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Sample records for background synaptic inhibition

  1. AMPA receptor inhibition by synaptically released zinc.

    PubMed

    Kalappa, Bopanna I; Anderson, Charles T; Goldberg, Jacob M; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-12-22

    The vast amount of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mediated by AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs). As a result, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is implicated in nearly all aspects of brain development, function, and plasticity. Despite the central role of AMPARs in neurobiology, the fine-tuning of synaptic AMPA responses by endogenous modulators remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that endogenous zinc, released by single presynaptic action potentials, inhibits synaptic AMPA currents in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and hippocampus. Exposure to loud sound reduces presynaptic zinc levels in the DCN and abolishes zinc inhibition, implicating zinc in experience-dependent AMPAR synaptic plasticity. Our results establish zinc as an activity-dependent, endogenous modulator of AMPARs that tunes fast excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses.

  2. AMPA receptor inhibition by synaptically released zinc

    PubMed Central

    Kalappa, Bopanna I.; Anderson, Charles T.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    The vast amount of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mediated by AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs). As a result, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is implicated in nearly all aspects of brain development, function, and plasticity. Despite the central role of AMPARs in neurobiology, the fine-tuning of synaptic AMPA responses by endogenous modulators remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that endogenous zinc, released by single presynaptic action potentials, inhibits synaptic AMPA currents in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and hippocampus. Exposure to loud sound reduces presynaptic zinc levels in the DCN and abolishes zinc inhibition, implicating zinc in experience-dependent AMPAR synaptic plasticity. Our results establish zinc as an activity-dependent, endogenous modulator of AMPARs that tunes fast excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26647187

  3. Tonic synaptic inhibition modulates neuronal output pattern and spatiotemporal synaptic integration.

    PubMed

    Häusser, M; Clark, B A

    1997-09-01

    Irregular firing patterns are observed in most central neurons in vivo, but their origin is controversial. Here, we show that two types of inhibitory neurons in the cerebellar cortex fire spontaneously and regularly in the absence of synaptic input but generate an irregular firing pattern in the presence of tonic synaptic inhibition. Paired recordings between synaptically connected neurons revealed that single action potentials in inhibitory interneurons cause highly variable delays in action potential firing in their postsynaptic cells. Activity in single and multiple inhibitory interneurons also significantly reduces postsynaptic membrane time constant and input resistance. These findings suggest that the time window for synaptic integration is a dynamic variable modulated by the level of tonic inhibition, and that rate coding and temporal coding strategies may be used in parallel in the same cell type. PMID:9331356

  4. Neurexin and neuroligin mediate retrograde synaptic inhibition in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhitao; Hom, Sabrina; Kudze, Tambudzai; Tong, Xia-Jing; Choi, Seungwon; Aramuni, Gayane; Zhang, Weiqi; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2012-08-24

    The synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin and neuroligin alter the development and function of synapses and are linked to autism in humans. Here, we found that Caenorhabditis elegans neurexin (NRX-1) and neuroligin (NLG-1) mediated a retrograde synaptic signal that inhibited neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions. Retrograde signaling was induced in mutants lacking a muscle microRNA (miR-1) and was blocked in mutants lacking NLG-1 or NRX-1. Release was rapid and abbreviated when the retrograde signal was on, whereas release was slow and prolonged when retrograde signaling was blocked. The retrograde signal adjusted release kinetics by inhibiting exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs) that are distal to the site of calcium entry. Inhibition of release was mediated by increased presynaptic levels of tomosyn, an inhibitor of SV fusion.

  5. Synaptic inhibition and disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptive signals originating in the periphery must be transmitted to the brain to evoke pain. Rather than being conveyed unchanged, those signals undergo extensive processing in the spinal dorsal horn. Synaptic inhibition plays a crucial role in that processing. On the one hand, neuropathy and inflammation are associated with reduced spinal inhibition; on the other hand, the hypersensitivity associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain can be reproduced by blocking inhibition at the spinal level. To understand the consequences of disinhibition and how to therapeutically reverse it, one must understand how synaptic inhibition normally operates. To that end, this chapter will discuss the structure and function of GABAA and glycine receptors together with the role of associated molecules involved in transmitter handling and chloride regulation. Mechanisms by which inhibition modulates cellular excitability will be described. The chapter will end with discussion of how inhibition goes awry under pathological conditions and what the implications are for the treatment of resulting pain. PMID:25744679

  6. Sumatriptan inhibits synaptic transmission in the rat midbrain periaqueductal grey

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyo-Jin; Chenu, David; Johnson, Emma E; Connor, Mark; Vaughan, Christopher W

    2008-01-01

    Background There is evidence to suggest that the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) has a role in migraine and the actions of the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan. In the present study we examined the serotonergic modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat midbrain PAG slices in vitro. Results Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT, IC50 = 142 nM) and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (30 μM) produced a reduction in the amplitude of GABAA-mediated evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in all PAG neurons which was associated with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs. Real time PCR revealed that 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptor mRNA was present in the PAG. The 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT (3 μM), CP93129 (3 μM) and L694247 (3 μM), but not the 5-HT1F receptor agonist LY344864 (1 – 3 μM) inhibited evoked IPSCs. The 5-HT (1 μM) induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by the 5-HT1B antagonist NAS181 (10 μM), but not by the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D antagonists WAY100135 (3 μM) and BRL15572 (10 μM). Sumatriptan also inhibited evoked IPSCs with an IC50 of 261 nM, and reduced the rate, but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature IPSCs. The sumatriptan (1 μM) induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by NAS181 (10 μM) and BRL15572 (10 μM), together, but not separately. 5-HT (10 μM) and sumatriptan (3 μM) also reduced the amplitude of non-NMDA mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in all PAG neurons tested. Conclusion These results indicate that sumatriptan inhibits GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission within the PAG via a 5-HT1B/D receptor mediated reduction in the probability of neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. These actions overlap those of other analgesics, such as opioids, and provide a mechanism by which centrally acting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D ligands might lead to novel anti

  7. Chloride Regulation: A Dynamic Equilibrium Crucial for Synaptic Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Nicolas; Vinay, Laurent; Prescott, Steven A; De Koninck, Yves

    2016-03-16

    Fast synaptic inhibition relies on tight regulation of intracellular Cl(-). Chloride dysregulation is implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Beyond mere disinhibition, the consequences of Cl(-) dysregulation are multifaceted and best understood in terms of a dynamical system involving complex interactions between multiple processes operating on many spatiotemporal scales. This dynamical perspective helps explain many unintuitive manifestations of Cl(-) dysregulation. Here we discuss how taking into account dynamical regulation of intracellular Cl(-) is important for understanding how synaptic inhibition fails, how to best detect that failure, why Cl(-) regulation is energetically so expensive, and the overall consequences for therapeutics. PMID:26985723

  8. Chloride Regulation: A Dynamic Equilibrium Crucial for Synaptic Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Nicolas; Vinay, Laurent; Prescott, Steven A; De Koninck, Yves

    2016-03-16

    Fast synaptic inhibition relies on tight regulation of intracellular Cl(-). Chloride dysregulation is implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Beyond mere disinhibition, the consequences of Cl(-) dysregulation are multifaceted and best understood in terms of a dynamical system involving complex interactions between multiple processes operating on many spatiotemporal scales. This dynamical perspective helps explain many unintuitive manifestations of Cl(-) dysregulation. Here we discuss how taking into account dynamical regulation of intracellular Cl(-) is important for understanding how synaptic inhibition fails, how to best detect that failure, why Cl(-) regulation is energetically so expensive, and the overall consequences for therapeutics.

  9. Putative synaptic mechanisms of inhibition in Limulus lateral eye

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) perfusion of a thin section of Limulus lateral eye hyperpolarizes retinular and eccentric cell membrane potential, and blocks spike action potentials fired by the eccenteric cell. The indoleamine does not directly affect retinular cell receptor potential or eccenteric cell generator potential in response to light stimuli. LSD perfusion blocks both this inhibitory action of 5-HT and light- evoked, synaptically mediated, lateral inhibition. Iontophoretic application of 5-HT to the synaptic neuropil produces shorter latency and duration and larger amplitude of inhibition than does the perfusion technique. This inhibition is dose dependent; the accompanying inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) appears to have an equilibrium potential more hyperpolarized than normal resting potential levels of ca. -50 mV. IPSP amplitude is sensitive to extracellular potassium ion concentration: it increases with decreased [K+]0 and decreases with increased [K+]0. LSD blocks the inhibition produced by iontophoretic application of 5-HT. Interaction between light-evoked, natural synaptic transmitter-mediated IPSP's and 5-HT IPSP's suggests a common postsynaptic receptor or transmitter-receptor-permeability change mechanism. PMID:1271039

  10. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  11. Synaptic transmission: inhibition of neurotransmitter release by botulinum toxins.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A, a protein long used in the successful treatment of various dystonias, has a complex mechanism of action that results in muscle relaxation. At the neuromuscular junction, the presynaptic nerve ending is packed with synaptic vesicles filled with acetylcholine, and clustered at the tip of the folds of the postsynaptic muscle membrane are the acetylcholine receptors. Synaptic vesicles fuse with the membrane in response to an elevation of intraneuronal calcium concentration and undergo release of their transmitter by exocytosis. Intracellular proteins that contribute to the fusion of the vesicles with the plasma membrane during exocytosis include synaptosomal protein with a molecular weight of 25 kDa (SNAP-25); vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), also known as synaptobrevin; and syntaxin. Through their proteolytic action on these proteins, botulinum toxins prevent exocytosis, thereby inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. There are 7 serotypes of this toxin-A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G-and each cleaves a different intracellular protein or the same target at distinct bonds. The separate cleavage sites in SNAP-25 for botulinum toxin types A and E contribute to their dissimilar durations of muscle relaxation. This report describes the molecular basis for the inhibition by botulinum toxins of neuroexocytosis and subsequent functional recovery at the neuromuscular junction.

  12. Phosphodiesterase Inhibition to Target the Synaptic Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, Kelly R.; Plath, Niels; Svenstrup, Niels; Menniti, Frank S.

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a disease of synaptic dysfunction that ultimately proceeds to neuronal death. There is a wealth of evidence that indicates the final common mediator of this neurotoxic process is the formation and actions on synaptotoxic b-amyloid (Aβ). The premise in this review is that synaptic dysfunction may also be an initiating factor in for AD and promote synaptotoxic Aβ formation. This latter hypothesis is consistent with the fact that the most common risk factors for AD, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) allele status, age, education, and fitness, encompass suboptimal synaptic function. Thus, the synaptic dysfunction in AD may be both cause and effect, and remediating synaptic dysfunction in AD may have acute effects on the symptoms present at the initiation of therapy and also slow disease progression. The cyclic nucleotide (cAMP and cGMP) signaling systems are intimately involved in the regulation of synaptic homeostasis. The phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a superfamily of enzymes that critically regulate spatial and temporal aspects of cyclic nucleotide signaling through metabolic inactivation of cAMP and cGMP. Thus, targeting the PDEs to promote improved synaptic function, or 'synaptic resilience', may be an effective and facile approach to new symptomatic and disease modifying therapies for AD. There continues to be a significant drug discovery effort aimed at discovering PDE inhibitors to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we review the current status of those efforts as they relate to potential new therapies for AD.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide inhibits the vacuolar H+-ATPase in brain synaptic vesicles at micromolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Floor, E

    1998-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced from several sources in brain and may be involved in neurodegeneration and second messenger signaling. Little is known about the effects of H2O2 on transmitter storage in brain synaptic vesicles. Neurotransmitter uptake into synaptic vesicles is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient generated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in the vesicle membrane. We report here that the VATPase in bovine brain synaptic vesicles is highly sensitive to inhibition by micromolar concentrations of H2O2. Glutamate uptake by the vesicles is also inhibited, very likely as a secondary consequence of ATPase inactivation. Dithiothreitol or reduced glutathione reverse H2O2-induced inhibition of the V-ATPase, and ATP or GTP partially protect the ATPase from inhibition by H2O2. These and other results suggest that the mechanism of inhibition of the V-ATPase by H2O2 involves oxidation of a reactive cysteine sulfhydryl group in the ATP binding site. Inhibition of V-ATPase activity would decrease the amount of transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles and thus down-regulate transmitter release during episodes of oxidative stress or in response to second messenger signaling.

  14. Use-dependent inhibition of synaptic transmission by the secretion of intravesicularly accumulated antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Tischbirek, Carsten H; Wenzel, Eva M; Zheng, Fang; Huth, Tobias; Amato, Davide; Trapp, Stefan; Denker, Annette; Welzel, Oliver; Lueke, Katharina; Svetlitchny, Alexei; Rauh, Manfred; Deusser, Janina; Schwab, Annemarie; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Henkel, Andreas W; Müller, Christian P; Alzheimer, Christian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W

    2012-06-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are effective for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the functional consequences and subcellular sites of their accumulation in nervous tissue have remained elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the weak-base antipsychotics haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, and risperidone in synaptic vesicle recycling. Using multiple live-cell microscopic approaches and electron microscopy of rat hippocampal neurons as well as in vivo microdialysis experiments in chronically treated rats, we demonstrate the accumulation of the antipsychotic drugs in synaptic vesicles and their release upon neuronal activity, leading to a significant increase in extracellular drug concentrations. The secreted drugs exerted an autoinhibitory effect on vesicular exocytosis, which was promoted by the inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels and depended on the stimulation intensity. Taken together, these results indicate that accumulated antipsychotic drugs recycle with synaptic vesicles and have a use-dependent, autoinhibitory effect on synaptic transmission. PMID:22681688

  15. Increased Expression of Alpha-Synuclein Reduces Neurotransmitter Release by Inhibiting Synaptic Vesicle Reclustering After Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Venu M.; Lu, Wei; Berge, Victoria; Nakamura, Ken; Onoa, Bibiana; Lee, Michael K.; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.; Nicoll, Roger A.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The protein α-synuclein accumulates in the brain of patients with sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), and increased gene dosage causes a severe, dominantly inherited form of PD, but we know little about the effects of synuclein that precede degeneration. α-Synuclein localizes to the nerve terminal, but the knockout has little if any effect on synaptic transmission. In contrast, we now find that the modest over-expression of α-synuclein, in the range predicted for gene multiplication and in the absence of overt toxicity, markedly inhibits neurotransmitter release. The mechanism, elucidated by direct imaging of the synaptic vesicle cycle, involves a specific reduction in size of the synaptic vesicle recycling pool. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates reduced synaptic vesicle density at the active zone, and imaging further reveals a defect in the reclustering of synaptic vesicles after endocytosis. Increased levels of α-synuclein thus produce a specific, physiological defect in synaptic vesicle recycling that precedes detectable neuropathology. PMID:20152114

  16. CNQX and AMPA inhibit electrical synaptic transmission: a potential interaction between electrical and glutamatergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical synapses play an important role in signaling between neurons and the synaptic connections between many neurons possess both electrical and chemical components. Although modulation of electrical synapses is frequently observed, the cellular processes that mediate such changes have not been studied as thoroughly as plasticity in chemical synapses. In the leech (Hirudo sp), the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX inhibited transmission at the rectifying electrical synapse of a mixed glutamatergic/electrical synaptic connection. This CNQX-mediated inhibition of the electrical synapse was blocked by concanavalin A (Con A) and dynamin inhibitory peptide (DIP), both of which are known to inhibit endocytosis of neurotransmitter receptors. CNQX-mediated inhibition was also blocked by pep2-SVKI (SVKI), a synthetic peptide that prevents internalization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor. AMPA itself also inhibited electrical synaptic transmission and this AMPA-mediated inhibition was partially blocked by Con A, DIP and SVKI. Low frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) in both the electrical and chemical components of these synapses and this LTD was blocked by SVKI. GYKI 52466, a selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, did not affect the electrical EPSP, although it did block the chemical component of these synapses. CNQX did not affect non-rectifying electrical synapses in two different pairs of neurons. These results suggest an interaction between AMPA-type glutamate receptors and the gap junction proteins that mediate electrical synaptic transmission. This putative interaction between glutamate receptors and gap junction proteins represents a novel mechanism for regulating the strength of synaptic transmission. PMID:18601913

  17. Consequences of Inhibiting Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing Enzymes on Synaptic Function and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Megill, Andrea; He, Kaiwen; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, one of whose major pathological hallmarks is the accumulation of amyloid plaques comprised of aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. It is now recognized that soluble Aβ oligomers may lead to synaptic dysfunctions early in AD pathology preceding plaque deposition. Aβ is produced by a sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the activity of β- and γ-secretases, which have been identified as major candidate therapeutic targets of AD. This paper focuses on how Aβ alters synaptic function and the functional consequences of inhibiting the activity of the two secretases responsible for Aβ generation. Abnormalities in synaptic function resulting from the absence or inhibition of the Aβ-producing enzymes suggest that Aβ itself may have normal physiological functions which are disrupted by abnormal accumulation of Aβ during AD pathology. This interpretation suggests that AD therapeutics targeting the β- and γ-secretases should be developed to restore normal levels of Aβ or combined with measures to circumvent the associated synaptic dysfunction(s) in order to have minimal impact on normal synaptic function. PMID:22792491

  18. Consequences of inhibiting amyloid precursor protein processing enzymes on synaptic function and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Megill, Andrea; He, Kaiwen; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, one of whose major pathological hallmarks is the accumulation of amyloid plaques comprised of aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. It is now recognized that soluble Aβ oligomers may lead to synaptic dysfunctions early in AD pathology preceding plaque deposition. Aβ is produced by a sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the activity of β- and γ-secretases, which have been identified as major candidate therapeutic targets of AD. This paper focuses on how Aβ alters synaptic function and the functional consequences of inhibiting the activity of the two secretases responsible for Aβ generation. Abnormalities in synaptic function resulting from the absence or inhibition of the Aβ-producing enzymes suggest that Aβ itself may have normal physiological functions which are disrupted by abnormal accumulation of Aβ during AD pathology. This interpretation suggests that AD therapeutics targeting the β- and γ-secretases should be developed to restore normal levels of Aβ or combined with measures to circumvent the associated synaptic dysfunction(s) in order to have minimal impact on normal synaptic function.

  19. Inhibition of calpains improves memory and synaptic transmission in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Trinchese, Fabrizio; Fa’, Mauro; Liu, Shumin; Zhang, Hong; Hidalgo, Ariel; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yamaguchi, Hisako; Yoshii, Narihiko; Mathews, Paul M.; Nixon, Ralph A.; Arancio, Ottavio

    2008-01-01

    Calpains are calcium-dependent enzymes that determine the fate of proteins through regulated proteolytic activity. Calpains have been linked to the modulation of memory and are key to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). When abnormally activated, calpains can also initiate degradation of proteins essential for neuronal survival. Here we show that calpain inhibition through E64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, and the highly specific calpain inhibitor BDA-410 restored normal synaptic function both in hippocampal cultures and in hippocampal slices from the APP/PS1 mouse, an animal model of AD. Calpain inhibition also improved spatial-working memory and associative fear memory in APP/PS1 mice. These beneficial effects of the calpain inhibitors were associated with restoration of normal phosphorylation levels of the transcription factor CREB and involved redistribution of the synaptic protein synapsin I. Thus, calpain inhibition may prove useful in the alleviation of memory loss in AD. PMID:18596919

  20. KCNQ5 K(+) channels control hippocampal synaptic inhibition and fast network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fidzinski, Pawel; Korotkova, Tatiana; Heidenreich, Matthias; Maier, Nikolaus; Schuetze, Sebastian; Kobler, Oliver; Zuschratter, Werner; Schmitz, Dietmar; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2015-02-04

    KCNQ2 (Kv7.2) and KCNQ3 (Kv7.3) K(+) channels dampen neuronal excitability and their functional impairment may lead to epilepsy. Less is known about KCNQ5 (Kv7.5), which also displays wide expression in the brain. Here we show an unexpected role of KCNQ5 in dampening synaptic inhibition and shaping network synchronization in the hippocampus. KCNQ5 localizes to the postsynaptic site of inhibitory synapses on pyramidal cells and in interneurons. Kcnq5(dn/dn) mice lacking functional KCNQ5 channels display increased excitability of different classes of interneurons, enhanced phasic and tonic inhibition, and decreased electrical shunting of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, loss of KCNQ5 function leads to reduced fast (gamma and ripple) hippocampal oscillations, altered gamma-rhythmic discharge of pyramidal cells and impaired spatial representations. Our work demonstrates that KCNQ5 controls excitability and function of hippocampal networks through modulation of synaptic inhibition.

  1. The presence of background dopamine signal converts long-term synaptic depression to potentiation in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshiki; Marzo, Aude; Otani, Satoru

    2006-05-01

    Executive functions of the brain are believed to require tonic dopamine inputs to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is unclear, however, how this background dopamine activity controls synaptic plasticity in the PFC, a possible underlying mechanism of executive functions. Using PFC slices, we show that pairing of dopamine with weak tetanic stimulation, a maneuver that otherwise induces NMDA receptor-independent long-term depression (LTD), induces long-term potentiation (LTP) when "primed" with dopamine. This "priming" occurs through the combined activation of D1 and D2 receptors and requires 12-40 min to develop. Moreover, concurrent synaptic activation of NMDA receptors during priming is necessary for this novel form of LTP. We suggest that a role of background dopamine signals in the PFC is to prevent high-frequency synaptic inputs from abnormally inducing LTD and to secure the induction of LTP.

  2. SALM4 suppresses excitatory synapse development by cis-inhibiting trans-synaptic SALM3-LAR adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lie, Eunkyung; Ko, Ji Seung; Choi, Su-Yeon; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Cho, Yi Sul; Noh, Ran; Kim, Doyoun; Li, Yan; Kang, Hyeyeon; Choi, Tae-Yong; Nam, Jungyong; Mah, Won; Lee, Dongmin; Lee, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Hyun; Choi, Se-Young; Um, Ji Won; Kang, Myoung-Goo; Bae, Yong Chul; Ko, Jaewon; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate various aspects of synapse development, function and plasticity. These functions mainly involve trans-synaptic interactions and positive regulations, whereas cis-interactions and negative regulation are less understood. Here we report that SALM4, a member of the SALM/Lrfn family of synaptic adhesion molecules, suppresses excitatory synapse development through cis inhibition of SALM3, another SALM family protein with synaptogenic activity. Salm4-mutant (Salm4(-/-)) mice show increased excitatory synapse numbers in the hippocampus. SALM4 cis-interacts with SALM3, inhibits trans-synaptic SALM3 interaction with presynaptic LAR family receptor tyrosine phosphatases and suppresses SALM3-dependent presynaptic differentiation. Importantly, deletion of Salm3 in Salm4(-/-) mice (Salm3(-/-); Salm4(-/-)) normalizes the increased excitatory synapse number. These results suggest that SALM4 negatively regulates excitatory synapses via cis inhibition of the trans-synaptic SALM3-LAR adhesion.

  3. SALM4 suppresses excitatory synapse development by cis-inhibiting trans-synaptic SALM3-LAR adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lie, Eunkyung; Ko, Ji Seung; Choi, Su-Yeon; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Cho, Yi Sul; Noh, Ran; Kim, Doyoun; Li, Yan; Kang, Hyeyeon; Choi, Tae-Yong; Nam, Jungyong; Mah, Won; Lee, Dongmin; Lee, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Hyun; Choi, Se-Young; Um, Ji Won; Kang, Myoung-Goo; Bae, Yong Chul; Ko, Jaewon; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate various aspects of synapse development, function and plasticity. These functions mainly involve trans-synaptic interactions and positive regulations, whereas cis-interactions and negative regulation are less understood. Here we report that SALM4, a member of the SALM/Lrfn family of synaptic adhesion molecules, suppresses excitatory synapse development through cis inhibition of SALM3, another SALM family protein with synaptogenic activity. Salm4-mutant (Salm4(-/-)) mice show increased excitatory synapse numbers in the hippocampus. SALM4 cis-interacts with SALM3, inhibits trans-synaptic SALM3 interaction with presynaptic LAR family receptor tyrosine phosphatases and suppresses SALM3-dependent presynaptic differentiation. Importantly, deletion of Salm3 in Salm4(-/-) mice (Salm3(-/-); Salm4(-/-)) normalizes the increased excitatory synapse number. These results suggest that SALM4 negatively regulates excitatory synapses via cis inhibition of the trans-synaptic SALM3-LAR adhesion. PMID:27480238

  4. Fast Synaptic Inhibition in Spinal Sensory Processing and Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Wildner, Hendrik; Yevenes, Gonzalo E.

    2013-01-01

    The two amino acids γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glycine mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in different CNS areas and serve pivotal roles in the spinal sensory processing. Under healthy conditions, they limit the excitability of spinal terminals of primary sensory nerve fibers and of intrinsic dorsal horn neurons through pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and thereby facilitate the spatial and temporal discrimination of sensory stimuli. Removal of fast inhibition not only reduces the fidelity of normal sensory processing but also provokes symptoms very much reminiscent of pathological and chronic pain syndromes. This review summarizes our knowledge of the molecular bases of spinal inhibitory neurotransmission and its organization in dorsal horn sensory circuits. Particular emphasis is placed on the role and mechanisms of spinal inhibitory malfunction in inflammatory and neuropathic chronic pain syndromes. PMID:22298656

  5. Spinal reflex adaptation in dancers changes with body orientation and role of pre-synaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Rachel; Kitano, Koichi; Koceja, David M

    2010-01-01

    Dancers undergo specific activity-dependent neuromuscular adaptations following long-term training that allow them to develop the refined motor skills required for success in dance. The spinal stretch reflex circuit has demonstrated specific adaptations following prolonged dance training. Adaptations in the spinal stretch reflex can be studied using H-reflex methodology, first described by Paul Hoffmann in 1910. This article discusses H-reflex methodology and presents data that examine the neural mechanisms that contribute to adaptations in the spinal stretch reflex with dance training. Two groups of subjects, modern dancers (N = 5) and untrained controls (N = 5), were tested. On one-half of the trials common peronal nerve (CPN) conditioning of the soleus H-reflex was used to assess one spinal mechanism, pre-synaptic inhibition; the other half tested the soleus H-reflex only (unconditioned). The dependent variables were the H(max)/M(max) ratios, unconditioned and with CPN conditioning, expressed as percent values. The results revealed three main findings: 1. Modern dancers had smaller H(max)/M(max) ratios than control subjects; 2. The H(max)/M(max) ratio was smaller in standing posture than in prone among both dancers and controls; and 3. Pre-synaptic inhibition was not different between dancers and controls in standing. In conclusion, modern dancers have smaller H-reflexes than untrained controls, but pre-synaptic inhibition does not appear to explain this difference. PMID:21703086

  6. Calcineurin inhibition rescues early synaptic plasticity deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cavallucci, Virve; Berretta, Nicola; Nobili, Annalisa; Nisticò, Robert; Mercuri, Nicola B; D'Amelio, Marcello

    2013-09-01

    Functional and ultrastructural investigations support the concept that altered brain connectivity, exhausted neural plasticity, and synaptic loss are the strongest correlates of cognitive decline in age-related neurodegenerative dementia of Alzheimer's type. We have previously demonstrated that in transgenic mice, expressing amyloid-β precursor protein-Swedish mutation active caspase-3 accumulates in hippocampal postsynaptic compartments leading to altered postsynaptic density (PSD) composition, increased long-term depression (LTD), and dendritic spine loss. Furthermore, we found strong evidence that dendritic spine alteration is mediated by calcineurin activation, a calcium-dependent phosphatase involved in synapse signaling. In the present work, we analyzed the molecular mechanism linking alteration of synaptic plasticity to the increase of calcineurin activity. We found that acute treatment of young and plaque-free transgenic mice with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 leads to a complete rescue of LTD and PSD composition. Our findings are in agreement with other results reporting that calcineurin inhibition improves memory function and restores dendritic spine density, confirming that calcineurin inhibition may be explored as a neuroprotective treatment to stop or slowdown synaptic alterations in Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Fractional vesamicol receptor occupancy and acetylcholine active transport inhibition in synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, R; Rogers, G A; Fehlmann, C; Parsons, S M

    1989-09-01

    Vesamicol [(-)-(trans)-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol] receptor binding and inhibition of acetylcholine (AcCh) active transport by cholinergic synaptic vesicles that were isolated from Torpedo electric organ were studied for 23 vesamicol enantiomers, analogues, and other drugs. Use of trace [3H]vesamicol and [14C]AcCh allowed simultaneous determination of the concentrations of enantiomer, analogue, or drug required to half-saturate the vesamicol receptor (Ki) and to half-inhibit transport (IC50), respectively. Throughout a wide range of potencies for different compounds, the Ki/IC50 ratios varied from 1.5 to 24. Compounds representative of the diverse structures studied, namely deoxyvesamicol, chloroquine, and levorphanol, were competitive inhibitors of vesamicol binding. It is concluded that many drugs can bind to the vesamicol receptor and binding to only a small fraction of the receptors can result in AcCh active transport inhibition. Possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:2550778

  8. Inhibition of protein kinase C affects on mode of synaptic vesicle exocytosis due to cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Alexey M. Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F. Yakovleva, Anastasia A. Zefirov, Andrei L.

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examine the involvement of PKC in MCD induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • PKC inhibitor does not decrease the effect MCD on MEPP frequency. • PKC inhibitor prevents MCD induced FM1-43 unloading. • PKC activation may switch MCD induced exocytosis from kiss-and-run to a full mode. • Inhibition of phospholipase C does not lead to similar change in exocytosis. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis.

  9. Neurosteroid interactions with synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAa receptors: regulation of subunit plasticity, phasic and tonic inhibition, and neuronal network excitability

    PubMed Central

    Chase Matthew, Carver; Doodipala Samba, Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Neurosteroids are steroids synthesized within the brain with rapid effects on neuronal excitability. Allopregnanolone, allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, and androstanediol are three widely explored prototype endogenous neurosteroids. They have very different targets and functions compared to conventional steroid hormones. Neuronal GABAa receptors are one of the prime molecular targets of neurosteroids. Objective This review provides a critical appraisal of recent advances in the pharmacology of endogenous neurosteroids that interact with GABAa receptors in the brain. Neurosteroids possess distinct, characteristic effects on the membrane potential and current conductance of the neuron, mainly via potentiation of GABAa receptors at low concentrations and direct activation of receptor chloride channel at higher concentrations. The GABAa receptor mediates two types of inhibition, now characterized as synaptic (phasic) and extrasynaptic (tonic) inhibition. Synaptic release of GABA results in the activation of low-affinity γ2-containing synaptic receptors, while high-affinity δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors are persistently activated by the ambient GABA present in the extracellular fluid. Neurosteroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAa receptors and therefore enhance both phasic and tonic inhibition. Tonic inhibition is specifically more sensitive to neurosteroids. The resulting tonic conductance generates a form of shunting inhibition that controls neuronal network excitability, seizure susceptibility, and behavior. Conclusion The growing understanding of the mechanisms of neurosteroid regulation of the structure and function of the synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAa receptors provide many opportunities to create improved therapies for sleep, anxiety, stress, epilepsy, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:24071826

  10. Interferon alpha inhibits spinal cord synaptic and nociceptive transmission via neuronal-glial interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chien-Cheng; Gao, Yong-Jing; Luo, Hao; Berta, Temugin; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Ji, Ru-Rong; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that interferons (IFNs), such as type-I IFN (IFN-α) and type-II IFN (IFN-γ) are produced by immune cells to elicit antiviral effects. IFNs are also produced by glial cells in the CNS to regulate brain functions. As a proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ drives neuropathic pain by inducing microglial activation in the spinal cord. However, little is known about the role of IFN-α in regulating pain sensitivity and synaptic transmission. Strikingly, we found that IFN-α/β receptor (type-I IFN receptor) was expressed by primary afferent terminals in the superficial dorsal horn that co-expressed the neuropeptide CGRP. In the spinal cord IFN-α was primarily expressed by astrocytes. Perfusion of spinal cord slices with IFN-α suppressed excitatory synaptic transmission by reducing the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSCs). IFN-α also inhibited nociceptive transmission by reducing capsaicin-induced internalization of NK-1 and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Finally, spinal (intrathecal) administration of IFN-α reduced inflammatory pain and increased pain threshold in naïve rats, whereas removal of endogenous IFN-α by a neutralizing antibody induced hyperalgesia. Our findings suggest a new form of neuronal-glial interaction by which IFN-α, produced by astrocytes, inhibits nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. PMID:27670299

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition improves amyloid-β-mediated suppression of memory and synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kotilinek, Linda A.; Westerman, Marcus A.; Wang, Qinwen; Panizzon, Kimberly; Lim, Giselle P.; Simonyi, Agnes; Lesne, Sylvain; Falinska, Agnieszka; Younkin, Linda H.; Younkin, Steven G.; Rowan, Michael; Cleary, James; Wallis, Roi Ann; Sun, GraceY.; Cole, Greg; Frautschy, Sally; Anwyl, Roger; Ashe, Karen H.

    2008-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are associated with a marked reduction in the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, a form of dementia characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques containing the amyloid-β protein (Aβ). Studies of the effects of NSAIDs upon the inflammatory response surrounding amyloid plaques and upon the generation of Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) have led to two proposed mechanisms by which NSAIDs may protect against Alzheimer’s disease: one, the selective lowering of Aβ42 by a subset of NSAIDs; and two, the reduction of inflammation. Although Alzheimer’s disease is a disorder of brain and synaptic function, the effects of NSAIDs on Aβ-mediated suppression of synaptic plasticity and memory function have never been reported. We therefore investigated how three different NSAIDs, chosen for their distinct effects on Aβ42 production and the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, affect memory function and synaptic plasticity. By focusing upon brain and synapse function, we made novel observations about the effects of NSAIDs on Aβ-mediated neural processes. Here we report that the selective inhibition of COX-2, but not COX-1, acutely prevented the suppression of hippocampal long-term plasticity (LTP) by Aβ. The non-selective NSAIDs, ibuprofen and naproxen, and a selective COX-2 inhibitor, MF-tricyclic, each restored memory function in Tg2576 mice over-expressing APP, and also blocked Aβ-mediated inhibition of LTP. There was no advantage of ibuprofen, a selective Aβ42-lowering agent (SALA), over the non-SALAs, naproxen and MF-tricyclic. The beneficial effects on memory did not depend upon lowered levels of Aβ42 or the inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Intriguingly, improved memory function was inversely related to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Conversely, exogenous PGE2 prevented the restorative effects of COX-2

  12. Light-evoked recovery from wortmannin-induced inhibition of catecholamine secretion and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Warashina, A

    1999-07-15

    Wortmannin (WT) is known to inhibit catecholamine (CA) secretion in chromaffin cells. This effect was found to be sensitive to UV light in experiments designed to perform simultaneous monitoring of changes in [Ca2+]i and CA secretion in perfused rat adrenal medullas. When the change in [Ca2+]i was measured using calcium green-1 (490 nm excitation), a 35-min treatment with 10 microM WT caused a 69% inhibition of CA secretion evoked by excess (30 mM) extracellular K+ and a moderate inhibition of the [Ca2+]i response. In contrast, the same treatment of fura-2-loaded cells with WT caused only an 11% inhibition of the high-K+-evoked secretion and no significant attenuation of the [Ca2+]i response. However, during interruption of fluorometry with fura-2, the inhibitory effect of WT developed at a rate similar to that exhibited in calcium green-1-loaded cells. The WT-induced inhibition of high-K+- or bradykinin-evoked secretory responses, which was otherwise irreversible, was reversed by exposing WT-treated chromaffin cells to 380-nm light. When WT was reapplied to the cells of which the secretory ability had been restored by light irradiation, the secretory response was inhibited with a time course similar to that shown during the initial treatment with WT. The photosensitive effect of WT was also demonstrated using bullfrog sympathetic ganglia in which WT-induced inhibition of synaptic transmission was reversed by irradiation with 380-nm light. These results suggest that UV light removes the inhibitory effects of WT by disrupting the covalent bond formed between WT and a target molecule which remains to be determined, although myosin light chain kinase has been reported as the target molecule in both cases examined in this study. PMID:10395748

  13. SALM4 suppresses excitatory synapse development by cis-inhibiting trans-synaptic SALM3–LAR adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Eunkyung; Ko, Ji Seung; Choi, Su-Yeon; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Cho, Yi Sul; Noh, Ran; Kim, Doyoun; Li, Yan; Kang, Hyeyeon; Choi, Tae-Yong; Nam, Jungyong; Mah, Won; Lee, Dongmin; Lee, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Hyun; Choi, Se-Young; Um, Ji Won; Kang, Myoung-Goo; Bae, Yong Chul; Ko, Jaewon; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate various aspects of synapse development, function and plasticity. These functions mainly involve trans-synaptic interactions and positive regulations, whereas cis-interactions and negative regulation are less understood. Here we report that SALM4, a member of the SALM/Lrfn family of synaptic adhesion molecules, suppresses excitatory synapse development through cis inhibition of SALM3, another SALM family protein with synaptogenic activity. Salm4-mutant (Salm4−/−) mice show increased excitatory synapse numbers in the hippocampus. SALM4 cis-interacts with SALM3, inhibits trans-synaptic SALM3 interaction with presynaptic LAR family receptor tyrosine phosphatases and suppresses SALM3-dependent presynaptic differentiation. Importantly, deletion of Salm3 in Salm4−/− mice (Salm3−/−; Salm4−/−) normalizes the increased excitatory synapse number. These results suggest that SALM4 negatively regulates excitatory synapses via cis inhibition of the trans-synaptic SALM3–LAR adhesion. PMID:27480238

  14. Structured synaptic inhibition has a critical role in multiple-choice motion-discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Neural network models have been constructed to explore the underlying neural mechanisms for decision-making in multiple-choice motion-discrimination tasks. Despite great progress made, several key experimental observations have not been interpreted. In contrast to homogeneous connectivity between pyramidal cells and interneurons in previous models, here their connectivity is totally structured in a continuous recurrent network model. Specifically, we assume two types of inhibitory connectivity: opposite-feature and similar-feature inhibition, representing that the connectivity strength has a maximum between neural pairs with opposite and identical preferred directions, respectively. With a common parameter set, the model accounted for a wide variety of physiological and behavioral data from monkey experiments, including those that previous models failed to reproduce. We found that the opposite-feature inhibition endows the decision-making circuit with an elimination strategy, which effectively reduces the number of choice alternatives for inspection to speed up the decision process at the cost of decision accuracy. Conversely, the similar-feature inhibition markedly enhances the ability of the network to make a choice among multiple options and improves the accuracy of decisions, while slowing down the decision process. A simplified mean-field model was also presented to analytically characterize the effect of structured inhibition on fine discrimination. We made a testable prediction: only the combination of cross-feature and similar-feature inhibition enables the circuit to make a categorical choice among 12 alternatives. Together, the current work highlights the importance of structured synaptic inhibition in multiple-choice decision-making processes and sheds light on the neural mechanisms for visual motion perception. PMID:25274822

  15. Efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on multiple, dynamically interacting mechanisms implicated in chloride homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Nicolas; Prescott, Steven A; Castonguay, Annie; Godin, Antoine G; Kröger, Helmut; De Koninck, Yves

    2011-09-01

    Chloride homeostasis is a critical determinant of the strength and robustness of inhibition mediated by GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs). The impact of changes in steady state Cl(-) gradient is relatively straightforward to understand, but how dynamic interplay between Cl(-) influx, diffusion, extrusion and interaction with other ion species affects synaptic signaling remains uncertain. Here we used electrodiffusion modeling to investigate the nonlinear interactions between these processes. Results demonstrate that diffusion is crucial for redistributing intracellular Cl(-) load on a fast time scale, whereas Cl(-)extrusion controls steady state levels. Interaction between diffusion and extrusion can result in a somato-dendritic Cl(-) gradient even when KCC2 is distributed uniformly across the cell. Reducing KCC2 activity led to decreased efficacy of GABA(A)R-mediated inhibition, but increasing GABA(A)R input failed to fully compensate for this form of disinhibition because of activity-dependent accumulation of Cl(-). Furthermore, if spiking persisted despite the presence of GABA(A)R input, Cl(-) accumulation became accelerated because of the large Cl(-) driving force that occurs during spikes. The resulting positive feedback loop caused catastrophic failure of inhibition. Simulations also revealed other feedback loops, such as competition between Cl(-) and pH regulation. Several model predictions were tested and confirmed by [Cl(-)](i) imaging experiments. Our study has thus uncovered how Cl(-) regulation depends on a multiplicity of dynamically interacting mechanisms. Furthermore, the model revealed that enhancing KCC2 activity beyond normal levels did not negatively impact firing frequency or cause overt extracellular K(-) accumulation, demonstrating that enhancing KCC2 activity is a valid strategy for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Facilitates Massed Pattern-Induced Synaptic Plasticity and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Kiran; Sharma, Kaushik P.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Massed training is less effective for long-term memory formation than the spaced training. The role of acetylation in synaptic plasticity and memory is now well established. However, the role of this important protein modification in synaptic plasticity induced by massed pattern of stimulation or memory induced by massed training is not well…

  17. Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Sidney P.; Bradley, Laura A.; Trussell, Laurence O.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of shared features between avian and mammalian auditory brainstem circuits has provided much insight into the mechanisms underlying early auditory processing. However, previous studies have highlighted an apparent difference in inhibitory systems; synaptic inhibition is thought to be slow and GABAergic in birds, but to have fast kinetics and be predominantly glycinergic in mammals. Using patch-clamp recordings in chick brainstem slices, we found this distinction is not exclusively true. Consistent with previous work, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were slow and mediated by GABAA receptors. However, IPSCs in nucleus laminaris (NL) and a subset of neurons in nucleus angularis (NA) had rapid time courses two to three-fold faster than those in NM. Further, we found IPSCs in NA were mediated by both glycine and GABAA receptors, demonstrating for the first time a role for fast glycinergic transmission in the avian auditory brainstem. Although NM, NL and NA have unique roles in auditory processing, the majority of inhibitory input to each nucleus arises from the same source, ipsilateral superior olivary nucleus (SON). Our results demonstrate remarkable diversity of inhibitory transmission among the avian brainstem nuclei and suggest differential glycine and GABAA receptor activity tailors inhibition to the specific functional roles of NM, NL, and NA despite common SON input. We additionally observed that glycinergic/GABAergic activity in NA was usually depolarizing and could elicit spiking activity in NA neurons. Because NA projects to SON, these excitatory effects may influence the recruitment of inhibitory activity in the brainstem nuclei. PMID:19641125

  18. CB2 cannabinoid receptors inhibit synaptic transmission when expressed in cultured autaptic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Brady K.; Straiker, Alex; Mackie, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The role of CB2 in the central nervous system, particularly in neurons, has generated much controversy. Fueling the controversy are imperfect tools, which have made conclusive identification of CB2-expressing neurons problematic. Imprecise localization of CB2 has made it difficult to determine its function in neurons. Here we avoid the localization controversy and directly address the question if CB2 can modulate neurotransmission. CB2 was expressed in excitatory hippocampal autaptic neurons obtained from CB1 null mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from these neurons to determine the effects of CB2 on short-term synaptic plasticity. CB2 expression restored depolarization induced suppression of excitation to these neurons, which was lost following genetic ablation of CB1. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) mimicked the effects of depolarization in CB2 expressing neurons. Interestingly, ongoing basal production of 2-AG resulted in constitutive activation of CB2, causing a tonic inhibition of neurotransmission that was relieved by the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC80267. Through immunocytochemistry and analysis of spontaneous EPSCs, paired pulse ratios and coefficients of variation we determined that CB2 exerts its function at a presynaptic site of action, likely through inhibition of voltage gated calcium channels. Therefore CB2 expressed in neurons effectively mimics the actions of CB1. Thus, neuronal CB2 is well suited to integrate into conventional neuronal endocannabinoid signaling processes, with its specific role determined by its unique and highly inducible expression profile. PMID:22579668

  19. Excitation/inhibition imbalance and impaired synaptic inhibition in hippocampal area CA3 of Mecp2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calfa, Gaston; Li, Wei; Rutherford, John M; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2015-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopment disorder associated with intellectual disabilities and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding Protein-2 (MeCP2). Neuronal dysfunction and changes in cortical excitability occur in RTT individuals and Mecp2-deficient mice, including hippocampal network hyperactivity and higher frequency of spontaneous multiunit spikes in the CA3 cell body layer. Here, we describe impaired synaptic inhibition and an excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in area CA3 of acute slices from symptomatic Mecp2 knockout male mice (referred to as Mecp2(-/y) ). The amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Mecp2(-/y) slices than in wildtype controls, while the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) was significantly larger in Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistently, quantitative confocal immunohistochemistry revealed significantly lower intensity of the alpha-1 subunit of GABAA Rs in the CA3 cell body layer of Mecp2(-/y) mice, while GluA1 puncta intensities were significantly higher in the CA3 dendritic layers of Mecp2(-/y) mice. In addition, the input/output (I/O) relationship of evoked IPSCs had a shallower slope in CA3 pyramidal neurons Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistent with the absence of neuronal degeneration in RTT and MeCP2-based mouse models, the density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in area CA3 was not affected in Mecp2(-/y) mice. Furthermore, the intrinsic membrane properties of several interneuron subtypes in area CA3 were not affected by Mecp2 loss. However, mEPSCs are smaller and less frequent in CA3 fast-spiking basket cells of Mecp2(-/y) mice, suggesting an impaired glutamatergic drive in this interneuron population. These results demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in Mecp2 causes impaired E/I balance onto CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a

  20. Excitation/Inhibition Imbalance and Impaired Synaptic Inhibition in Hippocampal Area CA3 of Mecp2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calfa, Gaston; Li, Wei; Rutherford, John M.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopment disorder associated with intellectual disabilities and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding Protein-2 (MeCP2). Neuronal dysfunction and changes in cortical excitability occur in RTT individuals and Mecp2-deficient mice, including hippocampal network hyperactivity and higher frequency of spontaneous multi-unit spikes in the CA3 cell body layer. Here, we describe impaired synaptic inhibition and an excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in area CA3 of acute slices from symptomatic Mecp2 knockout male mice (referred to as Mecp2-/y). The amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Mecp2-/y slices than in wildtype controls, while the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) was significantly larger in Mecp2-/y neurons. Consistently, quantitative confocal immunohistochemistry revealed significantly lower intensity of the alpha-1 subunit of GABAARs in the CA3 cell body layer of Mecp2-/y mice, while GluA1 puncta intensities were significantly higher in the CA3 dendritic layers of Mecp2-/y mice. In addition, the input/output (I/O) relationship of evoked IPSCs had a shallower slope in CA3 pyramidal neurons Mecp2-/y neurons. Consistent with the absence of neuronal degeneration in RTT and MeCP2-based mouse models, the density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in area CA3 was not affected in Mecp2-/y mice. Furthermore, the intrinsic membrane properties of several interneuron subtypes in area CA3 were not affected by Mecp2 loss. However, mEPSCs are smaller and less frequent in CA3 fast-spiking basket cells of Mecp2-/y mice, suggesting an impaired glutamatergic drive in this interneuron population. These results demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in Mecp2 causes impaired E/I balance onto CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a hyperactive

  1. Isoflurane enhances both fast and slow synaptic inhibition in the hippocampus at amnestic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shuiping; Perouansky, Misha; Pearce, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhibition mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors has long been considered an important target for a variety of general anesthetics. In the hippocampus, two types of phasic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition coexist: GABAA,fast, which is expressed primarily at peri-somatic sites, and GABAA,slow, which is expressed primarily in the dendrites. Their spatial segregation suggests distinct functions: GABAA,slow may control plasticity of dendritic synapses, while GABAA,fast controls action potential initiation at the soma. We examined modulation of GABAA,fast and GABAA,slow inhibition by isoflurane at amnesic concentrations, and compared it to modulation by behaviorally equivalent doses of the GABAA receptor-selective drug etomidate. Methods Whole-cell recordings were conducted at near-physiological temperature from pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal cultures obtained from C57BL/6 x 129/SvJ F1 hybrid mice. GABAA receptor-mediated currents were isolated using glutamate receptor antagonists. GABAA,slow currents were evoked by electrical stimulation in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare. Miniature GABAA,fast currents were recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Results 100 µM isoflurane (approximately EC50,amnesia) slowed fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic current decay by approximately 25%. Higher concentrations, up to 400 µM, produced proportionally greater effects without altering current amplitudes. The effects on GABAA,slow were approximately one-half those produced by equi-amnesic concentrations of etomidate. Conclusions Isoflurane enhances both types of phasic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition to similar degrees at amnesic concentrations. This pattern differs from etomidate, which at low concentrations selectively enhances slow inhibition. These effects of isoflurane are sufficiently large that they may contribute substantially to its suppression of hippocampal learning and memory. PMID:22343472

  2. Opposing Actions of Sevoflurane on GABAergic and Glycinergic Synaptic Inhibition in the Spinal Ventral Horn

    PubMed Central

    Eckle, Veit-Simon; Hauser, Sabrina; Drexler, Berthold; Antkowiak, Bernd; Grasshoff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background The ventral horn is a major substrate in mediating the immobilizing properties of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane in the spinal cord. In this neuronal network, action potential firing is controlled by GABAA and glycine receptors. Both types of ion channels are sensitive to volatile anesthetics, but their role in mediating anesthetic-induced inhibition of spinal locomotor networks is not fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To compare the effects of sevoflurane on GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from ventral horn interneurons were carried out in organotypic spinal cultures. At concentrations close to MAC (minimum alveolar concentration), decay times of both types of IPSCs were significantly prolonged. However, at 1.5 MAC equivalents, GABAergic IPSCs were decreased in amplitude and reduced in frequency. These effects counteracted the prolongation of the decay time, thereby decreasing the time-averaged GABAergic inhibition. In contrast, amplitudes and frequency of glycinergic IPSCs were not significantly altered by sevoflurane. Furthermore, selective GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists were tested for their potency to reverse sevoflurane-induced inhibition of spontaneous action potential firing in the ventral horn. These experiments confirmed a weak impact of GABAA receptors and a prominent role of glycine receptors at a high sevoflurane concentration. Conclusions At high concentrations, sevoflurane mediates neuronal inhibition in the spinal ventral horn primarily via glycine receptors, and less via GABAA receptors. Our results support the hypothesis that the impact of GABAA receptors in mediating the immobilizing properties of volatile anesthetics is less essential in comparison to glycine receptors. PMID:23565218

  3. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  4. LSPS/Optogenetics to Improve Synaptic Connectivity Mapping: Unmasking the Role of Basket Cell-Mediated Feedforward Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Brill, Julia; Mattis, Joanna; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical pyramidal cells (PYRs) receive synaptic inputs from many types of GABAergic interneurons. Connections between parvalbumin (PV)-positive, fast-spiking interneurons ("PV cells") and PYRs are characterized by perisomatic synapses and high-amplitude, short-latency IPSCs. Here, we present novel methods to study the functional influence of PV cells on layer 5 PYRs using optogenetics combined with laser-scanning photostimulation (LSPS). First, we examined the strength and spatial distribution of PV-to-PYR inputs. To that end, the fast channelrhodopsin variant AAV5-EF1α-DIO-hChR2(E123T)-eYFP (ChETA) was expressed in PV cells in somatosensory cortex of mice using an adeno-associated virus-based viral construct. Focal blue illumination (100-150 µm half-width) was directed through the microscope objective to excite PV cells along a spatial grid covering layers 2-6, while IPSCs were recorded in layer 5 PYRs. The resulting optogenetic input maps showed evoked PV cell inputs originating from an ∼500-μm-diameter area surrounding the recorded PYR. Evoked IPSCs had the short-latency/high-amplitude characteristic of PV cell inputs. Second, we investigated how PV cell activity modulates PYR output in response to synaptic excitation. We expressed halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0) in PV cells using the same strategy as for ChETA. Yellow illumination hyperpolarized eNpHR3.0-expressing PV cells, effectively preventing action potential generation and thus decreasing the inhibition of downstream targets. Synaptic input maps onto layer 5 PYRs were acquired using standard glutamate-photolysis LSPS either with or without full-field yellow illumination to silence PV cells. The resulting IPSC input maps selectively lacked short-latency perisomatic inputs, while EPSC input maps showed increased connectivity, particularly from upper layers. This indicates that glutamate uncaging LSPS-based excitatory synaptic maps will consistently underestimate connectivity. PMID:27517089

  5. HCN1 channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells promote late stages of learning and constrain synaptic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Arianna; Defterali, Cagla; Mialot, Antoine; Garden, Derek L F; Beraneck, Mathieu; Nolan, Matthew F

    2013-01-01

    Neural computations rely on ion channels that modify neuronal responses to synaptic inputs. While single cell recordings suggest diverse and neurone type-specific computational functions for HCN1 channels, their behavioural roles in any single neurone type are not clear. Using a battery of behavioural assays, including analysis of motor learning in vestibulo-ocular reflex and rotarod tests, we find that deletion of HCN1 channels from cerebellar Purkinje cells selectively impairs late stages of motor learning. Because deletion of HCN1 modifies only a subset of behaviours involving Purkinje cells, we asked whether the channel also has functional specificity at a cellular level. We find that HCN1 channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells reduce the duration of inhibitory synaptic responses but, in the absence of membrane hyperpolarization, do not affect responses to excitatory inputs. Our results indicate that manipulation of subthreshold computation in a single neurone type causes specific modifications to behaviour. PMID:24000178

  6. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Impairs Synaptic Plasticity during an Early Time Window in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Paula; Ardiles, Álvaro O.

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of DNA methylation-dependent gene expression to neuronal plasticity is well established, the dynamics of methylation and demethylation during the induction and expression of synaptic plasticity have not been explored. Here, we combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular, and immunohistochemical approaches to examine the contribution of DNA methylation and the phosphorylation of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) to synaptic plasticity. We found that, at twenty minutes after theta burst stimulation (TBS), the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5AZA) impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Surprisingly, after two hours of TBS, when LTP had become a transcription-dependent process, 5AZA treatment had no effect. By comparing these results to those in naive slices, we found that, at two hours after TBS, an intergenic region of the RLN gene was hypomethylated and that the phosphorylation of residue S80 of MeCP2 was decreased, while the phosphorylation of residue S421 was increased. As expected, 5AZA affected only the methylation of the RLN gene and exerted no effect on MeCP2 phosphorylation patterns. In summary, our data suggest that tetanic stimulation induces critical changes in synaptic plasticity that affects both DNA methylation and the phosphorylation of MeCP2. These data also suggest that early alterations in DNA methylation are sufficient to impair the full expression of LTP. PMID:27493805

  7. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors persistently enhances hippocampal synaptic transmission and prevents Aß-mediated inhibition of LTP in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ondrejcak, Tomas; Wang, Qinwen; Kew, James N C; Virley, David J; Upton, Neil; Anwyl, Roger; Rowan, Michael J

    2012-02-29

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate fast cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Here we investigated the effects of subtype selective activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on hippocampal transmission and the inhibition of synaptic long-term potentiation by the Alzheimer's disease associated amyloid ß-protein (Aß). The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist "compound A" ((R)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)(5-(2-pyridyl))thiophene-2-carboxamide) induced a rapid-onset persistent enhancement of synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus in vitro. Consistent with a requirement for activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the type II α7-selective positive allosteric modulator PheTQS ((3aR, 4S, 9bS)-4-(4-methylphenyl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide) potentiated, and the antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) prevented the persistent enhancement. Systemic injection of the agonist also induced a similar MLA-sensitive persistent enhancement of synaptic transmission in the CA1 area in vivo. Remarkably, although compound A did not affect control long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro, it prevented the inhibition of LTP by Aß1-42 and this effect was inhibited by MLA. These findings strongly indicate that activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is sufficient to persistently enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and to overcome the inhibition of LTP by Aß.

  8. Adenosine (ADO) released during orthodromic stimulation of the frog sympathetic ganglion inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) associated with synaptic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Curnish, R.; Bencherif, M.; Rubio, R.; Berne, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously demonstrated that /sup 3/H-purine release was enhanced during synaptic activation of the prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglion. In addition, during orthodromic stimulation, there is an increased /sup 3/H-inositol release (an index of PI) that occurs during the poststimulation period and not during the period of stimulation. They hypothesized that endogenous ADO inhibits PI turnover during orthodromic stimulation. To test this hypothesis (1) they performed experiments to directly measure ADO release in the extracellular fluid by placing the ganglion in a 5 ..mu..l drop of Ringer's and let it come to equilibrium with the interstitial fluid, (2) they destroyed endogenous ADO by suffusing adenosine deaminase (ADA) during the stimulation period. Their results show (1) orthodromic stimulation increases release of ADO into the bathing medium, (2) ADA induced an increase of PI during the stimulation period in contrast to an increase seen only during the poststimulation period when ADA was omitted. They conclude that there is dual control of PI during synaptic activity, a stimulatory effect (cause unknown) and a short lived inhibitory effect that is probably caused by adenosine.

  9. LSPS/Optogenetics to Improve Synaptic Connectivity Mapping: Unmasking the Role of Basket Cell-Mediated Feedforward Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Julia; Mattis, Joanna; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neocortical pyramidal cells (PYRs) receive synaptic inputs from many types of GABAergic interneurons. Connections between parvalbumin (PV)-positive, fast-spiking interneurons (“PV cells”) and PYRs are characterized by perisomatic synapses and high-amplitude, short-latency IPSCs. Here, we present novel methods to study the functional influence of PV cells on layer 5 PYRs using optogenetics combined with laser-scanning photostimulation (LSPS). First, we examined the strength and spatial distribution of PV-to-PYR inputs. To that end, the fast channelrhodopsin variant AAV5-EF1α-DIO-hChR2(E123T)-eYFP (ChETA) was expressed in PV cells in somatosensory cortex of mice using an adeno-associated virus-based viral construct. Focal blue illumination (100–150 µm half-width) was directed through the microscope objective to excite PV cells along a spatial grid covering layers 2–6, while IPSCs were recorded in layer 5 PYRs. The resulting optogenetic input maps showed evoked PV cell inputs originating from an ∼500-μm-diameter area surrounding the recorded PYR. Evoked IPSCs had the short-latency/high-amplitude characteristic of PV cell inputs. Second, we investigated how PV cell activity modulates PYR output in response to synaptic excitation. We expressed halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0) in PV cells using the same strategy as for ChETA. Yellow illumination hyperpolarized eNpHR3.0-expressing PV cells, effectively preventing action potential generation and thus decreasing the inhibition of downstream targets. Synaptic input maps onto layer 5 PYRs were acquired using standard glutamate-photolysis LSPS either with or without full-field yellow illumination to silence PV cells. The resulting IPSC input maps selectively lacked short-latency perisomatic inputs, while EPSC input maps showed increased connectivity, particularly from upper layers. This indicates that glutamate uncaging LSPS-based excitatory synaptic maps will consistently underestimate connectivity. PMID

  10. p38 MAPK Inhibition Improves Synaptic Plasticity and Memory in Angiotensin II-dependent Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hai-long; Hu, Wei-yuan; Jiang, Li-hong; Li, Le; Gaung, Xue-feng; Xiao, Zhi-cheng

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension-related cognitive impairment has not been sufficiently clarified, new molecular targets are needed. p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in hypertensive target organ damage. Activated p38 MAPK was seen in AD brain tissue. In this study, we found that long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal CA1 was decreased, the density of the dendritic spines on the CA1 pyramidal cells was reduced, the p-p38 protein expression in hippocampus was elevated, and cognitive function was impaired in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive C57BL/6 mice. In vivo, using a p38 heterozygous knockdown mice (p38KI/+) model, we showed that knockdown of p38 MAPK in hippocampus leads to the improvement of cognitive function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in angiotensin II-dependent p38KI/+ hypertensive mice. In vitro, LTP was improved in hippocampal slices from C57BL/6 hypertensive mice by treatment with p38MAPK inhibitor SKF86002. Our data demonstrated that p38 MAPK may be a potential therapeutic target for hypertension-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27283322

  11. Blocking the Interaction between Apolipoprotein E and Aβ Reduces Intraneuronal Accumulation of Aβ and Inhibits Synaptic Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kuszczyk, Magdalena A.; Sanchez, Sandrine; Pankiewicz, Joanna; Kim, Jungsu; Duszczyk, Malgorzata; Guridi, Maitea; Asuni, Ayodeji A.; Sullivan, Patrick M.; Holtzman, David M.; Sadowski, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain is a key event in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. Apolipoprotein (Apo) E is a lipid carrier protein secreted by astrocytes, which shows inherent affinity for Aβ and has been implicated in the receptor-mediated Aβ uptake by neurons. To characterize ApoE involvement in the intraneuronal Aβ accumulation and to investigate whether blocking the ApoE/Aβ interaction could reduce intraneuronal Aβ buildup, we used a noncontact neuronal-astrocytic co-culture system, where synthetic Aβ peptides were added into the media without or with cotreatment with Aβ12-28P, which is a nontoxic peptide antagonist of ApoE/Aβ binding. Compared with neurons cultured alone, intraneuronal Aβ content was significantly increased in neurons co-cultured with wild-type but not with ApoE knockout (KO) astrocytes. Neurons co-cultured with astrocytes also showed impaired intraneuronal degradation of Aβ, increased level of intraneuronal Aβ oligomers, and marked down-regulation of several synaptic proteins. Aβ12-28P treatment significantly reduced intraneuronal Aβ accumulation, including Aβ oligomer level, and inhibited loss of synaptic proteins. Furthermore, we showed significantly reduced intraneuronal Aβ accumulation in APPSW/PS1dE9/ApoE KO mice compared with APPSW/PS1dE9/ApoE targeted replacement mice that expressed various human ApoE isoforms. Data from our co-culture and in vivo experiments indicate an essential role of ApoE in the mechanism of intraneuronal Aβ accumulation and provide evidence that ApoE/Aβ binding antagonists can effectively prevent this process. PMID:23499462

  12. The effect of sevoflurane on the cognitive function of rats and its association with the inhibition of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Xin; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Li-Na; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Zhuang, Qing; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    To observe the effects of different concentrations of sevoflurane on synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) expression, synaptic long term depression (LTD), and paired pulse depression (PPD) in the rat hippocampus as well as to investigate the association between these effects and the cognitive function of rats. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (group A), which inhaled air; group B, which inhaled 0.65 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane for 2 h; and group C, which inhaled 1.30 MAC sevoflurane for 2 h. The subsequent experiments were performed after one day. (1) Y maze tests were performed, and the expression of Syt1 in hippocampal tissues was detected using western blot. (2) The changes in LTD and PPD in rat hippocampal slices were examined using electrophysiological techniques. Compared to the control group, the cognitive function was decreased and Syt1 expression in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats in the 1.30 MAC sevoflurane inhalation group. After 60 min of low frequency stimulation, the amplitudes of population spike (PS) potentials in rat hippocampal slices were significantly decreased. After induction of PPD, the P2/P1 ratio was significantly increased. No indicators in the 0.65 MAC sevoflurane inhalation group showed any significant changes. Inhalation of high concentrations of sevoflurane significantly reduced Syt1 protein levels in the rat hippocampus, significantly inhibited the release of presynaptic neurotransmitters, and reduced the efficiency of synaptic transmission, thus causing memory impairment. PMID:26885010

  13. ZD7288, a selective hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel blocker, inhibits hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Min, Xiao-Chun; Xu, Xu-Lin; Zheng, Min; Guo, Lian-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The selective hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyrimidinium chloride (ZD7288) blocks the induction of long-term potentiation in the perforant path-CA3 region in rat hippocampus in vivo. To explore the mechanisms underlying the action of ZD7288, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials in perforant path-CA3 synapses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We measured glutamate content in the hippocampus and in cultured hippocampal neurons using high performance liquid chromatography, and determined intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)]i) using Fura-2. ZD7288 inhibited the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation, and these effects were mirrored by the nonspecific HCN channel blocker cesium. ZD7288 also decreased glutamate release in hippocampal tissue and in cultured hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, ZD7288 attenuated glutamate-induced rises in [Ca(2+)]i in a concentration-dependent manner and reversed 8-Br-cAMP-mediated facilitation of these glutamate-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Our results suggest that ZD7288 inhibits hippocampal synaptic plasticity both glutamate release and resultant [Ca(2+)]i increases in rat hippocampal neurons. PMID:27335562

  14. Selective inhibition of caspases in skeletal muscle reverses the apoptotic synaptic degeneration in slow-channel myasthenic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haipeng; Pytel, Peter; Gomez, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Slow-channel syndrome (SCS) is a congenital myasthenic disorder caused by point mutations in subunits of skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor leading to Ca(2+) overload and degeneration of the postsynaptic membrane, nuclei and mitochondria of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In both SCS muscle biopsies and transgenic mouse models for SCS (mSCS), the endplate regions are shrunken, and there is evidence of DNA damage in the subsynaptic region. Activated caspase-9, -3 and -7 are intensely co-localized at the NMJ, and the Ca(2+)-activated protease, calpain, and the atypical cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk5) are overactivated in mSCS. Thus, the true mediator(s) of the disease process is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that selective inhibition of effector caspases, caspase-3 and -7, or initiator caspase, caspase-9, in limb muscle in vivo by localized expression of recombinant inhibitor proteins dramatically decreases subsynaptic DNA damage, increases endplate area and improves ultrastructural abnormalities in SCS transgenic mice. Calpain and Cdk5 are not affected by this treatment. On the other hand, inhibition of Cdk5 by expression of a dominant-negative form of Cdk5 has no effect on the degeneration. Together with previous studies, these results indicate that focal activation of caspase activity at the NMJ is the principal pathological process responsible for the synaptic apoptosis in SCS. Thus, treatments that reduce muscle caspase activity are likely to be of benefit for SCS patients.

  15. Botulinum neurotoxin type A inhibits synaptic vesicle 2 expression in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bandala, C; Cortés-Algara, AL; Mejía-Barradas, CM; Ilizaliturri-Flores, I; Dominguez-Rubio, R; Bazán-Méndez, CI; Floriano-Sánchez, E; Luna-Arias, JP; Anaya-Ruiz, M; Lara-Padilla, E

    2015-01-01

    Aim: It is known that botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) improves some kinds of cancer (e.g. prostate) and that synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) is the molecular target of this neurotoxin. Besides having potential therapeutic value, this glycoprotein has recently been proposed as a molecular marker for several types of cancer. Although the mechanisms of cancer development and the improvement found with botulinum treatment are not well understood, the formation of the botulinum-SV2 complex may influence the presence and distribution of SV2 and the function of vesicles. To date, there are no reports on the possible effect of botulinum on breast cancer of unknown causes, which have a great impact on women’s health. Thus we determined the presence of SV2 in three breast cancer cell lines and the alterations found with botulinum application. Materials and methods: With and without adding 10 units of botulinum, SV2 protein expression was determined by optical densitometry in T47D, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines and the distribution of SV2 was observed with immunochemistry (hematoxylin staining). Results: The SV2 protein was abundant in the cancer cells herein tested, and maximally so in T47D. In all three cancer cell lines botulinum diminished SV2 expression, which was found mostly in the cell periphery. Conclusion: SV2 could be a molecular marker in breast cancer. Its expression and distribution is regulated by botulinum, suggesting an interesting control mechanism for SV2 expression and a possible alternative therapy. Further studies are needed in this sense. PMID:26339411

  16. PDE-4 inhibition rescues aberrant synaptic plasticity in Drosophila and mouse models of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Catherine H; Schoenfeld, Brian P; Weisz, Eliana D; Bell, Aaron J; Chambers, Daniel B; Hinchey, Joseph; Choi, Richard J; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Gertner, Michael J; Ferrick, Neal J; Terlizzi, Allison M; Yohn, Nicole; Koenigsberg, Eric; Liebelt, David A; Zukin, R Suzanne; Woo, Newton H; Tranfaglia, Michael R; Louneva, Natalia; Arnold, Steven E; Siegel, Steven J; Bolduc, Francois V; McDonald, Thomas V; Jongens, Thomas A; McBride, Sean M J

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of both intellectual disability and autism resulting from a single gene mutation. Previously, we characterized cognitive impairments and brain structural defects in a Drosophila model of FXS and demonstrated that these impairments were rescued by treatment with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists or lithium. A well-documented biochemical defect observed in fly and mouse FXS models and FXS patients is low cAMP levels. cAMP levels can be regulated by mGluR signaling. Herein, we demonstrate PDE-4 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate memory impairments and brain structural defects in the Drosophila model of fragile X. Furthermore, we examine the effects of PDE-4 inhibition by pharmacologic treatment in the fragile X mouse model. We demonstrate that acute inhibition of PDE-4 by pharmacologic treatment in hippocampal slices rescues the enhanced mGluR-dependent LTD phenotype observed in FXS mice. Additionally, we find that chronic treatment of FXS model mice, in adulthood, also restores the level of mGluR-dependent LTD to that observed in wild-type animals. Translating the findings of successful pharmacologic intervention from the Drosophila model into the mouse model of FXS is an important advance, in that this identifies and validates PDE-4 inhibition as potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of individuals afflicted with FXS.

  17. An in vitro model for synaptic loss in neurodegenerative diseases suggests a neuroprotective role for valproic acid via inhibition of cPLA2 dependent signalling.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robin S B; Bate, Clive

    2016-02-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases present the loss of synapses as a common pathological feature. Here we have employed an in vitro model for synaptic loss to investigate the molecular mechanism of a therapeutic treatment, valproic acid (VPA). We show that amyloid-β (Aβ), isolated from patient tissue and thought to be the causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, caused the loss of synaptic proteins including synaptophysin, synapsin-1 and cysteine-string protein from cultured mouse neurons. Aβ-induced synapse damage was reduced by pre-treatment with physiologically relevant concentrations of VPA (10 μM) and a structural variant propylisopropylacetic acid (PIA). These drugs also reduced synaptic damage induced by other neurodegenerative-associated proteins α-synuclein, linked to Lewy body dementia and Parkinson's disease, and the prion-derived peptide PrP82-146. Consistent with these effects, synaptic vesicle recycling was also inhibited by these proteins and protected by VPA and PIA. We show a mechanism for this damage through aberrant activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) that is reduced by both drugs. Furthermore, Aβ-dependent cPLA2 activation correlates with its accumulation in lipid rafts, and is likely to be caused by elevated cholesterol (stabilising rafts) and decreased cholesterol ester levels, and this mechanism is reduced by VPA and PIA. Such observations suggest that VPA and PIA may provide protection against synaptic damage that occurs during Alzheimer's and Parkinson's and prion diseases. PMID:26116815

  18. NMDA-receptor inhibition restores Protease-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) mediated alterations in homeostatic synaptic plasticity of denervated mouse dentate granule cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Denise; Ikenberg, Benno; Schiener, Sabine; Maggio, Nicola; Vlachos, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A common feature of neurological diseases is the loss of central neurons, which leads to deafferentation of connected brain regions. In turn, the remodeling of denervated neuronal networks is considered to play an important role for the postlesional recovery, but has also been linked to maladaptive plasticity resulting in disease-related complications such as memory dysfunction or epilepsy. Recent work has indicated that Protease-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1), which can be activated by thrombin that enters the brain under pathological conditions, alters synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. However, the role of PAR1 in lesion-induced synaptic plasticity remains incompletely understood. Here, we used entorhinal denervation of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to study the effects of PAR1 on denervation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Our results disclose that PAR1 activation counters the ability of denervated dentate granule cells to increase their excitatory synaptic strength in a compensatory, i.e., homeostatic manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this PAR1 effect is rescued by pharmacological inhibition of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R). Thus, NMDA-R inhibitors may restore the ability of denervated neurons to express homeostatic synaptic plasticity under conditions of increased PAR1-activity, which may contribute to their beneficial effects seen in the context of neurological diseases. PMID:25086265

  19. Emergence of cortical inhibition by coordinated sensory-driven plasticity at distinct synaptic loci.

    PubMed

    Chittajallu, Ramesh; Isaac, John T R

    2010-10-01

    Feedforward GABAergic inhibition sets the dendritic integration window, thereby controlling timing and output in cortical circuits. However, the manner in which feedforward inhibitory circuits emerge is unclear, despite this being a critical step for neocortical development and function. We found that sensory experience drove plasticity of the feedforward inhibitory circuit in mouse layer 4 somatosensory barrel cortex in the second postnatal week via two distinct mechanisms. First, sensory experience selectively strengthened thalamocortical-to-feedforward interneuron inputs via a presynaptic mechanism but did not regulate other inhibitory circuit components. Second, experience drove a postsynaptic mechanism in which a downregulation of a prominent thalamocortical NMDA excitatory postsynaptic potential in stellate cells regulated the final expression of functional feedforward inhibitory input. Thus, experience is required for specific, coordinated changes at thalamocortical synapses onto both inhibitory and excitatory neurons, producing a circuit plasticity that results in maturation of functional feedforward inhibition in layer 4. PMID:20871602

  20. Synaptic inhibition controls transient oscillatory synchronization in a model of the insect olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Assisi, Collins; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    In a variety of neuronal systems it has been hypothesized that inhibitory interneurons corral principal neurons into synchronously firing groups that encode sensory information and sub-serve behavior (Buzsáki and Chrobak, 1995; Buzsáki, 2008). This mechanism is particularly relevant to the olfactory system where spatiotemporal patterns of projection neuron (PN) activity act as robust markers of odor attributes (Laurent et al., 1996; Wehr and Laurent, 1996). In the insect antennal lobe (AL), a network of local inhibitory interneurons arborizes extensively throughout the AL (Leitch and Laurent, 1996) providing inhibitory input to the cholinergic PNs. Our theoretical work has attempted to elaborate the exact role of inhibition in the generation of odor specific PN responses (Bazhenov et al., 2001a,b; Assisi et al., 2011). In large-scale AL network models we characterized the inhibitory sub-network by its coloring (Assisi et al., 2011) and showed that it can entrain excitatory PNs to the odor specific patterns of transient synchronization. In this focused review, we further examine the dynamics of entrainment in more detail by simulating simple model networks in various parameter regimes. Our simulations in conjunction with earlier studies point to the key role played by lateral (between inhibitory interneurons) and feedback (from inhibitory interneurons to principal cells) inhibition in the generation of experimentally observed patterns of transient synchrony. PMID:22529800

  1. The anterior cingulate cortex may enhance inhibition of lateral prefrontal cortex via m2 cholinergic receptors at dual synaptic sites.

    PubMed

    Medalla, Maria; Barbas, Helen

    2012-10-31

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC) share robust excitatory connections. However, during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when cortical activity is dominated by acetylcholine, the ACC is activated but DLPFC is suppressed. Using pathway tracing and electron microscopy in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta), we tested the hypothesis that the opposite states may reflect specific modulation by acetylcholine through strategic synaptic localization of muscarinic m2 receptors, which inhibit neurotransmitter release presynaptically, but are thought to be excitatory postsynaptically. In the ACC pathway to DLPFC (area 32 to area 9), m2 receptors predominated in ACC axon terminals and in more than half of the targeted dendrites of presumed inhibitory neurons, suggesting inhibitory cholinergic influence. In contrast, in a pathway linking the DLPFC area 46 to DLPFC area 9, postsynaptic m2 receptors predominated in targeted spines of presumed excitatory neurons, consistent with their mutual activation in working memory. These novel findings suggest that presynaptic and postsynaptic specificity of m2 cholinergic receptors may help explain the differential engagement of ACC and DLPFC areas in REM sleep for memory consolidation and synergism in awake states for cognitive control.

  2. Adenosine Inhibits the Excitatory Synaptic Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic, GABAergic, and Parvalbumin Neurons in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Franciosi, Serena; Brown, Ritchie E.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and tea contain the stimulants caffeine and theophylline. These compounds act as antagonists of adenosine receptors. Adenosine promotes sleep and its extracellular concentration rises in association with prolonged wakefulness, particularly in the basal forebrain (BF) region involved in activating the cerebral cortex. However, the effect of adenosine on identified BF neurons, especially non-cholinergic neurons, is incompletely understood. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices prepared from two validated transgenic mouse lines with fluorescent proteins expressed in GABAergic or parvalbumin (PV) neurons to determine the effect of adenosine. Whole-cell recordings were made from BF cholinergic neurons and from BF GABAergic and PV neurons with the size (>20 μm) and intrinsic membrane properties (prominent H-currents) corresponding to cortically projecting neurons. A brief (2 min) bath application of adenosine (100 μM) decreased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in all groups of BF cholinergic, GABAergic, and PV neurons we recorded. In addition, adenosine decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in BF cholinergic neurons. Adenosine had no effect on the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in cholinergic neurons or GABAergic neurons with large H-currents but reduced them in a group of GABAergic neurons with smaller H-currents. All effects of adenosine were blocked by a selective, adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 1 μM). Adenosine had no postsynaptic effects. Taken together, our work suggests that adenosine promotes sleep by an A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to cortically projecting cholinergic and GABA/PV neurons. Conversely, caffeine and theophylline promote attentive wakefulness by inhibiting these A1 receptors in BF thereby promoting the high-frequency oscillations in the cortex required

  3. Pre-Synaptic Inhibition of Afferent Feedback in the Macaque Spinal Cord Does Not Modulate with Cycles of Peripheral Oscillations Around 10 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Ferran; Baker, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal interneurons are partially phase-locked to physiological tremor around 10 Hz. The phase of spinal interneuron activity is approximately opposite to descending drive to motoneurons, leading to partial phase cancellation and tremor reduction. Pre-synaptic inhibition of afferent feedback modulates during voluntary movements, but it is not known whether it tracks more rapid fluctuations in motor output such as during tremor. In this study, dorsal root potentials (DRPs) were recorded from the C8 and T1 roots in two macaque monkeys following intra-spinal micro-stimulation (random inter-stimulus interval 1.5–2.5 s, 30–100 μA), whilst the animals performed an index finger flexion task which elicited peripheral oscillations around 10 Hz. Forty one responses were identified with latency < 5 ms; these were narrow (mean width 0.59 ms), and likely resulted from antidromic activation of afferents following stimulation near terminals. Significant modulation during task performance occurred in 16/41 responses, reflecting terminal excitability changes generated by pre-synaptic inhibition (Wall's excitability test). Stimuli falling during large-amplitude 8–12 Hz oscillations in finger acceleration were extracted, and sub-averages of DRPs constructed for stimuli delivered at different oscillation phases. Although some apparent phase-dependent modulation was seen, this was not above the level expected by chance. We conclude that, although terminal excitability reflecting pre-synaptic inhibition of afferents modulates over the timescale of a voluntary movement, it does not follow more rapid changes in motor output. This suggests that pre-synaptic inhibition is not part of the spinal systems for tremor reduction described previously, and that it plays a role in overall—but not moment-by-moment—regulation of feedback gain. PMID:26635536

  4. Depolarizing GABA/glycine synaptic events switch from excitation to inhibition during frequency increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchereau, Pascal; Cattaert, Daniel; Delpy, Alain; Allain, Anne-Emilie; Martin, Elodie; Meyrand, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    By acting on their ionotropic chloride channel receptors, GABA and glycine represent the major inhibitory transmitters of the central nervous system. Nevertheless, in various brain structures, depolarizing GABAergic/glycinergic postsynaptic potentials (dGPSPs) lead to dual inhibitory (shunting) and excitatory components, the functional consequences of which remain poorly acknowledged. Indeed, the extent to which each component prevails during dGPSP is unclear. Understanding the mechanisms predicting the dGPSP outcome on neural network activity is therefore a major issue in neurobiology. By combining electrophysiological recordings of spinal embryonic mouse motoneurons and modelling study, we demonstrate that increasing the chloride conductance (gCl) favors inhibition either during a single dGPSP or during trains in which gCl summates. Finally, based on this summation mechanism, the excitatory effect of EPSPs is overcome by dGPSPs in a frequency-dependent manner. These results reveal an important mechanism by which dGPSPs protect against the overexcitation of neural excitatory circuits.

  5. Depolarizing GABA/glycine synaptic events switch from excitation to inhibition during frequency increases

    PubMed Central

    Branchereau, Pascal; Cattaert, Daniel; Delpy, Alain; Allain, Anne-Emilie; Martin, Elodie; Meyrand, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    By acting on their ionotropic chloride channel receptors, GABA and glycine represent the major inhibitory transmitters of the central nervous system. Nevertheless, in various brain structures, depolarizing GABAergic/glycinergic postsynaptic potentials (dGPSPs) lead to dual inhibitory (shunting) and excitatory components, the functional consequences of which remain poorly acknowledged. Indeed, the extent to which each component prevails during dGPSP is unclear. Understanding the mechanisms predicting the dGPSP outcome on neural network activity is therefore a major issue in neurobiology. By combining electrophysiological recordings of spinal embryonic mouse motoneurons and modelling study, we demonstrate that increasing the chloride conductance (gCl) favors inhibition either during a single dGPSP or during trains in which gCl summates. Finally, based on this summation mechanism, the excitatory effect of EPSPs is overcome by dGPSPs in a frequency-dependent manner. These results reveal an important mechanism by which dGPSPs protect against the overexcitation of neural excitatory circuits. PMID:26912194

  6. Perturbations of Respiratory Rhythm and Pattern by Disrupting Synaptic Inhibition within Pre-Bötzinger and Bötzinger Complexes123

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli; Molkov, Yaroslav I.

    2016-01-01

    The pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes are the brainstem compartments containing interneurons considered to be critically involved in generating respiratory rhythm and motor pattern in mammals. Current models postulate that both generation of the rhythm and coordination of the inspiratory-expiratory pattern involve inhibitory synaptic interactions within and between these regions. Both regions contain glycinergic and GABAergic neurons, and rhythmically active neurons in these regions receive appropriately coordinated phasic inhibition necessary for generation of the normal three-phase respiratory pattern. However, recent experiments attempting to disrupt glycinergic and GABAergic postsynaptic inhibition in the pre-BötC and BötC in adult rats in vivo have questioned the critical role of synaptic inhibition in these regions, as well as the importance of the BötC, which contradicts previous physiological and pharmacological studies. To further evaluate the roles of synaptic inhibition and the BötC, we bilaterally microinjected the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and glycinergic receptor antagonist strychnine into the pre-BötC or BötC in anesthetized adult rats in vivo and in perfused in situ brainstem–spinal cord preparations from juvenile rats. Muscimol was microinjected to suppress neuronal activity in the pre-BötC or BötC. In both preparations, disrupting inhibition within pre-BötC or BötC caused major site-specific perturbations of the rhythm and disrupted the three-phase motor pattern, in some experiments terminating rhythmic motor output. Suppressing BötC activity also potently disturbed the rhythm and motor pattern. We conclude that inhibitory circuit interactions within and between the pre-BötC and BötC critically regulate rhythmogenesis and are required for normal respiratory motor pattern generation. PMID:27200412

  7. Interplay between low threshold voltage-gated K(+) channels and synaptic inhibition in neurons of the chicken nucleus laminaris along its frequency axis.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, William R; Liu, Yu-Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Central auditory neurons that localize sound in horizontal space have specialized intrinsic and synaptic cellular mechanisms to tightly control the threshold and timing for action potential generation. However, the critical interplay between intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and extrinsic synaptic conductances in determining neuronal output are not well understood. In chicken, neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) encode sound location using interaural time difference (ITD) as a cue. Along the tonotopic axis of NL, there exist robust differences among low, middle, and high frequency (LF, MF, and HF, respectively) neurons in a variety of neuronal properties such as low threshold voltage-gated K(+) (LTK) channels and depolarizing inhibition. This establishes NL as an ideal model to examine the interactions between LTK currents and synaptic inhibition across the tonotopic axis. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings prepared from chicken embryos (E17-E18), we found that LTK currents were larger in MF and HF neurons than in LF neurons. Kinetic analysis revealed that LTK currents in MF neurons activated at lower voltages than in LF and HF neurons, whereas the inactivation of the currents was similar across the tonotopic axis. Surprisingly, blockade of LTK currents using dendrotoxin-I (DTX) tended to broaden the duration and increase the amplitude of the depolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in NL neurons without dependence on coding frequency regions. Analyses of the effects of DTX on inhibitory postsynaptic currents led us to interpret this unexpected observation as a result of primarily postsynaptic effects of LTK currents on MF and HF neurons, and combined presynaptic and postsynaptic effects in LF neurons. Furthermore, DTX transferred subthreshold IPSPs to spikes. Taken together, the results suggest a critical role for LTK currents in regulating inhibitory synaptic strength in ITD-coding neurons at various frequencies.

  8. Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor inhibition

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuijin; Shao, Li-Rong; Wang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Chronic global N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade leads to changes in glutamatergic transmission. The impact of more subunit-selective NMDAR inhibition on glutamatergic circuits remains incomplete. To this end, organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were treated for 17–21 days with the high-affinity competitive antagonist d-aminophosphonovaleric acid (d-APV), the allosteric GluN2B-selective antagonist Ro25-6981, or the newer competitive GluN2A-preferring antagonist NVP-AAM077. Electrophysiological recordings from dentate granule cells revealed that chronic d-APV treatment increased, whereas chronic Ro25-6981 reduced, epileptiform event-associated large-amplitude spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) compared with all other treatment groups, consistent with opposite effects on glutamatergic networks. Presynaptically, chronic d-APV or Ro25-6981 increased small-amplitude sEPSCs and AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs (mEPSCAMPAR) frequency. Chronic d-APV or NVP-AAM077, but not Ro25-6981, increased putative vGlut1-positive glutamatergic synapses. Postsynaptically, chronic d-APV dramatically increased mEPSCAMPAR and profoundly decreased NMDAR-mediated mEPSC (mEPSCNMDAR) measures, suggesting increased AMPAR/NMDAR ratio. Ro25-6981 decreased mEPSCAMPAR charge transfer and modestly decreased mEPSCNMDAR frequency and decay, suggesting downward scaling of AMPAR and NMDAR function without dramatically altering AMPAR/NMDAR ratio. Extrasynaptically, threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate-enhanced “tonic” NMDAR current amplitude and activated channel number estimates were significantly increased only by chronic Ro25-6981. For intrinsic excitability, action potential threshold was slightly more negative following chronic d-APV or NVP-AAM077. The predominant pro-excitatory effects of chronic d-APV are consistent with increased glutamatergic transmission and network excitability. The minor effects of chronic NVP-AAM077 on action potential threshold

  9. Partial Amelioration of Synaptic and Cognitive Deficits by Inhibiting Cofilin Dephosphorylation in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yulei; Wei, Jing; Cheng, Jia; Zhong, Ping; Xiong, Zhe; Liu, Aiyi; Lin, Lin; Chen, Shengdi; Yan, Zhen

    2016-06-28

    The loss of synaptic structure and function has been linked to the cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which plays a key role in regulating the integrity of synapses and the transport of synaptic proteins, has been suggested to contribute to the pathology of AD. In this study, we found that glutamate receptor surface expression and synaptic function in frontal cortical neurons were significant diminished in a familial AD (FAD) model, which was correlated with the reduction of phosphorylated cofilin, a key protein regulating the dynamics of actin filaments. Injecting a cofilin dephosphorylation inhibitory peptide to FAD mice led to the partial rescue of the surface expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits, as well as the partial restoration of AMPAR- and NMDAR-mediated synaptic currents. Moreover, the impaired working memory and novel object recognition memory in FAD mice were partially ameliorated by injections of the cofilin dephosphorylation inhibitory peptide. These results suggest that targeting the cofilin-actin signaling holds promise to mitigate the physiological and behavioral abnormality in AD.

  10. Substance P Depolarizes Lamprey Spinal Cord Neurons by Inhibiting Background Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Thörn Pérez, Carolina; Hill, Russell H.; Grillner, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Substance P is endogenously released in the adult lamprey spinal cord and accelerates the burst frequency of fictive locomotion. This is achieved by multiple effects on interneurons and motoneurons, including an attenuation of calcium currents, potentiation of NMDA currents and reduction of the reciprocal inhibition. While substance P also depolarizes spinal cord neurons, the underlying mechanism has not been resolved. Here we show that effects of substance P on background K+ channels are the main source for this depolarization. Hyperpolarizing steps induced inward currents during whole-cell voltage clamp that were reduced by substance P. These background K+ channels are pH sensitive and are selectively blocked by anandamide and AVE1231. These blockers counteracted the effect of substance P on these channels and the resting membrane potential depolarization in spinal cord neurons. Thus, we have shown now that substance P inhibits background K+ channels that in turn induce depolarization, which is likely to contribute to the frequency increase observed with substance P during fictive locomotion. PMID:26197458

  11. Substance P Depolarizes Lamprey Spinal Cord Neurons by Inhibiting Background Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Thörn Pérez, Carolina; Hill, Russell H; Grillner, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Substance P is endogenously released in the adult lamprey spinal cord and accelerates the burst frequency of fictive locomotion. This is achieved by multiple effects on interneurons and motoneurons, including an attenuation of calcium currents, potentiation of NMDA currents and reduction of the reciprocal inhibition. While substance P also depolarizes spinal cord neurons, the underlying mechanism has not been resolved. Here we show that effects of substance P on background K+ channels are the main source for this depolarization. Hyperpolarizing steps induced inward currents during whole-cell voltage clamp that were reduced by substance P. These background K+ channels are pH sensitive and are selectively blocked by anandamide and AVE1231. These blockers counteracted the effect of substance P on these channels and the resting membrane potential depolarization in spinal cord neurons. Thus, we have shown now that substance P inhibits background K+ channels that in turn induce depolarization, which is likely to contribute to the frequency increase observed with substance P during fictive locomotion.

  12. 3-Methylcrotonylglycine disrupts mitochondrial energy homeostasis and inhibits synaptic Na(+),K (+)-ATPase activity in brain of young rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Alana Pimentel; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Zanatta, Ângela; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Wajner, Moacir

    2012-03-01

    Deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase activity is an inherited metabolic disease biochemically characterized by accumulation and high urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG), and also of 3-hydroisovalerate in lesser amounts. Affected patients usually have neurologic dysfunction, brain abnormalities and cardiomyopathy, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of 3MCG on important parameters of energy metabolism, including CO(2) production from labeled acetate, enzyme activities of the citric acid cycle, as well as of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV (oxidative phosphorylation), creatine kinase (intracellular ATP transfer), and synaptic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (neurotransmission) in brain cortex of young rats. 3MCG significantly reduced CO(2) production, implying that this compound compromises citric acid cycle activity. Furthermore, 3MCG diminished the activities of complex II-III of the respiratory chain, mitochondrial creatine kinase and synaptic membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, antioxidants were able to attenuate or fully prevent the inhibitory effect of 3MCG on creatine kinase and synaptic membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. We also observed that lipid peroxidation was elicited by 3MCG, suggesting the involvement of free radicals on 3MCG-induced effects. Considering the importance of the citric acid cycle and the electron flow through the respiratory chain for brain energy production, creatine kinase for intracellular energy transfer, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase for the maintenance of the cell membrane potential, the present data indicate that 3MCG potentially impairs mitochondrial brain energy homeostasis and neurotransmission. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may be involved in the neurological damage found in patients affected by 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

  13. The Space-Clamped Hodgkin-Huxley System with Random Synaptic Input: Inhibition of Spiking by Weak Noise and Analysis with Moment Equations.

    PubMed

    Tuckwell, Henry C; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    We consider a classical space-clamped Hodgkin-Huxley model neuron stimulated by synaptic excitation and inhibition with conductances represented by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Using numerical solutions of the stochastic model system obtained by an Euler method, it is found that with excitation only, there is a critical value of the steady-state excitatory conductance for repetitive spiking without noise, and for values of the conductance near the critical value, small noise has a powerfully inhibitory effect. For a given level of inhibition, there is also a critical value of the steady-state excitatory conductance for repetitive firing, and it is demonstrated that noise in either the excitatory or inhibitory processes or both can powerfully inhibit spiking. Furthermore, near the critical value, inverse stochastic resonance was observed when noise was present only in the inhibitory input process. The system of deterministic differential equations for the approximate first- and second-order moments of the model is derived. They are solved using Runge-Kutta methods, and the solutions are compared with the results obtained by simulation for various sets of parameters, including some with conductances obtained by experiment on pyramidal cells of rat prefrontal cortex. The mean and variance obtained from simulation are in good agreement when there is spiking induced by strong stimulation and relatively small noise or when the voltage is fluctuating at subthreshold levels. In the occasional spike mode sometimes exhibited by spinal motoneurons and cortical pyramidal cells, the assumptions underlying the moment equation approach are not satisfied. The simulation results show that noisy synaptic input of either an excitatory or inhibitory character or both may lead to the suppression of firing in neurons operating near a critical point and this has possible implications for cortical networks. Although suppression of firing is corroborated for the system of moment equations

  14. The Space-Clamped Hodgkin-Huxley System with Random Synaptic Input: Inhibition of Spiking by Weak Noise and Analysis with Moment Equations.

    PubMed

    Tuckwell, Henry C; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    We consider a classical space-clamped Hodgkin-Huxley model neuron stimulated by synaptic excitation and inhibition with conductances represented by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Using numerical solutions of the stochastic model system obtained by an Euler method, it is found that with excitation only, there is a critical value of the steady-state excitatory conductance for repetitive spiking without noise, and for values of the conductance near the critical value, small noise has a powerfully inhibitory effect. For a given level of inhibition, there is also a critical value of the steady-state excitatory conductance for repetitive firing, and it is demonstrated that noise in either the excitatory or inhibitory processes or both can powerfully inhibit spiking. Furthermore, near the critical value, inverse stochastic resonance was observed when noise was present only in the inhibitory input process. The system of deterministic differential equations for the approximate first- and second-order moments of the model is derived. They are solved using Runge-Kutta methods, and the solutions are compared with the results obtained by simulation for various sets of parameters, including some with conductances obtained by experiment on pyramidal cells of rat prefrontal cortex. The mean and variance obtained from simulation are in good agreement when there is spiking induced by strong stimulation and relatively small noise or when the voltage is fluctuating at subthreshold levels. In the occasional spike mode sometimes exhibited by spinal motoneurons and cortical pyramidal cells, the assumptions underlying the moment equation approach are not satisfied. The simulation results show that noisy synaptic input of either an excitatory or inhibitory character or both may lead to the suppression of firing in neurons operating near a critical point and this has possible implications for cortical networks. Although suppression of firing is corroborated for the system of moment equations

  15. A model of order-selectivity based on dynamic changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition produced by short-term synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Goudar, Vishwa

    2014-01-01

    Determining the order of sensory events separated by a few hundred milliseconds is critical to many forms of sensory processing, including vocalization and speech discrimination. Although many experimental studies have recorded from auditory order-sensitive and order-selective neurons, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that universal properties of cortical synapses—short-term synaptic plasticity of excitatory and inhibitory synapses—are well suited for the generation of order-selective neural responses. Using computational models of canonical disynaptic circuits, we show that the dynamic changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition imposed by short-term plasticity lead to the generation of order-selective responses. Parametric analyses predict that among the forms of short-term plasticity expressed at excitatory-to-excitatory, excitatory-to-inhibitory, and inhibitory-to-excitatory synapses, the single most important contributor to order-selectivity is the paired-pulse depression of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs). A topographic model of the auditory cortex that incorporates short-term plasticity accounts for both context-dependent suppression and enhancement in response to paired tones. Together these results provide a framework to account for an important computational problem based on ubiquitous synaptic properties that did not yet have a clearly established computational function. Additionally, these studies suggest that disynaptic circuits represent a fundamental computational unit that is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information. PMID:25339707

  16. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt Signaling Blocks Exercise-Mediated Enhancement of Adult Neurogenesis and Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Veyrac, Alexandra; Dufour, Franck; Horwood, Jennifer; Laroche, Serge; Davis, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical exercise has been shown to increase adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and enhances synaptic plasticity. The antiapoptotic kinase, Akt has also been shown to be phosphorylated following voluntary exercise; however, it remains unknown whether the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is involved in exercise-induced neurogenesis and the associated facilitation of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insight into the potential role of this signaling pathway in exercise-induced neurogenesis and LTP in the dentate gyrus rats were infused with the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 or vehicle control solution (icv) via osmotic minipumps and exercised in a running wheel for 10 days. Newborn cells in the dentate gyrus were date-labelled with BrdU on the last 3 days of exercise. Then, they were either returned to the home cage for 2 weeks to assess exercise-induced LTP and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, or were killed on the last day of exercise to assess proliferation and activation of the PI3K-Akt cascade using western blotting. Conclusions/Significance Exercise increases cell proliferation and promotes survival of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus. Immediately after exercise, we found that Akt and three downstream targets, BAD, GSK3β and FOXO1 were activated. LY294002 blocked exercise-induced phosphorylation of Akt and downstream target proteins. This had no effect on exercise-induced cell proliferation, but it abolished most of the beneficial effect of exercise on the survival of newly generated dentate gyrus neurons and prevented exercise-induced increase in dentate gyrus LTP. These results suggest that activation of the PI3 kinase-Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role via an antiapoptotic function in promoting survival of newly formed granule cells generated during exercise and the associated increase in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. PMID:19936256

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Margeta, Milica A.; Shen, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Synapses are specialized junctions that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. A striking feature of the nervous system is the specificity of its synaptic connections: an individual neuron will form synapses only with a small subset of available presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. Synaptic specificity has been classically thought to arise from homophilic or heterophilic interactions between adhesive molecules acting across the synaptic cleft. Over the past decade, many new mechanisms giving rise to synaptic specificity have been identified. Synapses can be specified by secreted molecules that promote or inhibit synaptogenesis, and their source can be a neighboring guidepost cell, not just presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Furthermore, lineage, fate, and timing of development can also play critical roles in shaping neural circuits. Future work utilizing large-scale screens will aim to elucidate the full scope of cellular mechanisms and molecular players that can give rise to synaptic specificity. PMID:19969086

  18. A Model of Synaptic Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, David B.; Schwalger, Tilo; Ziegler, Lorric; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2016-01-01

    Reconsolidation of memories has mostly been studied at the behavioral and molecular level. Here, we put forward a simple extension of existing computational models of synaptic consolidation to capture hippocampal slice experiments that have been interpreted as reconsolidation at the synaptic level. The model implements reconsolidation through stabilization of consolidated synapses by stabilizing entities combined with an activity-dependent reservoir of stabilizing entities that are immune to protein synthesis inhibition (PSI). We derive a reduced version of our model to explore the conditions under which synaptic reconsolidation does or does not occur, often referred to as the boundary conditions of reconsolidation. We find that our computational model of synaptic reconsolidation displays complex boundary conditions. Our results suggest that a limited resource of hypothetical stabilizing molecules or complexes, which may be implemented by protein phosphorylation or different receptor subtypes, can underlie the phenomenon of synaptic reconsolidation. PMID:27242410

  19. Interaction between synaptic inhibition and glial-potassium dynamics leads to diverse seizure transition modes in biophysical models of human focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Y Ho, E C; Truccolo, Wilson

    2016-10-01

    How focal seizures initiate and evolve in human neocortex remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. Here, we use biophysical neuronal network models of neocortical patches to study how the interaction between inhibition and extracellular potassium ([K (+)] o ) dynamics may contribute to different types of focal seizures. Three main types of propagated focal seizures observed in recent intracortical microelectrode recordings in humans were modelled: seizures characterized by sustained (∼30-60 Hz) gamma local field potential (LFP) oscillations; seizures where the onset in the propagated site consisted of LFP spikes that later evolved into rhythmic (∼2-3 Hz) spike-wave complexes (SWCs); and seizures where a brief stage of low-amplitude fast-oscillation (∼10-20 Hz) LFPs preceded the SWC activity. Our findings are fourfold: (1) The interaction between elevated [K (+)] o (due to abnormal potassium buffering by glial cells) and the strength of synaptic inhibition plays a predominant role in shaping these three types of seizures. (2) Strengthening of inhibition leads to the onset of sustained narrowband gamma seizures. (3) Transition into SWC seizures is obtained either by the weakening of inhibitory synapses, or by a transient strengthening followed by an inhibitory breakdown (e.g. GABA depletion). This reduction or breakdown of inhibition among fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons increases their spiking activity and leads them eventually into depolarization block. Ictal spike-wave discharges in the model are then sustained solely by pyramidal neurons. (4) FS cell dynamics are also critical for seizures where the evolution into SWC activity is preceded by low-amplitude fast oscillations. Different levels of elevated [K (+)] o were important for transitions into and maintenance of sustained gamma oscillations and SWC discharges. Overall, our modelling study predicts that the interaction between inhibitory interneurons and [K (+)] o glial buffering under

  20. Interaction between synaptic inhibition and glial-potassium dynamics leads to diverse seizure transition modes in biophysical models of human focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Y Ho, E C; Truccolo, Wilson

    2016-10-01

    How focal seizures initiate and evolve in human neocortex remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. Here, we use biophysical neuronal network models of neocortical patches to study how the interaction between inhibition and extracellular potassium ([K (+)] o ) dynamics may contribute to different types of focal seizures. Three main types of propagated focal seizures observed in recent intracortical microelectrode recordings in humans were modelled: seizures characterized by sustained (∼30-60 Hz) gamma local field potential (LFP) oscillations; seizures where the onset in the propagated site consisted of LFP spikes that later evolved into rhythmic (∼2-3 Hz) spike-wave complexes (SWCs); and seizures where a brief stage of low-amplitude fast-oscillation (∼10-20 Hz) LFPs preceded the SWC activity. Our findings are fourfold: (1) The interaction between elevated [K (+)] o (due to abnormal potassium buffering by glial cells) and the strength of synaptic inhibition plays a predominant role in shaping these three types of seizures. (2) Strengthening of inhibition leads to the onset of sustained narrowband gamma seizures. (3) Transition into SWC seizures is obtained either by the weakening of inhibitory synapses, or by a transient strengthening followed by an inhibitory breakdown (e.g. GABA depletion). This reduction or breakdown of inhibition among fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons increases their spiking activity and leads them eventually into depolarization block. Ictal spike-wave discharges in the model are then sustained solely by pyramidal neurons. (4) FS cell dynamics are also critical for seizures where the evolution into SWC activity is preceded by low-amplitude fast oscillations. Different levels of elevated [K (+)] o were important for transitions into and maintenance of sustained gamma oscillations and SWC discharges. Overall, our modelling study predicts that the interaction between inhibitory interneurons and [K (+)] o glial buffering under

  1. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  2. Prolonged GABA(B) receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition in the cat spinal cord: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, D R; Lacey, G

    1998-08-01

    In pentobarbitone-anaesthetised spinal cats, a comparison was made of the effects of intravenous bicuculline hydrochloride, a GABA(A)-receptor antagonist, and several (-)-baclofen (GABA(B)-receptor) antagonists (CGP 35348, 4638 , 56999A) on the prolonged inhibition of extensor-muscle monosynaptic reflexes, recorded from lumbar ventral roots, by brief or continuous tetanic stimulation of low-threshold afferent fibres of hindlimb flexor muscles. Two components of brief tetanus inhibition were detected. Whilst possibly of similar central latency, the inhibition associated with GABA(B) receptors had a longer time course than that reduced by bicuculline. Furthermore, whereas bicuculline reduced primary afferent depolarization, generated by the inhibitory volleys, and detected as dorsal-root potentials, such potentials were generally enhanced by intravenous baclofen antagonists. The inhibition of reflexes during and after continuous (333 Hz) tetanic flexor-nerve stimulation appeared to be predominantly associated with the activation of GABA(B) receptors. In the period following continuous tetanic flexor-nerve stimulation, during which monosynaptic extensor reflexes were reduced in amplitude, the action potentials of the intraspinal terminations of extensor-muscle group-Ia afferent fibres were reduced in duration, as detected by the time course of the recovery of the threshold to extracellular microstimulation following the arrival of an orthodromic impulse. A reduction in termination action-potential duration also accompanied the reduction by microelectrophoretic (-)-baclofen of the release of excitatory transmitter from group-Ia terminations, both presynaptic effects being blocked by microelectrophoretic baclofen antagonists. However, the reduction of the duration of the action potential of individual group-Ia terminations, which followed continuous flexor-nerve stimulation, was not sensitive to the baclofen antagonist CGP 55845A, but was diminished by bicuculline

  3. Maresin 1 Inhibits TRPV1 in Temporomandibular Joint-Related Trigeminal Nociceptive Neurons and TMJ Inflammation-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in the Trigeminal Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In the trigeminal system, disruption of acute resolution processing may lead to uncontrolled inflammation and chronic pain associated with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Currently, there are no effective treatments for TMJ pain. Recently, it has been recognized that maresin 1, a newly identified macrophage-derived mediator of inflammation resolution, is a potent analgesic for somatic inflammatory pain without noticeable side effects in mice and a potent endogenous inhibitor of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the somatic system. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic actions of maresin 1 on TMJ pain are unclear in the trigeminal system. Here, by performing TMJ injection of a retrograde labeling tracer DiI (a fluorescent dye), I showed that maresin 1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents and neuronal activity via Gαi-coupled G-protein coupled receptors in DiI-labeled trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Further, maresin 1 blocked TRPV1 agonist-evoked increases in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency and abolished TMJ inflammation-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal nucleus. These results demonstrate the potent actions of maresin 1 in regulating TRPV1 in the trigeminal system. Thus, maresin 1 may serve as a novel endogenous inhibitor for treating TMJ-inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. PMID:26617436

  4. Contribution of GABAergic inhibition to synaptic responses and LTD early in postnatal development in the rat superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Mize, R Ranney; Salt, Thomas E

    2004-09-01

    We studied the development of optic tract evoked field potentials (FP) in the rodent superior colliculus (SC) and the effect of GABA antagonists upon their development and upon induction of long-term depression (LTD). Brain slices were cut from Lister Hooded rats. The optic tract was stimulated while recording from the superficial grey layer. GABAergic inhibition was assessed by adding 100 microm picrotoxin and 3 microm CGP55845 antagonists to block GABA A,B,C receptors. LTD was induced with a 50 Hz, 20 s tetanus. At age P2, the FP consisted only of a presynaptic spike. The GABA antagonists had no effect. By P4, the FP consisted of a presynaptic spike, a longer latency population spike, and a field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP). The fEPSP was slightly prolonged by the GABA antagonists at this age. By P7-P14, a prominent FP with trailing fEPSP was recorded. The GABA antagonists usually had a large effect, with the fEPSP increasing in both amplitude and duration. A mature FP was usually recorded in P15-P23 slices where the GABA antagonist effect remained substantial. LTD could be induced in 17 of 30 control slices from rats aged P4-P26. The average fEPSP amplitude after tetanus was 77.9% of control. Pre-treatment with GABA antagonists produced a short-term potentiation (average 114.0%), rather than LTD, in 14 of 19 cases. This STP was followed by a more prolonged potentiation in 12 of the 14 cases. We conclude that GABAergic inhibitory circuits mature before eye opening and that GABA contributes to induction of LTD in the developing SC.

  5. Light-evoked lateral GABAergic inhibition at single bipolar cell synaptic terminals is driven by distinct retinal microcircuits

    PubMed Central

    Vigh, Jozsef; Vickers, Evan; von Gersdorff, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitory amacrine cells (ACs) filter visual signals crossing the retina by modulating the excitatory, glutamatergic output of bipolar cells (BCs) on multiple temporal and spatial scales. Reciprocal feedback from ACs provides focal inhibition that is temporally locked to the activity of presynaptic BC activity, whereas lateral feedback originates from ACs excited by distant BCs. These distinct feedback mechanisms permit temporal and spatial computation at BC terminals. Here, we used a unique preparation to study light-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded from axotomized terminals of ON-type mixed rod/cone BCs (Mb) in goldfish retinal slices. In this preparation, light-evoked IPSCs could only reach axotomized BC terminals via the lateral feedback pathway, allowing us to study lateral feedback in the absence of overlapping reciprocal feedback components. We found that light evokes ON and OFF lateral IPSCs (L-IPSCs) in Mb terminals having different temporal patterns and conveyed via distinct retinal pathways. The relative contribution of rods versus cones to ON and OFF L-IPSCs was light intensity dependent. ACs presynaptic to Mb BC terminals received inputs via AMPA/KA and NMDA type receptors in both the ON and OFF pathways, and employed TTX-sensitive sodium channels to boost signal transfer along their processes. ON and OFF L-IPSCs, like reciprocal feedback IPSCs, were mediated by both GABAA and GABAC receptors. However, our results suggest that lateral and reciprocal feedback do not cross-depress each other, and are therefore mediated by distinct populations of ACs. These findings demonstrate that retinal inhibitory circuits are highly specialized to modulate BC output at different light intensities. PMID:22049431

  6. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  7. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  8. Reduction of the Background Magnetic Field Inhibits Ability of Drosophila melanogaster to Survive Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Lucas; Madapatha, Dinu; Martino, Carlos; Hernandez, Mark; Barnes, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The effects of exposure to an environment where the background magnetic field has been reduced were studied on wild-type Drosophila melanogaster by measuring its ability to survive a single exposure to ionizing radiation during its larval stage. The experimental design presented shows a timeframe, ionizing radiation dose and background magnetic field parameters that will cause a significant and reproducible reduction of survival on this insect model. These results suggest that background magnetic fields may play a fundamental role in the recovery or harm of a biological system that is exposed to single doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:22532126

  9. Unraveling mechanisms of homeostatic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Karine; Goda, Yukiko

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a negative feedback mechanism neurons use to offset excessive excitation or inhibition by adjusting their synaptic strengths. Recent findings reveal a complex web of signaling processes involved in this compensatory form of synaptic strength regulation, and in contrast to the popular view of homeostatic plasticity as a slow, global phenomenon, neurons may also rapidly tune the efficacy of individual synapses on demand. Here we review our current understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:20471348

  10. Inhibition of recombinase polymerase amplification by background DNA: a lateral flow-based method for enriching target DNA.

    PubMed

    Rohrman, Brittany; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) may be used to detect a variety of pathogens, often after minimal sample preparation. However, previous work has shown that whole blood inhibits RPA. In this paper, we show that the concentrations of background DNA found in whole blood prevent the amplification of target DNA by RPA. First, using an HIV-1 RPA assay with known concentrations of nonspecific background DNA, we show that RPA tolerates more background DNA when higher HIV-1 target concentrations are present. Then, using three additional assays, we demonstrate that the maximum amount of background DNA that may be tolerated in RPA reactions depends on the DNA sequences used in the assay. We also show that changing the RPA reaction conditions, such as incubation time and primer concentration, has little effect on the ability of RPA to function when high concentrations of background DNA are present. Finally, we develop and characterize a lateral flow-based method for enriching the target DNA concentration relative to the background DNA concentration. This sample processing method enables RPA of 10(4) copies of HIV-1 DNA in a background of 0-14 μg of background DNA. Without lateral flow sample enrichment, the maximum amount of background DNA tolerated is 2 μg when 10(6) copies of HIV-1 DNA are present. This method requires no heating or other external equipment, may be integrated with upstream DNA extraction and purification processes, is compatible with the components of lysed blood, and has the potential to detect HIV-1 DNA in infant whole blood with high proviral loads.

  11. Finite Post Synaptic Potentials Cause a Fast Neuronal Response

    PubMed Central

    Helias, Moritz; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan; Diesmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    A generic property of the communication between neurons is the exchange of pulses at discrete time points, the action potentials. However, the prevalent theory of spiking neuronal networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons relies on two assumptions: the superposition of many afferent synaptic impulses is approximated by Gaussian white noise, equivalent to a vanishing magnitude of the synaptic impulses, and the transfer of time varying signals by neurons is assessable by linearization. Going beyond both approximations, we find that in the presence of synaptic impulses the response to transient inputs differs qualitatively from previous predictions. It is instantaneous rather than exhibiting low-pass characteristics, depends non-linearly on the amplitude of the impulse, is asymmetric for excitation and inhibition and is promoted by a characteristic level of synaptic background noise. These findings resolve contradictions between the earlier theory and experimental observations. Here we review the recent theoretical progress that enabled these insights. We explain why the membrane potential near threshold is sensitive to properties of the afferent noise and show how this shapes the neural response. A further extension of the theory to time evolution in discrete steps quantifies simulation artifacts and yields improved methods to cross check results. PMID:21427776

  12. Microbial background flora in small-scale cheese production facilities does not inhibit growth and surface attachment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, B C T; Heir, E; Møretrø, T; Skaar, I; Langsrud, S

    2013-10-01

    The background microbiota of 5 Norwegian small-scale cheese production sites was examined and the effect of the isolated strains on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Samples were taken from the air, food contact surfaces (storage surfaces, cheese molds, and brine) and noncontact surfaces (floor, drains, and doors) and all isolates were identified by sequencing and morphology (mold). A total of 1,314 isolates were identified and found to belong to 55 bacterial genera, 1 species of yeast, and 6 species of mold. Lactococcus spp. (all of which were Lactococcus lactis), Staphylococcus spp., Microbacterium spp., and Psychrobacter sp. were isolated from all 5 sites and Rhodococcus spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. from 4 sites. Thirty-two genera were only found in 1 out of 5 facilities each. Great variations were observed in the microbial background flora both between the 5 producers, and also within the various production sites. The greatest diversity of bacteria was found in drains and on rubber seals of doors. The flora on cheese storage shelves and in salt brines was less varied. A total of 62 bacterial isolates and 1 yeast isolate were tested for antilisterial activity in an overlay assay and a spot-on-lawn assay, but none showed significant inhibitory effects. Listeria monocytogenes was also co-cultured on ceramic tiles with bacteria dominating in the cheese production plants: Lactococcus lactis, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus equorum, Rhodococcus spp., or Psychrobacter spp. None of the tested isolates altered the survival of L. monocytogenes on ceramic tiles. The conclusion of the study was that no common background flora exists in cheese production environments. None of the tested isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes. Hence, this study does not support the hypothesis that the natural background flora in cheese production environments inhibits the growth or survival of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Meloni, Edward G.; Carlezon, William A.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Pitman, Roger K.; Nader, Karim; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning–induced synaptic enhancements were primarily presynaptic in origin. Reconsolidation blockade with rapamycin, inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity, suppressed synaptic potentiation in slices from fear-conditioned rats. Surprisingly, this reduction of synaptic efficacy was mediated by post- but not presynaptic mechanisms. These findings suggest that different plasticity rules may apply to the processes underlying the acquisition of original fear memory and postreactivational stabilization of fear-conditioning–induced synaptic enhancements mediating fear memory reconsolidation. PMID:23487762

  14. Anesthetic activation of central respiratory chemoreceptor neurons involves inhibition of a THIK-1-like background K(+) current.

    PubMed

    Lazarenko, Roman M; Fortuna, Michal G; Shi, Yingtang; Mulkey, Daniel K; Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S; Guyenet, Patrice G; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2010-07-01

    At surgical depths of anesthesia, inhalational anesthetics cause a loss of motor response to painful stimuli (i.e., immobilization) that is characterized by profound inhibition of spinal motor circuits. Yet, although clearly depressed, the respiratory motor system continues to provide adequate ventilation under these same conditions. Here, we show that isoflurane causes robust activation of CO(2)/pH-sensitive, Phox2b-expressing neurons located in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) of the rodent brainstem, in vitro and in vivo. In brainstem slices from Phox2b-eGFP mice, the firing of pH-sensitive RTN neurons was strongly increased by isoflurane, independent of prevailing pH conditions. At least two ionic mechanisms contributed to anesthetic activation of RTN neurons: activation of an Na(+)-dependent cationic current and inhibition of a background K(+) current. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis of dissociated green fluorescent protein-labeled RTN neurons revealed expression of THIK-1 (TWIK-related halothane-inhibited K(+) channel, K(2P)13.1), a channel that shares key properties with the native RTN current (i.e., suppression by inhalational anesthetics, weak rectification, inhibition by extracellular Na(+), and pH-insensitivity). Isoflurane also increased firing rate of RTN chemosensitive neurons in urethane-anesthetized rats, again independent of CO(2) levels. In these animals, isoflurane transiently enhanced activity of the respiratory system, an effect that was most prominent at low levels of respiratory drive and mediated primarily by an increase in respiratory frequency. These data indicate that inhalational anesthetics cause activation of RTN neurons, which serve an important integrative role in respiratory control; the increased drive provided by enhanced RTN neuronal activity may contribute, in part, to maintaining respiratory motor activity under immobilizing anesthetic conditions. PMID:20610767

  15. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-09-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization.

  16. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization. PMID:22763746

  17. Quercetin Targets Cysteine String Protein (CSPα) and Impairs Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fenglian; Proft, Juliane; Gibbs, Sarah; Winkfein, Bob; Johnson, Jadah N.; Syed, Naweed; Braun, Janice E. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cysteine string protein (CSPα) is a synaptic vesicle protein that displays unique anti-neurodegenerative properties. CSPα is a member of the conserved J protein family, also called the Hsp40 (heat shock protein of 40 kDa) protein family, whose importance in protein folding has been recognized for many years. Deletion of the CSPα in mice results in knockout mice that are normal for the first 2–3 weeks of life followed by an unexplained presynaptic neurodegeneration and premature death. How CSPα prevents neurodegeneration is currently not known. As a neuroprotective synaptic vesicle protein, CSPα represents a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that the flavonoid quercetin promotes formation of stable CSPα-CSPα dimers and that quercetin-induced dimerization is dependent on the unique cysteine string region. Furthermore, in primary cultures of Lymnaea neurons, quercetin induction of CSPα dimers correlates with an inhibition of synapse formation and synaptic transmission suggesting that quercetin interfers with CSPα function. Quercetin's action on CSPα is concentration dependent and does not promote dimerization of other synaptic proteins or other J protein family members and reduces the assembly of CSPα:Hsc70 units (70kDa heat shock cognate protein). Conclusions/Significance Quercetin is a plant derived flavonoid and popular nutritional supplement proposed to prevent memory loss and altitude sickness among other ailments, although its precise mechanism(s) of action has been unclear. In view of the therapeutic promise of upregulation of CSPα and the undesired consequences of CSPα dysfunction, our data establish an essential proof of principle that pharmaceutical agents can selectively target the neuroprotective J protein CSPα. PMID:20548785

  18. Subcellular Imbalances in Synaptic Activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoya; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-02-16

    The dynamic interactions between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I) shape membrane potential fluctuations and determine patterns of neuronal outputs; however, the spatiotemporal organization of these interactions within a single cell is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between local synaptic excitation and global inhibition in hippocampal pyramidal neurons using functional dendrite imaging in combination with whole-cell recordings of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. We found that the sums of spine inputs over dendritic trees were counterbalanced by a proportional amount of somatic inhibitory inputs. This online E/I correlation was maintained in dendritic segments that were longer than 50 μm. However, at the single spine level, only 22% of the active spines were activated with inhibitory inputs. This inhibition-coupled activity occurred mainly in the spines with large heads. These results shed light on a microscopic E/I-balancing mechanism that operates at selected synapses and that may increase the accuracy of neural information. PMID:26854220

  19. Nitric oxide signaling modulates synaptic inhibition in the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN) via cGMP-dependent suppression of KCC2

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Lina; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Asraf, Hila; Grothe, Benedikt; Hershfinkel, Michal; Forsythe, Ian D.; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Glycinergic inhibition plays a central role in the auditory brainstem circuitries involved in sound localization and in the encoding of temporal action potential firing patterns. Modulation of this inhibition has the potential to fine-tune information processing in these networks. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the auditory brainstem (where activity-dependent generation of NO is documented) modulates the strength of inhibition by changing the chloride equilibrium potential. Recent evidence demonstrates that large inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in neurons of the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN) are enhanced by a very low intracellular chloride concentration, generated by the neuronal potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC2) expressed in the postsynaptic neurons. Our data show that modulation by NO caused a 15 mV depolarizing shift of the IPSC reversal potential, reducing the strength of inhibition in SPN neurons, without changing the threshold for action potential firing. Regulating inhibitory strength, through cGMP-dependent changes in the efficacy of KCC2 in the target neuron provides a postsynaptic mechanism for rapidly controlling the inhibitory drive, without altering the timing or pattern of the afferent spike train. Therefore, this NO-mediated suppression of KCC2 can modulate inhibition in one target nucleus (SPN), without influencing inhibitory strength of other target nuclei (MSO, LSO) even though they are each receiving collaterals from the same afferent nucleus (a projection from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, MNTB). PMID:24987336

  20. PTEN recruitment controls synaptic and cognitive function in Alzheimer's models.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Shira; Sánchez-Puelles, Cristina; Palomer, Ernest; Delgado, Igotz; Draffin, Jonathan E; Mingo, Janire; Wahle, Tina; Kaleka, Kanwardeep; Mou, Liping; Pereda-Perez, Inmaculada; Klosi, Edvin; Faber, Erik B; Chapman, Heidi M; Lozano-Montes, Laura; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco; Viña, Jose; Dotti, Carlos G; Hall, Randy A; Pulido, Rafael; Gerges, Nashaat Z; Chan, Andrew M; Spaller, Mark R; Serrano, Manuel; Venero, César; Esteban, José A

    2016-03-01

    Dyshomeostasis of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is responsible for synaptic malfunctions leading to cognitive deficits ranging from mild impairment to full-blown dementia in Alzheimer's disease. Aβ appears to skew synaptic plasticity events toward depression. We found that inhibition of PTEN, a lipid phosphatase that is essential to long-term depression, rescued normal synaptic function and cognition in cellular and animal models of Alzheimer's disease. Conversely, transgenic mice that overexpressed PTEN displayed synaptic depression that mimicked and occluded Aβ-induced depression. Mechanistically, Aβ triggers a PDZ-dependent recruitment of PTEN into the postsynaptic compartment. Using a PTEN knock-in mouse lacking the PDZ motif, and a cell-permeable interfering peptide, we found that this mechanism is crucial for Aβ-induced synaptic toxicity and cognitive dysfunction. Our results provide fundamental information on the molecular mechanisms of Aβ-induced synaptic malfunction and may offer new mechanism-based therapeutic targets to counteract downstream Aβ signaling.

  1. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Kristin L.; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M.; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A.; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca2+ levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca2+-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca2+-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca2+-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26443861

  2. Synaptic scaffolding molecule interacts with axin.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Susumu; Nishimura, Wataru; Iida, Junko; Kansaku, Ai; Kishida, Shosei; Kikuchi, Akira; Tanaka, Noriaki; Hata, Yutaka

    2004-07-01

    Synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) is a synaptic protein that consists of PDZ domains, a guanylate kinase domain, and WW domains. It interacts with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits, neuroligin, and beta-catenin. Here, we identified Axin as a novel binding partner of S-SCAM. Axin was co-immunoprecipitated with S-SCAM from rat brain, detected in the post-synaptic density fraction in rat brain subcellular fractionation, and partially co-localized with S-SCAM in neurons. The guanylate kinase domain of S-SCAM directly bound to the GSK3beta-binding region of Axin. S-SCAM formed a complex with beta-catenin and Axin, but competed with GSK3beta for Axin-binding. Thereby, S-SCAM inhibited the Axin-mediated phosphorylation of beta-catenin by GSK3beta.

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Auditory Cortex Synaptic Structures and Gap-Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle Between Early Adolescence and Young Adulthood in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Caitlin E; Erickson, Susan L; Fish, Kenneth N; Thiels, Edda; Penzes, Peter; Sweet, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Cortical excitatory and inhibitory synapses are disrupted in schizophrenia, the symptoms of which often emerge during adolescence, when cortical excitatory synapses undergo pruning. In auditory cortex, a brain region implicated in schizophrenia, little is known about the development of excitatory and inhibitory synapses between early adolescence and young adulthood, and how these changes impact auditory cortex function. We used immunohistochemistry and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to quantify dendritic spines and GAD65-expressing inhibitory boutons in auditory cortex of early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult mice. Numbers of spines decreased between early adolescence and young adulthood, during which time responses increased in an auditory cortex-dependent sensory task, silent gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (gap-PPI). Within-bouton GAD65 protein and GAD65-expressing bouton numbers decreased between late adolescence and young adulthood, a delay in onset relative to spine and gap-PPI changes. In mice lacking the spine protein kalirin, there were no significant changes in spine number, within-bouton GAD65 protein, or gap-PPI between adolescence and young adulthood. These results illustrate developmental changes in auditory cortex spines, inhibitory boutons, and auditory cortex function between adolescence and young adulthood, and provide insights into how disrupted adolescent neurodevelopment could contribute to auditory cortex synapse pathology and auditory impairments.

  4. Endogenous Rho-kinase signaling maintains synaptic strength by stabilizing the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    González-Forero, David; Montero, Fernando; García-Morales, Victoria; Domínguez, Germán; Gómez-Pérez, Laura; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Moreno-López, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) regulates neural cell migration, proliferation and survival, dendritic spine morphology, and axon guidance and regeneration. There is, however, little information about whether ROCK modulates the electrical activity and information processing of neuronal circuits. At neonatal stage, ROCKα is expressed in hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs) and in their afferent inputs, whereas ROCKβ is found in synaptic terminals on HMNs, but not in their somata. Inhibition of endogenous ROCK activity in neonatal rat brainstem slices failed to modulate intrinsic excitability of HMNs, but strongly attenuated the strength of their glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. The mechanism acts presynaptically to reduce evoked neurotransmitter release. ROCK inhibition increased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which is known to trigger actomyosin contraction, and reduced the number of synaptic vesicles docked to active zones in excitatory boutons. Functional and ultrastructural changes induced by ROCK inhibition were fully prevented/reverted by MLC kinase (MLCK) inhibition. Furthermore, ROCK inhibition drastically reduced the phosphorylated form of p21-associated kinase (PAK), which directly inhibits MLCK. We conclude that endogenous ROCK activity is necessary for the normal performance of motor output commands, because it maintains afferent synaptic strength, by stabilizing the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. The mechanism of action involves a tonic inhibition of MLCK, presumably through PAK phosphorylation. This mechanism might be present in adults since unilateral microinjection of ROCK or MLCK inhibitors into the hypoglossal nucleus reduced or increased, respectively, whole XIIth nerve activity.

  5. Translational control of synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel D

    2010-12-01

    Synapses, points of contact between axons and dendrites, are conduits for the flow of information in the circuitry of the central nervous system. The strength of synaptic transmission reflects the interconnectedness of the axons and dendrites at synapses; synaptic strength in turn is modified by the frequency with which the synapses are stimulated. This modulation of synaptic strength, or synaptic plasticity, probably forms the cellular basis for learning and memory. RNA metabolism, particularly translational control at or near the synapse, is one process that controls long-lasting synaptic plasticity and, by extension, memory formation and consolidation. In the present paper, I review some salient features of translational control of synaptic plasticity.

  6. Coordination of Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation in Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Woolfrey, Kevin M; Dell'Acqua, Mark L

    2015-11-27

    A central theme in nervous system function is equilibrium: synaptic strengths wax and wane, neuronal firing rates adjust up and down, and neural circuits balance excitation with inhibition. This push/pull regulatory theme carries through to the molecular level at excitatory synapses, where protein function is controlled through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by kinases and phosphatases. However, these opposing enzymatic activities are only part of the equation as scaffolding interactions and assembly of multi-protein complexes are further required for efficient, localized synaptic signaling. This review will focus on coordination of postsynaptic serine/threonine kinase and phosphatase signaling by scaffold proteins during synaptic plasticity.

  7. Synaptic Control of Motoneuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Rekling, Jens C.; Funk, Gregory D.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Feldman, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentials generated by motoneurons. The processes that determine the firing behavior of motoneurons are therefore important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization, and membrane properties, both passive and active. We then describe the general anatomical organization of synaptic input to motoneurons, followed by a description of the major transmitter systems that affect motoneuronal excitability, including ligands, receptor distribution, pre- and postsynaptic actions, signal transduction, and functional role. Glutamate is the main excitatory, and GABA and glycine are the main inhibitory transmitters acting through ionotropic receptors. These amino acids signal the principal motor commands from peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal structures. Amines, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, and neuropeptides, as well as the glutamate and GABA acting at metabotropic receptors, modulate motoneuronal excitability through pre- and postsynaptic actions. Acting principally via second messenger systems, their actions converge on common effectors, e.g., leak K+ current, cationic inward current, hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ca2+ channels, or presynaptic release processes. Together, these numerous inputs mediate and modify incoming motor commands, ultimately generating the coordinated firing patterns that underlie muscle contractions during motor behavior. PMID:10747207

  8. Synaptic destabilization by neuronal Nogo-A.

    PubMed

    Aloy, Elisabeth M; Weinmann, Oliver; Pot, Caroline; Kasper, Hansjörg; Dodd, Dana A; Rülicke, Thomas; Rossi, Ferdinando; Schwab, Martin E

    2006-06-01

    Formation and maintenance of a neuronal network is based on a balance between plasticity and stability of synaptic connections. Several molecules have been found to regulate the maintenance of excitatory synapses but nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in synaptic stabilization versus disassembly at inhibitory synapses. Here, we demonstrate that Nogo-A, which is well known to be present in myelin and inhibit growth in the adult CNS, is present in inhibitory presynaptic terminals in cerebellar Purkinje cells at the time of Purkinje cell-Deep Cerebellar Nuclei (DCN) inhibitory synapse formation and is then downregulated during synapse maturation. We addressed the role of neuronal Nogo-A in synapse maturation by generating several mouse lines overexpressing Nogo-A, starting at postnatal ages and throughout adult life, specifically in cerebellar Purkinje cells and their terminals. The overexpression of Nogo-A induced a progressive disassembly, retraction and loss of the inhibitory Purkinje cell terminals. This led to deficits in motor learning and coordination in the transgenic mice. Prior to synapse disassembly, the overexpression of neuronal Nogo-A led to the downregulation of the synaptic scaffold proteins spectrin, spectrin-E and beta-catenin in the postsynaptic neurons. Our data suggest that neuronal Nogo-A might play a role in the maintenance of inhibitory synapses by modulating the expression of synaptic anchoring molecules.

  9. Transient ECM protease activity promotes synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Magnowska, Marta; Gorkiewicz, Tomasz; Suska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Wlodarczyk, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent proteolysis at a synapse has been recognized as a pivotal factor in controlling dynamic changes in dendritic spine shape and function; however, excessive proteolytic activity is detrimental to the cells. The exact mechanism of control of these seemingly contradictory outcomes of protease activity remains unknown. Here, we reveal that dendritic spine maturation is strictly controlled by the proteolytic activity, and its inhibition by the endogenous inhibitor (Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 – TIMP-1). Excessive proteolytic activity impairs long-term potentiation of the synaptic efficacy (LTP), and this impairment could be rescued by inhibition of protease activity. Moreover LTP is altered persistently when the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit protease activity is abrogated, further demonstrating the role of such inhibition in the promotion of synaptic plasticity under well-defined conditions. We also show that dendritic spine maturation involves an intermediate formation of elongated spines, followed by their conversion into mushroom shape. The formation of mushroom-shaped spines is accompanied by increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio of glutamate receptors. Altogether, our results identify inhibition of protease activity as a critical regulatory mechanism for dendritic spines maturation. PMID:27282248

  10. Optical fiber synaptic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; García-Lopez, J. H.; Kazantsev, V. B.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding neuron connections is a great challenge, which is needed to solve many important problems in neurobiology and neuroengineering for recreation of brain functions and efficient biorobotics. In particular, a design of an optical synapse capable to communicate with neuron spike sequences would be crucial to improve the functionality of neuromimmetic networks. In this work we propose an optical synaptic sensor based on an erbium-doped fiber laser driven by a FitzHung-Nagumo electronic neuron, to connect with another electronic neuron. Two possible optical synaptic configurations are analyzed for optoelectronic coupling between neurons: laser cavity loss modulation and pump laser modulation. The control parameters of the proposed optical synapse provide additional degrees of flexibility to the neuron connection traditionally controlled only by coupling strengths in artificial networks.

  11. Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; Macdonald, John F

    2013-11-01

    The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity.

  12. Synaptic unreliability facilitates information transmission in balanced cortical populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatys, Leon A.; Ecker, Alexander S.; Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Synaptic unreliability is one of the major sources of biophysical noise in the brain. In the context of neural information processing, it is a central question how neural systems can afford this unreliability. Here we examine how synaptic noise affects signal transmission in cortical circuits, where excitation and inhibition are thought to be tightly balanced. Surprisingly, we find that in this balanced state synaptic response variability actually facilitates information transmission, rather than impairing it. In particular, the transmission of fast-varying signals benefits from synaptic noise, as it instantaneously increases the amount of information shared between presynaptic signal and postsynaptic current. Furthermore we show that the beneficial effect of noise is based on a very general mechanism which contrary to stochastic resonance does not reach an optimum at a finite noise level.

  13. Endocytosis of VAMP is facilitated by a synaptic vesicle targeting signal

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    After synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents, vesicle membrane proteins recycle by endocytosis and are targeted to newly formed synaptic vesicles. The membrane traffic of an epitope-tagged form of VAMP-2 (VAMP-TAg) was observed in transfected cells to identify sequence requirements for recycling of a synaptic vesicle membrane protein. In the neuroendocrine PC12 cell line VAMP-TAg is found not only in synaptic vesicles, but also in endosomes and on the plasma membrane. Endocytosis of VAMP-TAg is a rapid and saturable process. At high expression levels VAMP-TAg accumulates at the cell surface. Rapid endocytosis of VAMP-TAg also occurs in transfected CHO cells and is therefore independent of other synaptic proteins. The majority of the measured endocytosis is not directly into synaptic vesicles since mutations in VAMP-TAg that enhance synaptic vesicle targeting did not affect endocytosis. Nonetheless, mutations that inhibited synaptic vesicle targeting, in particular replacement of methionine-46 by alanine, inhibited endocytosis by 85% in PC12 cells and by 35% in CHO cells. These results demonstrate that the synaptic vesicle targeting signal is also used for endocytosis and can be recognized in cells lacking synaptic vesicles. PMID:8647886

  14. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  15. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  16. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Fusi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity). Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain. PMID:23641210

  17. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  18. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    PubMed

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  19. PTEN recruitment controls synaptic and cognitive function in Alzheimer's models.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Shira; Sánchez-Puelles, Cristina; Palomer, Ernest; Delgado, Igotz; Draffin, Jonathan E; Mingo, Janire; Wahle, Tina; Kaleka, Kanwardeep; Mou, Liping; Pereda-Perez, Inmaculada; Klosi, Edvin; Faber, Erik B; Chapman, Heidi M; Lozano-Montes, Laura; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco; Viña, Jose; Dotti, Carlos G; Hall, Randy A; Pulido, Rafael; Gerges, Nashaat Z; Chan, Andrew M; Spaller, Mark R; Serrano, Manuel; Venero, César; Esteban, José A

    2016-03-01

    Dyshomeostasis of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is responsible for synaptic malfunctions leading to cognitive deficits ranging from mild impairment to full-blown dementia in Alzheimer's disease. Aβ appears to skew synaptic plasticity events toward depression. We found that inhibition of PTEN, a lipid phosphatase that is essential to long-term depression, rescued normal synaptic function and cognition in cellular and animal models of Alzheimer's disease. Conversely, transgenic mice that overexpressed PTEN displayed synaptic depression that mimicked and occluded Aβ-induced depression. Mechanistically, Aβ triggers a PDZ-dependent recruitment of PTEN into the postsynaptic compartment. Using a PTEN knock-in mouse lacking the PDZ motif, and a cell-permeable interfering peptide, we found that this mechanism is crucial for Aβ-induced synaptic toxicity and cognitive dysfunction. Our results provide fundamental information on the molecular mechanisms of Aβ-induced synaptic malfunction and may offer new mechanism-based therapeutic targets to counteract downstream Aβ signaling. PMID:26780512

  20. The role of mitochondrially derived ATP in synaptic vesicle recycling.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Divya; Shields, Lauren Y; Mendelsohn, Bryce A; Haddad, Dominik; Lin, Wei; Gerencser, Akos A; Kim, Hwajin; Brand, Martin D; Edwards, Robert H; Nakamura, Ken

    2015-09-11

    Synaptic mitochondria are thought to be critical in supporting neuronal energy requirements at the synapse, and bioenergetic failure at the synapse may impair neural transmission and contribute to neurodegeneration. However, little is known about the energy requirements of synaptic vesicle release or whether these energy requirements go unmet in disease, primarily due to a lack of appropriate tools and sensitive assays. To determine the dependence of synaptic vesicle cycling on mitochondrially derived ATP levels, we developed two complementary assays sensitive to mitochondrially derived ATP in individual, living hippocampal boutons. The first is a functional assay for mitochondrially derived ATP that uses the extent of synaptic vesicle cycling as a surrogate for ATP level. The second uses ATP FRET sensors to directly measure ATP at the synapse. Using these assays, we show that endocytosis has high ATP requirements and that vesicle reacidification and exocytosis require comparatively little energy. We then show that to meet these energy needs, mitochondrially derived ATP is rapidly dispersed in axons, thereby maintaining near normal levels of ATP even in boutons lacking mitochondria. As a result, the capacity for synaptic vesicle cycling is similar in boutons without mitochondria as in those with mitochondria. Finally, we show that loss of a key respiratory subunit implicated in Leigh disease markedly decreases mitochondrially derived ATP levels in axons, thus inhibiting synaptic vesicle cycling. This proves that mitochondria-based energy failure can occur and be detected in individual neurons that have a genetic mitochondrial defect.

  1. On how correlations between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs maximize the information rate of neuronal firing

    PubMed Central

    Puzerey, Pavel A.; Galán, Roberto F.

    2014-01-01

    Cortical neurons receive barrages of excitatory and inhibitory inputs which are not independent, as network structure and synaptic kinetics impose statistical correlations. Experiments in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated correlations between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs in which inhibition lags behind excitation in cortical neurons. This delay arises in feed-forward inhibition (FFI) circuits and ensures that coincident excitation and inhibition do not preclude neuronal firing. Conversely, inhibition that is too delayed broadens neuronal integration times, thereby diminishing spike-time precision and increasing the firing frequency. This led us to hypothesize that the correlation between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs modulates the encoding of information of neural spike trains. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effect of such correlations on the information rate (IR) of spike trains using the Hodgkin-Huxley model in which both synaptic and membrane conductances are stochastic. We investigated two different synaptic input regimes: balanced synaptic conductances and balanced currents. Our results show that correlations arising from the synaptic kinetics, τ, and millisecond lags, δ, of inhibition relative to excitation strongly affect the IR of spike trains. In the regime of balanced synaptic currents, for short time lags (δ ~ 1 ms) there is an optimal τ that maximizes the IR of the postsynaptic spike train. Given the short time scales for monosynaptic inhibitory lags and synaptic decay kinetics reported in cortical neurons under physiological contexts, we propose that FFI in cortical circuits is poised to maximize the rate of information transfer between cortical neurons. Our results also provide a possible explanation for how certain drugs and genetic mutations affecting the synaptic kinetics can deteriorate information processing in the brain. PMID:24936182

  2. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis in hippocampal synaptosomes correlates directly with total mitochondrial volume

    PubMed Central

    Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in many regions of the central nervous system leads to the continuous adjustment of synaptic strength, which is essential for learning and memory. In this study, we show by visualizing synaptic vesicle release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes that presynaptic mitochondria and specifically, their capacities for ATP production are essential determinants of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and its magnitude. Total internal reflection microscopy of FM1-43 loaded hippocampal synaptosomes showed that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces evoked synaptic release. This reduction was accompanied by a substantial drop in synaptosomal ATP levels. However, cytosolic calcium influx was not affected. Structural characterization of stimulated hippocampal synaptosomes revealed that higher total presynaptic mitochondrial volumes were consistently associated with higher levels of exocytosis. Thus, synaptic vesicle release is linked to the presynaptic ability to regenerate ATP, which itself is a utility of mitochondrial density and activity. PMID:22772899

  3. Inhibitory Control of Synaptic and Behavioral Plasticity by Octopaminergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Koon, Alex C.; Budnik, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors and their ligands are important regulators of synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity, but the exact mechanisms underlying their action are still poorly understood. Octopamine, the invertebrate homolog of mammalian adrenaline or noradrenaline, plays important roles in modulating behavior and synaptic functions. We previously uncovered an octopaminergic positive feedback mechanism to regulate structural synaptic plasticity during development and in response to starvation. Under this mechanism, activation of Octß2R autoreceptors by octopamine at octopaminergic neurons initiated a cAMP-dependent cascade that stimulated the development of new synaptic boutons at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, the regulatory mechanisms that served to brake such positive feedback were not known. Here, we report the presence of an alternative octopamine autoreceptor, Octß1R, with antagonistic functions on synaptic growth. Mutations in octß1r result in the overgrowth of both glutamatergic and octopaminergic NMJs suggesting that Octß1R is a negative regulator of synaptic expansion. As Octß2R, Octß1R functioned in a cell autonomous manner at presynaptic motorneurons. However, unlike Octß2R, which activated a cAMP pathway, Octß1R likely inhibited cAMP production through inhibitory Goα. Despite its inhibitory role, Octß1R was required for acute changes in synaptic structure in response to octopamine and for starvation-induced increase in locomotor speed. These results demonstrate the dual action of octopamine on synaptic growth and behavioral plasticity, and highlight the important role of inhibitory influences for normal responses to physiological stimuli. PMID:22553037

  4. Classification: Molecular & Synaptic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Marc P.; Gu, Xinglong; Lu, Wei; Roche, Katherine W.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the density of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) at synapses is essential for regulating the strength of excitatory neurotransmission. In particular, the phosphorylation of AMPARs is important for defining both synaptic expression and intracellular routing of receptors. Phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification known to regulate many cellular events and the C-termini of glutamate receptors are important targets. Recently, the first intracellular loop1 region of the GluA1 subunit of AMPARs was reported to regulate synaptic targeting through phosphorylation of S567 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Intriguingly, the loop1 region of all four AMPAR subunits contains many putative phosphorylation sites (S/T/Y), leaving the possibility that other kinases may regulate AMPAR surface expression via phosphorylation of the loop regions. To explore this hypothesis, we used in vitro phosphorylation assays with a small panel of purified kinases and found that casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates the GluA1 and GluA2 loop1 regions, but not GluA3 or GluA4. Interestingly, when we reduced the endogenous expression of CK2 using a specific shRNA against the regulatory subunit CK2β, we detected a reduction of GluA1 surface expression, whereas GluA2 was unchanged. Furthermore, we identified S579 of GluA1 as a substrate of CK2, and the expression of GluA1 phospho-deficient mutants in hippocampal neurons displayed reduced surface expression. Therefore, our study identifies CK2 as a regulator of GluA1 surface expression by phosphorylating the intracellular loop1 region. PMID:24712994

  5. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity. PMID:27420105

  6. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity. PMID:27420105

  7. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  8. The interplay between neuronal activity and actin dynamics mimic the setting of an LTD synaptic tag.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Eszter C; Manguinhas, Rita; Fonseca, Rosalina

    2016-01-01

    Persistent forms of plasticity, such as long-term depression (LTD), are dependent on the interplay between activity-dependent synaptic tags and the capture of plasticity-related proteins. We propose that the synaptic tag represents a structural alteration that turns synapses permissive to change. We found that modulation of actin dynamics has different roles in the induction and maintenance of LTD. Inhibition of either actin depolymerisation or polymerization blocks LTD induction whereas only the inhibition of actin depolymerisation blocks LTD maintenance. Interestingly, we found that actin depolymerisation and CaMKII activation are involved in LTD synaptic-tagging and capture. Moreover, inhibition of actin polymerisation mimics the setting of a synaptic tag, in an activity-dependent manner, allowing the expression of LTD in non-stimulated synapses. Suspending synaptic activation also restricts the time window of synaptic capture, which can be restored by inhibiting actin polymerization. Our results support our hypothesis that modulation of the actin cytoskeleton provides an input-specific signal for synaptic protein capture. PMID:27650071

  9. The interplay between neuronal activity and actin dynamics mimic the setting of an LTD synaptic tag.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Eszter C; Manguinhas, Rita; Fonseca, Rosalina

    2016-09-21

    Persistent forms of plasticity, such as long-term depression (LTD), are dependent on the interplay between activity-dependent synaptic tags and the capture of plasticity-related proteins. We propose that the synaptic tag represents a structural alteration that turns synapses permissive to change. We found that modulation of actin dynamics has different roles in the induction and maintenance of LTD. Inhibition of either actin depolymerisation or polymerization blocks LTD induction whereas only the inhibition of actin depolymerisation blocks LTD maintenance. Interestingly, we found that actin depolymerisation and CaMKII activation are involved in LTD synaptic-tagging and capture. Moreover, inhibition of actin polymerisation mimics the setting of a synaptic tag, in an activity-dependent manner, allowing the expression of LTD in non-stimulated synapses. Suspending synaptic activation also restricts the time window of synaptic capture, which can be restored by inhibiting actin polymerization. Our results support our hypothesis that modulation of the actin cytoskeleton provides an input-specific signal for synaptic protein capture.

  10. The interplay between neuronal activity and actin dynamics mimic the setting of an LTD synaptic tag

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Eszter C.; Manguinhas, Rita; Fonseca, Rosalina

    2016-01-01

    Persistent forms of plasticity, such as long-term depression (LTD), are dependent on the interplay between activity-dependent synaptic tags and the capture of plasticity-related proteins. We propose that the synaptic tag represents a structural alteration that turns synapses permissive to change. We found that modulation of actin dynamics has different roles in the induction and maintenance of LTD. Inhibition of either actin depolymerisation or polymerization blocks LTD induction whereas only the inhibition of actin depolymerisation blocks LTD maintenance. Interestingly, we found that actin depolymerisation and CaMKII activation are involved in LTD synaptic-tagging and capture. Moreover, inhibition of actin polymerisation mimics the setting of a synaptic tag, in an activity-dependent manner, allowing the expression of LTD in non-stimulated synapses. Suspending synaptic activation also restricts the time window of synaptic capture, which can be restored by inhibiting actin polymerization. Our results support our hypothesis that modulation of the actin cytoskeleton provides an input-specific signal for synaptic protein capture. PMID:27650071

  11. Interplay of Intrinsic and Synaptic Conductances in the Generation of High-Frequency Oscillations in Interneuronal Networks with Irregular Spiking

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Fabiano; Burkitt, Anthony N.; Grayden, David B.

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency oscillations (above 30 Hz) have been observed in sensory and higher-order brain areas, and are believed to constitute a general hallmark of functional neuronal activation. Fast inhibition in interneuronal networks has been suggested as a general mechanism for the generation of high-frequency oscillations. Certain classes of interneurons exhibit subthreshold oscillations, but the effect of this intrinsic neuronal property on the population rhythm is not completely understood. We study the influence of intrinsic damped subthreshold oscillations in the emergence of collective high-frequency oscillations, and elucidate the dynamical mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon. We simulate neuronal networks composed of either Integrate-and-Fire (IF) or Generalized Integrate-and-Fire (GIF) neurons. The IF model displays purely passive subthreshold dynamics, while the GIF model exhibits subthreshold damped oscillations. Individual neurons receive inhibitory synaptic currents mediated by spiking activity in their neighbors as well as noisy synaptic bombardment, and fire irregularly at a lower rate than population frequency. We identify three factors that affect the influence of single-neuron properties on synchronization mediated by inhibition: i) the firing rate response to the noisy background input, ii) the membrane potential distribution, and iii) the shape of Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potentials (IPSPs). For hyperpolarizing inhibition, the GIF IPSP profile (factor iii)) exhibits post-inhibitory rebound, which induces a coherent spike-mediated depolarization across cells that greatly facilitates synchronous oscillations. This effect dominates the network dynamics, hence GIF networks display stronger oscillations than IF networks. However, the restorative current in the GIF neuron lowers firing rates and narrows the membrane potential distribution (factors i) and ii), respectively), which tend to decrease synchrony. If inhibition is shunting instead of

  12. Endocannabinoid signaling and synaptic function

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Pablo E.; Younts, Thomas J.; Chávez, Andrés E.; Hashimotodani, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are key modulators of synaptic function. By activating cannabinoid receptors expressed in the central nervous system, these lipid messengers can regulate several neural functions and behaviors. As experimental tools advance, the repertoire of known endocannabinoid-mediated effects at the synapse, and their underlying mechanism, continues to expand. Retrograde signaling is the principal mode by which endocannabinoids mediate short- and long-term forms of plasticity at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. However, growing evidence suggests that endocannabinoids can also signal in a non-retrograde manner. In addition to mediating synaptic plasticity, the endocannabinoid system is itself subject to plastic changes. Multiple points of interaction with other neuromodulatory and signaling systems have now been identified. Synaptic endocannabinoid signaling is thus mechanistically more complex and diverse than originally thought. In this review, we focus on new advances in endocannabinoid signaling and highlight their role as potent regulators of synaptic function in the mammalian brain. PMID:23040807

  13. Genetics and Cell Biology of Building Specific Synaptic Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kang; Scheiffele, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of specific synaptic connections during development of the nervous system represents a remarkable example of cellular recognition and differentiation. Neurons employ several different cellular signaling strategies to solve this puzzle, which successively limit unwanted interactions and reduce the number of direct recognition events that are required to result in a specific connectivity pattern. Specificity mechanisms include the action of contact-mediated and long-range signals that support or inhibit synapse formation, which can take place directly between synaptic partners or with transient partners and transient cell populations. The molecular signals that drive the synaptic differentiation process at individual synapses in the central nervous system are similarly diverse and act through multiple, parallel differentiation pathways. This molecular complexity balances the need for central circuits to be assembled with high accuracy during development while retaining plasticity for local and dynamic regulation. PMID:20367446

  14. Dephosphorylated synapsin I anchors synaptic vesicles to actin cytoskeleton: an analysis by videomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceccaldi, P E; Grohovaz, F; Benfenati, F; Chieregatti, E; Greengard, P; Valtorta, F

    1995-03-01

    Synapsin I is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein which inhibits neurotransmitter release, an effect which is abolished upon its phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). Based on indirect evidence, it was suggested that this effect on neurotransmitter release may be achieved by the reversible anchoring of synaptic vesicles to the actin cytoskeleton of the nerve terminal. Using video-enhanced microscopy, we have now obtained experimental evidence in support of this model: the presence of dephosphorylated synapsin I is necessary for synaptic vesicles to bind actin; synapsin I is able to promote actin polymerization and bundling of actin filaments in the presence of synaptic vesicles; the ability to cross-link synaptic vesicles and actin is specific for synapsin I and is not shared by other basic proteins; the cross-linking between synaptic vesicles and actin is specific for the membrane of synaptic vesicles and does not reflect either a non-specific binding of membranes to the highly surface active synapsin I molecule or trapping of vesicles within the thick bundles of actin filaments; the formation of the ternary complex is virtually abolished when synapsin I is phosphorylated by CaM kinase II. The data indicate that synapsin I markedly affects synaptic vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton assembly in the nerve terminal and provide a molecular basis for the ability of synapsin I to regulate the availability of synaptic vesicles for exocytosis and thereby the efficiency of neurotransmitter release. PMID:7876313

  15. Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on Vm-Fluctuations during Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kolind, Jens; Hounsgaard, Jørn; Berg, Rune W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurons often receive massive concurrent bombardment of synaptic inhibition and excitation during functional network activity. This increases membrane conductance and causes fluctuations in membrane potential (Vm) and spike timing. The conductance increase is commonly attributed to synaptic conductance, but also includes the intrinsic conductances recruited during network activity. These two sources of conductance have contrasting dynamic properties at sub-threshold membrane potentials. Synaptic transmitter gated conductance changes abruptly and briefly with each presynaptic action potential. If the spikes arrive at random times the changes in synaptic conductance are therefore stochastic and rapid during intense network activity. In comparison, sub-threshold intrinsic conductances vary smoothly in time. In the present study this discrepancy is investigated using two conductance-based models: a (1) compartment model and a (2) compartment with realistic slow intrinsic conductances. We examine the effects of varying the relative contributions of non-fluctuating intrinsic conductance with fluctuating concurrent inhibitory and excitatory synaptic conductance. For given levels of correlation in the synaptic input we find that the magnitude of the membrane fluctuations uniquely determines the relative contribution of synaptic and intrinsic conductance. We also quantify how Vm-fluctuations vary with synaptic correlations for fixed ratios of synaptic and intrinsic conductance. Interestingly, the levels of Vm -fluctuations and conductance observed experimentally during functional network activity leave little room for intrinsic conductance to contribute. Even without intrinsic conductances the variance in Vm -fluctuations can only be explained by a high degree of correlated firing among presynaptic neurons. PMID:22783184

  16. Prolonged adenosine A1 receptor activation in hypoxia and pial vessel disruption focal cortical ischemia facilitates clathrin-mediated AMPA receptor endocytosis and long-lasting synaptic inhibition in rat hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses: differential regulation of GluA2 and GluA1 subunits by p38 MAPK and JNK.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhicheng; Xiong, Cherry; Pancyr, Cassandra; Stockwell, Jocelyn; Walz, Wolfgang; Cayabyab, Francisco S

    2014-07-16

    Activation of presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) causes substantial synaptic depression during hypoxia/cerebral ischemia, but postsynaptic actions of A1Rs are less clear. We found that A1Rs and GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs) form stable protein complexes from hippocampal brain homogenates and cultured hippocampal neurons from Sprague Dawley rats. In contrast, adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) did not coprecipitate or colocalize with GluA2-containing AMPARs. Prolonged stimulation of A1Rs with the agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) caused adenosine-induced persistent synaptic depression (APSD) in hippocampal brain slices, and APSD levels were blunted by inhibiting clathrin-mediated endocytosis of GluA2 subunits with the Tat-GluA2-3Y peptide. Using biotinylation and membrane fractionation assays, prolonged CPA incubation showed significant depletion of GluA2/GluA1 surface expression from hippocampal brain slices and cultured neurons. Tat-GluA2-3Y peptide or dynamin inhibitor Dynasore prevented CPA-induced GluA2/GluA1 internalization. Confocal imaging analysis confirmed that functional A1Rs, but not A2ARs, are required for clathrin-mediated AMPAR endocytosis in hippocampal neurons. Pharmacological inhibitors or shRNA knockdown of p38 MAPK and JNK prevented A1R-mediated internalization of GluA2 but not GluA1 subunits. Tat-GluA2-3Y peptide or A1R antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine also prevented hypoxia-mediated GluA2/GluA1 internalization. Finally, in a pial vessel disruption cortical stroke model, a unilateral cortical lesion compared with sham surgery reduced hippocampal GluA2, GluA1, and A1R surface expression and also caused synaptic depression in hippocampal slices that was consistent with AMPAR downregulation and decreased probability of transmitter release. Together, these results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for A1R-induced persistent synaptic depression involving clathrin-mediated GluA2 and GluA1 internalization that

  17. Millisecond Coupling of Local Field Potentials to Synaptic Currents in the Awake Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Haider, Bilal; Schulz, David P A; Häusser, Michael; Carandini, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    The cortical local field potential (LFP) is a common measure of population activity, but its relationship to synaptic activity in individual neurons is not fully established. This relationship has been typically studied during anesthesia and is obscured by shared slow fluctuations. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings in visual cortex of anesthetized and awake mice to measure intracellular activity; we then applied a simple method to reveal its coupling to the simultaneously recorded LFP. LFP predicted membrane potential as accurately as synaptic currents, indicating a major role for synaptic currents in the relationship between cortical LFP and intracellular activity. During anesthesia, cortical LFP predicted excitation far better than inhibition; during wakefulness, it predicted them equally well, and visual stimulation further enhanced predictions of inhibition. These findings reveal a central role for synaptic currents, and especially inhibition, in the relationship between the subthreshold activity of individual neurons and the cortical LFP during wakefulness. PMID:27021173

  18. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  19. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Akio; Yan, Dan; Tomita, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and PSD-95-like MAGUKs. Among the three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA-, NMDA, kainate-type), AMPA receptor activity is most regulatable by neuronal activity to adjust synaptic strength. Here, we mutated the prototypical TARP, stargazin, and found that TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptor activity in vivo. We also found that stargazin interacts with negatively-charged lipid bilayers in its phosphorylation dependent manner, and that the lipid interaction inhibited stargazin binding to PSD-95. Cationic lipids dissociated stargazin from lipid bilayers and enhanced synaptic AMPA receptor activity in a stargazin phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, TARP phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via a lipid bilayer interaction. PMID:20547132

  20. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  1. Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder associated with the loss of synapses between neurons in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins which are expressed at the synaptic plasma membranes of neurons. These proteins play key roles in formation and maintenance of synapses and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Genetic studies and biochemical analysis of the human brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and sera from AD patients indicate that levels and function of synaptic cell adhesion molecules are affected in AD. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules interact with Aβ, a peptide accumulating in AD brains, which affects their expression and synaptic localization. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules also regulate the production of Aβ via interaction with the key enzymes involved in Aβ formation. Aβ-dependent changes in synaptic adhesion affect the function and integrity of synapses suggesting that alterations in synaptic adhesion play key roles in the disruption of neuronal networks in AD. PMID:27242933

  2. Balance and stability of synaptic structures during synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Scheuss, Volker

    2014-04-16

    Subsynaptic structures such as bouton, active zone, postsynaptic density (PSD) and dendritic spine, are highly correlated in their dimensions and also correlate with synapse strength. Why this is so and how such correlations are maintained during synaptic plasticity remains poorly understood. We induced spine enlargement by two-photon glutamate uncaging and examined the relationship between spine, PSD, and bouton size by two-photon time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy. In enlarged spines the PSD-associated protein Homer1c increased rapidly, whereas the PSD protein PSD-95 increased with a delay and only in cases of persistent spine enlargement. In the case of nonpersistent spine enlargement, the PSD proteins remained unchanged or returned to their original level. The ultrastructure at persistently enlarged spines displayed matching dimensions of spine, PSD, and bouton, indicating their correlated enlargement. This supports a model in which balancing of synaptic structures is a hallmark for the stabilization of structural modifications during synaptic plasticity. PMID:24742464

  3. Synaptic Morphology and the Influence of Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Jahn N.; Connelly, Catherine J.; Limb, Charles J.; Ryugo, David K.

    2011-01-01

    The auditory experience is crucial for the normal development and maturation of brain structure and the maintenance of the auditory pathways. The specific aims of this review are (i) to provide a brief background of the synaptic morphology of the endbulb of Held in hearing and deaf animals; (ii) to argue the importance of this large synaptic ending in linking neural activity along ascending pathways to environmental acoustic events; (iii) to describe how the re-introduction of electrical activity changes this synapse; and (iv) to examine how changes at the endbulb synapse initiate trans-synaptic changes in ascending auditory projections to the superior olivary complex, the inferior complex, and the auditory cortex. PMID:21310226

  4. Pre-synaptic and post-synaptic effects of xylazine and naphazoline on the bisected rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Moore, P K; Griffiths, R J

    1982-11-01

    The effect of the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, naphazoline and xylazine, was studied on the field stimulated bisected rat vas deferens. Xylazine inhibited the twitch response to field stimulation in both the prostatic (ID50 = 0.10 microM) and epididymal (ID50 = 0.08 microM) halves of the rat vas deferens. This effect was antagonized by yohimbine (0.01-0.10 microM). Naphazoline also inhibited the response to field stimulation in the prostatic (ID50 = 0.12 microM) but had no such action on the epididymal half of the rat vas deferens. Indeed, low concentrations of naphazoline (threshold, 0.05 microM) contracted the epididymal vas deferens preparation. These contractions were competitively antagonized by prazosin suggesting an action on post-synaptic alpha 1-adrenoceptors. Neither pre-synaptic nor post-synaptic actions of either drug were affected by cocaine (10 microM) or beta-oestradiol (10 microM) added to the Krebs' solution. The results provide further evidence for the existence of two types of post-synaptic alpha 1-adrenoceptors and suggest a different anatomical localization of these receptors between the two ends of the rat vas deferens.

  5. 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein Reduction Ameliorates Cognitive Deficit, Synaptic Dysfunction, and Neuropathology in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulos, Phillip F.; Chu, Jin; Joshi, Yash B.; Sperow, Margaret; Li, Jin-Guo; Kirby, Lynn G.; Praticò, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Background 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) is abundantly present in the central nervous system. Although its function has been extensively interrogated in the context of peripheral inflammation, novel roles for this protein are emerging in the central nervous system. The objective of our study was to investigate the functional role that FLAP plays in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with plaques and tangles (i.e., 3×Tg mice). Methods By implementing a genetic knockout of FLAP and pharmacologic inhibition with a FLAP inhibitor (MK-591), we evaluated the effect on the AD-like neuropathology, cognition, and synaptic plasticity in the 3×Tg mice. Results We show that reduction of FLAP leads to amelioration of cognition and memory along with the rescuing of synaptic dysfunction at an early age before the development of overt neuropathology. Genetic knockout and pharmacologic inhibition of FLAP also yielded an improvement in AD pathology through a reduction in Aβ via the γ-secretase pathway and a decrease in tau phosphorylation through the cdk5 pathway. Conclusions Our studies identify a novel functional role for FLAP in regulating memory and synaptic plasticity. They establish this protein at the crossroad of multiple pathways that ultimately contribute to the development of the entire AD-like phenotype, making it a viable therapeutic target with disease-modifying capacity for the treatment of this disease. PMID:23683389

  6. Synapse number and synaptic efficacy are regulated by presynaptic cAMP and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Munno, David W; Prince, David J; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-05-15

    The mechanisms by which neurons regulate the number and strength of synapses during development and synaptic plasticity have not yet been defined fully. This lack of fundamental knowledge in the fields of neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity can be attributed, in part, to compensatory mechanisms by which neurons accommodate for the loss of function in their synaptic partners. This is generally achieved either by scaling up neuronal transmitter release capabilities or by enhancing the postsynaptic responsiveness. Here, we demonstrate that regulation of synaptic strength and number between identified Lymnaea neurons visceral dorsal 4 (VD4, the presynaptic cell) and left pedal dorsal 1 (LPeD1, the postsynaptic cell) requires presynaptic activation of a cAMP-PKA-dependent signal. Experimental activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway resulted in reduced synaptic efficacy, whereas inhibition of the cAMP-PKA cascade permitted hyperinnervation and an overall enhancement of synaptic strength. Because synaptic transmission between VD4 and LPeD1 does not require a cAMP-PKA pathway, our data show that these messengers may play a novel role in regulating the synaptic efficacy during early synaptogenesis and plasticity.

  7. Vorinostat positively regulates synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in HIV infected neurons: role of nicotine in progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occurs in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. In the United States, the prevalence of cigarette smoking ranges from 35-70% in HIV-infected individuals compared to 20% in general population. Cognitive impairment in heavy cigarette smokers has been well reported. However, the synergistic effects of nicotine and HIV infection and the underlying mechanisms in the development of HAND are unknown. Results In this study, we explored the role of nicotine in the progression of HAND using SK-N-MC, a neuronal cell line. SK-N-MC cells were infected with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of nicotine for 7 days. We observed significant increase in HIV infectivity in SK-N-MC treated with nicotine compared to untreated HIV-infected neuronal cells. HIV and nicotine synergize to significantly dysregulate the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and spine density; with a concomitant increase of HDAC2 levels in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, inhibition of HDAC2 up-regulation with the use of vorinostat resulted in HIV latency breakdown and recovery of synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in nicotine/HIV alone and in co-treated SK-N-MC cells. Furthermore, increased eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, which negatively regulates eukaryotic translational process, was observed in HIV alone and in co-treatment with nicotine compared to untreated control and nicotine alone treated SK-N-MC cells. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine and HIV synergize to negatively regulate the synaptic plasticity gene expression and spine density and this may contribute to the increased risk of HAND in HIV infected smokers. Apart from disrupting latency, vorinostat may be a useful therapeutic to inhibit the negative regulatory effects on synaptic plasticity in HIV infected nicotine abusers. PMID:24886748

  8. Functional Roles for Synaptic-Depression within a Model of the Fly Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Aaditya V.

    2012-01-01

    Several experiments indicate that there exists substantial synaptic-depression at the synapses between olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and neurons within the drosophila antenna lobe (AL). This synaptic-depression may be partly caused by vesicle-depletion, and partly caused by presynaptic-inhibition due to the activity of inhibitory local neurons within the AL. While it has been proposed that this synaptic-depression contributes to the nonlinear relationship between ORN and projection neuron (PN) firing-rates, the precise functional role of synaptic-depression at the ORN synapses is not yet fully understood. In this paper we propose two hypotheses linking the information-coding properties of the fly AL with the network mechanisms responsible for ORNAL synaptic-depression. Our first hypothesis is related to variance coding of ORN firing-rate information — once stimulation to the ORNs is sufficiently high to saturate glomerular responses, further stimulation of the ORNs increases the regularity of PN spiking activity while maintaining PN firing-rates. The second hypothesis proposes a tradeoff between spike-time reliability and coding-capacity governed by the relative contribution of vesicle-depletion and presynaptic-inhibition to ORNAL synaptic-depression. Synaptic-depression caused primarily by vesicle-depletion will give rise to a very reliable system, whereas an equivalent amount of synaptic-depression caused primarily by presynaptic-inhibition will give rise to a less reliable system that is more sensitive to small shifts in odor stimulation. These two hypotheses are substantiated by several small analyzable toy models of the fly AL, as well as a more physiologically realistic large-scale computational model of the fly AL involving glomerular channels. PMID:22927802

  9. A synaptic mechanism for retinal adaptation to luminance and contrast.

    PubMed

    Jarsky, Tim; Cembrowski, Mark; Logan, Stephen M; Kath, William L; Riecke, Hermann; Demb, Jonathan B; Singer, Joshua H

    2011-07-27

    The gain of signaling in primary sensory circuits is matched to the stimulus intensity by the process of adaptation. Retinal neural circuits adapt to visual scene statistics, including the mean (background adaptation) and the temporal variance (contrast adaptation) of the light stimulus. The intrinsic properties of retinal bipolar cells and synapses contribute to background and contrast adaptation, but it is unclear whether both forms of adaptation depend on the same cellular mechanisms. Studies of bipolar cell synapses identified synaptic mechanisms of gain control, but the relevance of these mechanisms to visual processing is uncertain because of the historical focus on fast, phasic transmission rather than the tonic transmission evoked by ambient light. Here, we studied use-dependent regulation of bipolar cell synaptic transmission evoked by small, ongoing modulations of membrane potential (V(M)) in the physiological range. We made paired whole-cell recordings from rod bipolar (RB) and AII amacrine cells in a mouse retinal slice preparation. Quasi-white noise voltage commands modulated RB V(M) and evoked EPSCs in the AII. We mimicked changes in background luminance or contrast, respectively, by depolarizing the V(M) or increasing its variance. A linear systems analysis of synaptic transmission showed that increasing either the mean or the variance of the presynaptic V(M) reduced gain. Further electrophysiological and computational analyses demonstrated that adaptation to mean potential resulted from both Ca channel inactivation and vesicle depletion, whereas adaptation to variance resulted from vesicle depletion alone. Thus, background and contrast adaptation apparently depend in part on a common synaptic mechanism.

  10. Systematic Discovery of Rab GTPases with Synaptic Functions in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chih-Chiang; Scoggin, Shane; Wang, Dong; Cherry, Smita; Dembo, Todd; Greenberg, Ben; Jin, Eugene Jennifer; Kuey, Cansu; Lopez, Antonio; Mehta, Sunil Q.; Perkins, Theodore J.; Brankatschk, Marko; Rothenfluh, Adrian; Buszczak, Michael; Hiesinger, P. Robin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Neurons require highly specialized intracellular membrane trafficking, especially at synapses. Rab GTPases are considered master regulators of membrane trafficking in all cells and only very few Rabs have known neuron-specific functions. Here, we present the first systematic characterization of neuronal expression, subcellular localization and function of Rab GTPases in an organism with a brain. Results We report the surprising discovery that half of all Drosophila Rabs function specifically or predominantly in distinct subsets of neurons in the brain. Furthermore, functional profiling of the GTP/GDP-bound states reveals that these neuronal Rabs are almost exclusively active at synapses and the majority of these synaptic Rabs specifically mark synaptic recycling endosomal compartments. Our profiling strategy is based on Gal4 knock-ins in large genomic fragments that are additionally designed to generated mutants by ends-out homologous recombination. We generated 36 large genomic targeting vectors and transgenic rab-Gal4 fly strains for 25 rab genes. Proof-of-principle knock-out of the synaptic rab27 reveals a sleep phenotype that matches its cell-specific expression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that up to half of all Drosophila Rabs exert specialized synaptic functions. The tools presented here allow systematic functional studies of these Rabs and provide a method that is applicable to any large gene family in Drosophila. PMID:22000105

  11. Reverse optical trawling for synaptic connections in situ.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takuya; Minamisawa, Genki; Takahashi, Naoya; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2009-07-01

    We introduce a new method to unveil the network connectivity among dozens of neurons in brain slice preparations. While synaptic inputs were whole cell recorded from given postsynaptic neurons, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of presynaptic neuron candidates were monitored en masse with functional multineuron calcium imaging, an optical technique that records action potential-evoked somatic calcium transients with single-cell resolution. By statistically screening the neurons that exhibited calcium transients immediately before the postsynaptic inputs, we identified the presynaptic cells that made synaptic connections onto the patch-clamped neurons. To enhance the detection power, we devised the following points: 1) [K+]e was lowered and [Ca2+]e and [Mg2+]e were elevated, to reduce background synaptic activity and minimize the failure rate of synaptic transmission; and 2) a small fraction of presynaptic neurons was specifically activated by glutamate applied iontophoretically through a glass pipette that was moved to survey the presynaptic network of interest ("trawling"). Then we could theoretically detect 96% of presynaptic neurons activated in the imaged regions with a 1% false-positive error rate. This on-line probing technique would be a promising tool in the study of the wiring topography of neuronal circuits. PMID:19386760

  12. A correlated nickelate synaptic transistor.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Ha, Sieu D; Zhou, You; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by biological neural systems, neuromorphic devices may open up new computing paradigms to explore cognition, learning and limits of parallel computation. Here we report the demonstration of a synaptic transistor with SmNiO₃, a correlated electron system with insulator-metal transition temperature at 130°C in bulk form. Non-volatile resistance and synaptic multilevel analogue states are demonstrated by control over composition in ionic liquid-gated devices on silicon platforms. The extent of the resistance modulation can be dramatically controlled by the film microstructure. By simulating the time difference between postneuron and preneuron spikes as the input parameter of a gate bias voltage pulse, synaptic spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning behaviour is realized. The extreme sensitivity of electrical properties to defects in correlated oxides may make them a particularly suitable class of materials to realize artificial biological circuits that can be operated at and above room temperature and seamlessly integrated into conventional electronic circuits. PMID:24177330

  13. RPS23RG1 reduces Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic and cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li; Chen, Yaomin; Li, Wubo; Huang, Xiumei; Badie, Hedieh; Jian, Fan; Huang, Timothy; Zhao, Yingjun; Cohen, Stanley N.; Li, Limin; Zhang, Yun-wu; Luo, Huanmin; Tu, Shichun; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. It is generally believed that β-amyloidogenesis, tau-hyperphosphorylation, and synaptic loss underlie cognitive decline in AD. Rps23rg1, a functional retroposed mouse gene, has been shown to reduce Alzheimer’s β-amyloid (Aβ) production and tau phosphorylation. In this study, we have identified its human homolog, and demonstrated that RPS23RG1 regulates synaptic plasticity, thus counteracting Aβ oligomer (oAβ)-induced cognitive deficits in mice. The level of RPS23RG1 mRNA is significantly lower in the brains of AD compared to non-AD patients, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Similar to its mouse counterpart, human RPS23RG1 interacts with adenylate cyclase, activating PKA/CREB, and inhibiting GSK-3. Furthermore, we show that human RPS23RG1 promotes synaptic plasticity and offsets oAβ-induced synaptic loss in a PKA-dependent manner in cultured primary neurons. Overexpression of Rps23rg1 in transgenic mice consistently prevented oAβ-induced PKA inactivation, synaptic deficits, suppression of long-term potentiation, and cognitive impairment as compared to wild type littermates. Our study demonstrates that RPS23RG1 may reduce the occurrence of key elements of AD pathology and enhance synaptic functions to counteract oAβ-induced synaptic and cognitive deficits in AD. PMID:26733416

  14. Visualization of synaptic vesicle movement in intact synaptic boutons using fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Randolf; Lemke, Edward A; Klingauf, Jurgen

    2005-09-01

    Not much is known about the mobility of synaptic vesicles inside small synapses of the central nervous system, reflecting a lack of methods for visualizing these dynamics. We adapted confocal spot detection with fluctuation analysis to monitor the mobility of fluorescently labeled synaptic vesicles inside individual boutons of cultured hippocampal neurons. Using Monte Carlo simulations we were able to propose a simple quantitative model that can describe vesicle mobility in small hippocampal boutons under resting conditions and different pharmacological treatments. We find that vesicle mobility in a time window of 20 s can be well described by caged diffusion (D approximately 5 x 10(-5) microm(2)/s, cage sizes of approximately 50 nm). Mobility can be upregulated by phosphatase blockage and increased further by actin disruption in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of the myosin light chain kinase slows down vesicle mobility 10-fold, whereas other kinases like protein kinase C (PKC), A (PKA), and calmodulin kinase II (caMKII) do not affect mobility in unstimulated boutons.

  15. Calcium-induced calcium release contributes to synaptic release from mouse rod photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Babai, N.; Morgans, C. W.; Thoreson, WB.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) contributes to synaptic release from rods in mammalian retina. Electron micrographs and immunofluorescent double labeling for the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) and synaptic ribbon protein, ribeye, showed a close association between ER and synaptic ribbons in mouse rod terminals. Stimulating CICR with 10 μM ryanodine evoked Ca2+ increases in rod terminals from mouse retinal slices visualized using confocal microscopy with the Ca2+-sensitive dye, Fluo-4. Ryanodine also stimulated membrane depolarization of individual mouse rods. Inhibiting CICR with a high concentration of ryanodine (100 μM) reduced the ERG b-wave but not a-wave consistent with inhibition of synaptic transmission from rods. Ryanodine (100 μM) also inhibited light-evoked voltage responses of individual rod bipolar cells (RBCs) and presumptive horizontal cells recorded with perforated patch recording techniques. A presynaptic site of action for ryanodine's effects is further indicated by the finding that ryanodine (100 μM) did not alter currents evoked in voltage-clamped RBCs by puffing the mGluR6 antagonist, (RS)-α-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG), onto bipolar cell dendrites in the presence of the mGluR6 agonist L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4). Ryanodine (100 μM) also inhibited glutamatergic outward currents in RBCs evoked by electrical stimulation of rods using electrodes placed in the outer segment layer. Together, these results indicate that, like amphibian retina, CICR contributes to synaptic release from mammalian (mouse) rods. By boosting synaptic release in darkness, CICR may improve the detection of small luminance changes by post-synaptic neurons. PMID:19932743

  16. Molecular underpinnings of synaptic vesicle pool heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Devon C; Kavalali, Ege T

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal communication relies on chemical synaptic transmission for information transfer and processing. Chemical neurotransmission is initiated by synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic active zone resulting in release of neurotransmitters. Classical models have assumed that all synaptic vesicles within a synapse have the same potential to fuse under different functional contexts. In this model, functional differences among synaptic vesicle populations are ascribed to their spatial distribution in the synapse with respect to the active zone. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that synaptic vesicles are not a homogenous population of organelles, and they possess intrinsic molecular differences and differential interaction partners. Recent studies have reported a diverse array of synaptic molecules that selectively regulate synaptic vesicles' ability to fuse synchronously and asynchronously in response to action potentials or spontaneously irrespective of action potentials. Here we discuss these molecular mediators of vesicle pool heterogeneity that are found on the synaptic vesicle membrane, on the presynaptic plasma membrane, or within the cytosol and consider some of the functional consequences of this diversity. This emerging molecular framework presents novel avenues to probe synaptic function and uncover how synaptic vesicle pools impact neuronal signaling.

  17. Studies targeting α-glucosidase inhibition, antiangiogenic effects, and lipid modification regulation: background, evaluation, and challenges in the development of food ingredients for therapeutic purposes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of α-glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory effects on the digestion of carbohydrates, promising results have been obtained as to the antidiabetic effects of this family of compounds. Antiangiogenic compounds have been identified that suppress tumor growth via a unique mechanism, confirming that such compounds can act as clinically applicable anticancer agents. Lipid peroxidation and lipid glycation have been suggested to play roles in food deterioration and in the pathophysiology of human diseases such as atherogenesis and diabetes, and antioxidative and antiglycative compounds can potentially be used in the prevention of food deterioration as well as to treat disease. On this basis, this review describes studies of α-glucosidase inhibition by mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin, antiangiogenic effects of rice bran tocotrienol, and membrane lipid peroxidation/glycation and its inhibitors. These studies are ongoing in our work, with an emphasis on analytical techniques.

  18. LRRK2 kinase activity regulates synaptic vesicle trafficking and neurotransmitter release through modulation of LRRK2 macro-molecular complex

    PubMed Central

    Cirnaru, Maria D.; Marte, Antonella; Belluzzi, Elisa; Russo, Isabella; Gabrielli, Martina; Longo, Francesco; Arcuri, Ludovico; Murru, Luca; Bubacco, Luigi; Matteoli, Michela; Fedele, Ernesto; Sala, Carlo; Passafaro, Maria; Morari, Michele; Greggio, Elisa; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains executing several functions, including GTP hydrolysis, kinase activity, and protein binding. Robust evidence suggests that LRRK2 acts at the synaptic site as a molecular hub connecting synaptic vesicles to cytoskeletal elements via a complex panel of protein-protein interactions. Here we investigated the impact of pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity on synaptic function. Acute treatment with LRRK2 inhibitors reduced the frequency of spontaneous currents, the rate of synaptic vesicle trafficking and the release of neurotransmitter from isolated synaptosomes. The investigation of complementary models lacking LRRK2 expression allowed us to exclude potential off-side effects of kinase inhibitors on synaptic functions. Next we studied whether kinase inhibition affects LRRK2 heterologous interactions. We found that the binding among LRRK2, presynaptic proteins and synaptic vesicles is affected by kinase inhibition. Our results suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity influences synaptic vesicle release via modulation of LRRK2 macro-molecular complex. PMID:24904275

  19. LRRK2 kinase activity regulates synaptic vesicle trafficking and neurotransmitter release through modulation of LRRK2 macro-molecular complex.

    PubMed

    Cirnaru, Maria D; Marte, Antonella; Belluzzi, Elisa; Russo, Isabella; Gabrielli, Martina; Longo, Francesco; Arcuri, Ludovico; Murru, Luca; Bubacco, Luigi; Matteoli, Michela; Fedele, Ernesto; Sala, Carlo; Passafaro, Maria; Morari, Michele; Greggio, Elisa; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains executing several functions, including GTP hydrolysis, kinase activity, and protein binding. Robust evidence suggests that LRRK2 acts at the synaptic site as a molecular hub connecting synaptic vesicles to cytoskeletal elements via a complex panel of protein-protein interactions. Here we investigated the impact of pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity on synaptic function. Acute treatment with LRRK2 inhibitors reduced the frequency of spontaneous currents, the rate of synaptic vesicle trafficking and the release of neurotransmitter from isolated synaptosomes. The investigation of complementary models lacking LRRK2 expression allowed us to exclude potential off-side effects of kinase inhibitors on synaptic functions. Next we studied whether kinase inhibition affects LRRK2 heterologous interactions. We found that the binding among LRRK2, presynaptic proteins and synaptic vesicles is affected by kinase inhibition. Our results suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity influences synaptic vesicle release via modulation of LRRK2 macro-molecular complex. PMID:24904275

  20. LRRK2 kinase activity regulates synaptic vesicle trafficking and neurotransmitter release through modulation of LRRK2 macro-molecular complex.

    PubMed

    Cirnaru, Maria D; Marte, Antonella; Belluzzi, Elisa; Russo, Isabella; Gabrielli, Martina; Longo, Francesco; Arcuri, Ludovico; Murru, Luca; Bubacco, Luigi; Matteoli, Michela; Fedele, Ernesto; Sala, Carlo; Passafaro, Maria; Morari, Michele; Greggio, Elisa; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains executing several functions, including GTP hydrolysis, kinase activity, and protein binding. Robust evidence suggests that LRRK2 acts at the synaptic site as a molecular hub connecting synaptic vesicles to cytoskeletal elements via a complex panel of protein-protein interactions. Here we investigated the impact of pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity on synaptic function. Acute treatment with LRRK2 inhibitors reduced the frequency of spontaneous currents, the rate of synaptic vesicle trafficking and the release of neurotransmitter from isolated synaptosomes. The investigation of complementary models lacking LRRK2 expression allowed us to exclude potential off-side effects of kinase inhibitors on synaptic functions. Next we studied whether kinase inhibition affects LRRK2 heterologous interactions. We found that the binding among LRRK2, presynaptic proteins and synaptic vesicles is affected by kinase inhibition. Our results suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity influences synaptic vesicle release via modulation of LRRK2 macro-molecular complex.

  1. New tools for targeted disruption of cholinergic synaptic transmission in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Monica; Heghinian, Mari D; Marí, Frank; Godenschwege, Tanja A

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. The α7 subtype of nAChRs is involved in neurological pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, addiction, epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders. The Drosophila melanogaster α7 (Dα7) has the closest sequence homology to the vertebrate α7 subunit and it can form homopentameric receptors just as the vertebrate counterpart. The Dα7 subunits are essential for the function of the Giant Fiber circuit, which mediates the escape response of the fly. To further characterize the receptor function, we generated different missense mutations in the Dα7 nAChR's ligand binding domain. We characterized the effects of targeted expression of two UAS-constructs carrying a single mutation, D197A and Y195T, as well as a UAS-construct carrying a triple D77T, L117Q, I196P mutation in a Dα7 null mutant and in a wild type background. Expression of the triple mutation was able to restore the function of the circuit in Dα7 null mutants and had no disruptive effects when expressed in wild type. In contrast, both single mutations severely disrupted the synaptic transmission of Dα7-dependent but not glutamatergic or gap junction dependent synapses in wild type background, and did not or only partially rescued the synaptic defects of the null mutant. These observations are consistent with the formation of hybrid receptors, consisting of D197A or Y195T subunits and wild type Dα7 subunits, in which the binding of acetylcholine or acetylcholine-induced conformational changes of the Dα7 receptor are altered and causes inhibition of cholinergic responses. Thus targeted expression of D197A or Y195T can be used to selectively disrupt synaptic transmission of Dα7-dependent synapses in neuronal circuits. Hence, these constructs can be used as tools to study learning and memory or addiction associated behaviors by allowing the manipulation of neuronal processing in the circuits without

  2. Ethanol Regulation of Synaptic GABAA α4 Receptors Is Prevented by Protein Kinase A Activation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephen L; Bohnsack, John Peyton; Morrow, A Leslie

    2016-04-01

    Ethanol alters GABAA receptor trafficking and function through activation of protein kinases, and these changes may underlie ethanol dependence and withdrawal. In this study, we used subsynaptic fraction techniques and patch-clamp electrophysiology to investigate the biochemical and functional effects of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) activation by ethanol on synaptic GABAA α4 receptors, a key target of ethanol-induced changes. Rat cerebral cortical neurons were grown for 18 days in vitro and exposed to ethanol and/or kinase modulators for 4 hours, a paradigm that recapitulates GABAergic changes found after chronic ethanol exposure in vivo. PKA activation by forskolin or rolipram during ethanol exposure prevented increases in P2 fraction α4 subunit abundance, whereas inhibiting PKA had no effect. Similarly, in the synaptic fraction, activation of PKA by rolipram in the presence of ethanol prevented the increase in synaptic α4 subunit abundance, whereas inhibiting PKA in the presence of ethanol was ineffective. Conversely, PKC inhibition in the presence of ethanol prevented the ethanol-induced increases in synaptic α4 subunit abundance. Finally, we found that either activating PKA or inhibiting PKC in the presence of ethanol prevented the ethanol-induced decrease in GABA miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay τ1, whereas inhibiting PKA had no effect. We conclude that PKA and PKC have opposing effects in the regulation of synaptic α4 receptors, with PKA activation negatively modulating, and PKC activation positively modulating, synaptic α4 subunit abundance and function. These results suggest potential targets for restoring normal GABAergic functioning in the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

  3. Synaptic AMPA Receptor Plasticity and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kessels, Helmut W.; Malinow, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The ability to change behavior likely depends on the selective strengthening and weakening of brain synapses. The cellular models of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, can be expressed by the synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), respectively. We here present an overview of studies that have used animal models to show that such AMPAR trafficking underlies several experience-driven phenomena—from neuronal circuit formation to the modification of behavior. We argue that monitoring and manipulating synaptic AMPAR trafficking represents an attractive means to study cognitive function and dysfunction in animal models. PMID:19217372

  4. Nonvolatile programmable neural network synaptic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A floating-gate metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor is implemented for use as a nonvolatile analog storage element of a synaptic cell used to implement an array of processing synaptic cells. These cells are based on a four-quadrant analog multiplier requiring both X and Y differential inputs, where one Y input is UV programmable. These nonvolatile synaptic cells are disclosed fully connected in a 32 x 32 synaptic cell array using standard very large scale integration (VLSI) complementary MOS (CMOS) technology.

  5. Functionally heterogeneous synaptic vesicle pools support diverse synaptic signalling.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Simon; Tóth, Katalin

    2016-02-15

    Synaptic communication between neurons is a highly dynamic process involving specialized structures. At the level of the presynaptic terminal, neurotransmission is ensured by fusion of vesicles to the membrane, which releases neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Depending on the level of activity experienced by the terminal, the spatiotemporal properties of calcium invasion will dictate the timing and the number of vesicles that need to be released. Diverse presynaptic firing patterns are translated to neurotransmitter release with a distinct temporal feature. Complex patterns of neurotransmitter release can be achieved when different vesicles respond to distinct calcium dynamics in the presynaptic terminal. Specific vesicles from different pools are recruited during various modes of release as the particular molecular composition of their membrane proteins define their functional properties. Such diversity endows the presynaptic terminal with the ability to respond to distinct physiological signals via the mobilization of specific subpopulation of vesicles. There are several mechanisms by which a diverse vesicle population could be generated in single presynaptic terminals, including distinct recycling pathways that utilize various adaptor proteins. Several additional factors could potentially contribute to the development of a heterogeneous vesicle pool such as specialized release sites, spatial segregation within the terminal and specialized delivery pathways. Among these factors molecular heterogeneity plays a central role in defining the functional properties of different subpopulations of vesicles. PMID:26614712

  6. Synaptic view of eukaryotic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Synapses are stable adhesive domains between two neighbouring cells of the multicellular organisms which serve for cell-cell communication as well as for information processing and storing. The synaptic concept was developed over more than 100 years specifically for neuronal cell-cell communication. In the last ten years, this concept was adapted to embrace other cell-cell communication phenomena. Here, we focus on the recently emerged phagocytic synapse and propose new endosymbiotic synapses and "intracellular organellar synapses". All these synapses of eukaryotic cells are in a good position to explain the high capacity of eukaryotic cells for integration of diverse signalling inputs into coherent cellular behaviour.

  7. LL5beta: a regulator of postsynaptic differentiation identified in a screen for synaptically enriched transcripts at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Masashi; Kummer, Terrance T; Eglen, Stephen J; Sanes, Joshua R

    2005-04-25

    In both neurons and muscle fibers, specific mRNAs are concentrated beneath and locally translated at synaptic sites. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction, all synaptic RNAs identified to date encode synaptic components. Using microarrays, we compared RNAs in synapse-rich and -free regions of muscles, thereby identifying transcripts that are enriched near synapses and that encode soluble membrane and nuclear proteins. One gene product, LL5beta, binds to both phosphoinositides and a cytoskeletal protein, filamin, one form of which is concentrated at synaptic sites. LL5beta is itself associated with the cytoplasmic face of the postsynaptic membrane; its highest levels border regions of highest acetylcholine receptor (AChR) density, which suggests a role in "corraling" AChRs. Consistent with this idea, perturbing LL5beta expression in myotubes inhibits AChR aggregation. Thus, a strategy designed to identify novel synaptic components led to identification of a protein required for assembly of the postsynaptic apparatus.

  8. Synaptic and circuit mechanisms promoting broadband transmission of olfactory stimulus dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Katherine I.; Hong, Elizabeth J.; Wilson, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory stimuli fluctuate on many timescales. However, short-term plasticity causes synapses to act as temporal filters, limiting the range of frequencies they can transmit. How synapses in vivo might transmit a range of frequencies in spite of short-term plasticity is poorly understood. The first synapse in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibits short-term depression, and yet can transmit broadband signals. Here we describe two mechanisms that broaden the frequency characteristics of this synapse. First, two distinct excitatory postsynaptic currents transmit signals on different timescales. Second, presynaptic inhibition dynamically updates synaptic properties to promote accurate transmission of signals across a wide range of frequencies. Inhibition is transient but grows slowly, and simulations show that these two features of inhibition promote broadband synaptic transmission. Dynamic inhibition is often thought to restrict the temporal patterns that a neuron responds to, but our results illustrate a different idea: inhibition can expand the bandwidth of neural coding. PMID:25485755

  9. Elevated serotonergic signaling amplifies synaptic noise and facilitates the emergence of epileptiform network oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Puzerey, Pavel A.; Decker, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin fibers densely innervate the cortical sheath to regulate neuronal excitability, but its role in shaping network dynamics remains undetermined. We show that serotonin provides an excitatory tone to cortical neurons in the form of spontaneous synaptic noise through 5-HT3 receptors, which is persistent and can be augmented using fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor. Augmented serotonin signaling also increases cortical network activity by enhancing synaptic excitation through activation of 5-HT2 receptors. This in turn facilitates the emergence of epileptiform network oscillations (10–16 Hz) known as fast runs. A computational model of cortical dynamics demonstrates that these two combined mechanisms, increased background synaptic noise and enhanced synaptic excitation, are sufficient to replicate the emergence fast runs and their statistics. Consistent with these findings, we show that blocking 5-HT2 receptors in vivo significantly raises the threshold for convulsant-induced seizures. PMID:25122717

  10. Synaptic vesicle pools: an update.

    PubMed

    Denker, Annette; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2010-01-01

    During the last few decades synaptic vesicles have been assigned to a variety of functional and morphological classes or "pools". We have argued in the past (Rizzoli and Betz, 2005) that synaptic activity in several preparations is accounted for by the function of three vesicle pools: the readily releasable pool (docked at active zones and ready to go upon stimulation), the recycling pool (scattered throughout the nerve terminals and recycling upon moderate stimulation), and finally the reserve pool (occupying most of the vesicle clusters and only recycling upon strong stimulation). We discuss here the advancements in the vesicle pool field which took place in the ensuing years, focusing on the behavior of different pools under both strong stimulation and physiological activity. Several new findings have enhanced the three-pool model, with, for example, the disparity between recycling and reserve vesicles being underlined by the observation that the former are mobile, while the latter are "fixed". Finally, a number of altogether new concepts have also evolved such as the current controversy on the identity of the spontaneously recycling vesicle pool. PMID:21423521

  11. VEGF modulates synaptic activity in the developing spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Guérit, Sylvaine; Allain, Anne-Emilie; Léon, Céline; Cazenave, William; Ferrara, Napoleone; Branchereau, Pascal; Bikfalvi, Andréas

    2014-11-01

    Although it has been documented that the nervous and the vascular systems share numerous analogies and are closely intermingled during development and pathological processes, interactions between the two systems are still poorly described. In this study, we investigated whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is a key regulator of vascular development, also modulates neuronal developmental processes. We report that VEGF enhances the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycinergic but not glutamatergic synaptic activity in embryonic spinal motoneurons (MNs), without affecting MNs excitability. In response to VEGF, the frequency of these synaptic events but not their amplitude was increased. Blocking endogenous VEGF led to an opposite effect by decreasing frequency of synaptic events. We found that this effect occurred specifically at early developmental stages (E13.5 and E15.5) and vanished at the prenatal stage E17.5. Furthermore, VEGF was able to increase vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter density at the MN membrane. Inhibition of single VEGF receptors did not modify electrophysiological parameters indicating receptor combinations or an alternative pathway. Altogether, our findings identify VEGF as a modulator of the neuronal activity during synapse formation and highlight a new ontogenic role for this angiogenic factor in the nervous system.

  12. Synaptic activity and Alzheimer's disease: a critical update

    PubMed Central

    Tampellini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Synapses have been known for many years to be the crucial target of pathology in different forms of dementia, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synapses and their appropriate activation or inhibition are fundamental for the proper brain function. Alterations in synaptic/neuronal activity and brain metabolism are considered among the earliest symptoms linked to the progression of AD, and lead to a central question in AD research: what is the role played by synaptic activity in AD pathogenesis? Intriguingly, in the last decade, important studies demonstrated that the state of activation of synapses affects the homeostasis of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau, both of which aggregate and accumulate during AD, and are involved in neuronal dysfunction. In this review we aim to summarize the up-to-date data linking synaptic/neuronal activity with Aβ and tau; moreover, we also intend to provide a critical overview on brain activity alterations in AD, and their role in the disease's pathophysiology. PMID:26582973

  13. Synaptic vesicle distribution by conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Moughamian, Armen J; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2012-03-01

    The equal distribution of synaptic vesicles among synapses along the axon is critical for robust neurotransmission. Wong et al. show that the continuous circulation of synaptic vesicles throughout the axon driven by molecular motors ultimately yields this even distribution. PMID:22385955

  14. Spontaneous vesicle recycling in the synaptic bouton.

    PubMed

    Truckenbrodt, Sven; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2014-01-01

    The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca(2+), which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca(2+) levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca(2+) sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca(2+). The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs) rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs) responding to Ca(2+) fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  15. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  16. Selective Activation of Microglia Facilitates Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anna K.; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J.; Malcangio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1β from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  17. Estimation of the synaptic input firing rates and characterization of the stimulation effects in an auditory neuron

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryota; He, Jufang; Lansky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    To understand information processing in neuronal circuits, it is important to infer how a sensory stimulus impacts on the synaptic input to a neuron. An increase in neuronal firing during the stimulation results from pure excitation or from a combination of excitation and inhibition. Here, we develop a method for estimating the rates of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from a membrane voltage trace of a neuron. The method is based on a modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck neuronal model, which aims to describe the stimulation effects on the synaptic input. The method is tested using a single-compartment neuron model with a realistic description of synaptic inputs, and it is applied to an intracellular voltage trace recorded from an auditory neuron in vivo. We find that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs increase during stimulation, suggesting that the acoustic stimuli are encoded by a combination of excitation and inhibition. PMID:26042025

  18. The Role of Mitochondrially Derived ATP in Synaptic Vesicle Recycling*♦

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Divya; Shields, Lauren Y.; Mendelsohn, Bryce A.; Haddad, Dominik; Lin, Wei; Gerencser, Akos A.; Kim, Hwajin; Brand, Martin D.; Edwards, Robert H.; Nakamura, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic mitochondria are thought to be critical in supporting neuronal energy requirements at the synapse, and bioenergetic failure at the synapse may impair neural transmission and contribute to neurodegeneration. However, little is known about the energy requirements of synaptic vesicle release or whether these energy requirements go unmet in disease, primarily due to a lack of appropriate tools and sensitive assays. To determine the dependence of synaptic vesicle cycling on mitochondrially derived ATP levels, we developed two complementary assays sensitive to mitochondrially derived ATP in individual, living hippocampal boutons. The first is a functional assay for mitochondrially derived ATP that uses the extent of synaptic vesicle cycling as a surrogate for ATP level. The second uses ATP FRET sensors to directly measure ATP at the synapse. Using these assays, we show that endocytosis has high ATP requirements and that vesicle reacidification and exocytosis require comparatively little energy. We then show that to meet these energy needs, mitochondrially derived ATP is rapidly dispersed in axons, thereby maintaining near normal levels of ATP even in boutons lacking mitochondria. As a result, the capacity for synaptic vesicle cycling is similar in boutons without mitochondria as in those with mitochondria. Finally, we show that loss of a key respiratory subunit implicated in Leigh disease markedly decreases mitochondrially derived ATP levels in axons, thus inhibiting synaptic vesicle cycling. This proves that mitochondria-based energy failure can occur and be detected in individual neurons that have a genetic mitochondrial defect. PMID:26126824

  19. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Robert J; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  20. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kittel, Robert J.; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention. PMID:27148040

  1. Diverse in- and output polarities and high complexity of local synaptic and non-synaptic signaling within a chemically defined class of peptidergic Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Gergely; Pollák, Edit; Wacker, Matthias; Vömel, Matthias; Selcho, Mareike; Berta, Gergely; Nachman, Ronald J.; Isaac, R. Elwyn; Molnár, László; Wegener, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Peptidergic neurons are not easily integrated into current connectomics concepts, since their peptide messages can be distributed via non-synaptic paracrine signaling or volume transmission. Moreover, the polarity of peptidergic interneurons in terms of in- and out-put sites can be hard to predict and is very little explored. We describe in detail the morphology and the subcellular distribution of fluorescent vesicle/dendrite markers in CCAP neurons (NCCAP), a well defined set of peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila larva. NCCAP can be divided into five morphologically distinct subsets. In contrast to other subsets, serial homologous interneurons in the ventral ganglion show a mixed localization of in- and output markers along ventral neurites that defy a classification as dendritic or axonal compartments. Ultrastructurally, these neurites contain both pre- and postsynaptic sites preferably at varicosities. A significant portion of the synaptic events are due to reciprocal synapses. Peptides are mostly non-synaptically or parasynaptically released, and dense-core vesicles and synaptic vesicle pools are typically well separated. The responsiveness of the NCCAP to ecdysis-triggering hormone may be at least partly dependent on a tonic synaptic inhibition, and is independent of ecdysteroids. Our results reveal a remarkable variety and complexity of local synaptic circuitry within a chemically defined set of peptidergic neurons. Synaptic transmitter signaling as well as peptidergic paracrine signaling and volume transmission from varicosities can be main signaling modes of peptidergic interneurons depending on the subcellular region. The possibility of region-specific variable signaling modes should be taken into account in connectomic studies that aim to dissect the circuitry underlying insect behavior and physiology, in which peptidergic neurons act as important regulators. PMID:23914156

  2. Convergent synaptic and circuit substrates underlying autism genetic risks

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Aaron; Li, Guohui; Lu, Zhongming; Qiu, Shenfeng

    2014-01-01

    There has been a surge of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) over the past decade. While large, high powered genome screening studies of children with ASD have identified numerous genetic risk factors, research efforts to understanding how each of these risk factors contributes to the development autism has met with limited success. Revealing the mechanisms by which these genetic risk factors affect brain development and predispose a child to autism requires mechanistic understanding of the neurobiological changes underlying this devastating group of developmental disorders at multifaceted molecular, cellular and system levels. It has been increasingly clear that the normal trajectory of neurodevelopment is compromised in autism, in multiple domains as much as aberrant neuronal production, growth, functional maturation, patterned connectivity, and balanced excitation and inhibition of brain networks. Many autism risk factors identified in humans have been now reconstituted in experimental mouse models to allow mechanistic interrogation of the biological role of the risk gene. Studies utilizing these mouse models have revealed that underlying the enormous heterogeneity of perturbed cellular events, mechanisms directing synaptic and circuit assembly may provide a unifying explanation for the pathophysiological changes and behavioral endophenotypes seen in autism, although synaptic perturbations are far from being the only alterations relevant for ASD. In this review, we discuss synaptic and circuit abnormalities obtained from several prevalent mouse models, particularly those reflecting syndromic forms of ASD that are caused by single gene perturbations. These compiled results reveal that ASD risk genes contribute to proper signaling of the developing gene networks that maintain synaptic and circuit homeostasis, which is fundamental to normal brain development. PMID:24999357

  3. Cholinergic synaptic vesicle heterogeneity: evidence for regulation of acetylcholine transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gracz, L.M.; Wang, W.; Parsons, S.M.

    1988-07-12

    Crude cholinergic synaptic vesicles from a homogenate of the electric organ of Torpedo californica were centrifuged to equilibrium in an isosmotic sucrose density gradient. The classical VP/sub 1/ synaptic vesicles banding at 1.055 g/mL actively transported (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine (AcCh). An organelle banding at about 1.071 g/mL transported even more (/sup 3/H)AcCh. Transport by both organelles was inhibited by the known AcCh storage blockers trans-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (vesamicol, formerly AH5183) and nigericin. Relative to VP/sub 1/ vesicles the denser organelle was slightly smaller as shown by size-exclusion chromatography. It is concluded that the denser organelle corresponds to the recycling VP/sub 2/ synaptic vesicle originally described in intact Torpedo marmorata electric organ. The properties of the receptor for vesamicol were studied by measuring binding of (/sup 3/H)vesamicol, and the amount of SV2 antigen characteristic of secretory vesicles was assayed with a monoclonal antibody directed against it. Relative to VP/sub 1/ vesicles the VP/sub 2/ vesicles had a ratio of (/sup 3/H)AcCh transport activity to vesamicol receptor concentration that typically was 4-7-fold higher, whereas the ratio of SV2 antigen concentration to vesamicol receptor concentration was about 2-fold higher. The Hill coefficients ..cap alpha../sub H/ and equilibrium dissociation constants K for vesamicol binding to VP/sub 1/ and VP/sub 2/ vesicles were essentially the same. The positive Hill coefficient suggests that the vesamicol receptor exists as a homotropic oligomeric complex. The results demonstrate that VP/sub 1/ and VP/sub 2/ synaptic vesicles exhibit functional differences in the AcCh transport system, presumably as a result of regulatory phenomena.

  4. Synaptic dynamics: linear model and adaptation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Ali; Dibazar, Alireza A; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-08-01

    In this research, temporal processing in brain neural circuitries is addressed by a dynamic model of synaptic connections in which the synapse model accounts for both pre- and post-synaptic processes determining its temporal dynamics and strength. Neurons, which are excited by the post-synaptic potentials of hundred of the synapses, build the computational engine capable of processing dynamic neural stimuli. Temporal dynamics in neural models with dynamic synapses will be analyzed, and learning algorithms for synaptic adaptation of neural networks with hundreds of synaptic connections are proposed. The paper starts by introducing a linear approximate model for the temporal dynamics of synaptic transmission. The proposed linear model substantially simplifies the analysis and training of spiking neural networks. Furthermore, it is capable of replicating the synaptic response of the non-linear facilitation-depression model with an accuracy better than 92.5%. In the second part of the paper, a supervised spike-in-spike-out learning rule for synaptic adaptation in dynamic synapse neural networks (DSNN) is proposed. The proposed learning rule is a biologically plausible process, and it is capable of simultaneously adjusting both pre- and post-synaptic components of individual synapses. The last section of the paper starts with presenting the rigorous analysis of the learning algorithm in a system identification task with hundreds of synaptic connections which confirms the learning algorithm's accuracy, repeatability and scalability. The DSNN is utilized to predict the spiking activity of cortical neurons and pattern recognition tasks. The DSNN model is demonstrated to be a generative model capable of producing different cortical neuron spiking patterns and CA1 Pyramidal neurons recordings. A single-layer DSNN classifier on a benchmark pattern recognition task outperforms a 2-Layer Neural Network and GMM classifiers while having fewer numbers of free parameters and

  5. Anesthetic action on extra-synaptic receptors: effects in neural population models of EEG activity

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Meysam; Hutt, Axel; Sleigh, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The role of extra-synaptic receptors in the regulation of excitation and inhibition in the brain has attracted increasing attention. Because activity in the extra-synaptic receptors plays a role in regulating the level of excitation and inhibition in the brain, they may be important in determining the level of consciousness. This paper reviews briefly the literature on extra-synaptic GABA and NMDA receptors and their affinity to anesthetic drugs. We propose a neural population model that illustrates how the effect of the anesthetic drug propofol on GABAergic extra-synaptic receptors results in changes in neural population activity and the electroencephalogram (EEG). Our results show that increased tonic inhibition in inhibitory cortical neurons cause a dramatic increase in the power of both δ− and α− bands. Conversely, the effects of increased tonic inhibition in cortical excitatory neurons and thalamic relay neurons have the opposite effect and decrease the power in these bands. The increased δ-activity is in accord with observed data for deepening propofol anesthesia; but is absolutely dependent on the inclusion of extrasynaptic (tonic) GABA action in the model. PMID:25540612

  6. Phasic bursting activity of rat paraventricular neurones in the absence of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Hatton, G I

    1982-06-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the phasic bursting activity, characteristic of certain magnocellular neuropeptidergic neurones in rat hypothalamus, is dependent upon chemical synaptic input.2. Slices of hypothalamus were placed in an in vitro chamber with hippocampal slices. The synaptic response in the CA1 cell layer from Schaffer collateral stimulation was monitored before, during and after synaptic transmission was blocked by superfusion of medium containing high Mg(2+) (either 18.7 or 9.3 mM) and low Ca(2+) (0.05 mM). This well studied pathway was chosen as an assay of synaptic blockade because hypothalamic circuitry is relatively unknown.3. The electrical activity of twenty-two phasic bursting neurones in the lateral portion of the paraventricular nucleus (p.v.n.) was recorded. Nineteen of twenty-two phasic p.v.n. neurones were recorded only after synaptic transmission was blocked. The remaining three cells were firing phasically in standard medium when first encountered and continued to display phasic bursting activity for up to 1.25 hr after synaptic blockade. Active cells in nearby hypothalamic areas did not show phasic bursting patterns either before or after synaptic transmission was blocked.4. The phasic bursting activity of the p.v.n. neurones in this study and that of previously reported p.v.n. cells in vivo were similar in (a) firing rate within bursts (b) burst length and (c) silent period duration.5. It is concluded that phasic bursting in p.v.n. magnocellular neuropeptidergic cells is not dependent upon synaptically mediated excitation or recurrent inhibition as has been hypothesized earlier.6. Alternative hypotheses, based upon acute changes in [K(+)](o), endogenous membrane currents and electrotonic coupling are discussed as possible explanations of phasic bursting in these magnocellular neuropeptidergic cells.

  7. Synaptic vesicle recycling: steps and principles

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle recycling is one of the best-studied cellular pathways. Many of the proteins involved are known, and their interactions are becoming increasingly clear. However, as for many other pathways, it is still difficult to understand synaptic vesicle recycling as a whole. While it is generally possible to point out how synaptic reactions take place, it is not always easy to understand what triggers or controls them. Also, it is often difficult to understand how the availability of the reaction partners is controlled: how the reaction partners manage to find each other in the right place, at the right time. I present here an overview of synaptic vesicle recycling, discussing the mechanisms that trigger different reactions, and those that ensure the availability of reaction partners. A central argument is that synaptic vesicles bind soluble cofactor proteins, with low affinity, and thus control their availability in the synapse, forming a buffer for cofactor proteins. The availability of cofactor proteins, in turn, regulates the different synaptic reactions. Similar mechanisms, in which one of the reaction partners buffers another, may apply to many other processes, from the biogenesis to the degradation of the synaptic vesicle. PMID:24596248

  8. Homeostatic regulation of spontaneous and evoked synaptic transmission in two steps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During development both Hebbian and homeostatic mechanisms regulate synaptic efficacy, usually working in opposite directions in response to neuronal activity. Homeostatic plasticity has often been investigated by assaying changes in spontaneous synaptic transmission resulting from chronic circuit inactivation. However, effects of inactivation on evoked transmission have been less frequently reported. Importantly, contributions from the effects of circuit inactivation and reactivation on synaptic efficacy have not been individuated. Results Here we show for developing hippocampal neurons in primary culture that chronic inactivation with TTX results in increased mean amplitude of miniature synaptic currents (mEPSCs), but not evoked synaptic currents (eEPSCs). However, changes in quantal properties of transmission, partially reflected in mEPSCs, accurately predicted higher-order statistical properties of eEPSCs. The classical prediction of homeostasis – increased strength of evoked transmission – was realized after explicit circuit reactivation, in the form of cells’ pairwise connection probability. In contrast, distributions of eEPSC amplitudes for control and inactivated-then-reactivated groups matched throughout. Conclusions Homeostatic up-regulation of evoked synaptic transmission in developing hippocampal neurons in primary culture requires both the inactivation and reactivation stages, leading to a net increase in functional circuit connectivity. PMID:23965342

  9. Compensating for thalamocortical synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Abuhassan, Kamal; Coyle, Damien; Maguire, Liam

    2014-01-01

    The study presents a thalamocortical network model which oscillates within the alpha frequency band (8-13 Hz) as recorded in the wakeful relaxed state with closed eyes to study the neural causes of abnormal oscillatory activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Incorporated within the model are various types of cortical excitatory and inhibitory neurons, recurrently connected to thalamic and reticular thalamic regions with the ratios and distances derived from the mammalian thalamocortical system. The model is utilized to study the impacts of four types of connectivity loss on the model's spectral dynamics. The study focuses on investigating degeneration of corticocortical, thalamocortical, corticothalamic, and corticoreticular couplings, with an emphasis on the influence of each modeled case on the spectral output of the model. Synaptic compensation has been included in each model to examine the interplay between synaptic deletion and compensation mechanisms, and the oscillatory activity of the network. The results of power spectra and event related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/S) analyses show that the dynamics of the thalamic and cortical oscillations are significantly influenced by corticocortical synaptic loss. Interestingly, the patterns of changes in thalamic spectral activity are correlated with those in the cortical model. Similarly, the thalamic oscillatory activity is diminished after partial corticothalamic denervation. The results suggest that thalamic atrophy is a secondary pathology to cortical shrinkage in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, this study finds that the inhibition from neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (RTN) to thalamic relay (TCR) neurons plays a key role in regulating thalamic oscillations; disinhibition disrupts thalamic oscillatory activity even though TCR neurons are more depolarized after being released from RTN inhibition. This study provides information that can be explored experimentally to further our understanding

  10. Excitability and responsiveness of rat barrel cortex neurons in the presence and absence of spontaneous synaptic activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Altwegg-Boussac, Tristan; Chavez, Mario; Mahon, Séverine; Charpier, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The amplitude and temporal dynamics of spontaneous synaptic activity in the cerebral cortex vary as a function of brain states. To directly assess the impact of different ongoing synaptic activities on neocortical function, we performed in vivo intracellular recordings from barrel cortex neurons in rats under two pharmacological conditions generating either oscillatory or tonic synaptic drive. Cortical neurons membrane excitability and firing responses were compared, in the same neurons, before and after complete suppression of background synaptic drive following systemic injection of a high dose of anaesthetic. Compared to the oscillatory state, the tonic pattern resulted in a more depolarized and less fluctuating membrane potential (Vm), a lower input resistance (Rm) and steeper relations of firing frequency versus injected current (F–I). Whatever their temporal dynamics, suppression of background synaptic activities increased mean Vm, without affecting Rm, and induced a rightward shift of F–I curves. Both types of synaptic drive generated a high variability in current-induced firing rate and patterns in cortical neurons, which was much reduced after removal of spontaneous activity. These findings suggest that oscillatory and tonic synaptic patterns differentially facilitate the input–output function of cortical neurons but result in a similar moment-to-moment variability in spike responses to incoming depolarizing inputs. PMID:24732430

  11. Examination of synaptic vesicle recycling using FM dyes during evoked, spontaneous, and miniature synaptic activities.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Sadahiro; Kakazu, Yasuhiro; Koh, Jin-Young; Goodman, Kirsty M; Harata, N Charles

    2014-03-31

    Synaptic vesicles in functional nerve terminals undergo exocytosis and endocytosis. This synaptic vesicle recycling can be effectively analyzed using styryl FM dyes, which reveal membrane turnover. Conventional protocols for the use of FM dyes were designed for analyzing neurons following stimulated (evoked) synaptic activity. Recently, protocols have become available for analyzing the FM signals that accompany weaker synaptic activities, such as spontaneous or miniature synaptic events. Analysis of these small changes in FM signals requires that the imaging system is sufficiently sensitive to detect small changes in intensity, yet that artifactual changes of large amplitude are suppressed. Here we describe a protocol that can be applied to evoked, spontaneous, and miniature synaptic activities, and use cultured hippocampal neurons as an example. This protocol also incorporates a means of assessing the rate of photobleaching of FM dyes, as this is a significant source of artifacts when imaging small changes in intensity.

  12. Examination of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling Using FM Dyes During Evoked, Spontaneous, and Miniature Synaptic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, Sadahiro; Kakazu, Yasuhiro; Koh, Jin-Young; Goodman, Kirsty M.; Harata, N. Charles

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles in functional nerve terminals undergo exocytosis and endocytosis. This synaptic vesicle recycling can be effectively analyzed using styryl FM dyes, which reveal membrane turnover. Conventional protocols for the use of FM dyes were designed for analyzing neurons following stimulated (evoked) synaptic activity. Recently, protocols have become available for analyzing the FM signals that accompany weaker synaptic activities, such as spontaneous or miniature synaptic events. Analysis of these small changes in FM signals requires that the imaging system is sufficiently sensitive to detect small changes in intensity, yet that artifactual changes of large amplitude are suppressed. Here we describe a protocol that can be applied to evoked, spontaneous, and miniature synaptic activities, and use cultured hippocampal neurons as an example. This protocol also incorporates a means of assessing the rate of photobleaching of FM dyes, as this is a significant source of artifacts when imaging small changes in intensity. PMID:24747983

  13. Matched pre- and post-synaptic changes underlie synaptic plasticity over long time scales.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Alex; Le Bé, Jean-Vincent; Richardson, Magnus J E; Markram, Henry; Herz, Andreas V M

    2013-04-10

    Modifications of synaptic efficacies are considered essential for learning and memory. However, it is not known how the underlying functional components of synaptic transmission change over long time scales. To address this question, we studied cortical synapses from young Wistar rats before and after 12 h intervals of spontaneous or glutamate-induced spiking activity. We found that, under these conditions, synaptic efficacies can increase or decrease by up to 10-fold. Statistical analyses reveal that these changes reflect modifications in the number of presynaptic release sites, together with postsynaptic changes that maintain the quantal size per release site. The quantitative relation between the presynaptic and postsynaptic transmission components was not affected when synaptic plasticity was enhanced or reduced using a broad range of pharmacological agents. These findings suggest that ongoing synaptic plasticity results in matched presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications, in which elementary modules that span the synaptic cleft are added or removed as a function of experience.

  14. Role of synaptic inhibition in spatiotemporal patterning of cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Laurens; Lodder, Johannes C; van Ooyen, Arjen; Brussaard, Arjen B

    2005-01-01

    Developmental upregulation of the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit causes a faster decay of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the visual cortex around the time of eye opening. In alpha1 deficient mice, a juvenile type of GABAA receptors is retained during maturation. As a result the decay time of the IPSCs is longer in alpha1-/- mice than in WT mice during the whole life span of the mice. Hence they form a valuable mouse model for studies on cellular aspects of neuronal network functioning. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging methods, we monitored the spatiotemporal excitation patterning in visual cortex slices upon local stimulation of the network. We found that in the alpha1-/- mice, the ability of the network to fire synchronously at gamma-frequencies (20-50 Hz) is diminished. This finding indicates that early onset of GABA synapse maturation is required for the normal neuronal network function in the maturating visual cortex. PMID:15581707

  15. Enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons and potent modulation by oxycodone in a bone cancer pain model

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Keiko; Ogawa, Koichi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kanbara, Tomoe; Ono, Hiroko; Tomii, Takako; Morioka, Yasuhide; Hasegawa, Minoru; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Mori, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Sakaguchi, Gaku

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We demonstrated previously that oxycodone has potent antinociceptive effects at supraspinal sites. In this study, we investigated changes in neuronal function and antinociceptive mechanisms of oxycodone at ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG) neurons, which are a major site of opioid action, in a femur bone cancer (FBC) model with bone cancer-related pain. Experimental Approach We characterized the supraspinal antinociceptive profiles of oxycodone and morphine on mechanical hypersensitivity in the FBC model. Based on the disinhibition mechanism underlying supraspinal opioid antinociception, the effects of oxycodone and morphine on GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in VLPAG neurons were evaluated in slices from the FBC model. Key Results The supraspinal antinociceptive effects of oxycodone, but not morphine, were abolished by blocking G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium1 (Kir3.1) channels. In slices from the FBC model, GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons was enhanced, as indicated by a leftward shift of the input–output relationship curve of evoked IPSCs, the increased paired-pulse facilitation and the enhancement of miniature IPSC frequency. Following treatment with oxycodone and morphine, IPSCs were reduced in the FBC model, and the inhibition of presynaptic GABA release by oxycodone, but not morphine was enhanced and dependent on Kir3.1 channels. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that Kir3.1 channels are important for supraspinal antinociception and presynaptic GABA release inhibition by oxycodone in the FBC model. Enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons in the FBC model is an important site of supraspinal antinociception by oxycodone via Kir3.1 channel activation. PMID:25521524

  16. Programmable synaptic devices for electronic neural nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    The architecture, design, and operational characteristics of custom VLSI and thin film synaptic devices are described. The devices include CMOS-based synaptic chips containing 1024 reprogrammable synapses with a 6-bit dynamic range, and nonvolatile, write-once, binary synaptic arrays based on memory switching in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. Their suitability for embodiment of fully parallel and analog neural hardware is discussed. Specifically, a neural network solution to an assignment problem of combinatorial global optimization, implemented in fully parallel hardware using the synaptic chips, is described. The network's ability to provide optimal and near optimal solutions over a time scale of few neuron time constants has been demonstrated and suggests a speedup improvement of several orders of magnitude over conventional search methods.

  17. Reactivation of stalled polyribosomes in synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Graber, Tyson E; Hébert-Seropian, Sarah; Khoutorsky, Arkady; David, Alexandre; Yewdell, Jonathan W; Lacaille, Jean-Claude; Sossin, Wayne S

    2013-10-01

    Some forms of synaptic plasticity require rapid, local activation of protein synthesis. Although this is thought to reflect recruitment of mRNAs to free ribosomes, this would limit the speed and magnitude of translational activation. Here we provide compelling in situ evidence supporting an alternative model in which synaptic mRNAs are transported as stably paused polyribosomes. Remarkably, we show that metabotropic glutamate receptor activation allows the synthesis of proteins that lead to a functional long-term depression phenotype even when translation initiation has been greatly reduced. Thus, neurons evolved a unique mechanism to swiftly translate synaptic mRNAs into functional protein upon synaptic signaling using stalled polyribosomes to bypass the rate-limiting step of translation initiation. Because dysregulated plasticity is implicated in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders such as fragile X syndrome, this work uncovers a unique translational target for therapies.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic remodeling in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol use and alcohol addiction represent dysfunctional brain circuits resulting from neuroadaptive changes during protracted alcohol exposure and its withdrawal. Alcohol exerts a potent effect on synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation in specific brain regions, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a critical regulator of gene expression and synaptic plasticity-related events in the brain. Alcohol exposure and withdrawal induce changes in crucial epigenetic processes in the emotional brain circuitry (amygdala) that may be relevant to the negative affective state defined as the "dark side" of addiction. Here, we review the literature concerning synaptic plasticity and epigenetics, with a particular focus on molecular events related to dendritic remodeling during alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Targeting epigenetic processes that modulate synaptic plasticity may yield novel treatments for alcoholism.

  19. Quantitative proteomics of synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria: insights for synaptic mitochondrial vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Kelly L; Purnell, Phillip R; Fox, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    Synaptic mitochondria are essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis and producing ATP, processes vital for neuronal integrity and synaptic transmission. Synaptic mitochondria exhibit increased oxidative damage during aging and are more vulnerable to calcium insult than nonsynaptic mitochondria. Why synaptic mitochondria are specifically more susceptible to cumulative damage remains to be determined. In this study, the generation of a super-SILAC mix that served as an appropriate internal standard for mouse brain mitochondria mass spectrometry based analysis allowed for the quantification of the proteomic differences between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria isolated from 10-month-old mice. We identified a total of 2260 common proteins between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria of which 1629 were annotated as mitochondrial. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the proteins common between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria revealed significant differential expression of 522 proteins involved in several pathways including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial fission/fusion, calcium transport, and mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. In comparison to nonsynaptic mitochondria, synaptic mitochondria exhibited increased age-associated mitochondrial DNA deletions and decreased bioenergetic function. These findings provide insights into synaptic mitochondrial susceptibility to damage.

  20. Fast Learning with Weak Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Yger, Pierre; Stimberg, Marcel; Brette, Romain

    2015-09-30

    New sensory stimuli can be learned with a single or a few presentations. Similarly, the responses of cortical neurons to a stimulus have been shown to increase reliably after just a few repetitions. Long-term memory is thought to be mediated by synaptic plasticity, but in vitro experiments in cortical cells typically show very small changes in synaptic strength after a pair of presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Thus, it is traditionally thought that fast learning requires stronger synaptic changes, possibly because of neuromodulation. Here we show theoretically that weak synaptic plasticity can, in fact, support fast learning, because of the large number of synapses N onto a cortical neuron. In the fluctuation-driven regime characteristic of cortical neurons in vivo, the size of membrane potential fluctuations grows only as √N, whereas a single output spike leads to potentiation of a number of synapses proportional to N. Therefore, the relative effect of a single spike on synaptic potentiation grows as √N. This leverage effect requires precise spike timing. Thus, the large number of synapses onto cortical neurons allows fast learning with very small synaptic changes. Significance statement: Long-term memory is thought to rely on the strengthening of coactive synapses. This physiological mechanism is generally considered to be very gradual, and yet new sensory stimuli can be learned with just a few presentations. Here we show theoretically that this apparent paradox can be solved when there is a tight balance between excitatory and inhibitory input. In this case, small synaptic modifications applied to the many synapses onto a given neuron disrupt that balance and produce a large effect even for modifications induced by a single stimulus. This effect makes fast learning possible with small synaptic changes and reconciles physiological and behavioral observations.

  1. A catalytic independent function of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 regulates hippocampal synaptic short-term plasticity and vesicle number

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Brandon J; Hallengren, Jada J; Theile, Christopher S; Ploegh, Hidde L; Wilson, Scott M; Dobrunz, Lynn E

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThe ubiquitin proteasome system is required for the rapid and precise control of protein abundance that is essential for synaptic function. USP14 is a proteasome-bound deubiquitinating enzyme that recycles ubiquitin and regulates synaptic short-term synaptic plasticity. We previously reported that loss of USP14 in axJ mice causes a deficit in paired pulse facilitation (PPF) at hippocampal synapses. Here we report that USP14 regulates synaptic function through a novel, deubiquitination-independent mechanism. Although PPF is usually inversely related to release probability, USP14 deficiency impairs PPF without altering basal release probability. Instead, the loss of USP14 causes a large reduction in the number of synaptic vesicles. Over-expression of a catalytically inactive form of USP14 rescues the PPF deficit and restores synaptic vesicle number, indicating that USP14 regulates presynaptic structure and function independently of its role in deubiquitination. Finally, the PPF deficit caused by loss of USP14 can be rescued by pharmacological inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting that inappropriate protein degradation underlies the PPF impairment. Overall, we demonstrate a novel, deubiquitination-independent function for USP14 in influencing synaptic architecture and plasticity. PMID:24218545

  2. Artificial Synaptic Devices Based on Natural Chicken Albumen Coupled Electric-Double-Layer Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guodong; Feng, Ping; Wan, Xiang; Zhu, Liqiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in using biomaterials to fabricate functional electronics has got growing attention for the new generation of environmentally friendly and biocompatible electronic devices. As a kind of biological material with rich source, proteins are essential natural component of all organisms. At the same time, artificial synaptic devices are of great significance for neuromorphic systems because they can emulate the signal process and memory behaviors of biological synapses. In this report, natural chicken albumen with high proton conductivity was used as the coupling electrolyte film for organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic devices fabrication. Some important synaptic functions including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering, short-term to long-term memory transition and spatial summation and shunting inhibition were successfully mimicked. Our results are very interesting for biological friendly artificial neuron networks and neuromorphic systems. PMID:27008981

  3. Artificial Synaptic Devices Based on Natural Chicken Albumen Coupled Electric-Double-Layer Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guodong; Feng, Ping; Wan, Xiang; Zhu, Liqiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress in using biomaterials to fabricate functional electronics has got growing attention for the new generation of environmentally friendly and biocompatible electronic devices. As a kind of biological material with rich source, proteins are essential natural component of all organisms. At the same time, artificial synaptic devices are of great significance for neuromorphic systems because they can emulate the signal process and memory behaviors of biological synapses. In this report, natural chicken albumen with high proton conductivity was used as the coupling electrolyte film for organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic devices fabrication. Some important synaptic functions including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering, short-term to long-term memory transition and spatial summation and shunting inhibition were successfully mimicked. Our results are very interesting for biological friendly artificial neuron networks and neuromorphic systems.

  4. Synaptic Targets of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Alexander F.; Lupica, Carl R.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of potent synthetic agonists for cannabinoid receptors has facilitated our understanding of cannabinoid actions on synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Moreover, the ability of these compounds to inhibit neurotransmitter release at many central synapses is thought to underlie most of the behavioral effects of cannabinoid agonists. However, despite the widespread use and misuse of marijuana, and recognition of its potential adverse psychological effects in humans, comparatively few studies have examined the actions of its primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), at well-defined synaptic pathways. Here we examine the recent literature describing the effects of acute and repeated THC exposure on synaptic function in several brain regions and explore the importance of these neurobiological actions of THC in drug addiction. PMID:23209160

  5. Synaptic basis for intense thalamocortical activation of feedforward inhibitory cells in neocortex.

    PubMed

    Cruikshank, Scott J; Lewis, Timothy J; Connors, Barry W

    2007-04-01

    The thalamus provides fundamental input to the neocortex. This input activates inhibitory interneurons more strongly than excitatory neurons, triggering powerful feedforward inhibition. We studied the mechanisms of this selective neuronal activation using a mouse somatosensory thalamocortical preparation. Notably, the greater responsiveness of inhibitory interneurons was not caused by their distinctive intrinsic properties but was instead produced by synaptic mechanisms. Axons from the thalamus made stronger and more frequent excitatory connections onto inhibitory interneurons than onto excitatory cells. Furthermore, circuit dynamics allowed feedforward inhibition to suppress responses in excitatory cells more effectively than in interneurons. Thalamocortical excitatory currents rose quickly in interneurons, allowing them to fire action potentials before significant feedforward inhibition emerged. In contrast, thalamocortical excitatory currents rose slowly in excitatory cells, overlapping with feedforward inhibitory currents that suppress action potentials. These results demonstrate the importance of selective synaptic targeting and precise timing in the initial stages of neocortical processing.

  6. Overexpression of Guanylate Cyclase Activating Protein 2 in Rod Photoreceptors In Vivo Leads to Morphological Changes at the Synaptic Ribbon

    PubMed Central

    López-Begines, Santiago; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Cuenca, Nicolás; Llorens, Jordi; de la Villa, Pedro; Méndez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase activating proteins are EF-hand containing proteins that confer calcium sensitivity to retinal guanylate cyclase at the outer segment discs of photoreceptor cells. By making the rate of cGMP synthesis dependent on the free intracellular calcium levels set by illumination, GCAPs play a fundamental role in the recovery of the light response and light adaptation. The main isoforms GCAP1 and GCAP2 also localize to the synaptic terminal, where their function is not known. Based on the reported interaction of GCAP2 with Ribeye, the major component of synaptic ribbons, it was proposed that GCAP2 could mediate the synaptic ribbon dynamic changes that happen in response to light. We here present a thorough ultrastructural analysis of rod synaptic terminals in loss-of-function (GCAP1/GCAP2 double knockout) and gain-of-function (transgenic overexpression) mouse models of GCAP2. Rod synaptic ribbons in GCAPs−/− mice did not differ from wildtype ribbons when mice were raised in constant darkness, indicating that GCAPs are not required for ribbon early assembly or maturation. Transgenic overexpression of GCAP2 in rods led to a shortening of synaptic ribbons, and to a higher than normal percentage of club-shaped and spherical ribbon morphologies. Restoration of GCAP2 expression in the GCAPs−/− background (GCAP2 expression in the absence of endogenous GCAP1) had the striking result of shortening ribbon length to a much higher degree than overexpression of GCAP2 in the wildtype background, as well as reducing the thickness of the outer plexiform layer without affecting the number of rod photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that preservation of the GCAP1 to GCAP2 relative levels is relevant for maintaining the integrity of the synaptic terminal. Our demonstration of GCAP2 immunolocalization at synaptic ribbons at the ultrastructural level would support a role of GCAPs at mediating the effect of light on morphological remodeling changes of synaptic

  7. Different effects of bisphenol-A on memory behavior and synaptic modification in intact and estrogen-deprived female mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohong; Gu, Ting; Shen, Qiaoqiao

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) has the capability of interfering with the effects of estrogens on modulating brain function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BPA on memory and synaptic modification in the hippocampus of female mice under different levels of cycling estrogen. BPA exposure (40, 400 μg/kg/day) for 8 weeks did not affect spatial memory and passive avoidance task of gonadally intact mice but improved ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced memory impairment, whereas co-exposure of BPA with estradiol benzoate (EB) diminished the rescue effect of EB on memory behavior of Ovx mice. The results of morphometric measurement showed that BPA positively modified the synaptic interface structure and increased the synaptic density of CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus of Ovx females, but inhibited the enhancement of EB on synaptic modification and synaptogenesis of Ovx mice. Furthermore, BPA up-regulated synaptic proteins synapsin I and PSD-95 and NMDA receptor NR2B but inhibited EB-induced increase in PSD-95 and NR2B in the hippocampus of Ovx mice. These results suggest that BPA interfered with normal hormonal regulation in synaptic plasticity and memory of female mice as a potent estrogen mimetic and as a disruptor of estrogen under various concentrations of cycling estrogen.

  8. Role of Rab27 in synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eunah; Kanno, Eiko; Choi, Soonwook; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Moreira, Jorge E; Llinás, Rodolfo R; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2008-10-14

    Small GTPase Rab is a member of a large family of Ras-related proteins, highly conserved in eukaryotic cells, and thought to regulate specific type(s) and/or specific step(s) in intracellular membrane trafficking. Given our interest in synaptic transmission, we addressed the possibility that Rab27 (a close isoform of Rab3) could be involved in cytosolic synaptic vesicle mobilization. Indeed, preterminal injection of a specific antibody against squid Rab27 (anti-sqRab27 antibody) combined with confocal microscopy demonstrated that Rab27 is present on squid synaptic vesicles. Electrophysiological study of injected synapses showed that the anti-sqRab27 antibody inhibited synaptic release in a stimulation-dependent manner without affecting presynaptic action potentials or inward Ca(2+) current. This result was confirmed in in vitro synaptosomes by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Thus, synaptosomal Ca(2+)-stimulated release of FM1-43 dye was greatly impaired by intraterminal anti-sqRab27 antibody. Ultrastructural analysis of the injected giant preterminal further showed a reduced number of docked synaptic vesicles and an increase in nondocked vesicular profiles distant from the active zone. These results, taken together, indicate that Rab27 is primarily involved in the maturation of recycled vesicles and/or their transport to the presynaptic active zone in the squid giant synapse.

  9. Role of Rab27 in synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eunah; Kanno, Eiko; Choi, Soonwook; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Moreira, Jorge E.; Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2008-01-01

    Small GTPase Rab is a member of a large family of Ras-related proteins, highly conserved in eukaryotic cells, and thought to regulate specific type(s) and/or specific step(s) in intracellular membrane trafficking. Given our interest in synaptic transmission, we addressed the possibility that Rab27 (a close isoform of Rab3) could be involved in cytosolic synaptic vesicle mobilization. Indeed, preterminal injection of a specific antibody against squid Rab27 (anti-sqRab27 antibody) combined with confocal microscopy demonstrated that Rab27 is present on squid synaptic vesicles. Electrophysiological study of injected synapses showed that the anti-sqRab27 antibody inhibited synaptic release in a stimulation-dependent manner without affecting presynaptic action potentials or inward Ca2+ current. This result was confirmed in in vitro synaptosomes by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Thus, synaptosomal Ca2+-stimulated release of FM1-43 dye was greatly impaired by intraterminal anti-sqRab27 antibody. Ultrastructural analysis of the injected giant preterminal further showed a reduced number of docked synaptic vesicles and an increase in nondocked vesicular profiles distant from the active zone. These results, taken together, indicate that Rab27 is primarily involved in the maturation of recycled vesicles and/or their transport to the presynaptic active zone in the squid giant synapse. PMID:18840683

  10. Synaptic Competition Sculpts the Development of GABAergic Axo-Dendritic but Not Perisomatic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Medrihan, Lucian; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Barberis, Andrea; Wulff, Peer; Wisden, William; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The neurotransmitter GABA regulates many aspects of inhibitory synapse development. We tested the hypothesis that GABAA receptors (GABAARs) work together with the synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin 2 (NL2) to regulate synapse formation in different subcellular compartments. We investigated mice (“γ2 knockdown mice”) with an engineered allele of the GABAAR γ2 subunit gene which produced a mosaic expression of synaptic GABAARs in neighboring neurons, causing a strong imbalance in synaptic inhibition. Deletion of the γ2 subunit did not abolish synapse formation or the targeting of NL2 to distinct types of perisomatic and axo-dendritic contacts. Thus synaptic localization of NL2 does not require synaptic GABAARs. However, loss of the γ2 subunit caused a selective decrease in the number of axo-dendritic synapses on cerebellar Purkinje cells and cortical pyramidal neurons, whereas perisomatic synapses were not significantly affected. Notably, γ2-positive cells had increased axo-dendritic innervation compared with both γ2-negative and wild-type counterparts. Moreover heterologous synapses on spines, that are found after total deletion of GABAARs from all Purkinje cells, were rare in cerebella of γ2 knockdown mice. These findings reveal a selective role of γ2 subunit-containing GABAARs in regulating synapse development in distinct subcellular compartments, and support the hypothesis that the refinement of axo-dendritic synapses is regulated by activity-dependent competition between neighboring neurons. PMID:23457547

  11. The Chemokine MIP-1α/CCL3 impairs mouse hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and memory

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Elodie; Faivre, Emilie; Dutar, Patrick; Alves Pires, Claire; Demeyer, Dominique; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Laloux, Charlotte; Buée, Luc; Blum, David; Humez, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are signaling molecules playing an important role in immune regulations. They are also thought to regulate brain development, neurogenesis and neuroendocrine functions. While chemokine upsurge has been associated with conditions characterized with cognitive impairments, their ability to modulate synaptic plasticity remains ill-defined. In the present study, we specifically evaluated the effects of MIP1-α/CCL3 towards hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and spatial memory. We found that CCL3 (50 ng/ml) significantly reduced basal synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse without affecting NMDAR-mediated field potentials. This effect was ascribed to post-synaptic regulations, as CCL3 did not impact paired-pulse facilitation. While CCL3 did not modulate long-term depression (LTD), it significantly impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), an effect abolished by Maraviroc, a CCR5 specific antagonist. In addition, sub-chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of CCL3 also impair LTP. In accordance with these electrophysiological findings, we demonstrated that the icv injection of CCL3 in mouse significantly impaired spatial memory abilities and long-term memory measured using the two-step Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These effects of CCL3 on memory were inhibited by Maraviroc. Altogether, these data suggest that the chemokine CCL3 is an hippocampal neuromodulator able to regulate synaptic plasticity mechanisms involved in learning and memory functions. PMID:26511387

  12. Synaptic glutamate spillover due to impaired glutamate uptake mediates heroin relapse.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hao-wei; Scofield, Michael D; Boger, Heather; Hensley, Megan; Kalivas, Peter W

    2014-04-16

    Reducing the enduring vulnerability to relapse is a therapeutic goal in treating drug addiction. Studies with animal models of drug addiction show a marked increase in extrasynaptic glutamate in the core subcompartment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcore) during reinstated drug seeking. However, the synaptic mechanisms linking drug-induced changes in extrasynaptic glutamate to relapse are poorly understood. Here, we discovered impaired glutamate elimination in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration that leads to spillover of synaptically released glutamate into the nonsynaptic extracellular space in NAcore and investigated whether restoration of glutamate transport prevented reinstated heroin seeking. Through multiple functional assays of glutamate uptake and analyzing NMDA receptor-mediated currents, we show that heroin self-administration produced long-lasting downregulation of glutamate uptake and surface expression of the transporter GLT-1. This downregulation was associated with spillover of synaptic glutamate to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors within the NAcore. Ceftriaxone restored glutamate uptake and prevented synaptic glutamate spillover and cue-induced heroin seeking. Ceftriaxone-induced inhibition of reinstated heroin seeking was blocked by morpholino-antisense targeting GLT-1 synthesis. These data reveal that the synaptic glutamate spillover in the NAcore results from reduced glutamate transport and is a critical pathophysiological mechanism underling reinstated drug seeking in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration.

  13. Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Alters Pre- and Post-Synaptic Activity by Fragmenting Lipid Rafts.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Marco; Esposito, Alessandro; Camerini, Serena; Antonucci, Flavia; Ferrara, Silvia; Seghezza, Silvia; Catelani, Tiziano; Crescenzi, Marco; Marotta, Roberto; Canale, Claudio; Matteoli, Michela; Menna, Elisabetta; Chieregatti, Evelina

    2016-05-01

    Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) interferes with multiple steps of synaptic activity at pre-and post-synaptic terminals, however the mechanism/s by which αSyn alters neurotransmitter release and synaptic potentiation is unclear. By atomic force microscopy we show that human αSyn, when incubated with reconstituted membrane bilayer, induces lipid rafts' fragmentation. As a consequence, ion channels and receptors are displaced from lipid rafts with consequent changes in their activity. The enhanced calcium entry leads to acute mobilization of synaptic vesicles, and exhaustion of neurotransmission at later stages. At the post-synaptic terminal, an acute increase in glutamatergic transmission, with increased density of PSD-95 puncta, is followed by disruption of the interaction between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and PSD-95 with ensuing decrease of long term potentiation. While cholesterol loading prevents the acute effect of αSyn at the presynapse; inhibition of casein kinase 2, which appears activated by reduction of cholesterol, restores the correct localization and clustering of NMDARs.

  14. Interneuronal Nitric Oxide Signaling Mediates Post-synaptic Long-Term Depression of Striatal Glutamatergic Synapses.

    PubMed

    Rafalovich, Igor V; Melendez, Alexandria E; Plotkin, Joshua L; Tanimura, Asami; Zhai, Shenyu; Surmeier, D James

    2015-11-17

    Experience-driven plasticity of glutamatergic synapses on striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) is thought to be essential to goal-directed behavior and habit formation. One major form of striatal plasticity, long-term depression (LTD), has long appeared to be expressed only pre-synaptically. Contrary to this view, nitric oxide (NO) generated by striatal interneurons was found to induce a post-synaptically expressed form of LTD at SPN glutamatergic synapses. This form of LTD was dependent on signaling through guanylyl cyclase and protein kinase G, both of which are abundantly expressed by SPNs. NO-LTD was unaffected by local synaptic activity or antagonism of endocannabinoid (eCb) and dopamine receptors, all of which modulate canonical, pre-synaptic LTD. Moreover, NO signaling disrupted induction of this canonical LTD by inhibiting dendritic Ca(2+) channels regulating eCb synthesis. These results establish an interneuron-dependent, heterosynaptic form of post-synaptic LTD that could act to promote stability of the striatal network during learning.

  15. Synaptic Basis for the Generation of Response Variation in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Can; Zhang, Guangwei; Zhou, Chang; Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Sumei; Zhang, Li I.; Zhou, Yi; Xiong, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Cortical neurons can exhibit significant variation in their responses to the same sensory stimuli, as reflected by the reliability and temporal precision of spikes. However the synaptic mechanism underlying response variation still remains unclear. Here, in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of excitatory neurons revealed variation in the amplitudes as well as the temporal profiles of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs evoked by the same sound stimuli in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex. Synaptic inputs were reliably induced by repetitive stimulation, although with large variation in amplitude. The variation in the amplitude of excitation was much higher than that of inhibition. In addition, the temporal jitter of the synaptic onset latency was much smaller than the jitter of spike response. We further demonstrated that the amplitude variation of excitatory inputs can largely account for the spike variation, while the jitter in spike timing can be primarily attributed to the temporal variation of excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the spike reliability of excitatory but not inhibitory neurons is dependent on tone frequency. Our results thus revealed an inherent cortical synaptic contribution for the generation of variation in the spike responses of auditory cortical neurons. PMID:27484928

  16. Synaptic Glutamate Spillover Due to Impaired Glutamate Uptake Mediates Heroin Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Scofield, Michael D.; Boger, Heather; Hensley, Megan; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the enduring vulnerability to relapse is a therapeutic goal in treating drug addiction. Studies with animal models of drug addiction show a marked increase in extrasynaptic glutamate in the core subcompartment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcore) during reinstated drug seeking. However, the synaptic mechanisms linking drug-induced changes in extrasynaptic glutamate to relapse are poorly understood. Here, we discovered impaired glutamate elimination in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration that leads to spillover of synaptically released glutamate into the nonsynaptic extracellular space in NAcore and investigated whether restoration of glutamate transport prevented reinstated heroin seeking. Through multiple functional assays of glutamate uptake and analyzing NMDA receptor-mediated currents, we show that heroin self-administration produced long-lasting downregulation of glutamate uptake and surface expression of the transporter GLT-1. This downregulation was associated with spillover of synaptic glutamate to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors within the NAcore. Ceftriaxone restored glutamate uptake and prevented synaptic glutamate spillover and cue-induced heroin seeking. Ceftriaxone-induced inhibition of reinstated heroin seeking was blocked by morpholino-antisense targeting GLT-1 synthesis. These data reveal that the synaptic glutamate spillover in the NAcore results from reduced glutamate transport and is a critical pathophysiological mechanism underling reinstated drug seeking in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration. PMID:24741055

  17. A phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-sensitive casein kinase I alpha associates with synaptic vesicles and phosphorylates a subset of vesicle proteins

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    In interphase cells, alpha-casein kinase I (alpha-CKI) is found associated with cytosolic vesicular structures, the centrosome, and within the nucleus. To identify the specific vesicular structures with which alpha-CKI is associated, established cell lines and primary rat neurons were immunofluorescently labeled with an antibody raised to alpha-CKI. In nonneuronal cells, alpha-CKI colocalizes with vesicular structures which align with microtubules and are partially coincident with both Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum markers. In neurons, alpha- CKI colocalizes with synaptic vesicle markers. When synaptic vesicles were purified from rat brain, they were highly enriched in a CKI, based on activity and immunoreactivity. The synaptic vesicle-associated CKI is an extrinsic kinase and was eluted from synaptic vesicles and purified. This purified CKI has properties most similar to alpha-CKI. When the activities of casein kinase I or II were specifically inhibited on isolated synaptic vesicles, CKI was shown to phosphorylate a specific subset of vesicle proteins, one of which was identified as the synaptic vesicle-specific protein SV2. As with alpha-CKI, the synaptic vesicle CKI is inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2). However, synthesis of PIP2 was detected only in plasma membrane-containing fractions. Therefore, PIP2 may spatially regulate CKI. Since PIP2 synthesis is required for secretion, this inhibition of CKI may be important for the regulation of secretion. PMID:7622570

  18. Modulation of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission by endogenous zinc in the immature rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, X; Hider, R C; Smart, T G

    1994-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings from postnatal 2- to 12-day-old (P2-12) rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurones exhibited spontaneous synaptic potentials mediated by GABAA receptors. These potentials can be separated on the basis of amplitude into two classes which are referred to as small and large. 2. The large depolarizing potentials were reversibly inhibited by the Zn2+ chelator 1,2-diethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (CP94). The small inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. (IPSPs) were apparently unaffected. 3. Stimulation of the mossy fibre pathway evoked composite excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and IPSPs. Threshold stimulus-evoked synaptic potentials were mediated by GABAA receptors and were reversibly blocked by CP94. The responses evoked by suprathreshold stimulation and persisting in the presence of bicuculline or CP94 were partially inhibited by 2-amino-5-phosphonopropionic acid (AP5) and were completely blocked with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). 4. L-Histidine, which preferentially forms complexes with Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Fe2+ > Mn2+, inhibited both naturally occurring spontaneous and evoked GABAA-mediated large synaptic potentials without affecting the neuronal resting membrane properties. Exogenously applied Zn2+ induced large spontaneous synaptic potentials and prolonged the duration of the evoked potentials. These effects were reversibly blocked by histidine. 5. The metal chelating agent diethyldithiocarbamate had little effect on the large amplitude synaptic potentials. 6. The transition metal divalent cations Fe2+ and Mn2+ did not initiate large synaptic potentials in CA3 neurones; however, Cu2+ depolarized the membrane and enhanced both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, resulting in a transient increase in the frequency of the large amplitude events. In comparison, zinc increased the frequency of the large potentials and also induced such events in neurons (P4-21) where innate potentials were absent. The postsynaptic

  19. Synaptic adhesion molecule IgSF11 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyewon; van Riesen, Christoph; Whitcomb, Daniel; Warburton, Julia M.; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Sun Gyun; Um, Seung Min; Kwon, Seok-kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Woo, Jooyeon; Jun, Heejung; Lee, Dongmin; Mah, Won; Kim, Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Cho, Kwangwook; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Choquet, Daniel; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and plasticity through mechanisms including trans-synaptic adhesion and recruitment of diverse synaptic proteins. We report here that the immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (IgSF11), a homophilic adhesion molecule preferentially expressed in the brain, is a novel and dual-binding partner of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 and AMPAR glutamate receptors (AMPARs). IgSF11 requires PSD-95 binding for its excitatory synaptic localization. In addition, IgSF11 stabilizes synaptic AMPARs, as shown by IgSF11 knockdown-induced suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and increased surface mobility of AMPARs, measured by high-throughput, single-molecule tracking. IgSF11 deletion in mice leads to suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. IgSF11 does not regulate the functional characteristics of AMPARs, including desensitization, deactivation, or recovery. These results suggest that IgSF11 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity through its tripartite interactions with PSD-95 and AMPARs. PMID:26595655

  20. Long-Term Relationships between Synaptic Tenacity, Synaptic Remodeling, and Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Minerbi, Amir; Kahana, Roni; Goldfeld, Larissa; Kaufman, Maya; Marom, Shimon; Ziv, Noam E.

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is widely believed to constitute a key mechanism for modifying functional properties of neuronal networks. This belief implicitly implies, however, that synapses, when not driven to change their characteristics by physiologically relevant stimuli, will maintain these characteristics over time. How tenacious are synapses over behaviorally relevant time scales? To begin to address this question, we developed a system for continuously imaging the structural dynamics of individual synapses over many days, while recording network activity in the same preparations. We found that in spontaneously active networks, distributions of synaptic sizes were generally stable over days. Following individual synapses revealed, however, that the apparently static distributions were actually steady states of synapses exhibiting continual and extensive remodeling. In active networks, large synapses tended to grow smaller, whereas small synapses tended to grow larger, mainly during periods of particularly synchronous activity. Suppression of network activity only mildly affected the magnitude of synaptic remodeling, but dependence on synaptic size was lost, leading to the broadening of synaptic size distributions and increases in mean synaptic size. From the perspective of individual neurons, activity drove changes in the relative sizes of their excitatory inputs, but such changes continued, albeit at lower rates, even when network activity was blocked. Our findings show that activity strongly drives synaptic remodeling, but they also show that significant remodeling occurs spontaneously. Whereas such spontaneous remodeling provides an explanation for “synaptic homeostasis” like processes, it also raises significant questions concerning the reliability of individual synapses as sites for persistently modifying network function. PMID:19554080

  1. Diacylglycerol Kinases in the Coordination of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Kim, Eunjoon; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although, detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG)-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent evidences indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs), which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins. PMID:27630986

  2. Diacylglycerol Kinases in the Coordination of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Kim, Eunjoon; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although, detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG)-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent evidences indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs), which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins.

  3. Diacylglycerol Kinases in the Coordination of Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwon; Kim, Eunjoon; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although, detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG)-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent evidences indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs), which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins. PMID:27630986

  4. Metabolic Turnover of Synaptic Proteins: Kinetics, Interdependencies and Implications for Synaptic Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Laurie D.; Zuchman, Rina; Sorokina, Oksana; Müller, Anke; Dieterich, Daniela C.; Armstrong, J. Douglas; Ziv, Tamar; Ziv, Noam E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical synapses contain multitudes of proteins, which in common with all proteins, have finite lifetimes and therefore need to be continuously replaced. Given the huge numbers of synaptic connections typical neurons form, the demand to maintain the protein contents of these connections might be expected to place considerable metabolic demands on each neuron. Moreover, synaptic proteostasis might differ according to distance from global protein synthesis sites, the availability of distributed protein synthesis facilities, trafficking rates and synaptic protein dynamics. To date, the turnover kinetics of synaptic proteins have not been studied or analyzed systematically, and thus metabolic demands or the aforementioned relationships remain largely unknown. In the current study we used dynamic Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC), mass spectrometry (MS), Fluorescent Non–Canonical Amino acid Tagging (FUNCAT), quantitative immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics to systematically measure the metabolic half-lives of hundreds of synaptic proteins, examine how these depend on their pre/postsynaptic affiliation or their association with particular molecular complexes, and assess the metabolic load of synaptic proteostasis. We found that nearly all synaptic proteins identified here exhibited half-lifetimes in the range of 2–5 days. Unexpectedly, metabolic turnover rates were not significantly different for presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, or for proteins for which mRNAs are consistently found in dendrites. Some functionally or structurally related proteins exhibited very similar turnover rates, indicating that their biogenesis and degradation might be coupled, a possibility further supported by bioinformatics-based analyses. The relatively low turnover rates measured here (∼0.7% of synaptic protein content per hour) are in good agreement with imaging-based studies of synaptic protein trafficking, yet indicate that the metabolic load

  5. Drosophila Neuroligin 2 is Required Presynaptically and Postsynaptically for proper Synaptic Differentiation and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chi; Lin, Yong Qi; Banerjee, Swati; Venken, Koen; Li, Jingjun; Ismat, Afshan; Chen, Kuchuan; Duraine, Lita; Bellen, Hugo J.; Bhat, Manzoor A.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-synaptic adhesion between Neurexins and Neuroligins is thought to be required for proper synapse organization and modulation, and mutations in several human NEUROLIGINS have shown association with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of Drosophila neuroligin 2 (dnlg2) mutants. Loss of dnlg2 results in reduced bouton numbers, aberrant pre- and post-synaptic development at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and impaired synaptic transmission. In dnlg2 mutants, the evoked responses are decreased in amplitude, whereas the total active zone numbers at the NMJ are comparable to wild type, suggesting a decrease in the release probability. Ultrastructurally, the presynaptic active zone number per bouton area and the postsynaptic density area are both increased in dnlg2 mutants, whereas the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR) is reduced in volume. We show that both pre- and post-synaptic expression of Dnlg2 is required to restore synaptic growth and function in dnlg2 mutants. Post-synaptic expression of Dnlg2 in dnlg2 mutants and wild type leads to reduced bouton growth whereas pre- and post-synaptic overexpression in wild type animals results in synaptic overgrowth. Since Neuroligins have been shown to bind to Neurexins, we created double mutants. These mutants are viable and display phenotypes that closely resemble those of dnlg2 and dnrx single mutants. Our results provide compelling evidence that Dnlg2 functions both pre- and post-synaptically together with Neurexin to determine the proper number of boutons as well as the number of active zones and size of synaptic densities during the development of NMJs. PMID:23136438

  6. Synaptic Conductances during Interictal Discharges in Pyramidal Neurons of Rat Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Amakhin, Dmitry V.; Ergina, Julia L.; Chizhov, Anton V.; Zaitsev, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    In epilepsy, the balance of excitation and inhibition underlying the basis of neural network activity shifts, resulting in neuronal network hyperexcitability and recurrent seizure-associated discharges. Mechanisms involved in ictal and interictal events are not fully understood, in particular, because of controversial data regarding the dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances. In the present study, we estimated AMPAR-, NMDAR-, and GABAA R-mediated conductances during two distinct types of interictal discharge (IID) in pyramidal neurons of rat entorhinal cortex in cortico-hippocampal slices. Repetitively emerging seizure-like events and IIDs were recorded in high extracellular potassium, 4-aminopyridine, and reduced magnesium-containing solution. An original procedure for estimating synaptic conductance during IIDs was based on the differences among the current-voltage characteristics of the synaptic components. The synaptic conductance dynamics obtained revealed that the first type of IID is determined by activity of GABAA R channels with depolarized reversal potential. The second type of IID is determined by the interplay between excitation and inhibition, with early AMPAR and prolonged depolarized GABAA R and NMDAR-mediated components. The study then validated the contribution of these components to IIDs by intracellular pharmacological isolation. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms of seizures generation, development, and cessation. PMID:27790093

  7. Exosomes neutralize synaptic-plasticity-disrupting activity of Aβ assemblies in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, have been suggested to be involved in both the metabolism and aggregation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Despite their ubiquitous presence and the inclusion of components which can potentially interact with Aβ, the role of exosomes in regulating synaptic dysfunction induced by Aβ has not been explored. Results We here provide in vivo evidence that exosomes derived from N2a cells or human cerebrospinal fluid can abrogate the synaptic-plasticity-disrupting activity of both synthetic and AD brain-derived Aβ. Mechanistically, this effect involves sequestration of synaptotoxic Aβ assemblies by exosomal surface proteins such as PrPC rather than Aβ proteolysis. Conclusions These data suggest that exosomes can counteract the inhibitory action of Aβ, which contributes to perpetual capability for synaptic plasticity. PMID:24284042

  8. Learning with two sites of synaptic integration.

    PubMed

    Körding, K P; König, P

    2000-02-01

    Since the classical work of D O Hebb 1949 The Organization of Behaviour (New York: Wiley) it is assumed that synaptic plasticity solely depends on the activity of the pre- and the postsynaptic cells. Synapses influence the plasticity of other synapses exclusively via the post-synaptic activity. This confounds effects on synaptic plasticity and neuronal activation and, thus, makes it difficult to implement networks which optimize global measures of performance. Exploring solutions to this problem, inspired by recent research on the properties of apical dendrites, we examine a network of neurons with two sites of synaptic integration. These communicate in such a way that one set of synapses mainly influences the neurons' activity; the other set gates synaptic plasticity. Analysing the system with a constant set of parameters reveals: (1) the afferents that gate plasticity act as supervisors, individual to every cell. (2) While the neurons acquire specific receptive fields the net activity remains constant for different stimuli. This ensures that all stimuli are represented and, thus, contributes to information maximization. (3) Mechanisms for maximization of coherent information can easily be implemented. Neurons with non-overlapping receptive fields learn to fire correlated and preferentially transmit information that is correlated over space. (4) We demonstrate how a new measure of performance can be implemented: cells learn to represent only the part of the input that is relevant to the processing at higher stages. This criterion is termed 'relevant infomax'.

  9. Synaptic connectivity in engineered neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Peter; Kang, Jung-Fong; Bhargava, Neelima; Das, Mainak; Hickman, James J

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a method to organize cells in dissociated cultures using engineered chemical clues on a culture surface and determined their connectivity patterns. Although almost all elements of the synaptic transmission machinery can be studied separately in single cell models in dissociated cultures, the complex physiological interactions between these elements are usually lost. Thus, factors affecting synaptic transmission are generally studied in organotypic cultures, brain slices, or in vivo where the cellular architecture generally remains intact. However, by utilizing engineered neuronal networks complex phenomenon such as synaptic transmission or synaptic plasticity can be studied in a simple, functional, cell culture-based system. We have utilized self-assembled monolayers and photolithography to create the surface templates. Embryonic hippocampal cells, plated on the resultant patterns in serum-free medium, followed the surface clues and formed the engineered neuronal networks. Basic whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was applied to characterize the synaptic connectivity in these engineered two-cell networks. The same technology has been used to pattern other cell types such as cardiomyocytes or skeletal muscle fibers.

  10. Learning with two sites of synaptic integration.

    PubMed

    Körding, K P; König, P

    2000-02-01

    Since the classical work of D O Hebb 1949 The Organization of Behaviour (New York: Wiley) it is assumed that synaptic plasticity solely depends on the activity of the pre- and the postsynaptic cells. Synapses influence the plasticity of other synapses exclusively via the post-synaptic activity. This confounds effects on synaptic plasticity and neuronal activation and, thus, makes it difficult to implement networks which optimize global measures of performance. Exploring solutions to this problem, inspired by recent research on the properties of apical dendrites, we examine a network of neurons with two sites of synaptic integration. These communicate in such a way that one set of synapses mainly influences the neurons' activity; the other set gates synaptic plasticity. Analysing the system with a constant set of parameters reveals: (1) the afferents that gate plasticity act as supervisors, individual to every cell. (2) While the neurons acquire specific receptive fields the net activity remains constant for different stimuli. This ensures that all stimuli are represented and, thus, contributes to information maximization. (3) Mechanisms for maximization of coherent information can easily be implemented. Neurons with non-overlapping receptive fields learn to fire correlated and preferentially transmit information that is correlated over space. (4) We demonstrate how a new measure of performance can be implemented: cells learn to represent only the part of the input that is relevant to the processing at higher stages. This criterion is termed 'relevant infomax'. PMID:10735527

  11. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Mowery, Todd M.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG) and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the ACx. PMID:26321918

  12. Synaptic vesicle proteins: targets and routes for botulinum neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Münster-Wandowski, Agnieszka; Höltje, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SV) are key organelles of neuronal communication. SV are responsible for the storage of neurotransmitters, which are released by Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. After release and interaction with postsynaptic receptors, transmitters rapidly diffuse out of the synaptic cleft and are sequestered by plasma membrane transporters (in some cases following enzymatic conversion). SVs undergo endocytosis and are refilled by specific vesicular transmitter transporters different in the various neuronal subtypes. Besides these differences, SVs in general are equipped with a remarkable common set of proteins. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) inhibit neurotransmitter release from almost all types of neurons by cleaving proteins required for membrane fusion localized either to SVs (synaptobrevin) or to the plasma membrane (SNAP-25 and syntaxin) depending on the BoNT serotype. To enter the neuronal cytoplasm, BoNTs specifically interact with the luminal domain of SV proteins (synaptotagmin or SV2, depending on serotype) transiently exposed during exocytotic membrane fusion and occurring in almost every neuron. Thus, the highly specific interaction with luminal domains of SV proteins commonly expressed on all SV types is one reason why BoNTs exhibit such a high neuronal specificity but attack almost every neuron type.

  13. Probing the interior of synaptic vesicles with internalized nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadd, Jennifer C.; Budzinski, Kristi L.; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Ye, Fangmao; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2012-03-01

    Synaptic vesicles are subcellular organelles that are found in the synaptic bouton and are responsible for the propagation of signals between neurons. Synaptic vesicles undergo endo- and exocytosis with the neuronal membrane to load and release neurotransmitters. Here we discuss how we utilize this property to load nanoparticles as a means of probing the interior of synaptic vesicles. To probe the intravesicular region of synaptic vesicles, we have developed a highly sensitive pH-sensing polymer dot. We feel the robust nature of the pH-sensing polymer dot will provide insight into the dynamics of proton loading into synaptic vesicles.

  14. The Corticohippocampal Circuit, Synaptic Plasticity, and Memory.

    PubMed

    Basu, Jayeeta; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2015-11-02

    Synaptic plasticity serves as a cellular substrate for information storage in the central nervous system. The entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus are interconnected brain areas supporting basic cognitive functions important for the formation and retrieval of declarative memories. Here, we discuss how information flow in the EC-hippocampal loop is organized through circuit design. We highlight recently identified corticohippocampal and intrahippocampal connections and how these long-range and local microcircuits contribute to learning. This review also describes various forms of activity-dependent mechanisms that change the strength of corticohippocampal synaptic transmission. A key point to emerge from these studies is that patterned activity and interaction of coincident inputs gives rise to associational plasticity and long-term regulation of information flow. Finally, we offer insights about how learning-related synaptic plasticity within the corticohippocampal circuit during sensory experiences may enable adaptive behaviors for encoding spatial, episodic, social, and contextual memories.

  15. EONS: an online synaptic modeling platform.

    PubMed

    Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C; Qiu, Yumei; Ziane, Mohammed B; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W

    2006-01-01

    Chemical synapses, although representing the smallest unit of communication between two neurons in the nervous system constitute a complex ensemble of mechanisms. Understanding these mechanisms and the way synaptic transmission occurs is critical for our comprehension of CNS functions in general and learning and memory in particular. Here we describe a modeling platform called EONS (Elementary Object of Neural System) accessible online, which allows neuroscientists throughout the world to study qualitatively, but also quantitatively the relative contributions of diverse mechanisms underlying synaptic efficacy: the relevance of each and every elements that comprise a synapse, the interactions between these components and their subcellular distribution, as well as the influence of synaptic geometry (presynaptic terminal, cleft and postsynaptic density).

  16. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  17. Effects of chronic cocaine treatment during adolescence in Lewis and Fischer-344 rats: Novel location recognition impairment and changes in synaptic plasticity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fole, A; Martin, M; Morales, L; Del Olmo, N

    2015-09-01

    The use of Lewis (LEW) together with Fischer-344 (F344) rats has been proposed as an addiction model because of the addiction behavior differences of these two strains. We have previously suggested that these differences could be related to learning and memory processes and that they depend on the genetic background of these two strains of rats. Adolescence is a period of active synaptic remodeling, plasticity and particular vulnerability to the effects of environmental insults such as drugs of abuse. We have evaluated spatial memory using novel location recognition in LEW and F344 adult rats undergoing a chronic treatment with cocaine during adolescence or adulthood. In order to study whether synaptic plasticity mechanisms were involved in the possible changes in learning after chronic cocaine treatment, we carried out electrophysiological experiments in hippocampal slices from treated animals. Our results showed that, in LEW cocaine-treated rats, hippocampal memory was only significantly impaired when the drug was administered during adolescence whereas adult administration did not produce any detrimental effect in spatial memory measured in this protocol. Moreover, F344 rats showed clear difficulties carrying out the protocol even in standard conditions, confirming the spatial memory problems observed in previous reports and demonstrating the genetic differences in spatial learning and memory. Our experiments show that the effects in behavioral experiments are related to synaptic plasticity mechanisms. Long-term depression induced by the glutamate agonist NMDA (LTD-NMDA) is partially abolished in cocaine-treated animals in hippocampal slices from LEW rats. Hippocampal LTD-NMDA is partially inhibited in F344 animals regardless of whether saline or cocaine administration, suggesting the lack of plasticity of this strain that could be related to the inability of these animals to carry out the novel object location protocol.

  18. Heterosynaptic Plasticity Prevents Runaway Synaptic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Yung; Lonjers, Peter; Lee, Christopher; Chistiakova, Marina; Volgushev, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) and other conventional Hebbian-type plasticity rules are prone to produce runaway dynamics of synaptic weights. Once potentiated, a synapse would have higher probability to lead to spikes and thus to be further potentiated, but once depressed, a synapse would tend to be further depressed. The runaway synaptic dynamics can be prevented by precisely balancing STDP rules for potentiation and depression; however, experimental evidence shows a great variety of potentiation and depression windows and magnitudes. Here we show that modifications of synapses to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons from rat visual and auditory cortices in slices can be induced by intracellular tetanization: bursts of postsynaptic spikes without presynaptic stimulation. Induction of these heterosynaptic changes depended on the rise of intracellular calcium, and their direction and magnitude correlated with initial state of release mechanisms. We suggest that this type of plasticity serves as a mechanism that stabilizes the distribution of synaptic weights and prevents their runaway dynamics. To test this hypothesis, we develop a cortical neuron model implementing both homosynaptic (STDP) and heterosynaptic plasticity with properties matching the experimental data. We find that heterosynaptic plasticity effectively prevented runaway dynamics for the tested range of STDP and input parameters. Synaptic weights, although shifted from the original, remained normally distributed and nonsaturated. Our study presents a biophysically constrained model of how the interaction of different forms of plasticity—Hebbian and heterosynaptic—may prevent runaway synaptic dynamics and keep synaptic weights unsaturated and thus capable of further plastic changes and formation of new memories. PMID:24089497

  19. Sleep and Synaptic Renormalization: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Olcese, Umberto; Esser, Steve K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that net synaptic strength in cortical and other networks increases during wakefulness and returns to a baseline level during sleep. These homeostatic changes in synaptic strength are accompanied by corresponding changes in sleep slow wave activity (SWA) and in neuronal firing rates and synchrony. Other evidence indicates that sleep is associated with an initial reactivation of learned firing patterns that decreases over time. Finally, sleep can enhance performance of learned tasks, aid memory consolidation, and desaturate the ability to learn. Using a large-scale model of the corticothalamic system equipped with a spike-timing dependent learning rule, in agreement with experimental results, we demonstrate a net increase in synaptic strength in the waking mode associated with an increase in neuronal firing rates and synchrony. In the sleep mode, net synaptic strength decreases accompanied by a decline in SWA. We show that the interplay of activity and plasticity changes implements a control loop yielding an exponential, self-limiting renormalization of synaptic strength. Moreover, when the model “learns” a sequence of activation during waking, the learned sequence is preferentially reactivated during sleep, and reactivation declines over time. Finally, sleep-dependent synaptic renormalization leads to increased signal-to-noise ratios, increased resistance to interference, and desaturation of learning capabilities. Although the specific mechanisms implemented in the model cannot capture the variety and complexity of biological substrates, and will need modifications in line with future evidence, the present simulations provide a unified, parsimonious account for diverse experimental findings coming from molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches. PMID:20926617

  20. Imaging synaptic zinc: promises and perils.

    PubMed

    Kay, Alan R

    2006-04-01

    It is well established that some excitatory nerve terminals have high concentrations of Zn(2+) in their synaptic vesicles. For some time, it has been believed that synaptic Zn(2+) is released during neurotransmission and acts as a neuromodulator. Fluorescent Zn(2+) indicators that do not penetrate membranes offer the prospect of rendering the release of Zn(2+) visible. Here, I take a critical look at fluorimetric imaging experiments devised to determine whether Zn(2+) is released and show that they are particularly susceptible to artifacts. Moreover, I will argue that recent experiments suggest that, rather than being released, Zn(2+) is presented to the extracellular space firmly coordinated to presynaptic macromolecules.

  1. Bidirectional Control of Synaptic GABAAR Clustering by Glutamate and Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Bannai, Hiroko; Niwa, Fumihiro; Sherwood, Mark W.; Shrivastava, Amulya Nidhi; Arizono, Misa; Miyamoto, Akitoshi; Sugiura, Kotomi; Lévi, Sabine; Triller, Antoine; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Summary GABAergic synaptic transmission regulates brain function by establishing the appropriate excitation-inhibition (E/I) balance in neural circuits. The structure and function of GABAergic synapses are sensitive to destabilization by impinging neurotransmitters. However, signaling mechanisms that promote the restorative homeostatic stabilization of GABAergic synapses remain unknown. Here, by quantum dot single-particle tracking, we characterize a signaling pathway that promotes the stability of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) postsynaptic organization. Slow metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling activates IP3 receptor-dependent calcium release and protein kinase C to promote GABAAR clustering and GABAergic transmission. This GABAAR stabilization pathway counteracts the rapid cluster dispersion caused by glutamate-driven NMDA receptor-dependent calcium influx and calcineurin dephosphorylation, including in conditions of pathological glutamate toxicity. These findings show that glutamate activates distinct receptors and spatiotemporal patterns of calcium signaling for opposing control of GABAergic synapses. PMID:26711343

  2. Endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity and addiction-related behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sidhpura, Nimish; Parsons, Loren H.

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) are retrograde messengers that provide feedback inhibition of both excitatory and inhibitory transmission in brain through the activation of presynaptic CB1 receptors. Substantial evidence indicates that eCBs mediate various forms of short- and long-term plasticity in brain regions involved in the etiology of addiction. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms through which eCBs mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity and discusses evidence that eCB-mediated plasticity is disrupted following exposure to a variety of abused substances that differ substantially in pharmacodynamic mechanism including alcohol, psychostimulants and cannabinoids. The possible involvement of dysregulated eCB signaling in maladaptive behaviors that evolve over long-term drug exposure is also discussed, with a particular focus on altered behavioral responses to drug exposure, deficient extinction of drug-related memories, increased drug craving and relapse, heightened stress sensitivity and persistent affective disruption (anxiety and depression). PMID:21669214

  3. Cholecystokinin-immunoreactive cells form symmetrical synaptic contacts with pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nunzi, M G; Gorio, A; Milan, F; Freund, T F; Somogyi, P; Smith, A D

    1985-07-22

    The ultrastructural features and synaptic relationships of cholecystokinin (CCK)-immunoreactive cells of rat and cat hippocampus were studied using the unlabeled antibody immunoperoxidase technique and correlated light and electron microscopy. CCK-positive perikarya of variable shape and size were distributed in all layers and were particularly concentrated in stratum pyramidale and radiatum: the CCK-immunoreactive neurons were nonpyramidal in shape and the three most common types had the morphological features of tufted, bipolar, and multipolar cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that all the CCK-positive boutons established symmetrical (Gray's type II) synaptic contacts with perikarya and dendrites of pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons. The origin of some of the boutons was established by tracing fine collaterals that arose from the main axon of two CCK-immunostained cells and terminated in the stratum pyramidale; these collaterals were then examined in the electron microscope. The axon of one such neuron exhibited a course parallel to the pyramidal layer and formed pericellular nets of synaptic boutons upon the perikarya of pyramidal neurons. This pattern of axonal arborization is very similar to that of some of the basket cells, previously suggested to be the anatomical correlate for pyramidal cell inhibition. Typical dendrites of pyramidal cells also received symmetrical synaptic contacts from CCK-immunoreactive boutons, and some of these boutons could be shown to originate from a local neuron in stratum radiatum. Many CCK-immunoreactive cells received CCK-labeled boutons upon their soma and dendritic shafts. Synaptic relationship, established by multiple "en passant" boutons, was observed between CCK-positive interneurons of the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and radiatum. The soma and dendrites of the CCK-immunostained neurons also received symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses from nonimmunoreactive boutons. These results indicate that the CCK

  4. Cytoplasmic domain of δ subunit is important for the extra-synaptic targeting of GABAA receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ayla; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Wisden, William

    2014-12-01

    GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are hetero-pentameric chloride channels and the primary sites for fast synaptic inhibition. We have expressed recombinant γ2 and δ subunits of GABA(A)Rs in cultured hippocampal neurons to analyze the membrane targeting of synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA(A)Rs, a phenomenon not well understood. Our data demonstrate that the synaptic targeting of γ2-containing GABA(A)Rs (γ2-GABA(A)Rs) does not depend on the cytoplasmic loop of γ2 subunit, in parallel with previous findings, showing that the synaptic localization of γ2-GABA(A)Rs requires the TM4 domain of γ2 rather than the large cytoplasmic loop. On the other hand, we showed here that the extrasynaptic targeting of the δ-containing GABA(A)Rs (δ-GABA(A)Rs) depends on the cytoplasmic loop of δ subunit via an active or a passive mechanism. We also show that the amino acid sequences of δ loop is highly conserved across the whole span of vertebrate evolution suggesting an active role of δ loop in extra-synaptic targeting of corresponding receptor subtypes. PMID:25233879

  5. Cytoplasmic domain of δ subunit is important for the extra-synaptic targeting of GABAA receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ayla; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Wisden, William

    2014-12-01

    GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are hetero-pentameric chloride channels and the primary sites for fast synaptic inhibition. We have expressed recombinant γ2 and δ subunits of GABA(A)Rs in cultured hippocampal neurons to analyze the membrane targeting of synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA(A)Rs, a phenomenon not well understood. Our data demonstrate that the synaptic targeting of γ2-containing GABA(A)Rs (γ2-GABA(A)Rs) does not depend on the cytoplasmic loop of γ2 subunit, in parallel with previous findings, showing that the synaptic localization of γ2-GABA(A)Rs requires the TM4 domain of γ2 rather than the large cytoplasmic loop. On the other hand, we showed here that the extrasynaptic targeting of the δ-containing GABA(A)Rs (δ-GABA(A)Rs) depends on the cytoplasmic loop of δ subunit via an active or a passive mechanism. We also show that the amino acid sequences of δ loop is highly conserved across the whole span of vertebrate evolution suggesting an active role of δ loop in extra-synaptic targeting of corresponding receptor subtypes.

  6. Spike Timing Regulation on the Millisecond Scale by Distributed Synaptic Plasticity at the Cerebellum Input Stage: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Jesús A.; Ros, Eduardo; D’Angelo, Egidio

    2013-01-01

    The way long-term synaptic plasticity regulates neuronal spike patterns is not completely understood. This issue is especially relevant for the cerebellum, which is endowed with several forms of long-term synaptic plasticity and has been predicted to operate as a timing and a learning machine. Here we have used a computational model to simulate the impact of multiple distributed synaptic weights in the cerebellar granular-layer network. In response to mossy fiber (MF) bursts, synaptic weights at multiple connections played a crucial role to regulate spike number and positioning in granule cells. The weight at MF to granule cell synapses regulated the delay of the first spike and the weight at MF and parallel fiber to Golgi cell synapses regulated the duration of the time-window during which the first-spike could be emitted. Moreover, the weights of synapses controlling Golgi cell activation regulated the intensity of granule cell inhibition and therefore the number of spikes that could be emitted. First-spike timing was regulated with millisecond precision and the number of spikes ranged from zero to three. Interestingly, different combinations of synaptic weights optimized either first-spike timing precision or spike number, efficiently controlling transmission and filtering properties. These results predict that distributed synaptic plasticity regulates the emission of quasi-digital spike patterns on the millisecond time-scale and allows the cerebellar granular layer to flexibly control burst transmission along the MF pathway. PMID:23720626

  7. The transformation of synaptic to system plasticity in motor output from the sacral cord of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingchen C; Elbasiouny, Sherif M; Collins, William F; Heckman, C J

    2015-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity is fundamental in shaping the output of neural networks. The transformation of synaptic plasticity at the cellular level into plasticity at the system level involves multiple factors, including behavior of local networks of interneurons. Here we investigate the synaptic to system transformation for plasticity in motor output in an in vitro preparation of the adult mouse spinal cord. System plasticity was assessed from compound action potentials (APs) in spinal ventral roots, which were generated simultaneously by the axons of many motoneurons (MNs). Synaptic plasticity was assessed from intracellular recordings of MNs. A computer model of the MN pool was used to identify the middle steps in the transformation from synaptic to system behavior. Two input systems that converge on the same MN pool were studied: one sensory and one descending. The two synaptic input systems generated very different motor outputs, with sensory stimulation consistently evoking short-term depression (STD) whereas descending stimulation had bimodal plasticity: STD at low frequencies but short-term facilitation (STF) at high frequencies. Intracellular and pharmacological studies revealed contributions from monosynaptic excitation and stimulus time-locked inhibition but also considerable asynchronous excitation sustained from local network activity. The computer simulations showed that STD in the monosynaptic excitatory input was the primary driver of the system STD in the sensory input whereas network excitation underlies the bimodal plasticity in the descending system. These results provide insight on the roles of plasticity in the monosynaptic and polysynaptic inputs converging on the same MN pool to overall motor plasticity.

  8. Age-dependent enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons via GluR5 kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Cui, Changhai; Alkon, Daniel L

    2009-08-01

    Changes in hippocampal synaptic networks during aging may contribute to age-dependent compromise of cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Previous studies have demonstrated that GABAergic synaptic transmission exhibits age-dependent changes. To better understand such age-dependent changes of GABAergic synaptic inhibition, we performed whole-cell recordings from pyramidal cells in the CA1 area of acute hippocampal slices on aged (24-26 months old) and young (2-4 months old) Brown-Norway rats. We found that the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSCs) were significantly increased in aged rats, but the frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs were decreased. Furthermore, the regulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by GluR5 containing kainate receptors was enhanced in aged rats, which was revealed by using LY382884 (a GluR5 kainate receptor antagonist) and ATPA (a GluR5 kainate receptor agonist). Moreover, we demonstrated that vesicular glutamate transporters are involved in the kainate receptor dependent regulation of sIPSCs. Taken together, these results suggest that GABAergic synaptic transmission is potentiated in aged rats, and GluR5 containing kainate receptors regulate the inhibitory synaptic transmission through endogenous glutamate. These alterations of GABAergic input with aging could contribute to age-dependent cognitive decline. PMID:19123252

  9. Flexible Proton-Gated Oxide Synaptic Transistors on Si Membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Gao, Ping Qi; Liu, Yang Hui; Xiao, Hui; Ye, Ji Chun; Wan, Qing

    2016-08-24

    Ion-conducting materials have received considerable attention for their applications in fuel cells, electrochemical devices, and sensors. Here, flexible indium zinc oxide (InZnO) synaptic transistors with multiple presynaptic inputs gated by proton-conducting phosphorosilicate glass-based electrolyte films are fabricated on ultrathin Si membranes. Transient characteristics of the proton gated InZnO synaptic transistors are investigated, indicating stable proton-gating behaviors. Short-term synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proposed proton-gated synaptic transistors. Furthermore, synaptic integration regulations are mimicked on the proposed synaptic transistor networks. Spiking logic modulations are realized based on the transition between superlinear and sublinear synaptic integration. The multigates coupled flexible proton-gated oxide synaptic transistors may be interesting for neuroinspired platforms with sophisticated spatiotemporal information processing. PMID:27471861

  10. Impact of Synaptic Neurotransmitter Concentration Time Course on the Kinetics and Pharmacological Modulation of Inhibitory Synaptic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Barberis, Andrea; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2011-01-01

    The time course of synaptic currents is a crucial determinant of rapid signaling between neurons. Traditionally, the mechanisms underlying the shape of synaptic signals are classified as pre- and post-synaptic. Over the last two decades, an extensive body of evidence indicated that synaptic signals are critically shaped by the neurotransmitter time course which encompasses several phenomena including pre- and post-synaptic ones. The agonist transient depends on neurotransmitter release mechanisms, diffusion within the synaptic cleft, spill-over to the extra-synaptic space, uptake, and binding to post-synaptic receptors. Most estimates indicate that the neurotransmitter transient is very brief, lasting between one hundred up to several hundreds of microseconds, implying that post-synaptic activation is characterized by a high degree of non-equilibrium. Moreover, pharmacological studies provide evidence that the kinetics of agonist transient plays a crucial role in setting the susceptibility of synaptic currents to modulation by a variety of compounds of physiological or clinical relevance. More recently, the role of the neurotransmitter time course has been emphasized by studies carried out on brain slice models that revealed a striking, cell-dependent variability of synaptic agonist waveforms ranging from rapid pulses to slow volume transmission. In the present paper we review the advances on studies addressing the impact of synaptic neurotransmitter transient on kinetics and pharmacological modulation of synaptic currents at inhibitory synapses. PMID:21734864

  11. A synaptic signature for ON- and OFF-center parasol ganglion cells of the primate retina

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Joanna D.; Packer, Orin S.; Dacey, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    In the primate retina, parasol ganglion cells contribute to the primary visual pathway via the magnocellular division of the lateral geniculate nucleus, display ON and OFF concentric receptive field structure, nonlinear spatial summation, and high achromatic temporal–contrast sensitivity. Parasol cells may be homologous to the alpha-Y cells of nonprimate mammals where evidence suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic excitation as well as glycinergic disinhibition play critical roles in contrast sensitivity, acting asymmetrically in OFF- but not ON-pathways. Here, light-evoked synaptic currents were recorded in the macaque monkey retina in vitro to examine the circuitry underlying parasol cell receptive field properties. Synaptic excitation in both ON and OFF types was mediated by NMDA as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate glutamate receptors. The NMDA-mediated current–voltage relationship suggested high Mg2+ affinity such that at physiological potentials, NMDA receptors contributed ~20% of the total excitatory conductance evoked by moderate stimulus contrasts and temporal frequencies. Postsynaptic inhibition in both ON and OFF cells was dominated by a large glycinergic “crossover” conductance, with a relatively small contribution from GABAergic feedforward inhibition. However, crossover inhibition was largely rectified, greatly diminished at low stimulus contrasts, and did not contribute, via disinhibition, to contrast sensitivity. In addition, attenuation of GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic inhibition left center–surround and Y-type receptive field structure and high temporal sensitivity fundamentally intact and clearly derived from modulation of excitatory bipolar cell output. Thus, the characteristic spatial and temporal–contrast sensitivity of the primate parasol cell arises presynaptically and is governed primarily by modulation of the large AMPA/kainate receptor

  12. NMDA currents modulate the synaptic input-output functions of neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Porres, Christian P; Meyer, Elisabeth M M; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2011-03-23

    Neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary complex (SOC) and convey GABAergic inhibition to the contralateral DNLL and the inferior colliculi. Unlike the fast glycinergic inhibition in the SOC, this GABAergic inhibition outlasts auditory stimulation by tens of milliseconds. Two mechanisms have been postulated to explain this persistent inhibition. One, an "integration-based" mechanism, suggests that postsynaptic excitatory integration in DNLL neurons generates prolonged activity, and the other favors the synaptic time course of the DNLL output itself. The feasibility of the integration-based mechanism was tested in vitro in DNLL neurons of Mongolian gerbils by quantifying the cellular excitability and synaptic input-output functions (IO-Fs). All neurons were sustained firing and generated a near monotonic IO-F on current injections. From synaptic stimulations, we estimate that activation of approximately five fibers, each on average liberating ∼18 vesicles, is sufficient to trigger a single postsynaptic action potential. A strong single pulse of afferent fiber stimulation triggered multiple postsynaptic action potentials. The steepness of the synaptic IO-F was dependent on the synaptic NMDA component. The synaptic NMDA receptor current defines the slope of the synaptic IO-F by enhancing the temporal and spatial EPSP summation. Blocking this NMDA-dependent amplification during postsynaptic integration of train stimulations resulted into a ∼20% reduction of the decay time course of the GABAergic inhibition. Thus, our data show that the NMDA-dependent amplification of the postsynaptic activity contributes to the GABAergic persistent inhibition generated by DNLL neurons.

  13. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Liu, Zongbin; Zhang, Kai; Han, Xin; Saito, Yuki; Xia, Xiaojun; Yokoi, Kenji; Shen, Haifa; Qin, Lidong

    2015-08-28

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demonstrated by administration of glycinergic factors. In addition, an image-based analytical method was used to quantify the synaptic connections and to assess the kinetics of synaptic regeneration. The rate of RSR decreased significantly below 100 μM of inhibitor glycine and then approached to a relatively constant level at higher concentrations. Furthermore, RSR was enhanced by chemical stimulation with potassium chloride. Collectively, the microfluidic synaptic regeneration chip provides a novel tool for high-throughput investigation of RSR at the cellular level and may be useful in quality control of retinal precursor cell transplantation.

  14. Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by BDNF.

    PubMed

    Leal, Graciano; Afonso, Pedro M; Salazar, Ivan L; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-24

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a major regulator of activity-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses in the mammalian central nervous system. In particular, much attention has been given to the role of the neurotrophin in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a sustained enhancement of excitatory synaptic strength believed to underlie learning and memory processes. In this review we summarize the evidence pointing to a role for BDNF in generating functional and structural changes at synapses required for both early- and late phases of LTP in the hippocampus. The available information regarding the pre- and/or postsynaptic release of BDNF and action of the neurotrophin during LTP will be also reviewed. Finally, we discuss the effects of BDNF on the synaptic proteome, either by acting on the protein synthesis machinery and/or by regulating protein degradation by calpains and possibly by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). This fine-tuned control of the synaptic proteome rather than a simple upregulation of the protein synthesis may play a key role in BDNF-mediated synaptic potentiation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID:25451089

  15. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ping-Jung; Liu, Zongbin; Zhang, Kai; Han, Xin; Saito, Yuki; Xia, Xiaojun; Yokoi, Kenji; Shen, Haifa; Qin, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demonstrated by administration of glycinergic factors. In addition, an image-based analytical method was used to quantify the synaptic connections and to assess the kinetics of synaptic regeneration. The rate of RSR decreased significantly below 100 μM of inhibitor glycine and then approached to a relatively constant level at higher concentrations. Furthermore, RSR was enhanced by chemical stimulation with potassium chloride. Collectively, the microfluidic synaptic regeneration chip provides a novel tool for high-throughput investigation of RSR at the cellular level and may be useful in quality control of retinal precursor cell transplantation. PMID:26314276

  16. A synaptic mechanism for network synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Simon T.; Alpert, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Within neural networks, synchronization of activity is dependent upon the synaptic connectivity of embedded microcircuits and the intrinsic membrane properties of their constituent neurons. Synaptic integration, dendritic Ca2+ signaling, and non-linear interactions are crucial cellular attributes that dictate single neuron computation, but their roles promoting synchrony and the generation of network oscillations are not well understood, especially within the context of a defined behavior. In this regard, the lamprey spinal central pattern generator (CPG) stands out as a well-characterized, conserved vertebrate model of a neural network (Smith et al., 2013a), which produces synchronized oscillations in which neural elements from the systems to cellular level that control rhythmic locomotion have been determined. We review the current evidence for the synaptic basis of oscillation generation with a particular emphasis on the linkage between synaptic communication and its cellular coupling to membrane processes that control oscillatory behavior of neurons within the locomotor network. We seek to relate dendritic function found in many vertebrate systems to the accessible lamprey central nervous system in which the relationship between neural network activity and behavior is well understood. This enables us to address how Ca2+ signaling in spinal neuron dendrites orchestrate oscillations that drive network behavior. PMID:25278839

  17. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Liu, Zongbin; Zhang, Kai; Han, Xin; Saito, Yuki; Xia, Xiaojun; Yokoi, Kenji; Shen, Haifa; Qin, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demonstrated by administration of glycinergic factors. In addition, an image-based analytical method was used to quantify the synaptic connections and to assess the kinetics of synaptic regeneration. The rate of RSR decreased significantly below 100 μM of inhibitor glycine and then approached to a relatively constant level at higher concentrations. Furthermore, RSR was enhanced by chemical stimulation with potassium chloride. Collectively, the microfluidic synaptic regeneration chip provides a novel tool for high-throughput investigation of RSR at the cellular level and may be useful in quality control of retinal precursor cell transplantation. PMID:26314276

  18. Noradrenergic Modulation of Intrinsic and Synaptic Properties of Lumbar Motoneurons in the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Tartas, Maylis; Morin, France; Barrière, Grégory; Goillandeau, Michel; Lacaille, Jean-Claude; Cazalets, Jean-René; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is known that noradrenaline (NA) powerfully controls spinal motor networks, few data are available regarding the noradrenergic (NAergic) modulation of intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons in motor networks. Our work explores the cellular basis of NAergic modulation in the rat motor spinal cord. We first show that lumbar motoneurons express the three classes of adrenergic receptors at birth. Using patch-clamp recordings in the newborn rat spinal cord preparation, we characterized the effects of NA and of specific agonists of the three classes of adrenoreceptors on motoneuron membrane properties. NA increases the motoneuron excitability partly via the inhibition of a KIR like current. Methoxamine (α1), clonidine (α2) and isoproterenol (β) differentially modulate the motoneuron membrane potential but also increase motoneuron excitability, these effects being respectively inhibited by the antagonists prazosin (α1), yohimbine (α2) and propranolol (β). We show that the glutamatergic synaptic drive arising from the T13-L2 network is enhanced in motoneurons by NA, methoxamine and isoproterenol. On the other hand, NA, isoproterenol and clonidine inhibit both the frequency and amplitude of miniature glutamatergic EPSCs while methoxamine increases their frequency. The T13-L2 synaptic drive is thereby differentially modulated from the other glutamatergic synapses converging onto motoneurons and enhanced by presynaptic α1 and β receptor activation. Our data thus show that the NAergic system exerts a powerful and complex neuromodulation of lumbar motor networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord. PMID:20300468

  19. Synaptic gating and ADHD: a biological theory of comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Levy, Florence

    2004-09-01

    To derive a biologically based theory of comorbidity in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Theoretical concepts and empirical studies were reviewed to determine whether the behavioral inhibition concept provided an understanding of biological processes involved in comorbidity in ADHD. Empirical studies of ADHD have shown comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety, while studies of behavioral inhibition tend to suggest independent disruptive and anxiety traits. This paradox can be resolved by an understanding of the dynamics of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems, where reward and delay of reinforcement are determined by tonic/phasic DA relationships, resulting in impulsive 'fearless' responses when impaired. On the other hand, comorbid anxiety is related to impaired synaptic processes, which selectively gate fear (or aggressive) responses from the amygdala at the accumbens. Monosynaptic convergence between prefrontal, hippocampal, and amygdala projection neurons at the accumbens allows the operation of a synaptic gating mechanism between prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Impairment of this mechanism by lowered PFC inhibition allows greater amygdala input, and anxiety-related processes more impact, over the accumbens. In conclusion, a dual theory incorporating long-term tonic/phasic mesolimbic DA relationships and secondly impairment of PFC and hippocampal inputs to synaptic gating of anxiety at the accumbens has implications for comorbidity in ADHD, as well as for possible pharmacological interventions, utilizing either stimulant or axiolytic interventions. The use of DA partial agonists may also be of interest.

  20. Endocannabinoids in Synaptic Plasticity and Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian-Yi; Chen, Chu

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous lipid mediators involved in a variety of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological processes. While activation of the eCB system primarily induces inhibitory effects on both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity through acting on presynaptically-expressed CB1 receptors in the brain, accumulated information suggests that eCB signaling is also capable of facilitating or potentiating excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Recent studies show that a long-lasting potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses is induced by spatiotemporally primed inputs, accompanying with a long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission (I-LTD) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. This input-timing-dependent long-lasting synaptic potentiation at SC-CA1 synapses is mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) signaling triggered by activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and a concurrent rise in intracellular Ca2+. Emerging evidence now also indicates that 2-AG is an important signaling mediator keeping brain homeostasis by exerting its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in response to harmful insults through CB1/2 receptor-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Activation of the nuclear receptor protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) apparently is one of the important mechanisms in resolving neuroinflammation and protecting neurons produced by 2-AG signaling. Thus, the information summarized in this review suggests that the role of eCB signaling in maintaining integrity of brain function is greater than what we thought previously. PMID:24571856

  1. Identifying and Tracking Simulated Synaptic Inputs from Neuronal Firing: Insights from In Vitro Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Volgushev, Maxim; Ilin, Vladimir; Stevenson, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately describing synaptic interactions between neurons and how interactions change over time are key challenges for systems neuroscience. Although intracellular electrophysiology is a powerful tool for studying synaptic integration and plasticity, it is limited by the small number of neurons that can be recorded simultaneously in vitro and by the technical difficulty of intracellular recording in vivo. One way around these difficulties may be to use large-scale extracellular recording of spike trains and apply statistical methods to model and infer functional connections between neurons. These techniques have the potential to reveal large-scale connectivity structure based on the spike timing alone. However, the interpretation of functional connectivity is often approximate, since only a small fraction of presynaptic inputs are typically observed. Here we use in vitro current injection in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons to validate methods for inferring functional connectivity in a setting where input to the neuron is controlled. In experiments with partially-defined input, we inject a single simulated input with known amplitude on a background of fluctuating noise. In a fully-defined input paradigm, we then control the synaptic weights and timing of many simulated presynaptic neurons. By analyzing the firing of neurons in response to these artificial inputs, we ask 1) How does functional connectivity inferred from spikes relate to simulated synaptic input? and 2) What are the limitations of connectivity inference? We find that individual current-based synaptic inputs are detectable over a broad range of amplitudes and conditions. Detectability depends on input amplitude and output firing rate, and excitatory inputs are detected more readily than inhibitory. Moreover, as we model increasing numbers of presynaptic inputs, we are able to estimate connection strengths more accurately and detect the presence of connections more quickly. These results illustrate the

  2. Estimating synaptic parameters from mean, variance, and covariance in trains of synaptic responses.

    PubMed Central

    Scheuss, V; Neher, E

    2001-01-01

    Fluctuation analysis of synaptic transmission using the variance-mean approach has been restricted in the past to steady-state responses. Here we extend this method to short repetitive trains of synaptic responses, during which the response amplitudes are not stationary. We consider intervals between trains, long enough so that the system is in the same average state at the beginning of each train. This allows analysis of ensemble means and variances for each response in a train separately. Thus, modifications in synaptic efficacy during short-term plasticity can be attributed to changes in synaptic parameters. In addition, we provide practical guidelines for the analysis of the covariance between successive responses in trains. Explicit algorithms to estimate synaptic parameters are derived and tested by Monte Carlo simulations on the basis of a binomial model of synaptic transmission, allowing for quantal variability, heterogeneity in the release probability, and postsynaptic receptor saturation and desensitization. We find that the combined analysis of variance and covariance is advantageous in yielding an estimate for the number of release sites, which is independent of heterogeneity in the release probability under certain conditions. Furthermore, it allows one to calculate the apparent quantal size for each response in a sequence of stimuli. PMID:11566771

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) influences spatial cognition and modulates hippocampal structural synaptic plasticity in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Zhanchi; Kang, Lin; Geng, Dandan; Wang, Yanyong; Wang, Mingwei; Cui, Huixian

    2014-10-01

    Normal aging is characteristic with the gradual decline in cognitive function associated with the progressive reduction of structural and functional plasticity in the hippocampus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has developed into a novel neurological and psychiatric tool that can be used to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive function. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-frequency rTMS (≤1Hz) affects synaptic plasticity in rats with vascular dementia (VaD), and it ameliorates the spatial cognitive ability in mice with Aβ1-42-mediated memory deficits, but there are little concerns about the effects of rTMS on normal aging related cognition and synaptic plasticity changes. Thus, the current study investigated the effects of rTMS on spatial memory behavior, neuron and synapse morphology in the hippocampus, and synaptic protein markers and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in normal aging mice, to illustrate the mechanisms of rTMS in regulating cognitive capacity. Relative to adult animals, aging caused hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairment, simultaneously inhibited the activation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway, reduced the transcription and expression of synaptic protein markers: synaptophysin (SYN), growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), as well as decreased synapse density and PSD (post-synaptic density) thickness. Interestingly, rTMS with low intensity (110% average resting motor threshold intensity, 1Hz, LIMS) triggered the activation of BDNF and TrkB, upregulated the level of synaptic protein markers, and increased synapse density and thickened PSD, and further reversed the spatial cognition dysfunction in aging mice. Conversely, high-intensity magnetic stimulation (150% average resting motor threshold intensity, 1Hz, HIMS) appeared to be detrimental, inducing thinning of PSDs, disordered synaptic structure, and a large number of

  4. Proteasome Modulates Positive and Negative Translational Regulators in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chenghai; Bach, Svitlana V.; Haynes, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway appears to have a complex role in synaptic plasticity, but its various functions remain to be elucidated. Using late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampus of the mouse as a model for long-term synaptic plasticity, we previously showed that inhibition of the proteasome enhances induction but blocks maintenance of L-LTP. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which proteasome inhibition has opposite effects on L-LTP induction and maintenance. Our results show that inhibiting phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase or blocking the interaction between eukaryotic initiation factors 4E (eIF4E) and 4G (eIF4G) reduces the enhancement of L-LTP induction brought about by proteasome inhibition suggesting interplay between proteolysis and the signaling pathway mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Also, proteasome inhibition leads to accumulation of translational activators in the mTOR pathway such as eIF4E and eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) early during L-LTP causing increased induction. Furthermore, inhibition of the proteasome causes a buildup of translational repressors, such as polyadenylate-binding protein interacting protein 2 (Paip2) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 (4E-BP2), during late stages of L-LTP contributing to the blockade of L-LTP maintenance. Thus, the proteasome plays a critical role in regulating protein synthesis during L-LTP by tightly controlling translation. Our results provide novel mechanistic insights into the interplay between protein degradation and protein synthesis in long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24573276

  5. SAD-B Phosphorylation of CAST Controls Active Zone Vesicle Recycling for Synaptic Depression.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Sumiko; Hida, Yamato; Tanifuji, Shota; Hagiwara, Akari; Hamada, Shun; Abe, Manabu; Ma, Huan; Yasumura, Misato; Kitajima, Isao; Sakimura, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa

    2016-09-13

    Short-term synaptic depression (STD) is a common form of activity-dependent plasticity observed widely in the nervous system. Few molecular pathways that control STD have been described, but the active zone (AZ) release apparatus provides a possible link between neuronal activity and plasticity. Here, we show that an AZ cytomatrix protein CAST and an AZ-associated protein kinase SAD-B coordinately regulate STD by controlling reloading of the AZ with release-ready synaptic vesicles. SAD-B phosphorylates the N-terminal serine (S45) of CAST, and S45 phosphorylation increases with higher firing rate. A phosphomimetic CAST (S45D) mimics CAST deletion, which enhances STD by delaying reloading of the readily releasable pool (RRP), resulting in a pool size decrease. A phosphonegative CAST (S45A) inhibits STD and accelerates RRP reloading. Our results suggest that the CAST/SAD-B reaction serves as a brake on synaptic transmission by temporal calibration of activity and synaptic depression via RRP size regulation. PMID:27626661

  6. Progressive synaptic pathology of motor cortical neurons in a BAC transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Spampanato, J; Gu, X; Yang, X W; Mody, I

    2008-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in huntingtin. A newly developed bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model (BACHD) reproduces phenotypic features of HD including predominantly neuropil-associated protein aggregation and progressive motor dysfunction with selective neurodegenerative pathology. Motor dysfunction has been shown to precede neuropathology in BACHD mice. We therefore investigated the progression of synaptic pathology in pyramidal cells and interneurons of the superficial motor cortex of BACHD mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed on layer 2/3 primary motor cortical pyramidal cells and parvalbumin interneurons from BACHD mice at 3 months, when the mice begin to demonstrate mild motor dysfunction, and at 6 months, when the motor dysfunction is more severe. Changes in synaptic variances were detectable at 3 months, and at 6 months BACHD mice display progressive synaptic pathology in the form of reduced cortical excitation and loss of inhibition onto pyramidal cells. These results suggest that progressive alterations of the superficial cortical circuitry may contribute to the decline of motor function in BACHD mice. The synaptic pathology occurs prior to neuronal degeneration and may therefore prove useful as a target for future therapeutic design. PMID:18854207

  7. SAD-B Phosphorylation of CAST Controls Active Zone Vesicle Recycling for Synaptic Depression.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Sumiko; Hida, Yamato; Tanifuji, Shota; Hagiwara, Akari; Hamada, Shun; Abe, Manabu; Ma, Huan; Yasumura, Misato; Kitajima, Isao; Sakimura, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa

    2016-09-13

    Short-term synaptic depression (STD) is a common form of activity-dependent plasticity observed widely in the nervous system. Few molecular pathways that control STD have been described, but the active zone (AZ) release apparatus provides a possible link between neuronal activity and plasticity. Here, we show that an AZ cytomatrix protein CAST and an AZ-associated protein kinase SAD-B coordinately regulate STD by controlling reloading of the AZ with release-ready synaptic vesicles. SAD-B phosphorylates the N-terminal serine (S45) of CAST, and S45 phosphorylation increases with higher firing rate. A phosphomimetic CAST (S45D) mimics CAST deletion, which enhances STD by delaying reloading of the readily releasable pool (RRP), resulting in a pool size decrease. A phosphonegative CAST (S45A) inhibits STD and accelerates RRP reloading. Our results suggest that the CAST/SAD-B reaction serves as a brake on synaptic transmission by temporal calibration of activity and synaptic depression via RRP size regulation.

  8. GABAA receptor antagonism ameliorates behavioral and synaptic impairments associated with MeCP2 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Na, Elisa S; Morris, Michael J; Nelson, Erika D; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulator with functional importance in the central nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations in MECP2 results in the neurodevelopmental disorder, Rett syndrome, whereas increased expression levels are associated with the neurological disorder, MECP2 duplication syndrome. Previous characterization of a mouse line overexpressing Mecp2 demonstrated that this model recapitulated key behavioral features of MECP2 duplication syndrome with specific deficits in synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. Alterations in excitation/inhibition balance have been suggested to underlie neurodevelopmental disorders with recent data suggesting that picrotoxin (PTX), a GABAA receptor antagonist, rescues certain behavioral and synaptic phenotypes in a mouse model of Down syndrome. We therefore examined whether a similar treatment regimen would impact the behavioral and synaptic phenotypes in a mouse model of MECP2 duplication syndrome. We report that chronic treatment with low doses of PTX ameliorates specific behavioral phenotypes, including motor coordination, episodic memory impairments, and synaptic plasticity deficits. These findings suggest that GABAA receptor antagonists may offer a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of MECP2 duplication syndrome.

  9. Structural Basis of Arc Binding to Synaptic Proteins: Implications for Cognitive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenchi; Wu, Jing; Ward, Matthew D.; Yang, Sunggu; Chuang, Yang-An; Xiao, Meifang; Li, Ruojing; Leahy, Daniel J.; Worley, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Arc is a cellular immediate early gene (IEG) that functions at excitatory synapses and is required for learning and memory. We report crystal structures of Arc subdomains that form a bi-lobar architecture remarkably similar to the capsid domain of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag protein. Analysis indicates Arc originated from the Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposon family and was “domesticated” in higher vertebrates for synaptic functions. The Arc N-terminal lobe evolved a unique hydrophobic pocket that mediates intermolecular binding with synaptic proteins as resolved in complexes with TARPγ2 (Stargazin) and CaMKII peptides, and is essential for Arc’s synaptic function. A consensus sequence for Arc binding identifies several additional partners that include genes implicated in schizophrenia. Arc N-lobe binding is inhibited by small chemicals suggesting Arc’s synaptic action may be druggable. These studies reveal the remarkable evolutionary origin of Arc and provide a structural basis for understanding Arc’s contribution to neural plasticity and disease. PMID:25864631

  10. Cholinergic dysfunction alters synaptic integration between thalamostriatal and corticostriatal inputs in DYT1 dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Sciamanna, G.; Tassone, A.; Mandolesi, G.; Puglisi, F.; Ponterio, G.; Martella, G.; Madeo, G.; Bernardi, G.; Standaert, D.G.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

    2012-01-01

    Projections from thalamic intralaminar nuclei convey sensory signals to striatal cholinergic interneurons. These neurons respond with a pause in their pacemaking activity, enabling synaptic integration with cortical inputs to medium spiny neurons (MSNs), thus playing a crucial role in motor function. In mice with the DYT1 dystonia mutation, stimulation of thalamostriatal axons, mimicking a response to salient events, evoked a shortened pause and triggered an abnormal spiking activity in interneurons. This altered pattern caused a significant rearrangement of the temporal sequence of synaptic activity mediated by M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors in MSNs, consisting of an increase in postsynaptic currents and a decrease of presynaptic inhibition, respectively. Consistent with a major role of acetylcholine, either lowering cholinergic tone or antagonizing postsynaptic M1 muscarinic receptors normalized synaptic activity. Our data demonstrate an abnormal time-window for synaptic integration between thalamostriatal and corticostriatal inputs which might alter the action selection process, thereby predisposing DYT1 gene mutation carriers to develop dystonic movements. PMID:22933784

  11. Effects of testosterone on synaptic plasticity mediated by androgen receptors in male SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jian-Xin; Cui, Cheng-Li; Yan, Xu-Sheng; Zhang, Bai-Feng; Song, Wei; Huo, Dong-Sheng; Wang, He; Yang, Zhan-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic changes are closely associated with cognitive deficits. In addition, testosterone (T) is known to exert regulative effects on synaptic plasticity. T may improve cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but the underlying mechanisms of androgenic action on cognitive performance remain unclear. The aim of this study was thus to examine the protective mechanism attributed to T on cognitive performance in an AD senescence, accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) animal model. Using Golgi staining to quantify the dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 region, molecular biomarkers of synapse function were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western blot. T significantly increased the dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 region, while flutamide (F) inhibited these T-mediated effects. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), and p-cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB)/CREB levels were significantly elevated in the T group, but F reduced the T-induced effects in these biomarkers to control levels. There were no significant differences in the expression levels of PSD-95, BDNF, and p-CREB/CREB between C and F. These findings indicate that the effects of T on improvement in synaptic plasticity were mediated via androgen receptor (AR). It is conceivable that new treatments targeted toward preventing synaptic pathology in AD may involve the use of androgen-acting drugs. PMID:27599230

  12. Suppression of synaptic plasticity by fullerenol in rat hippocampus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-Xing; Zha, Ying-Ying; Yang, Bo; Chen, Lin; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenol, a water-soluble fullerene derivative, has attracted much attention due to its bioactive properties, including the antioxidative properties and free radical scavenging ability. Due to its superior nature, fullerenol represents a promising diagnostic, therapeutic, and protective agent. Therefore, elucidation of the possible side effects of fullerenol is important in determining its potential role. In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 5 μM fullerenol on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal brain slices of rats. Incubation with fullerenol for 20 minutes significantly decreased the peak of paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, indicating that fullerenol suppresses the short- and long-term synaptic plasticity of region I of hippocampus. We found that fullerenol depressed the activity and the expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase in hippocampus. In view of the important role of NO in synaptic plasticity, the inhibition of fullerenol on NO synthase may contribute to the suppression of synaptic plasticity. These findings may facilitate the evaluation of the side effects of fullerenol. PMID:27729790

  13. SNARE Zippering and Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Prashad, Rene C.; Charlton, Milton P.

    2014-01-01

    Synapses vary widely in the probability of neurotransmitter release. We tested the hypothesis that the zippered state of the trans-SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptor) complex determines initial release probability. We tested this hypothesis at phasic and tonic synapses which differ by 100-1000-fold in neurotransmitter release probability. We injected, presynaptically, three Clostridial neurotoxins which bind and cleave at different sites on VAMP to determine whether these sites were occluded by the zippering of the SNARE complex or open to proteolytic attack. Under low stimulation conditions, the catalytic light-chain fragment of botulinum B (BoNT/B-LC) inhibited evoked release at both phasic and tonic synapses and cleaved VAMP; however, neither BoNT/D-LC nor tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT-LC) were effective in these conditions. The susceptibility of VAMP to only BoNT/B-LC indicated that SNARE complexes at both phasic and tonic synapses were partially zippered only at the N-terminal end to approximately the zero-layer with the C-terminal end exposed under resting state. Therefore, the existence of the same partially zippered state of the trans-SNARE complex at both phasic and tonic synapses indicates that release probability is not determined solely by the zippered state of the trans-SNARE complex at least to the zero-layer. PMID:24747882

  14. Alteration in synaptic junction proteins following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Lucia; Cimino, Francesco; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; La Torre, Domenico; Conti, Alfredo; Cardali, Salvatore Massimiliano; Saija, Antonella; Germanò, Antonino

    2014-08-15

    Extensive research and scientific efforts have been focused on the elucidation of the pathobiology of cellular and axonal damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Conversely, few studies have specifically addressed the issue of synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic junction proteins may be involved in post-TBI alterations, leading to synaptic loss or disrupted plasticity. A Synapse Protein Database on synapse ontology identified 109 domains implicated in synaptic activities and over 5000 proteins, but few of these demonstrated to play a role in the synaptic dysfunction after TBI. These proteins are involved in neuroplasticity and neuromodulation and, most importantly, may be used as novel neuronal markers of TBI for specific intervention.

  15. Abnormal Synaptic Vesicle Biogenesis in Drosophila Synaptogyrin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin J.; Akbergenova, Yulia; Jorquera, Ramon A.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2012-01-01

    Sustained neuronal communication relies on the coordinated activity of multiple proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling within the presynaptic terminal. Synaptogyrin and synaptophysin are conserved MARVEL domain-containing transmembrane proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle constituents, although their role in the synaptic vesicle cycle has remained elusive. To further investigate the function of these proteins, we generated and characterized a synaptogyrin (gyr) null mutant in Drosophila, whose genome encodes a single synaptogyrin isoform and lacks a synaptophysin homolog. We demonstrate that Drosophila synaptogyrin plays a modulatory role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis at larval neuromuscular junctions. Drosophila lacking synaptogyrin are viable and fertile and have no overt deficits in motor function. However, ultrastructural analysis of gyr larvae revealed increased synaptic vesicle diameter and enhanced variability in the size of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the resolution of endocytic cisternae into synaptic vesicles in response to strong stimulation is defective in gyr mutants. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated an increase in quantal size and a concomitant decrease in quantal content, suggesting functional consequences for transmission caused by the loss of synaptogyrin. Furthermore, high-frequency stimulation resulted in increased facilitation and a delay in recovery from synaptic depression, indicating that synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis is abnormally regulated during intense stimulation conditions. These results suggest that synaptogyrin modulates the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytic cycle and is required for the proper biogenesis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. PMID:23238721

  16. Carbon Nanotube Synaptic Transistor Network for Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Hee-Dong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-11-18

    Inspired by the human brain, a neuromorphic system combining complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and adjustable synaptic devices may offer new computing paradigms by enabling massive neural-network parallelism. In particular, synaptic devices, which are capable of emulating the functions of biological synapses, are used as the essential building blocks for an information storage and processing system. However, previous synaptic devices based on two-terminal resistive devices remain challenging because of their variability and specific physical mechanisms of resistance change, which lead to a bottleneck in the implementation of a high-density synaptic device network. Here we report that a three-terminal synaptic transistor based on carbon nanotubes can provide reliable synaptic functions that encode relative timing and regulate weight change. In addition, using system-level simulations, the developed synaptic transistor network associated with CMOS circuits can perform unsupervised learning for pattern recognition using a simplified spike-timing-dependent plasticity scheme.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Synaptic Transistor Network for Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Hee-Dong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-11-18

    Inspired by the human brain, a neuromorphic system combining complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and adjustable synaptic devices may offer new computing paradigms by enabling massive neural-network parallelism. In particular, synaptic devices, which are capable of emulating the functions of biological synapses, are used as the essential building blocks for an information storage and processing system. However, previous synaptic devices based on two-terminal resistive devices remain challenging because of their variability and specific physical mechanisms of resistance change, which lead to a bottleneck in the implementation of a high-density synaptic device network. Here we report that a three-terminal synaptic transistor based on carbon nanotubes can provide reliable synaptic functions that encode relative timing and regulate weight change. In addition, using system-level simulations, the developed synaptic transistor network associated with CMOS circuits can perform unsupervised learning for pattern recognition using a simplified spike-timing-dependent plasticity scheme. PMID:26512729

  18. Regulation of synaptic connectivity: levels of Fasciclin II influence synaptic growth in the Drosophila CNS.

    PubMed

    Baines, Richard A; Seugnet, Laurent; Thompson, Annemarie; Salvaterra, Paul M; Bate, Michael

    2002-08-01

    Much of our understanding of synaptogenesis comes from studies that deal with the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Although well studied, it is not clear how far the NMJ represents an adequate model for the formation of synapses within the CNS. Here we investigate the role of Fasciclin II (Fas II) in the development of synapses between identified motor neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Fas II is a neural cell adhesion molecule homolog that is involved in both target selection and synaptic plasticity at the NMJ in Drosophila. In this study, we show that levels of Fas II are critical determinants of synapse formation and growth in the CNS. The initial establishment of synaptic contacts between these identified neurons is seemingly independent of Fas II. The subsequent proliferation of these synaptic connections that occurs postembryonically is, in contrast, significantly retarded by the absence of Fas II. Although the initial formation of synaptic connectivity between these neurons is seemingly independent of Fas II, we show that their formation is, nevertheless, significantly affected by manipulations that alter the relative balance of Fas II in the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Increasing expression of Fas II in either the presynaptic or postsynaptic neurons, during embryogenesis, is sufficient to disrupt the normal level of synaptic connectivity that occurs between these neurons. This effect of Fas II is isoform specific and, moreover, phenocopies the disruption to synaptic connectivity observed previously after tetanus toxin light chain-dependent blockade of evoked synaptic vesicle release in these neurons. PMID:12151538

  19. Spontaneous network activity and synaptic development

    PubMed Central

    Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Throughout development, the nervous system produces patterned spontaneous activity. Research over the last two decades has revealed a core group of mechanisms that mediate spontaneous activity in diverse circuits. Many circuits engage several of these mechanisms sequentially to accommodate developmental changes in connectivity. In addition to shared mechanisms, activity propagates through developing circuits and neuronal pathways (i.e. linked circuits in different brain areas) in stereotypic patterns. Increasing evidence suggests that spontaneous network activity shapes synaptic development in vivo. Variations in activity-dependent plasticity may explain how similar mechanisms and patterns of activity can be employed to establish diverse circuits. Here, I will review common mechanisms and patterns of spontaneous activity in emerging neural networks and discuss recent insights into their contribution to synaptic development. PMID:24280071

  20. Morphological plasticity of astroglia: Understanding synaptic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Memory formation in the brain is thought to rely on the remodeling of synaptic connections which eventually results in neural network rewiring. This remodeling is likely to involve ultrathin astroglial protrusions which often occur in the immediate vicinity of excitatory synapses. The phenomenology, cellular mechanisms, and causal relationships of such astroglial restructuring remain, however, poorly understood. This is in large part because monitoring and probing of the underpinning molecular machinery on the scale of nanoscopic astroglial compartments remains a challenge. Here we briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the cellular organisation of astroglia in the synaptic microenvironment and discuss molecular mechanisms potentially involved in use‐dependent astroglial morphogenesis. We also discuss recent observations concerning morphological astroglial plasticity, the respective monitoring methods, and some of the newly emerging techniques that might help with conceptual advances in the area. GLIA 2015;63:2133–2151 PMID:25782611

  1. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ruobing; Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  2. Miniature Neurotransmission Regulates Drosophila Synaptic Structural Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ben Jiwon; Imlach, Wendy L.; Jiao, Wei; Wolfram, Verena; Wu, Ying; Grbic, Mark; Cela, Carolina; Baines, Richard A.; Nitabach, Michael N.; McCabe, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Miniature neurotransmission is the transsynaptic process where single synaptic vesicles spontaneously released from presynaptic neurons induce miniature postsynaptic potentials. Since their discovery over 60 years ago, miniature events have been found at every chemical synapse studied. However, the in vivo necessity for these small-amplitude events has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that miniature neurotransmission is required for the normal structural maturation of Drosophila glutamatergic synapses in a developmental role that is not shared by evoked neurotransmission. Conversely, we find that increasing miniature events is sufficient to induce synaptic terminal growth. We show that miniature neurotransmission acts locally at terminals to regulate synapse maturation via a Trio guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and Rac1 GTPase molecular signaling pathway. Our results establish that miniature neurotransmission, a universal but often-overlooked feature of synapses, has unique and essential functions in vivo. PMID:24811381

  3. Novel synaptic memory device for neuromorphic computing.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Saptarshi; El-Amin, Ammaarah; Alexander, Kaitlyn; Rajendran, Bipin; Jha, Rashmi

    2014-06-18

    This report discusses the electrical characteristics of two-terminal synaptic memory devices capable of demonstrating an analog change in conductance in response to the varying amplitude and pulse-width of the applied signal. The devices are based on Mn doped HfO₂ material. The mechanism behind reconfiguration was studied and a unified model is presented to explain the underlying device physics. The model was then utilized to show the application of these devices in speech recognition. A comparison between a 20 nm × 20 nm sized synaptic memory device with that of a state-of-the-art VLSI SRAM synapse showed ~10× reduction in area and >10(6) times reduction in the power consumption per learning cycle.

  4. Novel synaptic memory device for neuromorphic computing

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Saptarshi; El-Amin, Ammaarah; Alexander, Kaitlyn; Rajendran, Bipin; Jha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses the electrical characteristics of two-terminal synaptic memory devices capable of demonstrating an analog change in conductance in response to the varying amplitude and pulse-width of the applied signal. The devices are based on Mn doped HfO2 material. The mechanism behind reconfiguration was studied and a unified model is presented to explain the underlying device physics. The model was then utilized to show the application of these devices in speech recognition. A comparison between a 20 nm × 20 nm sized synaptic memory device with that of a state-of-the-art VLSI SRAM synapse showed ~10× reduction in area and >106 times reduction in the power consumption per learning cycle. PMID:24939247

  5. Control of neural chaos by synaptic noise.

    PubMed

    Cortes, J M; Torres, J J; Marro, J

    2007-02-01

    We study neural automata - or neurobiologically inspired cellular automata - which exhibits chaotic itinerancy among the different stored patterns or memories. This is a consequence of activity-dependent synaptic fluctuations, which continuously destabilize the attractor and induce irregular hopping to other possible attractors. The nature of these irregularities depends on the dynamic details, namely, on the intensity of the synaptic noise and the number of sites of the network, which are synchronously updated at each time step. Varying these factors, different regimes occur, ranging from regular to chaotic dynamics. As a result, and in absence of external agents, the chaotic behavior may turn regular after tuning the noise intensity. It is argued that a similar mechanism might be on the basis of self-controlling chaos in natural systems.

  6. Electron tomographic analysis of synaptic ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Burette, Alain C; Lesperance, Thomas; Crum, John; Martone, Maryann; Volkmann, Niels; Ellisman, Mark H; Weinberg, Richard J

    2012-08-15

    Synaptic function depends on interactions among sets of proteins that assemble into complex supramolecular machines. Molecular biology, electrophysiology, and live-cell imaging studies have provided tantalizing glimpses into the inner workings of the synapse, but fundamental questions remain regarding the functional organization of these "nano-machines." Electron tomography reveals the internal structure of synapses in three dimensions with exceptional spatial resolution. Here we report results from an electron tomographic study of axospinous synapses in neocortex and hippocampus of the adult rat, based on aldehyde-fixed material stabilized with tannic acid in lieu of postfixation with osmium tetroxide. Our results provide a new window into the structural basis of excitatory synaptic processing in the mammalian brain. PMID:22684938

  7. Non-synaptic dendritic spines in neocortex.

    PubMed

    Arellano, J I; Espinosa, A; Fairén, A; Yuste, R; DeFelipe, J

    2007-03-16

    A long-held assumption states that each dendritic spine in the cerebral cortex forms a synapse, although this issue has not been systematically investigated. We performed complete ultrastructural reconstructions of a large (n=144) population of identified spines in adult mouse neocortex finding that only 3.6% of the spines clearly lacked synapses. Nonsynaptic spines were small and had no clear head, resembling dendritic filopodia, and could represent a source of new synaptic connections in the adult cerebral cortex.

  8. Fear Extinction as a Model for Synaptic Plasticity in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Feige, Bernd; Blechert, Jens; Normann, Claus; Nissen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background The neuroplasticity hypothesis of major depressive disorder proposes that a dysfunction of synaptic plasticity represents a basic pathomechanism of the disorder. Animal models of depression indicate enhanced plasticity in a ventral emotional network, comprising the amygdala. Here, we investigated fear extinction learning as a non-invasive probe for amygdala-dependent synaptic plasticity in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Methods Differential fear conditioning was measured in 37 inpatients with severe unipolar depression (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, criteria) and 40 healthy controls. The eye-blink startle response, a subcortical output signal that is modulated by local synaptic plasticity in the amygdala in fear acquisition and extinction learning, was recorded as the primary outcome parameter. Results After robust and similar fear acquisition in both groups, patients with major depressive disorder showed significantly enhanced fear extinction learning in comparison to healthy controls, as indicated by startle responses to conditioned stimuli. The strength of extinction learning was positively correlated with the total illness duration. Conclusions The finding of enhanced fear extinction learning in major depressive disorder is consistent with the concept that the disorder is characterized by enhanced synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and the ventral emotional network. Clinically, the observation emphasizes the potential of successful extinction learning, the basis of exposure therapy, in anxiety-related disorders despite the frequent comorbidity of major depressive disorder. PMID:25545818

  9. Synaptic theory of replicator-like melioration.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Yonatan

    2010-01-01

    According to the theory of Melioration, organisms in repeated choice settings shift their choice preference in favor of the alternative that provides the highest return. The goal of this paper is to explain how this learning behavior can emerge from microscopic changes in the efficacies of synapses, in the context of a two-alternative repeated-choice experiment. I consider a large family of synaptic plasticity rules in which changes in synaptic efficacies are driven by the covariance between reward and neural activity. I construct a general framework that predicts the learning dynamics of any decision-making neural network that implements this synaptic plasticity rule and show that melioration naturally emerges in such networks. Moreover, the resultant learning dynamics follows the Replicator equation which is commonly used to phenomenologically describe changes in behavior in operant conditioning experiments. Several examples demonstrate how the learning rate of the network is affected by its properties and by the specifics of the plasticity rule. These results help bridge the gap between cellular physiology and learning behavior.

  10. Synaptic theory of replicator-like melioration.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Yonatan

    2010-01-01

    According to the theory of Melioration, organisms in repeated choice settings shift their choice preference in favor of the alternative that provides the highest return. The goal of this paper is to explain how this learning behavior can emerge from microscopic changes in the efficacies of synapses, in the context of a two-alternative repeated-choice experiment. I consider a large family of synaptic plasticity rules in which changes in synaptic efficacies are driven by the covariance between reward and neural activity. I construct a general framework that predicts the learning dynamics of any decision-making neural network that implements this synaptic plasticity rule and show that melioration naturally emerges in such networks. Moreover, the resultant learning dynamics follows the Replicator equation which is commonly used to phenomenologically describe changes in behavior in operant conditioning experiments. Several examples demonstrate how the learning rate of the network is affected by its properties and by the specifics of the plasticity rule. These results help bridge the gap between cellular physiology and learning behavior. PMID:20617184

  11. Transient analysis of a chemical synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, D S

    1993-01-01

    The statistical dynamics of an impulse induced quanta turnover is studied by means of a nonstationary stochastic model--double barrier synapse--resulting from a previously developed mathematical theory of chemical synaptic transmission. An essential aspect of nonstationarities of the model is that the interpool quanta transfers follow binomial distribution at impulse arrival time, while in the absence of stimulation they obey Yule-Furry statistics. Under a variety of conditions, corresponding to those in actual experiments, the transient behaviour of the model is simulated and analysed in detail. As a result, the quantitative description of immediate and delayed components of synaptic action is introduced. If simulations of quantal fluctuations are performed numerically, then for the treatment of dynamic regularities, besides numerical procedures, an analytical method of envelopes is developed. It is supported by the theorems which reduce behaviour of the double-barrier synapse to the super-position of simpler solutions for single-barrier systems. With short-term facilitation quantitative analysis and simulations, the synaptic resonance phenomenon is theoretically predicted: different resonant frequencies are found at different levels of facilitation. The importance of this phenomenon treated as a clue to the information processing capabilities of a chemical synapse is discussed. PMID:8097407

  12. The amygdala, synaptic plasticity, and fear memory.

    PubMed

    Maren, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    The nature and mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and the relation of amygdaloid plasticity to behavior are exciting new areas of study in neuroscience. These issues were at the heart of presentations by Paul Chapman, Michael Fanselow, Patricia Shinnick-Gallagher, and Michael Rogawski in a session entitled "Long-Term Plasticity in Amygdala Synaptic Transmission" that was held at the conference featured in this volume. In this chapter, I briefly summarize these talks and give my perspective on the presentations as the session chair. I argue that we must first understand the role of the amygdala in learning and memory in order to understand the contribution of amygdaloid synaptic plasticity to behavior. Although it is generally agreed that the amygdala is involved in several forms of emotional learning and memory such as pavlovian fear conditioning, a recent debate has emerged concerning the precise role of the amygdala in learning versus performing fear responses. I discuss data from my laboratory that unravel this issue. I argue that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) normally plays an essential role in associative processes in fear conditioning. Nonetheless, rats with BLA lesions acquire and express conditional fear under some conditions. A neuroanatomical model that accounts for these data is presented.

  13. Characterization and extraction of the synaptic apposition surface for synaptic geometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan; Rodríguez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical features of chemical synapses are relevant to their function. Two critical components of the synaptic junction are the active zone (AZ) and the postsynaptic density (PSD), as they are related to the probability of synaptic release and the number of postsynaptic receptors, respectively. Morphological studies of these structures are greatly facilitated by the use of recent electron microscopy techniques, such as combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and software tools that permit reconstruction of large numbers of synapses in three dimensions. Since the AZ and the PSD are in close apposition and have a similar surface area, they can be represented by a single surface—the synaptic apposition surface (SAS). We have developed an efficient computational technique to automatically extract this surface from synaptic junctions that have previously been three-dimensionally reconstructed from actual tissue samples imaged by automated FIB/SEM. Given its relationship with the release probability and the number of postsynaptic receptors, the surface area of the SAS is a functionally relevant measure of the size of a synapse that can complement other geometrical features like the volume of the reconstructed synaptic junction, the equivalent ellipsoid size and the Feret's diameter. PMID:23847474

  14. Synaptic Mitochondria in Synaptic Transmission and Organization of Vesicle Pools in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Melissa; Lauwers, Elsa; Verstreken, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Cell types rich in mitochondria, including neurons, display a high energy demand and a need for calcium buffering. The importance of mitochondria for proper neuronal function is stressed by the occurrence of neurological defects in patients suffering from a great variety of diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial genes. Genetic and pharmacological evidence also reveal a role of these organelles in various aspects of neuronal physiology and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Yet the mechanisms by which mitochondria can affect neurotransmission largely remain to be elucidated. In this review we focus on experimental data that suggest a critical function of synaptic mitochondria in the function and organization of synaptic vesicle pools, and in neurotransmitter release during intense neuronal activity. We discuss how calcium handling, ATP production and other mitochondrial mechanisms may influence synaptic vesicle pool organization and synaptic function. Given the link between synaptic mitochondrial function and neuronal communication, efforts toward better understanding mitochondrial biology may lead to novel therapeutic approaches of neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and psychiatric disorders that are at least in part caused by mitochondrial deficits. PMID:21423525

  15. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in ethanol-induced corticostriatal synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyeong Seok; Jeun, Seung Hyun; Li, Qing-Zhong; Kim, Ki Jung; Choi, Se Joon; Sung, Ki-Wug

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is a wildly abused substance that causes various problems and damage in our society. We examined the connection between the action of ethanol and the endocannabinoid system in corticostriatal synaptic transmission by recording excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs). Acute treatment of ethanol (100 mM) inhibited corticostriatal EPSCs. In the presence of AM 251 (5 μM), a cannabinoid 1 (CB(1))-receptor antagonist, or AM 404 (5 μM), a cannabinoid transporter inhibitor, the inhibition of corticostriatal EPSCs caused by ethanol was significantly reduced. This result suggests the possibility that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the action of ethanol. To support this result, brain slices were pre-treated with WIN 55,212-2 (1 μM), a CB(1)-receptor agonist, following treatment of ethanol or treated with WIN 55,212-2 alone. There was no significant difference between each other, indicating that when CB(1) receptors are previously activated, the effect of ethanol is blunted. These results suggest that the activation of the endocannabinoid system is one of the possible mechanisms involved in ethanol-induced corticostriatal synaptic depression.

  16. Effects of Modafinil on Behavioral Learning and Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Wang, Hai-Xia; Li, Chu-Hua; Huang, Jun-Ni; Xiao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Modafinil is a wake-promoting agent that has been proposed to improve cognitive performance at the preclinical and clinical levels. Since there is insufficient evidence for modafinil to be regarded as a cognitive enhancer, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic modafinil administration on behavioral learning in healthy adult rats. Methods: Y-maze training was used to assess learning performance, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to assess synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of modafinil at 200 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg significantly improved learning performance. Furthermore, perfusion with 1mM modafinil enhanced the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous postsynaptic currents and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. However, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons were inhibited by treatment with 1mM modafinil. Conclusions: These results indicate that modafinil improves learning and memory in rats possibly by enhancing glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission and inhibiting GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic) inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:26739176

  17. Cannabinoid agonists rearrange synaptic vesicles at excitatory synapses and depress motoneuron activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Victoria; Montero, Fernando; Moreno-López, Bernardo

    2015-05-01

    Impairment of motor skills is one of the most common acute adverse effects of cannabis. Related studies have focused mainly on psychomotor alterations, and little is known about the direct impact of cannabinoids (CBs) on motoneuron physiology. As key modulators of synaptic function, CBs regulate multiple neuronal functions and behaviors. Presynaptic CB1 mediates synaptic strength depression by inhibiting neurotransmitter release, via a poorly understood mechanism. The present study examined the effect of CB agonists on excitatory synaptic inputs incoming to hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs) in vitro and in vivo. The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) and the synthetic CB agonist WIN 55,212-2 rapidly and reversibly induced short-term depression (STD) of glutamatergic synapses on motoneurons by a presynaptic mechanism. Presynaptic effects were fully reversed by the CB1-selective antagonist AM281. Electrophysiological and electron microscopy analysis showed that WIN 55,212-2 reduced the number of synaptic vesicles (SVs) docked to active zones in excitatory boutons. Given that AM281 fully abolished depolarization-induced depression of excitation, motoneurons can be feasible sources of CBs, which in turn act as retrograde messengers regulating synaptic function. Finally, microiontophoretic application of the CB agonist O-2545 reversibly depressed, presumably via CB1, glutamatergic inspiratory-related activity of HMNs in vivo. Therefore, evidence support that CBs, via presynaptic CB1, induce excitatory STD by reducing the readily releasable pool of SVs at excitatory synapses, then attenuating motoneuron activity. These outcomes contribute a possible mechanistic basis for cannabis-associated motor performance disturbances such as ataxia, dysarthria and dyscoordination.

  18. Calcium channel blockade attenuates abnormal synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus elicited by entorhinal amyloidopathy.

    PubMed

    Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Naderi, Nima; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2016-10-01

    Entorhinal-hippocampal network is one of the earliest circuits which is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are numerous data providing the evidence of synaptic deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) of AD animal model. However, there is little known about how entorhinal cortex (EC) amyloidophaty affects each excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in the early stage of AD. On the other hand, it is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis has a critical role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on excitatory or inhibitory post synaptic currents (EPSC and IPSC, respectively) in the DG granule cells and then the possible neuroprotective action of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were examined. The amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, synaptic currents in the DG granule cells were assessed by whole cell patch clamp. EPSCs were evoked by stimulating the perforant pathway. Voltage clamp recording showed profound decrease of evoked EPSC amplitude and paired pulse facilitation in the DG granule cells of Aβ treated rats. Furthermore, AMPA/NMDA ratio was significantly decreased in the Aβ treated animals. On the other hand, amplitude of IPSC currents was significantly increased in the DG granule cells of these animals. These modifications of synaptic currents were partially reversed by daily intracerebroventricular administration of isradipine or nimodipine. In conclusion, our results suggest that Aβ in the EC triggers decreased excitatory transmission in the DG with substantial decrement in AMPA currents, leading to a prominent activity of inhibitory circuits and increased inhibition of granule cells which may contribute to the development of AD-related neurological deficits in AD and treatment by CCBs could preserve normal synaptic transmission against Aβ toxicity. PMID:27240164

  19. The CaMKII/GluN2B Protein Interaction Maintains Synaptic Strength.

    PubMed

    Barcomb, Kelsey; Hell, Johannes W; Benke, Tim A; Bayer, K Ulrich

    2016-07-29

    Learning, memory, and cognition are thought to require normal long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength, which in turn requires binding of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) to the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2B. For LTP induction, many additional required players are known. Here we tested the hypothesis that CaMKII/GluN2B binding also mediates the more elusive maintenance of synaptic strength. Intriguingly, the CaMKII inhibitor tatCN21 reduces synaptic strength only at high concentrations necessary for CaMKII/NMDAR disruption (20 μm) but not at lower concentrations sufficient for kinase inhibition (5 μm). However, increased concentration also causes unrelated effects. Thus, to distinguish between correlation and causality, we used a pharmacogenetic approach. In a mouse with a mutant NMDAR GluN2B subunit that is CaMKII binding-incompetent, any tatCN21 effects that are specific to the CaMKII/GluN2B interaction should be abolished, and any remaining tatCN21 effects have to be nonspecific (i.e. mediated by other targets). The results showed that the persistent reduction of synaptic strength by transient application of 20 μm tatCN21 had a nonspecific presynaptic component (on fiber volley amplitude) that was unrelated to the CaMKII/GluN2B interaction or CaMKII activity. However, the remaining component of the persistent tatCN21 effect was almost completely abolished in the GluN2B mutant mouse. These results highlight the requirement for stringent pharmacogenetic approaches to separate specific on-target effects from nonspecific off-target effects. Importantly, they also demonstrate that the CaMKII/GluN2B interaction is required not only for normal LTP induction but also for the maintenance of synaptic strength. PMID:27246855

  20. The flavonoid baicalein rescues synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun-Hu; Xu, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wei, Bo; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Xu, Guo-Gang; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that disruptions of synaptic functions correlate with the severity of cognitive deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study demonstrated that baicalein enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute rat hippocampal slices and improves hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning in rats. Given that baicalein possess various biological activities, especially its effects on synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, we examined the effect of baicalein on synaptic function both in vitro and in vivo in AD model. The effect of baicalein on Aβ42 oligomer impaired LTP was investigated by electrophysiological methods. Baicalein was administered orally via drinking water to the APP/PS1 mice and sex- and age-matched wild-type mice. Treatment started at 5 months of age and mice were assessed for cognition and AD-like pathology at 7-month-old. Cognition was analyzed by Morris water maze test, fear conditioning test, and novel object recognition test. Changes in hippocampal 12/15 Lipoxygenase (12/15LO) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity, Aβ production, tau phosphorylation, synaptic plasticity, and dendritic spine density were evaluated. Baicalein prevented Aβ-induced impairments in hippocampal LTP through activation of serine threonine Kinase (Akt) phosphorylation. Long-term oral administration of baicalein inhibited 12/15LO and GSK3β activity, reduced β-secretase enzyme (BACE1), decreased the concentration of total Aβ, and prevented phosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 mice. Meanwhile, baicalein restored spine number, synaptic plasticity, and memory deficits. Our results strengthen the potential of the flavonoid baicalein as a novel and promising oral bioactive therapeutic agent that prevents memory deficits in AD.

  1. Cannabinoid agonists rearrange synaptic vesicles at excitatory synapses and depress motoneuron activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Victoria; Montero, Fernando; Moreno-López, Bernardo

    2015-05-01

    Impairment of motor skills is one of the most common acute adverse effects of cannabis. Related studies have focused mainly on psychomotor alterations, and little is known about the direct impact of cannabinoids (CBs) on motoneuron physiology. As key modulators of synaptic function, CBs regulate multiple neuronal functions and behaviors. Presynaptic CB1 mediates synaptic strength depression by inhibiting neurotransmitter release, via a poorly understood mechanism. The present study examined the effect of CB agonists on excitatory synaptic inputs incoming to hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs) in vitro and in vivo. The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) and the synthetic CB agonist WIN 55,212-2 rapidly and reversibly induced short-term depression (STD) of glutamatergic synapses on motoneurons by a presynaptic mechanism. Presynaptic effects were fully reversed by the CB1-selective antagonist AM281. Electrophysiological and electron microscopy analysis showed that WIN 55,212-2 reduced the number of synaptic vesicles (SVs) docked to active zones in excitatory boutons. Given that AM281 fully abolished depolarization-induced depression of excitation, motoneurons can be feasible sources of CBs, which in turn act as retrograde messengers regulating synaptic function. Finally, microiontophoretic application of the CB agonist O-2545 reversibly depressed, presumably via CB1, glutamatergic inspiratory-related activity of HMNs in vivo. Therefore, evidence support that CBs, via presynaptic CB1, induce excitatory STD by reducing the readily releasable pool of SVs at excitatory synapses, then attenuating motoneuron activity. These outcomes contribute a possible mechanistic basis for cannabis-associated motor performance disturbances such as ataxia, dysarthria and dyscoordination. PMID:25595101

  2. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with

  3. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with

  4. SALM5 trans-synaptically interacts with LAR-RPTPs in a splicing-dependent manner to regulate synapse development

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeonsoo; Nam, Jungyong; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Song, Yoo Sung; Kim, Doyoun; Jeon, Sangmin; Um, Ji Won; Lee, Seong-Gyu; Woo, Jooyeon; Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Li, Yan; Mah, Won; Kim, Ho Min; Ko, Jaewon; Cho, Kwangwook; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Synaptogenic adhesion molecules play critical roles in synapse formation. SALM5/Lrfn5, a SALM/Lrfn family adhesion molecule implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia, induces presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons, but its presynaptic ligand remains unknown. We found that SALM5 interacts with the Ig domains of LAR family receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs; LAR, PTPδ, and PTPσ). These interactions are strongly inhibited by the splice insert B in the Ig domain region of LAR-RPTPs, and mediate SALM5-dependent presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. In addition, SALM5 regulates AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission through mechanisms involving the interaction of postsynaptic SALM5 with presynaptic LAR-RPTPs. These results suggest that postsynaptic SALM5 promotes synapse development by trans-synaptically interacting with presynaptic LAR-RPTPs and is important for the regulation of excitatory synaptic strength. PMID:27225731

  5. Calmodulin as a major calcium buffer shaping vesicular release and short-term synaptic plasticity: facilitation through buffer dislocation.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Yulia; Volynski, Kirill E

    2015-01-01

    Action potential-dependent release of synaptic vesicles and short-term synaptic plasticity are dynamically regulated by the endogenous Ca(2+) buffers that shape [Ca(2+)] profiles within a presynaptic bouton. Calmodulin is one of the most abundant presynaptic proteins and it binds Ca(2+) faster than any other characterized endogenous neuronal Ca(2+) buffer. Direct effects of calmodulin on fast presynaptic Ca(2+) dynamics and vesicular release however have not been studied in detail. Using experimentally constrained three-dimensional diffusion modeling of Ca(2+) influx-exocytosis coupling at small excitatory synapses we show that, at physiologically relevant concentrations, Ca(2+) buffering by calmodulin plays a dominant role in inhibiting vesicular release and in modulating short-term synaptic plasticity. We also propose a novel and potentially powerful mechanism for short-term facilitation based on Ca(2+)-dependent dynamic dislocation of calmodulin molecules from the plasma membrane within the active zone. PMID:26190970

  6. Population synaptic potentials evoked in lumbar motoneurons following stimulation of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis during carbachol-induced atonia.

    PubMed

    Yamuy, J; Jiménez, I; Morales, F; Rudomin, P; Chase, M

    1994-03-14

    The effect of electrical stimulation of the medullary nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc) on lumbar spinal cord motoneurons was studied in the decerebrate cat using sucrose-gap recordings from ventral roots. The NRGc was stimulated ipsi- and contralaterally before and during atonia elicited by the microinjection of carbachol into the pontine reticular formation. Prior to carbachol administration, the NRGc-induced response recorded from the sucrose-gap consisted of two consecutive excitatory population synaptic potentials followed by a long-lasting, small amplitude inhibitory population synaptic potential. Following carbachol injection, the same NRGc stimulus evoked a distinct, large amplitude inhibitory population synaptic potential, whereas the excitatory population synaptic potentials decreased in amplitude. In addition, after carbachol administration, the amplitude of the monosynaptic excitatory population synaptic potential, which was evoked by stimulation of group Ia afferents in hindlimb nerves, was reduced by 18 to 43%. When evoked at the peak of the NRGc-induced inhibitory response, this potential was further decreased in amplitude. Systemic strychnine administration (0.07-0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) blocked the NRGc-induced inhibitory population synaptic potential and promoted an increase in the amplitude of the excitatory population synaptic potentials induced by stimulation of the NRGc and group Ia afferents. These data indicate that during the state of carbachol-induced atonia, the NRGc effects on ipsi- and contralateral spinal cord motoneurons are predominantly inhibitory and that glycine is likely to be involved in this inhibitory process. These results support the hypothesis that the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis is part of the system responsible for state-dependent somatomotor inhibition that occurs during active sleep. PMID:8205484

  7. Extracting information from the power spectrum of synaptic noise.

    PubMed

    Destexhe, Alain; Rudolph, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In cortical neurons, synaptic "noise" is caused by the nearly random release of thousands of synapses. Few methods are presently available to analyze synaptic noise and deduce properties of the underlying synaptic inputs. We focus here on the power spectral density (PSD) of several models of synaptic noise. We examine different classes of analytically solvable kinetic models for synaptic currents, such as the "delta kinetic models," which use Dirac delta functions to represent the activation of the ion channel. We first show that, for this class of kinetic models, one can obtain an analytic expression for the PSD of the total synaptic conductance and derive equivalent stochastic models with only a few variables. This yields a method for constraining models of synaptic currents by analyzing voltage-clamp recordings of synaptic noise. Second, we show that a similar approach can be followed for the PSD of the the membrane potential (Vm) through an effective-leak approximation. Third, we show that this approach is also valid for inputs distributed in dendrites. In this case, the frequency scaling of the Vm PSD is preserved, suggesting that this approach may be applied to intracellular recordings of real neurons. In conclusion, using simple mathematical tools, we show that Vm recordings can be used to constrain kinetic models of synaptic currents, as well as to estimate equivalent stochastic models. This approach, therefore, provides a direct link between intracellular recordings in vivo and the design of models consistent with the dynamics and spectral structure of synaptic noise. PMID:15483395

  8. The Zebrafish motility mutant twitch once reveals new roles for rapsyn in synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Ono, Fumihito; Shcherbatko, Anatoly; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2002-08-01

    Upon touch, twitch once zebrafish respond with one or two swimming strokes instead of typical full-blown escapes. This use-dependent fatigue is shown to be a consequence of a mutation in the tetratricopeptide domain of muscle rapsyn, inhibiting formation of subsynaptic acetylcholine receptor clusters. Physiological analysis indicates that reduced synaptic strength, attributable to loss of receptors, is augmented by a potent postsynaptic depression not seen at normal neuromuscular junctions. The synergism between these two physiological processes is causal to the use-dependent muscle fatigue. These findings offer insights into the physiological basis of human myasthenic syndrome and reveal the first demonstration of a role for rapsyn in regulating synaptic function. PMID:12151528

  9. Coordinated activation of distinct Ca2+ sources and metabotropic glutamate receptors encodes Hebbian synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Tigaret, Cezar M.; Olivo, Valeria; Sadowski, Josef H.L.P.; Ashby, Michael C.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    At glutamatergic synapses, induction of associative synaptic plasticity requires time-correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes to activate postsynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The magnitudes of the ensuing Ca2+ transients within dendritic spines are thought to determine the amplitude and direction of synaptic change. In contrast, we show that at mature hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses the magnitudes of Ca2+ transients during plasticity induction do not match this rule. Indeed, LTP induced by time-correlated pre- and postsynaptic spikes instead requires the sequential activation of NMDARs followed by voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels within dendritic spines. Furthermore, LTP requires inhibition of SK channels by mGluR1, which removes a negative feedback loop that constitutively regulates NMDARs. Therefore, rather than being controlled simply by the magnitude of the postsynaptic calcium rise, LTP induction requires the coordinated activation of distinct sources of Ca2+ and mGluR1-dependent facilitation of NMDAR function. PMID:26758963

  10. Mapping synaptic input fields of neurons with super-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Yaron M.; Speer, Colenso M.; Babcock, Hazen P.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Summary As a basic functional unit in neural circuits, each neuron integrates input signals from hundreds to thousands of synapses. Knowledge of the synaptic input fields of individual neurons, including the identity, strength and location of each synapse, is essential for understanding how neurons compute. Here we developed a volumetric super-resolution reconstruction platform for large-volume imaging and automated segmentation of neurons and synapses with molecular identity information. We used this platform to map inhibitory synaptic input fields of On-Off direction-selective ganglion cells (On-Off DSGCs), which are important for computing visual motion direction in the mouse retina. The reconstructions of On-Off DSGCs showed a GABAergic, receptor subtype-specific input field for generating direction selective responses without significant glycinergic inputs for mediating monosynaptic crossover inhibition. These results demonstrate unique capabilities of this super-resolution platform for interrogating neural circuitry. PMID:26435106

  11. Mapping Synaptic Input Fields of Neurons with Super-Resolution Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Yaron M; Speer, Colenso M; Babcock, Hazen P; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2015-10-01

    As a basic functional unit in neural circuits, each neuron integrates input signals from hundreds to thousands of synapses. Knowledge of the synaptic input fields of individual neurons, including the identity, strength, and location of each synapse, is essential for understanding how neurons compute. Here, we developed a volumetric super-resolution reconstruction platform for large-volume imaging and automated segmentation of neurons and synapses with molecular identity information. We used this platform to map inhibitory synaptic input fields of On-Off direction-selective ganglion cells (On-Off DSGCs), which are important for computing visual motion direction in the mouse retina. The reconstructions of On-Off DSGCs showed a GABAergic, receptor subtype-specific input field for generating direction selective responses without significant glycinergic inputs for mediating monosynaptic crossover inhibition. These results demonstrate unique capabilities of this super-resolution platform for interrogating neural circuitry. PMID:26435106

  12. P2Y Receptors in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity: Therapeutic Potential in Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Segundo J.; Gerevich, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states. PMID:27069691

  13. GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xinglong; Mao, Xia; Lussier, Marc P; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Zhou, Liang; Hamra, F Kent; Roche, Katherine W; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs. PMID:26932439

  14. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) alters hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by modulation of the GABAergic system

    PubMed Central

    Huang, YuYing; Chen, JunFang; Chen, Ying; Zhuang, YingHan; Sun, Mu; Behnisch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms following administration to mice, monkeys, and humans. A common view is that MPTP is metabolized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) to induce its neurodegenerative effects on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Moreover, the hippocampus contains dopaminergic fibers, which are projecting from the ventral tegmental area, SN and pars compacta and contain the whole machinery required for dopamine synthesis making them sensitive to MPTP and MPP+. Here, we present data showing that acute bath-application of MPP+ elicited a dose-dependent facilitation followed by a depression of synaptic transmission of hippocampal Schaffer collaterals-CA1 synapses in mice. The effects of MPP+ were not mediated by D1/D5- and D2-like receptor activation. Inhibition of the dopamine transporters did not prevent but increased the depression of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials. In the search for a possible mechanism, we observed that MPP+ reduced the appearance of polyspikes in population spikes recorded in str. pyramidale and increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents. The acute effect of MPP+ on synaptic transmission was attenuated by co-application of a GABAA receptor antagonist. Taking these data together, we suggest that MPP+ affects hippocampal synaptic transmission by enhancing some aspects of the hippocampal GABAergic system. PMID:26300734

  15. Presence of a low molecular weight endogenous inhibitor on 3H-muscimol binding in synaptic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Yukio; Kuriyama, Kinya

    1980-06-01

    The specific binding of 3H-muscimol to synaptic membrane preparations obtained from the rat brain has been thought to reflect the association of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a potential candidate as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), with its synaptic receptors1,2. Treatment of synaptic membranes with Triton X-100 significantly increases the specific binding of 3H-muscimol2. Several reports also indicate the presence of endogenous substances, such as GABA3, acidic protein4 and phosphatidylethanolamine5, which inhibit Na-independent binding of 3H-GABA in the synaptic membranous fractions from the rat brain. We report here that in the supernatant obtained from Triton-treated synaptic membranes there exists a new type of endogenous inhibitor of 3H-muscimol binding which is apparently different from the inhibitory substances described previously3-5. The new inhibitor has a low molecular weight (MW) and probably originated from neurones rather than glial cells. We have termed this endogenous inhibitor the GABA receptor binding inhibitory factor (GRIF).

  16. GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xinglong; Mao, Xia; Lussier, Marc P.; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Zhou, Liang; Hamra, F. Kent; Roche, Katherine W.; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs. PMID:26932439

  17. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) alters hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by modulation of the GABAergic system.

    PubMed

    Huang, YuYing; Chen, JunFang; Chen, Ying; Zhuang, YingHan; Sun, Mu; Behnisch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms following administration to mice, monkeys, and humans. A common view is that MPTP is metabolized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) to induce its neurodegenerative effects on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Moreover, the hippocampus contains dopaminergic fibers, which are projecting from the ventral tegmental area, SN and pars compacta and contain the whole machinery required for dopamine synthesis making them sensitive to MPTP and MPP(+). Here, we present data showing that acute bath-application of MPP(+) elicited a dose-dependent facilitation followed by a depression of synaptic transmission of hippocampal Schaffer collaterals-CA1 synapses in mice. The effects of MPP(+) were not mediated by D1/D5- and D2-like receptor activation. Inhibition of the dopamine transporters did not prevent but increased the depression of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials. In the search for a possible mechanism, we observed that MPP(+) reduced the appearance of polyspikes in population spikes recorded in str. pyramidale and increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents. The acute effect of MPP(+) on synaptic transmission was attenuated by co-application of a GABAA receptor antagonist. Taking these data together, we suggest that MPP(+) affects hippocampal synaptic transmission by enhancing some aspects of the hippocampal GABAergic system. PMID:26300734

  18. Thrombin induces ischemic LTP (iLTP): implications for synaptic plasticity in the acute phase of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Efrat Shavit; Itsekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Aronovich, Anna; Reisner, Yair; Bushi, Doron; Pick, Chaim G.; Tanne, David; Chapman, Joab; Vlachos, Andreas; Maggio, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain ischemia modifies synaptic plasticity by inducing ischemic long-term potentiation (iLTP) of synaptic transmission through the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Thrombin, a blood coagulation factor, affects synaptic plasticity in an NMDAR dependent manner. Since its activity and concentration is increased in brain tissue upon acute stroke, we sought to clarify whether thrombin could mediate iLTP through the activation of its receptor Protease-Activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Extracellular recordings were obtained in CA1 region of hippocampal slices from C57BL/6 mice. In vitro ischemia was induced by acute (3 minutes) oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). A specific ex vivo enzymatic assay was employed to assess thrombin activity in hippocampal slices, while OGD-induced changes in prothrombin mRNA levels were assessed by (RT)qPCR. Upon OGD, thrombin activity increased in hippocampal slices. A robust potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength was detected, which occluded the ability to induce further LTP. Inhibition of either thrombin or its receptor PAR1 blocked iLTP and restored the physiological, stimulus induced LTP. Our study provides important insights on the early changes occurring at excitatory synapses after ischemia and indicates the thrombin/PAR1 pathway as a novel target for developing therapeutic strategies to restore synaptic function in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. PMID:25604482

  19. Depolarization and stimulation of neurons in nucleus tractus solitarii by carbon dioxide does not require chemical synaptic input.

    PubMed

    Dean, J B; Bayliss, D A; Erickson, J T; Lawing, W L; Millhorn, D E

    1990-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 (i.e. hypercapnia) on neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii were studied using extracellular (n = 82) and intracellular (n = 33) recording techniques in transverse brain slices prepared from rat. Synaptic connections from putative chemosensitive neurons in the ventrolateral medulla were removed by bisecting each transverse slice and discarding the ventral half. In addition, the response to hypercapnia in 20 neurons was studied during high magnesium-low calcium synaptic blockade. Sixty-five per cent of the neurons (n = 75) tested were either insensitive or inhibited by hypercapnia. However, 35% (n = 40) were depolarized and/or increased their firing rate during hypercapnia. Nine out of 10 CO2-excited neurons retained their chemosensitivity to CO2 in the presence of high magnesium-low calcium synaptic blockade medium. Our findings demonstrate that many neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii were depolarized and/or increased their firing rate during hypercapnia. These neurons were not driven synaptically by putative chemosensitive neurons of the ventrolateral medulla since this region was removed from the slice. Furthermore, because chemosensitivity persisted in most neurons tested during synaptic blockade, we conclude that some neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii are inherently CO2-chemosensitive. Although the function of dorsal medullary chemosensitive neurons cannot be determined in vitro, their location and their inherent chemosensitivity suggest a role in cardiorespiratory central chemoreception. PMID:2120613

  20. Membrane palmitoylated protein 2 is a synaptic scaffold protein required for synaptic SK2-containing channel function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gukhan; Luján, Rafael; Schwenk, Jochen; Kelley, Melissa H; Aguado, Carolina; Watanabe, Masahiko; Fakler, Bernd; Maylie, James; Adelman, John P

    2016-01-01

    Mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons express apamin-sensitive SK2-containing channels in the post-synaptic membrane, positioned close to NMDA-type (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamate receptors. Activated by synaptically evoked NMDAR-dependent Ca2+ influx, the synaptic SK2-containing channels modulate excitatory post-synaptic responses and the induction of synaptic plasticity. In addition, their activity- and protein kinase A-dependent trafficking contributes to expression of long-term potentiation (LTP). We have identified a novel synaptic scaffold, MPP2 (membrane palmitoylated protein 2; p55), a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family that interacts with SK2-containing channels. MPP2 and SK2 co-immunopurified from mouse brain, and co-immunoprecipitated when they were co-expressed in HEK293 cells. MPP2 is highly expressed in the post-synaptic density of dendritic spines on CA1 pyramidal neurons. Knocking down MPP2 expression selectively abolished the SK2-containing channel contribution to synaptic responses and decreased LTP. Thus, MPP2 is a novel synaptic scaffold that is required for proper synaptic localization and function of SK2-containing channels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12637.001 PMID:26880549

  1. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes

  2. Anaesthetics differentially modulate the trigeminocardiac reflex excitatory synaptic pathway in the brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Gorini, Christopher; Sharp, Douglas; Bateman, Ryan; Mendelowitz, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) occurs upon excitation of the trigeminal nerve with a resulting bradycardia and hypotension. While several anaesthetics and analgesics have been reported to alter the incidence and strength of the TCR the mechanisms for this modulation are unclear. This study examines the mechanisms of action of ketamine, isoflurane and fentanyl on the synaptic TCR responses in both neurones in the spinal trigeminal interpolaris (Sp5I) nucleus and cardiac vagal neurones (CVNs) in the Nucleus Ambiguus (NA). Stimulation of trigeminal afferent fibres evoked an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) in trigeminal neurones with a latency of 1.8 ± 0.1 ms, jitter of 625 μs, and peak amplitude of 239 ± 45 pA. Synaptic responses further downstream in the reflex pathway in the CVNs occurred with a latency of 12.1 ± 1.1 ms, jitter of 0.8–2 ms and amplitude of 57.8 ± 7.5 pA. The average conduction velocity to the Sp5I neurones was 0.94 ± 0.18 mm ms−1 indicating a mixture of A-δ and C fibres. Stimulation-evoked EPSCs in both Sp5I and CVNs were completely blocked by AMPA/kainate and NMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonists. Ketamine (10 μm) inhibited the peak amplitude and duration in Sp5I as well as more distal synapses in the CVNs. Isoflurane (300 μm) significantly inhibited, while fentanyl (1 μm) significantly enhanced, EPSC amplitude and area in CVNs but had no effect on the responses in Sp5l neurones. These findings indicate glutamatergic excitatory synaptic pathways are critical in the TCR, and ketamine, isoflurane and fentanyl differentially alter the synaptic pathways via modulation of both AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptors at different synapses in the TCR. PMID:21930602

  3. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation.

    PubMed

    Calafate, Sara; Buist, Arjan; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Vijayan, Vinoy; Daneels, Guy; de Strooper, Bart; de Wit, Joris; Verstreken, Patrik; Moechars, Diederik

    2015-05-26

    Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology.

  4. On the Teneurin track: a new synaptic organization molecule emerges

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve proper synaptic development and function, coordinated signals must pass between the pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Such transsynaptic signals can be comprised of receptors and secreted ligands, membrane associated receptors, and also pairs of synaptic cell adhesion molecules. A critical open question bridging neuroscience, developmental biology, and cell biology involves identifying those signals and elucidating how they function. Recent work in Drosophila and vertebrate systems has implicated a family of proteins, the Teneurins, as a new transsynaptic signal in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The Teneurins have established roles in neuronal wiring, but studies now show their involvement in regulating synaptic connections between neurons and bridging the synaptic membrane and the cytoskeleton. This review will examine the Teneurins as synaptic cell adhesion molecules, explore how they regulate synaptic organization, and consider how some consequences of human Teneurin mutations may have synaptopathic origins. PMID:26074772

  5. LTD-like molecular pathways in developmental synaptic pruning

    PubMed Central

    Piochon, Claire; Kano, Masanobu; Hansel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In long-term depression (LTD) at synapses in the adult brain, synaptic strength is reduced in an experience-dependent manner. LTD thus provides a cellular mechanism for information storage in some forms of learning. A similar activity-dependent reduction in synaptic strength also occurs in the developing brain and there provides an essential step in synaptic pruning and the postnatal development of neural circuits. Here we review evidence suggesting that LTD and synaptic pruning share components of their underlying molecular machinery and may thus represent two developmental stages of the same type of synaptic modulation that serve different, but related, functions in neural circuit plasticity. We also assess the relationship between LTD and synaptic pruning in the context of recent findings of LTD dysregulation in several mouse models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss whether LTD deficits can indicate impaired pruning processes that are required for proper brain development. PMID:27669991

  6. LTD-like molecular pathways in developmental synaptic pruning.

    PubMed

    Piochon, Claire; Kano, Masanobu; Hansel, Christian

    2016-09-27

    In long-term depression (LTD) at synapses in the adult brain, synaptic strength is reduced in an experience-dependent manner. LTD thus provides a cellular mechanism for information storage in some forms of learning. A similar activity-dependent reduction in synaptic strength also occurs in the developing brain and there provides an essential step in synaptic pruning and the postnatal development of neural circuits. Here we review evidence suggesting that LTD and synaptic pruning share components of their underlying molecular machinery and may thus represent two developmental stages of the same type of synaptic modulation that serve different, but related, functions in neural circuit plasticity. We also assess the relationship between LTD and synaptic pruning in the context of recent findings of LTD dysregulation in several mouse models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss whether LTD deficits can indicate impaired pruning processes that are required for proper brain development. PMID:27669991

  7. The neural circuit and synaptic dynamics underlying perceptual decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng

    2015-03-01

    Decision-making with several choice options is central to cognition. To elucidate the neural mechanisms of multiple-choice motion discrimination, we built a continuous recurrent network model to represent a local circuit in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). The network is composed of pyramidal cells and interneurons, which are directionally tuned. All neurons are reciprocally connected, and the synaptic connectivity strength is heterogeneous. Specifically, we assume two types of inhibitory connectivity to pyramidal cells: opposite-feature and similar-feature inhibition. The model accounted for both physiological and behavioral data from monkey experiments. The network is endowed with slow excitatory reverberation, which subserves the buildup and maintenance of persistent neural activity, and predominant feedback inhibition, which underlies the winner-take-all competition and attractor dynamics. The opposite-feature and opposite-feature inhibition have different effects on decision-making, and only their combination allows for a categorical choice among 12 alternatives. Together, our work highlights the importance of structured synaptic inhibition in multiple-choice decision-making processes.

  8. β-Neurexins Control Neural Circuits by Regulating Synaptic Endocannabinoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Garret R.; Aoto, Jason; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Földy, Csaba; Covy, Jason; Yee, Ada Xin; Wu, Dick; Lee, Sung-Jin; Chen, Lu; Malenka, Robert C.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    α- and β-neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules implicated in autism and schizophrenia. We find that although β-neurexins are expressed at much lower levels than α-neurexins, conditional knockout of β-neurexins with continued expression of α-neurexins dramatically decreased neurotransmitter release at excitatory synapses in cultured cortical neurons. The β-neurexin knockout phenotype was attenuated by CB1-receptor inhibition which blocks presynaptic endocannabinoid signaling or by 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis inhibition which impairs postsynaptic endocannabinoid release. In synapses formed by CA1-region pyramidal neurons onto burst-firing subiculum neurons, presynaptic in vivo knockout of β-neurexins aggravated endocannabinoid-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission and blocked LTP; presynaptic CB1-receptor antagonists or postsynaptic 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis inhibition again reversed this block. Moreover, conditional knockout of β-neurexins in CA1-region neurons impaired contextual fear memories. Thus, our data suggest that presynaptic β-neurexins control synaptic strength in excitatory synapses by regulating postsynaptic 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis, revealing an unexpected role for β-neurexins in the endocannabinoid-dependent regulation of neural circuits. PMID:26213384

  9. β-Neurexins Control Neural Circuits by Regulating Synaptic Endocannabinoid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Garret R; Aoto, Jason; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Földy, Csaba; Covy, Jason; Yee, Ada Xin; Wu, Dick; Lee, Sung-Jin; Chen, Lu; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C

    2015-07-30

    α- and β-neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules implicated in autism and schizophrenia. We find that, although β-neurexins are expressed at much lower levels than α-neurexins, conditional knockout of β-neurexins with continued expression of α-neurexins dramatically decreased neurotransmitter release at excitatory synapses in cultured cortical neurons. The β-neurexin knockout phenotype was attenuated by CB1-receptor inhibition, which blocks presynaptic endocannabinoid signaling, or by 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis inhibition, which impairs postsynaptic endocannabinoid release. In synapses formed by CA1-region pyramidal neurons onto burst-firing subiculum neurons, presynaptic in vivo knockout of β-neurexins aggravated endocannabinoid-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission and blocked LTP; presynaptic CB1-receptor antagonists or postsynaptic 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis inhibition again reversed this block. Moreover, conditional knockout of β-neurexins in CA1-region neurons impaired contextual fear memories. Thus, our data suggest that presynaptic β-neurexins control synaptic strength in excitatory synapses by regulating postsynaptic 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis, revealing an unexpected role for β-neurexins in the endocannabinoid-dependent regulation of neural circuits. PMID:26213384

  10. Glucocorticoid interactions with ethanol effects on synaptic plasma membranes: influence on [125I]calmodulin binding.

    PubMed

    Sze, P Y

    1996-02-01

    Ca(++)-dependent binding of calmodulin (CaM) to brain synaptic plasma membranes is known to be inhibited by ethanol and stimulated by glucocorticoids. These opposite neurochemical actions between ethanol and the steroids in vitro are consistent with glucocorticoid antagonism of ethanol-induced sedation reported to occur in vivo. The present study was undertaken to characterize the interactions of corticosterone with ethanol effects on [125I]CaM binding in synaptic plasma membranes. From the shift of concentration-response curves when corticosterone and ethanol were present in combination, the interaction between steroid stimulation and ethanol inhibition occurred in an additive relationship over the range of their effective concentrations. From Scatchard analyses, ethanol-induced decrease in membrane affinity for [125I]CaM was antagonized by steroid-induced increase in the membrane affinity, indicating that the convergent event in their interaction was the alteration of membrane affinity for CaM. Glucocorticoid antagonism of ethanol inhibition of [125I]CaM binding exhibited a high degree of steroid specificity; steroids with glucocorticoid activity including cortisol, dexamethasone and triamcinolone were effective, whereas gonadal steroids and excitatory neuroactive steroid metabolites were ineffective. The demonstration that glucocorticoids antagonized the inhibition of CaM binding by ethanol provides support for the hypothesis that these steroids are among the endogenous factors that modulate neuronal sensitivity to ethanol.

  11. Axon and dendrite geography predict the specificity of synaptic connections in a functioning spinal cord network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Chang; Cooke, Tom; Sautois, Bart; Soffe, Stephen R; Borisyuk, Roman; Roberts, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background How specific are the synaptic connections formed as neuronal networks develop and can simple rules account for the formation of functioning circuits? These questions are assessed in the spinal circuits controlling swimming in hatchling frog tadpoles. This is possible because detailed information is now available on the identity and synaptic connections of the main types of neuron. Results The probabilities of synapses between 7 types of identified spinal neuron were measured directly by making electrical recordings from 500 pairs of neurons. For the same neuron types, the dorso-ventral distributions of axons and dendrites were measured and then used to calculate the probabilities that axons would encounter particular dendrites and so potentially form synaptic connections. Surprisingly, synapses were found between all types of neuron but contact probabilities could be predicted simply by the anatomical overlap of their axons and dendrites. These results suggested that synapse formation may not require axons to recognise specific, correct dendrites. To test the plausibility of simpler hypotheses, we first made computational models that were able to generate longitudinal axon growth paths and reproduce the axon distribution patterns and synaptic contact probabilities found in the spinal cord. To test if probabilistic rules could produce functioning spinal networks, we then made realistic computational models of spinal cord neurons, giving them established cell-specific properties and connecting them into networks using the contact probabilities we had determined. A majority of these networks produced robust swimming activity. Conclusion Simple factors such as morphogen gradients controlling dorso-ventral soma, dendrite and axon positions may sufficiently constrain the synaptic connections made between different types of neuron as the spinal cord first develops and allow functional networks to form. Our analysis implies that detailed cellular recognition

  12. Computational Neuroscience: Modeling the Systems Biology of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Synaptic plasticity is a mechanism proposed to underlie learning and memory. The complexity of the interactions between ion channels, enzymes, and genes involved in synaptic plasticity impedes a deep understanding of this phenomenon. Computer modeling is an approach to investigate the information processing that is performed by signaling pathways underlying synaptic plasticity. In the past few years, new software developments that blend computational neuroscience techniques with systems biology techniques have allowed large-scale, quantitative modeling of synaptic plasticity in neurons. We highlight significant advancements produced by these modeling efforts and introduce promising approaches that utilize advancements in live cell imaging. PMID:20300102

  13. Mapping homeostatic synaptic plasticity using cable properties of dendrites.

    PubMed

    Queenan, B N; Lee, K J; Tan, H; Huganir, R L; Vicini, S; Pak, D T S

    2016-02-19

    When chronically silenced, cortical and hippocampal neurons homeostatically upregulate excitatory synaptic function. However, the subcellular position of such changes on the dendritic tree is not clear. We exploited the cable-filtering properties of dendrites to derive a parameter, the dendritic filtering index (DFI), to map the spatial distribution of synaptic currents. Our analysis indicates that young rat cortical neurons globally scale AMPA receptor-mediated currents, while mature hippocampal neurons do not, revealing distinct homeostatic strategies between brain regions and developmental stages. The DFI presents a useful tool for mapping the dendritic origin of synaptic currents and the location of synaptic plasticity changes.

  14. The cell biology of synaptic specificity during development

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Ryan; Shao, Zhiyong; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Proper circuit connectivity is critical for nervous system function. Connectivity derives from the interaction of two interdependent modules: synaptic specificity and synaptic assembly. Specificity involves both targeting of neurons to specific laminar regions and the formation of synapses onto defined subcellular areas. In this review, we focus discussion on recently elucidated molecular mechanisms that control synaptic specificity and link them to synapse assembly. We use these molecular pathways to underscore fundamental cell biological concepts that underpin, and help explain, the rules governing synaptic specificity. PMID:23932598

  15. Multi-gate synergic modulation in laterally coupled synaptic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Chang Jin; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Laterally coupled oxide-based synaptic transistors with multiple gates are fabricated on phosphorosilicate glass electrolyte films. Electrical performance of the transistor can be evidently improved when the device is operated in a tri-gate synergic modulation mode. Excitatory post-synaptic current and paired pulse facilitation (PPF) behavior of biological synapses are mimicked, and PPF index can be effectively tuned by the voltage applied on the modulatory terminal. At last, superlinear to sublinear synaptic integration regulation is also mimicked by applying a modulatory pulse on the third modulatory terminal. The multi-gate oxide-based synaptic transistors may find potential applications in biochemical sensors and neuromorphic systems.

  16. Experimental implementation of a biometric laser synaptic sensor.

    PubMed

    Pisarchik, Alexander N; Sevilla-Escoboza, Ricardo; Jaimes-Reátegui, Rider; Huerta-Cuellar, Guillermo; García-Lopez, J Hugo; Kazantsev, Victor B

    2013-12-16

    We fabricate a biometric laser fiber synaptic sensor to transmit information from one neuron cell to the other by an optical way. The optical synapse is constructed on the base of an erbium-doped fiber laser, whose pumped diode current is driven by a pre-synaptic FitzHugh-Nagumo electronic neuron, and the laser output controls a post-synaptic FitzHugh-Nagumo electronic neuron. The implemented laser synapse displays very rich dynamics, including fixed points, periodic orbits with different frequency-locking ratios and chaos. These regimes can be beneficial for efficient biorobotics, where behavioral flexibility subserved by synaptic connectivity is a challenge.

  17. Experimental Implementation of a Biometric Laser Synaptic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Pisarchik, Alexander N.; Sevilla-Escoboza, Ricardo; Jaimes-Reátegui, Rider; Huerta-Cuellar, Guillermo; García-Lopez, J. Hugo; Kazantsev, Victor B.

    2013-01-01

    We fabricate a biometric laser fiber synaptic sensor to transmit information from one neuron cell to the other by an optical way. The optical synapse is constructed on the base of an erbium-doped fiber laser, whose pumped diode current is driven by a pre-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron, and the laser output controls a post-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron. The implemented laser synapse displays very rich dynamics, including fixed points, periodic orbits with different frequency-locking ratios and chaos. These regimes can be beneficial for efficient biorobotics, where behavioral flexibility subserved by synaptic connectivity is a challenge. PMID:24351638

  18. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T B; Farinha, Ana C; van Putten, Michel J A M; le Feber, Joost

    2014-04-01

    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy consumption is used for synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure is the first abrupt consequence of acute complete anoxia, synaptic dysfunction is a candidate mechanism for the cognitive deterioration in chronic mild ischemia/hypoxia. Because measurement of synaptic functioning in patients is problematic, we use cultured networks of cortical neurons from new born rats, grown over a multi-electrode array, as a model system. These were exposed to partial hypoxia (partial oxygen pressure of 150Torr lowered to 40-50Torr) during 3 (n=14) or 6 (n=8) hours. Synaptic functioning was assessed before, during, and after hypoxia by assessment of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses to electrical stimulation. Action potential heights and shapes and non-synaptic stimulus responses were used as measures of individual neuronal integrity. During hypoxia of 3 and 6h, there was a statistically significant decrease of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses, whereas direct responses and action potentials remained unchanged. These changes were largely reversible. Our results indicate that in cultured neuronal networks, partial hypoxia during 3 or 6h causes isolated disturbances of synaptic connectivity.

  19. [Peptidergic modulation of the hippocampus synaptic activity].

    PubMed

    Skrebitskiĭ, V G; Kondratenko, R V; Povarov, I S; Dereviagin, V I

    2011-11-01

    Effects of two newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptides: Noopept and Selank on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) or Selank (2 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependent spontaneous m1PSCs, whereas spike-independent mlPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that both peptides mediated their effect sue to activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion, at least for Noonent. PMID:22390072

  20. ProBDNF negatively regulates neuronal remodeling, synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmin; Harte-Hargrove, Lauren C.; Siao, Chia-Jen; Marinic, Tina; Clarke, Roshelle; Ma, Qian; Jing, Deqiang; LaFrancois, John J.; Bath, Kevin G.; Mark, Willie; Ballon, Douglas; Lee, Francis S.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Hempstead, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF which binds p75NTR. In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knock-in mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75NTR. Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP and enhanced long-term depression (LTD) in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission and plasticity, effects that are distinct from mature BDNF. PMID:24746813

  1. Gq-DREADD Selectively Initiates Glial Glutamate Release and Inhibits Cue-induced Cocaine Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Scofield Michael, D.; Boger Heather, A.; Smith Rachel, J.; Li, Hao; Haydon Philip, G.; Kalivas Peter, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glial cells of the central nervous system directly influence neuronal activity by releasing neuroactive small molecules, including glutamate. Long-lasting cocaine-induced reductions in extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) affect synaptic plasticity responsible for relapse vulnerability. Methods We transduced NAcore astrocytes with an AAV viral vector expressing hM3Dq (Gq) DREADD under control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter in 62 male Sprague Dawley rats, 4 dnSNARE mice and 4 wild type littermates. Using glutamate biosensors we measured NAcore glutamate levels following intracranial or systemic administration of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), and tested the ability of systemic CNO to inhibit reinstated cocaine or sucrose seeking following self-administration (SA) and extinction training. Results Administration of CNO in GFAP-Gq-DREADD transfected animals increased NAcore extracellular glutamate levels in vivo. The glial origin of released glutamate was validated by an absence of CNO-mediated release in mice expressing a dominant-negative SNARE variant in glia. Also, CNO-mediated release was relatively insensitive to N-type calcium channel blockade. Systemic administration of CNO inhibited cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats extinguished from cocaine, but not sucrose SA. The capacity to inhibit reinstated cocaine-seeking was prevented by systemic administration of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) antagonist LY341495. Conclusions DREADD-mediated glutamate gliotransmission inhibited cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking by stimulating release-regulating mGluR2/3 autoreceptors to inhibit cue-induced synaptic glutamate spillover. PMID:25861696

  2. Activity-dependent synaptic GRIP1 accumulation drives synaptic scaling up in response to action potential blockade

    PubMed Central

    Gainey, Melanie A.; Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Nahmani, Marc; Lin, Heather; Turrigiano, Gina G.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic plasticity that stabilizes neuronal firing in response to changes in synapse number and strength. Scaling up in response to action-potential blockade is accomplished through increased synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR), but the receptor trafficking steps that drive this process remain largely obscure. Here, we show that the AMPAR-binding protein glutamate receptor-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1) is essential for regulated synaptic AMPAR accumulation during scaling up. Synaptic abundance of GRIP1 was enhanced by activity deprivation, directly increasing synaptic GRIP1 abundance through overexpression increased the amplitude of AMPA miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and shRNA-mediated GRIP1 knockdown prevented scaling up of AMPA mEPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown and replace experiments targeting either GRIP1 or GluA2 revealed that scaling up requires the interaction between GRIP1 and GluA2. Finally, GRIP1 synaptic accumulation during scaling up did not require GluA2 binding. Taken together, our data support a model in which activity-dependent trafficking of GRIP1 to synaptic sites drives the forward trafficking and enhanced synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPAR during synaptic scaling up. PMID:26109571

  3. In Vitro Investigation of Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Therese; Lalanne, Txomin; Watt, Alanna J; Sjöström, P Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A classical in vitro model for investigation of information storage in the brain is based on the acute hippocampal slice. Here, repeated high-frequency stimulation of excitatory Schaeffer collaterals making synapses onto pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region leads to strengthening of evoked field-recording responses-long-term potentiation (LTP)-in keeping with Hebb's postulate. This model remains tremendously influential for its reliability, specificity, and relative ease of use. More recent plasticity studies have explored various other brain regions including the neocortex, which often requires more laborious whole-cell recordings of synaptically connected pairs of neurons, to ensure that the identities of recorded cells are known. In addition, with this experimental approach, the spiking activity can be controlled with millisecond precision, which is necessary for the study of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Here, we provide protocols for in vitro study of hippocampal CA1 LTP using field recordings, and of STDP in synaptically connected pairs of layer-5 pyramidal cells in acute slices of rodent neocortex. PMID:27250951

  4. Ultrafast synaptic events in a chalcogenide memristor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Yingpeng; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jinjian; Xu, Xiaohua; Sun, Huajun; Miao, Xiangshui

    2013-01-01

    Compact and power-efficient plastic electronic synapses are of fundamental importance to overcoming the bottlenecks of developing a neuromorphic chip. Memristor is a strong contender among the various electronic synapses in existence today. However, the speeds of synaptic events are relatively slow in most attempts at emulating synapses due to the material-related mechanism. Here we revealed the intrinsic memristance of stoichiometric crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 that originates from the charge trapping and releasing by the defects. The device resistance states, representing synaptic weights, were precisely modulated by 30 ns potentiating/depressing electrical pulses. We demonstrated four spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) forms by applying programmed pre- and postsynaptic spiking pulse pairs in different time windows ranging from 50 ms down to 500 ns, the latter of which is 10(5) times faster than the speed of STDP in human brain. This study provides new opportunities for building ultrafast neuromorphic computing systems and surpassing Von Neumann architecture. PMID:23563810

  5. Synaptic dimorphism in Onychophoran cephalic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Peña-Contreras, Z; Mendoza-Briceño, R V; Miranda-Contreras, L; Palacios-Prü, E L

    2007-03-01

    The taxonomic location of the Onychophora has been controversial because of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, related to both annelids and arthropods. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the neurons and their synapses in the cephalic ganglion of a poorly known invertebrate, the velvet worm Peripatus sedgwicki, from the mountainous region of El Valle, Mérida, Venezuela. Cephalic ganglia were dissected, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. The animal has a high degree of neurobiological development, as evidenced by the presence of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) synapses, as well as the existence of glial cell processes in a wide neuropile zone. The postsynaptic terminals were seen to contain subsynaptic cisterns formed by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum beneath the postsynaptic density, whereas the presynaptic terminal showed numerous electron transparent synaptic vesicles. From the neurophylogenetic perspectives, the ultrastructural characteristics of the central nervous tissue of the Onychophora show important evolutionary acquirements, such as the presence of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, indicating functional synaptic transmission, and the appearance of mature glial cells. PMID:18457135

  6. Synaptic Democracy and Vesicular Transport in Axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Levien, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Synaptic democracy concerns the general problem of how regions of an axon or dendrite far from the cell body (soma) of a neuron can play an effective role in neuronal function. For example, stimulated synapses far from the soma are unlikely to influence the firing of a neuron unless some sort of active dendritic processing occurs. Analogously, the motor-driven transport of newly synthesized proteins from the soma to presynaptic targets along the axon tends to favor the delivery of resources to proximal synapses. Both of these phenomena reflect fundamental limitations of transport processes based on a localized source. In this Letter, we show that a more democratic distribution of proteins along an axon can be achieved by making the transport process less efficient. This involves two components: bidirectional or "stop-and-go" motor transport (which can be modeled in terms of advection-diffusion), and reversible interactions between motor-cargo complexes and synaptic targets. Both of these features have recently been observed experimentally. Our model suggests that, just as in human societies, there needs to be a balance between "efficiency" and "equality".

  7. Ultrafast synaptic events in a chalcogenide memristor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Yingpeng; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jinjian; Xu, Xiaohua; Sun, Huajun; Miao, Xiangshui

    2013-01-01

    Compact and power-efficient plastic electronic synapses are of fundamental importance to overcoming the bottlenecks of developing a neuromorphic chip. Memristor is a strong contender among the various electronic synapses in existence today. However, the speeds of synaptic events are relatively slow in most attempts at emulating synapses due to the material-related mechanism. Here we revealed the intrinsic memristance of stoichiometric crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 that originates from the charge trapping and releasing by the defects. The device resistance states, representing synaptic weights, were precisely modulated by 30 ns potentiating/depressing electrical pulses. We demonstrated four spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) forms by applying programmed pre- and postsynaptic spiking pulse pairs in different time windows ranging from 50 ms down to 500 ns, the latter of which is 10(5) times faster than the speed of STDP in human brain. This study provides new opportunities for building ultrafast neuromorphic computing systems and surpassing Von Neumann architecture.

  8. The classic cadherins in synaptic specificity

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Raunak; Taylor, Matthew R; Williams, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    During brain development, billions of neurons organize into highly specific circuits. To form specific circuits, neurons must build the appropriate types of synapses with appropriate types of synaptic partners while avoiding incorrect partners in a dense cellular environment. Defining the cellular and molecular rules that govern specific circuit formation has significant scientific and clinical relevance because fine scale connectivity defects are thought to underlie many cognitive and psychiatric disorders. Organizing specific neural circuits is an enormously complicated developmental process that requires the concerted action of many molecules, neural activity, and temporal events. This review focuses on one class of molecules postulated to play an important role in target selection and specific synapse formation: the classic cadherins. Cadherins have a well-established role in epithelial cell adhesion, and although it has long been appreciated that most cadherins are expressed in the brain, their role in synaptic specificity is just beginning to be unraveled. Here, we review past and present studies implicating cadherins as active participants in the formation, function, and dysfunction of specific neural circuits and pose some of the major remaining questions. PMID:25837840

  9. Optogenetic Monitoring of Synaptic Activity with Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ryuichi; Jung, Arong; Yoon, Bong-June; Baker, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    The age of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) has matured to the point that changes in membrane potential can now be observed optically in vivo. Improving the signal size and speed of these voltage sensors has been the primary driving forces during this maturation process. As a result, there is a wide range of probes using different voltage detecting mechanisms and fluorescent reporters. As the use of these probes transitions from optically reporting membrane potential in single, cultured cells to imaging populations of cells in slice and/or in vivo, a new challenge emerges—optically resolving the different types of neuronal activity. While improvements in speed and signal size are still needed, optimizing the voltage range and the subcellular expression (i.e., soma only) of the probe are becoming more important. In this review, we will examine the ability of recently developed probes to report synaptic activity in slice and in vivo. The voltage-sensing fluorescent protein (VSFP) family of voltage sensors, ArcLight, ASAP-1, and the rhodopsin family of probes are all good at reporting changes in membrane potential, but all have difficulty distinguishing subthreshold depolarizations from action potentials and detecting neuronal inhibition when imaging populations of cells. Finally, we will offer a few possible ways to improve the optical resolution of the various types of neuronal activities. PMID:27547183

  10. Cholinergic synaptic vesicles contain a V-type and a P-type ATPase.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S K; Parsons, S M

    1989-11-01

    Fifty to eighty-five percent of the ATPase activity in different preparations of cholinergic synaptic vesicles isolated from Torpedo electric organ was half-inhibited by 7 microM vanadate. This activity is due to a recently purified phosphointermediate, or P-type, ATPase, Acetylcholine (ACh) active transport by the vesicles was stimulated about 35% by vanadate, demonstrating that the P-type enzyme is not the proton pump responsible for ACh active transport. Nearly all of the vesicle ATPase activity was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. The P-type ATPase could be protected from N-ethylmaleimide inactivation by vanadate, and subsequently reactivated by complexation of vanadate with deferoxamine. The inactivation-protection pattern suggests the presence of a vanadate-insensitive, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase consistent with a vacuolar, or V-type, activity expected to drive ACh active transport. ACh active transport was half-inhibited by 5 microM N-ethylmaleimide, even in the presence of vanadate. The presence of a V-type ATPase was confirmed by Western blots using antisera raised against three separate subunits of chromaffin granule vacuolar ATPase I. Both ATPase activities, the P-type polypeptides, and the 38-kilodalton polypeptide of the V-type ATPase precisely copurify with the synaptic vesicles. Solubilization of synaptic vesicles in octaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether detergent results in several-fold stimulation of the P-type activity and inactivation of the V-type activity, thus explaining why the V-type activity was not detected previously during purification of the P-type ATPase. It is concluded that cholinergic vesicles contain a P-type ATPase of unknown function and a V-type ATPase which is the proton pump. PMID:2552014

  11. Magnesium protects cognitive functions and synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer's model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Li; Bao, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zeng, Juan; Liu, En-Jie; Li, Xiao-Guang; Huang, Rong-Xi; Gao, Di; Li, Meng-Zhu; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Gong-Ping; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by profound synapse loss and impairments of learning and memory. Magnesium affects many biochemical mechanisms that are vital for neuronal properties and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated that the serum and brain magnesium levels are decreased in AD patients; however, the exact role of magnesium in AD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we found that the intraperitoneal administration of magnesium sulfate increased the brain magnesium levels and protected learning and memory capacities in streptozotocin-induced sporadic AD model rats. We also found that magnesium sulfate reversed impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP), dendritic abnormalities, and the impaired recruitment of synaptic proteins. Magnesium sulfate treatment also decreased tau hyperphosphorylation by increasing the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β at serine 9, thereby increasing the activity of Akt at Ser473 and PI3K at Tyr458/199, and improving insulin sensitivity. We conclude that magnesium treatment protects cognitive function and synaptic plasticity by inhibiting GSK-3β in sporadic AD model rats, which suggests a potential role for magnesium in AD therapy. PMID:25268773

  12. Synaptic Underpinnings of Altered Hippocampal Function in Glutaminase Deficient Mice During Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Gaisler-Salomon, Inna; Wang, Yvonne; Chuhma, Nao; Zhang, Hong; Golumbic, Yaela N.; Mihali, Andra; Arancio, Ottavio; Sibille, Etienne; Rayport, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Glutaminase-deficient mice (GLS1 hets), with reduced glutamate recycling, have a focal reduction in hippocampal activity, mainly in CA1, and manifest behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes suggestive of schizophrenia resilience. To address the basis for the hippocampal hypoactivity, we examined synaptic plastic mechanisms and glutamate receptor expression. While baseline synaptic strength was unaffected in Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1, we found that long-term potentiation was attenuated. In wild-type mice, GLS1 gene expression was highest in the hippocampus and cortex, where it was reduced by about 50% in GLS1 hets. In other brain regions with lower wild-type GLS1 gene expression there were no genotypic reductions. In adult GLS1 hets, NMDA receptor NR1 subunit gene expression was reduced, but not AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit gene expression. In contrast, juvenile GLS1 hets showed no reductions in NR1 gene expression. In concert with this, adult GLS1 hets showed a deficit in hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning while juvenile GLS1 hets did not. These alterations in glutamatergic synaptic function may partly explain the hippocampal hypoactivity seen in the GLS1 hets. The maturity-onset reduction in NR1 gene expression and in contextual learning supports the premise that glutaminase inhibition in adulthood should prove therapeutic in schizophrenia. PMID:22431402

  13. Magnesium Protects Cognitive Functions and Synaptic Plasticity in Streptozotocin-Induced Sporadic Alzheimer’s Model

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zeng, Juan; Liu, En-Jie; Li, Xiao-Guang; Huang, Rong-Xi; Gao, Di; Li, Meng-Zhu; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Gong-Ping; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by profound synapse loss and impairments of learning and memory. Magnesium affects many biochemical mechanisms that are vital for neuronal properties and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated that the serum and brain magnesium levels are decreased in AD patients; however, the exact role of magnesium in AD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we found that the intraperitoneal administration of magnesium sulfate increased the brain magnesium levels and protected learning and memory capacities in streptozotocin-induced sporadic AD model rats. We also found that magnesium sulfate reversed impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP), dendritic abnormalities, and the impaired recruitment of synaptic proteins. Magnesium sulfate treatment also decreased tau hyperphosphorylation by increasing the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β at serine 9, thereby increasing the activity of Akt at Ser473 and PI3K at Tyr458/199, and improving insulin sensitivity. We conclude that magnesium treatment protects cognitive function and synaptic plasticity by inhibiting GSK-3β in sporadic AD model rats, which suggests a potential role for magnesium in AD therapy. PMID:25268773

  14. Local Sharing as a Predominant Determinant of Synaptic Matrix Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Pedro; Dresbach, Thomas; Boeckers, Tobias; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Garner, Craig C; Ziv, Noam E

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that central nervous system synapses can persist for weeks, months, perhaps lifetimes, yet little is known as to how synapses maintain their structural and functional characteristics for so long. As a step toward a better understanding of synaptic maintenance we examined the loss, redistribution, reincorporation, and replenishment dynamics of Synapsin I and ProSAP2/Shank3, prominent presynaptic and postsynaptic matrix molecules, respectively. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and photoactivation experiments revealed that both molecules are continuously lost from, redistributed among, and reincorporated into synaptic structures at time-scales of minutes to hours. Exchange rates were not affected by inhibiting protein synthesis or proteasome-mediated protein degradation, were accelerated by stimulation, and greatly exceeded rates of replenishment from somatic sources. These findings indicate that the dynamics of key synaptic matrix molecules may be dominated by local protein exchange and redistribution, whereas protein synthesis and degradation serve to maintain and regulate the sizes of local, shared pools of these proteins. PMID:16903782

  15. Synaptic computation and sensory processing in neocortical layer 2/3.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Carl C H; Crochet, Sylvain

    2013-04-10

    Computations in neocortical circuits are predominantly driven by synaptic integration of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic inputs. New optical, electrophysiological, and genetic methods allow detailed in vivo investigation of the superficial neocortical layers 2 and 3 (L2/3). Here, we review current knowledge of mouse L2/3 sensory cortex, focusing on somatosensory barrel cortex with comparisons to visual and auditory cortex. Broadly tuned, dense subthreshold synaptic input accompanied by sparse action potential (AP) firing in excitatory neurons provides a simple and reliable neural code useful for associative learning. Sparse AP firing is enforced by strong inhibition from genetically defined classes of GABAergic neurons. Subnetworks of strongly and specifically connected excitatory neurons may drive L2/3 network function, with potential contributions from dendritic spikes evoked by spatiotemporally clustered synaptic input. These functional properties of L2/3 are under profound regulation by brain state and behavior, providing interesting avenues for future mechanistic investigations into context-specific processing of sensory information.

  16. MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qingming; Ruan, Hongyu; Gilbert, James; Wang, Guan; Ma, Qi; Yao, Wei-Dong; Man, Heng-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a compensatory response to alterations in neuronal activity. Chronic deprivation of neuronal activity results in an increase in synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and postsynaptic currents. The biogenesis of GluA2-lacking, calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) plays a crucial role in the homeostatic response; however, the mechanisms leading to CP-AMPAR formation remain unclear. Here we show that the microRNA, miR124, is required for the generation of CP-AMPARs and homeostatic plasticity. miR124 suppresses GluA2 expression via targeting its 3′-UTR, leading to the formation of CP-AMPARs. Blockade of miR124 function abolishes the homeostatic response, whereas miR124 overexpression leads to earlier induction of homeostatic plasticity. miR124 transcription is controlled by an inhibitory transcription factor EVI1, acting by association with the deacetylase HDAC1. Our data support a cellular cascade in which inactivity relieves EVI1/HDAC-mediated inhibition of miR124 gene transcription, resulting in enhanced miR124 expression, formation of CP-AMPARs and subsequent induction of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26620774

  17. The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway and synaptic plasticity in the rat superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Southam, E.; Charles, S. L.; Garthwaite, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have investigated the possibility that nitric oxide (NO) and soluble guanylyl cyclase, an enzyme that synthesizes guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in response to NO, contributes to plasticity of synaptic transmission in the rat isolated superior cervical ganglion (SCG). 2. Exposure of ganglia to the NO donor, nitroprusside, caused a concentration-dependent accumulation of cyclic GMP which was augmented in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. The compound, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a selective inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, completely blocked this cyclic GMP response. 3. As assessed by extracellular recording, nitroprusside (100 microM) and another NO donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (30 microM) increased the efficacy of ganglionic synaptic transmission in response to electrical stimulation of the preganglionic nerve, an effect that was reversible and which could be replicated by the cyclic GMP analogue, 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Ganglionic depolarizations resulting from stimulation of nicotinic receptors with carbachol were not increased by nitroprusside. The potentiating actions of the NO donors on synaptic transmission, but not that of 8-bromo-cyclic GMP, were inhibited by ODQ. 4. Brief tetanic stimulation of the preganglionic nerve resulted in a long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission that was unaffected by ODQ, either in the absence or presence of the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 microM). A lack of influence of L-NOARG was confirmed in intracellular recordings of LTP of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. Furthermore, under conditions where tetanically-induced LTP was saturated, nitroprusside was still able to potentiate synaptic transmission, as judged from extracellular recording. 5. We conclude that NO is capable of potentiating ganglionic neurotransmission and this effect is mediated through the stimulation of soluble guanylyl

  18. Intrinsic and synaptic dynamics interact to generate emergent patterns of rhythmic bursting in thalamocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Sohal, Vikaas S; Pangratz-Fuehrer, Susanne; Rudolph, Uwe; Huguenard, John R

    2006-04-19

    Rhythmic inhibition entrains the firing of excitatory neurons during oscillations throughout the brain. Previous work has suggested that the strength and duration of inhibitory input determines the synchrony and period, respectively, of these oscillations. In particular, sleep spindles result from a cycle of events including rhythmic inhibition and rebound bursts in thalamocortical (TC) neurons, and slowing and strengthening this inhibitory input may transform spindles into spike-wave discharges characteristic of absence epilepsy. Here, we used dynamic clamp to inject TC neurons with spindle-like trains of IPSCs and studied how modest changes in the amplitude and/or duration of these IPSCs affected the responses of the TC neurons. Contrary to our expectations, we found that prolonging IPSCs accelerates postinhibitory rebound (PIR) in TC neurons, and that increasing either the amplitude or duration of IPSCs desynchronizes PIR activity in a population of TC cells. Tonic injection of hyperpolarizing or depolarizing current dramatically alters the timing and synchrony of PIR. These results demonstrate that rhythmic PIR activity is an emergent property of interactions between intrinsic and synaptic currents, not just a passive reflection of incoming synaptic inhibition.

  19. Δ9-THC-caused synaptic and memory impairments are mediated through COX-2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongwei; Tang, Ya-ping; Sun, Hao; Song, Yunping; Chen, Chu

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Marijuana has been used for thousands of years as a treatment for medical conditions. However, untoward side effects limit its medical value. Here we show that synaptic and cognitive impairments following repeated exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostanoids, in the brain. COX-2 induction by Δ9-THC is mediated via CB1 receptor-coupled G-protein βγ subunits. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of COX-2 blocks down-regulation and internalization of glutamate receptor subunits and alterations of the dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons induced by repeated Δ9-THC exposures. Ablation of COX-2 also eliminates Δ9-THC-impaired hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity, spatial, and fear memories. Importantly, the beneficial effects of decreasing β-amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration by Δ9-THC in Alzheimer’s disease animals are retained in the presence of COX-2 inhibition. These results suggest that the applicability of medical marijuana would be broadened by concurrent inhibition of COX-2. PMID:24267894

  20. Role of MicroRNA in Governing Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although synaptic plasticity in neural circuits is orchestrated by an ocean of genes, molecules, and proteins, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, it is well acknowledged that miRNA exerts widespread regulation over the translation and degradation of target gene in nervous system. Increasing evidence suggests that quite a few specific miRNAs play important roles in various respects of synaptic plasticity including synaptogenesis, synaptic morphology alteration, and synaptic function modification. More importantly, the miRNA-mediated regulation of synaptic plasticity is not only responsible for synapse development and function but also involved in the pathophysiology of plasticity-related diseases. A review is made here on the function of miRNAs in governing synaptic plasticity, emphasizing the emerging regulatory role of individual miRNAs in synaptic morphological and functional plasticity, as well as their implications in neurological disorders. Understanding of the way in which miRNAs contribute to synaptic plasticity provides rational clues in establishing the novel therapeutic strategy for plasticity-related diseases. PMID:27034846

  1. Ubiquitination-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic growth and function.

    PubMed

    DiAntonio, A; Haghighi, A P; Portman, S L; Lee, J D; Amaranto, A M; Goodman, C S

    2001-07-26

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to cellular proteins is a powerful mechanism for controlling protein activity and localization. Ubiquitination is a reversible modification promoted by ubiquitin ligases and antagonized by deubiquitinating proteases. Ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate many important processes including cell-cycle progression, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Here we show that ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Neuronal overexpression of the deubiquitinating protease fat facets leads to a profound disruption of synaptic growth control; there is a large increase in the number of synaptic boutons, an elaboration of the synaptic branching pattern, and a disruption of synaptic function. Antagonizing the ubiquitination pathway in neurons by expression of the yeast deubiquitinating protease UBP2 (ref. 5) also produces synaptic overgrowth and dysfunction. Genetic interactions between fat facets and highwire, a negative regulator of synaptic growth that has structural homology to a family of ubiquitin ligases, suggest that synaptic development may be controlled by the balance between positive and negative regulators of ubiquitination.

  2. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Ashok N.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) has emerged as a new molecular mechanism that controls wide-ranging functions in the nervous system, including fine-tuning of synaptic connections during development and synaptic plasticity in the adult organism. In the UPP, attachment of a small protein, ubiquitin, tags the substrates for…

  3. Epsin1 modulates synaptic vesicle retrieval capacity at CNS synapses.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Jae Won; Bae, Jae Ryul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Song, Woo Keun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle retrieval is an essential process for continuous maintenance of neural information flow after synaptic transmission. Epsin1, originally identified as an EPS15-interacting protein, is a major component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, the role of Epsin1 in synaptic vesicle endocytosis at CNS synapses remains elusive. Here, we showed significantly altered synaptic vesicle endocytosis in neurons transfected with shRNA targeting Epsin1 during/after neural activity. Endocytosis was effectively restored by introducing shRNA-insensitive Epsin1 into Epsin1-depleted neurons. Domain studies performed on neurons in which domain deletion mutants of Epsin1 were introduced after Epsin1 knockdown revealed that ENTH, CLAP, and NPFs are essential for synaptic vesicle endocytosis, whereas UIMs are not. Strikingly, the efficacy of the rate of synaptic vesicle retrieval (the "endocytic capacity") was significantly decreased in the absence of Epsin1. Thus, Epsin1 is required for proper synaptic vesicle retrieval and modulates the endocytic capacity of synaptic vesicles. PMID:27557559

  4. BMP signaling and microtubule organization regulate synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Robin W.; Peled, Einat; Guerrero, Giovanna; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of synaptic transmission between a neuron and multiple postsynaptic partners can vary considerably. We have studied synaptic heterogeneity using the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which contains multiple synaptic connections of varying strength between a motor axon and muscle fiber. In larval NMJs, there is a gradient of synaptic transmission from weak proximal to strong distal boutons. We imaged synaptic transmission with the postsynaptically targeted fluorescent calcium sensor SynapCam, to investigate the molecular pathways that determine synaptic strength and set up this gradient. We discovered that mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway disrupt production of strong distal boutons. We find that strong connections contain unbundled microtubules in the boutons, suggesting a role for microtubule organization in transmission strength. The spastin mutation, which disorganizes microtubules, disrupted the transmission gradient, supporting this interpretation. We propose that the BMP pathway, shown previously to function in the homeostatic regulation of synaptic growth, also boosts synaptic transmission in a spatially selective manner that depends on the microtubule system. PMID:25681521

  5. Epsin1 modulates synaptic vesicle retrieval capacity at CNS synapses

    PubMed Central

    Kyung, Jae Won; Bae, Jae Ryul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Song, Woo Keun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle retrieval is an essential process for continuous maintenance of neural information flow after synaptic transmission. Epsin1, originally identified as an EPS15-interacting protein, is a major component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, the role of Epsin1 in synaptic vesicle endocytosis at CNS synapses remains elusive. Here, we showed significantly altered synaptic vesicle endocytosis in neurons transfected with shRNA targeting Epsin1 during/after neural activity. Endocytosis was effectively restored by introducing shRNA-insensitive Epsin1 into Epsin1-depleted neurons. Domain studies performed on neurons in which domain deletion mutants of Epsin1 were introduced after Epsin1 knockdown revealed that ENTH, CLAP, and NPFs are essential for synaptic vesicle endocytosis, whereas UIMs are not. Strikingly, the efficacy of the rate of synaptic vesicle retrieval (the “endocytic capacity”) was significantly decreased in the absence of Epsin1. Thus, Epsin1 is required for proper synaptic vesicle retrieval and modulates the endocytic capacity of synaptic vesicles. PMID:27557559

  6. Synaptic Tagging, Evaluation of Memories, and the Distal Reward Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papper, Marc; Kempter, Richard; Leibold, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity exhibits distinct phases. The synaptic tagging hypothesis suggests an early phase in which synapses are prepared, or "tagged," for protein capture, and a late phase in which those proteins are integrated into the synapses to achieve memory consolidation. The synapse specificity of the tags is consistent with…

  7. Ubiquitination-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic growth and function.

    PubMed

    DiAntonio, A; Haghighi, A P; Portman, S L; Lee, J D; Amaranto, A M; Goodman, C S

    2001-07-26

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to cellular proteins is a powerful mechanism for controlling protein activity and localization. Ubiquitination is a reversible modification promoted by ubiquitin ligases and antagonized by deubiquitinating proteases. Ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate many important processes including cell-cycle progression, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Here we show that ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Neuronal overexpression of the deubiquitinating protease fat facets leads to a profound disruption of synaptic growth control; there is a large increase in the number of synaptic boutons, an elaboration of the synaptic branching pattern, and a disruption of synaptic function. Antagonizing the ubiquitination pathway in neurons by expression of the yeast deubiquitinating protease UBP2 (ref. 5) also produces synaptic overgrowth and dysfunction. Genetic interactions between fat facets and highwire, a negative regulator of synaptic growth that has structural homology to a family of ubiquitin ligases, suggest that synaptic development may be controlled by the balance between positive and negative regulators of ubiquitination. PMID:11473321

  8. Fumarates modulate microglia activation through a novel HCAR2 signaling pathway and rescue synaptic dysregulation in inflamed CNS.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Benedetta; Rossi, Silvia; Morando, Sara; Cordano, Christian; Bragoni, Alberto; Motta, Caterina; Usai, Cesare; Wipke, Brian T; Scannevin, Robert H; Mancardi, Giovanni L; Centonze, Diego; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Uccelli, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), recently approved as an oral immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), metabolizes to monomethyl fumarate (MMF) which crosses the blood-brain barrier and has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in experimental studies. We postulated that MMF exerts neuroprotective effects through modulation of microglia activation, a critical component of the neuroinflammatory cascade that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. To ascertain our hypothesis and define the mechanistic pathways involved in the modulating effect of fumarates, we used real-time PCR and biochemical assays to assess changes in the molecular and functional phenotype of microglia, quantitative Western blotting to monitor activation of postulated pathway components, and ex vivo whole-cell patch clamp recording of excitatory post-synaptic currents in corticostriatal slices from mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for MS, to study synaptic transmission. We show that exposure to MMF switches the molecular and functional phenotype of activated microglia from classically activated, pro-inflammatory type to alternatively activated, neuroprotective one, through activation of the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCAR2). We validate a downstream pathway mediated through the AMPK-Sirt1 axis resulting in deacetylation, and thereby inhibition, of NF-κB and, consequently, of secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules. We demonstrate through ex vivo monitoring of spontaneous glutamate-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents of single neurons in corticostriatal slices from EAE mice that the neuroprotective effect of DMF was exerted on neurons at pre-synaptic terminals by modulating glutamate release. By exposing control slices to untreated and MMF-treated activated microglia, we confirm the modulating effect of MMF on microglia function and, thereby, its indirect neuroprotective effect at post-synaptic level. These

  9. The transformation of synaptic to system plasticity in motor output from the sacral cord of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingchen C; Elbasiouny, Sherif M; Collins, William F; Heckman, C J

    2015-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity is fundamental in shaping the output of neural networks. The transformation of synaptic plasticity at the cellular level into plasticity at the system level involves multiple factors, including behavior of local networks of interneurons. Here we investigate the synaptic to system transformation for plasticity in motor output in an in vitro preparation of the adult mouse spinal cord. System plasticity was assessed from compound action potentials (APs) in spinal ventral roots, which were generated simultaneously by the axons of many motoneurons (MNs). Synaptic plasticity was assessed from intracellular recordings of MNs. A computer model of the MN pool was used to identify the middle steps in the transformation from synaptic to system behavior. Two input systems that converge on the same MN pool were studied: one sensory and one descending. The two synaptic input systems generated very different motor outputs, with sensory stimulation consistently evoking short-term depression (STD) whereas descending stimulation had bimodal plasticity: STD at low frequencies but short-term facilitation (STF) at high frequencies. Intracellular and pharmacological studies revealed contributions from monosynaptic excitation and stimulus time-locked inhibition but also considerable asynchronous excitation sustained from local network activity. The computer simulations showed that STD in the monosynaptic excitatory input was the primary driver of the system STD in the sensory input whereas network excitation underlies the bimodal plasticity in the descending system. These results provide insight on the roles of plasticity in the monosynaptic and polysynaptic inputs converging on the same MN pool to overall motor plasticity. PMID:26203107

  10. The Free Zinc Concentration in the Synaptic Cleft of Artificial Glycinergic Synapses Rises to At least 1 μM

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Keramidas, Angelo; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    Zn2+ is concentrated into presynaptic vesicles at many central synapses and is released into the synaptic cleft by nerve terminal stimulation. There is strong evidence that synaptically released Zn2+ modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission, although there is debate concerning the peak concentration it reaches in the synaptic cleft. Glycine receptors (GlyRs), which mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and brainstem, are potentiated by low nanomolar Zn2+ and inhibited by micromolar Zn2+. Mutations that selectively ablate Zn2+ potentiation result in hyperekplexia phenotypes suggesting that Zn2+ is a physiological regulator of glycinergic neurotransmission. There is, however, little evidence that Zn2+ is stored presynaptically at glycinergic terminals and an alternate possibility is that GlyRs are modulated by constitutively bound Zn2+. We sought to estimate the peak Zn2+ concentration in the glycinergic synaptic cleft as a means of evaluating whether it is likely to be synaptically released. We employed ‘artificial’ synapses because they permit the insertion of engineered α1β GlyRs with defined Zn2+ sensitivities into synapses. By comparing the effect of Zn2+ chelation on glycinergic IPSCs with the effects of defined Zn2+ and glycine concentrations applied rapidly to the same recombinant GlyRs in outside-out patches, we inferred that synaptic Zn2+ rises to at least 1 μM following a single presynaptic stimulation. Moreover, using the fast, high-affinity chelator, ZX1, we found no evidence for tonic Zn2+ bound constitutively to high affinity GlyR binding sites. We conclude that diffusible Zn2+ reaches 1 μM or higher and is therefore likely to be phasically released in artificial glycinergic synapses. PMID:27713689

  11. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor α subunits play a direct role in synaptic versus extrasynaptic targeting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Zheng; Ning, Gang; Guo, Yao; Ali, Rashid; Macdonald, Robert L; De Blas, Angel L; Luscher, Bernhard; Chen, Gong

    2012-08-10

    GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are localized at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites, mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. Previous studies suggest an important role of γ2 and δ subunits in synaptic versus extrasynaptic targeting of GABA(A)-Rs. Here, we demonstrate differential function of α2 and α6 subunits in guiding the localization of GABA(A)-Rs. To study the targeting of specific subtypes of GABA(A)-Rs, we used a molecularly engineered GABAergic synapse model to precisely control the GABA(A)-R subunit composition. We found that in neuron-HEK cell heterosynapses, GABAergic events mediated by α2β3γ2 receptors were very fast (rise time ∼2 ms), whereas events mediated by α6β3δ receptors were very slow (rise time ∼20 ms). Such an order of magnitude difference in rise time could not be attributed to the minute differences in receptor kinetics. Interestingly, synaptic events mediated by α6β3 or α6β3γ2 receptors were significantly slower than those mediated by α2β3 or α2β3γ2 receptors, suggesting a differential role of α subunit in receptor targeting. This was confirmed by differential targeting of the same δ-γ2 chimeric subunits to synaptic or extrasynaptic sites, depending on whether it was co-assembled with the α2 or α6 subunit. In addition, insertion of a gephyrin-binding site into the intracellular domain of α6 and δ subunits brought α6β3δ receptors closer to synaptic sites. Therefore, the α subunits, together with the γ2 and δ subunits, play a critical role in governing synaptic versus extrasynaptic targeting of GABA(A)-Rs, possibly through differential interactions with gephyrin.

  12. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: > I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. > I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. > I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. > Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. > Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated f

  13. Synaptic pathology: A shared mechanism in neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Henstridge, Christopher M; Pickett, Eleanor; Spires-Jones, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    Synaptic proteomes have evolved a rich and complex diversity to allow the exquisite control of neuronal communication and information transfer. It is therefore not surprising that many neurological disorders are associated with alterations in synaptic function. As technology has advanced, our ability to study the anatomical and physiological function of synapses in greater detail has revealed a critical role for both central and peripheral synapses in neurodegenerative disease. Synapse loss has a devastating effect on cellular communication, leading to wide ranging effects such as network disruption within central neural systems and muscle wastage in the periphery. These devastating effects link synaptic pathology to a diverse range of neurological disorders, spanning Alzheimer's disease to multiple sclerosis. This review will highlight some of the current literature on synaptic integrity in animal models of disease and human post-mortem studies. Synaptic changes in normal brain ageing will also be discussed and finally the current and prospective treatments for neurodegenerative disorders will be summarised. PMID:27108053

  14. Location-dependent synaptic plasticity rules by dendritic spine cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jens P; Andrásfalvy, Bertalan K; Polito, Marina; Magó, Ádám; Ujfalussy, Balázs B; Makara, Judit K

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions between coactive synapses enable neurons to discriminate between spatiotemporal patterns of inputs. Using patterned postsynaptic stimulation by two-photon glutamate uncaging, here we investigate the sensitivity of synaptic Ca(2+) signalling and long-term plasticity in individual spines to coincident activity of nearby synapses. We find a proximodistally increasing gradient of nonlinear NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated amplification of spine Ca(2+) signals by a few neighbouring coactive synapses along individual perisomatic dendrites. This synaptic cooperativity does not require dendritic spikes, but is correlated with dendritic Na(+) spike propagation strength. Furthermore, we show that repetitive synchronous subthreshold activation of small spine clusters produces input specific, NMDAR-dependent cooperative long-term potentiation at distal but not proximal dendritic locations. The sensitive synaptic cooperativity at distal dendritic compartments shown here may promote the formation of functional synaptic clusters, which in turn can facilitate active dendritic processing and storage of information encoded in spatiotemporal synaptic activity patterns. PMID:27098773

  15. Location-dependent synaptic plasticity rules by dendritic spine cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jens P.; Andrásfalvy, Bertalan K.; Polito, Marina; Magó, Ádám; Ujfalussy, Balázs B.; Makara, Judit K.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions between coactive synapses enable neurons to discriminate between spatiotemporal patterns of inputs. Using patterned postsynaptic stimulation by two-photon glutamate uncaging, here we investigate the sensitivity of synaptic Ca2+ signalling and long-term plasticity in individual spines to coincident activity of nearby synapses. We find a proximodistally increasing gradient of nonlinear NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated amplification of spine Ca2+ signals by a few neighbouring coactive synapses along individual perisomatic dendrites. This synaptic cooperativity does not require dendritic spikes, but is correlated with dendritic Na+ spike propagation strength. Furthermore, we show that repetitive synchronous subthreshold activation of small spine clusters produces input specific, NMDAR-dependent cooperative long-term potentiation at distal but not proximal dendritic locations. The sensitive synaptic cooperativity at distal dendritic compartments shown here may promote the formation of functional synaptic clusters, which in turn can facilitate active dendritic processing and storage of information encoded in spatiotemporal synaptic activity patterns. PMID:27098773

  16. Exocytosis of gliotransmitters from cortical astrocytes: implications for synaptic plasticity and aging.

    PubMed

    Lalo, Ulyana; Rasooli-Nejad, Seyed; Pankratov, Yuriy

    2014-10-01

    Maintaining brain function during aging is very important for mental and physical health. Recent studies showed a crucial importance of communication between two major types of brain cells: neurons transmitting electrical signals, and glial cells, which maintain the well-being and function of neurons. Still, the study of age-related changes in neuron-glia signalling is far from complete. We have shown previously that cortical astrocytes are capable of releasing ATP by a quantal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex-dependent mechanism. Release of ATP from cortical astrocytes can be activated via various pathways, including direct UV-uncaging of intracellular Ca²⁺ or G-protein-coupled receptors. Importantly, release of both ATP and glutamate from neocortical astrocytes was not observed in brain slices of dominant-negative SNARE (dnSNARE) mice, expressing dnSNARE domain selectively in astrocytes. We also discovered that astrocyte-driven ATP can cause significant attenuation of synaptic inhibition in the pyramidal neurons via Ca²⁺-interaction between the neuronal ATP and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Furthermore, we showed that astrocyte-derived ATP can facilitate the induction of long-term potentiation of synaptic plasticity in the neocortex. Our recent data have shown that an age-related decrease in the astroglial Ca²⁺ signalling can cause a substantial decrease in the exocytosis of gliotransmitters, in particular ATP. Age-related impairment of ATP release from cortical astrocytes can cause a decrease in the extent of astroglial modulation of synaptic transmission in the neocortex and can therefore contribute to the age-related impairment of synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline. Combined, our results strongly support the physiological relevance of glial exocytosis for glia-neuron communications and brain function. PMID:25233403

  17. Role for astroglial α1-adrenoreceptors in gliotransmission and control of synaptic plasticity in the neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Pankratov, Yuriy; Lalo, Ulyana

    2015-01-01

    Communication between neuronal and glial cells is thought to be very important for many brain functions. Acting via release of gliotransmitters, astrocytes can modulate synaptic strength. The mechanisms underlying gliotransmission remain uncertain with exocytosis being the most intriguing and debated pathway. We demonstrate that astroglial α1-adrenoreceptors are very sensitive to noradrenaline (NA) and make a significant contribution to intracellular Ca2+-signaling in layer 2/3 neocortical astrocytes. We also show that astroglial α1-adrenoreceptors are prone to desensitization upon prolonged exposure to NA. We show that within neocortical slices, α-1adrenoreceptors can activate vesicular release of ATP and D-serine from cortical astrocytes which initiate a burst of ATP receptor-mediated currents in adjacent pyramidal neurons. These purinergic currents can be inhibited by intracellular perfusion of astrocytes with Tetanus Toxin light chain, verifying their origin via astroglial exocytosis. We show that α1 adrenoreceptor-activated release of gliotransmitters is important for the induction of synaptic plasticity in the neocortex:long-term potentiation (LTP) of neocortical excitatory synaptic potentials can be abolished by the selective α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist terazosin. We show that weak sub-threshold theta-burst stimulation (TBS) can induce LTP when astrocytes are additionally activated by 1 μM NA. This facilitation is dependent on the activation of neuronal ATP receptors and is abolished in neocortical slices from dn-SNARE mice which have impaired glial exocytosis. Importantly, facilitation of LTP by NA can be significantly reduced by perfusion of individual astrocytes with Tetanus Toxin. Our results strongly support the physiological importance of astroglial adrenergic signaling and exocytosis of gliotransmitters for modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. PMID:26136663

  18. Effect of nitrous oxide on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Mennerick, S; Jevtovic-Todorovic, V; Todorovic, S M; Shen, W; Olney, J W; Zorumski, C F

    1998-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas) has been a widely used anesthetic/analgesic since the 19th century, although its cellular mechanism of action is not understood. Here we characterize the effects of N2O on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in microcultures of rat hippocampal neurons, a preparation in which anesthetic effects on monosynaptic communication can be examined in a setting free of polysynaptic network variables. Eighty percent N2O occludes peak NMDA receptor-mediated (NMDAR) excitatory autaptic currents (EACs) with no effect on the NMDAR EAC decay time course. N2O also mildly depresses AMPA receptor-mediated (AMPAR) EACs. We find that N2O inhibits both NMDA and non-NMDA receptor-mediated responses to exogenous agonist. The postsynaptic blockade of NMDA receptors exhibits slight apparent voltage dependence, whereas the blockade of AMPA receptors is not voltage dependent. Although the degree of ketamine and Mg2+ blockade of NMDA-induced responses is dependent on permeant ion concentration, the degree of N2O blockade is not. We also observe a slight and variable prolongation of GABAA receptor-mediated (GABAR) postsynaptic currents likely caused by previously reported effects of N2O on GABAA receptors. Despite the effects of N2O on both NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic receptors, glial glutamate transporter currents and metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic depression are not affected. Paired-pulse depression, the frequency of spontaneous miniature excitatory synaptic currents, and high-voltage-activated calcium currents are not affected by N2O. Our results suggest that the effects of N2O on synaptic transmission are confined to postsynaptic targets. PMID:9822732

  19. Cannabinoids decrease excitatory synaptic transmission and impair long-term depression in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Lévénés, C; Daniel, H; Soubrié, P; Crépel, F

    1998-08-01

    1. CB-1 cannabinoid receptors are strongly expressed in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. We have analysed, in patch-clamped Purkinje cells (PCs) in rat cerebellar slices, the effect of the selective CB-1 agonists WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940 and of the selective CB-1 antagonist SR141716-A on excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. 2. Bath application of both agonists markedly depressed parallel fibre (PF) EPSCs. This effect was reversed by SR141716-A. In contrast, responses of PCs to ionophoretic application of glutamate were not affected by WIN55, 212-2. 3. The coefficient of variation and the paired-pulse facilitation of these PF-mediated EPSCs increased in the presence of WIN55,212-2. 4. WIN55,212-2 decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs and of asynchronous synaptic events evoked in the presence of strontium in the bath, but did not affect their amplitude. 5. WIN55, 212-2 did not change the excitability of PFs. 6. WIN55,212-2 impaired long-term depression induced by pairing protocols in PCs. This effect was antagonized by SR141716-A. The same impairment of LTD was produced by 2-chloroadenosine, a compound that decreases the probability of release of glutamate at PF-PC synapses. 7. The present study demonstrates that cannabinoids inhibit synaptic transmission at PF-PC synapses by decreasing the probability of release of glutamate, and thereby impair LTD. These two effects might represent a plausible cellular mechanism underlying cerebellar dysfunction caused by cannabinoids.

  20. Signaling Pathways Involved in Striatal Synaptic Plasticity are Sensitive to Temporal Pattern and Exhibit Spatial Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, BoHung; Hawes, Sarah L.; Gillani, Fawad; Wallace, Lane J.; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2013-01-01

    The basal ganglia is a brain region critically involved in reinforcement learning and motor control. Synaptic plasticity in the striatum of the basal ganglia is a cellular mechanism implicated in learning and neuronal information processing. Therefore, understanding how different spatio-temporal patterns of synaptic input select for different types of plasticity is key to understanding learning mechanisms. In striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSPN), both long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) require an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration; however, it is unknown how the post-synaptic neuron discriminates between different patterns of calcium influx. Using computer modeling, we investigate the hypothesis that temporal pattern of stimulation can select for either endocannabinoid production (for LTD) or protein kinase C (PKC) activation (for LTP) in striatal MSPNs. We implement a stochastic model of the post-synaptic signaling pathways in a dendrite with one or more diffusionally coupled spines. The model is validated by comparison to experiments measuring endocannabinoid-dependent depolarization induced suppression of inhibition. Using the validated model, simulations demonstrate that theta burst stimulation, which produces LTP, increases the activation of PKC as compared to 20 Hz stimulation, which produces LTD. The model prediction that PKC activation is required for theta burst LTP is confirmed experimentally. Using the ratio of PKC to endocannabinoid production as an index of plasticity direction, model simulations demonstrate that LTP exhibits spine level spatial specificity, whereas LTD is more diffuse. These results suggest that spatio-temporal control of striatal information processing employs these Gq coupled pathways. PMID:23516346

  1. Synaptic Homeostasis and Restructuring across the Sleep-Wake Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Rennó-Costa, César; Santos, Sharlene; Dias, Gabriella; Guerreiro, Ana M. G.; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Neto, Adrião D.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is critical for hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. However, the underlying mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are poorly understood. The central controversy is on whether long-term potentiation (LTP) takes a role during sleep and which would be its specific effect on memory. To address this question, we used immunohistochemistry to measure phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKIIα) in the rat hippocampus immediately after specific sleep-wake states were interrupted. Control animals not exposed to novel objects during waking (WK) showed stable pCaMKIIα levels across the sleep-wake cycle, but animals exposed to novel objects showed a decrease during subsequent slow-wave sleep (SWS) followed by a rebound during rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM). The levels of pCaMKIIα during REM were proportional to cortical spindles near SWS/REM transitions. Based on these results, we modeled sleep-dependent LTP on a network of fully connected excitatory neurons fed with spikes recorded from the rat hippocampus across WK, SWS and REM. Sleep without LTP orderly rescaled synaptic weights to a narrow range of intermediate values. In contrast, LTP triggered near the SWS/REM transition led to marked swaps in synaptic weight ranking. To better understand the interaction between rescaling and restructuring during sleep, we implemented synaptic homeostasis and embossing in a detailed hippocampal-cortical model with both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Synaptic homeostasis was implemented by weakening potentiation and strengthening depression, while synaptic embossing was simulated by evoking LTP on selected synapses. We observed that synaptic homeostasis facilitates controlled synaptic restructuring. The results imply a mechanism for a cognitive synergy between SWS and REM, and suggest that LTP at the SWS/REM transition critically influences the effect of sleep: Its lack determines synaptic homeostasis, its presence causes synaptic

  2. Synaptic Homeostasis and Restructuring across the Sleep-Wake Cycle.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Wilfredo; Pereira, Catia M; Cota, Vinicius R; Souza, Annie C; Rennó-Costa, César; Santos, Sharlene; Dias, Gabriella; Guerreiro, Ana M G; Tort, Adriano B L; Neto, Adrião D; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-05-01

    Sleep is critical for hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. However, the underlying mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are poorly understood. The central controversy is on whether long-term potentiation (LTP) takes a role during sleep and which would be its specific effect on memory. To address this question, we used immunohistochemistry to measure phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKIIα) in the rat hippocampus immediately after specific sleep-wake states were interrupted. Control animals not exposed to novel objects during waking (WK) showed stable pCaMKIIα levels across the sleep-wake cycle, but animals exposed to novel objects showed a decrease during subsequent slow-wave sleep (SWS) followed by a rebound during rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM). The levels of pCaMKIIα during REM were proportional to cortical spindles near SWS/REM transitions. Based on these results, we modeled sleep-dependent LTP on a network of fully connected excitatory neurons fed with spikes recorded from the rat hippocampus across WK, SWS and REM. Sleep without LTP orderly rescaled synaptic weights to a narrow range of intermediate values. In contrast, LTP triggered near the SWS/REM transition led to marked swaps in synaptic weight ranking. To better understand the interaction between rescaling and restructuring during sleep, we implemented synaptic homeostasis and embossing in a detailed hippocampal-cortical model with both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Synaptic homeostasis was implemented by weakening potentiation and strengthening depression, while synaptic embossing was simulated by evoking LTP on selected synapses. We observed that synaptic homeostasis facilitates controlled synaptic restructuring. The results imply a mechanism for a cognitive synergy between SWS and REM, and suggest that LTP at the SWS/REM transition critically influences the effect of sleep: Its lack determines synaptic homeostasis, its presence causes synaptic

  3. Synaptic Homeostasis and Restructuring across the Sleep-Wake Cycle.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Wilfredo; Pereira, Catia M; Cota, Vinicius R; Souza, Annie C; Rennó-Costa, César; Santos, Sharlene; Dias, Gabriella; Guerreiro, Ana M G; Tort, Adriano B L; Neto, Adrião D; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-05-01

    Sleep is critical for hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. However, the underlying mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are poorly understood. The central controversy is on whether long-term potentiation (LTP) takes a role during sleep and which would be its specific effect on memory. To address this question, we used immunohistochemistry to measure phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKIIα) in the rat hippocampus immediately after specific sleep-wake states were interrupted. Control animals not exposed to novel objects during waking (WK) showed stable pCaMKIIα levels across the sleep-wake cycle, but animals exposed to novel objects showed a decrease during subsequent slow-wave sleep (SWS) followed by a rebound during rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM). The levels of pCaMKIIα during REM were proportional to cortical spindles near SWS/REM transitions. Based on these results, we modeled sleep-dependent LTP on a network of fully connected excitatory neurons fed with spikes recorded from the rat hippocampus across WK, SWS and REM. Sleep without LTP orderly rescaled synaptic weights to a narrow range of intermediate values. In contrast, LTP triggered near the SWS/REM transition led to marked swaps in synaptic weight ranking. To better understand the interaction between rescaling and restructuring during sleep, we implemented synaptic homeostasis and embossing in a detailed hippocampal-cortical model with both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Synaptic homeostasis was implemented by weakening potentiation and strengthening depression, while synaptic embossing was simulated by evoking LTP on selected synapses. We observed that synaptic homeostasis facilitates controlled synaptic restructuring. The results imply a mechanism for a cognitive synergy between SWS and REM, and suggest that LTP at the SWS/REM transition critically influences the effect of sleep: Its lack determines synaptic homeostasis, its presence causes synaptic

  4. Synaptic Conductance Estimates of the Connection Between Local Inhibitor Interneurons and Pyramidal Neurons in Layer 2/3 of a Cortical Column.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jochen H O; Meyer, H S; Schmitt, Arno C; Straehle, Jakob; Weitbrecht, Trinh; Sakmann, Bert; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    Stimulation of a principal whisker yields sparse action potential (AP) spiking in layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons in a cortical column of rat barrel cortex. The low AP rates in pyramidal neurons could be explained by activation of interneurons in L2/3 providing inhibition onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons. L2/3 interneurons classified as local inhibitors based on their axonal projection in the same column were reported to receive strong excitatory input from spiny neurons in L4, which are also the main source of the excitatory input to L2/3 pyramidal neurons. Here, we investigated the remaining synaptic connection in this intracolumnar microcircuit. We found strong and reliable inhibitory synaptic transmission between intracolumnar L2/3 local-inhibitor-to-L2/3 pyramidal neuron pairs [inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) amplitude -0.88 ± 0.67 mV]. On average, 6.2 ± 2 synaptic contacts were made by L2/3 local inhibitors onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons at 107 ± 64 µm path distance from the pyramidal neuron soma, thus overlapping with the distribution of synaptic contacts from L4 spiny neurons onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons (67 ± 34 µm). Finally, using compartmental simulations, we determined the synaptic conductance per synaptic contact to be 0.77 ± 0.4 nS. We conclude that the synaptic circuit from L4 to L2/3 can provide efficient shunting inhibition that is temporally and spatially aligned with the excitatory input from L4 to L2/3. PMID:25761638

  5. Push-Pull Receptive Field Organization and Synaptic Depression: Mechanisms for Reliably Encoding Naturalistic Stimuli in V1

    PubMed Central

    Kremkow, Jens; Perrinet, Laurent U.; Monier, Cyril; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Aertsen, Ad; Frégnac, Yves; Masson, Guillaume S.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex are known for responding vigorously but with high variability to classical stimuli such as drifting bars or gratings. By contrast, natural scenes are encoded more efficiently by sparse and temporal precise spiking responses. We used a conductance-based model of the visual system in higher mammals to investigate how two specific features of the thalamo-cortical pathway, namely push-pull receptive field organization and fast synaptic depression, can contribute to this contextual reshaping of V1 responses. By comparing cortical dynamics evoked respectively by natural vs. artificial stimuli in a comprehensive parametric space analysis, we demonstrate that the reliability and sparseness of the spiking responses during natural vision is not a mere consequence of the increased bandwidth in the sensory input spectrum. Rather, it results from the combined impacts of fast synaptic depression and push-pull inhibition, the later acting for natural scenes as a form of “effective” feed-forward inhibition as demonstrated in other sensory systems. Thus, the combination of feedforward-like inhibition with fast thalamo-cortical synaptic depression by simple cells receiving a direct structured input from thalamus composes a generic computational mechanism for generating a sparse and reliable encoding of natural sensory events. PMID:27242445

  6. Push-Pull Receptive Field Organization and Synaptic Depression: Mechanisms for Reliably Encoding Naturalistic Stimuli in V1.

    PubMed

    Kremkow, Jens; Perrinet, Laurent U; Monier, Cyril; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Aertsen, Ad; Frégnac, Yves; Masson, Guillaume S

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex are known for responding vigorously but with high variability to classical stimuli such as drifting bars or gratings. By contrast, natural scenes are encoded more efficiently by sparse and temporal precise spiking responses. We used a conductance-based model of the visual system in higher mammals to investigate how two specific features of the thalamo-cortical pathway, namely push-pull receptive field organization and fast synaptic depression, can contribute to this contextual reshaping of V1 responses. By comparing cortical dynamics evoked respectively by natural vs. artificial stimuli in a comprehensive parametric space analysis, we demonstrate that the reliability and sparseness of the spiking responses during natural vision is not a mere consequence of the increased bandwidth in the sensory input spectrum. Rather, it results from the combined impacts of fast synaptic depression and push-pull inhibition, the later acting for natural scenes as a form of "effective" feed-forward inhibition as demonstrated in other sensory systems. Thus, the combination of feedforward-like inhibition with fast thalamo-cortical synaptic depression by simple cells receiving a direct structured input from thalamus composes a generic computational mechanism for generating a sparse and reliable encoding of natural sensory events. PMID:27242445

  7. Synaptic Plasticity, a Symphony in GEF

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic sites for the majority of excitatory synapses in the mammalian forebrain. While many spines display great stability, others change shape in a matter of seconds to minutes. These rapid alterations in dendritic spine number and size require tight control of the actin cytoskeleton, the main structural component of dendritic spines. The ability of neurons to alter spine number and size is essential for the expression of neuronal plasticity. Within spines, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) act as critical regulators of the actin cytoskeleton by controlling the activity of Rho-GTPases. In this review, we focus on the Rho-GEFs expressed in the nucleus accumbens and localized to the postsynaptic density and, thus, positioned to effect rapid alterations in the structure of dendritic spines. We review literature that ties these GEFs to different receptor systems and intracellular signaling cascades and discuss the effects these interactions are likely to have on synaptic plasticity. PMID:20543890

  8. Hyperkinetic disorders and loss of synaptic downscaling.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Paolo; Pisani, Antonio; Rothwell, John; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Obeso, Josè A; Picconi, Barbara

    2016-06-28

    Recent clinical and preclinical studies have shown that hyperkinetic disorders such as Huntington's disease, dystonia and l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease are all characterized by loss of the ability to reverse synaptic plasticity and an associated increase in the excitability of excitatory neuronal inputs to a range of cortical and subcortical brain areas. Moreover, these changes have been detected in humans with hyperkinetic disorders either via direct recordings from implanted deep brain electrodes or noninvasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Here we discuss the mechanisms underlying the loss of bidirectional plasticity and the possibility that future interventions could be devised to reverse these changes in patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders. PMID:27351172

  9. Sumoylation in Synaptic Function and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Schorova, Lenka; Martin, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Sumoylation has recently emerged as a key post-translational modification involved in many, if not all, biological processes. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) polypeptides are covalently attached to specific lysine residues of target proteins through a dedicated enzymatic pathway. Disruption of the SUMO enzymatic pathway in the developing brain leads to lethality indicating that this process exerts a central role during embryonic and post-natal development. However, little is still known regarding how this highly dynamic protein modification is regulated in the mammalian brain despite an increasing number of data implicating sumoylated substrates in synapse formation, synaptic communication and plasticity. The aim of this review is therefore to briefly describe the enzymatic SUMO pathway and to give an overview of our current knowledge on the function and dysfunction of protein sumoylation at the mammalian synapse. PMID:27199730

  10. The initiation of post-synaptic protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Hotulainen, Pirta; Saarikangas, Juha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The post-synaptic spines of neuronal dendrites are highly elaborate membrane protrusions. Their anatomy, stability and density are intimately linked to cognitive performance. The morphological transitions of spines are powered by coordinated polymerization of actin filaments against the plasma membrane, but how the membrane-associated polymerization is spatially and temporally regulated has remained ill defined. Here, we discuss our recent findings showing that dendritic spines can be initiated by direct membrane bending by the I-BAR protein MIM/Mtss1. This lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI(4,5)P2) signaling-activated membrane bending coordinated spatial actin assembly and promoted spine formation. From recent advances, we formulate a general model to discuss how spatially concentrated protein-lipid microdomains formed by multivalent interactions between lipids and actin/membrane regulatory proteins might launch cell protrusions. PMID:27489575

  11. A conserved juxtacrine signal regulates synaptic partner recognition in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An essential stage of neural development involves the assembly of neural circuits via formation of inter-neuronal connections. Early steps in neural circuit formation, including cell migration, axon guidance, and the localization of synaptic components, are well described. However, upon reaching their target region, most neurites still contact many potential partners. In order to assemble functional circuits, it is critical that within this group of cells, neurons identify and form connections only with their appropriate partners, a process we call synaptic partner recognition (SPR). To understand how SPR is mediated, we previously developed a genetically encoded fluorescent trans-synaptic marker called NLG-1 GRASP, which labels synaptic contacts between individual neurons of interest in dense cellular environments in the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Results Here, we describe the first use of NLG-1 GRASP technology, to identify SPR genes that function in this critical process. The NLG-1 GRASP system allows us to assess synaptogenesis between PHB sensory neurons and AVA interneurons instantly in live animals, making genetic analysis feasible. Additionally, we employ a behavioral assay to specifically test PHB sensory circuit function. Utilizing this approach, we reveal a new role for the secreted UNC-6/Netrin ligand and its transmembrane receptor UNC-40/Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) in SPR. Synapses between PHB and AVA are severely reduced in unc-6 and unc-40 animals despite normal axon guidance and subcellular localization of synaptic components. Additionally, behavioral defects indicate a complete disruption of PHB circuit function in unc-40 mutants. Our data indicate that UNC-40 and UNC-6 function in PHB and AVA, respectively, to specify SPR. Strikingly, overexpression of UNC-6 in postsynaptic neurons is sufficient to promote increased PHB-AVA synaptogenesis and to potentiate the behavioral response beyond wild-type levels

  12. Variable priming of a docked synaptic vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hoon; Szule, Joseph A.; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2016-01-01

    The priming of a docked synaptic vesicle determines the probability of its membrane (VM) fusing with the presynaptic membrane (PM) when a nerve impulse arrives. To gain insight into the nature of priming, we searched by electron tomography for structural relationships correlated with fusion probability at active zones of axon terminals at frog neuromuscular junctions. For terminals fixed at rest, the contact area between the VM of docked vesicles and PM varied >10-fold with a normal distribution. There was no merging of the membranes. For terminals fixed during repetitive evoked synaptic transmission, the normal distribution of contact areas was shifted to the left, due in part to a decreased number of large contact areas, and there was a subpopulation of large contact areas where the membranes were hemifused, an intermediate preceding complete fusion. Thus, fusion probability of a docked vesicle is related to the extent of its VM–PM contact area. For terminals fixed 1 h after activity, the distribution of contact areas recovered to that at rest, indicating the extent of a VM–PM contact area is dynamic and in equilibrium. The extent of VM–PM contact areas in resting terminals correlated with eccentricity in vesicle shape caused by force toward the PM and with shortness of active zone material macromolecules linking vesicles to PM components, some thought to include Ca2+ channels. We propose that priming is a variable continuum of events imposing variable fusion probability on each vesicle and is regulated by force-generating shortening of active zone material macromolecules in dynamic equilibrium. PMID:26858418

  13. Shank synaptic scaffold proteins: keys to understanding the pathogenesis of autism and other synaptic disorders.

    PubMed

    Sala, Carlo; Vicidomini, Cinzia; Bigi, Ilaria; Mossa, Adele; Verpelli, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Shank/ProSAP proteins are essential to synaptic formation, development, and function. Mutations in the family of SHANK genes are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID), and schizophrenia. Thus, the term 'Shankopathies' identifies a number of neuronal diseases caused by alteration of Shank protein expression leading to abnormal synaptic development. With this review we want to summarize the major genetic, molecular, behavior and electrophysiological studies that provide new clues into the function of Shanks and pave the way for the discovery of new therapeutic drugs targeted to treat patients with SHANK mutations and also patients affected by other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Shank/ProSAP proteins are essential to synaptic formation, development, and function. Mutations in the family of SHANK genes are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID), and schizophrenia (SCZ). With this review we want to summarize the major genetic, molecular, behavior and electrophysiological studies that provide new clues into the function of Shanks and pave the way for the discovery of new therapeutic drugs targeted to treat patients with SHANK mutations.

  14. Synaptic scaffolding molecule is involved in the synaptic clustering of neuroligin.

    PubMed

    Iida, Junko; Hirabayashi, Susumu; Sato, Yuji; Hata, Yutaka

    2004-12-01

    S-SCAM has a similar molecular organization to PSD-95. Both of them interact with a cell adhesion molecule, neuroligin. We previously reported that beta-catenin binds S-SCAM and recruits it to synapses. We have here examined using rat primary cultured neurons whether neuroligin recruits S-SCAM to synapses or S-SCAM determines the localization of neuroligin. Overexpressed neuroligin formed larger clusters under co-expression of S-SCAM but not of PSD-95. Overexpressed neuroligin blocked synaptic accumulation of PSD-95 but not of S-SCAM. S-SCAM mutant containing the neuroligin-binding region interfered with synaptic accumulation of neuroligin and PSD-95, whereas the similar mutant of PSD-95 had no effect. Biochemical studies revealed that neuroligin forms a ternary complex with S-SCAM and PSD-95 through manifold interactions. These findings imply that S-SCAM is tethered by beta-catenin to synapses and induces synaptic accumulation of neuroligin, which subsequently recruits PSD-95 to synapses.

  15. Glutamate NMDA receptor antagonists rapidly reverse behavioral and synaptic deficits caused by chronic stress exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nanxin; Liu, Rong-Jian; Dwyer, Jason M.; Banasr, Mounira; Lee, Boyoung; Son, Hyeon; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite widely reported clinical and preclinical studies of rapid antidepressant actions of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists, there has been very little work examining the effects of these drugs in stress models of depression that require chronic administration of antidepressants, or the molecular mechanisms that could account for the rapid responses. Methods We used a rat 21-day chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model to test the rapid actions of NMDA receptor antagonists on depressant-like behavior, neurochemistry, and spine density and synaptic function of prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. Results The results demonstrate that acute treatment with the non-competitive NMDA channel blocker ketamine or the selective NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981 rapidly ameliorates CUS-induced anhedonia and anxiogenic behaviors. We also find that CUS exposure decreases the expression levels of synaptic proteins and spine number and the frequency/amplitude of synaptic currents (EPSCs) in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC, and that these deficits are rapidly reversed by ketamine. Blockade of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein synthesis cascade abolishes both the behavioral and biochemical effects of ketamine. Conclusions The results indicate that the structural and functional deficits resulting from long-term stress exposure, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of depression, are rapidly reversed by NMDA receptor antagonists in an mTOR-dependent manner. PMID:21292242

  16. Synaptic depression and short-term habituation are located in the sensory part of the mammalian startle pathway

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Weidenmaier, Nadine S; Weber, Maruschka; Plappert, Claudia F; Pilz, Peter KD; Schmid, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Background Short-term habituation of the startle response represents an elementary form of learning in mammals. The underlying mechanism is located within the primary startle pathway, presumably at sensory synapses on giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). Short trains of action potentials in sensory afferent fibers induce depression of synaptic responses in PnC giant neurons, a phenomenon that has been proposed to be the cellular correlate for short-term habituation. We address here the question whether both this synaptic depression and the short-term habituation of the startle response are localized at the presynaptic terminals of sensory afferents. If this is confirmed, it would imply that these processes take place prior to multimodal signal integration, rather than occurring at postsynaptic sites on PnC giant neurons that directly drive motor neurons. Results Patch-clamp recordings in vitro were combined with behavioral experiments; synaptic depression was specific for the input pathway stimulated and did not affect signals elicited by other sensory afferents. Concordant with this, short-term habituation of the acoustic startle response in behavioral experiments did not influence tactile startle response amplitudes and vice versa. Further electrophysiological analysis showed that the passive properties of the postsynaptic neuron were unchanged but revealed some alterations in short-term plasticity during depression. Moreover, depression was induced only by trains of presynaptic action potentials and not by single pulses. There was no evidence for transmitter receptor desensitization. In summary, the data indicates that the synaptic depression mechanism is located presynaptically. Conclusion Our electrophysiological and behavioral data strongly indicate that synaptic depression in the PnC as well as short-term habituation are located in the sensory part of the startle pathway, namely at the axon terminals of sensory afferents in the Pn

  17. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Jacob T; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A; Ron, Dorit

    2016-01-20

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. Significance statement: Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  18. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Jacob T; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A; Ron, Dorit

    2016-01-20

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. Significance statement: Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  19. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Jacob T.; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  20. Pannexin 1 regulates bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Ardiles, Alvaro O.; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Toro-Ayala, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Muñoz, Pablo; Fuenzalida, Marco; Sáez, Juan C.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2014-01-01

    The threshold for bidirectional modification of synaptic plasticity is known to be controlled by several factors, including the balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, postsynaptic free Ca2+ concentration and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) composition of GluN2 subunits. Pannexin 1 (Panx1), a member of the integral membrane protein family, has been shown to form non-selective channels and to regulate the induction of synaptic plasticity as well as hippocampal-dependent learning. Although Panx1 channels have been suggested to play a role in excitatory long-term potentiation (LTP), it remains unknown whether these channels also modulate long-term depression (LTD) or the balance between both types of synaptic plasticity. To study how Panx1 contributes to excitatory synaptic efficacy, we examined the age-dependent effects of eliminating or blocking Panx1 channels on excitatory synaptic plasticity within the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. By using different protocols to induce bidirectional synaptic plasticity, Panx1 channel blockade or lack of Panx1 were found to enhance LTP, whereas both conditions precluded the induction of LTD in adults, but not in young animals. These findings suggest that Panx1 channels restrain the sliding threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity and underlying brain mechanisms of learning and memory. PMID:25360084

  1. Synaptic scaling stabilizes persistent activity driven by asynchronous neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Volman, Vladislav; Gerkin, Richard C

    2011-04-01

    Small networks of cultured hippocampal neurons respond to transient stimulation with rhythmic network activity (reverberation) that persists for several seconds, constituting an in vitro model of synchrony, working memory, and seizure. This mode of activity has been shown theoretically and experimentally to depend on asynchronous neurotransmitter release (an essential feature of the developing hippocampus) and is supported by a variety of developing neuronal networks despite variability in the size of populations (10-200 neurons) and in patterns of synaptic connectivity. It has previously been reported in computational models that "small-world" connection topology is ideal for the propagation of similar modes of network activity, although this has been shown only for neurons utilizing synchronous (phasic) synaptic transmission. We investigated how topological constraints on synaptic connectivity could shape the stability of reverberations in small networks that also use asynchronous synaptic transmission. We found that reverberation duration in such networks was resistant to changes in topology and scaled poorly with network size. However, normalization of synaptic drive, by reducing the variance of synaptic input across neurons, stabilized reverberation in such networks. Our results thus suggest that the stability of both normal and pathological states in developing networks might be shaped by variance-normalizing constraints on synaptic drive. We offer an experimental prediction for the consequences of such regulation on the behavior of small networks.

  2. Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 is altered at the frog neuromuscular junction following changes in synaptic activity.

    PubMed

    VanSaun, M; Humburg, B C; Arnett, M G; Pence, M; Werle, M J

    2007-09-15

    The extracellular matrix surrounding the neuromuscular junction is a highly specialized and dynamic structure. Matrix Metalloproteinases are enzymes that sculpt the extracellular matrix. Since synaptic activity is critical to the structure and function of this synapse, we investigated whether changes in synaptic activity levels could alter the activity of Matrix Metalloproteinases at the neuromuscular junction. In particular, we focused on Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), since antibodies to MMP3 recognize molecules at the frog neuromuscular junction, and MMP3 cleaves a number of synaptic basal lamina molecules, including agrin. Here we show that the fluorogenic compound (M2300) can be used to perform in vivo proteolytic imaging of the frog neuromuscular junction to directly measure the activity state of MMP3. Application of this compound reveals that active MMP3 is concentrated at the normal frog neuromuscular junction, and is tightly associated with the terminal Schwann cell. Blocking presynaptic activity via denervation, or TTX nerve blockade, results in a decreased level of active MMP3 at the neuromuscular junction. The loss of active MMP3 at the neuromuscular junction in denervated muscles can result from decreased activation of pro-MMP3, or it could result from increased inhibition of MMP3. These results support the hypothesis that changes in synaptic activity can alter the level of active MMP3 at the neuromuscular junction. PMID:17525979

  3. Genetic Modulation of Soluble Aβ Rescues Cognitive and Synaptic Impairment in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Stephanie W.; Chiang, Angie C. A.; Savjani, Ricky R.; Larson, Megan E.; Sherman, Mathew A.; Schuler, Dorothy R.; Cirrito, John R.; Lesné, Sylvain E.

    2014-01-01

    An unresolved debate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is whether amyloid plaques are pathogenic, causing overt physical disruption of neural circuits, or protective, sequestering soluble forms of amyloid-β (Aβ) that initiate synaptic damage and cognitive decline. Few animal models of AD have been capable of isolating the relative contribution made by soluble and insoluble forms of Aβ to the behavioral symptoms and biochemical consequences of the disease. Here we use a controllable transgenic mouse model expressing a mutant form of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to distinguish the impact of soluble Aβ from that of deposited amyloid on cognitive function and synaptic structure. Rapid inhibition of transgenic APP modulated the production of Aβ without affecting pre-existing amyloid deposits and restored cognitive performance to the level of healthy controls in Morris water maze, radial arm water maze, and fear conditioning. Selective reduction of Aβ with a γ-secretase inhibitor provided similar improvement, suggesting that transgene suppression restored cognition, at least in part by lowering Aβ. Cognitive improvement coincided with reduced levels of synaptotoxic Aβ oligomers, greater synaptic density surrounding amyloid plaques, and increased expression of presynaptic and postsynaptic markers. Together these findings indicate that transient Aβ species underlie much of the cognitive and synaptic deficits observed in this model and demonstrate that significant functional and structural recovery can be attained without removing deposited amyloid. PMID:24899710

  4. APP and APLP2 interact with the synaptic release machinery and facilitate transmitter release at hippocampal synapses

    PubMed Central

    Fanutza, Tomas; Del Prete, Dolores; Ford, Michael J; Castillo, Pablo E; D’Adamio, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause familial Alzheimer’s disease, interacts with the synaptic release machinery, suggesting a role in neurotransmission. Here we mapped this interaction to the NH2-terminal region of the APP intracellular domain. A peptide encompassing this binding domain -named JCasp- is naturally produced by a γ-secretase/caspase double-cut of APP. JCasp interferes with the APP-presynaptic proteins interaction and, if linked to a cell-penetrating peptide, reduces glutamate release in acute hippocampal slices from wild-type but not APP deficient mice, indicating that JCasp inhibits APP function.The APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) also binds the synaptic release machinery. Deletion of APP and APLP2 produces synaptic deficits similar to those caused by JCasp. Our data support the notion that APP and APLP2 facilitate transmitter release, likely through the interaction with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Given the link of APP to Alzheimer’s disease, alterations of this synaptic role of APP could contribute to dementia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09743.001 PMID:26551565

  5. APP and APLP2 interact with the synaptic release machinery and facilitate transmitter release at hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Fanutza, Tomas; Del Prete, Dolores; Ford, Michael J; Castillo, Pablo E; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2015-11-09

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause familial Alzheimer's disease, interacts with the synaptic release machinery, suggesting a role in neurotransmission. Here we mapped this interaction to the NH2-terminal region of the APP intracellular domain. A peptide encompassing this binding domain -named JCasp- is naturally produced by a γ-secretase/caspase double-cut of APP. JCasp interferes with the APP-presynaptic proteins interaction and, if linked to a cell-penetrating peptide, reduces glutamate release in acute hippocampal slices from wild-type but not APP deficient mice, indicating that JCasp inhibits APP function.The APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) also binds the synaptic release machinery. Deletion of APP and APLP2 produces synaptic deficits similar to those caused by JCasp. Our data support the notion that APP and APLP2 facilitate transmitter release, likely through the interaction with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Given the link of APP to Alzheimer's disease, alterations of this synaptic role of APP could contribute to dementia.

  6. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  7. Developmental Exposure to Perchlorate Alters Synaptic Transmission in Hippocampus of the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mary E.; Sui, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that blocks iodine uptake into the thyroid gland and reduces thyroid hormones. This action of perchlorate raises significant concern over its effects on brain development. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurologic function in rats after developmental exposure to perchlorate. Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to 0, 30, 300, or 1,000 ppm perchlorate in drinking water from gestational day 6 until weaning. Adult male offspring were evaluated on a series of behavioral tasks and neurophysiologic measures of synaptic function in the hippocampus. Results At the highest perchlorate dose, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were reduced in pups on postnatal day 21. T4 in dams was reduced relative to controls by 16%, 28%, and 60% in the 30-, 300-, and 1,000-ppm dose groups, respectively. Reductions in T4 were associated with increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone in the high-dose group. No changes were seen in serum T3. Perchlorate did not impair motor activity, spatial learning, or fear conditioning. However, significant reductions in baseline synaptic transmission were observed in hippocampal field potentials at all dose levels. Reductions in inhibitory function were evident at 300 and 1,000 ppm, and augmentations in long-term potentiation were observed in the population spike measure at the highest dose. Conclusions Dose-dependent deficits in hippocampal synaptic function were detectable with relatively minor perturbations of the thyroid axis, indicative of an irreversible impairment in synaptic transmission in response to developmental exposure to perchlorate. PMID:18560531

  8. Synaptic Mechanisms of Memory Consolidation during Sleep Slow Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yina; Krishnan, Giri P.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is critical for regulation of synaptic efficacy, memories, and learning. However, the underlying mechanisms of how sleep rhythms contribute to consolidating memories acquired during wakefulness remain unclear. Here we studied the role of slow oscillations, 0.2–1 Hz rhythmic transitions between Up and Down states during stage 3/4 sleep, on dynamics of synaptic connectivity in the thalamocortical network model implementing spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. We found that the spatiotemporal pattern of Up-state propagation determines the changes of synaptic strengths between neurons. Furthermore, an external input, mimicking hippocampal ripples, delivered to the cortical network results in input-specific changes of synaptic weights, which persisted after stimulation was removed. These synaptic changes promoted replay of specific firing sequences of the cortical neurons. Our study proposes a neuronal mechanism on how an interaction between hippocampal input, such as mediated by sharp wave-ripple events, cortical slow oscillations, and synaptic plasticity, may lead to consolidation of memories through preferential replay of cortical cell spike sequences during slow-wave sleep. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sleep is critical for memory and learning. Replay during sleep of temporally ordered spike sequences related to a recent experience was proposed to be a neuronal substrate of memory consolidation. However, specific mechanisms of replay or how spike sequence replay leads to synaptic changes that underlie memory consolidation are still poorly understood. Here we used a detailed computational model of the thalamocortical system to report that interaction between slow cortical oscillations and synaptic plasticity during deep sleep can underlie mapping hippocampal memory traces to persistent cortical representation. This study provided, for the first time, a mechanistic explanation of how slow-wave sleep may promote consolidation of recent memory events. PMID

  9. BDNF Interacts with Endocannabinoids to Regulate Cocaine-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in Mouse Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Peng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Ying; Wang, Tong; Zhao, Yong-ping

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endocannabinoids (eCBs) have been individually implicated in behavioral effects of cocaine. The present study examined how BDNF-eCB interaction regulates cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in the ventral tegmental area and behavioral effects. We report that BDNF and selective tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) activated the TrkB receptor to facilitate two forms of eCB-mediated synaptic depression, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and long-term depression (I-LTD) of IPSCs in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in mouse midbrain slices. The facilitation appears to be mediated by an increase in eCB production via phospholipase Cγ pathway, but not by an increase in CB1 receptor responsiveness or a decrease in eCB hydrolysis. Using Cre-loxP technology to specifically delete BDNF in dopamine neurons, we showed that eCB-mediated I-LTD, cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition, and potentiation of glutamatergic excitation remained intact in wild-type control mice, but were impaired in BDNF conditional knock-out mice. We also showed that cocaine-induced conditioned place preference was attenuated in BDNF conditional knock-out mice, in vivo pretreatments with DHF before place conditioning restored cocaine conditioned place preference in these mice, and the behavioral effect of DHF was blocked by a CB1 receptor antagonist. Together, these results suggest that BDNF in dopamine neurons regulates eCB responses, cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity, and associative learning. PMID:25762688

  10. BDNF interacts with endocannabinoids to regulate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in mouse midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Peng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Ying; Wang, Tong; Zhao, Yong-ping; Liu, Qing-song

    2015-03-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endocannabinoids (eCBs) have been individually implicated in behavioral effects of cocaine. The present study examined how BDNF-eCB interaction regulates cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in the ventral tegmental area and behavioral effects. We report that BDNF and selective tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) activated the TrkB receptor to facilitate two forms of eCB-mediated synaptic depression, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and long-term depression (I-LTD) of IPSCs in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in mouse midbrain slices. The facilitation appears to be mediated by an increase in eCB production via phospholipase Cγ pathway, but not by an increase in CB1 receptor responsiveness or a decrease in eCB hydrolysis. Using Cre-loxP technology to specifically delete BDNF in dopamine neurons, we showed that eCB-mediated I-LTD, cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition, and potentiation of glutamatergic excitation remained intact in wild-type control mice, but were impaired in BDNF conditional knock-out mice. We also showed that cocaine-induced conditioned place preference was attenuated in BDNF conditional knock-out mice, in vivo pretreatments with DHF before place conditioning restored cocaine conditioned place preference in these mice, and the behavioral effect of DHF was blocked by a CB₁ receptor antagonist. Together, these results suggest that BDNF in dopamine neurons regulates eCB responses, cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity, and associative learning. PMID:25762688

  11. Role of Rho Kinase and Fasudil on Synaptic Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chan; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Zhang, Qiong; Zhao, Yong-Fei; Liu, Chun-Yun; Li, Yan-Hua; Yang, Wan-Fang; Ma, Cun-Gen; Xiao, Bao-Guo

    2015-12-01

    In addition to myelin loss and oligodendrocyte injury, axonal damage is a major cause of irreversible neurological disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). A series of studies have demonstrated that Rho kinase (ROCK) is involved in synaptic plasticity of neurons. Here, we found that ROCK activity in MS serum was elevated compared with serum from healthy controls. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), ROCK activity was also increased in serum, spleen, brain and spinal cord. Neuron injury with scratch and TNF-α stimulation induced the up-regulation of ROCK activity. When serum of MS patients was co-cultured with mouse cortical neurons in vitro, MS serum caused neurite shortening and reduction of cell viability, while the addition of Fasudil partially restored synaptic morphology of neurons, revealing that MS sera inhibited neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. The expression of synaptophysin was decreased in MS serum-neurons, and elevated in the presence of Fasudil. In contrast, the expression of phosphorylated collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) was elevated in MS serum-neurons and decreased in the presence of Fasudil. However, the addition of anti-ROCK I/II mixed antibodies in MS serum partially declined ROCK activity, but did not improve neurite outgrowth of neurons, revealing that Fasudil should prevent synaptic damage possibly through inhibiting intracellular ROCK activation mediated with MS serum. Our results indicate that axonal loss in MS may be related to increased ROCK activity. Fasudil could promote synaptogenesis and thus may contribute to preventing irreversible neurological disability associated with MS. PMID:26481340

  12. Distinct activities of GABA agonists at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin; Ebert, Bjarke; Wafford, Keith; Smart, Trevor G

    2010-04-15

    The activation characteristics of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are important for shaping the profile of phasic and tonic inhibition in the central nervous system, which will critically impact on the activity of neuronal networks. Here, we study in isolation the activity of three agonists, GABA, muscimol and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydoisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one (THIP), to further understand the activation profiles of alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2, alpha 4 beta 3 gamma 2 and alpha 4 beta 3 delta receptors that typify synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type receptors expressed in the hippocampus and thalamus. The agonists display an order of potency that is invariant between the three receptors, which is reliant mostly on the agonist dissociation constant. At delta subunit-containing extrasynaptic-type GABA(A) receptors, both THIP and muscimol additionally exhibited, to different degrees, superagonist behaviour. By comparing whole-cell and single channel currents induced by the agonists, we provide a molecular explanation for their different activation profiles. For THIP at high concentrations, the unusual superagonist behaviour on alpha 4 beta 3 delta receptors is a consequence of its ability to increase the duration of longer channel openings and their frequency, resulting in longer burst durations. By contrast, for muscimol, moderate superagonist behaviour was caused by reduced desensitisation of the extrasynaptic-type receptors. The ability to specifically increase the efficacy of receptor activation, by selected exogenous agonists over that obtained with the natural transmitter, may prove to be of therapeutic benefit under circumstances when synaptic inhibition is compromised or dysfunctional.

  13. A Voltage Mode Memristor Bridge Synaptic Circuit with Memristor Emulators

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Maheshwar Pd.; Yang, Changju; Kim, Hyongsuk; Chua, Leon

    2012-01-01

    A memristor bridge neural circuit which is able to perform signed synaptic weighting was proposed in our previous study, where the synaptic operation was verified via software simulation of the mathematical model of the HP memristor. This study is an extension of the previous work advancing toward the circuit implementation where the architecture of the memristor bridge synapse is built with memristor emulator circuits. In addition, a simple neural network which performs both synaptic weighting and summation is built by combining memristor emulators-based synapses and differential amplifier circuits. The feasibility of the memristor bridge neural circuit is verified via SPICE simulations. PMID:22737026

  14. Differential Conditioning of Associative Synaptic Enhancement in Hippocampal Brain Slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, Stephen R.; Brown, Thomas H.

    1986-04-01

    An electrophysiological stimulation paradigm similar to one that produces Pavlovian conditioning was applied to synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons of hippocampal brain slices. Persistent synaptic enhancement was induced in one of two weak synaptic inputs by pairing high-frequency electrical stimulation of the weak input with stimulation of a third, stronger input to the same region. Forward (temporally overlapping) but not backward (temporally separate) pairings caused this enhancement. Thus hippocampal synapses in vitro can undergo the conditional and selective type of associative modification that could provide the substrate for some of the mnemonic functions in which the hippocampus is thought to participate.

  15. A voltage mode memristor bridge synaptic circuit with memristor emulators.

    PubMed

    Sah, Maheshwar Pd; Yang, Changju; Kim, Hyongsuk; Chua, Leon

    2012-01-01

    A memristor bridge neural circuit which is able to perform signed synaptic weighting was proposed in our previous study, where the synaptic operation was verified via software simulation of the mathematical model of the HP memristor. This study is an extension of the previous work advancing toward the circuit implementation where the architecture of the memristor bridge synapse is built with memristor emulator circuits. In addition, a simple neural network which performs both synaptic weighting and summation is built by combining memristor emulators-based synapses and differential amplifier circuits. The feasibility of the memristor bridge neural circuit is verified via SPICE simulations.

  16. Aberrant Synaptic Integration in Adult Lamina I Projection Neurons Following Neonatal Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  17. Chloride Homeostasis Critically Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptor Activity in Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingyong; Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Wen, Lei; Hittelman, Walter N; Xie, Jing-Dun; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-05-17

    Chronic neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition that remains difficult to treat. Diminished synaptic inhibition by GABA and glycine and increased NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity in the spinal dorsal horn are key mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain. However, the reciprocal relationship between synaptic inhibition and excitation in neuropathic pain is unclear. Here, we show that intrathecal delivery of K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter-2 (KCC2) using lentiviral vectors produces a complete and long-lasting reversal of pain hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury. KCC2 gene transfer restores Cl(-) homeostasis disrupted by nerve injury in both spinal dorsal horn and primary sensory neurons. Remarkably, restoring Cl(-) homeostasis normalizes both presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity increased by nerve injury in the spinal dorsal horn. Our findings indicate that nerve injury recruits NMDAR-mediated signaling pathways through the disruption of Cl(-) homeostasis in spinal dorsal horn and primary sensory neurons. Lentiviral vector-mediated KCC2 expression is a promising gene therapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:27160909

  18. The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic exocytosis requires the assembly of syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2) on the vesicular membrane to bridge the two opposite membranes. It is believed that the three SNARE proteins assemble in steps along the dynamic assembly pathway. The C-terminus of SNAP-25 is known to be the target of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A and BoNT/E) that block neurotransmitters release in vivo. In this study, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the SNAP-25 C-terminus in binary and ternary SNARE complexes. The fluorescence lipid mixing assay shows that the C-terminal of SNAP-25 is essential for membrane fusion, and that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants cleaved by BoNT/A and BoNT/E display different inhibition effects on membrane fusion: SNAP-25E (Δ26) abolishes the fusion activity of the SNARE complex, while SNAP-25A (Δ9) loses most of its function, although it can still form a SDS-resistant SNARE complex as the wild-type SNAP-25. CW-EPR spectra validate the unstable structures of the SNARE complex formed by SNAP-25 mutants. We propose that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants will disrupt the assembly of the SNARE core complex, and then inhibit the synaptic membrane fusion accordingly.

  19. A critical role for PSD-95/AKAP interactions in endocytosis of synaptic AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Biou, Virginie; Xu, Weifeng; Schlüter, Oliver; Malenka, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) underlies several forms of synaptic plasticity including NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this trafficking remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that PSD-95, a major postsynaptic density protein, plays a key role in NMDAR-triggered endocytosis of synaptic AMPARs because of its binding to AKAP150, a scaffold for specific protein kinases and phosphatases. Knockdown of PSD-95 with shRNA blocks NMDAR-triggered, but not constitutive nor mGluR-triggered endocytosis of AMPARs. Deletion of PSD-95’s SH3 and GK domains as well as a point mutation (L460P), both of which inhibit binding of PSD-95 to AKAP150, also block NMDAR-triggered AMPAR endocytosis. Furthermore, expression of a mutant AKAP150 that does not bind calcineurin inhibits this NMDAR-triggered trafficking event. These results suggest that PSD-95’s interaction with AKAP150 is critical for NMDAR-triggered AMPAR endocytosis and LTD, possibly because these scaffolds position calcineurin in the appropriate subsynaptic domain. PMID:19169250

  20. The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic exocytosis requires the assembly of syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2) on the vesicular membrane to bridge the two opposite membranes. It is believed that the three SNARE proteins assemble in steps along the dynamic assembly pathway. The C-terminus of SNAP-25 is known to be the target of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A and BoNT/E) that block neurotransmitters release in vivo. In this study, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the SNAP-25 C-terminus in binary and ternary SNARE complexes. The fluorescence lipid mixing assay shows that the C-terminal of SNAP-25 is essential for membrane fusion, and that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants cleaved by BoNT/A and BoNT/E display different inhibition effects on membrane fusion: SNAP-25E (Δ26) abolishes the fusion activity of the SNARE complex, while SNAP-25A (Δ9) loses most of its function, although it can still form a SDS-resistant SNARE complex as the wild-type SNAP-25. CW-EPR spectra validate the unstable structures of the SNARE complex formed by SNAP-25 mutants. We propose that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants will disrupt the assembly of the SNARE core complex, and then inhibit the synaptic membrane fusion accordingly. PMID:26157630

  1. Efficient Integration of Synaptic Events by NMDA Receptors in Three-Dimensional Neuropil

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kaiyu; Rusakov, Dmitri A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustained activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays an important role in controlling activity of neural circuits in the brain. However, whether this activation reflects the ambient level of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in brain tissue or whether it depends mainly on local synaptic discharges remains poorly understood. To shed light on the underlying biophysics here we developed and explored a detailed Monte Carlo model of a realistic three-dimensional neuropil fragment containing 54 excitatory synapses. To trace individual molecules and their individual receptor interactions on this scale, we have designed and implemented a dedicated computer cluster and the appropriate software environment. Our simulations have suggested that sparse synaptic discharges are 20–30 times more efficient than nonsynaptic (stationary, leaky) supply of glutamate in controlling sustained NMDAR occupancy in the brain. This mechanism could explain how the brain circuits provide substantial background activation of NMDARs while maintaining a negligible ambient glutamate level in the extracellular space. Thus the background NMDAR occupancy, rather than the background glutamate level, is likely to reflect the ongoing activity in local excitatory networks. PMID:25992724

  2. A Model of Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity: From Signaling Network to Channel Conductance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellani, Gastone C.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.; Bersani, Ferdinando; Cooper, Leon N.; Shouval, Harel Z.

    2005-01-01

    In many regions of the brain, including the mammalian cortex, the strength of synaptic transmission can be bidirectionally regulated by cortical activity (synaptic plasticity). One line of evidence indicates that long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and long-term synaptic depression (LTD), correlate with the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of…

  3. Competition between recently potentiated synaptic inputs reveals a winner-take-all phase of synaptic tagging and capture

    PubMed Central

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Morris, Richard G. M.; Korte, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Canonical models suggest that mechanisms of long-term memory consist of a synapse-specific, protein synthesis-independent induction phase (changes in synaptic weights/temporary tagging of such synapses) and, within adjacent dendritic compartments, a protein synthesis-dependent distribution phase that may accompany or immediately precede induction and whose protein products enable consolidation through synaptic capture. We now report that this distribution phase is competitive in a “winner-take-all” fashion when synapses potentiated at induction compete with each other for plasticity-related proteins. This finding highlights the importance of synaptic competition in creating stable long-lasting memory in neural networks without disruption. PMID:25092326

  4. Synaptic Mechanisms Generating Orientation Selectivity in the ON Pathway of the Rabbit Retina

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramani, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Neurons that signal the orientation of edges within the visual field have been widely studied in primary visual cortex. Much less is known about the mechanisms of orientation selectivity that arise earlier in the visual stream. Here we examine the synaptic and morphological properties of a subtype of orientation-selective ganglion cell in the rabbit retina. The receptive field has an excitatory ON center, flanked by excitatory OFF regions, a structure similar to simple cell receptive fields in primary visual cortex. Examination of the light-evoked postsynaptic currents in these ON-type orientation-selective ganglion cells (ON-OSGCs) reveals that synaptic input is mediated almost exclusively through the ON pathway. Orientation selectivity is generated by larger excitation for preferred relative to orthogonal stimuli, and conversely larger inhibition for orthogonal relative to preferred stimuli. Excitatory orientation selectivity arises in part from the morphology of the dendritic arbors. Blocking GABAA receptors reduces orientation selectivity of the inhibitory synaptic inputs and the spiking responses. Negative contrast stimuli in the flanking regions produce orientation-selective excitation in part by disinhibition of a tonic NMDA receptor-mediated input arising from ON bipolar cells. Comparison with earlier studies of OFF-type OSGCs indicates that diverse synaptic circuits have evolved in the retina to detect the orientation of edges in the visual input. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A core goal for visual neuroscientists is to understand how neural circuits at each stage of the visual system extract and encode features from the visual scene. This study documents a novel type of orientation-selective ganglion cell in the retina and shows that the receptive field structure is remarkably similar to that of simple cells in primary visual cortex. However, the data indicate that, unlike in the cortex, orientation selectivity in the retina depends on the activity of

  5. Acetylcholine Mediates a Slow Synaptic Potential in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. E.; Nicoll, R. A.

    1983-09-01

    The hippocampal slice preparation was used to study the role of acetylcholine as a synaptic transmitter. Bath-applied acetylcholine had three actions on pyramidal cells: (i) depolarization associated with increased input resistance, (ii) blockade of calcium-activated potassium responses, and (iii) blockade of accommodation of cell discharge. All these actions were reversed by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Stimulation of sites in the slice known to contain cholinergic fibers mimicked all the actions. Furthermore, these evoked synaptic responses were enhanced by the cholinesterase inhibitor eserine and were blocked by atropine. These findings provide electrophysiological support for the role of acetylcholine as a synaptic transmitter in the brain and demonstrate that nonclassical synaptic responses involving the blockade of membrane conductances exist in the brain.

  6. Synaptosomes as a Platform for Loading Nanoparticles into Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Synaptosomes are intact, isolated nerve terminals that contain the necessary machinery to recycle synaptic vesicles via endocytosis and exocytosis upon stimulation. Here we use this property of synaptosomes to load quantum dots into synaptic vesicles. Vesicles are then isolated from the synaptosomes, providing a method to probe isolated, individual synaptic vesicles where each vesicle contains a single, encapsulated nanoparticle. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of ∼16%; that is, ∼16% of the vesicles contained a single quantum dot while the remaining vesicles were empty. The ability to load single nanoparticles into synaptic vesicles opens new opportunity for employing various nanoparticle-based sensors to study the dynamics of vesicular transporters. PMID:21666849

  7. Upward synaptic scaling is dependent on neurotransmission rather than spiking.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ming-fai; Newman, Jonathan P; Potter, Steve M; Wenner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic plasticity encompasses a set of mechanisms that are thought to stabilize firing rates in neural circuits. The most widely studied form of homeostatic plasticity is upward synaptic scaling (upscaling), characterized by a multiplicative increase in the strength of excitatory synaptic inputs to a neuron as a compensatory response to chronic reductions in firing rate. While reduced spiking is thought to trigger upscaling, an alternative possibility is that reduced glutamatergic transmission generates this plasticity directly. However, spiking and neurotransmission are tightly coupled, so it has been difficult to determine their independent roles in the scaling process. Here we combined chronic multielectrode recording, closed-loop optogenetic stimulation, and pharmacology to show that reduced glutamatergic transmission directly triggers cell-wide synaptic upscaling. This work highlights the importance of synaptic activity in initiating signalling cascades that mediate upscaling. Moreover, our findings challenge the prevailing view that upscaling functions to homeostatically stabilize firing rates.

  8. Learning and Memory, Part II: Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombroso, Paul; Ogren, Marilee

    2009-01-01

    The molecular events that are responsible for strengthening synaptic connections and how these are linked to memory and learning are discussed. The laboratory preparations that allow the investigation of these events are also described.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Unbounded Cellular Compartments: Synaptic Clefts.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ken H; Stawski, Philipp S; Draycott, Austin S; Udeshi, Namrata D; Lehrman, Emily K; Wilton, Daniel K; Svinkina, Tanya; Deerinck, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Stevens, Beth; Carr, Steven A; Ting, Alice Y

    2016-08-25

    Cellular compartments that cannot be biochemically isolated are challenging to characterize. Here we demonstrate the proteomic characterization of the synaptic clefts that exist at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Normal brain function relies on the careful balance of these opposing neural connections, and understanding how this balance is achieved relies on knowledge of their protein compositions. Using a spatially restricted enzymatic tagging strategy, we mapped the proteomes of two of the most common excitatory and inhibitory synaptic clefts in living neurons. These proteomes reveal dozens of synaptic candidates and assign numerous known synaptic proteins to a specific cleft type. The molecular differentiation of each cleft allowed us to identify Mdga2 as a potential specificity factor influencing Neuroligin-2's recruitment of presynaptic neurotransmitters at inhibitory synapses. PMID:27565350

  10. Target-controlled differentiation of axon terminals and synaptic organization.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, G; Frost, D O

    1987-01-01

    These experiments investigate the processes regulating the morphological differentiation of synaptic connections. Electron microscopy showed that the terminal boutons and synaptic complexes of retinal afferent axons in the main thalamic visual nucleus, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, differ in their morphology from those of ascending afferent axons in the main thalamic somatosensory (ventrobasal) nucleus. Developing retinal ganglion cell axons in hamsters were made to project permanently to the ventrobasal nucleus, rather than to the lateral geniculate nucleus. With respect to most of the ultrastructural features examined, the terminals and synaptic complexes of mature, anterogradely labeled retino-ventrobasal axons more closely resembled those of normal somatosensory afferents to the ventrobasal nucleus than they did those of normal retinofugal axons within the lateral geniculate nucleus. These results suggest that the ultrastructural differentiation of axon terminals and synaptic complexes is regulated largely by the target environment, although some features appear to be intrinsic to the afferent axons themselves. Images PMID:2443913

  11. Alternative roles for Cdk5 in learning and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Bibb, James A

    2007-08-01

    Protein kinases mediate the intracellular signal transduction pathways controlling synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. While the majority of protein kinases achieve this function via the phosphorylation of synaptic substrates, some kinases may contribute through alternative mechanisms in addition to enzymatic activity. There is growing evidence that protein kinases may often play structural roles in plasticity as well. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in learning and synaptic plasticity. Initial scrutiny focused on its enzymatic activity using pharmacological inhibitors and genetic modifications of Cdk5 cofactors. Quite recently Cdk5 has been shown to govern learning and plasticity via regulation of glutamate receptor degradation, a function that may not dependent on phosphorylation of downstream effectors. From these new studies, two roles emerge for Cdk5 in plasticity: one in which it controls structural plasticity via phosphorylation of synaptic substrates, and a second where it regulates functional plasticity via protein-protein interactions.

  12. Synaptic and non-synaptic localization of protocadherin-γC5 in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanfang; Serwanski, David R.; Miralles, Celia P.; Fiondella, Christopher G.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Rubio, Maria E.; De Blas, Angel L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that γ-protocadherins (Pcdh-γs) are involved in the establishment of specific patterns of neuronal connectivity. Contrary to the other Pcdh-γs, which are expressed in the embryo, Pcdh-γC5 is expressed postnatally in the brain, coinciding with the peak of synaptogenesis. We have developed an antibody specific for Pcdh-γC5 to study the expression and localization of Pcdh-γC5 in brain. Pcdh-γC5 is highly expressed in the olfactory bulb, corpus striatum, dentate gyrus, CA1 region of the hippocampus, layers I and II of the cerebral cortex, the molecular layer of the cerebellum. Pcdh-γC5 is expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. In hippocampal neuronal cultures, and in the absence of astrocytes, a significant percentage of synapses, more GABAergic than glutamatergic, have associated Pcdh-γC5 clusters. Some GABAergic axons show Pcdh-γC5 in the majority of their synapses. Nevertheless, many Pcdh-γC5 clusters are not associated with synapses. In the brain, a significant number of Pcdh-γC5 clusters are located at contact points between neurons and astrocytes. Electron microscope immunocytochemistry of the rat brain shows that i) Pcdh-γC5 is present in some GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses both pre- and postsynaptically; ii) Pcdh-γC5 is also extrasynaptically localized in membranes and in cytoplasmic organelles of neurons and astrocytes; and iii) that Pcdh-γC5 is also localized in perisynaptic astrocyte processes. The results support the notion that i) Pcdh-γC5 plays a role in synaptic specificity and/or synaptic maturation, and ii) that Pcdh-γC5 is involved in neuron-neuron synaptic interactions and in neuron-astrocyte interactions, including perisynaptic neuron-astrocyte interactions. PMID:20589908

  13. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  14. Anisotropic Black Phosphorus Synaptic Device for Neuromorphic Applications.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Guo, Qiushi; Xie, Yujun; Zhao, Huan; Li, Cheng; Cha, Judy J; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han

    2016-07-01

    The first black-phosphorus synaptic device is demonstrated, which offers intrinsic anisotropy in its synaptic characteristics directly resulting from its low crystalline symmetry. Key features of biological synapses, such as long-term plasticity with heterogeneity, including long-term potentiation/depression and spike-timing-dependent plasticity, are mimicked. This demonstration represents an important step toward introducing intrinsic heterogeneity to artificial neuromorphic systems. PMID:27119423

  15. In vivo long-term synaptic plasticity of glial cells.

    PubMed

    Bélair, Eve-Lyne; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Evidence showing the ability of glial cells to detect, respond to and modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity has contributed to the notion of glial cells as active synaptic partners. However, synaptically induced plasticity of glia themselves remains ill defined. Here we used the amphibian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) to study plasticity of perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs), glial cells at this synapse, following long-term in vivo modifications of synaptic activity. We used two models that altered synaptic activity in different manners. First, chronic blockade of postsynaptic nicotinic receptors using alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTx) decreased facilitation, increased synaptic depression and decreased post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Second, chronic nerve stimulation increased facilitation and resistance to synaptic depression, while leaving PTP unaltered. Our results indicate that there is no direct relationship between transmitter release and PSC calcium responses. Indeed, despite changes in transmitter release and plasticity in stimulated NMJs, nerve-evoked PSC calcium responses were similar to control. Similarly, PSC calcium responses in alpha-BTx treated NMJs were delayed and smaller in amplitude, even though basal level of transmitter release was increased. Also, when isolating purinergic and muscarinic components of PSC calcium responses, we found an increased sensitivity to ATP and a decreased sensitivity to muscarine in chronically stimulated NMJs. Conversely, in alpha-BTx treated NMJs, PSC sensitivity remained unaffected, but ATP- and muscarine-induced calcium responses were prolonged. Thus, our results reveal complex modifications of PSC properties, with differential modulation of signalling pathways that might underlie receptor regulation or changes in Ca(2+) handling. Importantly, similar to neurons, perisynaptic glial cells undergo plastic changes induced by altered synaptic activity.

  16. Synaptopodin regulates denervation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Vlachos, Andreas; Ikenberg, Benno; Lenz, Maximilian; Becker, Denise; Reifenberg, Kurt; Bas-Orth, Carlos; Deller, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Synaptopodin (SP) is a marker and essential component of the spine apparatus (SA), an enigmatic cellular organelle composed of stacked smooth endoplasmic reticulum that has been linked to synaptic plasticity. However, SP/SA-mediated synaptic plasticity remains incompletely understood. To study the role of SP/SA in homeostatic synaptic plasticity we here used denervation-induced synaptic scaling of mouse dentate granule cells as a model system. This form of plasticity is of considerable interest in the context of neurological diseases that are associated with the loss of neurons and subsequent denervation of connected brain regions. In entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures prepared from SP-deficient mice, which lack the SA, a compensatory increase in excitatory synaptic strength was not observed following partial deafferentation. In line with this finding, prolonged blockade of sodium channels with tetrodotoxin induced homeostatic synaptic scaling in wild-type, but not SP-deficient, slice cultures. By crossing SP-deficient mice with a newly generated transgenic mouse strain that expresses GFP-tagged SP under the control of the Thy1.2 promoter, the ability of dentate granule cells to form the SA and to homeostatically strengthen excitatory synapses was rescued. Interestingly, homeostatic synaptic strengthening was accompanied by a compensatory increase in SP cluster size/stability and SA stack number, suggesting that activity-dependent SP/SA remodeling could be part of a negative feedback mechanism that aims at adjusting the strength of excitatory synapses to persisting changes in network activity. Thus, our results disclose an important role for SP/SA in homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:23630268

  17. Achieving High-Frequency Optical Control of Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Beneduce, Brandon M.; Drew, Iain R.

    2014-01-01

    The optogenetic tool channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is widely used to excite neurons to study neural circuits. Previous optogenetic studies of synapses suggest that light-evoked synaptic responses often exhibit artificial synaptic depression, which has been attributed to either the inability of ChR2 to reliably fire presynaptic axons or to ChR2 elevating the probability of release by depolarizing presynaptic boutons. Here, we compare light-evoked and electrically evoked synaptic responses for high-frequency stimulation at three synapses in the mouse brain. At synapses from Purkinje cells to deep cerebellar nuclei neurons (PC→DCN), light- and electrically evoked synaptic currents were remarkably similar for ChR2 expressed transgenically or with adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression vectors. For hippocampal CA3→CA1 synapses, AAV expression vectors of serotype 1, 5, and 8 led to light-evoked synaptic currents that depressed much more than electrically evoked currents, even though ChR2 could fire axons reliably at up to 50 Hz. The disparity between optical and electrical stimulation was eliminated when ChR2 was expressed transgenically or with AAV9. For cerebellar granule cell to stellate cell (grc→SC) synapses, AAV1 also led to artificial synaptic depression and AAV9 provided superior performance. Artificial synaptic depression also occurred when stimulating over presynaptic boutons, rather than axons, at CA3→CA1 synapses, but not at PC→DCN synapses. These findings indicate that ChR2 expression methods and light stimulation techniques influence synaptic responses in a neuron-specific manner. They also identify pitfalls associated with using ChR2 to study synapses and suggest an approach that allows optogenetics to be applied in a manner that helps to avoid potential complications. PMID:24872574

  18. Cholesterol Asymmetry in Synaptic Plasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W. Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2010-01-01

    Lipids are essential for the structural and functional integrity of membranes. Membrane lipids are not randomly distributed but are localized in different domains. A common characteristic of these membrane domains is their association with cholesterol. Lipid rafts and caveolae are examples of cholesterol enriched domains, which have attracted keen interest. However, two other important cholesterol domains are the exofacial and cytofacial leaflets of the plasma membrane. The two leaflets that make up the bilayer differ in their fluidity, electrical charge, lipid distribution, and active sites of certain proteins. The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cytofacial leaflet contains over 85% of the total SPM cholesterol as compared with the exofacial leaflet. This asymmetric distribution of cholesterol is not fixed or immobile but can be modified by different conditions in vivo: 1) chronic ethanol consumption; 2) statins; 3) aging; and 4) apoE isoform. Several potential candidates have been proposed as mechanisms involved in regulation of SPM cholesterol asymmetry: apoE, low-density-lipoprotein receptor, sterol carrier protein-2, fatty acid binding proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, p-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. This review examines cholesterol asymmetry in SPM, potential mechanisms of regulation and impact on membrane structure and function. PMID:21214553

  19. Synaptic protein alterations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Ilse S; Burn, David; Morris, Christopher; Dexter, David

    2012-02-01

    Alterations occur within distal neuronal compartments, including axons and synapses, during the course of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). These changes could hold important implications for the functioning of neural networks, especially since research studies have shown a loss of dendritic spines locating to medium spiny projection neurons and impaired axonal transport in PD-affected brains. However, despite ever-increasing awareness of the vulnerability of synapses and axons, inadequate understanding of the independent mechanisms regulating non-somatic neurodegeneration prevails. This has resulted in limited therapeutic strategies capable of targeting these distinct cellular compartments. Deregulated protein synthesis, folding and degrading proteins, and protein quality-control systems have repeatedly been linked with morphological and functional alterations of synapses in the PD-affected brains. Here, we review current understanding concerning the proteins involved in structural and functional changes that affect synaptic contact-points in PD. The collection of studies discussed emphasizes the need for developing therapeutics aimed at deregulated protein synthesis and degradation pathways operating at axonal and dendritic synapses for preserving "normal" circuitry and function, for as long as possible.

  20. Protein composition of immunoprecipitated synaptic ribbons

    PubMed Central

    Kantardzhieva, A.; Peppi, M.; Lane, W.S.; Sewell, W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The synaptic ribbon is an electron-dense structure found in hair cells and photoreceptors. The ribbon is surrounded by neurotransmitter-filled vesicles and considered to play a role in vesicle release. We generated an objective, quantitative analysis of the protein composition of the ribbon complex using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis. Our use of affinity-purified ribbons and control IgG immunoprecipitations ensure that the identified proteins are indeed associated with the ribbon complex. The use of mouse tissue, where the proteome is complete, generated a comprehensive analysis of the candidates. We identified 30 proteins (comprising 56 isoforms and subunits) associated with the ribbon complex. The ribbon complex primarily comprises proteins found in conventional synapses, which we categorized into 6 functional groups: vesicle handling (38.5%), scaffold (7.3%), cytoskeletal molecules (20.6%), phosphorylation enzymes (10.6%), molecular chaperones (8.2%), and transmembrane proteins from the presynaptic membrane firmly attached to the ribbon (11.3%). The 3 CtBP isoforms represent the major protein in the ribbon whether calculated by molar amount (30%) or by mass (20%). The relatively high quantity of phosphorylation enzymes suggests a very active and regulated structure. The ribbon appears to comprise a concentrated cluster of proteins dealing with vesicle creation, retention and distribution, and consequent exocytosis. PMID:22103298

  1. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-19

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency.

  2. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-19

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency. PMID:26715759

  3. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J.; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency. PMID:26715759

  4. Synaptic failure: The achilles tendon of sphingolipidoses.

    PubMed

    Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ludovico; Bongarzone, Ernesto R

    2016-11-01

    The presence of life-threatening neurological symptoms in more than two-thirds of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) underscores how vulnerable the nervous system is to lysosomal failure. Neurological dysfunction in LSDs has historically been attributed to the disruption of neuronal and glial homeostasis resulting from the progressive jamming of the endosomal/lysosomal pathway. In neurons, a dysfunctional endosomal-lysosomal system can elicit dire consequences. Given that neurons are largely postmitotic after birth, one can clearly understand that the inability of these cells to proliferate obliterates any possibility of diluting stored lysosomal material by means of cellular division. At its most advanced stage, this situation constitutes a terminal factor in neuronal life, resulting in cell death. However, synaptic deficits in the absence of classical neuronal cell death appear to be common features during the early stages in many LSDs, particularly sphingolipidoses. In essence, failure of synapses to convey their messages, even without major structural damage to the neuronal bodies, is a form of physiological death. This concept of dying-back neuropathology is highly relevant not only for understanding the dynamics of the neurological decline in these diseases, but, more importantly; it might also constitute an important target for molecular therapies to protect perhaps the "Achilles" point in the entire physiological architecture of the brain, thus avoiding an irreversible journey to neuronal demise. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638588

  5. Relationship between developmental synaptic modulation and conditioning-induced synaptic change in Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, T; Sato, Nao; Horikoshi, T; Sakakibara, M

    2008-01-01

    Though adult Lymnaea are bimodal breathers, young animals breathe mainly through the skin and adults through the lung. Operant conditioning changes adult breathing behavior from aerial to cutaneous. We hypothesized that this behavioral change is caused by alterations in the neuronal circuit during both development and conditioning. We focused our study on whether the synaptic connection between RPeD1 and RPA6 neurons is modulated during development and conditioning. Our findings indicated that the RPeD1 has an excitatory monosynaptic contact with the RPA6 in young naive and operantly-conditioned adult animals. The relationship of this contact was well correlated with their respiratory behavior.

  6. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on 56Fe-particle radiation-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vlkolinský, Roman; Krucker, Thomas; Smith, Anna L; Lamp, Tyra C; Nelson, Gregory A; Obenaus, Andre

    2007-10-01

    Space radiation, including high-mass, high-Z, high-energy particles (HZE; e.g. (56)Fe), represents a significant health risk for astronauts, and the central nervous system (CNS) may be a vulnerable target. HZE-particle radiation may directly affect neuronal function, or during immunological challenge, it may alter immune system-to-CNS communication. To test these hypotheses, we exposed mice to accelerated iron particles ((56)Fe; 600 MeV/nucleon; 1, 2, 4 Gy; brain only) and 1 month later prepared hippocampal slices to measure the effects of radiation on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in CA1 neurons. In a model of immune system-to-CNS communication, these electrophysiological parameters were measured in irradiated mice additionally challenged with the peripheral immunological stressor lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected intraperitoneally 4 h before the slice preparation. Exposure to (56)Fe particles alone increased dendritic excitability and inhibited plasticity. In control mice (0 Gy), LPS treatment also inhibited synaptic plasticity. Paradoxically, in mice exposed to 2 Gy, the LPS treatment restored synaptic plasticity to levels similar to those found in controls (0 Gy, no LPS). Our results indicate that HZE-particle radiation alters normal electrophysiological properties of the CNS and the hippocampal response to LPS. PMID:17903042

  7. Imaging synaptic density in the living human brain.

    PubMed

    Finnema, Sjoerd J; Nabulsi, Nabeel B; Eid, Tore; Detyniecki, Kamil; Lin, Shu-Fei; Chen, Ming-Kai; Dhaher, Roni; Matuskey, David; Baum, Evan; Holden, Daniel; Spencer, Dennis D; Mercier, Joël; Hannestad, Jonas; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E

    2016-07-20

    Chemical synapses are the predominant neuron-to-neuron contact in the central nervous system. Presynaptic boutons of neurons contain hundreds of vesicles filled with neurotransmitters, the diffusible signaling chemicals. Changes in the number of synapses are associated with numerous brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. However, all current approaches for measuring synaptic density in humans require brain tissue from autopsy or surgical resection. We report the use of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) radioligand [(11)C]UCB-J combined with positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify synaptic density in the living human brain. Validation studies in a baboon confirmed that SV2A is an alternative synaptic density marker to synaptophysin. First-in-human PET studies demonstrated that [(11)C]UCB-J had excellent imaging properties. Finally, we confirmed that PET imaging of SV2A was sensitive to synaptic loss in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, [(11)C]UCB-J PET imaging is a promising approach for in vivo quantification of synaptic density with several potential applications in diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27440727

  8. Synaptic ultrastructure changes in trigeminocervical complex posttrigeminal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Park, John; Trinh, Van Nancy; Sears-Kraxberger, Ilse; Li, Kang-Wu; Steward, Oswald; Luo, Z David

    2016-02-01

    Trigeminal nerves collecting sensory information from the orofacial area synapse on second-order neurons in the dorsal horn of subnucleus caudalis and cervical C1/C2 spinal cord (Vc/C2, or trigeminocervical complex), which is critical for sensory information processing. Injury to the trigeminal nerves may cause maladaptive changes in synaptic connectivity that plays an important role in chronic pain development. Here we examined whether injury to the infraorbital nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerves, led to synaptic ultrastructural changes when the injured animals have developed neuropathic pain states. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic profiles in Vc/C2 at 3 weeks postinjury, corresponding to the time of peak behavioral hypersensitivity following chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION). Using established criteria, synaptic profiles were classified as associated with excitatory (R-), inhibitory (F-), and primary afferent (C-) terminals. Each type was counted within the superficial dorsal horn of the Vc/C2 and the means from each rat were compared between sham and injured animals; synaptic contact length was also measured. The overall analysis indicates that rats with orofacial pain states had increased numbers and decreased mean synaptic length of R-profiles within the Vc/C2 superficial dorsal horn (lamina I) 3 weeks post-CCI-ION. Increases in the number of excitatory synapses in the superficial dorsal horn of Vc/C2 could lead to enhanced activation of nociceptive pathways, contributing to the development of orofacial pain states.

  9. The Influence of Synaptic Weight Distribution on Neuronal Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buice, Michael; Koch, Christof; Mihalas, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The manner in which different distributions of synaptic weights onto cortical neurons shape their spiking activity remains open. To characterize a homogeneous neuronal population, we use the master equation for generalized leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with shot-noise synapses. We develop fast semi-analytic numerical methods to solve this equation for either current or conductance synapses, with and without synaptic depression. We show that its solutions match simulations of equivalent neuronal networks better than those of the Fokker-Planck equation and we compute bounds on the network response to non-instantaneous synapses. We apply these methods to study different synaptic weight distributions in feed-forward networks. We characterize the synaptic amplitude distributions using a set of measures, called tail weight numbers, designed to quantify the preponderance of very strong synapses. Even if synaptic amplitude distributions are equated for both the total current and average synaptic weight, distributions with sparse but strong synapses produce higher responses for small inputs, leading to a larger operating range. Furthermore, despite their small number, such synapses enable the network to respond faster and with more stability in the face of external fluctuations. PMID:24204219

  10. Synaptic Activity Regulates the Abundance and Binding of Complexin

    PubMed Central

    Wragg, Rachel T.; Gouzer, Géraldine; Bai, Jihong; Arianna, Gianluca; Ryan, Timothy A.; Dittman, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system function relies on precise chemical communication between neurons at specialized junctions known as synapses. Complexin (CPX) is one of a small number of cytoplasmic proteins that are indispensable in controlling neurotransmitter release through SNARE and synaptic vesicle interactions. However, the mechanisms that recruit and stabilize CPX are poorly understood. The mobility of CPX tagged with photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (pGFP) was quantified in vivo using Caenorhabditis elegans. Although pGFP escaped the synapse within seconds, CPX-pGFP displayed both fast and slow decay components, requiring minutes for complete exchange of the synaptic pool. The longer synaptic residence time of CPX arose from both synaptic vesicle and SNARE interactions, and surprisingly, CPX mobility depended on synaptic activity. Moreover, mouse CPX-GFP reversibly dispersed out of hippocampal presynaptic terminals during stimulation, and blockade of vesicle fusion prevented CPX dispersion. Hence, synaptic CPX can rapidly redistribute and this exchange is influenced by neuronal activity, potentially contributing to use-dependent plasticity. PMID:25809246

  11. Effects of hypoxic preconditioning on synaptic ultrastructure in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhishan; Sun, Shufeng; Duan, Yunxia; Shi, Jingfei; Qi, Zhifeng; Meng, Ran; Sun, Yongxin; Zeng, Xianwei; Chui, Dehua; Ji, Xunming

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) elicits resistance to more drastic subsequent insults, which potentially provide neuroprotective therapeutic strategy, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of HPC on synaptic ultrastructure in olfactory bulb of mice. Mice underwent up to five cycles of repeated HPC treatments, and hypoxic tolerance was assessed with a standard gasp reflex assay. As expected, HPC induced an increase in tolerance time. To assess synaptic responses, Western blots were used to quantify protein levels of representative markers for glia, neuron, and synapse, and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic ultrastructure and mitochondrial density. HPC did not significantly alter the protein levels of astroglial marker (GFAP), neuron-specific markers (GAP43, Tuj-1, and OMP), synaptic number markers (synaptophysin and SNAP25) or the percentage of excitatory synapses versus inhibitory synapses. However, HPC significantly affected synaptic curvature and the percentage of synapses with presynaptic mitochondria, which showed concomitant change pattern. These findings demonstrate that HPC is associated with changes in synaptic ultrastructure. PMID:25155519

  12. Wnts in action: from synapse formation to synaptic maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Dickins, Ellen M.; Salinas, Patricia C.

    2013-01-01

    A proper balance between synapse assembly and disassembly is crucial for the formation of functional neuronal circuits and synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. During development, synaptogenesis generates a vast excess of synapses, which are subsequently eliminated. Importantly, aberrant synaptic disassembly during development underpins many neurological disorders. Wnt secreted proteins are robust synaptogenic factors that regulate synapse assembly and function in the developing and mature brain. Recent studies show that Wnt blockade with the antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) induces the rapid disassembly of synapses in mature neurons. Importantly, Dkk1 mediates synaptic loss induced by Amyloid-ß, a key pathogenic molecule in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These findings provide new insights into the potential contribution of dysfunctional Wnt signaling to synaptic loss observed in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of Wnt signaling in vertebrate synaptic assembly, function and maintenance, and consider how dysfunction of Wnt signaling could contribute to synaptic disassembly in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:24223536

  13. An improved test for detecting multiplicative homeostatic synaptic scaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimok; Tsien, Richard W; Alger, Bradley E

    2012-01-01

    Homeostatic scaling of synaptic strengths is essential for maintenance of network "gain", but also poses a risk of losing the distinctions among relative synaptic weights, which are possibly cellular correlates of memory storage. Multiplicative scaling of all synapses has been proposed as a mechanism that would preserve the relative weights among them, because they would all be proportionately adjusted. It is crucial for this hypothesis that all synapses be affected identically, but whether or not this actually occurs is difficult to determine directly. Mathematical tests for multiplicative synaptic scaling are presently carried out on distributions of miniature synaptic current amplitudes, but the accuracy of the test procedure has not been fully validated. We now show that the existence of an amplitude threshold for empirical detection of miniature synaptic currents limits the use of the most common method for detecting multiplicative changes. Our new method circumvents the problem by discarding the potentially distorting subthreshold values after computational scaling. This new method should be useful in assessing the underlying neurophysiological nature of a homeostatic synaptic scaling transformation, and therefore in evaluating its functional significance.

  14. Nanoconnectomic upper bound on the variability of synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Bartol, Thomas M; Bromer, Cailey; Kinney, Justin; Chirillo, Michael A; Bourne, Jennifer N; Harris, Kristen M; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-01-01

    Information in a computer is quantified by the number of bits that can be stored and recovered. An important question about the brain is how much information can be stored at a synapse through synaptic plasticity, which depends on the history of probabilistic synaptic activity. The strong correlation between size and efficacy of a synapse allowed us to estimate the variability of synaptic plasticity. In an EM reconstruction of hippocampal neuropil we found single axons making two or more synaptic contacts onto the same dendrites, having shared histories of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity. The spine heads and neck diameters, but not neck lengths, of these pairs were nearly identical in size. We found that there is a minimum of 26 distinguishable synaptic strengths, corresponding to storing 4.7 bits of information at each synapse. Because of stochastic variability of synaptic activation the observed precision requires averaging activity over several minutes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10778.001 PMID:26618907

  15. SAHA enhances synaptic function and plasticity in vitro but has limited brain availability in vivo and does not impact cognition.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jesse E; La, Hank; Plise, Emile; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily V; Alexandrov, Vadim; Brunner, Dani; Leahy, Emer; Steiner, Pascal; Liu, Lichuan; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) used for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and under consideration for other indications. In vivo studies suggest reducing HDAC function can enhance synaptic function and memory, raising the possibility that SAHA treatment could have neurological benefits. We first examined the impacts of SAHA on synaptic function in vitro using rat organotypic hippocampal brain slices. Following several days of SAHA treatment, basal excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function was enhanced. Presynaptic release probability and intrinsic neuronal excitability were unaffected suggesting SAHA treatment selectively enhanced postsynaptic excitatory function. In addition, long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses was augmented, while long-term depression (LTD) was impaired in SAHA treated slices. Despite the in vitro synaptic enhancements, in vivo SAHA treatment did not rescue memory deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Along with the lack of behavioral impact, pharmacokinetic analysis indicated poor brain availability of SAHA. Broader assessment of in vivo SAHA treatment using high-content phenotypic characterization of C57Bl6 mice failed to demonstrate significant behavioral effects of up to 150 mg/kg SAHA following either acute or chronic injections. Potentially explaining the low brain exposure and lack of behavioral impacts, SAHA was found to be a substrate of the blood brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp1. Thus while our in vitro data show that HDAC inhibition can enhance excitatory synaptic strength and potentiation, our in vivo data suggests limited brain availability may contribute to the lack of behavioral impact of SAHA following peripheral delivery. These results do not predict CNS effects of SAHA during clinical use and also emphasize the importance of analyzing brain drug levels when interpreting preclinical

  16. GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus studied in VGAT channelrhodopsin-2 mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Both glycine and GABA mediate inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In mice, the time course of glycinergic inhibition is slow in bushy cells and fast in multipolar (stellate) cells, and is proposed to contribute to the processing of temporal cues in both cell types. Much less is known about GABAergic synaptic transmission in this circuit. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve or the tuberculoventral pathway evokes little GABAergic synaptic current in brain slice preparations, and spontaneous GABAergic miniature synaptic currents occur infrequently. To investigate synaptic currents carried by GABA receptors in bushy and multipolar cells, we used transgenic mice in which channelrhodopsin-2 and EYFP is driven by the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT-ChR2-EYFP) and is expressed in both GABAergic and glycinergic neurons. Light stimulation evoked action potentials in EYFP-expressing presynaptic cells, and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in non-expressing bushy and planar multipolar cells. Less than 10% of the IPSP amplitude in bushy cells arose from GABAergic synapses, whereas 40% of the IPSP in multipolar neurons was GABAergic. In voltage clamp, glycinergic IPSCs were significantly slower in bushy neurons than in multipolar neurons, whereas there was little difference in the kinetics of the GABAergic IPSCs between two cell types. During prolonged stimulation, the ratio of steady state vs. peak IPSC amplitude was significantly lower for glycinergic IPSCs. Surprisingly, the reversal potentials of GABAergic IPSCs were negative to those of glycinergic IPSCs in both bushy and multipolar neurons. In the absence of receptor blockers, repetitive light stimulation was only able to effectively evoke IPSCs up to 20 Hz in both bushy and multipolar neurons. We conclude that local GABAergic release within the VCN can differentially influence bushy and multipolar cells.

  17. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) cause degeneration of cytoskeleton and disrupt synaptic machinery of cultured cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), owing to their effective antimicrobial properties, are being widely used in a broad range of applications. These include, but are not limited to, antibacterial materials, the textile industry, cosmetics, coatings of various household appliances and medical devices. Despite their extensive use, little is known about AgNP safety and toxicity vis-à-vis human and animal health. Recent studies have drawn attention towards potential neurotoxic effects of AgNPs, however, the primary cellular and molecular targets of AgNP action/s remain to be defined. Results Here we examine the effects of ultra fine scales (20 nm) of AgNPs at various concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 50 μg/ml) on primary rat cortical cell cultures. We found that AgNPs (at 1-50 μg/ml) not only inhibited neurite outgrowth and reduced cell viability of premature neurons and glial cells, but also induced degeneration of neuronal processes of mature neurons. Our immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated that AgNPs induced the loss of cytoskeleton components such as the β-tubulin and filamentous actin (F-actin). AgNPs also dramatically reduced the number of synaptic clusters of the presynaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin, and the postsynaptic receptor density protein PSD-95. Finally, AgNP exposure also resulted in mitochondria dysfunction in rat cortical cells. Conclusions Taken together, our data show that AgNPs induce toxicity in neurons, which involves degradation of cytoskeleton components, perturbations of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death. Our study clearly demonstrates the potential detrimental effects of AgNPs on neuronal development and physiological functions and warns against its prolific usage. PMID:23782671

  18. Differential regulation of synaptic transmission by mGlu2 and mGlu3 at the perforant path inputs to the dentate gyrus and CA1 revealed in mGlu2 -/- mice.

    PubMed

    Kew, James N C; Pflimlin, Marie-Claire; Kemp, John A; Mutel, Vincent

    2002-08-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors can act as presynaptic autoinhibitory receptors at perforant path inputs to the hippocampus under conditions of high frequency synaptic activation. We have used mGlu2 -/- mice to examine the relative roles of mGlu2 and mGlu3 in the regulation of perforant path synaptic transmission mediated by both the selective group II receptor agonist, DCG-IV, and by synaptically released glutamate. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of either the perforant path inputs to the dentate gyrus mid-moleculare or the CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare were inhibited by DCG-IV with IC(50) values and maximum percentage inhibition of: 169 nM (60%) and 41 nM (72%) in wild-type mice and 273 nM (19%) and 116 nM (49%) in mGlu2 -/- mice, respectively. Activation of presynaptic group II mGlu autoreceptors by synaptically released glutamate, as revealed by a LY341495-mediated increase in the relative amplitude of a test fEPSP evoked after a conditioning burst, was observed in both the dentate gyrus and the stratum lacunosum of wild-type, but not mGlu2 -/- mice. These observations demonstrate that activation of mGlu3 receptors can regulate synaptic transmission at perforant path synapses but suggest that mGlu2 is the major presynaptic group II autoreceptor activated by synaptically released glutamate. PMID:12213275

  19. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  20. Chronic Social Stress Affects Synaptic Maturation of Newly Generated Neurons in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic stress has been found to suppress adult neurogenesis, but it remains unclear whether it may affect the maturation process of adult-born neurons. Here, we examined the influence of chronic social defeat stress on the morphological and electrophysiological properties of adult-born dentate granule cells at different developmental stages. Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 10 days of chronic social defeat stress followed by a social interaction test 24 hours after the last defeat. Defeated mice were segregated into susceptible and unsusceptible subpopulations based on a measure of social interaction test. Combining electrophysiology with retrovirus-mediated birth-dating and labeling, we examined the impact of chronic social defeat stress on temporal regulation of synaptic plasticity of adult-born dentate granule cells along their maturation. Results: Chronic social defeat stress decreases the survival and dendritic complexity of adult-born dentate granule cells. While chronic social defeat stress doesn’t alter the intrinsic electrophysiological properties and synaptic transmission of surviving adult-born dentate granule cells, it promotes the developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors from predominant GluN2B- to GluN2A-containing receptors, which transform the immature synapse of adult-born dentate granule cells from one that exhibits enhanced long-term potentiation to one that has normal levels of long-term potentiation. Furthermore, chronic social defeat stress increases the level of endogenous repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor mRNA in adult-born dentate granule cells, and knockdown of the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor in adult-born dentate granule cells rescues chronic social defeat stress-induced morphological deficits and accelerated developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit composition. Conclusions: These results uncover a previously

  1. Muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially control synaptic input and excitability of cerebellum-projecting medial vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-04-01

    found that activation of pre-synaptic M2 muscarinic receptors inhibit glutamatergic input from vestibular primary afferents, whereas stimulation of post-synaptic M3 muscarinic receptors increases the firing activity of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. This new information advances our understanding of the cholinergic mechanism regulating the vestibular system.

  2. Muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially control synaptic input and excitability of cerebellum-projecting medial vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-04-01

    found that activation of pre-synaptic M2 muscarinic receptors inhibit glutamatergic input from vestibular primary afferents, whereas stimulation of post-synaptic M3 muscarinic receptors increases the firing activity of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. This new information advances our understanding of the cholinergic mechanism regulating the vestibular system. PMID:26823384

  3. Tissue plasminogen activator contributes to the late phase of LTP and to synaptic growth in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway.

    PubMed

    Baranes, D; Lederfein, D; Huang, Y Y; Chen, M; Bailey, C H; Kandel, E R

    1998-10-01

    The expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is increased during activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity. We have found that inhibitors of tPA inhibit the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) induced by either forskolin or tetanic stimulation in the hippocampal mossy fiber and Schaffer collateral pathways. Moreover, application of tPA enhances L-LTP induced by a single tetanus. Exposure of granule cells in culture to forskolin results in secretion of tPA, elongation of mossy fiber axons, and formation of new, active presynaptic varicosities contiguous to dendritic clusters of the glutamate receptor R1. These structural changes are blocked by tPA inhibitors and induced by application of tPA. Thus, tPA may be critically involved in the production of L-LTP and specifically in synaptic growth.

  4. Gain control of synaptic response function in cerebellar nuclear neurons by a calcium-activated potassium conductance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Steven Si; Lin, Risa; Gauck, Volker; Jaeger, Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) current provides an important modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission, which undergoes plastic regulation via multiple mechanisms. We examined whether inhibitory input processing is also dependent on SK current in the cerebellar nuclei (CN) where inhibition provides the only route of information transfer from the cerebellar cortical Purkinje cells. We employed dynamic clamping in conjunction with computer simulations to address this question. We found that SK current plays a critical role in the inhibitory synaptic control of spiking output. Specifically, regulation of SK current density resulted in a gain control of spiking output, such that low SK current promoted large output signaling for large inhibitory cell input fluctuations due to Purkinje cell synchronization. In contrast, smaller nonsynchronized Purkinje cell input fluctuations were not amplified. Regulation of SK density in the CN therefore would likely lead to important consequences for the transmission of synchronized Purkinje cell activity to the motor system. PMID:23605187

  5. Stimulation with a low-amplitude, digitized synaptic signal to invoke robust activity within neuronal networks on multielectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Zemianek, Jill M; Serra, Michael; Guaraldi, Mary; Shea, Thomas B

    2012-03-01

    Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) are used for analysis of neuronal activity. Here we report two variations on commonly accepted techniques that increase the precision of extracellular electrical stimulation: (i) the use of a low-amplitude recorded spontaneous synaptic signal as a stimulus waveform and (ii) the use of a specific electrode within the array adjacent to the stimulus electrode as a hard-grounded stimulus signal return path. Both modifications remained compatible with manipulation of neuronal networks. In addition, localized stimulation with the low-amplitude synaptic signal allowed selective stimulation or inhibition of otherwise spontaneous signals. These findings indicate that minimizing the area of the culture impacted by external stimulation allows modulation of signaling patterns within subpopulations of neurons in culture. The simple modifications described herein may be useful for precise monitoring and manipulation of neuronal networks.

  6. Superpriming of synaptic vesicles as a common basis for intersynapse variability and modulation of synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Taschenberger, Holger; Woehler, Andrew; Neher, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Glutamatergic synapses show large variations in strength and short-term plasticity (STP). We show here that synapses displaying an increased strength either after posttetanic potentiation (PTP) or through activation of the phospholipase-C–diacylglycerol pathway share characteristic properties with intrinsically strong synapses, such as (i) pronounced short-term depression (STD) during high-frequency stimulation; (ii) a conversion of that STD into a sequence of facilitation followed by STD after a few conditioning stimuli at low frequency; (iii) an equalizing effect of such conditioning stimulation, which reduces differences among synapses and abolishes potentiation; and (iv) a requirement of long periods of rest for reconstitution of the original STP pattern. These phenomena are quantitatively described by assuming that a small fraction of “superprimed” synaptic vesicles are in a state of elevated release probability (p ∼ 0.5). This fraction is variable in size among synapses (typically about 30%), but increases after application of phorbol ester or during PTP. The majority of vesicles, released during repetitive stimulation, have low release probability (p ∼ 0.1), are relatively uniform in number across synapses, and are rapidly recruited. In contrast, superprimed vesicles need several seconds to be regenerated. They mediate enhanced synaptic strength at the onset of burst-like activity, the impact of which is subject to modulation by slow modulatory transmitter systems. PMID:27432975

  7. Spike-Timing–Dependent Synaptic Plasticity and Synaptic Democracy in Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Gidon, Albert; Segev, Idan

    2009-01-01

    We explored in a computational study the effect of dendrites on excitatory synapses undergoing spike-timing–dependent plasticity (STDP), using both cylindrical dendritic models and reconstructed dendritic trees. We show that even if the initial strength, gpeak, of distal synapses is augmented in a location independent manner, the efficacy of distal synapses diminishes following STDP and proximal synapses would eventually dominate. Indeed, proximal synapses always win over distal synapses following linear STDP rule, independent of the initial synaptic strength distribution in the dendritic tree. This effect is more pronounced as the dendritic cable length increases but it does not depend on the dendritic branching structure. Adding a small multiplicative component to the linear STDP rule, whereby already strong synapses tend to be less potentiated than depressed (and vice versa for weak synapses) did partially “save” distal synapses from “dying out.” Another successful strategy for balancing the efficacy of distal and proximal synapses following STDP is to increase the upper bound for the synaptic conductance (gmax) with distance from the soma. We conclude by discussing an experiment for assessing which of these possible strategies might actually operate in dendrites. PMID:19357339

  8. Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic democracy in dendrites.

    PubMed

    Gidon, Albert; Segev, Idan

    2009-06-01

    We explored in a computational study the effect of dendrites on excitatory synapses undergoing spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), using both cylindrical dendritic models and reconstructed dendritic trees. We show that even if the initial strength, g(peak), of distal synapses is augmented in a location independent manner, the efficacy of distal synapses diminishes following STDP and proximal synapses would eventually dominate. Indeed, proximal synapses always win over distal synapses following linear STDP rule, independent of the initial synaptic strength distribution in the dendritic tree. This effect is more pronounced as the dendritic cable length increases but it does not depend on the dendritic branching structure. Adding a small multiplicative component to the linear STDP rule, whereby already strong synapses tend to be less potentiated than depressed (and vice versa for weak synapses) did partially "save" distal synapses from "dying out." Another successful strategy for balancing the efficacy of distal and proximal synapses following STDP is to increase the upper bound for the synaptic conductance (g(max)) with distance from the soma. We conclude by discussing an experiment for assessing which of these possible strategies might actually operate in dendrites.

  9. Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Menglong; Shang, Yuan; Araki, Yoichi; Guo, Tingfeng; Huganir, Richard L; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-25

    Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) are membrane semi-enclosed, submicron protein-enriched cellular compartments beneath postsynaptic membranes, which constantly exchange their components with bulk aqueous cytoplasm in synaptic spines. Formation and activity-dependent modulation of PSDs is considered as one of the most basic molecular events governing synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. In this study, we discover that SynGAP, one of the most abundant PSD proteins and a Ras/Rap GTPase activator, forms a homo-trimer and binds to multiple copies of PSD-95. Binding of SynGAP to PSD-95 induces phase separation of the complex, forming highly concentrated liquid-like droplets reminiscent of the PSD. The multivalent nature of the SynGAP/PSD-95 complex is critical for the phase separation to occur and for proper activity-dependent SynGAP dispersions from the PSD. In addition to revealing a dynamic anchoring mechanism of SynGAP at the PSD, our results also suggest a model for phase-transition-mediated formation of PSD. PMID:27565345

  10. Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic democracy in dendrites.

    PubMed

    Gidon, Albert; Segev, Idan

    2009-06-01

    We explored in a computational study the effect of dendrites on excitatory synapses undergoing spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), using both cylindrical dendritic models and reconstructed dendritic trees. We show that even if the initial strength, g(peak), of distal synapses is augmented in a location independent manner, the efficacy of distal synapses diminishes following STDP and proximal synapses would eventually dominate. Indeed, proximal synapses always win over distal synapses following linear STDP rule, independent of the initial synaptic strength distribution in the dendritic tree. This effect is more pronounced as the dendritic cable length increases but it does not depend on the dendritic branching structure. Adding a small multiplicative component to the linear STDP rule, whereby already strong synapses tend to be less potentiated than depressed (and vice versa for weak synapses) did partially "save" distal synapses from "dying out." Another successful strategy for balancing the efficacy of distal and proximal synapses following STDP is to increase the upper bound for the synaptic conductance (g(max)) with distance from the soma. We conclude by discussing an experiment for assessing which of these possible strategies might actually operate in dendrites. PMID:19357339

  11. Differential mechanisms of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor functions in the amygdala in pain-related synaptic facilitation and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu; Neugebauer, Volker

    2008-01-01

    A major site of extra-hypothalamic expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its G-protein-coupled CRF1 and CRF2 receptors is the amygdala, a key player in emotions and affective disorders. Pain-related plasticity in the latero-capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC) generates emotional-affective responses and anxiety-like behavior. CRF1 receptor antagonists have anxiolytic effects. Although both CRF1 and CRF2 receptors couple positively to adenylyl-cyclase, they can have opposite effects, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study addressed CRF1 and CRF2 receptor functions and mechanisms in the amygdala in a model of arthritic pain. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of CeLC neurons, we found that a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist (NBI27914) inhibited synaptic facilitation in brain slices from arthritic rats through a postsynaptic mechanism. Inhibition of the NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic component was occluded by a PKA inhibitor, consistent with our previous demonstration of PKA-dependent increased NMDA receptor function in arthritis pain-related plasticity. NBI27914 also decreased neuronal excitability through inhibition of highly TEA-sensitive ion channels that contribute to action potential repolarization and firing rate. In contrast, a CRF2 receptor antagonist (astressin-2B) facilitated synaptic transmission through presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic transmission (disinhibition). NBI27914 inhibited arthritis pain-related behaviors (audible and ultrasonic vocalizations and hindlimb withdrawal reflexes). Astressin-2B had no significant behavioral effect. The data suggest that endogenous CRF1 receptor activation in the amygdala contributes to pain-related synaptic facilitation, increased excitability, and pain behavior through a postsynaptic mechanism involving activation of PKA and highly TEA-sensitive K+-currents. Presynaptic CRF2 receptor-mediated inhibition does not reach behavioral significance. PMID

  12. AMPA receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis alter synaptic receptor location

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meizan; Hughes, Ethan G.; Peng, Xiaoy