine density fields by integration of the measured gradient fields.

  14. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  15. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  16. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  17. Building and Activating Students' Background Knowledge: It's What They Already Know That Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Students enter the middle grades with varying amounts of background knowledge. Teachers must assess student background knowledge for gaps or misconceptions and then provide instruction to build on that base. This article discusses effective strategies for assessing and developing students' background knowledge so they can become independent…

  18. Poverty Reduction and the World Bank. Progress in Fiscal 1996 and 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews progress in implementation of the World Bank's poverty reduction strategy during fiscal 1996-97. Chapter 1, "The World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy and Future Directions," outlines elements in the poverty reduction strategy: policies to promote broad-based labor-demanding growth and increase the productivity and economic…

  19. On the Origins of the High-latitude Hα Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Adolf N.; Gold, Benjamin; Barnes, Frank S., III; DeRoo, Casey T.; Vijh, Uma P.; Madsen, Gregory J.

    2010-12-01

    The diffuse high-latitude Hα background is widely believed to be predominantly the result of in situ recombination of ionized hydrogen in the warm interstellar medium of the Galaxy. Instead, we show that both a substantial fraction of the diffuse high-latitude Hα intensity in regions dominated by Galactic cirrus dust and much of the variance in the high-latitude Hα background are the result of scattering by interstellar dust of Hα photons originating elsewhere in the Galaxy. We provide an empirical relation, which relates the expected scattered Hα intensity to the IRAS 100 μm diffuse background intensity, applicable to about 81% of the entire sky. The assumption commonly made in reductions of cosmic microwave background observations, namely that the observed all-sky map of diffuse Hα light is a suitable template for Galactic free-free foreground emission, is found to be in need of reexamination.

  20. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

  1. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  3. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  4. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  5. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  6. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  7. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century.

  8. A patient-specific model of the biomechanics of hip reduction for neonatal Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Investigation of strategies for low to severe grades of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Huayamave, Victor; Rose, Christopher; Serra, Sheila; Jones, Brendan; Divo, Eduardo; Moslehy, Faissal; Kassab, Alain J; Price, Charles T

    2015-07-16

    A physics-based computational model of neonatal Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) following treatment with the Pavlik Harness (PV) was developed to obtain muscle force contribution in order to elucidate biomechanical factors influencing the reduction of dislocated hips. Clinical observation suggests that reduction occurs in deep sleep involving passive muscle action. Consequently, a set of five (5) adductor muscles were identified as mediators of reduction using the PV. A Fung/Hill-type model was used to characterize muscle response. Four grades (1-4) of dislocation were considered, with one (1) being a low subluxation and four (4) a severe dislocation. A three-dimensional model of the pelvis-femur lower limb of a representative 10 week-old female was generated based on CT-scans with the aid of anthropomorphic scaling of anatomical landmarks. The model was calibrated to achieve equilibrium at 90° flexion and 80° abduction. The hip was computationally dislocated according to the grade under investigation, the femur was restrained to move in an envelope consistent with PV restraints, and the dynamic response under passive muscle action and the effect of gravity was resolved. Model results with an anteversion angle of 50° show successful reduction Grades 1-3, while Grade 4 failed to reduce with the PV. These results are consistent with a previous study based on a simplified anatomically-consistent synthetic model and clinical reports of very low success of the PV for Grade 4. However our model indicated that it is possible to achieve reduction of Grade 4 dislocation by hyperflexion and the resultant external rotation. PMID:25957995

  9. Supporting document for the Canada-wide acid rain strategy for post-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    This report presents background and other information on the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, which puts in place a framework for addressing the remaining acid rain problem in eastern Canada, for ensuring that new acid rain problems do not occur elsewhere in Canada, and for ensuring that Canada meets its international commitments on acid rain. Background information is included on the first and second Sulphur Protocols of 1985 and 1994, the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement, and progress to date in meeting emission targets. Key features of the strategy are then presented with respect to such matters as sulphur dioxide emission reductions, pollution prevention, and research. Finally, the positions of members of the multi-stakeholder task group who developed the supporting documentation for the strategy are outlined.

  10. Decision-making using absolute cardiovascular risk reduction and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ker, J A; Oosthuizen, H; Rheeder, P

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Many clinical guidelines have adopted a multifactorial cardiovascular risk assessment to identify high-risk individuals for treatment. The Framingham risk chart is a widely used risk engine to calculate the absolute cardiovascular risk of an individual. Cost-effective analyses are typically used to evaluate therapeutic strategies, but it is more problematic for a clinician when faced with alternative therapeutic strategies to calculate cost effectiveness. Aim We used a single simulated-patient model to explore the effect of different drug treatments on the calculated absolute cardiovascular risk. Methods The Framingham risk score was calculated on a hypothetical patient, and drug treatment was initiated. After every drug introduced, the score was recalculated. Single-exit pricing of the various drugs in South Africa was used to calculate the cost of reducing predicted cardiovascular risk. Results The cost-effective ratio of an antihypertensive treatment strategy was calculated to be R21.35 per percentage of risk reduction. That of a statin treatment strategy was R22.93 per percentage of risk reduction. Using a high-dose statin, the cost-effective ratio was R12.81 per percentage of risk reduction. Combining the antihypertensive and statin strategy demonstrated a cost-effective ratio of R23.84 per percentage of risk reduction. A combination of several drugs enabled the hypothetical patient to reduce the risk to 14% at a cost-effective ratio of R17.18 per percentage of risk reduction. Conclusion This model demonstrates a method to compare different therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk with their cost-effective ratios. PMID:18516355

  11. Projected Impact of a Sodium Consumption Reduction Initiative in Argentina: An Analysis from the CVD Policy Model – Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Konfino, Jonatan; Mekonnen, Tekeshe A.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Ferrante, Daniel; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults in Argentina. Sodium reduction policies targeting processed foods were implemented in 2011 in Argentina, but the impact has not been evaluated. The aims of this study are to use Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion and project the impact of Argentina’s sodium reduction policies under two scenarios - the 2-year intervention currently being undertaken or a more persistent 10 year sodium reduction strategy. Methods We used Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion by sex and projected the impact of the current strategy on sodium consumption and blood pressure decrease. We assessed the projected impact of sodium reduction policies on CVD using the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Policy Model, adapted to Argentina, modeling two alternative policy scenarios over the next decade. Results Our study finds that the initiative to reduce sodium consumption currently in place in Argentina will have substantial impact on CVD over the next 10 years. Under the current proposed policy of 2-year sodium reduction, the mean sodium consumption is projected to decrease by 319–387 mg/day. This decrease is expected to translate into an absolute reduction of systolic blood pressure from 0.93 mmHg to 1.81 mmHg. This would avert about 19,000 all-cause mortality, 13,000 total myocardial infarctions, and 10,000 total strokes over the next decade. A more persistent sodium reduction strategy would yield even greater CVD benefits. Conclusion The impact of the Argentinean initiative would be effective in substantially reducing mortality and morbidity from CVD. This paper provides evidence-based support to continue implementing strategies to reduce sodium consumption at a population level. PMID:24040085

  12. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as

  13. The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

  14. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  15. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, Narbe

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  16. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    PubMed Central

    Wägele, Heike; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2005-01-01

    Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs), and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups. PMID:15715915

  17. Under The Background Influence (UTBI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russu, A.; Escobar, N.; Sanchis, J.; Monrabal, F.; Moreno, M.; Gisbert, R.

    UTBI is an ESA Students project with the aim of radiation measurement on board the International Space Station ISS The project was presented in the scope of the SUCCESS Student Contest Special Opportunities and was selected for implementation onboard the ISS during ESA s Long Duration Mission The instrument is based on a COST Semi-Insulating SI Cadmium Zinc Telluride CdZnTe detector grown by the High-Pressure Electro-Dynamic Gradient HP-EDG technique The crystal volume is 15x15x7 5 mm 3 and with a Co-Planar Grid CPG electrode configuration The Analog Front End Electronics AFEE is integrated in an commercial ASIC for noise reduction purpose and designed for a large energy range 30 KeV-8 MeV The instrument electronics are designed with COST electronic components and with the ESA contest maximum restrictions of 1 kg mass 20x20x20 cm 3 volume ISS electromagnetic compatible and no telemetry capability The main scientific goal for the instrument is to achieve nuclear-radiation spectroscopy by the bi-parametric technique data analysis for radiation identification Previous work has been performed in two ways on one hand simulations SPENVIS CREME96 GEANT4 SRIM EFS proving the viability of the mission and on the other hand experimental laboratory measurements and data analysis for gamma ray sources Co57 Cd109 Cs137 Launch of the experiment is foreseen in the October 2006 timeframe and planned for 8 days data collection on board the ISS

  18. Toxicity reduction in industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, P.W.; Eckenfelder, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of manufacturing wastewaters to fish and other aquatic organisms is now being used by state and federal regulators to monitor and restrict industrial wastewater discharges. As a result, there is a great need for guidance on the subject of aquatic toxicity reduction in the field of industrial water pollution control. This book is a comprehensive reference source on the testing protocols, comparative data, and treatment techniques for effective toxicity reduction. Included in this book are detailed chapters covering various methods for toxicity reduction, such as the removal of metals, aerobic biological treatment, stripping of volatile organics, and management of sludges from toxic wastewater treatment. The book features: a complete overview of the subject, including background material for newcomers to the field; a basic summary and comparison of alternate treatment procedures; the latest methods for the identification of toxic components that readers can use for testing in their own laboratories; a description of applicable technologies for toxicity reduction; actual data from the use of processes that allow readers to compare technologies; solids management requirements including handling and disposal; useful economic comparisons of technologies; and illustrative case studies that demonstrate the application of the latest toxicity reduction technology and data to specific situations. Eleven chapters are processed separately in the appropriate data bases.

  19. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  20. Major reduction in asthma morbidity and continued reduction in asthma mortality in New Zealand: what lessons have been learned?

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, J.; Kolbe, J.; Richards, G.; Whitlock, T.; Rea, H.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing financial barriers to primary health care against a background of social and economic decline are likely to have contributed to asthma morbidity and mortality in New Zealand. Although there would not have been a sufficient increase in asthma prevalence to have accounted for the threefold increase in mortality rates, whether or not there was an increase in asthma severity in the late 1970s remains open to debate. Misuse or poor use of newly available and potent bronchodilator medications by those with the most severe asthma may simply have contributed to further delays in obtaining appropriate care and therefore to an increase in frequency of severe attacks in the community. Despite substantial increases in the use of bronchodilator therapy in New Zealand, there was no immediate improvement in indices of either asthma morbidity or mortality. The initial reduction in mortality rates in the 1980s happened at a time when first admissions for asthma were still increasing and seems to be best explained by an improvement in utilisation of hospital services (which were free until 1992) rather than a reduction in asthma severity. However, the recent reductions in all measures of asthma morbidity and further reduction in asthma mortality since 1989 does now suggest a reduction in asthma severity and would be best explained by the substantial increase in medium and high dose inhaled corticosteroid use, and to the endorsement of the current management strategies for asthma which are being promoted internationally and which were given considerable publicity in New Zealand in 1989 and 1990. Whilst sales of inhaled beta agonists were higher in 1991 than 1989, this may not reflect their pattern of use by individual patients since the need for an increase in inhaled beta agonist treatment has been accepted as indicating a lack of control and the need for either starting or increasing the dose of inhaled steroid treatment. Images PMID:7660347

  1. CdZnTe background measurements at balloon altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Ann M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Bartlett, Lyle M.; Birsa, F. B.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Naya, Juan E.; Odom, James L.; Singh, S.; Stahle, Carl M.; Tueller, Jack; Teegarden, Bonnard J.

    1996-10-01

    Because of its high atomic number and convenient room temperature operation, CdZnTe has great potential for use in both balloon and space borne hard x-ray (5 - 200 keV) astrophysics experiments. Here we present preliminary results from the first CdZnTe background measurements made by a balloon instrument. Measurements of the CdZnTe internal background are essential to determine which physical processes make the most important background contributions and are critical in the design of future scientific instruments. The PoRTIA CdZnTe balloon instrument was flown three times in three different shielding configurations. PoRTIA was passively shielded during its first flight from Palestine, Texas and actively shielded as a piggyback instrument on the GRIS balloon experiment during flights 2 and 3 from Alice Springs, Australia. PoRTIA flew twice during the Fall 1995 Alice Springs, Australia campaign using the thick GRIS NaI anticoincidence shield. A significant CdZnTe background reduction was achieved during the third flight with PoRTIA placed completely inside the GRIS shield and blocking crystal, and thus completely surrounded by 15 cm of NaI. These background results are presented and contributions from different background processes are discussed.

  2. The Main Idea Strategy: A Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension through Inferential Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudah, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the Main Idea Strategy, a strategy to improve the performance of students with disabilities and students who perform poorly on reading comprehension tasks. The rationale, research background, and detailed implementation information are presented.

  3. Sequential sampling designs based on space reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Xu, Shengli; Wang, Xiaofang

    2015-07-01

    In the field of engineering design and optimization, metamodels are widely used to replace expensive simulation models in order to reduce computing costs. To improve the accuracy of metamodels effectively and efficiently, sequential sampling designs have been developed. In this article, a sequential sampling design using the Monte Carlo method and space reduction strategy (MCSR) is implemented and discussed in detail. The space reduction strategy not only maintains good sampling properties but also improves the efficiency of the sampling process. Furthermore, a local boundary search (LBS) algorithm is proposed to efficiently improve the performance of MCSR, which is called LBS-MCSR. Comparative results with several sequential sampling approaches from low to high dimensions indicate that the space reduction strategy generates samples with better sampling properties (and thus better metamodel accuracy) in less computing time.

  4. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

  5. Do executives' backgrounds matter to IPO investors? Evidence from the life science industry.

    PubMed

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the impact of senior executives' industry backgrounds on the amount of capital raised in the stock market. The primary contribution of the study entails applying the upper echelon theory to the initial public offering (IPO) phenomenon. Specifically, we hypothesize that the industry backgrounds of corporate executives affect the amount of capital that the firm raised in the primary stock market. We argue that the firm's future investment strategies are unobserved by the investors ex-ante and investors expect firms' investment strategies to be based on the executives' industry backgrounds. As a result, the executives' industry backgrounds influence the investors' expectations about what investment strategies the firm is likely to deploy. Furthermore, the above logic also suggests that executives of different industry backgrounds should prefer different investment strategies corresponding with demand for different amount of capital. As a result, we expect the industry backgrounds to covary with the capital raised from both the supply and demand perspectives. To test the hypotheses, we ran a reduced econometric model wherein the executives' background predicts the amount of capital raised. Regression analyses suggest that the capital raised is negatively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in the healthcare and genomic sectors but positively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in regulatory affairs. The results provide tentative support for the notion that investors infer corporate strategies from senior executives' industry backgrounds. PMID:23690920

  6. Do Executives' Backgrounds Matter to IPO Investors? Evidence from the Life Science Industry

    PubMed Central

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the impact of senior executives' industry backgrounds on the amount of capital raised in the stock market. The primary contribution of the study entails applying the upper echelon theory to the initial public offering (IPO) phenomenon. Specifically, we hypothesize that the industry backgrounds of corporate executives affect the amount of capital that the firm raised in the primary stock market. We argue that the firm's future investment strategies are unobserved by the investors ex-ante and investors expect firms' investment strategies to be based on the executives' industry backgrounds. As a result, the executives' industry backgrounds influence the investors' expectations about what investment strategies the firm is likely to deploy. Furthermore, the above logic also suggests that executives of different industry backgrounds should prefer different investment strategies corresponding with demand for different amount of capital. As a result, we expect the industry backgrounds to covary with the capital raised from both the supply and demand perspectives. To test the hypotheses, we ran a reduced econometric model wherein the executives' background predicts the amount of capital raised. Regression analyses suggest that the capital raised is negatively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in the healthcare and genomic sectors but positively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in regulatory affairs. The results provide tentative support for the notion that investors infer corporate strategies from senior executives' industry backgrounds. PMID:23690920

  7. Do executives' backgrounds matter to IPO investors? Evidence from the life science industry.

    PubMed

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the impact of senior executives' industry backgrounds on the amount of capital raised in the stock market. The primary contribution of the study entails applying the upper echelon theory to the initial public offering (IPO) phenomenon. Specifically, we hypothesize that the industry backgrounds of corporate executives affect the amount of capital that the firm raised in the primary stock market. We argue that the firm's future investment strategies are unobserved by the investors ex-ante and investors expect firms' investment strategies to be based on the executives' industry backgrounds. As a result, the executives' industry backgrounds influence the investors' expectations about what investment strategies the firm is likely to deploy. Furthermore, the above logic also suggests that executives of different industry backgrounds should prefer different investment strategies corresponding with demand for different amount of capital. As a result, we expect the industry backgrounds to covary with the capital raised from both the supply and demand perspectives. To test the hypotheses, we ran a reduced econometric model wherein the executives' background predicts the amount of capital raised. Regression analyses suggest that the capital raised is negatively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in the healthcare and genomic sectors but positively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in regulatory affairs. The results provide tentative support for the notion that investors infer corporate strategies from senior executives' industry backgrounds.

  8. Review of Monte Carlo simulations for backgrounds from radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selvi, Marco

    2013-08-08

    For all experiments dealing with the rare event searches (neutrino, dark matter, neutrino-less double-beta decay), the reduction of the radioactive background is one of the most important and difficult tasks. There are basically two types of background, electron recoils and nuclear recoils. The electron recoil background is mostly from the gamma rays through the radioactive decay. The nuclear recoil background is from neutrons from spontaneous fission, (α, n) reactions and muoninduced interactions (spallations, photo-nuclear and hadronic interaction). The external gammas and neutrons from the muons and laboratory environment, can be reduced by operating the detector at deep underground laboratories and by placing active or passive shield materials around the detector. The radioactivity of the detector materials also contributes to the background; in order to reduce it a careful screening campaign is mandatory to select highly radio-pure materials. In this review I present the status of current Monte Carlo simulations aimed to estimate and reproduce the background induced by gamma and neutron radioactivity of the materials and the shield of rare event search experiment. For the electromagnetic background a good level of agreement between the data and the MC simulation has been reached by the XENON100 and EDELWEISS experiments, using the GEANT4 toolkit. For the neutron background, a comparison between the yield of neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α, n) obtained with two dedicated softwares, SOURCES-4A and the one developed by Mei-Zhang-Hime, show a good overall agreement, with total yields within a factor 2 difference. The energy spectra from SOURCES-4A are in general smoother, while those from MZH presents sharp peaks. The neutron propagation through various materials has been studied with two MC codes, GEANT4 and MCNPX, showing a reasonably good agreement, inside 50% discrepancy.

  9. Scope, background and definition of pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nici, L; Zuwallack, R

    2011-09-01

    works primarily through reducing the impact of the systemic manifestations of the disease and frequent comorbidity. Pulmonary rehabilitation also leads to substantial reductions in subsequent health care utilization, possibly through collaborative self-management strategies emphasized in the program. Although pulmonary rehabilitation has been utilized by astute clinicians for many years, its science has been developed over the past two decades.

  10. Multipurpose background for standardization in medical photography.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    1985-08-01

    A dual photography background system consisting of a quadrilled format on one side and a plain background on the other is described. It is mobile and efficient as a space- and time-saving device for medical photography.

  11. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy*

    PubMed Central

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. Methods The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self- administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Results Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. PMID:25891231

  12. Project identification for methane reduction options

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses efforts directed at reduction in emission of methane to the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, which on a 20 year timeframe may present a similar problem to carbon dioxide. In addition, methane causes additional problems in the form of smog and its longer atmospheric lifetime. The author discusses strategies for reducing methane emission from several major sources. This includes landfill methane recovery, coalbed methane recovery, livestock methane reduction - in the form of ruminant methane reduction and manure methane recovery. The author presents examples of projects which have implemented these ideas, the economics of the projects, and additional gains which come from the projects.

  13. Pharmacists and harm reduction: A review of current practices and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Tyler; Hughes, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injection drug use and other high-risk behaviours are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality and thus have been the focus of many health promotion strategies. Community pharmacists are considered underutilized health providers and are often thought to be more accessible than other health professionals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of community pharmacists' practices as well as pharmacists' attitudes and identified barriers toward providing harm reduction services. We will highlight the major harm reduction services being offered through community pharmacies, as well as identify barriers to implementing these services. Methods: A review of the literature from 1995 to 2011 was conducted using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, encompassing pharmacists' involvement in harm reduction services. Keywords included pharmacist, harm reduction, disease prevention, health promotion, attitudes, competence and barriers. References of included articles were examined to identify further relevant literature. Results: Pharmacists are primarily involved in providing clean needles to injection drug users, as well as opioid substitution. Pharmacists generally have a positive attitude toward providing health promotion and harm reduction programs and express some interest in increasing their role in this area. Common barriers to expanding harm reduction strategies in community pharmacists' practice include lack of time and training, insufficient remuneration, fear of attracting unruly clientele and inadequate communication between health providers. Conclusion: As one of the most accessible health care providers, community pharmacists are in an ideal position to provide meaningful services to injection drug users. However, in order to do so, pharmacists require additional support in the form of better health team and system integration, as well as remuneration models. PMID:23509527

  14. Experimental study on sludge reduction by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cao, X Q; Chen, J; Cao, Y L; Zhu, J Y; Hao, X D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, considerable impetus emerges to develop strategies for reducing excess sludge produced in biological wastewater treatment (BWT) systems. In this study, an experiment on sludge reduction by ultrasound treatment was conducted. The influences of sonication on observed yield, sludge reduction, effluent quality, sludge settleability and stability were extensively evaluated. It was found that ultrasound had an impressive potential to reduce sludge production. Moreover, it was also concluded that a treatment time of 10 minutes was more cost-effective for sludge reduction, and a reduction by 44% was reached with an ultrasonic intensity of 0.25 w/ml. The reduction could be mainly attributed to disintegration of bio-flocs and cryptic growth. In addition, sonication time seemed to be more effective to reduce sludge production compared with ultrasonic intensity. Slight deterioration of the effluent quality and some variations of the sludge settleability and stability were observed after ultrasound treatment.

  15. Nucleation reduction strategy of BaNH{4}MgHPO{4} (barium ammonium magnesium hydrogen phosphate, in vitro approach-1) crystals grown in silica gel medium and its characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, P.; Kanchana, G.; Sundaramoorthi, P.

    2009-02-01

    Kidney stones consist of various organic, inorganic and semi-organic compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate is the main inorganic constituent of kidney stones. However, the mechanisms for the formation of crystal mineral oxalate are not clearly understood. In this field of study there are many hypothesis including nucleation, crystal growth and or aggregation of formation of AOMH (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) and AODH (ammonium oxalate di-hydrate) crystals. The effect of some urinary species such as ammonium oxalates, calcium, citrate, proteins and trace mineral elements have been previously reported by the author. The kidney stone constituents are grown in the kidney environments, the sodium meta silica gel medium (SMS) provides the necessary growth simulation (in vitro). In the artificial urinary stone growth process, growth parameters within the different chemical environments are identified. The author has reported the growth of urinary crystals such as CHP, SHP, BHP and AHP. In the present study, BaNH{4}MgHPO{4} (barium ammonium magnesium hydrogen phosphate) crystals have been grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reductions. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out and the results are reported.

  16. Adult Learning in a World at Risk: Emerging Policies and Strategies. Expectations and Prospects for the 21st Century As Voiced by Respondents to a 1996 UNESCO Questionnaire in Preparation for the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA V). CONFINTEA Background Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giere, Ursula

    Emerging adult education policies and strategies were studied through a survey of United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) member states, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and social partners. Questionnaires were returned by 93 countries and 12 NGOs. The study focused on the following: social change and its…

  17. What is the actual fate of super-morbid-obese patients who undergo laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as the first step of a two-stage weight-reduction operative strategy?

    PubMed

    Alexandrou, A; Felekouras, E; Giannopoulos, A; Tsigris, C; Diamantis, T

    2012-10-01

    The overall success-rate of the two-stage treatment plan for the treatment of super-morbid obesity has not yet been assessed. We reviewed the long-term results of 41 treated super-morbid-obese patients. Mean initial BMI was 59.5 ± 3.5 kg/m(2). Twelve patients (29.3 %) achieved after only LSG a BMI <35 kg/m(2) (mean 31.9 ± 2). They have lost 78.7 ± 11.8 % of excess body weight (EBW). The remaining 28 patients lost 48.1 ± 11.9 % of EBW and achieved a mean BMI of 44.2 ± 4.3 kg/m(2), thus requiring the second stage. Ten of them (24.4 % of the total or 35.7 % of those in need), were submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). They lost 71.9 ± 4.3 % of EBW and have a mean BMI of 33.6 ± 2.7 kg/m(2). The 18 remaining patients have a BMI of 42 ± 3.6 kg/m(2) and they still suffer from morbid obesity. They have lost 48.5 ± 8.7 % of EBW. The mean rate of EBW loss for all the available 39 patients after either LSG or both LSG and LRYGBP has been 63.2 ± 16.5 % after a mean follow-up of 42.8 ± 19.5 months. Out of 41 patients, 1 died, 1 was lost to follow-up, 21 (51.2 %) achieved "healthy" BMIs and 18 (44 %) still require LRYGBP. The rate of cure of morbid obesity was 51.2 %. A remaining 44 % of super-morbid obese patients still need the completion LRYGBP but have not undergone it. Half of these patients have lost >50 % of their EBW. The two-stage strategy is an effective treatment plan for super-morbid obesity. A less patient-dependent strategy may be needed for a subset of patients.

  18. MCNP variance reduction overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code.

  19. Acculturation and Religion in Schools: The Views of Young People from Minority Belief Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…

  20. Data-driven estimations of Standard Model backgrounds to SUSY searches in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Legger, F.

    2008-11-23

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the strategy for the observation of supersymmetry in the early days is mainly based on inclusive searches. Major backgrounds are constituted by mismeasured multi-jet events and W, Z and t quark production in association with jets. We describe recent work performed in the ATLAS Collaboration to derive these backgrounds from the first ATLAS data.

  1. Optimizing parallel reduction operations

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    A parallel program consists of sets of concurrent and sequential tasks. Often, a reduction (such as array sum) sequentially combines values produced by a parallel computation. Because reductions occur so frequently in otherwise parallel programs, they are good candidates for optimization. Since reductions may introduce dependencies, most languages separate computation and reduction. The Sisal functional language is unique in that reduction is a natural consequence of loop expressions; the parallelism is implicit in the language. Unfortunately, the original language supports only seven reduction operations. To generalize these expressions, the Sisal 90 definition adds user-defined reductions at the language level. Applicable optimizations depend upon the mathematical properties of the reduction. Compilation and execution speed, synchronization overhead, memory use and maximum size influence the final implementation. This paper (1) Defines reduction syntax and compares with traditional concurrent methods; (2) Defines classes of reduction operations; (3) Develops analysis of classes for optimized concurrency; (4) Incorporates reductions into Sisal 1.2 and Sisal 90; (5) Evaluates performance and size of the implementations.

  2. The strategy of cramming.

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2003-01-01

    Offered in this article is a new strategy, cramming, that can serve well in an attempt to answer an open question or in an attempt to find a shorter proof. Indeed, when the question can be answered by proving a conjunction, cramming can provide substantial assistance. The basis of the strategy rests with forcing so many steps of a subproof into the remainder of the proof that the desired answer is obtained. As for reduction in proof length, the literature shows that proof shortening (proof abridgment) was indeed of interest to some of the masters of logic, masters that include C. A. Meredith, A. Prior, and I. Thomas. The problem of proof shortening (as well as other aspects of simplification) is also central to the recent discovery by R. Thiele of Hilbert's twenty-fourth problem. Although that problem was not included in his 1900 Paris lecture (because he had not yet sufficiently formulated it), Hilbert stressed at various times in his life the importance of finding simpler proofs. Because a sharp reduction in proof length (of constructive proofs) is correlated with a significant reduction in the complexity of the object being constructed, the cramming strategy is relevant to circuit design and program synthesis. The most impressive success with the use of the cramming strategy concerns an abridgment of the Meredith-Prior abridging of the ukasiewicz proof for his shortest single axiom for the implicational fragment of two-valued sentential (or classical propositional) calculus. In the context of answering open questions, the most satisfying examples to date concern the study of the right-group calculus and the study of the modal logic C5. Various challenges are offered here.

  3. A ligation-triggered DNAzyme cascade for amplified fluorescence detection of biological small molecules with zero-background signal.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Kong, Rong-Mei; Yang, Bin; Tan, Weihong

    2011-08-01

    Many types of fluorescent sensing systems have been reported for biological small molecules. Particularly, several methods have been developed for the recognition of ATP or NAD(+), but they only show moderate sensitivity, and they cannot discriminate either ATP or NAD(+) from their respective analogues. We have addressed these limitations and report here a dual strategy which combines split DNAzyme-based background reduction with catalytic and molecular beacon (CAMB)-based amplified detection to develop a ligation-triggered DNAzyme cascade, resulting in ultrahigh sensitivity. First, the 8-17 DNAzyme is split into two separate oligonucleotide fragments as the building blocks for the DNA ligation reaction, thereby providing a zero-background signal to improve overall sensitivity. Next, a CAMB strategy is further employed for amplified signal detection achieved through cycling and regenerating the DNAzyme to realize the true enzymatic multiple turnover (one enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of several substrates) of catalytic beacons. This combination of zero-background signal and signal amplification significantly improves the sensitivity of the sensing systems, resulting in detection limits of 100 and 50 pM for ATP and NAD(+), respectively, much lower than those of previously reported biosensors. Moreover, by taking advantage of the highly specific biomolecule-dependence of the DNA ligation reaction, the developed DNAzyme cascades show significantly high selectivity toward the target cofactor (ATP or NAD(+)), and the target biological small molecule can be distinguished from its analogues. Therefore, as a new and universal platform for the design of DNA ligation reaction-based sensing systems, this novel ligation-triggered DNAzyme cascade method may find a broad spectrum of applications in both environmental and biomedical fields.

  4. Harm reduction and law enforcement in Vietnam: influences on street policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres) which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included in harm reduction advocacy

  5. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  6. Stray light analysis of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breault, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The straylight analysis of the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) on the cosmic background explorer (COBE) mission is discussed. From the statement of work (SOW), the purpose of DIRBE is to measure, or set upper limits on, the spectral and spatial character of the diffuse extra galactic infrared radiation. Diffuse infrared sources within our own galaxy are measured. The required reduction of the unwanted radiation imposes severe design and operating restrictions on the DIRBE instrument. To accomplish its missions, it will operate at a multitude of wavelengths ranging from 1.25 um out to 200 to 300 microns. The operating bands and the required point source normalized irradiance transmittance (PSNIT) are shown. The important straylight concepts in the DIRBE design are reviewed. The model and assumptions used in APART analysis are explained. The limitations due to the scalar theory used in the analysis are outlined.

  7. The background for Skylab experiment T-002, manual navigation sightings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J.; Powers, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    The background of the NASA-DOD manual navigation experiment (T002) on Skylab A is reviewed with emphasis on NASA's development of an error model for sextant measurements in midcourse navigation and on USAF's development of a low earth orbit manual navigation scheme. Instruments briefly described are a space sextant and space stadimeter, both of which are used by USAF in orbit navigation, the sextant by NASA in midcourse sightings. The rationale, data requirements, and data reduction procedures are discussed in terms of the goals of the agencies.

  8. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  9. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  10. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  12. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  13. Color gradient background oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) imaging is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances through the comparison of digital images. By comparing images with and without a refractive disturbance visualizations can be achieved via a range of image processing methods. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high contrast speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern. Here a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative. The gradient background eliminates the need to perform an image correlation between the two digital images, as simple image subtraction can be used to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. This allows for quicker processing. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are shown. The gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data limited only by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Additional results include the use of a computer screen as a background.

  14. Color gradient background-oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    Background-oriented schlieren is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances by comparing digital images with and without a refractive disturbance distorting a background pattern. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high-contrast color transitions or speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern between the two images. Here, a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative that eliminates the need to perform a complex image correlation between the digital images. A simple image subtraction can be used instead to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. Gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data only limited by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Quantitative measurement of density in a thermal boundary layer is presented. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are demonstrated to allow measurement of two-dimensional refractions. A computer screen is used as the background, which allows for rapid modification of the gradient to tune sensitivity for a particular application.

  15. Sharp Reduction in Black Child Poverty Due to Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Melissa G.

    This report asserts that welfare reform has been very successful in reducing child poverty. For a quarter-century prior to reform, black child poverty and poverty among single mothers remained virtually constant. Six years after reform, poverty among both groups dropped rapidly, reaching the lowest levels in U.S. history. Welfare rolls have…

  16. Cosmic ray neutron background reduction using localized coincidence veto neutron counting

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O.; Bourret, Steven C.; Krick, Merlyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to both the apparatus and method for increasing the sensitivity of measuring the amount of radioactive material in waste by reducing the interference caused by cosmic ray generated neutrons. The apparatus includes: (a) a plurality of neutron detectors, each of the detectors including means for generating a pulse in response to the detection of a neutron; and (b) means, coupled to each of the neutrons detectors, for counting only some of the pulses from each of the detectors, whether cosmic ray or fission generated. The means for counting includes a means that, after counting one of the pulses, vetos the counting of additional pulses for a prescribed period of time. The prescribed period of time is between 50 and 200 .mu.s. In the preferred embodiment the prescribed period of time is 128 .mu.s. The veto means can be an electronic circuit which includes a leading edge pulse generator which passes a pulse but blocks any subsequent pulse for a period of between 50 and 200 .mu.s. Alternately, the veto means is a software program which includes means for tagging each of the pulses from each of the detectors for both time and position, means for counting one of the pulses from a particular position, and means for rejecting those of the pulses which originate from the particular position and in a time interval on the order of the neutron die-away time in polyethylene or other shield material. The neutron detectors are grouped in pods, preferably at least 10. The apparatus also includes means for vetoing the counting of coincidence pulses from all of the detectors included in each of the pods which are adjacent to the pod which includes the detector which produced the pulse which was counted.

  17. Polarization for Background Reduction in EDXRF - The Technique That Would Not Work

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, R W

    2002-07-24

    As with all electromagnet radiation, polarization of x-rays is a general phenomenon. Such polarization has been known since the classic experiments of Barkla in 1906. The general implementation of polarization to x-ray analysis had to await the fixed geometry of energy-dispersive systems. The means of optimizing these systems is shown in this review paper. Improved detection limits are the result.

  18. Productivity Savings from Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Cathy J.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Yabroff, K. Robin; Dahman, Bassam; Mariotto, Angela; Feuer, Eric J.; Brown, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lost productivity represents a considerable portion of the total economic burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), but cost-effectiveness studies of CRC prevention and control have not included these costs and therefore underestimate potential savings from CRC prevention and control. Purpose To use microsimulation modeling study to estimate and project productivity costs of CRC and to model the savings from four approaches to reducing CRC incidence and mortality: risk factor reduction, improved screening, improved treatment, and a simultaneous approach where all three strategies are implemented. Methods A model was developed to project productivity losses from CRC using the U.S. population with CRC incidence and mortality projected through the year 2020. Outcome measures were CRC mortality, morbidity, and productivity savings. Results With 2005 levels in risk factors, screening, and treatment, 48,748 CRC deaths occurred in 2010, amounting to $21 billion of lost productivity. Using prevention and treatment strategies simultaneously, 3586 deaths could have been avoided in 2010, leading to a savings of $1.4 billion. Cumulatively, by 2020, simultaneous strategies that reduce risk factors and increase screening and treatment could result in 101,353 deaths avoided and $33.9 billion in savings in reduced productivity loss. Improved screening rates alone led to nearly $14.7 billion in savings between 2005 and 2020, followed by risk factor reduction ($12.4 billion) and improved treatment ($8.4 billion). Conclusions The savings in productivity loss from strategies to reduce CRC incidence and mortality are substantial, providing evidence that CRC prevention and control strategies are likely to be cost-saving. PMID:21767717

  19. 75 FR 6670 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Background...

  20. 77 FR 24207 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Background...

  1. 78 FR 18595 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction... Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Background and...

  2. 76 FR 44337 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Background and...

  3. IWRM and poverty reduction in Malawi: A socio-economic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Msosa, Hendrina K.

    Like most other countries in the SADC region, Malawi has swiftly endorsed the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. In the water sector, these principles are reflected in the National Water Policy (2004) and in the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) (2002) which emphasize three key aspects. First, the articulation of a vision and policy objectives that address development and management of water for productive purposes, conservation and poverty reduction. Second, the recognition of international and regional conventions and agreements on water resources to which Malawi is a signatory, thereby promoting global partnership for development. Third, the provision of mechanisms for monitoring, assessment and development related to watershed management, conservation and the mitigation of floods and droughts. Both the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and the National Water Policy seek to reduce poverty by increasing access to water for domestic and productive purposes. In particular, the MPRSP will focus on constructing and rehabilitating water facilities, extend water supply capacity, promote community-based management and improve water resources conservation and management. In this paper, we examine the challenges of implementing these goals against the background of various institutional reforms in the water sector. We argue that although Malawi has come up with very clear strategies and guidelines for promoting MDGs, a combination of human and financial resources, bedevil the successful implementation of these ideas. In addition, the strategies do not articulate water as a medium for poverty alleviation in a holistic manner. The paper further demonstrates ways in which the promotion of IWRM can facilitate in reducing poverty.

  4. Optically Modulated Fluorescence Bioimaging: Visualizing Obscured Fluorophores in High Background

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    brightness is improved slightly, SAFIRe yields up to 100-fold improved signal visibility by essentially removing obscuring, unmodulated background (RichardsC. I.; J. Am. Chem. Soc.2009, 131, 461919284790). While SAFIRe exhibits a wide, linear dynamic range, we have demonstrated single-molecule signal recovery buried within 200 nM obscuring dye. In addition to enabling signal recovery through background reduction, each dye exhibits a characteristic modulation frequency indicative of its photophysical dynamics. Thus, these characteristic time scales offer opportunities not only to expand the dimensionality of fluorescence imaging by using dark-state lifetimes but also to distinguish the dynamics of subpopulations on the basis of photophysical versus diffusional time scales, even within modulatable populations. The continued development of modulation for signal recovery and observation of biological dynamics holds great promise for studying a range of transient biological phenomena in natural environments. Through the development of a wide range of fluorescent proteins, organic dyes, and inorganic emitters that exhibit significant dark-state populations under steady-state illumination, we can drastically expand the applicability of fluorescence imaging to probe lower-abundance complexes and their dynamics. PMID:24725021

  5. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  6. Cumulative Benefit Analysis for Ranking Risk Reduction Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Leverenz, Fred L.; Aysa Jimenez, Julio

    2007-04-25

    The Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study approach, and other similar methods, are very effective ways to qualitatively identify a comprehensive set of accident scenarios for a facility. If these analyses are modified to incorporate a simple system for evaluating relative risk, such as an order-of-magnitude scoring system, the resultant study can be a very powerful input to developing risk reduction strategies. By adding the concept of Risk Reduction Worth evaluations for all accident Causes, Safeguards, and proposal Action Items, an analyst can then formulate a strategy to select the minimal set of risk reduction actions that maximizes risk reduction. One strategy for doing this involves the iterative evaluation of RRW after postulation of risk reduction actions, until the residual risk reaches a tolerable value, termed Cumulative Risk Benefit Analysis. This concept was developed for the evaluation of a set of pipeline pumping stations, and provided valuable insight into how to reduce risk in a sensible, prioritized fashion.

  7. Probing circular polarization in stochastic gravitational wave background with pulsar timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ryo; Soda, Jiro

    2016-03-01

    We study the detectability of circular polarization in a stochastic gravitational wave background from various sources such as supermassive black hole binaries, cosmic strings, and inflation in the early universe with pulsar timing arrays. We calculate generalized overlap reduction functions for the circularly polarized stochastic gravitational wave background. We find that the circular polarization cannot be detected for an isotropic background. However, there is a chance to observe the circular polarization for an anisotropic gravitational wave background. We also show how to separate polarized gravitational waves from unpolarized gravitational waves.

  8. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  9. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  10. Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia

    Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

  11. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  12. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  13. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  14. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Background. 1031.2 Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.2 Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972...

  15. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  16. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  17. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  18. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  19. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  20. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...