Science.gov

Sample records for bacolod city basin

  1. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.

    2007-05-01

    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  2. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area: All waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake...

  3. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Caetano, E.; Magaña, V.; Zitácuaro, A.; Cárdenas, B.; Retama, A.; Ramos, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2005-05-01

    MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  4. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Caetano, E.; Magaña, V.; Zitácuaro, A.; Cárdenas, B.; Retama, A.; Ramos, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2005-08-01

    MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  5. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  6. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts: A Report to the Tri-Cities Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, Judi; LaGrange, Jill; Jones, Ty

    This fact book for Columbia Basin College (CBC) (Washington) covers seven subject areas: (1) mission statement; (2) access; (3) academics; (4) career and workforce development; (5) basic skills; (6) cultural enrichment; and (7) physical and emotional well-being. Report highlights include: (1) in 2001, CBC presented to the Tri-Cities community a…

  7. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  8. Using 3DVAR data assimilation system to improve ozone simulations in the Mexico City basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; de Foy, B.; Lei, W.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates the improvement of ozone (O3) simulations in the Mexico City basin using a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system in meteorological modeling during the MCMA-2003 campaign. Meteorological simulations from the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) are used to drive photochemical modeling with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) during a four-day episode on 13 16 April 2003. The calculated wind circulation, temperature, and humidity fields in the basin with the data assimilation are found to be more consistent with the observations than those from the reference deterministic forecast. This leads to improved calculations of plume position, peak O3 timing, and peak O3 concentrations in the photochemical model. The improvement of O3 simulations is especially strong during the daytime. The results demonstrate the importance of applying data assimilation in meteorological simulations for air quality studies in the Mexico City basin.

  9. Using 3DVAR data assimilation system to improve ozone simulations in the Mexico City basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; de Foy, B.; Lei, W.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates the improvement of ozone (O3) simulations in the Mexico City basin using a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system in meteorological simulations during the MCMA-2003 field measurement campaign. Meteorological simulations from the NCAR/Penn State mesoscale model (MM5) are used to drive photochemical simulations with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) during a four-day episode on 13-16 April 2003. The simulated wind circulation, temperature, and humidity fields in the basin with the data assimilation are found to be more consistent with the observations than those from the reference deterministic forecast. This leads to improved simulations of plume position, peak O3 timing, and peak O3 concentrations in the photochemical model. The improvement in O3 simulations is especially strong during the daytime. The results demonstrate the importance of applying data assimilation in meteorological simulations for air quality studies in the Mexico City basin.

  10. Aerosol climatology over Mexico City basin: Characterization of their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabali-Sandoval, Giovanni; Valdéz-Barrón, Mauro; Bonifaz-Alfonso, Roberto; Riveros-Rosas, David; Estévez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    Climatology of aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and size parameters were analyzed using a 15-year (1999-2014) data set from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) observations over Mexico City basin. Since urban air pollution is one of the biggest problems that face this megacity, many studies addressing these issues have been published. However few studies have examined the climatology of aerosol taking into account their optical properties over long-time period. Pollution problems in Mexico City have been generated by the daily activities of some 21 million people coupled with the vast amount of industry located within the city's metropolitan area. Another contributing factor is the unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City. The basin covers approximately 5000 km2 of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (ASL) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3000 m ASL. In this work we present preliminary results of aerosol climatology in Mexico City.

  11. Midtropospheric influences on boundary layer evolution in the Mexico City basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.E.; Stalker, J.R.; Langley, D.L.

    1998-12-31

    Mexico City lies in a horseshoe-shaped basin at 2250 m AGL. These authors have simulated the effects of thermally-forced local to regional-scale circulation patterns on the ozone distribution within the basin. On most of the case days studied a relationship could be found between the spatial and temporal evolution of wind patterns and ozone concentration, particularly in the southwestern part of the basin. In this paper, the authors focus upon defining the relationship between the vertical structure of the atmosphere, by examining stability and wind shear, and the near surface pollution. This work was prompted by the need to better understand the role of midtropospheric flow in contributing to, or alleviating, the pollution problem in the basin. The role of vertical exchange processes in this locale has so far been only peripherally explored. From this investigation the authors hope to assess the importance of upper level winds in contributing to ventilation of pollutants out of the basin above the mountaintop level, in flushing the polluted airmass out of the basin, and in the development of basin-wide recirculation patterns. The results of preliminary data analyses are described.

  12. Contaminant concentrations in stormwater from eight lake Superior basin cities, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, J.J.; Selbig, W.R.; Hornewer, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected Stormwater samples from eight Lake Superior Basin cities to determine the quality of urban runoff entering Lake Superior from urban areas. The samples were collected during July 1993-September 1994 from storm sewers in Ishpeming, Negaunee, Sault Ste. Marie, and Houghton, Michigan; Virginia and Ribbing, Minnesota; and Ashland and Hurley, Wisconsin. Automated samplers were installed in manholes draining the selected sewers within each city. Water samples were collected for analyses of total recoverable metals, nutrients, and poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of these constituents for each site are listed in data tables.

  13. Location of oil fields in Forest City basin as related to Precambrian tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, M.P. )

    1989-09-01

    Accumulation of petroleum in the Forest City basin is strongly influenced by the tectonic framework established during the Precambrian. A series of Late Proterozoic orogenies created a fracture pattern in the northern Mid-Continent, which was emphasized by the late Keweenawan, Mid-Continent Rift System (MRS). Reactivated basement structures have created both a structural and depositional imprint on younger rocks. The Southeast Nebraska arch is defined by Middle Ordovician (Simpson) overlap of Arbuckle equivalents. Continuing differential movement along segments of the MRS within the North Kansas basin influenced the regional facies distribution of both the Late Ordovician (Viola) and the Late Devonian (Hunton). Middle Pennsylvanian compression from the Ouachita orogeny produced the Nemaha uplift and reactivated transform faulting on the MRS. Extensions of these southeast-trending fractures created offsets on the Nemaha uplift/Humboldt fault system and enhanced structures that host oil production. Fields that lie upon these wrench-fault trends within the Forest City basin have produced from the Simpson (St. Peter), Viola, and Hunton formations. The Precambrian structures and rock types produce strong geophysical signatures in contrast to the subdued anomalies of the Paleozoic sediments. Analyses of magnetic and gravity data provide an interpretation of the basement rocks and, by extrapolation, an additional exploration tool for locating Paleozoic trends related to reactivation of Precambrian tectonics.

  14. Thermal maturation and petroleum source rocks in Forest City and Salina basins, mid-continent, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D.; Watney, W.L.; Hatch, J.R.; Xiaozhong, G.

    1986-05-01

    Shales in the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group are probably the source rocks for a geochemically distinct group of lower pristane and low phytane oils produced along the axis of the Forest City basin, a shallow cratonic Paleozoic basin. These oils, termed Ordovician-type oils, occur in some fields in the southern portion of the adjacent Salina basin. Maturation modeling by time-temperature index (TTI) calculations indicate that maturation of both basins was minimal during the early Paleozoic. The rate of maturation significantly increased during the Pennsylvanian because of rapid regional subsidence in response to the downwarping of the nearby Anadarko basin. When estimated thicknesses of eroded Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Cretaceous strata are considered, both basins remain relatively shallow, with maximum basement burial probably not exceeding 2 km. According to maturation modeling and regional structure mapping, the axes of both basins should contain Simpson rocks in the early stages of oil generation. The probability of finding commercial accumulations of Ordovician-type oil along the northwest-southeast trending axis of the Salina basin will decrease in a northwestward direction because of (1) westward thinning of the Simpson Group, and (2) lesser maturation due to lower geothermal gradients and shallower paleoburial depths. The optimum localities for finding fields of Ordovician-type oil in the southern Salina basin will be in down-plunge closures on anticlines that have drainage areas near the basin axis.

  15. Palynological correlation of Atokan and lower desmoinesian (Pennsylvanian) strata between the Illinois basin and the Forest City basin in Eastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peppers, R.A.; Brady, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Palynological correlation is made between Atokan and lower Desmoinesian strata in the Illinois basin an the Forest City basin in eastern Kansas. Spore data from previous studies of coals in the Illinois basin and other coal basins are compared with data from spore assemblages in coal and carbonaceous shale bands in a core drilled in Leavenworth County, Kansas. Correlations are based on first and/or last occurrences of 31 species common to the Illinois basin and eastern Kansas and on significant increases or decreases in abundance of several of those taxa. The oldest coal, which is 26 ft (8 m) above the top of the Mississippian, is early Atokan (early Westphalian B) in age and is approximately equivalent to the Bell coal bed in the Illinois basin. The Riverton coal bed at the top of the studied interval in Kansas is early Desmoinesian (early Westphalian D) and correlates with about the Lewisport coal bed in the Illinois basin. Three coal beds near the base of the Pennsylvanian in three cores drilled in Cherokee County, Kansas, which were also studied, range in age from late Atokan to early Desmoinesian. As in other coal basins, Lycospora, borne by lycopod trees, greatly dominates the lower and middle Atokan spore assemblages in coals and shale, but spores from ferns, especially tree ferns, significantly increase in abundance in the upper Atokan and lower Desmoinesian. The pattern of change of dominance among Lycosporapellucida, L. granulata, and L, micropapillata in middle Atokan (Westphalian B-C transition) that has been demonstrated earlier in the Illinois basin and eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, also occurs in eastern Kansas. At least 10 species of spores, which appeared in the middle Atokan in other parts of the equatorial coal belt, also appeared at this time in eastern Kansas. Most of these species have their affinities with the ferns, which were adapted to drier habitats than lycopods. Thus, the climate may have become a little drier in the equatorial coal

  16. Age and archaeological implications of Xitle volcano, southwestern Basin of Mexico-City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebe, C.

    2000-12-01

    The Pedregal lavas are fresh, well-exposed basaltic flows erupted from the Xitle scoria-and-cinder cone in the southwestern part of the Basin of Mexico. These lavas cover an area of 70 km 2 and were emplaced over pyramids and other buildings (e.g. Cuicuilco and Copilco archaeological sites). Today, a part of Mexico-City (including the National University) is built on the flows. Initial strombolian activity produced an ash fallout layer, which was immediately followed by effusive emplacement of lava flows. The Xitle cone grew on the north-facing slope of Ajusco volcano, and lava flowed down to the N-NE until it reached the basin floor. More than 30 radiocarbon dates have been obtained by several workers on charcoal samples from beneath the lava, and several ages for the eruption have been proposed from these dates. Most dated samples were not directly produced by Xitle's eruption but instead are artifacts of human activity that predates the eruption. Thus, these ages (mostly about 2000 BP) are older than the eruption. A new age of 1670±35 years BP (AD 245-315) obtained on charcoal samples collected just beneath the lavas is favored for the Xitle eruption. These samples originated by ignition of vegetation during the emplacement of hot scoriaceous tephra. The new age is within the Classic period of Mesoamerican archaeology, whereas the earlier reported ages are at the end of the Preclassic. The new age carries important implications for the timing of population shifts within the Basin of Mexico.

  17. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg−1 As and 8800 mg kg−1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg−1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg−1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  18. Stable isotope geochemistry of sphalerite and other mineral matter in coal beds of the Illinois and Forest City basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, J.F.; Cobb, J.C.; Rye, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Cleat and clastic dikes of Middle Pennsylvanian-age coal beds of the Illlinois and Forest City basins of Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas locally contain appreciable amounts of sphalerite within a kaolinite-pyrite-sphalerite (?? pyrite)-calcite paragenetic sequence. The sphalerite and associated minerals are of interest as a partial record of the history of fluids in the sedimentary basin and as possible indicators of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization. Moreover, zinc from the sphalerite may represent an exploitable by-product of coal mining and combustion. -Authors

  19. A mesoscale modeling study of wind blown dust on the Mexico City Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor, Rafael; López-Villegas, M. T.; Eidels-Dubovoi, S.; Quintanar, Arturo; Gallardo, J. C.

    The latest phase of the program to improve the air quality in the Valley of Mexico, also known, as Pro Aire is about to go into effect for the next 10 years. Pro Aire puts emphasis on agricultural wind erosion and associated dust emissions impacting downwind air quality. The main objective of this investigation was to use an empirical USEPA erosion model coupled to a meteorological/transport-dispersion prediction model, CALMET/CALPUFF, to estimate dust emissions and concentrations in the Mexico City Basin. The model simulations for particulate matter (PM 10) are validated against observations taken at the most recent research field study, the IMADA-AVER field campaign, conducted during the spring of 1997 to provide information about high ozone, particulate matter concentrations and visibility impairment. The spatial and temporal PM distribution in the region is presented for a specific wind blown dust event consisting of two IMADA days, in order to understand how soil dust emissions from agricultural fallow land affect downwind areas during the dry season. Results show good agreement with the main spatial features of the local wind circulation and wind blown dust concentrations. A correlation coefficient of nearly 0.8 between predictions and observations for a modeled day suggests that an important portion of the total measured concentration had geological origin. This work constitutes an essential advancement on the mesoscale air quality problem on the MCMA due to wind erosion.

  20. Crestal unconformities as indicators of clastic stratigraphic traps: genetic relation of Berlin field and Elk City structure, deep Anadarko basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, J.R.

    1988-02-01

    The Berlin fan-delta gas reservoir in the deep Anardarko basin was deposited during the late Atokan (Pennsylvanian) as a response to the initial uplift and erosion of the Elk City structure. During the late Atokan pulse of the episodic Pennsylvanian orogeny in the south-central US, abrupt epeirogenic uplift and brittle deformation created an interregional unconformity on positive areas around foreland and cratonic basins. The Elk City structure within the deep Anadarko basin originated as a distinct, subaerially exposed upthrust-block during the late Atokan tectonic event. A crestal unconformity developed on the emergent upthrust block concurrent with its uplift. Terrigenous, detrital Atoka dolomite, originally sourced from the Arbuckle dolomite (Cambrian-Ordovician) of the Amarillo-Wichita uplift, was eroded from the upthrust block and recycled northward as the Berlin fan-delta. Today, the Berlin recrystallized, recycled detrital dolomite fan-delta is a large 41 mi/sup 2/ overpressured gas reservoir with 242-362 bcf reserves at 15,000 ft. The Berlin field is genetically related to the late Atokan crestal unconformity of the Elk City structure, and is an example of the association of crestal unconformities and clastic stratigraphic traps. Such stratigraphic traps originated in marine environments proximal to active structures that have become subaerially exposed. With adequate seals and favorable structural position, detrital deposits recycled from local uplifts can form significant stratigraphic traps. Such stratigraphic traps can occur in compressional, extensional, and diapiric regions.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the largely urban blue river basin, Metropolitan Kansas City, USA, 1998 to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, D.H.; Armstrong, D.J.; Hampton, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    From 1998 through 2007, over 750 surface-water or bed-sediment samples in the Blue River Basin - a largely urban basin in metropolitan Kansas City - were analyzed for more than 100 anthropogenic compounds. Compounds analyzed included nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, suspended sediment, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Non-point source runoff, hydrologic alterations, and numerous waste-water discharge points resulted in the routine detection of complex mixtures of anthropogenic compounds in samples from basin stream sites. Temporal and spatial variations in concentrations and loads of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and organic wastewater compounds were observed, primarily related to a site's proximity to point-source discharges and stream-flow dynamics. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  2. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin, flood of July 10 and 27, 1993, in Kansas City Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Clement, Ralph W.; Studley, Seth E.

    1997-01-01

    During spring and summer 1993, record flooding inundated many of the stream and river valleys in the upper Mississippi and the Missouri River Basins. The flooding was the result of widespread and numerous intense thunderstorms that, together with saturated soils, produced large volumes of runoff. The magnitude of flooding exceeded the 100-year discharge values (1-percent chance of exceedance in any given year) at many streamflow-gaging stations in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The flooding was unusual because of its long duration and widespread severe damage. The Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers were above flood stage for more than 1 month at several locations along their lengths. Millions of acres of agricultural and urban lands were inundated for weeks, and unofficial damage estimates exceeded $10 billion in the flooded States (Parrett and others, 1993),During summer 1993, large parts of Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas, and vicinity were flooded from overflows of the Missouri and the Kansas Rivers and numerous smaller tributaries, This report provides flood-peak elevation data and delineates the arcalcktent of the 1993 floods in the Kansas City metropolitan area for July 10 and 27, 1993 (fig. 1A, sheet 1: B, sheet 2: C, sheet 3). The 1993 flood elevations and extent of flooding are compared with flood-plain boundaries defined by Flood Insurance Studies conducted by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for cities and counties in the area (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1975–95).This report is one of a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigations that document the effects of the 1993 flooding of the upper Mississippi and the Missouri River Basins and that improve the technical base from which flood-plain management decisions can be made by other agencies.

  3. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area.Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995.Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge.Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  4. BASINS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.

  5. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts: 1999 Report to the Tri-Cities Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, Judi; Stroup, Jill

    The administration of Columbia Basin College (CBC) that serves Benton and Franklin Counties in Washington State compiled an annual report for 1999 on the status and accomplishments of the college. Founded in 1955 as part of the public school system, CBC now serves about 12,500 students each year in over 50 academic and technical fields, and offers…

  6. Water-quality and biologic data for the Blue River basin, Kansas City metropolitan area, Missouri and Kansas, October 2000 to October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Brown, Rebecca E.; Poulton, Barry C.; Cahill, Jeffrey D.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents water-quality and biologic data collected in the Blue River Basin, metropolitan Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, from October 2000 to October 2004. Data were collected in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, Water Services Department as part of an ongoing study designed to characterize long-term water-quality trends in the basin and to provide data to support a strategy for combined sewer overflow control. These data include values of physical properties, fecal indicator bacteria densities, suspended sediment, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, organic wastewater compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds in base-flow and stormflow stream samples and bottom sediments. Six surface-water sites in the basin were sampled 13 times during base-flow conditions and during a minimum of 7 storms. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities are described at 10 sites in the basin and 1 site outside the basin. Water-column and bottom-sediment data from impounded reaches of Brush Creek are provided. Continuous specific conductance, pH, water-quality temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen data are provided for two streams-the Blue River and Brush Creek. Sampling, analytical, and quality assurance methods used in data collection during the study also are described in the report.

  7. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater-treatment plant discharges during base flow, which elevated specific conductance and nutrient concentrations, combined sewer overflows, and nonpoint sources likely contributed to water-quality impairment and lower aquatic-life status at the Blue River Basin sites. Releases from upstream reservoirs to the Little Blue River likely decreased specific conductance, suspended-sediment, and dissolved constituent concentrations and may have benefitted water quality and aquatic life of main-stem sites. Chloride concentrations in base-flow samples, attributable to winter road salt application, had the highest correlation with the SUII (Spearman’s ρ equals 0.87), were negatively correlated with the SCI (Spearman’s ρ equals -0.53) and several pollution sensitive Ephemeroptera plus Plecoptera plus Trichoptera abundance and percent richness metrics, and were positively correlated with pollution tolerant Oligochaeta abundance and percent richness metrics. Study results show that the easily calculated SUII and the selected modeled multimetric indices are effective for comparing urban basins and for evaluation of water quality in the Kansas City metropolitan area.

  8. A study of air pollution with heavy metals in Athens city and Attica basin using evergreen trees as biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Krystallidis, Panagiotis; Veros, Dimitrios; Chettri, Mukesh

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of five metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and lead) were determined in tree leaves collected from 13 areas of the Attica basin and Athens city, Greece. Geographical distribution patterns were investigated, and factors affecting toxic element accumulation in trees were discussed. The mean heavy metal content in the tree leaves is described in the descending order of copper>lead>nickel>chromium>cadmium. Generally, the most damaged areas have been proved to be those near the city center and in the vicinity of the Attica highway. The geomorphological relief of the area plays an important role in the dispersion of airborne particles from pollution sources to the surrounding area. Areas on the NE region are also polluted mainly due to wind directions. In Citrus aurantium leaves, with relatively impermeable cuticle, high chromium, copper and nickel concentration would be possibly caused only by significant stomatal uptake. The conifer tree Pinus brutia providing a rough leaf surface also showed elevated concentrations, especially of cadmium and lead. The thick waxy cuticle of the sclerophyllous broad-leaved Olea europaea forms a smooth sheet increasing the barrier properties of the leaf epidermis and causing a reduction in leaf permeability. The dense trichomes of the abaxial epidermis of Olea europaea also act as a pollution screen keeping away the air particles from the epidermis stomata. The presence of a certain metal within the leaf cells could reduce the uptake or toxicity of some others.

  9. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City/Lowden II Sites, 2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.

    2003-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the fish screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway and the newly constructed Garden City/Lowden II site west of Walla Walla, Washington, in the Walla Walla River Basin during spring and summer 2003. Both fish screen facilities were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide for safe fish passage. At the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the screens were evaluated specifically to determine whether the louvers that aid in controlling water flow from behind the screens could be adjusted so that the screens would meet fish protection criteria. Data were collected to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) (formerly National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage before and after changing the louver settings. Rock weirs downstream of the dam were also evaluated to determine whether they might impede upstream migration of juvenile salmonids during low flow conditions. At the Garden City/Lowden II site, data were collected to establish a baseline for operating conditions and to determine whether any changes in the baffle settings were needed.

  10. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003: Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City-Lowden II

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2003-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated the fish screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway and at the newly constructed Garden City-Lowden II site west of Walla Walla, Washington in the Walla Walla River Basin during the spring and summer of 2003. Both fish screen facilities were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide for safe fish passage. At the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the screens were evaluated specifically to determine whether the louvers that aid in controlling water flow from behind the screens could be adjusted so that the screens would meet fish protection criteria. Data were collected to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries ((NOAA Fisheries), formerly National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage before and after changing the louver settings. Rock weirs downstream of the dam were also evaluated to determine whether they might impede upstream migration of juvenile salmonids during low flow conditions. At the Garden City-Lowden II site, data were collected to establish a baseline for operating conditions and to determine whether any changes in the baffle settings were needed. Based on the results of our studies in 2003, we concluded: Nursery Bridge Site: (1) 68% of the initial velocity measurements on the west screen exceeded the NOAA Fisheries criteria of 0.4 ft/s for approach velocity; (2) A simple adjustment of the existing louvers was not sufficient to fix the problem; (3) The sediment and debris load in the river upstream of the screens exceeded the design criteria for the site, which had frequent breakdowns in the screen cleaning systems; and (4) The rock weirs downstream of the dam would not be expected to impede upstream movement of juvenile fish during low flow conditions. Garden City-Lowden II: (1) The flat inclined-plate screen design

  11. Proposed expansion of the City of Albuquerque/U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level monitoring network for the middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico, extending from Cochiti Lake on the north to San Acacia on the south, covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground-water withdrawals in the basin are concentrated in and around the city of Albuquerque. Because of rapid increases in population and associated ground-water pumpage, a network of wells was established cooperatively by the City of and the U.S. Geological Survey between April 1982 and September 1983 to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. Expansion of this network has been identified as an essential element in plans to study the relation between surface water and ground water in the basin. An inventory of existing wells in the Albuquerque metropolitan area has brought together information on about 400 wells that either are being monitored for water levels or would be good candidates for monitoring. About 115 wells or well sites are proposed as additions to the current 128-well ground-water-level monitoring network for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Despite the extensive network that would be created by the addition of the proposed existing wells, however, certain parts of the Albuquerque metropolitan area would remain without adequate coverage areally and/or with depth in the Santa Fe Group aquifer until the installation of the proposed new monitoring wells.

  12. Land use changes assessment using spatial data: Case study in Cong river basin - Thai Nguyen City - Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu

    Land use changes are being interested in most countries, especially in developing countries. Because land use changes always impacts on sustainable development not only in a region or a country but also in whole the world. Viet Nam is a developing country, in the last 10 years, land uses have rapidly changed in most provinces. Many of agriculture areas, forest areas have changed for various purposes as urban sprawl, establishing new industrial parks, public areas, mining and other land uses relate to human activities or economic function associated with a specific piece of land. Beside efficiencies of economic and society, then environment issues have been threatening serious pollution, are from land use changes. Remote sensing images application on studying land use changes, has been done in many countries around the world, and has brought high efficiencies. However, this application is still very new and limited in Viet Nam due to lacking of materials, tools, experts of remote sensing. This study used spatial data as Landsat TM images, SPOT5 images and land use planning maps to rapidly assess on happenings of land uses in the period 2000 -2010 in Cong river basin (Thai Nguyen City, Viet Nam), and to forecast the changes of land uses in the period 2010 - 2020. The results had a good accuracy and to be important references for authorities, policy makers in local land use.

  13. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  14. Flood risk analysis and adaptive strategy in context of uncertainties: a case study of Nhieu Loc Thi Nghe Basin, Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Long-Phi; Chau, Nguyen-Xuan-Quang; Nguyen, Hong-Quan

    2013-04-01

    The Nhieu Loc - Thi Nghe basin is the most important administrative and business area of Ho Chi Minh City. Due to system complexity of the basin such as the increasing trend of rainfall intensity, (tidal) water level and land subsidence, the simulation of hydrological, hydraulic variables for flooding prediction seems rather not adequate in practical projects. The basin is still highly vulnerable despite of multi-million USD investment for urban drainage improvement projects since the last decade. In this paper, an integrated system analysis in both spatial and temporal aspects based on statistical, GIS and modelling approaches has been conducted in order to: (1) Analyse risks before and after projects, (2) Foresee water-related risk under uncertainties of unfavourable driving factors and (3) Develop a sustainable flood risk management strategy for the basin. The results show that given the framework of risk analysis and adaptive strategy, certain urban developing plans in the basin must be carefully revised and/or checked in order to reduce the highly unexpected loss in the future

  15. 76 FR 53400 - Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid... Basin National Grasslands, private lands, BLM lands, and state lands in Wyoming. The line would be... Geri Proctor, Thunder Basin National Grasslands, 2250 East Richards Street, Douglas, WY...

  16. Heat or Cold: Which One Exerts Greater Deleterious Effects on Health in a Basin Climate City? Impact of Ambient Temperature on Mortality in Chengdu, China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Yin, Fei; Deng, Ying; Volinn, Ernest; Chen, Fei; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xing; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although studies from many countries have estimated the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, few have compared the relative impacts of heat and cold on health, especially in basin climate cities. We aimed to quantify the impact of ambient temperature on mortality, and to compare the contributions of heat and cold in a large basin climate city, i.e., Chengdu (Sichuan Province, China); Methods: We estimated the temperature-mortality association with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) with a maximum lag-time of 21 days while controlling for long time trends and day of week. We calculated the mortality risk attributable to heat and cold, which were defined as temperatures above and below an “optimum temperature” that corresponded to the point of minimum mortality. In addition, we explored effects of individual characteristics; Results: The analysis provides estimates of the overall mortality burden attributable to temperature, and then computes the components attributable to heat and cold. Overall, the total fraction of deaths caused by both heat and cold was 10.93% (95%CI: 7.99%–13.65%). Taken separately, cold was responsible for most of the burden (estimate 9.96%, 95%CI: 6.90%–12.81%), while the fraction attributable to heat was relatively small (estimate 0.97%, 95%CI: 0.46%–2.35%). The attributable risk (AR) of respiratory diseases was higher (19.69%, 95%CI: 14.45%–24.24%) than that of cardiovascular diseases (11.40%, 95%CI: 6.29%–16.01%); Conclusions: In Chengdu, temperature was responsible for a substantial fraction of deaths, with cold responsible for a higher proportion of deaths than heat. Respiratory diseases exert a larger effect on death than other diseases especially on cold days. There is potential to reduce respiratory-associated mortality especially among the aged population in basin climate cities when the temperature deviates beneath the optimum. The result may help to comprehensively assess the impact of ambient

  17. Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins

    PubMed Central

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species. PMID:25429168

  18. The Pre-historical Eruption of Volcanoes Near a Capital-city: Inferred From Tephra Deposits in the Taipei Basin, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Lin, C.

    2006-12-01

    The volcanic pyroclastic flows, lahars and/or ashes derived from volcanic eruptions are a serious threat of human lives and regional economies, especially in the densely populated area. In case, more than two million populations in the capital-city Taipei, northern Taiwan just live in the vicinity of the Tatun Volcanic Group (TVG), how to make effective and reliable volcanic hazard mitigation is absolutely mandatory. Volcano is a pretty complex system. Hazard mitigation can be achieved only by applying numerous techniques. Understanding the recent eruptive history will be the most important information for prediction the future activity of eruption. After 1995, the Center Geological Survey of Ministry of Economic Affair handled to drill more than 20 wells in the Taipei basin to investigate the subsurface geology of basin. These continuous core samples offered the best materials to investigate if any volcanic ashes had deposited in the basin. The young juvenile volcanic ashes V pumice tuff were firstly identified in the two cores of the Kuantu well (KT- 1) and the Shihlin well (SL-1 in the late Pleistocene Sunshan formation. According to the radiocarbon (C-14) ages of core samples (Lin et al, 1998, Shieh, 2001), the time of this tephra deposit was extrapolated around 18.6 kyrs C-14 B.P.. Respecting, this tephra would like to be temperately named as the 18 kyrs Taipei Tuff (18 KTT). These air-fall ash deposits found in the core directly demonstrated that there had been re-active in the TVG in the recent time. More notable thing is that there are three historical records of submarine eruptions in northern offshore Taiwan, then, a program of the volcanic hazard reduction should be seriously considered around the capital city-Taipei.

  19. Hydrology and water quality of an urban stream reach in the Great Basin - Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, water years 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of an urbanized reach of Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined as part of the Great Salt Lake Basins study, part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. Physical and chemical properties of the stream were referenced to established aquatic-life criteria as available. Two fixed sampling sites were established on Little Cottonwood Creek with the purpose of determining the influence of urbanization on the water quality of the stream. The fixed-site assessment is a component of the National Water-Quality Assessment surface-water study design used to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of selected water-quality constituents.The occurrence and distribution of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved and suspended organic carbon, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and suspended sediment were monitored during this study. From October 1998 to September 2000, stream samples were collected at regular intervals at the two fixed sites. Additional samples were collected at these sites during periods of high flow, which included runoff from snowmelt in the headwaters and seasonal thunderstorms in the lower basin.

  20. Depositional environments, diagenesis, hydrocarbons: Codell and Juana Lopez members of Carlile shale (upper Cretaceous), Canon City-Raton basins, south-central Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Krutak, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Codell and Juana Lopez strata in the Canon City and northern Raton basins comprise a nearshore marine system which was deposited in a series of barrier islands, lagoon fills, tidal deltas, and offshore bars. Codell thicknesses vary but average 6 m (20 ft). Three areally significant Codell paleoenvironments occur: barrier island, lagoonal, and offshore bar. Juana Lopez rocks are thinner, usually less than 1.8 m (6 ft). Five distinctive lithofacies/paleoenvironments occur in the Juana Lopez: (1) a calcarenite or limy sandstone (tidal flat); (2) a sandstone with limonitized borings (offshore bar complex); (3) a shaly to massive sandstone sequence (subaerial beach/dune ); (4) a sandy limestone or biosparite (lagoonal/bay molluscan biostromes); and (5) a sandy shale (offshore bar sequence). These deposits accumulated along a northeastward-trending coast that prograded southeastward in response to a gradual drop in sea level. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopy study reveals the following diagenetic sequence in the Codell Sandstone: (1) modification by authigenic, syntaxial quartz overgrowths; (2) chert cementation; (3) dissolution episodes causing corrosion of quartz, chert, and feldspar; (4) calcite cementation; (5) late-stage limonitization; and, in rare instances, (6) dehydration of limonite to hematite. Diagenetic changes in the Juana Lopez Member involve minor dolomitization, precipitation of calcite rim cement, and limonitic staining. Stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbons occur in bioturbated, relict shelf Codell sandstones in the west-central portion of the Denver basin. Valley-fill( ) Codell sandstones of the northern Denver basin are generally tight but do produce. Juana Lopez calcarenites and fetid biosparities may lack commercial hydrocarbons.

  1. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  2. Late Pleistocene-Holocene Volcanism of the Mexico Basin and Assessment of Volcanic Hazards in One of the World’s Largest Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layer, P. W.; Macías, J.; Arce, J.; García, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Mexico City metropolitan area is home to more than 22 million people living in sight of, or living on, several volcanoes that either are currently active or show evidence of Late Pleistocene-Holocene activity (e.g., pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches and lahars). The volcanic rocks are located in five main belts or ranges: Sierra Nevada, Sierra de las Cruces, Sierra Guadalupe, Sierra de Santa Catarina, and the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field which surround the Mexico Basin and belong to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, preserving approx. 14 Ma of geologic history. Much attention has been devoted to the youngest of the volcanoes such as Popocatépetl in the Sierra Nevada which resumed activity in 1994-present and Chichinautzin which includes the 1600 year bp Xitle volcano. Surprisingly, the pre-Holocene history is not well constrained in the Mexico City area, due of the lack of detailed mapping coupled with high precision geochronology. Our new 40Ar/39Ar and petrologic data and detailed mapping focus on the earliest history of these volcanic systems and their temporal, spatial and geochemical evolution. For example, data from Tlaloc and Telapón volcanoes in the Sierra Nevada show at least two significant periods of edifice building (1.0 to 1.5 Ma and 0 to 400 ka) with an apparent long period of quiescence that clearly suggests that volcanism in the region did not migrate from north to south but that it has a more complex evolution that continues to pose a serious threat to the population of Mexico City. In addition, a 450 ka age, based on dome and pumice dating, constrains the timing of a major sector collapse of Iztaccíhuatl volcano that produced a Mt. St. Helens - sized debris avalanche deposit towards the present metropolitan area of the City of Puebla. In the Sierra de las Cruces Range, volcanic centers do show a north-south age progression from ~5 Ma, cumulating with the Zempoala edifice collapse approximately 900 ka, producing lahars and block and ash

  3. Research on Meteorological Features of PBL during Heavy Haze Episodes in the City of Chengdu, Sichuan Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Han, L.

    2014-12-01

    Sichuan basin is one of the areas that have the most serious haze in China. To understand how wind, temperature ,relative humidity and PHLH influence air pollution, WRF was used to simulate the meteorological condition of PBL during two heavy haze episodes in 2013. Combined with the local meteorological data and air pollution data, the analysis shows that cyclone is caused by the terrain of basin often. Air pollutants are limited in the basin and accumulate periodically. The concentration of O3 is significantly correlated with temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity. There are significant negative correlations between the pollutants concentrations and the height of PBL. During the episode from 2nd to 23th March,the highest daily concentration of PM2.5 was 270ug/m3. The relativity between PM2.5 and O3 is lower than normal because of the dust storm. The correlation coefficients between O3 and temperature and relative humidity are 0.756 and -0.735, respectively. The dominant wind direction is south-west through the PBL. During the episode from 10th to 22nd April, the highest daily concentration of PM2.5 was 158ug/m3. The correlation coefficients between O3 and PM2.5, temperature, and relative humidity are 0.516, 0.825, -797, respectively. The dominant wind direction was south-west through PBL.

  4. Water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City metropolitan area, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998 to October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Norman, Richard D.; Poulton, Barry C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from sites in the Blue River Basin from July 1998 to October. Sites upstream from wastewater-treatment plants or the combined sewer system area had lower concentrations of total nitrogen, phosphorus, organic wastewater compounds, and pharmaceuticals, and more diverse aquatic communities. Sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants had the largest concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic wastewater compounds, and pharmaceuticals. Approximately 60 percent of the total nitrogen and phosphorus in Blue River originated from the Indian Creek, smaller amounts from the upper Blue River (from 28 to 16 percent), and less than 5 percent from Brush Creek. Nutrient yields from the Indian Creek and the middle Blue River were significantly greater than yields from the upper Blue River, lower Brush Creek, the outside control site, and other U.S. urban sites. Large concentrations of nutrients led to eutrophication of impounded Brush Creek reaches. Bottom sediment samples collected from impoundments generally had concentrations of organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds equivalent to or greater than, concentrations observed in streambed sediments downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. Bacteria in streams largely was the result of nonpoint-source contributions during storms. Based on genetic source-tracking, average contributions of in-stream Esherichia coli bacteria in the basin from dogs ranged from 26-32 percent of the total concentration, and human sources ranged from 28-42 percent. Macro invertebrate diversity was highest at sites with the largest percentage of upstream land use devoted to forests and grasslands. Declines in macro invertebrate community metrics were correlated strongly with increases in several, inter-related urbanization factors.

  5. Water Quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City Metropolitan Area, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998 to October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Norman, Richard D.; Polton, Barry C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from sites in the Blue River Basin from July 1998 to October. Sites upstream from wastewater-treatment plants or the combined sewer system area had lower concentrations of total nitrogen, phosphorus, organic wastewater compounds, and pharmaceuticals, and more diverse aquatic communities. Sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants had the largest concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic wastewater compounds, and pharmaceuticals. Approximately 60 percent of the total nitrogen and phosphorus in Blue River originated from the Indian Creek, smaller amounts from the upper Blue River (from 28 to 16 percent), and less than 5 percent from Brush Creek. Nutrient yields from the Indian Creek and the middle Blue River were significantly greater than yields from the upper Blue River, lower Brush Creek, the outside control site, and other U.S. urban sites. Large concentrations of nutrients led to eutrophication of impounded Brush Creek reaches. Bottom sediment samples collected from impoundments generally had concentrations of organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds equivalent to or greater than, concentrations observed in streambed sediments downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. Bacteria in streams largely was the result of nonpoint-source contributions during storms. Based on genetic source-tracking, average contributions of in-stream Esherichia coli bacteria in the basin from dogs ranged from 26-32 percent of the total concentration, and human sources ranged from 28-42 percent. Macro invertebrate diversity was highest at sites with the largest percentage of upstream land use devoted to forests and grasslands. Declines in macro invertebrate community metrics were correlated strongly with increases in several, inter-related urbanization factors.

  6. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City/Lowden II Sites, 2005-2006 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie

    2006-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated two fish screen facilities in the Walla Walla River basin in 2005 and early 2006. The Garden City/Lowden screen site was evaluated in April and June 2005 to determine whether the fish screens met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to provide safe passage for juvenile salmonids. Louvers behind the screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway were modified in fall 2005 in an attempt to minimize high approach velocities. PNNL evaluated the effects of those modifications in March 2006. Results of the Garden City/Lowden evaluations indicate the site performs well at varying river levels and canal flows. Approach velocities did not exceed 0.4 feet per second (fps) at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder in March but not in June. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. At Nursery Bridge, results indicate all the approach velocities were below 0.4 fps under the moderate river levels and operational conditions encountered on March 7, 2006. Sweep did not consistently increase toward the fish ladder, but the site generally met the criteria for safe passage of juvenile salmonids. Modifications to the louvers seem to allow more control over the amount of water moving through the screens. We will measure approach velocities when river levels are higher to determine whether the louver modifications can help correct excessive approach velocities under a range of river levels and auxiliary water supply flows.

  7. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998-October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2002-01-01

    Samples were collected from 16 base-flow events and a minimum of 10 stormflow events between July 1998 and October 2000 to characterize the effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Waterquality effects were determined by analysis of nutrients, chloride, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended sediment samples from three streams (Blue River, Brush Creek, and Indian Creek) in the basin as well as the determination of a suite of compounds known to be indicative of wastewater including antioxidants, caffeine, detergent metabolites, antimicrobials, and selected over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals. Constituent loads were determined for both hydrologic regimes and a measure of the relative water-quality impact of selected stream reaches on the Blue River and Brush Creek was developed. Genetic fingerprint patterns of Escherichia coli bacteria from selected stream samples were compared to a data base of knownsource patterns to determine possible sources of bacteria. Water quality in the basin was affected by wastewater during both base flows and stormflows; however, there were two distinct sources that contributed to these effects. In the Blue River and Indian Creek, the nearly continuous discharge of treated wastewater effluent was the primary source of nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds detected in stream samples. Wastewater inputs into Brush Creek were largely the result of intermittent stormflow events that triggered the overflow of combined storm and sanitary sewers, and the subsequent discharge of untreated wastewater into the creek. A portion of the sediment, organic matter, and associated constituents from these events were trapped by a series of impoundments constructed along Brush Creek where they likely continued to affect water quality during base flow. Concentrations and loads of most wastewater constituents in

  8. River channel network design for drought and flood control: A case study of Xiaoqinghe River basin, Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Baoshan; Wang, Chongfang; Tao, Wendong; You, Zheyuan

    2009-08-01

    Vulnerability of river channels to urbanization has been lessened by the extensive construction of artificial water control improvements. The challenge, however, is that traditional engineering practices on isolated parts of a river may disturb the hydrologic continuity and interrupt the natural state of ecosystems. Taking the Xiaoqinghe River basin as a whole, we developed a river channel network design to mitigate river risks while sustaining the river in a state as natural as possible. The river channel risk from drought during low-flow periods and flood during high-flow periods as well as the potential for water diversion were articulated in detail. On the basis of the above investigation, a network with "nodes" and "edges" could be designed to relieve drought hazard and flood risk respectively. Subsequently, the shortest path algorithm in the graph theory was applied to optimize the low-flow network by searching for the shortest path. The effectiveness assessment was then performed for the low-flow and high-flow networks, respectively. For the former, the network connectedness was evaluated by calculating the "gamma index of connectivity" and "alpha index of circuitry"; for the latter, the ratio of flood-control capacity to projected flood level was devised and calculated. Results show that the design boosted network connectivity and circuitry during the low-flow periods, indicating a more fluent flow pathway, and reduced the flood risk during the high-flow periods.

  9. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway, Garden City/Lowden II, and Little Walla Walla Sites, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.

    2004-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the fish screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the Garden City/Lowden II site west of Walla Walla, Washington, and the Little Walla Walla site in Milton-Freewater, Oregon, in the Walla Walla River Basin during 2004. The fish-screen facilities were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide for safe fish passage. At the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the screens were evaluated specifically to determine whether the louvers that aid in controlling water flow from behind the screens could be adjusted so that the screens would meet fish-protection criteria. Data were collected to determine whether velocities in front of the screens met current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries) (formerly NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage before and after changing the louver settings. The Little Walla Walla screens were evaluated to determine how a build-up of algae on the screens affected water velocities.

  10. Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples

  11. Road-impacted sediment and water in a Lake Ontario watershed and lagoon, City of Pickering, Ontario, Canada: An example of urban basin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick; Meriano, Mandana

    2010-03-01

    The world is increasingly urban but there are few studies of how contaminated water and sediment move through urban basins with their built landscapes and complexly disturbed geology. The central Canadian city of Pickering, Ontario sprawls across a small (27 km 2) densely urbanized (pop: 53,000) watershed and is underlain by Pleistocene glacial sediments and thick artificial fill deposits. Almost 80% of the area is hardened by impervious cover; road and rail lines cover 40% and include Canada's busiest highway (12-lane Highway 401: 177,000 vehicles per day in 2003). The basin discharges to Lake Ontario through a small (85 ha) shallow (< 3.5 m) lagoon (Frenchman's Bay). A 3-D steady state finite element groundwater numerical model (FEFLOW) was applied to 200 cored and geophysically-logged (gamma and resistivity) boreholes and 3400 digital water wells. It identifies the subsurface stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphic function of deposits and the rates of groundwater flow. Year-round monitoring of groundwater, creek and lagoon water quality shows that transportation infrastructure is the primary source of contaminated water and sediment. Some 7600 tonnes of de-icing salt are applied to watershed roads each year; 52% accumulates in groundwater where it continues to be released as brackish baseflow to creeks in summer. The remainder is rapidly delivered by surface runoff to Frenchman's Bay where chloride contents are more than double the average values in waters across the Great Lakes. Highway 401 is the largest single source of salt contamination to the lagoon; it receives 26% of all road salt applied to the watershed but covers just 1.3% of its area. Prominent spikes in chloride content (> 2000 mg L - 1 ) occur during winter thaws in creeks downstream of the highway. Enhanced stream bank erosion as a consequence of flashy storm runoff from road surfaces moves ˜ 100 tonnes of contaminated sediment to Frenchman's Bay each year. Instantaneous suspended sediment

  12. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  13. Studies of cholera El Tor in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, P. R.; Tamayo, J. F.; Mosley, W. H.; Alvero, M. G.; Dizon, J. J.; Henderson, D. A.

    1965-01-01

    The introduction of cholera into many of the islands of the Philippines in 1961 often occurred in an explosive manner. The disease was introduced into Bacolod City and Talisay in Negros Occidental Province in such a manner in November 1961. The authors describe the results of an analysis of hospital and health department records in Bacolod City and Talisay and the results of interviews conducted with adult patients 10 months after the explosive outbreak. The results suggest that infection during the initial explosive wave of cases in Bacolod City and Talisay in November 1961 was transmitted principally by shrimp that were consumed raw. PMID:5295144

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Perry Philips Dam (MO10019) Missouri - Kansas City River Basin. Boone County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    the report and identify the appropriate corporate division, school, laboratory, etc., of the author. List city, state, and ZIP Code. Block 10 Program...rusting. The entire outlet opening of the conduit was underwater on the day of the inspecion (see Photo 8). (2) Emergency Spillway The crest of the

  15. Character and Trends of Water Quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City Metropolitan Area, Missouri and Kansas, 1998 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Hampton, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    Water-quality and ecological character and trends in the metropolitan Blue River Basin were evaluated from 1998 through 2007 to provide spatial and temporal resolution to factors that affect the quality of water and biota in the basin and provide a basis for assessing the efficacy of long-term combined sewer control and basin management plans. Assessments included measurements of stream discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, nutrients (dissolved and total nitrogen and phosphorus species), fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and fecal coliform), suspended sediment, organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds, and sources of these compounds as well as the quality of stream biota in the basin. Because of the nature and myriad of factors that affect basin water quality, multiple strategies are needed to decrease constituent loads in streams. Strategies designed to decrease or eliminate combined sewer overflows (CSOs) would substantially reduce the annual loads of nutrients and fecal-indicator bacteria in Brush Creek, but have little effect on Blue River loadings. Nonpoint source reductions to Brush Creek could potentially have an equivalent, if not greater, effect on water quality than would CSO reductions. Nonpoint source reductions could also substantially decrease annual nutrient and bacteria loadings to the Blue River and Indian Creek. Methods designed to decrease nutrient loads originating from Blue River and Indian Creek wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) could substantially reduce the overall nutrient load in these streams. For the main stem of the Blue River and Indian Creek, primary sources of nutrients were nonpoint source runoff and WWTPs discharges; however, the relative contribution of each source varied depending on how wet or dry the year was and the number of upstream WWTPs. On Brush Creek, approximately two-thirds of the nutrients originated from nonpoint sources and the remainder from CSOs. Nutrient assimilation

  16. National Dam Safety Program. MO Noname 168 Dam (MO 10583), Missouri - Kansas City Basin, Clay County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    general condition of the dam witts respect to safety, based on available data and on visual inspection, to j determine if the dam poses hazards to...owned by the Great Midwest Corporation, 833 Northeast Underground Drive, Kansas City, Missouri 64161, Attention: Donald Woodard. f. Purpose of Dam. The...crest of the dam and the upstream and downstream slopes have only rock exposed. (7) Impervious core - unknown. (8) Cutoff - unknown. (9) Grout

  17. Seismic Site Classification and Correlation between Standard Penetration Test N Value and Shear Wave Velocity for Lucknow City in Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Kumar, Abhishek; Sitharam, T. G.

    2013-03-01

    Subsurface lithology and seismic site classification of Lucknow urban center located in the central part of the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are presented based on detailed shallow subsurface investigations and borehole analysis. These are done by carrying out 47 seismic surface wave tests using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and 23 boreholes drilled up to 30 m with standard penetration test (SPT) N values. Subsurface lithology profiles drawn from the drilled boreholes show low- to medium-compressibility clay and silty to poorly graded sand available till depth of 30 m. In addition, deeper boreholes (depth >150 m) were collected from the Lucknow Jal Nigam (Water Corporation), Government of Uttar Pradesh to understand deeper subsoil stratification. Deeper boreholes in this paper refer to those with depth over 150 m. These reports show the presence of clay mix with sand and Kankar at some locations till a depth of 150 m, followed by layers of sand, clay, and Kankar up to 400 m. Based on the available details, shallow and deeper cross-sections through Lucknow are presented. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and N-SPT values were measured for the study area using MASW and SPT testing. Measured SWV and N-SPT values for the same locations were found to be comparable. These values were used to estimate 30 m average values of N-SPT ( N 30) and SWV ( V {s/30}) for seismic site classification of the study area as per the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) soil classification system. Based on the NEHRP classification, the entire study area is classified into site class C and D based on V {s/30} and site class D and E based on N 30. The issue of larger amplification during future seismic events is highlighted for a major part of the study area which comes under site class D and E. Also, the mismatch of site classes based on N 30 and V {s/30} raises the question of the suitability of the NEHRP classification system for the study region. Further, 17 sets

  18. Parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and inversion: an investigation using groundwater modeling of the surface-mined Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, Francesco; Hill, Mary C.; Rossetto, Rudy; Mazza, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    With respect to model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, this work uses a practical example to suggest that methods that start with simple models and use computationally frugal model analysis methods remain valuable in any toolbox of model development methods. In this work, groundwater model calibration starts with a simple parameterization that evolves into a moderately complex model. The model is developed for a water management study of the Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Rome, Italy) where surface mining has been conducted in conjunction with substantial dewatering. The approach to model development used in this work employs repeated analysis using sensitivity and inverse methods, including use of a new observation-stacked parameter importance graph. The methods are highly parallelizable and require few model runs, which make the repeated analyses and attendant insights possible. The success of a model development design can be measured by insights attained and demonstrated model accuracy relevant to predictions. Example insights were obtained: (1) A long-held belief that, except for a few distinct fractures, the travertine is homogeneous was found to be inadequate, and (2) The dewatering pumping rate is more critical to model accuracy than expected. The latter insight motivated additional data collection and improved pumpage estimates. Validation tests using three other recharge and pumpage conditions suggest good accuracy for the predictions considered. The model was used to evaluate management scenarios and showed that similar dewatering results could be achieved using 20 % less pumped water, but would require installing newly positioned wells and cooperation between mine owners.

  19. [Epidemiological trends for malaria in the cities of the upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil 1990-1996].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, W K; Vicente, M G; Silva, M A; de Castro, L L

    1998-01-01

    Through the Regional Office of the Brazilian National Health Foundation in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we obtained numerical data on malaria for the upper Paraguay basin (UPB): 159 cases in 1990, 126 in 1991, 135 in 1992, 61 in 1993, 143 in 1994, 41 in 1995, and 20 in 1996, the majority of which were imported cases. There were no autochthonous cases in 1990, and since 1991 the rates of over 15% dropped to around 1.60%. Imported cases, corresponding to 0. 63% in 1990, increased in 1991 and 1992 to some 1.50%, and to 3.28% in 1993. Induced cases were recorded only in 1991 and 1992 (less than 1%). Most cases were between 16 and 45 years of age. There was a predominance of Plasmodium vivax in the thick blood smears. Although autochthonous cases of malaria are not the majority, the disease is still an important public health problem in the UPB in the presence of the Anopheles (N.) darlingi vector and human migration into the region.

  20. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  1. Fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation (Miocene) in the Bukpyeong Basin at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea: occurrences, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik; Paik, In Sung

    2016-04-01

    Abundant and diverse plant fossils such as land plants and subaqueous plants, freshwater mollusc fossils and invertebrate trace fossils are found in the Miocene Bukpyeong Formation at Donghae city, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits from the Bukpyeong Formation are described and their taphonomy and paleoenvironmental implications are interpreted. Based on fossil occurrences, lithofacies and sedimentary features of the fossil-bearing deposits, eight taphofacies are classified as the following: (1) Taphofacies 1: Gastropod fossils in massive silty mudstone; (2) Taphofacies 2: Bivalve fossils in massive silty mudstone; (3) Taphofacies 3: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in massive silty mudstone; (4) Taphofacies 4: Gastropod and plant fossils in massive silty mudstone; (5) Taphofacies 5: Plant fossils in weakly fissile silty mudstone; (6) Taphofacies 6: Plant fossils (leaf fossils) in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (7) Taphofacies 7: Plant fragment fossils in thin-bedded and graded silty mudstone to mudstone (claystone); (8) Taphofacies 8: Plant debris in planar- to cross-laminated fine-grained sandstone. Taphonomy of taphofacies 1, 2, and 4 including freshwater mollusc fossils is interpreted to have been reworked or transported by turbidity currents after death and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Taphonomy of taphofacies 3, 5, 6, and 7 including plant fossils is interpreted to have been transported by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited by settling down in open lake. Taphofacies 8 including plant debris has been deposited in shallow lake by input of intensive episodic flooding from the land. The occurrences and taphofacies of the fossil-bearing deposits indicate that most of the fossils were transported by turbidity current induced by input of episodic flooding in the land and deposited in shallow lake to open lake. Moreover, plant fossils from the Bukpyeong

  2. New constraints on the subsurface geology of the Mexico City Basin: The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, on the basis of 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and whole-rock chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J. A.; Rangel, E.; Escolero, O.

    2013-10-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well, drilled in 2012 by "Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México" (Water Supply System of Mexico City) in the Mexico Basin to a depth of 2008 m, offers an excellent opportunity to explore the subsurface stratigraphy and general geology of the region. Unfortunately, only chipped samples from this well were recovered, which were examined and analyzed for whole-rock chemistry, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb zircon geochronology, in order to reconstruct the lithology of the well. Contrary to previous deep wells of the Mexico Basin, no basement sedimentary rocks were found in this one. While the upper 70 m are composed of lacustrine sediments associated with Lake Texcoco, volcanic rocks make up the majority of the well and range in age from more than 18 Ma to 0.25 Ma. Andesitic lavas are the most abundant products of the stratigraphic column, followed by acidic products represented by dacitic and rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrite deposits. Less abundant are basaltic andesite lavas appearing in the upper and lower parts of the column. The thickest sequence of the well is represented not only by Miocene volcanic rocks ranging from 5 to 17 Ma, suggesting a period of intense volcanic activity in this area producing mainly andesitic lavas, but also by thick rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits dated at 5 Ma. These deposits suggest the presence of a caldera structure, probably buried by subsequent volcanic products and lacustrine sediments. Trace element concentrations suggest that volcanism is likely produced in a subduction environment with typical negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, and P and positive anomalies in Pb and Cs. We correlated the well units with units outcropping in mountain ranges in the surrounding area, with the recognition of the following units or formations: Eocene Andesite, San Nicolás Basaltic Andesite, Tepoztlán Formation, Miocene Volcanism, Sierra de las Cruces, and Chichinautzin Volcanic Field products. By correlating the two closest deep

  3. Mexico City, Mexico as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is the clearest photo of Mexico City, Mexico taken from U.S. Manned Spacecraft. North is to the upper right. Mexico City sits in a basin surrounded by large volcanoes. The restricted atmospheric circulation in the basin, coupled with the inevitable air emissions produced by a city of 20 million people has created a critical air pollution problem for the city. In most photographs of the region, Mexico City is obscured by haze. The clarity of the photograph allows many key cultural features to be identified, including all of the major boulevards, the horse track (western part of the city), the university (south of the city), and the museum areas. Large, man-made ponds east of the city also stand out.

  4. 25. DIVERSION STRUCTURE EAST OF FORMER BASIN F IN SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DIVERSION STRUCTURE EAST OF FORMER BASIN F IN SECTION 26. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 26. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH FORMER BASIN F IN DISTANCE (SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH FORMER BASIN F IN DISTANCE (SECTION 26). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  7. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  8. Canyon drainage induced mixing over a large basin

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, J.

    2000-05-01

    Complex terrain surrounding urbanized basins around the world has long been recognized to strongly affect the characteristics of vertical transport and mixing of pollutants. The Department of Energy's Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) program will investigate mixing processes within night-time boundary layers over large urban basins. The program will launch several field experiments within the Salt Lake City basin in the coming years. This modeling study, like many other studies being undertaken by the participants of the VTMX programs, is intended to complement the proposed field experiments by numerically examining some of the flow interactions known to occur in large basins. Using idealized simulations, we particularly investigate drainage flows from deep canyons similar to those along the Wasatch Front into the Salt Lake City basin. Literature shows that under favorable conditions, drainage flows can generate bore waves that may propagate ahead of the density current (e.g., Simpson 1969; Simpson 1982; Crook and Miller 1985). Existence and frequency of such bore waves can profoundly influence the spatial and temporal variability of vertical transport and mixing within large basins. If bore waves do occur on a regular basis within the Salt Lake City basin (a task for the upcoming experiments to determine), then understanding the basin-scale conditions under which these waves are produced and how they may propagate and interact with the city's buildings will be of great importance in characterizing transport and mixing processes within the basin.

  9. BASINS Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Although BASINS has been in use for the past 10 years, there has been limited modeling guidance on its applications for complex environmental problems, such as modeling impacts of hydro modification on water quantity and quality.

  10. 75 FR 7518 - Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front Northwestern Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front Northwestern Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada... Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet in Carson City, Nevada. The meeting is open to... Mill Road, Carson City, Nevada. A field trip to locations in Storey and Washoe counties will occur...

  11. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  12. Unhappy Cities

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Gottlieb, Joshua D.; Ziv, Oren

    2016-01-01

    There are persistent differences in self-reported subjective well-being across US metropolitan areas, and residents of declining cities appear less happy than others. Yet some people continue to move to these areas, and newer residents appear to be as unhappy as longer-term residents. While historical data on happiness are limited, the available facts suggest that cities that are now declining were also unhappy in their more prosperous past. These facts support the view that individuals do not maximize happiness alone but include it in the utility function along with other arguments. People may trade off happiness against other competing objectives. PMID:27546979

  13. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the 105N Basin Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, E.T.

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations.

  14. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  15. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  16. The Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Richard P.; Dommel, Paul R.

    Over the past two decades, direct payments from the Federal Government to local governments has increased more than sixfold as a percentage of the revenues local governments raise on their own. Both the Ford budget and the Carter budget revisions for 1977 and 1978 contain policy changes with important implications for cities. In this document…

  17. Natural Hazards In Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Vera, M.

    2001-12-01

    Around the world more than 300 natural disasters occur each year, taking about 250,000 lives and directly affecting more than 200 million people. Natural hazards are complex and vary greatly in their frequency, speed of onset, duration and area affected. They are distinguished from extreme natural events, which are much more common and widespread, by their potential impacts on human societies. A natural disaster is the occurrence of a natural hazard on a large scale, involving great damage and, particularly in developing countries, great loss of life. The Basin of Mexico, whose central and southwestern parts are occupied by the urban area of Mexico City at the average altitude of 2,240 m above the sea level, is located on the southern edge of the Southern Plateau Central, on a segment of the Trans-Mexican Neovolcanic Belt that developed during Pliocene-Holocene times. The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin, which was created with the closing of the former Valley of Mexico because of basaltic-andesitic volcanism that formed the Sierra de Chichinautzin south of the city. The south-flowing drainage was obstructed and prompted the development of a lake that became gradually filled with sediments during the last 700,000 years. The lake fill accumulated unconformably over a terrain of severely dissected topography, which varies notably in thickness laterally. The major part of the urban area of Mexico City is built over these lake deposits, whereas the rest is built over alluvial material that forms the transition zone between the lake deposits and what constitutes the basement for the basin fill. In the present study, the effect of rain, fire and earthquakes onto Mexico City is evaluated. Rain risk was calculated using the most dangerous flood paths. The fire risk zones were determined by defining the vegetation areas with greater probability to catch fires. Earthquake hazards were determined by characterization of the zones that are vulnerable to damages produced by

  18. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (``D``) Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ``D`` pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels.

  19. Hierarchy, cities size distribution and Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semboloni, F.

    2008-06-01

    We show that a hierarchical cities structure can be generated by a self-organized process which grows with a bottom-up mechanism, and that the resulting distribution is power law. First we analytically prove that the power law distribution satisfies the balance between the offer of the city and the demand of its basin of attraction, and that the exponent in the Zipf's law corresponds to the multiplier linking the population of the central city to the population of its basin of attraction. Moreover, the corresponding hierarchical structure shows a variable spanning factor, and the population of the cities linked to the same city up in the hierarchy is variable as well. Second a stochastic dynamic spatial model is proposed, whose numerical results confirm the analytical findings. In this model, inhabitants minimize the transportation cost, so that the greater the importance of this cost, the more stable is the system in its microscopic aspect. After a comparison with the existent methods for the generation of a power law distribution, conclusions are drawn on the connection of hierarchical structure, and power law distribution, with the functioning of the system of cities.

  20. Fishes of the White River basin, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Lydy, Michael J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

  1. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  2. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  3. 75 FR 11580 - Florida Power Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of Kissimmee, City of Leesburg, City of New Smyrna Beach and Utilities Commission, City of New Smyrna Beach, City of Ocala, Orlando Utilities Commission and City of Orlando, Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3...

  4. Simulated effects of alternative withdrawal strategies on groundwater flow in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand in the Great Egg Harbor and Mullica River Basins, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.; Carleton, Glen B.; Buxton, Debra E.; Walker, Richard L.; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for water supply and plays a critical role in maintaining the environmental health of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems in the Atlantic Coastal basins of New Jersey. The unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system and the confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand are major sources of groundwater in the area, and each faces different water-supply concerns. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), conducted a study to simulate the effects of withdrawals in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, and the Rio Grande water-bearing zone and to evaluate potential scenarios. The study area encompasses Atlantic County and parts of Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Ocean, Cape May, and Cumberland Counties. The major hydrogeologic units affecting water supply in the study area are the surficial Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, a thick diatomaceous clay confining unit in the upper part of Kirkwood Formation; the Rio Grande water-bearing zone; and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation. Hydrogeologic data from 18 aquifer tests and specific capacity data from 230 wells were analyzed to provide horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifers. Groundwater withdrawals are greatest from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, and 65 percent of the water is used for public supply. Groundwater withdrawals from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand are about half those from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Ninety-five percent of the withdrawals from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand is used for public supply. Data from six streamgaging stations and 51 low-flow partial record sites were used to estimate base flow in the area. Base flow ranges from 60 to 92 percent of streamflow. A groundwater flow model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand was developed and calibrated

  5. An investigation of flow regimes affecting the Mexico City region

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Mexico City region is well-known to the meteorological community for its overwhelming air pollution problem. Several factors contribute to this predicament, namely, the 20 million people and vast amount of industry within the city. The unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City also plays an important role. This basin covers approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (asl) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3500 m asl, with peaks over 5000 m asl. Only to the north is their a significant opening in the mountainous terrain. Mexico City sprawls over 1000 km{sup 2} in the southwestern portion of the basin. In recent years, several major research programs have been undertaken to investigate the air quality problem within Mexico City. One of these, the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI), conducted in 1990--1993, was a cooperative study between researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute. As part of this study, a field campaign was initiated in February 1991 during which numerous surface, upper air, aircraft, and LIDAR measurements were taken. Much of the work to date has focused upon defining and simulating the local meteorological conditions that are important for understanding the complex photochemistry occurring within the confines of the city. It seems reasonable to postulate, however, that flow systems originating outside of the Mexico City basin will influence conditions within the city much of the time.

  6. Women in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  7. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  8. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  9. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  10. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  11. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  12. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  13. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Land uses in the urban land use study area affected the concentrations of some water-quality constituents. Concentrations of nitrate and chloride, and frequencies of detection of pesticides and of volatile organic compounds, were greater in water samples from the surficial sand and gravel aquifer underlying the urban land use study area than in water samples from similar aquifers from part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment study unit. Land uses within 500-meter radii of each well were quantified by digitizing overlays of aerial photographs that were verified and updated in the field. Concentrations of magnesium and sulfate were greater in ground water beneath areas of denser residential development, which may be a natural artifact of better drainage and a deeper water table in those areas. Frequencies of detection of some pesticides and volatile organic compounds were greater in water from wells with greater proportions of industrial and transportation land uses. Ground water in areas with less dense residential development, mostly the more recently-developed areas, tended to have greater concentrations of agricultural herbicides and some nutrients probably a relict of previous agricultural land use.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE - STORMWATER MANAGEMENT INC., CATCH BASIN STORMFILTER®

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Stormwater Management CatchBasin StormFilter® (CBSF) was conducted on a 0.16 acre drainage basin at the City of St. Clair Shores, Michigan Department of Public Works facility. The four-cartridge CBSF consists of a storm grate and filter chamber inlet b...

  15. Geology of the Douala basin, offshore Cameroon, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pauken, R.J.; Thompson, J.M.; Schumann, J.R. ); Cooke, J.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The Douala basin is predominantly an offshore basin extending from the Cameroon volcanic line in the north to the Corisco arch in the south near the Equatorial Guinea-Gabon border. The basin lies wholly within the territorial borders of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The Douala basin is one of a series of divergent margin basins occurring along the southwest African coastline resulting from the rifting of Africa from South America. Continental rifting in the Doula basin was initiated at least by Aptian-Albian time and possibly as early as Jurassic. The rift stage persisted until Albian time when the onset of drifting occurred. The sedimentary section in the basin has a maximum thickness of 8-10 km, based on exploration drilling and gravity and magnetics modeling. The synrift section consists of Aptian-Albian sands and shales, deposited primarily as submarine fans, fan-deltas, and turbidite deposits. These are overlain by salt, thought to be equivalent to the Ezagna salt of Aptian age in the Gabon basin to the south. The synrift section is separated from the overlying postrift shale sequence of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age by a major late Albian unconformity. The Douala basin has been explored for hydrocarbons intermittently over the last 25 years. Results show a distinct tendency for gas-proneness. The largest field recorded to date is the Sanaga Sud gas field, discovered in 1979, offshore, near the coastal city of Kribi.

  16. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  17. BASINS Tutorials and Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A series of lectures and exercises on how to use BASINS for water quality modeling and watershed assessment. The lectures follow sequentially. Companion exercises are provided for users to practice different BASINS water quality modeling techniques.

  18. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  19. Oklahoma City Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the beginning of their Brownfields Program in 2003, Oklahoma City has been the recipient of nine EPA Brownfields Grants, creating a new city from the inside out. So far, 45 properties have been assessed and/or remediated.

  20. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  1. Stress Field and Seismicity in the Basin of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesca-Perez, E.; Quintanar, L.; Garcia-Palomo, A.

    2007-12-01

    Mexico City is located in the basin of Mexico, inside the so called Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The region in general and the basin in particular, is characterized by local low magnitude seismicity (Mc < 4.0) that may represent a risk to the city due of the nearness from epicenters. We can distinguish three main areas of local activity: 1).- surrounding the old basin of Texcoco lake, 2)- Chalco and 3)- Juchitepec - Milpa Alta outside Mexico City; the rest of the basin presents lower seismic activity. We recorded and located 336 earthquakes with digital seismograms between 1996 and 2007. From them, just 23 focal mechanisms could be evaluated because of low magnitude that creates recording problems in the seismological networks and high frequency background noise. The focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip and dip-slip (normal) faulting. We used three different techniques (when possible) to calculate the focal mechanisms: simple and composite first motion focal mechanism, Hash's S/P amplitude rate focal mechanism and time domain moment tensor inversion using broadband three components seismograms. The final goal is to find the local and regional stress field for the whole basin.

  2. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey).

    PubMed

    Duran, Celalettin; Gunek, Halil; Sandal, Ersin Kaya

    2012-04-01

    Largely, Turkey is a hilly and mountainous country. Many rivers rise from the mountains and flow into the seas surrounding the country. Mean while along fertile plains around the rivers and coastal floodplains of Turkey were densely populated than the other parts of the country. These characteristics show that there is a significant relationship between river basins and population or settlements. It is understood from this point of view, Mersin city and its vicinity (coastal floodplain and nearby river basins) show similar relationship. The city of Mersin was built on the southwest comer of Cukurova where Delicay and Efrenk creeks create narrow coastal floodplain. The plain has rich potential for agricultural practices with fertile alluvial soils and suitable climate. However, establishment of the port at the shore have increased commercial activity. Agricultural and commercial potential have attracted people to the area, and eventually has caused rapid spatial expansion of the city, and the urban sprawls over fertile agricultural lands along coastal floodplain and nearby river basins of the city. But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the city of Mersin and its vicinity. Especially in the basins, urbanization increases impervious surfaces throughout watersheds that increase erosion and runoff of surface water. In this study, the city of Mersin and its vicinity are examined in different ways, such as land use, urbanization, morphology and flows of the streams and given some directions for suitable urbanization.

  3. Are megacities viable? A cautionary tale from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, E; Mazari-hiriart, M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the poor environmental and living conditions in Mexico City due to its huge size. Mexico City's size is a challenge to sustainability, and the outcome is unknown. Mexico City and the geographic basin surrounding it included about 18.5 million population in 1995. The basin and surrounding volcanic ranges include nine major environmental zones. Urban growth followed four stages. Different cultures applied different solutions to water supply problems. The basin shifted from self-sufficiency to reliance on 31% of supplies from external watersheds. The water table is declining and canals are polluted. Irrigated agriculture is disappearing. There is an average water deficit of over 800 million cubic meters per year. Mexico City is actually sinking due to groundwater exploitation. There is bacterial contamination of wells due to improper seals. About 75% of the population has access to wastewater treatment and sanitation, but sewage treatment plants operate at under 50% efficiency and treat only about 7% of the total wastewater. Atmospheric pollution from suspended particles has been a problem for decades. Ozone was the most significant air contaminant in 1994. Lead was the most harmful pollutant in 1986. Air pollutants may be the source of submucosal inflammations. Industrial areas are contaminated with suspended particles and sulfur dioxide. High traffic areas have high carbon monoxide levels. Atmospheric pollution has affected the quality of the rainwater. The city survives by importing food, energy, wood, water, building materials, and other products. The development model aims to improve quality of life. The city has been the center of political power since Aztec times, and its preeminent position forces government action. The author concludes that there are limits to urbanization, which the city is approaching rapidly.

  4. [Healthy Cities projects].

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  5. A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in

  6. Mexico City, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In this rare clear view of Mexico City, Mexico (19.5N, 99.0W), the network of broad avenues and plazas of the capital city are very evident. The city, built on the remnants of a lake in the caldera of a tremendous extinct volcano, is home to over twenty million people and is slowly sinking as subsidence takes it's toll on the lakebed.

  7. 300 Cities Virtual Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    across line items. These differences will provide local, regional, and national comparison data for the next iteration of the Smart Card , an interface...updated weekly)  Tax actions by line item (annual) 15 Incorporated into the Smart Card will be demographic data for each city, simulated...In addition to descriptive city data as above, the Smart Card will contain informative output from our virtual city simulations, and include possibly

  8. Monitoring and design of stormwater control basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veenhuis, J.E.; Parrish, J.H.; Jennings, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The City of Austin, Texas, has played a pioneering role in the control of urban nonpoint source pollution by enacting watershed and stormwater ordinances, overseeing detailed monitoring programs, and improving design criteria for stormwater control methods. The effectiveness of the methods used in Austin, and perhaps in other areas of the United States, to protect urban water resources has not yet been fully established. Therefore, detailed monitoring programs capable of quantitatively determining the effectiveness of control methods and of stormwater ordinances, are required. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the City of Austin's stormwater monitoring program, including previous monitoring programs with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey, and to describe the relation of monitoring to design of stormwater control basins.

  9. Surface-water resources of Polecat Creek basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.

    1956-01-01

    A compilation of basic data on surface waters in Polecat Creek basin is presented on a monthly basis for Heyburn Reservoir and for Polecat Creek at Heyburn, Okla. Chemical analyses are shown for five sites in the basin. Correlation of runoff records with those for nearby basins indicates that the average annual runoff of the basin above gaging station at Heyburn is 325 acre-feet per square mile. Estimated duration curves of daily flow indicate that under natural conditions there would be no flow in Polecat Creek at Heyburn (drainage area, 129 square miles) about 16 percent of the time on an average, and that the flow would be less than 3 cubic feet per second half of the time. As there is no significant base flow in the basin, comparable low flows during dry-weather periods may be expected in other parts of the basin. During drought periods Heyburn Reservoir does not sustain a dependable low-water flow in Polecat Creek. Except for possible re-use of the small sewage effluent from city of Sapulpa, dependable supplies for additional water needs on the main stem will require development of supplemental storage. There has been no regular program for collection of chemical quality data in the basin, but miscellaneous analyses indicate a water of suitable quality for municipal and agricultural uses in Heyburn Reservoir and Polecat Creek near Heyburn. One recent chemical analysis indicates the possibility of a salt pollution problem in the Creek near Sapulpa. (available as photostat copy only)

  10. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  11. Basin-wide distribution of land use and human population: stream order modeling and river basin classification in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Tsubasa; Michioku, Kohji

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler's stream order to describe basin-wide distributions of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type-paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.-and the human population form a geometric sequence, which is the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton's laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implies fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 large river basins in Japan were used to verify the model. Herein, we examine the relationships between the Horton ratios and the common ratios obtained from the model to explore links between basin geomorphology and human activities. Furthermore, we quantitatively compare the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics. Further, we attempt to classify the river basins into several categories through multivariate statistical analysis.

  12. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  13. Quantifying urban intensity in drainage basins for assessing stream ecological conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Cuffney, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    Three investigations are underway, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, to study the relation between varying levels of urban intensity in drainage basins and in-stream water quality, measured by physical, chemical, and biological factors. These studies are being conducted in the vicinities of Boston (Massachusetts), Salt Lake City (Utah), and Birmingham (Alabama), areas where rapid urbanization is occurring. For each study, water quality will be sampled in approximately 30 drainage basins that represent a gradient of urban intensity. This paper focuses on the methods used to characterize and select the basins used in the studies. It presents a methodology for limiting the variability of natural landscape characteristics in the potential study drainage basins and for ranking the magnitude of human influence, or urbanization, based on land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic data in potential study basins. Basin characterization efforts associated with the Boston study are described for illustrative purposes.

  14. Sustainability for Shrinking Cities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...

  15. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  16. Build a City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jean A.

    1985-01-01

    A week-long build-a-city project is described which lets students become familiar with the history of the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron, isosahedron, dodecahedron) and then use these solids to create a city using posterboard and construction paper. (MNS)

  17. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  18. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  19. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  20. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  1. Soekor, partners explore possibilities in Bredasdorp basin off South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, P.L.A. Ltd., Parow, )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on the Bredasdorp basin, situated off the south coast of the Republic of South Africa, southeast of Cape Town and west-southwest of Port Elizabeth. Both cities have modern deepwater harbor facilities. Infrastructure along the coast includes well developed road, air, and rail links. A petrochemical plant for the conversion of off-shore gas and condensate to hydrocarbon fuels as well as certain chemical feedstocks has recently been completed at Mossel Bay about 100 km north of the Bredasdorp basin. Refineries are situated at Cape Town and Durban.

  2. A Hazy Day in Mexico City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of 2200 meters, and is surrounded on three sides by mountains and snow-capped volcanoes. Since incident solar radiation does not vary significantly with season at tropical latitudes, photochemical smog is produced much of the year. In winter, air quality can worsen significantly when thermal inversions keep polluted air masses close to the surface.

    Atmospheric particulates (aerosols) are readily visible at oblique view angles, and differences in aerosol amount on two days are indicated by these images of central Mexico from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images at left and center are natural color views acquired by MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera on April 9 and December 5, 2001, respectively. Mexico City can be identified in the center panel by the large area of haze accumulation above image center. Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but some haze remains apparent across the Sierra Madre mountains in the lower portion of the images. On the right is an elevation field corresponding to the December 5 view. Automated MISR stereoscopic retrievals reveal the clouds at lower right to be at very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is not covered by clouds, digital terrain elevation data are displayed instead. High clouds appear as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are slightly southward of their location in the elevation map as a consequence of geometric parallax.

    Major sources of air pollutants within the basin enclosing the Mexico City urban area include exhaust from 3.5 million vehicles, thousands of industries, and

  3. The city of Ottawa.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    As Canada's capital, Ottawa's main business is government. The City of Ottawa is a low-density residential community with an abundance of open space. The unprecedented development boom in the City of Ottawa's industrial, commercial, and residential sectors since 1981 reversed the city's declining population trend and slowed the continuous loss of inner-city residents to suburban neighborhoods and new communities outside the city. Ottawa's population is skewed toward an older population because professionals migrate to the city for work and do not leave as they age. In 1981, 8% of Ottawa's population was over 65 years old; by 2001 this percentage is expected to jump to 20%. Although Ottawa's population declined from 1961 to 1981, the total number of households grew at about 4% annually. The trend toward small household formation is expected to continue with the traditional family taking more and more of a minority position. Average household size declined from 3.2 in 1971 to an estimated 2.2 in 1984. There are approximately 147,100 dwelling units in the City of Ottawa of which 12,000 are nonconventional. A realistic density, excluding government-owned public and open space lands, is 15.6 housing units per acre. About half of all dwelling units are low density. By 1984, the city counted 69 shopping centers with over 4 million square feet of floor space. Ottawa's major employer is the federal government, with about 40% of all jobs within the city being civil service. Employment participation rates have increased signficiantly at just over 70% in 1983, up from 62% in 1971, due largely to increased participation by women. The City of Ottawa leads surrounding areas in per capita income due primarily to the increase in the number of young professionals who make up 1 and 2-person households.

  4. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  5. South American sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  6. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-06

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin.

  7. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  8. Starrett City energy exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Starrett City/26th Ward Energy Project is a joint effort of Starrett City (a privately owned and operated 5881-unit high rise housing complex located in Brooklyn, NY) and the city of New York Department of Environmental Protection to develop the means to utilize waste-derived energy produced as by-products of municipal waste water treatment. Starrett City, a development of over 20,000 residents with its own schools, shopping and community centers, and power plant, is located directly across the street from the City of New York's 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant. Out of five energy exchange options, a cooperative project team recommended three: (1) transmitting all digester gas from the 26th Ward wastewater sewage-treatment facility to Starrett's cogeneration-type total energy plant (TEP), (2) piping hot water from the Starrett TEP to provide space and process heat to the 26th Ward, and (3) pumping treated effluent from the 26th Ward to the TEP to eliminate the need for Starrett's cooling tower. Starrett City assumed all installation and maintenance costs, both on city property and the TEP. Starrett projects a 53$ million saving in fuel costs over the next 20 years. The project will serve as a model for similar energy resource development efforts and offer the rationale for the private sector and municipalities to build together for the future.

  9. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  10. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Robert L.

    2004-05-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  11. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  12. Northwest Arid Lands : an introduction to the Columbia Basin shrub-steppe

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Georganne P. ); Wieda, Karen J. )

    2001-04-15

    This book explores the rich variety of life in shrub-steppe lands of the Columbia River Basin. It describes, for a non-technical audience, the flora, fauna, and geology of the lower Columbia Basin in and around the Tri-Cities, Washington. Features include color photos and maps of shrub-steppe plants and animals; lists and illustration of common plants, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, fish, and species of conservation concern; tips on places to see wildflowers and wildlife; geological travel logs from the Tri-Cities to Seattle and Spokane; and a comprehensive bibliography and definition of ecological terms.

  13. BASINS Framework and Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  14. City of Albia, Iowa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Albia, located at 120 South A Street, Albia, Iowa 52531, for alleged violations at the Waste Water Treatment Plant.

  15. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  16. City of Parsons, Kansas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the city of Parsons, KS, for alleged violations at the wastewater treatment plant located at 1636 22000 Rd, Parsons, KS 67357.

  17. The Sustainable City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  18. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  19. [Cities in peril, Mahgreb].

    PubMed

    Naciri, M

    1994-10-01

    The urban population has surpassed 50% in the Maghreb: first in Tunisia, followed by Algeria and Morocco. This phenomenon has greatly affected the distribution of power and the forms of its exercise in the political, social, and economic domain. The old city social strata are becoming extinct while city management is falling more and more under the control of cadres originally from rural areas. Urbanization is occurring at a slower pace than in other developing countries, however. In Morocco, the small- and medium-sized towns are growing at a faster rate than the cities. Their lack of infrastructure and services, like those that exist in the periphery of large cities, preoccupies the small- and medium-sized towns. The urban explosion is much more contained than its management is adapting. Legal and illegal housing will dominate the Moroccan city in the future. In the last decade, Moroccan authorities have tried to establish mechanisms to integrate populations in slums and illegal housing with the urban space. The Tunisians are also working on this. In Algeria, the rigid, urban formal management leaves no room to develop any type of housing. The problem of housing is even more grave here than the other 2 countries. Structural adjustment policies promote selling rather than renting houses. The government is not involved in social and health services. Algeria has a 2-tier society: a minority involved in the private sector and the majority who depends on the collapsing public sector which cannot meet the great needs of the poor. Persons with college degrees are unemployed in Algeria. One no longer knows how to build towns with the traditional medinas. The transportation system is falling apart in cities. Cities dump liquid and solid wastes directly into the sea or the wadis. The major risk of maghrebian cities lies in socioeconomic inequalities.

  20. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  1. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  2. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  3. Learning Cities on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  4. Final report of the Mexico City 1991 lidar measurements campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, C.R. Jr.; Archuleta, F.L.; Hof, D.E.; Karl, R.R. Jr.; Tiee, J.J.; Eichinger, W.E.; Holtkamp, D.B.; Tellier, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deterioration in air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies is Mexico`s center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34% of the cross domestic product and 42% of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 minion mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which inhibit rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and are mostly uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now being introduced into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is an international collaborative project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality.

  5. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  6. Earthquake Ground Motion in the Valley of Mexico: Basin Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, L.; Contreras, M.; Bielak, J.; Aguirre, J.

    2007-12-01

    We present a study of the ground motion and resulting amplification in the Mexico City Basin due to strong earthquakes in the Mexican Pacific Coast. We propose an approximation of the regional structure and Mexico City's basin and analyze their response to two shallow earthquakes generated near the coast. We compare two sets of three dimensional simulations: the first includes a soft structure similar in shape and properties to the Valley of Mexico, while the second excludes the soft soil deposits. Our 3D computations, with a maximum resolution of 0.75 Hz, reproduce the amplitude and long durations characteristics usually observed in the basin. We confirm that stations inside the Mexican Volcanic Belt experience amplification. In the frequency band 0.2-0.4 Hz additional amplification occurs inside the valley due to the shallow soil deposits in the lake bed region. We compare the normalized durations of the ground motion at several stations against observed data, and speculate on the durations of the soil motion as being a local effect due to the basin's shape and low velocities.

  7. Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  8. Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

  9. Groundwater sustainability in Asian Mega city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Population increased in many Asian coastal cities, and increased demand of groundwater as water resources caused many subsurface environments. Subsurface environmental problems such as land subsidence due to excessive pumping, groundwater contamination and subsurface thermal anomaly, have occurred repeatedly in Asian mega cities with a time lag depending on the development stage of urbanization. This study focus on four subjects; urban, water, heat, and material in subsurface environment, and intensive field observations and data collections had been made in the basins including Tokyo, Osaka, Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Seoul, and Taipei. The new methods for evaluating the changes in groundwater storage by gravimeter measurements in situ and Satellite GRACE, and residence time evaluation by 85Kr and CFCs, have been developed in this study. The combined effects of heat island and global warming from subsurface temperature in Asian mega cities evaluated the magnitude and timing of the urbanization which were preserved in subsurface thermal environment. The effects of law/institution on change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water, have been also investigated. The groundwater is “private water”, on the other hand, the surface water is “public water”. Regulation of groundwater pumping due to serious land subsidence did not work without alternative water resources, and the price of water is another major factor for the change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water. Land use/cover changes at three ages (1940’s, 1970’s and 2000’s) have been analyzed based on GIS with 0.5 km grid at seven targeted cities. The development of integrated indicators based on GIS for understanding the relationship between human activities and subsurface environment have been made in this study. Finally, we address the sustainable use of groundwater and subsurface environments for better future development and human well-being.

  10. Comparison of load estimation techniques and trend analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma, 2002-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Allen, Monica L.; Becker, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Possible causes for downward trends in phosphorus concentrations include decreases in phosphorus discharges from a wastewater-treatment plant upstream from the Spavinaw Creek near Cherokee City, Okla., streamflow-gaging station, and implementation of best management practices in the basin. Downward trends in sediment concentrations may be related to effects of best management practices in the basin.

  11. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  12. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  13. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  14. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2013-12-17

    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin.

  15. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage.

  16. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts.

  17. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  18. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  19. BASINS Climate Assessment Tool Tutorials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The BASINS Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) provides a flexible set of capabilities for exploring the potential effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality using different watershed models in BASINS.

  20. BASINS User Information and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides links to guidance on how to use BASINS, including the User’s Manual, tutorials and training, technical notes, case studies, and publications that highlight the use of BASINS in various watershed analyses.

  1. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  2. City of Crystal City, Missouri - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Crystal City, Missouri, a municipality located in Jefferson County, Missouri, 63019, for alleged violations associated with the City’s wastewater treatment progra

  3. Recent afforestation in the Iowa River and Vorskla River Basins: a comparative trends analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal changes in forest cover were analyzed using high resolution aerial photographs for Southeast Iowa, USA – a section of the Iowa River basin north of Iowa City. An increase in overall forested area was shown over a 41-year period (1972-2013). The anthropogenic and natural reasons for this pro...

  4. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  5. Summer in the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the different experiences of the participants in an Outward Bound-sponsored "urban expedition" to New York City that was designed to make them better teachers by examining their beliefs and biases. The participants in this "urban expedition" came from schools that work with Outward Bound USA, the…

  6. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the ... should be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. The canyons and peaks of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains are ...

  7. New City, New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2010-01-01

    After eight years at the helm of the City College of New York, where Dr. Gregory Williams grew enrollment at the minority-serving institution by 60 percent, instituted more rigorous admissions standards and launched the college's first capital campaign that raised more than $300 million, last fall he became the 27th president of the University of…

  8. CITIES AND SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEMENTS, H. MILLARD

    THIS DISCUSSION OF URBAN EDUCATION BRIEFLY ANALYZES THE OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK OF LARGE CITIES AND SCHOOLS. IT IS FELT THAT THE PRESENT EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, WHICH PROVIDES ONLY ONE FORM OF EDUCATION FOR ALL PUPILS, INCONGRUOUSLY REFLECTS THE ADHERENCE TO ESTABLISHED VALUES, LIMITED OPPORTUNITY FOR CHOICE, AND GENERAL ROUTINIZATION WHICH ARE…

  9. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  10. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  11. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  12. City Kids Go Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  13. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karl, Dorie

    1979-01-01

    Graduate forestry students from Yale University cooperate with the New Haven public school system and with youth organizations to present learning experiences in ecology and the environment to inner city children. The program has been operating successfully for ten years. (RE)

  14. The New City Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1975-01-01

    Cities throughout the country are sponsoring family projects that convert vacant lots and rooftops to productive neighborhood gardens. It is hoped that utilization of these otherwide wasted areas will provide extra food for low income families, as well as promote community spirit and organization. (MA)

  15. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general…

  16. Accepted into Education City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  17. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  18. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  19. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  20. Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: A sunbelt city rapidly outgrowing its aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Turin, H.J.; Gaume, A.N.; Bitner, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, is located along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico, at an elevation of 5280 feet. Albuquerque`s climate reflects its high desert setting; average annual precipitation in the basin is only 8 to 10 inches. The Albuquerque metropolitan area is part of the rapidly growing {open_quotes}sunbelt{close_quotes} region of the southwestern United States and is undergoing rapid development. The municipal, industrial, and residential water needs of the entire population are currently met by groundwater, while agricultural needs within the basin are met by surface water diverted from the Rio Grande. While the city is blessed with an extremely productive aquifer, current metropolitan area annual groundwater extractions of 170,000 acre-feet far exceed the sustainable yield of the aquifer. Continued drawdown will lead to greater pumping costs, ground surface subsidence problems, and eventual aquifer depletion. At the same time, industrial and non-point-source contamination and naturally occurring arsenic levels are raising concerns about groundwater quality. New Mexico water law has required the City to acquire surface water rights and allocations on the Rio Grande sufficient to offset estimated losses from the river induced by the City`s groundwater extraction. It has become increasingly clear that the induced recharge had been greatly overestimated, and that the City is thus not actually consuming its surface water as intended. The City, in cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies, has explored a variety of conjunctive use proposals, all designed to permit the City to use its surface water more directly. The City Council is presently considering a strategy calling for full use of the city`s surface water resources and creation of a groundwater drought reserve. Implementation of this strategy will require regulatory approval and major capital investment, both of which require political support.

  1. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  2. America's Caribbean Basin Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Nearly all of the countries that have succeeded in their development over the past 30 years have done so on the strength of market-oriented policies and vigorous participation in the international economy. Aid must be complemented by trade and investment. The Caribbean Basin Initiative puts these principles into practice. (RM)

  3. The Future of American Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Downtown developments have saved some cities from collapse but don't make up for the loss of federal funds, nor do they provide jobs or housing suitable for most inner city residents. Nothing, however, has hurt the inner cities more than drug use. (DM)

  4. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... of Redwood City near Redwood City, CA in support of the Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show...

  5. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  6. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  7. Modelling basin effects on earthquake ground motion in the Santiago de Chile basin by a spectral element code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Stupazzini, Marco; Paolucci, Roberto; Zschau, Jochen

    2011-11-01

    Simulations of strong ground motion within the Santiago de Chile Metropolitan area were carried out by means of 3-D deterministic wave propagation tool based on the spectral element method. The simulated events take into account the pronounced interface between the low-velocity sedimentary basin and the bedrock as well as topography of the area. To verify our model we simulated a regional earthquake recorded by a dense network installed in the city of Santiago for recording aftershock activity after the 2010 February 27 Maule main shock. The results proof the alluvial basin amplification effects and show a strong dependence of spectral amplification in the basin on the local site conditions. Moreover, we studied the seismic response due to a hypothetical Mw= 6.0 event occurring along the active San Ramón Fault, which is crossing the eastern edge of the city. The scenario earthquakes exhibit that an unfavourable interaction between fault rupture, radiation mechanism and complex geological and topographic conditions in the near-field region may give rise to large values of peak ground velocity in the basin. Finally, 3-D numerical predictions of ground motion are compared with the one computed according to ground motion prediction equations selected among the next generation attenuation relationships, in terms of ground motion peak values and spectral acceleration. The comparison underlines that the 3-D scenario simulations predict a significantly higher level of ground motion in the Santiago basin, especially over deep alluvial deposits. Moreover, also the location of the rupture nucleation largely influences the observed shaking pattern.

  8. Source areas and trajectories of nucleating air masses within and near the Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Z.; Salma, I.

    2014-04-01

    Particle number size distributions were measured by differential mobility particle sizer in the diameter range of 6-1000 nm in the near-city background and city centre of Budapest continuously for two years. The city is situated in the middle part of the Carpathian Basin, which is a topographically discrete unit in the southeast Central Europe. Yearly mean nucleation frequencies and uncertainties for the near-city background and city centre were (28+6/-4) % and (27+9/-4) %, respectively. Total numbers of days with continuous and uninterrupted growth process were 43 and 31, respectively. These events and their properties were utilised to investigate if there are any specific tracks and/or separable source regions for the nucleating air masses within or near the basin. Local wind speed and direction data indicated that there seem to be differences between the nucleation and growth intervals and non-nucleation days. For further analysis, backward trajectories were generated by a simple air parcel trajectory model. Start and end time parameters of the nucleation, and end time parameter of the particle growth were derived by a standardized procedure based on examining the channel contents of the contour plots. These parameters were used to specify a segment on each air mass trajectory that is associated with the track of the nucleating air mass. The results indicated that the nucleation events happened in the continental boundary layer mostly within the Carpathian Basin but the most distant trajectories originated outside of the basin. The tracks of the nucleating air masses were predominantly associated with NW and SE geographical fields, while the source areas that could be separated were frequently situated in the NW and NE quarters. Many of them were within or close to large forested territories. The results also emphasize that the new particle formation and growth phenomenon that occurs in the region influences larger territories than the Carpathian Basin.

  9. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  10. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  11. Geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Espanola Basin -- proceedings of the 4th annual Espanola Basin Workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 1-3, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents abstracts of technical studies that pertain to the hydrogeologic framework of the Espa?ola basin, a major subbasin of the Cenozoic Rio Grande rift. Sediments and interbedded volcanic rocks that fill the Espa?ola basin comprise an aquifer system that is an important source of water for many residents of the basin, including people in the cities of Santa Fe, Espa?ola, and Los Alamos as well as Native Americans in eleven Pueblos. The abstracts describe results of technical studies that were presented either as poster exhibits or oral presentations at the forth-annual Espa?ola basin workshop, held March 1-2 of 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The principal goal of this workshop was to share information about ongoing studies. The Espa?ola basin workshop was hosted by the Espa?ola basin technical advisory group (EBTAG) and sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and both the Water Research Technical Assistance Office and the Groundwater Protection Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Abstracts in this report have been grouped into six information themes: Basic Water Data, Water Quality and Water Chemistry, Water Balance and Stream/Aquifer Interaction, Data Integration and Hydrologic Model Testing, Three-Dimensional Hydrogeological Architecture, and Geologic Framework. Taken together, the abstracts in this report provide a view of the current status of hydrogeologic research within the Espa?ola basin.

  12. Comparison Between Water Level and Precipitation in Rio Negro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliuolo, G. C.; Santos Da Silva, J.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Correia, F.; Oliveira, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon Basin holds a lot of difficulties for providing data that enable regional researching works, because of its large extension and for having areas, whose access is very difficult. Remote sensing data presents an excellent way for monitoring the Amazon Basin and collecting data for researches. This current study aims matching radar altimetry data from the JASON-2, with the rainfall data from the TRMM satellite in order to analyze the relation between the water level and the precipitation in two different points along the Rio Negro Basin. After data analysis, it was possible noting a difference on the responding process for both regions. Whilst at the NEGRO_089_03 station (located in the city of São Gabriel da Cachoeira) the graphic of precipitation and water level were very similar, in NEGRO_063 station (located in the city of Manaus) the graphic showed a two month discrepancy due to the difference of the river's bottom size in both regions, at NEGRO_089_03's area for having a smaller river and the water level rises faster, whereas in NEGRO_063 the water level takes about two months to respond to precipitation.

  13. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  14. Martian City Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 May 2004 Seasonal frost can enhance the view from orbit of polar polygonal patterns on the surface of Mars. Sometimes these patterns look something like a city map, or the view from above a city lit-up at night. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the south polar region near 80.7oS, 70.6oW. Polar polygons on Mars are generally believed, though not proven, to be the result of freeze/thaw cycles of ice occurring within the upper few meters (several yards) of the martian subsurface. The image shown here covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Garden City, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Center pivot irrigation systems create red circles of healthy vegetation in this image of croplands near Garden City, Kansas. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 25, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using near infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  16. Human diffusion and city influence

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  17. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City`s air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions.

  18. Is a healthy city also an age-friendly city?

    PubMed

    Jackisch, Josephine; Zamaro, Gianna; Green, Geoff; Huber, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    Healthy Ageing is an important focus of the European Healthy Cities Network and has been supported by WHO since 2003 as a key strategic topic, since 2010 in cooperation with the Global Network of Age-friendly Cities and Communities. Based on the methodology of realist evaluation, this article synthesizes qualitative evidence from 33 structured case studies (CS) from 32 WHO European Healthy Cities, 72 annual reports from Network cities and 71 quantitative responses to a General Evaluation Questionnaire. City cases are assigned to three clusters containing the eight domains of an age-friendly city proposed by WHO's Global Age-friendly City Guide published in 2007. The analysis of city's practice and efforts in this article takes stock of how cities have developed the institutional prerequisites and processes necessary for implementing age-friendly strategies, programmes and projects. A content analysis of the CS maps activities across age-friendly domains and illustrates how cities contribute to improving the social and physical environments of older people and enhance the health and social services provided by municipalities and their partners.

  19. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  20. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  1. Seismic interaction between a building network and a sedimentary basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kham, M.; Semblat, J. F.; Bard, P. Y.; Gueguen, P.

    2003-04-01

    The classical procedure to assess the seismic risk for a superficial structure consists in distinguishing firstly the characterization of the seismic hazard and secondly the analysis of the structure vulnerability. But, as far as the entire urban area is concerned by the seismic risk, a network of superficial structures may influence the free-field motion. In this way, convergent observations were made during the 1985 Mexico earthquake where the large increase in duration may not be completely explained only by site effects. This phenomenon involving the interaction between a city and the sedimentary basin is called Site-City Interaction (SCI) and was firstly underlined by Gueguen [1] in Volvi european test site. Under seismic excitation, the energy radiated by the city back into the soil seems to be mainly controlled by the eigenfrequency ratio fB/fs between the buildings and the soil as well as the urban density. Nevertheless, the key parameters supporting or controlling the SCI effect mainly remain unknown. This point is all the more obvious since present studies on the issue suffer a lack of experimental data characterizing the "urban free field". In the present work, we aim to quantify the specific role of some parameters characterizing the city on seismic hazard modification, such as the urban density, the resonance frequency of the buildings in the city, its homogeneity level (one or several types of different buildings) or the periodicity (or not) of the buildings distribution. To this purpose, a boundary element model is considered which comprises alluvial layers over a rigid elastic basement and superficial buildings. Impedance contrast is taken to 5 in order to support the trapping of the incident energy inside the superficial layers. The whole system is then submitted to a Ricker signal which frequency is successively adjusted to the city and the soil fundamental frequencies. The case of Nice city (France) over a two dimensional basin is then considered

  2. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  3. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  4. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  5. The Basin of Mexico and its metropolitan area: water abstraction and related environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Morán, T.; Rodríguez, R.; Cortes, S. A.

    1999-11-01

    The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin of lacustrine character, with an average elevation of 2200 m above sea level. The watershed covers a vast extension in five states. Mexico City and its metropolitan area are located within this basin. The aquifer system is the main source of water supply for more than 20 million people. Water consumption is about 60 m 3/s. The aquifer supplies about 43 m 3/s from around 1000 wells at 70-200 m depth. Pumping policies have generated subsidence and degradation of the ground water quality in the Basin of Mexico The lacustrian clay layers play an important role in the local hydrogeology, protecting the aquifer from pollution, but the transition and piedmont areas are highly vulnerable to surface pollutants.

  6. Retrieval of the P wave reflectivity response from autocorrelation of seismic noise: Jakarta Basin, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil R.; Lumley, David

    2017-01-01

    We autocorrelate the continuously recorded seismic wavefield across a dense network of seismometers to map the P wave reflectivity response of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia. The proximity of this mega city to known active faults and the subduction of the Australian plate, especially when the predominance of masonry construction and thick sedimentary basin fill are considered, suggests that it is a hot spot for seismic risk. In order to understand the type of ground motion that earthquakes might cause in the basin, it is essential to obtain reliable information on its seismic velocity structure. The body wave reflections are sensitive to the sharp velocity contrasts, which makes them useful in seismic imaging. Results show autocorrelograms at different seismic stations with reflected-wave travel time variations, which reflect the variation in basement depth across the thick sedimentary basin. We also confirm the validity of the observed autocorrelation waveforms by conducting a 2-D full waveform modeling.

  7. Large cities are less green.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Erneson A; Andrade, José S; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-02-28

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  8. Large cities are less green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-02-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  9. Securing water for the cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  10. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  11. Strategies for cooler cities? Ecophysiological responses of semi-arid street trees to storm water harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C. M.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2013-12-01

    peak conductance rates (179 +/-22 mmol/(m2*s)) than non-basin trees (126 +/-9 mmol/(m2*s)). Perhaps more importantly, basin mesquite conductance remained elevated for an extended period of time into the afternoon as compared to non-basin mesquites. While this difference was negligible before the monsoon, it was significant during the monsoon. The day immediately after a medium rainfall event, non-basin mesquites shut down around 13:00, while basin mesquites never shut down completely before the end of the measurement period around 17:30. Soil moisture levels were elevated in the rain basins relative to the non-basin soils, suggesting that basins impact plant functioning through enhanced soil water availability. These preliminary results demonstrate that basins are an effective means of capturing water and irrigating plants. Here we have demonstrated how an appreciation of wildland plant ecophysiology can be applied to an urban setting in support of a suite of ecosystem services. Notably, there is a potential for enhanced urban heat island mitigation in semi-arid cities through the application of water-sensitive urban design features such as rain basins, due to their supporting a longer duration of latent heat flux cooling (i.e., transpiration) into the afternoon.

  12. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  13. Ground-water resources of selected basins in southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, G.W.

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to correlate the results of past studies in parts of five developed basins in southwestern Utah and to give a unified concept of ground-water conditions in the entire area. The area of investigation comprises about 3,600 square miles in Washington, Iron, Beaver, and Millard Counties, including the five developed basins - Beaver, Cedar City, and Parowan Valleys and the Milford and Beryl-Enterprise districts in Escalante Valley.  Annual precipitation in the area ranges from less than 8 inches in parts of the valleys to more than 30 inches in the mountains to the east, with most of the precipitation falling during the October-April period.

  14. Seismic exploration in Raton basin

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Rose, P.R.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration in the Raton basin has delineated complex mountain-front structure in the asymmetric basin, and defined possible basin-centered gas. Exploration has included subsurface and surface geology, remote sensing, and seismic reflection. The Raton basin is a north-south-trending structural basin straddling the Colorado-New Mexico boundary. It is bounded on the west by the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, on the north and northeast by the Wet Mountains and Apishapa arch, and the Sierra Grande uplift on the south and southeast. The basin is asymmetric with transcurrent faulting and thrusting associated with the steeper western flank of the basin. Rocks range from Devonian-Mississippian overlying Precambrian basement to Miocene volcanics associated with the Spanish Peaks. Principal targets include the Entrada, Dakota, Codell, and Trinidad Sandstones and the Purgatoire and Raton Formations. Seismic data include explosive and Vibroseis data. Data quality is good in the basin center and is fair in the thrusted areas. Correlations are difficult from line to line. However, a strike line in the disturbed area would probably be more disrupted by out-of-the-plane reflections than the dip lines would be. Significant stratigraphic changes are seen in both the Trinidad and Dakota intervals. Integrated seismic and geological studies are keys to exploration in the basin. Subsequent work will rely heavily on improved seismic information.

  15. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-06

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably.

  16. The dynamics of city formation*

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Venables, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention. PMID:25089087

  17. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  18. 78 FR 23866 - Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Crescent City, CA in support of the Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks on July 4, 2013. This safety...

  19. Summary of Hydrologic Data for the Tuscarawas River Basin, Ohio, with an Annotated Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    . Although hydraulic connection between the sandstone bedrock and the sands and gravels in valleys is likely, it has not been assessed in the Tuscarawas River Basin. In 2001, the major land uses in the basin were approximately 40 percent forested, 39 percent agricultural, and 17 percent urban/residential. Between 1992 and 2001, forested land use decreased by 2 percent with correspondingly small increases in agricultural and urban land uses, but from 1980 to 2005, the 13-county area that encompasses the basin experienced a 7.1-percent increase in population. Higher population density and percentages of urban land use were typical of the northern, headwaters parts of the basin in and around the cities of Akron, Canton, and New Philadelphia; the southern area was rural. The basin receives approximately 38 inches of precipitation per year that exits the basin through evapotranspiration, streamflow, and groundwater withdrawals. Recharge to groundwater is estimated to range from 6 to 10 inches per year across the basin. In 2000, approximately 89 percent of the 116 million gallons per day of water used in the basin came from groundwater sources, whereas 11 percent came from surface-water sources. To examine directions of groundwater flow in the basin, a new dataset of water-level contours was developed by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. The contours were compiled on a map that shows that groundwater flows from the uplands towards the valleys and that the water-level surface mimics surface topography; however, there are areas where data were too sparse to adequately map the water-level surface. Additionally, little is known about deep groundwater that may be flowing into the basin from outside the basin and groundwater interactions with surface-water bodies. Many previous reports as well as new data collected as part of this study show that water quality in the streams and aquifers in the Tuscarawas River Basin has been degraded by urban, suburban, and rural

  20. Structural model of the San Bernardino basin, California, from analysis of gravity, aeromagnetic, and seismicity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, M.; Matti, J.; Jachens, R.

    2004-01-01

    The San Bernardino basin is an area of Quaternary extension between the San Jacinto and San Andreas Fault zones in southern California. New gravity data are combined with aeromagnetic data to produce two- and three-dimensional models of the basin floor. These models are used to identify specific faults that have normal displacements. In addition, aeromagnetic maps of the basin constrain strike-slip offset on many faults. Relocated seismicity, focal mechanisms, and a seismic reflection profile for the basin area support interpretations of the gravity and magnetic anomalies. The shape of the basin revealed by our interpretations is different from past interpretations, broadening its areal extent while confining the deepest parts to an area along the modern San Jacinto fault, west of the city of San Bernardino. Through these geophysical observations and related geologic information, we propose a model for the development of the basin. The San Jacinto fault-related strike-slip displacements started on fault strands in the basin having a stepping geometry thus forming a pull-apart graben, and finally cut through the graben in a simpler, bending geometry. In this model, the San Bernardino strand of the San Andreas Fault has little influence on the formation of the basin. The deep, central part of the basin resembles classic pull-apart structures and our model describes a high level of detail for this structure that can be compared to other pull-apart structures as well as analog and numerical models in order to better understand timing and kinematics of pull-apart basin formation. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Nashville Basin, Tennessee as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The largest cityscape in the view is Nashville (top left), part of which is obscured under a band of clouds (the Cumberland River, on which Nashville lies, can not be seen under the cloud band). Close to the main cloud mass on the opposite side of the view, lies a small lake (Normandy Lake) in sunglint (right center) 70 miles southeast of Nashville. Between these two features, in the center of the Nashville Basin, lies the city of Murfreesboro. The city appears here as a spider-like pattern one third the distance from Nashville towards Normandy Lake. The Tennessee River can be seen bottom right and top right through holes in the cloud.

  2. Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, T.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Rezai, M.T.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the social and economic well being and rebuilding of Afghanistan. Kabul City currently (2010) has a population of nearly 4 million and is growing rapidly as a result of periods of relative security and the return of refugees. Population growth and recent droughts have placed new stresses on the city's limited water resources and have caused many wells to become contaminated, dry, or inoperable in recent years. The projected vulnerability of Central and West Asia to climate change (Cruz and others, 2007; Milly and others, 2005) and observations of diminishing glaciers in Afghanistan (Molnia, 2009) have heightened concerns for future water availability in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan.

  3. Venezuela Basin crustal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J. B.; Stoffa, P. L.; Buhl, P.; Truchan, M.

    1981-09-01

    Velocity-depth profiles derived from six two-ship expanding spread experiments, in combination with other geophysical data, define the characteristics of two distinct types of Venezuela Basin crust and the boundary between them. Each two-ship common midpoint reflection/refraction profile is automatically transformed into the τ-p plane, `picked' and interpreted to provide V(Z) functions with appropriate confidence bounds. The results, together with gravity, magnetic, and near-vertical incidence reflection data, reveal a 50,000 km2 triangle of Venezuela Basin crust which resembles normal oceanic crust in a magnetic quiet zone. North and west of this triangle lies the previously defined, thick `Caribbean' crust, having two distinct layers above the M discontinuity. Acoustic basement there appears unusually smooth due to extensive basaltic sills and flows which were cored at Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 146/149(sills), and 150 (flows); also, depths to mantle are greater than normal. Interpretations of near-vertical and wide-angle reflection data show that the extra crustal thickness is due not only to the emplacement of the flows but also to the crust below being somewhat thicker than normal. The boundary between the two crustal areas has a NE-SW trend which parallels the dominant structural and magnetic lineations.This boundary coincides in position, though not in trend, with the previously defined `central Venezuela Basin fault zone'. Further study is required to determine whether this boundary is of tectonic origin or if it represents a change in style of crustal production.

  4. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  5. Imaging architecture of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia with transdimensional inversion of seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Hawkins, R.; Pandhu, R.; Murjaya, J.; Masturyono, Irsyam, M.; Widiyantoro, S.; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the subsurface structure of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia, a dense portable seismic broad-band network was operated by The Australian National University (ANU) and the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) between October 2013 and February 2014. Overall 96 locations were sampled through successive deployments of 52 seismic broad-band sensors at different parts of the city. Oceanic and anthropogenic noises were recorded as well as regional and teleseismic earthquakes. We apply regularized deconvolution to the recorded ambient noise of the vertical components of available station pairs, and over 3000 Green's functions were retrieved in total. Waveforms from interstation deconvolutions show clear arrivals of Rayleigh fundamental and higher order modes. The traveltimes that were extracted from group velocity filtering of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave arrivals, are used in a 2-stage Transdimensional Bayesian method to map shear wave structure of subsurface. The images of S wave speed show very low velocities and a thick basin covering most of the city with depths up to 1.5 km. These low seismic velocities and the thick basin beneath the city potentially cause seismic amplification during a subduction megathrust or other large earthquake close to the city of Jakarta.

  6. Mexico City Subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Dixon, T. H.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Wdowinski, S.

    2008-12-01

    Many parts of Mexico City are undergoing rapid subsidence due to extraction of ground water in excess of natural recharge. We use PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterer InSAR) to investigate the link between surface deformation and ground water withdrawal. From 23 Envisat acquisitions, we obtain a time-series of surface deformation between January 2004 and July 2006 showing that the eastern part of Mexico City presents a high subsidence rate as high as 30 cm/year. This subsidence is clearly tied to declining ground water levels. We use TU Delft's Doris and PSI Toolbox for interferogram generation and PS processing. Assuming constant subsidence rates, we have obtained a dense, coherent deformation map throughout the area. Comparison between GPS and PSInSAR inferred rates show agreement in the longer term signal; we will also show initial results of GPS/PSInSAR comparison on shorter time scales. The high density of persistent scatterers allows us to detect differential deformation of urban infrastructure. Our analysis indicates that in some cases the rate of an individual persistent scatterer can differ about 3-4 cm/yr from local deformation. While some bigger buildings show slower subsidence, others have faster rates. It is important to note that in some large buildings we detected differential vertical motion, suggesting that these buildings are subject to shear stresses associated with local deformation.

  7. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-01-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity of scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings--rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types--depositional and diagenetic--with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement. Ramp reservoirs were almost always found in Zone Y, while shelf reservoirs were most common in the grainstone shoals associated with rim or island-crest facies, or their dolomitized equivalents. Reservoirs associated with basinal evaporites were also depositional or diagenetic. Depositional reservoirs were almost all related to topography present during deposition of the carbonates in the basin, often immediately preceding or just beginning evaporitic conditions in the basin.

  8. Major-ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations in the Steamboat Creek basin, Oregon, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Bottom-sediment concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, and organic carbon were largest in City Creek. In City Creek and Horse Heaven Creek, concentrations for 11 constituents--antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese (Horse Heaven Creek only), mercury, selenium, silver, zinc, and organic carbon (City Creek only)--exceeded concentrations considered to be enriched in streams of the nearby Willamette River Basin, whereas in Steamboat Creek only two trace elements--antimony and nickel--exceeded Willamette River enriched concentrations. Bottom-sediment concentrations for six of these constituents in City Creek and Horse Heaven Creek--arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc--also exceeded interim Canadian threshold effect level (TEL) concentrations established for the protection of aquatic life, whereas only four constituents between Singe Creek and Steamboat Creek--arsenic, chromium, copper (Singe Creek only), and nickel--exceeded the TEL concentrations.

  9. Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Lee S., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the health and wellbeing of children in the United States' largest cities, covering every city with a population of 100,000 or more, as well as the largest cities in states without any cities of this size. Research shows that many cities are becoming more child-friendly, with better access to good education, jobs, and health…

  10. Potentials and limits to basin stability estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Menck, Peter J.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Stability assessment methods for dynamical systems have recently been complemented by basin stability and derived measures, i.e. probabilistic statements whether systems remain in a basin of attraction given a distribution of perturbations. Their application requires numerical estimation via Monte Carlo sampling and integration of differential equations. Here, we analyse the applicability of basin stability to systems with basin geometries that are challenging for this numerical method, having fractal basin boundaries and riddled or intermingled basins of attraction. We find that numerical basin stability estimation is still meaningful for fractal boundaries but reaches its limits for riddled basins with holes.

  11. Smart cities of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  12. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-02-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity or scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings - rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types - depositional and diagenetic - with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement.

  13. New Light on Old Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. A.; Collins, M. J. S.

    2011-03-01

    Great resolution and homogeneity of LRO WAC mosaics and LOLA altimetry suggest that Moscoviense sits in an older basin, explaining its thin crust and mare lavas, Orientale and SPA overlap older basins, and Wilhelms and McCauley were right about Imbrium.

  14. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  15. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions.

  16. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  17. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  18. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  19. Sedimentary Basins: A Deeper Look at Seattle and Portland's Earthquake Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.; Frankel, A. D.; Wirth, E. A.; Vidale, J. E.; Han, J.

    2015-12-01

    Seattle, Washington and Portland, Oregon, two major metropolitan areas in the Pacific Northwest, are vulnerable to earthquakes on active local faults, deep intraslab earthquakes, and megathrust earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ). Both cities are located within sedimentary basins that could increase this hazard. The Seattle basin is ~8 km in depth and is located beneath downtown Seattle. The 6-km-deep Tualatin basin (McPhee et al., 2014) sits below and west of downtown Portland with the shallow Portland basin to the northeast. Unlike other West Coast sedimentary basins, the Tualatin contains a higher-velocity Columbia River basalt layer between sediment layers. The velocity contrast between stiff bedrock surrounding the basins and soft sediment within can cause seismic waves to amplify greatly, increasing shaking intensity and duration at the surface. For example, our observations show amplification of seismic waves by factors of 2 - 4 within the Seattle basin. Basin geometry can also increase local shaking by converting incident S-waves to surface waves, and focusing S-waves at basin edges. We characterize effects of the Seattle, Tualatin and Portland basins by modeling with 3-D numerical methods. To evaluate these effects, we use data from the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually, the 2009 M4.5 Kingston, and the 2006 M3.8 Vancouver earthquakes recorded by stations operated by the US Geological Survey (10 - 25 stations) and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (7 - 81 stations). Time differences between S-waves and S-converted-to-P-waves at basin/bedrock interfaces as well as reverberations from teleseisms (global earthquakes) are used to constrain the basin depth and structure of the three basins. Basin effects are modeled using a 3D finite difference program to generate synthetic seismograms. Results will be used to improve the Seattle and Portland 3D velocity models and to better understand and predict amplification of strong motion. We also plan similar analyses

  20. Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples

  1. Educating Cities in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  2. De-Regulating the Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuth, Christopher C.

    1976-01-01

    A review essay focusing on two recent books, The Politics of Neglect: Urban Aid from Model Cities to Revenue Sharing, by Bernard J. Frieden and Marshall Kaplan (The MIT Press), and Between the Idea and the Reality: A Study in the Origin, Fate, and Legacy of the Model Cities Program, by Charles M. Haar (Little, Brown). (JM)

  3. Chicago, Illinois: The Windy City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Once famous mainly for stockyards and steel mills, Chicago now boasts more top-rated five-star restaurants than any other city in the United States and has been voted by various publications as one of the "Top 10 U.S. Destinations," one of the "Best Walking Cities" in the United States, and one of the "Ten Best Places to…

  4. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  5. Modern Experience in City Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    reinforce the West Wall in the Aachen sector. A rapid thrust bypassing the city was no longer possible. Aachen, as the ancient capital of Charlemagne , had...old capital of the Vietnamese emperors and its most nota- ble feature was the walled citadel, or old city, lying north of the Perfume River. The

  6. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  7. New York City: Musically Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    New York City as a subject has fascinated generations of artists, writers, and musicians. However, the glamorous image of the city has changed over the years, and in the 1960s, popular music, in particular, began to reflect a utopia/dystopia dichotomy in relation to New York. During the past twenty years, six popular singer-songwriters who have…

  8. Broken Cities: Liberalism's Urban Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Argues how the nation's inner-city population exodus and economic decay is a result of modern liberal social policy. Three failures of liberalism regarding inner cities are examined: the failure to nurture the sources of economic growth; the failure to understand urban neighborhoods; and the failure to appreciate the importance of a strong moral…

  9. Knowledge Infrastructures for Solar Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of contemporary cities into solar cities will be affected by the decisions of countless specialists according to an established intellectual and professional division of labor. These specialists belong to groups responsible for advancing and applying a body of knowledge, and jointly, these bodies of knowledge make up a knowledge…

  10. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  11. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  12. The Impact of Water Scarcity on Egyptian National Security and on Regional Security in the Nile River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    and the electricity to support the growth of the American metropolitan west. The cities that rely in one way or another, on the resources of the...85Ibid. 86Ibid. 70 In 2005, the first meeting of Ministers of Electricity from all of the Nile Basin countries was held

  13. 77 FR 21522 - Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit and Tahoe National Forest, CA; Calpeco 625 and 650 Electrical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Service (USFS), Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (LTBMU), together with the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency... Kings Beach Switching Station to the Tahoe City Substation. A significant portion of the existing 625..., Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, P.O. Box 5310, Stateline, NV 89449, Attention: Wendy Jepson....

  14. 77 FR 68749 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environment Impact Statement for the Proposed Prado Basin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... for the Proposed Prado Basin, California Feasibility Study, City of Corona, Riverside County, CA... is a planning objective of the study. 1. Project Description. The proposed feasibility study will... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) to study, plan, and implement a multifaceted project...

  15. 78 FR 13374 - Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ..., Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: In...-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will hold two meetings in Nevada in fiscal year 2013..., 5665 Morgan Mill Road in Carson City, Nevada and a field trip on April 5; August 8-9 at the...

  16. Some aspects of boundary layer evolution in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raga, G. B.; Baumgardner, D.; Kok, G.; Rosas, I.

    Measurements of chemical species and meteorological parameters were made at a site located 440 m above the mean basin level of Mexico City, over a two-week period in November during Project Azteca. Data from three of the stations of Mexico City's air quality monitoring network (Red Automática de Monitoreo Ambiental, RAMA) were also used to estimate the dilution in concentration experienced by pollutants as they are transported upslope during the course of the day. Both carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide show a dilution of up to 50%, while ozone is usually more concentrated at the elevated site. These comparisons clearly highlight the intrinsic differences between primary and secondary gases, which are supported also by time-space, cross correlation analysis. The thermal mesoscale wind circulation dominates concentrations of pollutants at the research site: upslope during the day and downslope during the night. The data present clear evidence that downslope flows during the night contribute to ozone concentration at basin sites.

  17. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the City of Carson City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... City of Carson City, NV AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule... concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for the City of Carson City, Nevada. DATES: This... flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in the City of Carson City,...

  18. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and

  19. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  20. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....-Tenn. (3) Davenport, Iowa, and Rock Island and Moline, Ill. (4) Delmar, Del-Md. (5) Harrison, Ohio-West Harrison, Ind. (6) Junction City, Ark.-La. (7) Kansas City, Mo.-Kansas City, Kans. (8) Minneapolis-St....

  1. Our cities, our future: cities, interagency cooperation, and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Eigen, J

    1995-11-01

    Cities are the most important sites of socioeconomic development, offering significant economies of scale in providing jobs, housing and services, and are important centers of productivity and social advancement. Cities also absorb two thirds of developing countries' population growth; the developing world's cities will absorb more than 75% of total world population increase during 1990-2000. Urban environmental problems, however, seriously threaten the full realization of cities' potential socioeconomic contributions. Environmental degradation has many costs, leads to significant inefficiencies in the use of local resources, compounds inequities, and threatens the sustainability of development achievements. Urban development and environmental management therefore cannot be considered separately. Actions in the city affect the environment, and the environment in turn affects the city. Agenda 21, a global agenda for cooperation which emerged from the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development emphasizing cross-sectoral coordination, the decentralization of decision making, and broad-based participatory approaches to development management, and the Sustainable Cities Program are discussed.

  2. An online water quality monitoring and management system developed for the Liming River basin in Daqing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Nan, Jun; Sun, Dezhi

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes an online water quality monitoring and management system that was developed by combining a chemical oxygen demand sensor with an artificial neural network technology and a virtual instrument technique. The system was used to model the hydrological environment of the Liming River basin in Daqing City, China, in an effort to maintain the water quality in this basin at a level compatible with the status of Daqing City as a scenic resort. Operation of the system during the past 2 years has shown that an optimal allocation of water (including water released from an environmental reservoir to mitigate pollution events) could be achieved for the basin using the information gathered by the system; using mathematic models established for this system, the quantity of water released from the reservoir is adequate to improve the overall water environment. The results demonstrate that the system provides an effective approach to water quality control for environmental protection.

  3. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  4. Borobudur, a basin under volcanic influence: 361,000 years BP to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, C.; Janin, M.; Lavigne, F.; Gertisser, R.; Charbonnier, S.; Lahitte, P.; Hadmoko, S. R.; Fort, M.; Wassmer, P.; Degroot, V.; Murwanto, H.

    2010-10-01

    Borobudur basin is located in Central Java (Indonesia), 30 km to the North of Yogyakarta City. The basin is famous for its UNESCO world heritage temple and for one of the world's most active volcanoes, Merapi, located to the East of Borobudur basin. Merapi is one of the three andesitic volcanoes that surround the basin: Merapi, Merbabu and Sumbing volcanoes. Therefore, volcanic activity has strongly influenced the evolution of Borobudur basin. The object of this contribution is to present the evolution of Borobudur basin over the last 161,000 years in the light of volcanic influence. The methodology and tools developed for this research span over different areas of expertise, from geochemistry, geology and geomorphology to remote sensing, GIS and archeology. Results highlight the following points: Two major volcanic events deposited volcaniclastic materials up to tens of meters thick ~ 119,000 years BP and ~ 31,000 years BP. in the Southern part of the Borobudur basin. The second volcanic event could correspond to the collapse of the older Ancient Merapi ( Camus et al., 2000) or Proto-Merapi Stage ( Newhall et al., 2000). There is no trace in the Borobudur basin of a large debris avalanche < 31,000 BP, indicating that the young debris avalanche inferred in the literature for Merapi Volcano was either too small to reach 20 km from the actual summit of Merapi; or, despite the orientation of the avalanche caldera rim on Merapi Volcano, the debris avalanche was deposited more towards the South, completely eroded or covered by younger deposits. There are several generations of paleolakes in the Borobudur basin. The latest one has shrunk until historical times, corroborating the theory of Newhall et al. (2000) and Murwanto et al. (2004) that Borobudur Temple was standing by a water body. Most of these paleolakes were impounded following volcanic events. Paleolakes most probably originated from the blockage of the hydrographic network by volcanic material. Borobudur

  5. Reconstructing vanished ocean basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Sdrolias, M.; Gaina, C.

    2006-05-01

    The large-scale patterns of mantle convection are mainly dependent on the history of subduction. Therefore some of the primary constraints for subduction models are given by of the location of subduction zones through time, and of the convergence vectors and age of subducted lithosphere. This requires the complete reconstruction of ocean floor through time, including the main ocean basins, back-arc basins, and now subducted ocean crust, and tying these kinematic models to geodynamic simulations. We reconstruct paleo- oceans by creating "synthetic plates", the locations and geometry of which is established on the basis of preserved ocean crust (magnetic lineations and fracture zones), geological data, paleogeography, and the rules of plate tectonics. We use a merged moving hotspot (Late Cretaceous-present) and palaeomagnetic/fixed hotspot (Early Cretaceous) reference frame, coupled with reconstructed spreading histories of the Pacific, Phoenix and Farallon plates and the plates involved in the Tethys oceanic domain. Based on this approach we have created a set of global oceanic paleo-isochrons and paleo-oceanic age grids. The grids also provide the first complete global set of paleo-basement depth maps, including now subducted ocean floor, for the last 130 million years based on a depth-age relationship. We show that the mid-Cretaceous sealevel highstand was primarily caused by two main factors: (1) the "supercontinent breakup effect", which resulted in the creation of the mid-Atlantic and Indian Ocean ridges at the expense of subducting old ocean floor in the Tethys and (2) by a changing age-area distribution of Pacific ocean floor through time, resulting from the subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi, Pacific-Phoenix and Pacific-Farallon ridges. These grids provide model constraints for subduction dynamics through time and represent a framework for backtracking biogeographic and sediment data from ocean drilling and for constraining the opening/closing of oceanic

  6. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  7. Dimensions and approaches for Third World city water security.

    PubMed Central

    Lundqvist, Jan; Appasamy, Paul; Nelliyat, Prakash

    2003-01-01

    A rapid expansion of urban systems, particularly in less-developed countries, pose considerable challenges. Urbanization also provides opportunities for socio-economic progress. Relative contribution from the urban sector to national economic growth is very high. The fate and the role of the socio-economic system in local, regional and national development hinges on many circumstances. Apart from delicate social issues, deficiencies in water provision, internal distribution and a hazardous water and environmental quality represent basic and tangible daily problems. Urban water security requires fresh thinking at two levels. Some kind of basin authority (corresponding to a county council, i.e. a formal administrative and regulatory body for the geographical area within a river basin) in combination with a national water policy is required, notably in countries that contemplate, or are in the process of implementing, regional and sometimes inter-basin schemes to augment supply to growing conglomerations. Similarly, the generation of large volumes of waste water and the associated threat to downstream areas cannot be effectively tackled through conventional urban planning. Within the urban area, and particularly in non-regulated parts, there is an urgent need for institutional arrangements that facilitate operations for providers who have the capacity and ability to function under the prevailing circumstances. Introduction of effective production and treatment technologies are other necessary and urgent prerequisites to reach urban water security in Third World cities. PMID:14728793

  8. Dimensions and approaches for Third World city water security.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Jan; Appasamy, Paul; Nelliyat, Prakash

    2003-12-29

    A rapid expansion of urban systems, particularly in less-developed countries, pose considerable challenges. Urbanization also provides opportunities for socio-economic progress. Relative contribution from the urban sector to national economic growth is very high. The fate and the role of the socio-economic system in local, regional and national development hinges on many circumstances. Apart from delicate social issues, deficiencies in water provision, internal distribution and a hazardous water and environmental quality represent basic and tangible daily problems. Urban water security requires fresh thinking at two levels. Some kind of basin authority (corresponding to a county council, i.e. a formal administrative and regulatory body for the geographical area within a river basin) in combination with a national water policy is required, notably in countries that contemplate, or are in the process of implementing, regional and sometimes inter-basin schemes to augment supply to growing conglomerations. Similarly, the generation of large volumes of waste water and the associated threat to downstream areas cannot be effectively tackled through conventional urban planning. Within the urban area, and particularly in non-regulated parts, there is an urgent need for institutional arrangements that facilitate operations for providers who have the capacity and ability to function under the prevailing circumstances. Introduction of effective production and treatment technologies are other necessary and urgent prerequisites to reach urban water security in Third World cities.

  9. The Amazon basin in transition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  10. Assessment of selected water-quality and biological data collected in the Wichita River basin, Texas, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Phillips, D. Grant

    2000-01-01

    The Wichita River Basin in northwest Texas (fig. 1) covers about 3,440 square miles (mi2 ) of the 94,500-mi2 Red River Basin. The drainage area above Lake Kemp (fig. 1) is 2,086 mi2. The Wichita River Basin is characterized by rolling plains and prairie with an average annual (1961–90) rainfall of 28.9 inches at Wichita Falls (population about 100,000), the largest city in the basin (Ramos, 1997). Cattle grazing and agriculture are predominant industries outside the Wichita Falls city limits. One of the earliest oil fields in Texas, the Electra oil field, is in the basin; although some oil is still being produced, oil field activity has decreased from the boom years of the 1920s–30s. The surfacewater supply in this basin generally is of poor quality—dissolved solids concentrations vary from slightly saline (1,000 to 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)) to very saline (10,000 to 35,000 mg/L).

  11. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  12. The ecological future of cities.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mark J; MacGregor-Fors, Ian

    2016-05-20

    The discipline of urban ecology arose in the 1990s, primarily motivated by a widespread interest in documenting the distribution and abundance of animals and plants in cities. Today, urban ecologists have greatly expanded their scope of study to include ecological and socioeconomic processes, urban management, planning, and design, with the goal of addressing issues of sustainability, environmental quality, and human well-being within cities and towns. As the global pace of urbanization continues to intensify, urban ecology provides the ecological and social data, as well as the principles, concepts and tools, to create livable cities.

  13. The backbone of a city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scellato, S.; Cardillo, A.; Latora, V.; Porta, S.

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of centrality measures to analyze various spatial factors affecting human life in cities. Here we show how it is possible to extract the backbone of a city by deriving spanning trees based on edge betweenness and edge information. By using as sample cases the cities of Bologna and San Francisco, we show how the obtained trees are radically different from those based on edge lengths, and allow an extended comprehension of the “skeleton” of most important routes that so much affects pedestrian/vehicular flows, retail commerce vitality, land-use separation, urban crime and collective dynamical behaviours.

  14. Multivariate analysis of groundwater resources in Ganga-Yamuna basin (India).

    PubMed

    Sargaonkar, Aabha P; Gupta, Apurba; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-07-01

    Groundwater quality data on physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal concentrations in three cities (Faridabad, Allahabad and Varanasi) in Ganga-Yamuna basin was subjected to multivariate analysis (MVA) using SPSS. The factors extracted showed high loading (> 0.3) of various parameters, such as Cl, conductivity, TDS, hardness, Na, Mg, and SO4, indicating contamination due to leaching of pollutants. Major manifest variable associated with these factors is the unorganized solid waste dumping practiced in all the cities. Bacterial contamination of hand pump samples in Allahabad is attributed to surface water-groundwater interaction. The factor with high loading of Ca and F is indicative of geological conditions of the region. Wells in Yamuna river sub-watershed exhibit less freshwater recharge, which is attributed to surface water pollution and sediment deposition in the river. Thus, the methodology for hydrogeological analysis is useful to identify critical water quality issues and possible sources of pollution in river basins.

  15. Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the uncertainties in simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) due to meteorological initial uncertainties using the WRF-CHEM model through ensemble simulations. The simulated periods (24 and 29 March 2006) represent two typical meteorological episodes ("Convection-South" and "Convection-North", respectively) in the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO-2006 field campaign. The organic aerosols are simulated using a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method and the contributions from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Model results demonstrate that uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on SOA simulations, including the peak time concentrations, the horizontal distributions, and the temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak SOA at T0 can reach up to 4.0 μg m-3 during the daytime, which is around 35% of the ensemble mean. Both the basin wide wind speed and the convergence area affect the magnitude and the location of the simulated SOA concentrations inside the Mexico City basin. The wind speed, especially during the previous midnight and the following early morning, influences the magnitude of the peak SOA concentration through ventilation. The surface horizontal convergence zone generally determines the area with high SOA concentrations. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads may vary with different meteorological episodes but the ratio of the ensemble spread to mean does not change significantly.

  16. Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the uncertainties in simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) due to meteorological initial uncertainties using the WRF-CHEM model through ensemble simulations. The simulated periods (24 and 29 March 2006) represent two typical meteorological episodes ("Convection-South" and "Convection-North", respectively) in the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO-2006 field campaign. The organic aerosols are simulated using a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method and the contributions from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Model results demonstrate that uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on SOA simulations, including the peak time concentrations, the horizontal distributions, and the temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak SOA at T0 can reach up to 4.0 μg m-3 during the daytime, which is around 35% of the ensemble mean. Both the basin wide wind speed and the convergence area affect the magnitude and the location of the simulated SOA concentrations inside the Mexico City basin. The wind speed, especially during the previous midnight and the following early morning, influences the magnitude of the peak SOA concentration through ventilation. The surface horizontal convergence zone generally determines the area with high SOA concentrations. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads may vary with different meteorological episodes but the ratio of the ensemble spread to mean does not change significantly.

  17. Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the uncertainties in simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) due to meteorological initial uncertainties using the WRF-CHEM model through ensemble simulations. The simulated periods (24 and 29 March 2006) represent two typical meteorological episodes ("Convection-South" and "Convection-North", respectively) in the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO-2006 field campaign. The organic aerosols are simulated using a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method and the contributions from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Model results demonstrate that uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on SOA simulations, including the peak time concentrations, the horizontal distributions, and the temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak SOA at T0 can reach up to 4.0 µg m-3 during the daytime, which is around 35% of the ensemble mean. Both the basin wide wind speed and the convergence area affect the magnitude and the location of the simulated SOA concentrations inside the Mexico City basin. The wind speed, especially during the previous midnight and the following early morning, influences the magnitude of the peak SOA concentration through ventilation. The surface horizontal convergence zone generally determines the area with high SOA concentrations. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads may vary with different meteorological episodes but has same significance compared to the ensemble mean.

  18. Initial Report on MexiDrill: The Basin of Mexico Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Erik; Werne, Josef; Caballero, Margarita; Cabral, Enrique; Fawcett, Peter; Lozano, Socorro; Morales, Eric; Myrbo, Amy; Noren, Anders; O'Grady, Ryan; Ortega, Beatriz; Perez, Liseth; Schnurrenberger, Doug; Schwalb, Antje; Smith, Victoria; Steinman, Byron; Stockhecke, Mona; Valero, Blas; Watt, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The Basin of Mexico (19°30'N, 99°W, 9600 km2, 2240 m asl) is a hydrologically-closed basin in the TransMexican Volcanic Belt. The emergence of the Chichinautzin volcanic field after ~780 ka is linked to basin closure and initiation of the development of a lake system within the basin. Continued subsidence accommodated accumulation of a long lacustrine sediment sequence. Radiocarbon chronologies indicate sedimentation rates of ~40 cm/kyr since ~40ka; application of this rate to the entire lacustrine sequence suggests a basal age of ~800 ka, consistent with the Chichinautzin volcanic age. To investigate the environmental history contained in Basin of Mexico sediments, the MexiDrill Program recovered a long lacustrine sedimentary sequence contained in the Lake Chalco basin on the southern outskirts of Mexico City. These sediments have the potential to provide a >500,000 year record of North American climate. Chalco is well suited for reconstruction and investigation of interannual through orbital-scale variations in the North American Monsoon and hydrologic variations of the neotropics. Ongoing work suggests that the system records environmental responses to both Milankovitch- and millennial-scale climate forcing.

  19. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and vicinity, August 12-13, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, L.D.; Alexander, T.W.; Waite, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    On August 12-13, 1982, a nearly stationary weather front in the vicinity of Kansas City, MO, produced intense thunderstorms. Excessive rainfall (12.6 inches in Raytown, MO) caused flash flooding during the nighttime and early daylight hours. Four deaths and damages unofficially estimated in excess of $30 million, occurred in the three-county area of Jackson, Cass, and Clay counties. Peak discharges were determined at 12 current or discontinued streamflow-gaging stations and 17 miscellaneous sites. Flood peaks and volumes at many locations exceeded estimated 100-year recurrence-interval floods and equaled or exceeded the 1977 floods in some drainage basins. Significant flooding occurred in the Blue, East Fork Little Blue, and Little Blue River basins and in the Rock, Wilkerson, Sni-A-Bar, Shoal, and Big Creek drainage basins. (USGS)

  20. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  1. A challenge for Saijo, a city of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takatsugu

    In Saijo City (Ehime Pref.), people use good quality water called Uchinuki from artesian wells for daily life, and half of all households have their own domestic wells. All others are connected to the modern system of water supply system. This groundwater is pumped from a shallow aquifer that's depth is 20-50 meters, and people are worrying about pollution and quantity of groundwater. So its preservation is the most important task for municipal government. We have had many scientific tests of our groundwater, and now we have tried to develop a finer description of the flow of groundwater by using a hydrologic, hydraulic, and geochemical approach. The management and benefits of water-use in Saijo have been guided by the principle of so-yu, not kyo-yu. And we are trying to make this principle and unwritten social norms visible, and as groundwater is a public asset, we are trying to form the local ordinances for proper groundwater management. Fortunately, Saijo City has jurisdiction over its entire basin and using area. We will describe the engagements for Saijo, a city of water.

  2. Ice Engineering. Number 21, April 1999. Ice Events in the Susquehanna River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    January. Down- stream from the Safe Harbor Dam , the Conowingo Dam , and eventually the City of Port Deposit, Maryland, also were affected by the wave of... dams , bridges, dikes, levees, and wingwalls; block hydropower and water supply intakes; and decrease downstream discharge. Roads may be flooded and...Bulletins, CRREL trip reports, and newspaper articles. Only three of the entries for the Susquehanna River Basin (for 1832, 1904, and 1996) provide dam

  3. Planctonic Foraminifera of Lower Cretaceous interval of Essaouira basin (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeoini, Yamina

    2014-05-01

    The studied area is on the west of Morocco in the High moroccan western Atlas. It is limited by Amizmiz and the Essaouira city. Lower Cretaceous - Barremian, Aptian and Albian- of Essaouira basin show tickness and variable lithology from east to west basin. The Barremian is caracterised by clays and calcareous, Aptian and Albian are caracterised by several typical marls and carbonates. The Albian is homogeneous in all the basin. Only Barremian sommit Aptian are very rich on planctonic Foraminifera, the base of this level is poor on planctonic Foraminifera. The Albian present several bentic Foraminifera like Pleurostomella. Biostratigraphy and micropalaentology study, essentially, based on planctonic Foraminifera can listing 24 species indicating 13 biozones in this area. The Barremian interval is composed of three biozones : - Hedbergella sigali biozone indicating the Early Barremian. - Hedbergella similis biozone, Globigerinneloïdes gottisi and Globigerinelloïdes duboisi are incated the Upper Barremian. The Aptian is recognised by six biozones : - Early Aptian interval is caracterised by the Schackoina cabri, Globigerinelloïdes ferreolensis, Globigerinelloïdes algerianus, Hedbergella gorbachikae and Hedbergela trochoïdea biozones. - Upper Aptian is recognised by Ticinella bejaouensis and base of Hedbergella planispira biozones. The Albian is caracterised by three biozones : - Hedbergella planispira biozone of Lower Albian. - Ticinella primula and Biticinella breggiensis biozones who caracterised the Upper Albian. Planomalina buxtorfi is also present but smal size. This study was followed by Pr. Saloua Gargouri Razgallah ( FS- Tunis- Tunisia)

  4. Hydrochemistry and weathering rates on Corumbataí River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Lima, Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThis work was held at the Corumbataí River basin that is inserted within the giant Paraná sedimentary basin (Paleozoic-Cenozoic) in South America. The Corumbataí River is the major river draining the area and its water is extensively used by water supply systems in the basin. Its surface waters were collected at two sampling points, upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, the principal municipality within the basin. We report chemical and radionuclides ( 222Rn and 210Po) analyses for rainwater and river water samples in order to estimate chemical weathering fluxes. All major chemical data indicated poorer conditions of the water quality in Corumbataí River after reaching Rio Claro city. However, one very important finding was that the weighted mean of the 210Po activity concentration is the same (0.21 dpm/L) upstream and downstream from Rio Claro city, indicating that 210Po is a conservative nuclide. The net output flux in Corumbataí River basin estimated from the difference between the total discharge flux and the input flux based on wet precipitation yielded a negative value for polonium as it is a very particle-reactive radionuclide, tending to accumulate into fluvial sediments. The chemical weathering rate (removed material quantity) corresponded to 76.5 t/km 2 yr when Po data in sediments and rocks were utilized in the calculations. This rate is compatible with others determined elsewhere, indicating the usefulness of Po in studies of weathering processes, even in areas characterized by anthropogenic inputs.

  5. A spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt model for application in mountain basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marks, D.; Domingo, J.; Susong, D.; Link, T.; Garen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Snowmelt is the principal source for soil moisture, ground-water re-charge, and stream-flow in mountainous regions of the western US, Canada, and other similar regions of the world. Information on the timing, magnitude, and contributing area of melt under variable or changing climate conditions is required for successful water and resource management. A coupled energy and mass-balance model ISNOBAL is used to simulate the development and melting of the seasonal snowcover in several mountain basins in California, Idaho, and Utah. Simulations are done over basins varying from 1 to 2500 km2, with simulation periods varying from a few days for the smallest basin, Emerald Lake watershed in California, to multiple snow seasons for the Park City area in Utah. The model is driven by topographically corrected estimates of radiation, temperature, humidity, wind, and precipitation. Simulation results in all basins closely match independently measured snow water equivalent, snow depth, or runoff during both the development and depletion of the snowcover. Spatially distributed estimates of snow deposition and melt allow us to better understand the interaction between topographic structure, climate, and moisture availability in mountain basins of the western US. Application of topographically distributed models such as this will lead to improved water resource and watershed management.Snowmelt is the principal source for soil moisture, ground-water re-charge, and stream-flow in mountainous regions of the western US, Canada, and other similar regions of the world. Information on the timing, magnitude, and contributing area of melt under variable or changing climate conditions is required for successful water and resource management. A coupled energy and mass-balance model ISNOBAL is used to simulate the development and melting of the seasonal snowcover in several mountain basins in California, Idaho, and Utah. Simulations are done over basins varying from 1 to 2500 km2, with

  6. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR ASYNCHRONOUS BASINS

    PubMed Central

    Dinwoodie, Ian H

    2016-01-01

    For a Boolean network we consider asynchronous updates and define the exclusive asynchronous basin of attraction for any steady state or cyclic attractor. An algorithm based on commutative algebra is presented to compute the exclusive basin. Finally its use for targeting desirable attractors by selective intervention on network nodes is illustrated with two examples, one cell signalling network and one sensor network measuring human mobility. PMID:28154501

  7. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  8. City of Wagner NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0020184, the City of Wagner, South Dakota is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Charles Mix County, South Dakota, to an unnamed tributary of Choteau Creek.

  9. Deer Tracks in the City?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  10. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  11. Network Structure and City Size

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Network structure varies across cities. This variation may yield important knowledge about how the internal structure of the city affects its performance. This paper systematically compares a set of surface transportation network structure variables (connectivity, hierarchy, circuity, treeness, entropy, accessibility) across the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. A set of scaling parameters are discovered to show how network size and structure vary with city size. These results suggest that larger cities are physically more inter-connected. Hypotheses are presented as to why this might obtain. This paper then consistently measures and ranks access to jobs across 50 US metropolitan areas. It uses that accessibility measure, along with network structure variables and city size to help explain journey-to-work time and auto mode share in those cities. A 1 percent increase in accessibility reduces average metropolitan commute times by about 90 seconds each way. A 1 percent increase in network connectivity reduces commute time by 0.1 percent. A 1 percent increase in accessibility results in a 0.0575 percent drop in auto mode share, while a 1 percent increase in treeness reduces auto mode share by 0.061 percent. Use of accessibility and network structure measures is important for planning and evaluating the performance of network investments and land use changes. PMID:22253764

  12. Sustainable Development of the Learning City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juceviciene, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Kaunas is the second largest city in Lithuania and has strong links with its large rural hinterland. Working from the ideas and examples in "Learning Cities for a Learning Century," (Longworth, 1999) and through contact with other cities that have already implemented lifelong learning concepts, the city has, since 2001, started out on…

  13. Achieving Energy Independence by Reviving America's Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil; Winterer, Amey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how it is in our nation's energy interest that cities and city living prosper and that movement of people out of cities and into nonurban areas be reversed. However, national energy policy itself favors suburban sprawl-type development and works against city revival. (AM)

  14. Green city Banda Aceh: city planning approach and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Banda Aceh as the capital of Aceh Province is the region with the tsunami disaster that occurred on December 26, 2004 the most severe of which over 60% of the city area were destroyed mainly coastal region and settlements. One product plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Banda Aceh is made of Banda Aceh as Green City. To realize the Green City Banda Aceh, urban development process should be conducted in a planned and integrated way with attention to spatial and environmental aspects to ensure an efficient urban management and to create a healthy, beautiful and comfortable environment. There is a weakness of the process in urban planning and development that occurred at present where cities tend to minimize the development of green open space and land conversion into a commercial district, residential areas, industrial areas, transport networks and infrastructure and facilities for other cities. Another tendency that occurs is urban environment only developed economically but not ecologically, whereas ecological balance is as important as the development of the economic value of urban areas. Such conditions have caused unbalance of urban ecosystems including increased air temperature, air pollution, declining water table, flooding, salt water intrusion and increased content of heavy metals in the soil. From an ecological perspective, unfavorable microclimate, high-temperature increase due to the lack of trees as a sieve / filter against heavy rain, can cause flooding. These conditions result in inconvienient, arid and less beautiful urban areas. The author identifies the elements contained in the Green City Banda Aceh and how the efforts and approaches must be made toward Green City Banda Aceh.

  15. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  16. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  17. Significance of the basin wide reverse polarity reflector in the Offshore Sydney Basin, East Australian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman Talukder, Asrarur; Nadri, Dariush; Rajput, Sanjeev; Clennell, Ben; Griffiths, Cedric; Breeze, David

    2010-05-01

    The Offshore Sydney Basin is located between latitudes 32°30'S and 34°30'S between the coastal cities of Newcastle in the north and Wollongong in the south, covering a total area of ~15,000 squire km. The structural framework of the offshore portion of the basin comprises five principal elements: the Offshore Syncline, an extension of the New England Fold Belt, an offshore extension of the Newcastle Syncline, the Offshore Uplift and the Outer Continental Shelf. The present easterly extent of the basin is the result of Cretaceous rifting and commencement of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Tasman Sea. The continental shelf is approximately 50 km wide offshore Sydney and is edged by relatively steep continental slope. This study has been carried out with 2D multichannel seismic data covering the northern half of the offshore basin. The Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the basin is characterized by two regional unconformities: one at the base of Cenozoic and another intra-Cenozoic. The unconformity at the base of Cenozoic is known as the Top Sydney Basin unconformity. In places the surface is displaced by faults and also characterized by possible mounds producing an overall highly irregular topography. Though most of the faults remained buried beneath the surface some continued up to seafloor. They seem to have NW-SE direction with significant lateral extension. The intra-Cenozoic unconformity forms a prominent reflector at about 80 to 200 msbs (TWT). It is characterized by an angular unconformity with the reflectors terminating onto it from beneath. It is also associated with prograding sequences beneath, terminating with toplap geometry, suggesting that it forms the boundary between a transgressive and regressive phase. This is interpreted as a prograding carbonate dominated shelf-edge. The most interesting aspect of this seismic reflector is that the major part of it presents reverse polarity with respect to the seafloor reflection. The amplitude of the reflector

  18. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  19. Determination of the Basin Structure Beneath European Side of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cengiz Cinku, Mulla; Thomas, Michael; Lamontagne, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul (near North Anatolian Fault Zone:NAFZ, Turkey) is located in northern part of Sea of Marmara, an area that has been influenced by possible Marmara Earthquakes. The general geology of Istanbul divided into two stratigraphic unit such as sedimentary (from Oligocene to Quaternary Deposits) and bedrock (Paleozoic and Eocene). The bedrock units consists of sand stone, clay stone to Paleozoic age and limestone to Eocene age and sedimentary unit consist of sand, clay, mil and gravel from Oligocene to Quaternary age. Earthquake disaster mitigation studies divided into two important phases, too. Firstly, earthquake, soil and engineering structure problems identify for investigation area, later on strategic emergency plan can prepare for these problems. Soil amplification play important role the disaster mitigation and the site effect analysis and basin structure is also a key parameter for determining of site effect. Some geophysical, geological and geotechnical measurements are requeired to defined this relationship. Istanbul Megacity has been waiting possible Marmara Earthquake and their related results. In order to defined to possible damage potential related to site effect, gravity measurements carried out for determining to geological structure, basin geometry and faults in Istanbul. Gravity data were collected at 640 sites by using a Scientrex CG-5 Autogravity meter Standard corrections applied to the gravity data include those for instrumental drift, Earth tides and latitude, and the free-air and Bouguer corrections. The corrected gravity data were imported into a Geosoft database to create a grid and map of the Bouguer gravity anomaly (grid cell size of 200 m). As a previously results, we determined some lineminants, faults and basins beneath Istanbul City. Especially, orientation of faults were NW-SE direction and some basin structures determined on between Buyukcekmece and Kucukcekmece Lake.

  20. Floor of Hellas Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a diameter of roughly 2000 km and a depth of over 7 km, the Hellas Basin is the largest impact feature on Mars. Because of its great depth, there is significantly more atmosphere to peer through in order to see its floor, reducing the quality of the images taken from orbit. This THEMIS image straddles a scarp between the Hellas floor and an accumulation of material at least a half kilometer thick that covers much of the floor. The southern half of the image contains some of this material. Strange ovoid landforms are present here that give the appearance of flow. It is possible that water ice or even liquid water was present in the deposits and somehow responsible for the observed landscape. The floor of Hellas remains a poorly understood portion of the planet that should benefit from the analysis of new THEMIS data.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  1. Basin Structure Beneath the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California: Implications for Damage Caused by the 1969 Santa Rosa and 1906 San Francisco Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, D. K.; Langenheim, V. E.; Hartzell, S.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Aagaard, B. T.; Jachens, R. C.; McCabe, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    Regional gravity data in the northern San Francisco Bay region reflect a complex basin configuration beneath the Santa Rosa plain that likely contributed to the significant damage to the city of Santa Rosa caused by the 1969 M 5.6, 5.7 Santa Rosa earthquakes and the 1906 M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Inversion of these data indicates that the Santa Rosa plain is underlain by two sedimentary basins about 2 km deep separated by the Trenton Ridge, a shallow west-northwest-striking bedrock ridge west of Santa Rosa. The city of Santa Rosa is situated above the 2 km-wide protruding northeast corner of the southern basin where damage from both the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes was concentrated. Using the gravity-defined basin geometry, ground motion simulations of the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes, two events with opposing azimuths, show enhanced ground motions along the northeastern edge of this corner suggesting that basin-edge effects contributed to the concentration of shaking damage in these events. This indicates that basin edge effects will likely contribute to strong shaking in this area during future earthquakes. Characterization of low-velocity basins and their detailed three-dimensional subsurface geometry is an essential component for characterizing the seismic hazard in the northern San Francisco Bay region and elsewhere.

  2. Hydrogeologic framework of sedimentary deposits in six structural basins, Yakima River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, M.A.; Vaccaro, J.J.; Watkins, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework was delineated for the ground-water flow system of the sedimentary deposits in six structural basins in the Yakima River Basin, Washington. The six basins delineated, from north to south are: Roslyn, Kittitas, Selah, Yakima, Toppenish, and Benton. Extent and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units and total basin sediment thickness were mapped for each basin. Interpretations were based on information from about 4,700 well records using geochemical, geophysical, geologist's or driller's logs, and from the surficial geology and previously constructed maps and well interpretations. The sedimentary deposits were thickest in the Kittitas Basin reaching a depth of greater than 2,000 ft, followed by successively thinner sedimentary deposits in the Selah basin with about 1,900 ft, Yakima Basin with about 1,800 ft, Toppenish Basin with about 1,200 ft, Benton basin with about 870 ft and Roslyn Basin with about 700 ft.

  3. Performance of a new wind updating system for a prognostic meteorological model in the environs of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Institute Mexicano del Petroleo are completely a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. The US Department of Energy supported the efforts of the Los Alamos investigators, while PEMEX supported the efforts of the Mexican researchers. One of the first steps in the process was to develop an understanding of the existing air quality situation. In this context we have modified a three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation (HOTMAC) to treat domains which include an urbanized area. This sophisticated meteorological model is required because of the complexity of the terrain and the relative paucity of meteorological data. Mexico City lies at an elevation of approximately 7500 feet above sea level in a ``U`` shaped basin which opens to the north. The city occupies a major part of the southwest portion of the basin. Upper level winds are provided by rawinsondes at the airport, while low-level winds are measured at several sites within the city. Many of the sites have obstructed upwind fetches for a variety of directions. During the wintertime when the worst air quality episodes occur, the winds are frequently light, and out of the northeast at lower levels, while above 1000 meters above the surface they are usually from the southwest. This means the winds are light within the city, but significant slope winds develop which influence the behavior of the pollutants. Frequently, the winds in the basin change as a seabreeze penetrates the basin from the northeast. The seabreeze produces a much different wind regime after its arrival in the late afternoon or early evening. This makes it important to update the winds in a realistic fashion.

  4. Aspects of fish conservation in the upper Patos Lagoon basin.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, N F; Vieira, J P; Becker, F G; Rodrigues, L R; Malabarba, L R; Schulz, U H; Möller, O O; Garcia, A M; Vilella, F S

    2016-07-01

    The Patos Lagoon basin is a large (201 626 km(2) ) and complex drainage system in southern Brazil. The lagoon is 250 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of 10 360 km(2) . The exchange of water with the Atlantic Ocean occurs through a 0·8 km wide and 15 m deep inlet, fixed by 4 km long jetties, at the southernmost part of the Patos Lagoon. The estuarine area is restricted to its southern portion (10%), although the upper limit of saline waters migrates seasonally and year to year, influenced by the wind regime and river discharge. The known number of recorded limnetic fish species is 200, but this number is expected to increase. A higher endemism is observed in fish species occurring in upper tributaries. The basin suffers from the direct impact of almost 7 million inhabitants, concentrated in small to large cities, most with untreated domestic effluents. There are at least 16 non-native species recorded in natural habitats of the Patos Lagoon basin, about half of these being from other South American river basins. Concerning the fishery, although sport and commercial fisheries are widespread throughout the Patos Lagoon basin, the lagoon itself and the estuarine area are the main fishing areas. Landing statistics are not available on a regular basis or for the whole basin. The fishery in the northern Patos Lagoon captures 31 different species, nine of which are responsible for most of the commercial catches, but only three species are actually sustaining the artisanal fishery: the viola Loricariichthys anus: 455 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day, the mullet Mugil liza: 123 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day and the marine catfish Genidens barbus: 50 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day. A decline of the fish stocks can be attributed to inadequate fishery surveillance, which leads to overfishing and mortality of juveniles, or to decreasing water quality because of urban and industrial activities and power production. Global climatic changes also represent a

  5. Integration of sewer system maps in topographically based sub-basin delineation in suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Branger, Flora; Braud, Isabelle; Rodriguez, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    " can be made. It encompasses the whole connected sewer system and the topographic catchment boundary. The area of interest is therefore defined. The next step is the determination of the extended drainage network, consisting of the natural river, ditches, combined and separated sewer systems and retention basins. This requires a detailed analysis of sewer system data, field work (mapping of ditches and inlets into the natural river). Contacts with local authorities are also required to keep up-to-date about recent changes. Pure wastewater and drinking water pipes are not integrated in the drainage network. In order to have a unique drainage network for the model, choices might have to be made in case of several coexisting drainage pipes. The urban sub-basins are then delineated with the help of a cadastral map (Rodriguez et al., 2003) or an aerial photography. Each cadastral unit is connected to the closest drainage pipe, following the principle of proximity and gravity. The assembly of all cadastral units connected to one network reach represents one urban sub-basin. The sub-basins in the rural part are calculated using the d8 flow direction and watershed delineation algorithm with "stream burning" (Hutchinson, 1989). One sub-basin is delineated for each reach of the extended drainage network. Some manual corrections of the calculated sub-basins are necessary. Finally, the urban and rural sub-basins are merged by subtraction of the urban area from the rural area and subsequent union of both maps. This method was applied to the Chaudanne catchment, a sub-basin of the Yzeron catchment (ca. 4 km2) in the suburban region of Lyon city, France. The method leads to a 30 % extended catchment area, as compared to the topographic catchment area. For each river inlet the sub-basin area could be determined, as well as for each retention basin. This information can be directly used for the dimensioning of retention basins, pipe diameters, etc.

  6. Inversion of Extensional Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    The evolution of extensional sedimentary basins is governed by the surrounding stress field and can, therefore, be expected to be highly sensitive to variations in these stresses. Important changes in basin geometry are to be expected in the case of an even short-lived reversal from extension to compression. We investigate the evolu- tion of fold and thrust structures which form in compression after extension, when basin forming processes have come to a complete stop. To this purpose, we use a two- dimensional, viscoplastic model and start our experiments from a pre-existing exten- sional geometry. We illustrate the sensitivity of the evolving structures to inherited extensional geometry, sedimentary and erosional processes, and material properties. One series of our model experiments involves the upper- to middle crust only in order to achieve a high detail in the basin area. We find that our results agree with examples from nature and analogue studies in, among others, the uplift and rotation of syn-rift sediments, the propagation of shear zones into the post-rift sediments and, in specific cases, the development of back-thrusts or basement short-cut faults. We test the out- come of these models by performing a second series of model simulations in which basins on a continental margin are inverted through their progressive approach of a subduction zone. These latter models are on the scale of the whole upper mantle.

  7. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  8. City scale pollen concentration variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  9. The Copper Balance of Cities

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  10. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  11. Shenzhen: city of suspended possibility.

    PubMed

    Bach, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This essay on Shenzhen, China, presents three vignettes addressing the question of home in a city of migrants. The first section explores the ubiquitous narratives of success forming the city's foundational myth. The second follows this myth into the world of a Shenzhen filmmaker and his characters, as they navigate the tension between the idea of home and the urge to start anew, resulting in the suspended possibility of the title. The last section looks at young architects who hope to preserve the city's heterotopic sites of migrants and original villagers through architectural innovations. The cases show how an economy of desire supplements the political economy of this export-driven city. The city appears as an urban desiring machine that produces itself as an object of desire for the migrants of all classes who flock to its factories, "urban villages", white-collar jobs, luxury villas and underground economy. The essay is an encounter with the mythology of success and failure, the intertwining of home as an end and home as the beginning, and with the manipulation of space that allows residents to control their own subjectivity.

  12. Thermal influence on the groundwater fluid dynamics of the shallow Santiago forearc basin: 2D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramusset, Anneli; Herrera, Paulo; Parada, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal processes that occur in aquifers is essential to assess local and regional low enthalpy geothermal resources. The relationship between heat convection and heat conduction has been widely studied in basins around the world at a regional scale. However, few studies have focused on smaller, shallower basins containing free aquifers hosted in unconsolidated fluvial-alluvial sediments, like Santiago Basin. We use numerical modeling to simulate the fluid dynamics of the Santiago basin groundwater system under different thermal conditions. Despite the current computational advances, modeling such a complex system with a full 3D approach is still numerically time demanding and unstable. Besides, the basin has irregular geometry and variable hydraulic and thermal features. Thus, we performed a 2D model comprising a thin water saturated slice of sediments beneath the central part of the city, where the basin morphology is well constrained. We simulate coupled groundwater and heat flow throughout this vertical slice and we compare results for different scenarios that comprise different hydraulic, thermal and geometric parameters. Results obtained with certain hydraulic conductivities show that instabilities appear giving rise to free thermal convection in the deepest parts of the basin. If the system is split into several hydrogeological units, the onset of these instabilities is inhibited. Consequently, we suggest that the stratigraphic complexities of a fluvial-alluvial deposit should be considered to better understanding the thermal-driven groundwater fluid dynamics.

  13. Testing for Basins of Wada

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Yorke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has theWada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries. PMID:26553444

  14. Testing for Basins of Wada.

    PubMed

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A

    2015-11-10

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  15. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    PubMed

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-07

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  16. Coastline change assessment on water reservoirs located in the Konya Basin Area, Turkey, using multitemporal landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Durduran, S Savas

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the coastline change assessment on water reservoirs located in the Konya Basin Area, Turkey. The Konya Closed Basin exists at the Central Anatolia Region and covers a region of 50,000 km(2) area corresponding to the 7% cumulative area of Turkey in which three million people live, 45% in rural areas and 55% in urban areas. The basin is surrounded with the city centers of Konya, Aksaray, Karaman, Isparta, Niğde, Ankara, Nevşehir, and Antalya cities. In this study, these changes were examined using Landsat TM and ETM+ 1987-2006 and 1990-2000. In the image processing step, image and vectorization of the satellite images were carried out to monitor coastline changes over the lakes located in the Konya Closed Basin Area. At the end of the study, significant coastline movements were detected for a 19-year period due to drought effects, agricultural watering, and planning mistakes experienced in the basin.

  17. Basin-Scale Wind Transport during the MILAGRO Field Campaign and Comparison to Climatology Using Cluster Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Paech, S. J.; Phillips, D.; Walters, J. T.; Coulter, Richard L.; Martin, Tim J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.; Kastendeuch, P. P.; Marley, Nancy A.; Retama, A.; Molina, Luisa T.

    2008-03-03

    The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  18. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  19. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  20. Large slope failures in the La Paz basin, Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N. J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Rabus, B.; Guzmán, M. A.; Minaya, E.; Clague, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The La Paz basin in the eastern Bolivian Andes has been a hotspot for large-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation during the Holocene. In less than 2 Ma, a network of steep-sided valleys up to 800 m deep formed in sediments of the Altiplano Plateau and underlying basement rocks. We characterize the distribution, extent, mechanisms, and modern activity of large-scale failures within this landscape using optical image interpretation, existing geologic maps, synthetic RADAR interferometry (InSAR), and field investigation. Deposits of nearly 20 landslides larger than 100 Mm3 occur within the basin. Most failures have occurred in weakly lithified Late Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks and include earth flows, translational and rotational landslides, and plug flows. Failures in underlying tectonized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include bedding-parallel rockslides. The largest failure is the 3 km3 Achcocalla earth flow (ca. 11 ka BP), which ran out ~20 km. Other dated events span the period from the early Holocene to nearly the Colonial historic period. InSAR results show that many large slope failures, including the Achocalla earth flow, are currently moving at rates of a few centimeters to a few decimeters per year. Rapid deposition, shallow burial, and rapid incision of the basin fills produced steep slopes in weak geologic materials that, coupled with groundwater discharge from the valley walls, are the primary controls on instability. In contrast, the Altiplano surface has changed little in 2 Ma and the adjacent slopes of the Cordilleran Real, although steep, are relatively stable. Of the over 100 landslides that have occurred in the city of La Paz since the early twentieth century, most are at the margins of large, deep-seated prehistoric failures, and two of the most damaging historic landslides (Hanko-Hanko, 1582; Pampahasi, 2011) were large-scale reactivations of previously failed slopes. Improved understanding of large, deep-seated landslides in

  1. Star City, Russia Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Senter, Cedric H.; Roden, Sean K.; Gilmore, Stevan; Powers, William E.; Alexander, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the NASA/Mir missions, NASA has had astronauts in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, with crewmembers currently there to train for the International Space Station missions. Agreements have been reached with all International Partners that allow the crewmember's parent agency to provide a flight surgeon to oversee crewmember health and safety during training away from home. NASA Medical Operations through the Bioastronautics Contract employs flight surgeons to provide medical support for U.S. crewmembers and their support staff. This poster presentation reviews the aspects of NASA medical operations at Star City.

  2. City of Columbia, Columbia, SC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Located in the heart of South Carolina, Columbia (population 124,818) first experienced industrial growth along the Congaree, Saluda, and Broad Rivers. Plantations, cotton mills, trains, and other industries lined the riverbanks. The City claimed numerous vacant, dilapidated structures in the neighborhoods of the Congaree region. They included industrial, railroad, and petroleum properties. Uncertainties related to contamination inhibited redevelopment efforts in the region. Brownfield assessments helped the city to resolve some of the uncertainties, and increased the marketability of the sites to prospective purchasers and developers.

  3. The Twin Cities biomedical consortium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A S

    1975-07-01

    Twenty-eight health science libraries in the St. Paul-Minneapolis area formed the Twin Cities Biomedical Consortium with the intention of developing a strong network of biomedical libraries in the Twin Cities area. Toward this end, programs were designed to strengthen lines of communication and increase cooperation among local health science libraries; improve access to biomedical information at the local level; and enable the Consortium, as a group, to meet an increasing proportion of its members' needs for biomedical information. Presently, the TCBC comprises libraries in twenty-two hospitals, two county medical societies, one school of nursing, one junior college, and two private corporations.

  4. H-Area Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  5. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21,...

  6. Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Toohey, D.; Alvarado, E.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P.; Fisher, M.; Wold, C.; Campos, T.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

    2007-05-01

    The emissions of NOx and HCN (per unit amount of fuel burned) from fires in the pine-savannas that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The NH3 emissions are about average for forest burning. The NOx/VOC mass ratio for the MC-area mountain fires was ~0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.43, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (~0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio HCN/CO for the mountain fires was ~0.0128±0.0096: 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The MC-area/downwind molar ratio of HCN/CO is about 0.003±0.0003. Thus, if other types of biomass burning are relatively insignificant, the mountain fires may be contributing about 23% of the CO production in the MC-area (~98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO mass ratio in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.011) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as ~78% of the fine particle mass generated in the MC-area.

  7. NO2 DOAS measurements from ground and space: comparison of ground based measurements and OMI data in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, C.; Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The combination of satellite data and ground based measurements can provide valuable information about atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In this work we present a comparison between measured ground based NO2 differential columns at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City, using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique and NO2 total columns measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura satellite using the same measurement technique. From these data, distribution maps of average NO2 above the Mexico basin were constructed and hot spots inside the city could be identified. In addition, a clear footprint was detected from the Tula industrial area, ~50 km northwest of Mexico City, where a refinery, a power plant and other industries are located. A less defined footprint was identified in the Cuernavaca basin, South of Mexico City, and the nearby cities of Toluca and Puebla do not present strong enhancements in the NO2 total columns. With this study we expect to cross-validate space and ground measurements and provide useful information for future studies.

  8. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  9. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and

  10. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.

  11. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, 'Southwest') since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality. The synthesis consists of three major components: 1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report). 2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants. 3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination. Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  12. IMPROVEMENTS IN PUMP INTAKE BASIN DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pump intake basins (or wet wells or pump sumps) designed in accordance with accepted criteria often pose many operation and maintenance problems. The report summarizes field surveys of three trench-type pump intake basins representative of 29 such basins that have been in satisfa...

  13. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  14. [Coupling coordination measurement of urbanization and eco-environment system in Huaihe River Basin of China based on fuzzy matter element theory].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue-Ting; Xu, Jian-Gang

    2013-05-01

    Based on the statistical data of urbanization and eco-environment of 35 cities in the Huaihe River Basin of China in 2010, an index system of urbanization-eco-environment system was established by using fuzzy matter element theory, and the weight of each indicator was calculated by entropy method. The improved function of the coupling coordination degree of urbanization and eco-environment was constructed to measure this coupling coordination degree in the Huaihe River Basin. In 2010, the development level of urbanization subsystem in the Basin was lower than that of the eco-environment subsystem, and the integrated coordination index of urbanization and eco-environment was 0.186, indicating that there was a gap between the two types of indicators. The average coupling degree of urbanization and eco-environment was 0.475, indicating that the urbanization-eco-environment system was at antagonistic stage. There was a greater difference in the development level of urbanization subsystem, but a smaller difference in the development level of eco-environment subsystem among the cities. The average value of the coordination degree of all the cities was 0.706, indicating that the Huaihe River Basin was at high coordination coupling stage, and the integrated coherence and synergistic effect of urbanization and eco-environment construction in the Huaihe River Basin was higher.

  15. The structural and stratigraphic evolution of the La Rioja basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Nathan D.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Brown, Larry

    2002-04-01

    The La Rioja sedimentary basin underlies the Llanos de La Rioja valley in the Sierras Pampeanas region of western Argentina. The Sierras Pampeanas is a region of young reverse-fault-bounded ranges of crystalline basement separated by broad valleys. Repsol-YPF allowed use of 280 km of 2D seismic lines registered in the western La Rioja basin, which were processed and interpreted for structural and stratigraphic relationships. Lacking wells within the seismic grid, we relied on refraction data, nearby geological studies, and seismic stratigraphy to constrain the interpretation. The findings indicate a substantial thickness (up to 800 m) of Paleozoic strata thinning to the east and directly covering the crystalline basement. The predominate unit is Cenozoic fill, which dominates the upper 1-3 s of the seismic data and ranges in thickness from 3 km below the city of La Rioja, near the western basin margin, to approximately 1.5 km at the east end of the seismic grid, 60 km east of La Rioja. Between the Paleozoic and Cenozoic strata are two units, one regionally distributed and the other very localized. The regionally extensive unit is a thin horizon with high reflectivity that overlies the more localized unit. This local unit is interpreted as a narrow rift basin in the northern La Rioja basin that is likely of Cretaceous age. Deformation within the La Rioja basin is controlled predominantly by north-trending reverse faults with offsets ranging from 200 to 2000 m. Faults in the north half of the basin are not continuous with those in the south half, which suggests the existence of an east-trending transfer zone, aligned with the east-trending valley separating Sierra de Velasco into northern and southern blocks and aligned with the north end of Sierra Brava. The major north-trending faults were active during accumulation of the upper half of the Cenozoic strata.

  16. Cenozoic stratigraphy and geologic history of the Tucson Basin, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of a geohydrologic study of the Tucson basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Tucson. Geologic data from more than 500 water supply and test wells were analyzed to define characteristics of the basin sediments that may affect the potential for land subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal. The Tucson basin is a structural depression within the Basin and Range physiographic province. The basin is 1,000 sq mi in units area and trends north to northwest. Three Cenozoic stratigraphic unit--the Pantano Formation of Oligocene age, the Tinaja beds (informal usage) of Miocene and Pliocene age, and the Fort Lowell Formation of Pleistocene age--fill the basin. The Tinaja beds include lower, middle, and upper unconformable units. A thin veneer of stream alluvium of late Quaternary age overlies the Fort Lowell Formation. The Pantano Formation and the lower Tinaja beds accumulated during a time of widespread continental sedimentation, volcanism, plutonism, uplift, and complex faulting and tilting of rock units that began during the Oligocene and continued until the middle Miocene. Overlying sediments of the middle and upper Tinaja beds were deposited in response to two subsequent episodes of post-12-million-year block faulting, the latter of which was accompanied by renewed uplift. The Fort Lowell Formation accumulated during the Quaternary development of modern through-flowing the maturation of the drainage. The composite Cenozoic stratigraphic section of the Tucson basin is at least 20,000 ft thick. The steeply tilted to flat-lying section is composed of indurated to unconsolidated clastic sediments, evaporites, and volcanic rocks that are lithologically and structurally complex. The lithology and structures of the section was greatly affected by the uplift and exhumation of adjacent metamorphic core-complex rocks. Similar Cenozoic geologic relations have been identified in other parts of southern

  17. Climate change adaptation in a highly urbanized snowmelt dominated basin in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicuna, S.; Bustos, E.; Merino, P.; Henriquez Dole, L. E.; Jansen, S.; Gil, M.; Ocampo, A.; Poblete, D.; Tosoni, D.; Meza, F. J.; Donoso, G.; Melo, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Maipo river basin holds 40% of Chile's total population and produces almost half of the country's Gross Domestic Product. The basin is located in the semiarid and snowmelt dominated central region of the country and, aside from the typical pressures of growth in developing country basins, the Maipo river basin faces climate change impacts associated with a reduction in total runoff and changes in its seasonality. Surface water is the main water source for human settlements, natural ecosystems, and economic activities including agriculture, mining and hydropower production. In 2012 a research project, called MAPA (Maipo Plan de Adaptacion), began with the objective of articulating a climate variability and climate change adaptation plan for the Maipo river basin. The project engaged at the beginning a group of relevant water and land use stakeholders which allowed for a good representation of critical aspects of an adaptation plan such as the definition of objectives and performance indicators, future land use scenarios, modeling of the different components of the system and design of adaptation strategies. The presentation will highlight the main results of the research project with a special focus on the upper catchments of the basin. These results include the assessment of impacts associated with future climate and land use scenarios on key components of the hydrologic cycle including snowmelt and glacier contribution to runoff and subsequent impacts on water availability for the operation of hydropower facilities, satisfaction of instream (recreation and aquatic ecosystem) uses and provision of water for the city of Santiago (7 million people) and to irrigate more than 100,000 hectares of high value crops. The integrative approach followed in this project including different perspectives on the use of water in the basin provides a good opportunity to test the varying degree of impacts that could be associated with a given future scenario and also understand

  18. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development.

  19. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  20. Kansas City Plots Next Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Kansas City (Missouri) Public Schools is at a crossroads. The district has struggled for decades with poor academic achievement, dwindling enrollment and budget, and short-term superintendents--27 in the past 40 years. Most recently, after a two-year stint during which he helped the district get its financial house in order, closing nearly half of…

  1. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  2. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  3. City Lights in Modern Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    City Lights Books of San Francisco has served as a literary meeting place, as a bookstore that concentrates on serious literature--especially poetry, as a publisher of significant voices such as those of Allen Ginsberg and Charles Bukowski, and as an institution with a political conscience. (JMD)

  4. Building Inclusive Cities and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiler, Christa

    2008-01-01

    Canada prides itself on being an inclusive country. Immigrants from all over the world arrive in Canada's cities with their families because they feel welcome and safe. According to research, engagement towards social inclusion increased among Canadians during the last 30 last years. These changing values resulted in the creation of official…

  5. The Literature of City Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Rob

    The research literature on city magazines can be divided into five primary sources: books on magazines, popular magazines/journals and newspapers, business magazines, scholarly journals, and unpublished theses. "The New Yorker," founded in 1925 specifically for a sophisticated, metropolitan audience, is considered a precursor of the…

  6. Can City Schools Be Saved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    1994-01-01

    An unnatural, selective school crisis envelopes the poor, the cities, and Latino and African American communities. Structures of privilege and oppression apparent in the larger society are mirrored in schools. The perspectives of principal Deborah Meier, novelist Toni Morrison, and poet Adrienne Rich lend credence to empowerment and…

  7. Project WISH: The Emerald City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oz, Hayrani; Dunne, Jim; Butchar, Stan; George, Tommy; Hellstrom, Rob; Kringen, Tricia; Owens, George; Perrea, Mike; Semeraro, Paul; Thorndike, Phil

    1992-01-01

    Phase 3 of Project WISH saw the evolution of the Emerald City (E-City) from a collection of specialized independent analyses and ideas to a working structural design integrated with major support systems and analyses. Emphasis was placed on comparing and contrasting the closed and open cycle gas core nuclear rocket engines to further determine the optimum propulsive system for the E-City. Power and thermal control requirements were then defined and the question of how to meet these requirements was addressed. Software was developed to automate the mission/system/configuration analysis so changes dictated by various subsystem constraints could be managed efficiently and analyzed interactively. In addition, the liquid hydrogen propellant tank was statically designed for minimum mass and shape optimization using a finite element modeling package called SDRC I-DEAS. Spoke and shaft cross-sectional areas were optimized on ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) for mass minimization. A structural dynamic analysis of the optimal structure also conducted using ASTROS enabled a study of the modes, frequencies, displacements, and accelerations of the E-City. Finally, the attitude control system design began with an initial mass moment of inertia analysis and was then designed and optimized using linear quadratic regulator control theory.

  8. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, R.; Khoshnava, S. M.; Lamit, H.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development.

  9. Youth and the City Streets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing,…

  10. Miami, Florida: The Magic City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    With its subtropical climate and intimate ties to Latin America, Miami is like no other city in the United States. More than 65 percent of its population is Hispanic, and Spanish is the most commonly heard language. Situated at the southern tip of the 500-mile-long Florida peninsula, Miami is the largest urban area in the southeastern United…

  11. THE CITY IS A TEACHER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOWE, HAROLD, II

    THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY IN THE CITY GHETTO FORMS A COMPLICATED CHAIN OF DISCRIMINATION AND LOST OPPORTUNITIES FOR WHICH ALL AMERICANS PAY. COSTS ARE INCURRED FROM POOR EDUCATION, UNEMPLOYMENT, WASTE OF INDIVIDUAL TALENT, RISING CRIME RATES, MILITARY SERVICE REJECTION RATES, AND OTHER SOCIAL PROBLEMS. THE EDUCATION LINK IN THIS CHAIN IS THE…

  12. Sioux City Riverbank Filtration Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, R.; Condon, J.; Johnson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The City of Sioux City (City) obtains a large percentage of their drinking water supply from both a horizontal collector well system and vertical wells located adjacent to the Missouri River. These wells are set in either the Missouri Alluvium or the Dakota Sandstone aquifer. Several of the collector well laterals extend out beneath the Missouri River, with the laterals being over twenty feet below the river channel bottom. Due to concerns regarding ground water under direct surface water influence, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) required the City to expand their water treatment process to deal with potential surface water contaminant issues. With the extensive cost of these plant upgrades, the City and Olsson Associates (OA) approached the IDNR requesting approval for assessing the degree of natural riverbank filtration for water treatment. If this natural process could be ascertained, the level of treatment from the plant could be reduced. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of surface water (i.e. Missouri River) filtration due to the underlying Missouri River sediments. Several series of microscopic particulate analysis where conducted, along with tracking of turbidity, temperature, bacteria and a full scale particle count study. Six particle sizes from six sampling points were assessed over a nine-month period that spanned summer, fall and spring weather periods. The project was set up in two phases and utilized industry accepted statistical analyses to identify particle data trends. The first phase consisted of twice daily sample collection from the Missouri River and the collector well system for a one-month period. Statistical analysis of the data indicated reducing the sampling frequency and sampling locations would yield justifiable data while significantly reducing sampling and analysis costs. The IDNR approved this modification, and phase II included sampling and analysis under this reduced plant for an eight

  13. Colby Fire over LA Basin

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Los Angeles Basin, prompting an air quality alert by public health officials. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  14. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  15. Air composition over Siberian cities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, B. D.; Ivlev, G. A.; Kozlov, A. S.; Marinaite, I. I.; Peneko, V. V.; Simonenkov, D. V.; Fofonov, A. V.; Khodzher, T. V.; Arshinov, M. Yu.

    2009-04-01

    It is typical feature of Siberian cities that the quality of the atmosphere significantly depends on the climate conditions. During more than half of year, stable atmospheric stratification dominates over Siberia with temperature inversions, favoring accumulation of pollutants of different origin in the lower atmospheric layers. In addition to severe climatic conditions, modern industrial cities experience increasingly intensifying effect of anthropogenic factors on the environment and human health. Urban conditions give rise to distinct mesoclimates favoring accumulation of pollutants. In this case, natural and anthropogenic systems (power-generating and industrial objects, traffic, etc.) interact very closely. In this paper we present experimental results of the study the local air circulation effect on air composition of industrial cities of Siberian region. In our studies we have used AKV-2 mobile station, designed at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS. The instrumentation of the station provides measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, total solar radiation; aerosol number density in two size ranges (0.4-10 microns by use of a modernized AZ-6 optical particle counter, and from 3 to 200 nm with a diffusion spectrometer of aerosols), and concentration of trace gases (NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO, CO2). In addition to the continuous observations during the station motion, in Angarsk, Usol'e-Sibirskoe, Tulun, Nizhneudinsk, Taishet, Kansk, Krasnoyarsk, and Achinsk, we have carried measurements during stops at the city entry, near center, and at the exit. These observations were aimed to estimate the contribution of urban circulation to impurity accumulation on the city territory and to the change of thermodynamic regime. Such a contribution was found in all of the above-mentioned cities. Maximum of NO concentration is observed at crossroads of the main highways and decreases away from them. It should be noted that the NO distribution

  16. Clean Cities Coalition and Coordinator Awards 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-06-01

    This fact sheet recognizes the 2003 Clean Cities Coalition and Coordinator awards winners and their outstanding efforts to promote alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The recipients will receive their awards at the Clean Cities Conference in Palm Springs, CA.

  17. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  18. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  19. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  20. A better prospect for city life.

    PubMed

    Sabouraud, A

    1992-01-01

    The WHO "healthy cities" concept is discussed with particular reference to initiatives taken in Rennes, France. An outline is given of the collaboration between cities, both nationally and internationally, in efforts to achieve the health-for-all goals.

  1. Impact of rapid urban growth on heat and moisture islands in Pune City, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosthali, Vrishali

    The detailed horizontal structure of the heat and moisture islands of the Pune city is investigated. Changing shapes and intensities of warm and cool pockets and development of cliffs and plateaus at minimum temperature epoch are elucidated and also compared with similar aspects for Pune city documented in earlier studies. Dry and wet bulb temperature data obtained by whirling psychrometers in a mobile survey conducted in April 1997 formed the base of analysis. In total 9,9 routes were devised for moving observations to give data for 170 locations within the city region. Results indicate that at night, the core of the city appears as both heat and moisture islands whereas at the time of sunrise as heat and dry islands. Morphological variations in hill slope include barren, vegetated and residential area induced cool katabatic airflow of varying intensity as there has been formation of a cool pool in the first case, linearity in the main heat island in downwind direction in the second case and development of secondary warm pockets in the last one. Situated in a basin-like topography, the city experiences stronger influence of katabatic winds rather than the thermal circulation systems arising from spatial inhomogeneity in thermal and moisture patterns.

  2. A time series study on the effects of heat on mortality and evaluation of heterogeneity into European and Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities: results of EU CIRCE project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean region is particularly vulnerable to the effect of summer temperature. Within the CIRCE project this time-series study aims to quantify for the first time the effect of summer temperature in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities and compared it with European cities around the Mediterranean basin, evaluating city characteristics that explain between-city heterogeneity. Methods The city-specific effect of maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) was assessed by Generalized Estimation Equations, assuming a linear threshold model. Then, city-specific estimates were included in a random effect meta-regression analysis to investigate the effect modification by several city characteristics. Results Heterogeneity in the temperature-mortality relationship was observed among cities. Thresholds recorded higher values in the warmest cities of Tunis (35.5°C) and Tel-Aviv (32.8°C) while the effect of Tappmax above threshold was greater in the European cities. In Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities a higher effect was observed among younger age groups (0–14 in Tunis and 15–64 in Tel-Aviv and Istanbul) in contrast with the European cities where the elderly population was more vulnerable. Climate conditions explained most of the observed heterogeneity and among socio-demographic and economic characteristics only health expenditure and unemployment rate were identified as effect modifiers. Conclusions The high vulnerability observed in the young populations in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities represent a major public health problem. Considering the large political and economic changes occurring in this region as well future temperature increase due to climate change, it is important to strengthen research and public health efforts in these Mediterranean countries. PMID:23822609

  3. Study of landwater variation over Chao Phraya river basin using GRACE, satellite altimetry and in situ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakaegawa, T.; Taniguchi, M.

    2009-12-01

    A project to assess the effects of human activities on the subsurface environment in Asian developing cities has been in progress (Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan, 2009). Bangkok, Thailand is one of the study cities in this project. Using GRACE satellite gravity data, we previously recovered landwater mass variation over the Chao Phraya river basin, where Bangkok is located on downstream. However, mainly because of insufficient spatial resolution of the GRACE data then released, it was difficult to distinguish mass variation over the Chao Phraya basin with the ones of the neighboring Mekong, Irrawaddy and Salween river basins. Recently, some new versions of GRACE data sets have been available, and thus we estimated again the mass variations over these basins using version 2 of CNS/GRGS data set. The result shows that mass variations of the each basin could be distinguished due to improvement of the spatial resolution of the data. One of the interesting things is that a negative interannual mass trend is observed only over the Chao Phraya river basin, while the other basins show positive trend values. One of our concerns was which of the landwater components were decreasing. Because GRACE can only detect total terrestrial water storage, we further used satellite altimeter data to separate surface- and groundwater components. EnviSat data were mainly used as satellite altimetry data in this study, because the mission period is overlapping with GRACE mission and the ground track separation is relatively small. River water levels were recovered from satellite altimetry data, and converted to river water storage. Estimated river water storage was subtracted from the GRACE data. Thus, interannual surface- and groundwater trends were discussed separately. Another concern is whether the landwater decrease is caused by meteorological factors or factors of human activities. Thus, we also compared above results with global hydrological simulation model and

  4. Tectonic development of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Prouty, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The general form of the Michigan basin and surrounding frame structures - the Findlay, Kankakee, and Wisconsin arches - was inherited from the Precambrian. An ongoing study has provided new information on present basin configuration and the evolution of intrabasinal structures during the Paleozoic. This study involves: (1) isopach, structure contour, depocenter, and lithofacies map preparation; (2) diagenetic and epigenetic dolomitization processes and patterns; (3) Landsat imagery and lineament interpretation; (4) recognition of shearing mechanics and the resulting shear faulting and folding; and (5) the recognition of radial faults in contrast to shear faults. Monitoring of the above throughout the Paleozoic indicates that tectonic events within the basin were episodic in nature. Stresses are recognized as external and, through Fourier analysis of lineaments (shear faults), may be demonstrated as from the southeast, probably the Appalachian mobile belt. Shear faults are seated in Precambrian rocks, although they are probably not of that age. The faults occur with accompanying shear folds in rocks possibly as early as the Late Ordovician or Middle Silurian, but definitely by the Middle Devonian with the principal faulting and folding during the post-Osage Mississippian. Local shifting of the depocenter within the general Saginaw Bay area occurred during the early Paleozoic with a major shift westward to the present central basin position accompanied by the development of the present north-northwest ellipticity of the basin during the post-Osage, pre-Meramecian Mississippian. Barrier separation of the West Michigan Lagoon occurred in the Middle Ordovician and Middle and Late Devonian. Radial structures can be demonstrated in at least the Upper Silurian and Upper Devonian.

  5. Predicting the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royden, L.

    2011-12-01

    From ~30 Ma onwards, the evolution of the Mediterranean region has been dominated by the rapid migration of thin-skinned thrust-belts. Thrust belt migration has been accommodated by the opening of "back arc type" basins within the upper plate of the thrust belts. Migration of these thrust belts is associated with the migration of subduction systems where subduction and thrusting are driven largely by negative slab buoyancy. Where the subducting slab has large negative buoyancy, thrust belt migration is commonly rapid. Where buoyant continental lithosphere enters the subduction system, subduction ceases quickly. Hence the large-scale tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean basin is largely pre-conditioned by its paleogeography. This can be quantitatively illustrated for the Hellenic subduction system where the post Eocene evolution of the Hellenic thrust belt can be ascribed to the buoyancy of the lithosphere subducted. Entry of the Ionian oceanic lithosphere into a slow-moving trench at 10-15 Ma explains the increase in subduction rate along the central part of the trench, to ~35 mm/yr at present, while subduction rates along strike to the northeast, where continental/transitional crust is subducted, remain less than ~10 mm/yr. Using quantitative modeling of the Hellenic subduction system in post Eocene time, it is possible to approximate how this thrust belt, and the active subduction belt of the eastern Mediterranean, will evolve over the next 10 m.y. This exercise suggests that the large-scale evolution of the eastern Mediterranean basin will be strikingly similar to that of the western Mediterranean basin from 20-0 Ma. This highlights the common dynamic mechanism that shapes the large scale deformation and morphology of the Mediterranean basin.

  6. Empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Klenov, Sergey L.; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Based on a study of anonymized GPS probe vehicle traces measured by personal navigation devices in vehicles randomly distributed in city traffic, empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic has been revealed. It turns out that real oversaturated city traffic resulting from speed breakdown in a city in most cases can be considered random spatiotemporal alternations between sequences of moving queues and synchronized flow patterns in which the moving queues do not occur.

  7. Empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Boris S; Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Klenov, Sergey L; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Based on a study of anonymized GPS probe vehicle traces measured by personal navigation devices in vehicles randomly distributed in city traffic, empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic has been revealed. It turns out that real oversaturated city traffic resulting from speed breakdown in a city in most cases can be considered random spatiotemporal alternations between sequences of moving queues and synchronized flow patterns in which the moving queues do not occur.

  8. Automated basin delineation from digital terrain data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, D.; Dozier, J.; Frew, J.

    1983-01-01

    While digital terrain grids are now in wide use, accurate delineation of drainage basins from these data is difficult to efficiently automate. A recursive order N solution to this problem is presented. The algorithm is fast because no point in the basin is checked more than once, and no points outside the basin are considered. Two applications for terrain analysis and one for remote sensing are given to illustrate the method, on a basin with high relief in the Sierra Nevada. This technique for automated basin delineation will enhance the utility of digital terrain analysis for hydrologic modeling and remote sensing.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Urban Heat Island Effects For Large Hungarian Cities Using Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezso, Zs.; Bartholy, J.; Pongracz, R.; Barcza, Z.

    In order to find potential mitigation strategies that facilitate the urban population to adapt to new environmental conditions urban heat islands and other climatological impacts of urbanization must be investigated. In this study detailed comparison of the urban heat island effects for the Budapest agglomeration area (capital of Hungary) and other large cities of the Carpathian Basin is provided. A new approach has been applied, namely satellite images have served as a basic tool in the present analysis. Part of the NASA's Earth Observing System satellite TERRA was launched to a po- lar orbit in December 1999. Measurements include surface temperature (both land and ocean), global vegetation, cloud characteristics, snow cover, and temperature and moisture profiles. MODIS is capable of viewing the entire globe daily at high reso- lutions, ranging from 250 m to 1 km per pixel. First validated observations started in February 2000, and regular measurements are available from July 2000. In this pa- per daytime and nighttime surface temperature time series measured in the Carpathian Basin have been analysed. First, several large cities have been selected and their pixel representations (including their rural environment) have been determined. Then, these representative areas have been divided into urban and rural pixels which have provided spatial averages of observed surface temperature values. The preliminary results sug- gest that intensity of the urban heat island detected in Hungarian cities ranges between 1K and 3K, the most intense periods include the summer season and nighttime. Fine resolution satellite images provide an excellent tool to investigate heat island struc- tures for each selected city. Using the selected representative area of these Hungarian cities spatial structures of their urban heat island have been determined depending on seasons and different macrocirculation conditions. Further analysis have been carried out by identifying special pixels

  10. Hydrology of the Upper Malad River basin, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pluhowski, Edward J.

    1970-01-01

    The report area comprises 485 square miles in the Basin and Range physiographic province. It includes most of eastern' Oneida County and parts of Franklin, Bannock, and Power Counties of southeastern Idaho. Relief is about 5,000 feet; the floor of the Malad Valley is at an average altitude of about 4,400 feet. Agriculture is, by far, ,the principal economic .activity. In 1960 the population of the upper Malad River basin was about 3,600, of which about 60 percent resided in Malad City, the county seat of Oneida County. The climate is semiarid throughout the Malad Valley and its principal tributary valleys; ,above 6,500 feet the climate is subhumid. Annual precipitation ranges from about 13 inches in the lower Malad Valley to more than 30 inches on the highest peaks of the Bannock and Malad ranges. Owing to ,the normally clear atmospheric conditions, large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations are common. Topography, distance from the Pacific Ocean, .and the general atmospheric circulation are the principal factors governing the climate of the Malad River basin. The westerlies transport moisture from the P.acific Ocean toward southeastern Idaho. The north-south tren4ing mountains flanking the basin are oriented orthogonally to the moisture flux so that they are very effective in removing precipitable water from the air. A minimum uplift of 6,000 feet is required to transport moisture from the Pacific source region; accordingly, most air masses are desiccated long before they reach the Malad basin. Heaviest precipitation is generally associated with steep pressure gradients in the midtroposphere that are so oriented as to cause a deep landward penetration of moisture from the Pacific Ocean. Annual water yields in the project area range from about 0.8 inch in the, lower Malad Valley to more than 19 inches on the high peaks north and east of Malad City. The mean annual water yield for the entire basin is 4 inches, or about 115,000 acre-feet. Evaporation is

  11. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  12. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  13. Whatever Became of the Learning City?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnit, Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the 1990s, the UK Learning City Network was a large and influential movement with government support, the most significant national body of its kind anywhere. Yet, less than a decade later, it was in decline and now no longer exists. But while few UK towns or cities any longer use the term "learning city", the notion lives on as…

  14. Research Review: City and Regional Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynds, Ernest C.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that city magazines have vast unexplored potential as agenda setters, investigative reporters, and advocates of improved cities. Traces the historical development of city magazines, reviews the limited research in the field, and suggests research approaches that the magazines could use to expand their services to readers, advertisers,…

  15. The Politics of City Planning Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolson, Kenneth

    This research paper presents an analysis of the computer simulation, SimCity, used for an urban city planning class. The data were gathered by actual use of the simulation and an electronic mail network was employed to secure impressions from users of the simulation. SimCity (developed by Maxis) provides the player with rules of human factors,…

  16. City Schools: Lessons from New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.; Viteritti, Joseph P., Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays by researchers and educators that examine the largest school system in the U.S.--the New York City school system. There are 5 parts with 15 chapters. Part 1, "Education in the City," includes: (1) "Schooling in New York City: The Socioeconomic Context" (Emanuel Tobier) and (2)…

  17. The city and its need for technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to explore the process of identifying and transferring newer technology for the benefit of the city. This paper describes the nature of the problems involved in the experiment, some of the areas of supposed commonality with other cities and some of the prerequisites for any city to become involved with technological innovation.

  18. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  19. 75 FR 56467 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, Ocean City, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, Ocean City, NJ AGENCY: Coast... zone in an area of the Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, NJ. The temporary safety zone will restrict vessel traffic from a portion of the Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, which is an...

  20. 77 FR 36439 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for the Bullhead City Regatta on August 11, 2012. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the...

  1. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  2. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  3. 78 FR 34300 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for the Bullhead City Regatta on August 10, 2013. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the...

  4. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... City, MD to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel...

  5. 78 FR 44011 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for the Bullhead City Regatta on August 10, 2013. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the...

  6. 77 FR 40798 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... published an NPRM entitled Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI; in the...

  7. 76 FR 18753 - City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 24, 2011, The City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and...

  8. 76 FR 38568 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for the Bullhead City Regatta on August 13, 2011. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the...

  9. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  10. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  11. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  12. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  13. Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

  14. Identifying and validating freshwater ecoregions in Jinan City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Songyan; Xu, Zongxue; Liu, Xingcai; Dou, Tongwen; Xu, Chen

    2015-09-01

    Freshwater ecoregion is currently widely used by biologists, conservators and resource managers. Most of ecoregion delineations are developed at the basin scale and are not fully adapted in a practical manner because operational water resources management is primarily conducted by political administrative departments. In this study, an ecoregion delineation framework was proposed to classify three-level ecoregions in Jinan City with geographic information systems and cluster analysis. The first level ecoregion was composed of three watersheds (a part of the Yellow River, Xiaoqing River and Tuhaimajia River) plus the urban area, which was primarily determined on the basis of the city administrative divisions and river watersheds. The classification of the second level ecoregion is primarily based on the spatial heterogeneity of land use. The third level ecoregion was delineated for each second level ecoregion by using the cluster analysis on water quality. At the same time, administrative boundaries were used to rectify the boundaries of each ecoregion in this study to facilitate the administration of each ecoregion. Furthermore, ecological health assessment (IBI) based on fish communities were employed to validate the freshwater ecoregion. The results demonstrated that 73.3% of ecoregions were in line with the distribution of fish IBI, indicating that the freshwater ecoregions are acceptable for future water resources management.

  15. 19. SECOND FLOOR, CITY COMMISSION CHAMBERS, DETAIL OF ARCH WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SECOND FLOOR, CITY COMMISSION CHAMBERS, DETAIL OF ARCH WITH MURAL ON RIGHT OF BENCH, SHOWING PIONEERS AND ATLANTIC CITY SEAL - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  16. Estimation of flood flows on the Big Sioux River between Akron, Iowa, and North Sioux City, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents estimated flood flows for specified frequencies at selected locations on the Big Sioux River between the Akron, Iowa, streamflow-gaging station and North Sioux City, South Dakota. The selected locations include: at the Akron gaging station, downstream from the Richland-Westfield Creek Basins, downstream from the Brule Creek Basin, downstream from the Upper West Boundary Big Ditch and Rock Creek Basins, downstream from Broken Kettle Basin, and downstream from North Sioux City. The flood flows for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals will be used to support a Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood Insurance Study. Four methods were used to estimate the flood flows. The first method involved the use of drainage-area ratios raised to specified exponents to transfer the flood-frequency relation from the Akron gage to the selected downstream locations. The second method was a flood-frequency analysis based on a summation of the Akron gaging-station peak flows and concurrent tributary daily flows from within the various study reaches. The third method was an independence/dependence analysis of the Akron gaging-station flows and the tributary flows from the various study reaches. The fourth method was a flood-frequency analysis assuming complete dependence of the Akron peak flows and the tributary peak flows from the various study reaches. Based on the various analyses that were done, the drainage-area-ratio method best estimated the flood flows for the Akron to North Sioux City reach of the Big Sioux River. The best estimates of 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood flows at the location downstream from North Sioux City are 35,300, 70,400, 89,100, and 142,000 cubic feet per second, respectively.

  17. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  18. Relation of Land Use to Streamflow and Water Quality at Selected Sites in the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1993-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Weaver, J. Curtis; Robinson, Jerald B.

    1999-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected at nine sites in the city of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, during 1993-97. Six of the basins drained areas having relatively homogeneous land use and were less than 0.3 square mile in size; the other three basins had mixed land use. Atmospheric wet-deposition data were collected in three of the basins during 1997-98. Streamflow yield varied by a factor of six among the sites, despite the fact that sites were in close proximity to one another. The lowest yield occurred in a residential basin having no curbs and gutters. The variability in mean flow from these small, relatively homogeneous basins is much greater than is found in streams draining basins that are 10 square miles in size or larger. The ratio of runoff to rainfall in the developing basin appears to have increased during the study period. Low-flow suspended-sediment concentrations in the study basins were about the same magnitude as median stormflow concentrations in Piedmont agricultural basins. Sediment concentrations were higher in the mixed land-use basins and in the developing basin. Median suspended-sediment concentrations in these basins generally were an order of magnitude greater than median concentrations in the other five basins, which had stable land use. Some of the highest total nitrogen concentrations occurred in residential basins. Total nitrogen concentrations detected in this study were about twice as high as concentrations in small Piedmont streams affected by agriculture and urbanization. Most of the total nitrogen consisted of organic nitrogen at all of the sites except in two residential land- use basins. The high ammonia content of lawn fertilizer may explain the higher ammonia concentration in stormflow from residential basins. The two basins with the highest median suspended-sediment concentrations also had the highest total phosphorus concentrations. Median total phosphorus concentrations measured in this study

  19. Formation of lunar basin rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, C.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The origin of the multiple concentric rings that characterize lunar impact basins, and the probable depth and diameter of the transient crater have been widely debated. As an alternative to prevailing "megaterrace" hypotheses, we propose that the outer scarps or mountain rings that delineate the topographic rims of basins-the Cordilleran at Orientale, the Apennine at Imbrium, and the Altai at Nectaris-define the transient cavities, enlarged relatively little by slumping, and thus are analogous to the rim crests of craters like Copernicus; inner rings are uplifted rims of craters nested within the transient cavity. The magnitude of slumping that occurs on all scarps is insufficient to produce major inner rings from the outer. These conclusions are based largely on the observed gradational sequence in lunar central uplifts:. from simple peaks through somewhat annular clusters of peaks, peak and ring combinations and double ring basins, culminating in multiring structures that may also include peaks. In contrast, belts of slump terraces are not gradational with inner rings. Terrestrial analogs suggest two possible mechanisms for producing rings. In some cases, peaks may expand into rings as material is ejected from their cores, as apparently occurred at Gosses Bluff, Australia. A second process, differential excavation of lithologically diverse layers, has produced nested experimental craters and is, we suspect, instrumental in the formation of terrestrial ringed impact craters. Peak expansion could produce double-ring structures in homogeneous materials, but differential excavation is probably required to produce multiring and peak-in-ring configurations in large lunar impact structures. Our interpretation of the representative lunar multiring basin Orientale is consistent with formation of three rings in three layers detected seismically in part of the Moon-the Cordillera (basin-bounding) ring in the upper crust, the composite Montes Rook ring in the underlying

  20. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  1. Geoenvironmental Investigations of the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Nevada is one of the world's foremost regions of gold production. The Humboldt River Basin (HRB) covers 43,500 km2 in northern Nevada (Crompton, 1995), and it is home to approximately 18 active gold and silver mines (Driesner and Coyner, 2001) among at least 55 significant metallic mineral deposits (Long and others, 1998). Many of the gold mines are along the Carlin trend in the east-central portion of the HRB, and together they have produced 50 million ounces of gold from 1962 (when the Carlin mine first opened) through April 2002 (Nevada Mining Association, 2002). Mining is not new to the region, however. Beginning in 1849, mining has taken place in numerous districts that cover 39 percent of the land area in the HRB (Tingley, 1998). In addition to gold and silver, As, Ba, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, S, Sb, V, W, Zn, and industrial commodities such as barite, limestone, fluorite, sand and gravel, gypsum, gemstones, pumice, zeolites, and building stone, have been extracted from the HRB (McFaul and others, 2000). All papers within this series of investigations can be found as lettered chapters of USGS Bulletin 2210, Geoenvironmental Investigations of the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada. Each chapter is available separately online. The data and software utilized in this product (Chapter F) permit the user to view and analyze the geographic relationships among chemistry of stream sediments and surface waters, geology, and various cartographic base information such as but not limited to cities, county boundaries, and land ownership. Data for this product were compiled and or produced as part of a mineral and environmental assessment of the Humboldt River basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 - 2000.

  2. Early middle Ordovician (Whiterockian) paleogeography of basin ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.J. Jr. ); James, N.P. ); Hintze, L.F. ); Ketner, K.B. )

    1991-02-01

    During a highstand of the Canadian shield over the Archean mantle root in the early Whiterock (Orthidiella zone), the western rimmed shelf evolved from a late Ibexian ramp. Calathid-sponge mounds initiated the rim on shelf, and micritic carbonate mounds formed on the upper slope. Large bodies of coeval upper slope mound lithology occur in northern nevada from Reed's Station on the west to The Narrows on the east; these Ordovician olistoliths (anomalously within Devonian deepwater facies) imply an early middle Ordovician carbonate escarpment from which huge blocks slid into deep water. Lowering of sea level at or after the close of the Ordovician may have resulted in displacement of such blocks. In the lower Anomalorthis zone, southwest of a line from Lytle Ranch to Cortex, shallow subtidal to oncolitic shoal water deposits form a vast prograding platform rim. To the northeast lay the partly euxinic, intrashelf Kanosh Basin. The boundary between the subsiding shale basin and the widening, upward shallowing oncolitic rim may have been a zone of hydrocarbon accumulation. Accelerated relative subsidence in the upper Anomalorthis zone resulted in transgression of the burrowed subtidal facies over the Kanosh basin. Southeastward over the site of the oncolitic rim, expansive tidal flat beds accreted repeatedly. Lastly, during Lichenaria-Opikina deposition, brief extensive transgression in the north was smothered by prograding quartz sand (Eureka Quartzite). The sands thinned and bypassed tectonically emergent islands along the Tooele arch. In the south, the sand appears to have poured into karst cavities in a belt from the Talc City Hills to the Sheep Range.

  3. Empowering communities: action research through healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, B C; Ray, D W; Rider, M S

    1994-01-01

    The Healthy Cities process uses action research to empower communities to take action for health. Five concepts that link community empowerment and action research are: focus on community, citizen participation, information and problem solving, sharing of power, and quality of life. Two city examples from Healthy Cities Indiana, a pilot program of CITYNET Healthy Cities, provide illustrations of these concepts. The dynamics of community participation in action research and the successes and barriers to community participation are presented. Outcomes that empowered the community are suggested: the extent to which Healthy City projects are initiated, their progress monitored, continued action in health supported, resources obtained, and policies promoted that contribute equity in health.

  4. Community participation and empowerment in Healthy Cities.

    PubMed

    Heritage, Zoë; Dooris, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Community participation and empowerment are core principles underpinning the Healthy Cities movement. By providing an overview of theory and presenting the relevant findings of evaluations, this article explores how cities in the WHO European Healthy Cities Network have integrated community participation and empowerment within their development. Reflecting the inclusion of public participation and empowerment within the designation criteria for project cities, the evaluation of Phase III in 2002 demonstrated that community participation continues to be a high priority in most project cities. One-third of cities regularly consulted with large parts of their populations and another third undertook occasional consultations. Nearly 80% of cities had mechanisms for community representatives to participate in decision-making; and more than two-thirds of cities had initiatives explicitly aimed at empowering local people. Subsequent research carried out during 2005 further highlighted the centrality of public participation to the Healthy Cities movement. It found that all project cities continued to support community involvement. Community participation is an essential part of the process of good local governance, and empowerment remains at the heart of effective health promotion. To be meaningful, these processes must be seen as fundamental values of Healthy Cities and so must be developed as an integral part of long-term strategic development.

  5. An overview of city analytics

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Desmond J.; Batty, Michael; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Greetham, Danica Vukadinović; Grindrod, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the 14 articles in the Royal Society Open Science themed issue on City Analytics. To provide a high-level, strategic, overview, we summarize the topics addressed and the analytical tools deployed. We then give a more detailed account of the individual contributions. Our overall aims are (i) to highlight exciting advances in this emerging, interdisciplinary field, (ii) to encourage further activity and (iii) to emphasize the variety of new, public-domain, datasets that are available to researchers. PMID:28386454

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from global cities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher; Steinberger, Julia; Gasson, Barrie; Hansen, Yvonne; Hillman, Timothy; Havránek, Miroslav; Pataki, Diane; Phdungsilp, Aumnad; Ramaswami, Anu; Villalba Mendez, Gara

    2009-10-01

    The world's population is now over 50% urban, and cities make an important contribution to national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many cities are developing strategies to reduce their emissions. Here we ask how and why emissions differ between cities. Our study often global cities shows how a balance of geophysical factors (climate, access to resources, and gateway status) and technical factors (power generation, urban design, and waste processing) determine the GHGs attributable to cities. Within the overall trends, however, there are differences between cities with more or less public transit while personal income also impacts heating and industrial fuel use. By including upstream emissions from fuels, GHG emissions attributable to cities exceed those from direct end use by upto 25%. Our findings should help foster intercity learning on reducing GHG emissions.

  7. The size, scale, and shape of cities.

    PubMed

    Batty, Michael

    2008-02-08

    Despite a century of effort, our understanding of how cities evolve is still woefully inadequate. Recent research, however, suggests that cities are complex systems that mainly grow from the bottom up, their size and shape following well-defined scaling laws that result from intense competition for space. An integrated theory of how cities evolve, linking urban economics and transportation behavior to developments in network science, allometric growth, and fractal geometry, is being slowly developed. This science provides new insights into the resource limits facing cities in terms of the meaning of density, compactness, and sprawl, and related questions of sustainability. It has the potential to enrich current approaches to city planning and replace traditional top-down strategies with realistic city plans that benefit all city dwellers.

  8. Hydrogeology of the Kabul Basin (Afghanistan), part II: groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Georg; Tünnermeier, Torge; Eqrar, Naim; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Shallow groundwater is the main source for drinking water in Kabul, Afghanistan. It comes from a multitude of shallow hand-pumped wells spread over the whole city area. The groundwater is characterised by slightly oxic redox conditions. Interactions with aquifer carbonates lead to near-neutral pH and high degrees of hardness. The mostly negative water budget of the Kabul Basin is the result of strong evaporation which leads to an increase in salt and also of some undesirable constituents, e.g. borate. Several years of drought have aggravated this problem. The shallow groundwater in the city has received tremendous amounts of pollution due to a lack of proper waste disposal and sewage treatment. Common indicators are elevated concentrations of nutrients such as nitrate and faecal bacteria. The high infant mortality can at least partially be attributed to the insufficient water hygiene. Acid generated during the mineralisation of the wastewater is hidden due to the strong pH buffering capacity of the groundwater system. Redox and pH conditions preclude significant mobilisation of trace metals and metalloids.

  9. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  10. Basin and Crustal Structure of Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia from Two Seismic Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Irsam, M.; Masturyono, M.; Murjaya, J.; Nugraha, A. D.; Pandhu, R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Zulhan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Between October 2013 and February 2014, a dense portable seismic broadband network was operated by The Australian National University (ANU) and Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Jakarta is located in Java Island, Indonesia, with a population over 10 million. Overall 96 points were sampled through the successive deployments of 52 seismic broadband sensors at different parts of the city. After recording continuous seismic data for 5 months, the network was shifted to Bandung, another city to the south-east of Jakarta on March 2014. Bandung is situated on a old lake deposit surrounded by volcanic provinces. The configuration of the seismic network at Bandung encompasses the whole city as well as an active volcano-Tangkuban Perahu and Lembang Fault both located just outside of the city.In both of the experiments, oceanic and anthropogenic noise were recorded as well as local and regional earthquakes. We apply regularized deconvolution to the recorded data of the vertical components of available station pairs, and over 4000 Green's functions were retrieved in total. Waveforms from stacked interstation deconvolutions show clear arrivals of Rayleigh and body waves. The traveltimes that were extracted from the group velocity filtering of Rayleigh wave arrivals, are used in a Transdimensional Bayesian seismic tomography method to map the velocity perturbations across cities. The constructed images at Jakarta mark the very low group velocities of Rayleigh waves, as low as 150 m/s at 1 Hz showing influence of a very low velocity basin. Low seismic velocity regions imaged through seismic noise tomography beneath both cities potentially posses a large risk of causing seismic amplification during a large earthquake close to the cities.

  11. Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

  12. Geology of interior cratonic sag basins

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, M.W.; Eidel, J.J.; Kolata, D.R.; Oltz, D.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Interior cratonic sag basins are thick accumulations of sediment, generally more or less oval in shape, located entirely in the interiors of continental masses. Some are single-cycle basins and others are characterized by repeated sag cycles or are complex polyhistory basins. Many appear to have developed over ancient rift systems. Interior cratonic sag basins are typified by a dominance of flexural over fault-controlled subsidence, and a low ratio of sediment volume to surface area of the basin. The Baltic, Carpentaria, Illinois, Michigan, Parana, Paris, and Williston basins are examples of interior cratonic sag basins. Tectonics played a dominant role in controlling the shapes and the geometries of the juxtaposed packets of sedimentary sequences. While the mechanics of tectonic control are not clear, evidence suggests that the movements are apparently related to convergence of lithospheric plates and collision and breakup of continents. Whatever the cause, tectonic movements controlled the freeboard of continents, altering base level and initiating new tectono-sedimentologic regimes. Sag basins situated in low latitudes during their development commonly were sites of thick carbonates (e.g., Illinois, Michigan, Williston, and Paris basins). In contrast, siliciclastic sedimentation characterized basins that formed in higher latitudes (e.g., Parana and Carpentaria basins). Highly productive sag basins are characterized by widespread, mature, organic-rich source rocks, large structures, and good seals. Nonproductive basins have one or more of the following characteristics: immature source rocks, leaky plumbing, freshwater flushing, and/or complex geology due to numerous intrusions that inhibit mapping of plays.

  13. Tectonic classification of Cenozoic Iberian foreland basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vicente, G.; Cloetingh, S.; Van Wees, J. D.; Cunha, P. P.

    2011-04-01

    The Iberian microcontinent stands out because of its intense Alpine intraplate deformation. This is reflected in a large number of Cenozoic basins of very different sizes. Most of the contacts between topographic highs and basins are thrust or strike-slip faults. All these basins seem to have undergone a common sedimentary evolution, comprising four stages: initiation of sedimentation, intense syn-tectonic infilling, change from endorheic to exorheic drainage, and accelerated erosion related to fluvial incision. This simple evolutionary model shows a migration from East to West, in which basins are still tectonically active at the Atlantic margin of Iberia. This common evolution is also found in a series of geometrical characteristics, such as the ratio r of length of strike-slip fault and length of thrust fault, that are very similar in both types of basin border settings. Thrust-related basins are mainly associated with segmented pop-downs, whereas the main basins have the characteristics of open-ramp basins. Strike-slip related basins are mostly transpressive structures, although small pull-apart basins are usual along the Vilariça and Messejana faults. For basin areas larger than 100-1000 km 2, a constant r value of 0.6 is found (including the Ebro, Duero, Madrid, Lower Tagus and Badajoz basins). Within the Iberian microcontinent, the total amount of Cenozoic contractional deformation was distributed between strike-slip and thrust faults with an r ratio close to 0.6. However, for small basins this parameter seems to depend on the type of fault, range or deformation belt (pure strike-slip, transtension, transpression, and pop-up) independently of its local tectonic development.

  14. CLEAR LAKE BASIN 2000 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    LAKE COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICT

    2003-03-31

    The following is a final report for the Clear Lake Basin 2000 project. All of the major project construction work was complete and this phase generally included final details and testing. Most of the work was electrical. Erosion control activities were underway to prepare for the rainy season. System testing including pump stations, electrical and computer control systems was conducted. Most of the project focus from November onward was completing punch list items.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey middle Rio Grande basin study; proceedings of the third annual workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 24-25, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 40 percent (about 600,000 people) of the total population of New Mexico lives within the Middle Rio Grande Basin, which includes the City of Albuquerque. Ongoing analyses of the central portion of the Middle Rio Grande Basin by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque and other agencies have shown that ground water in the basin is not as readily accessible as earlier studies indicated. A more complete characterization of the ground-water resources of the entire Middle Rio Grande Basin is hampered by a scarcity of data in the northern and southern areas of the basin. The USGS Middle Rio Grande Basin study is a 5-year effort by the USGS and other agencies to improve the understanding of the hydrology, geology, and land-surface characteristics of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. The primary objective of this study is to improve the understanding of the water resources of the basin. Of particular interest is to determine the extent of hydrologic connection between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer. Additionally, ground-water quality affects the availability of water supplies in the basin. Improving the existing USGS-constructed ground-water flow model of the Middle Rio Grande Basin will integrate all the various tasks that improve our knowledge of the various components of the Middle Rio Grande water budget. Part of this improvement will be accompanied by extended knowledge of the aquifer system beyond the Albuquerque area into the northern and southern reaches of the basin. Other improvements will be based on understanding gained through process-oriented research and improved geologic characterization of the deposits. The USGS and cooperating agencies will study the hydrology, geology, and land-surface characteristics of the basin to provide the scientific information needed for water-resources management and for managers to plan for water supplies needed for a growing population. To facilitate exchange of

  16. Biogeochemistry of a Suburban Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Blumberg, J.

    2002-12-01

    A long-term research effort was recently established in the Lamprey River basin in southeastern New Hampshire. The watershed is largely forested, and has significant amounts of wetlands due to the relatively low topographic relief. Human population growth is rapid, resulting in conversion of forest and agricultural land to housing tracts. The primary focus of the project will be to examine the relationships between land use, land cover and water quality as the watershed continues to increase in population density. A secondary emphasis will be to examine the interactions between hydrologic flow paths, climatic variability, and biogeochemical processes that drive groundwater and surface water quality in the basin. Our initial work has quantified landscape attributes and related them to water quality. Results to date show that small tributary streams are relatively high in nitrogen relative to the main stem of the Lamprey; that human population density drives nitrate concentrations in the basin; and that DOC flux is predicted well by the model of Aitkenhead and McDowell that links DOC flux to watershed C:N ratio.

  17. Great Basin geoscience data base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  18. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  19. Floods in Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, September 12-13, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauth, L.D.; Carswell, W.J.; Chin, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    The storms of Sept. 12-13, 1977, delivered as much as 16 in. of rain, with average rainfall exceeding 10 in. in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Twenty-five lives were lost, many were left homeless, and damages exceeded $80 million. Data obtained by the National Weather Service and the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that two record-setting rainstorms occurred within 24 hours. The first storm, in the early morning, thoroughly soaked the local drainage basins. The second storm, centered along the Brush and Round Grove Creek basins, resulted in a devastating flash flood. Peak discharges were determined during and after this major flood at gaging stations and selected miscellaneous locations. Streamflows and flood volumes in many locations far exceeded estimated values for the 100-year flood. (USGS)

  20. Report on workshop to incorporate basin response in the design of tall buildings in the Puget Sound region, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Susan; Frankel, Arthur D.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 4, 2013, the City of Seattle and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop of 25 engineers and seismologists to provide recommendations to the City for the incorporation of amplification of earthquake ground shaking by the Seattle sedimentary basin in the design of tall buildings in Seattle. The workshop was initiated and organized by Susan Chang, a geotechnical engineer with the City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development, along with Art Frankel and Craig Weaver of the USGS. C.B. Crouse of URS Corporation, Seattle made key suggestions for the agenda. The USGS provided travel support for most of the out-of-town participants. The agenda and invited attendees are given in the appendix. The attendees included geotechnical and structural engineers working in Seattle, engineers with experience utilizing basin response factors in other regions, and seismologists who have studied basin response in a variety of locations. In this report, we summarize the technical presentations and the recommendations from the workshop.

  1. Water resources of the Ipswich River basin, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sammel, Edward A.; Baker, John Augustus; Brackley, Richard A.

    1966-01-01

    Water resources of the Ipswich River basin are at resent {1960) used principally for municipal supply to about 379,000 person's in 16 towns and cities in or near the river basin. By the year 2000 municipal use of water in this region will probably be more than twice the current use, and subsidiary uses of water, especially for recreation, also will have increased greatly. To meet the projected needs, annual pumpage of water from the Ipswich River could be increased from current maximums of about 12 mgd (million galleons a day) to about 45 mgd without reducing average base flows in the river, provided that the increased withdrawals would be restricted to periods of high streamflow. In addition, considerably more pumpage could be derived from streamflow by utilizing base-flow discharge; however, the magnitude of such use could be determined only in relation to factors such as concurrent ground-water use, the disposal of waste water, and the amount of streamflow required to dilute the pollution load to acceptable levels. Under present conditions, little or no increase in diversion of streamflow would be warranted in the upstream rafts of the basin during the summer and early fall of each year, and only a moderate increase could be made in the lower reaches of the stream during the same period. Annual rainfall in the basin averages about 42.5 inches, and represents the water initially available for use. Of this amount, an average of about 20.5 inches is returned to the a.tmosphere by evapotranspiration. The remainder, about 22 inches, runs off as streamflow in the Ipswich River or is diverted from the basin by pumpage. The average annual stream runoff, amounting to about 47 billion gallons, is a measure of the water actually available for man's use. The amounts of water used by municipalities in recent years are less than 10 percent of the available supply. Large supplies of ground water may be obtained under water-table conditions from the stratified glacial drift

  2. Geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Espa?ola basin -- Proceedings of the 5th annual Espa?ola basin workshop, Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 7-8, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents abstracts of technical studies that are focused on the hydrogeologic framework of the Espa?ola basin, a major subbasin of the Cenozoic Rio Grande rift. The Rio Grande, Rio Chama, Santa Fe River, and their tributaries carry important surface water in the Espa?ola basin. Sediments and interbedded volcanic rocks fill the Espa?ola basin and form extensive aquifer systems for ground water. Surface and ground water provide the principal sources of water for most residents of the basin, including people in the cities of Santa Fe, Espa?ola, and Los Alamos as well as Native Americans in several Pueblos. The abstracts describe results of technical studies that were presented either as poster exhibits or oral presentations at the fifth-annual Espa?ola basin workshop, held March 7-8 of 2006 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The principal goal of this workshop was to share information about ongoing studies. The Espa?ola basin workshop was hosted by the Espa?ola basin technical advisory group (EBTAG) and sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and the Water Research Technical Assistance Office of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Abstracts in this report have been grouped into six information themes: Basic Water Data, Water Quality and Water Chemistry, Water Balance and Stream/Aquifer Interaction, Data Integration and Hydrologic Model Testing, Three-Dimensional Hydrogeological Architecture, and Geologic Framework. Abstracts submitted by U.S. Geological Survey authors in this report have had their technical content peer reviewed before they were included in the report. Technical reviews were not required for abstracts submitted by authors outside the USGS, although most did receive peer reviews within their originating agencies. Taken together, the abstracts in this report provide a view of the current status of hydrogeologic research within the Espa?ola basin.

  3. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks® and Bits® (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex® WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid® Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  4. Synthesizing diverse stakeholder needs for a drought early warning information system in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, L. S.; Mcnutt, C. A.; Ingram, K.; Knox, P.; Martinez, C. J.; Zierden, D.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Verdin, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    From fall 2009 to fall 2010 the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Program Office coordinated several stakeholder meetings in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin, which extends from Georgia into Alabama and Florida. The purpose of the meetings was to ascertain which products and services are needed by basin stakeholders for drought early warning. Drought vulnerabilities across the basin are quite diverse - from changes in salinity that harm oyster bed productivity in Apalachicola Bay, to the health of crops in the agricultural fields of the Flint River basin, to municipal water supply issues for the city of Atlanta and smaller communities along the tributaries. These, and many other vulnerabilities, exist against a backdrop of decades-long water allocation litigation among the three states. The benefits of these stakeholder meetings went beyond information gathering by serving as opportunities for communication across state lines among people with differing needs and perspectives regarding water management decisions in the basin. The meetings also provided a good opportunity for stakeholders from all three states to share lessons learned from various management perspectives during the drought that affected the basin from 2006 to 2009. Common issues and needs identified from all regions of the basin include: (1) Education and Communication - People across the basin agree that education and communication regarding drought needs improvement (e.g., definition of drought, sector-specific impacts); (2) Improved interactions with the US Army Corps of Engineers (e.g., increased data sharing and opportunities for communication between the Corps and other stakeholders); (3) Data - easier access to real-time calibrated and quality-controlled data; (4) ACF Basin-wide webinars and climate outlooks; (5) Drought Index - Can a basin-wide drought index be established?; (6) Resolve perceived discrepancies regarding groundwater (How much

  5. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  6. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  7. Biological science in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The Great Basin is an expanse of desert and high moun-tains situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of the western United States. The most explicit description of the Great Basin is that area in the West where surface waters drain inland. In other words, the Great Basin is comprised of many separate drainage areas - each with no outlet. What at first glance may appear as only a barren landscape, the Great Basin upon closer inspection reveals island mountains, sagebrush seas, and intermittent aquatic habitats, all teeming with an incredible number and variety of plants and animals. Biologists at the USGS are studying many different species and ecosystems in the Great Basin in order to provide information about this landscape for policy and land-management decision-making. The following stories represent a few of the many projects the USGS is conducting in the Great Basin.

  8. MULTISCALE MODELING OF AIR FLOW IN SALT LAKE CITY AND THE SURROUNDING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    M. BROWN; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    A general overview is given of a modeling effort to simulate the fate and transport of a tracer within the downtown core of Salt Lake City and beyond into the Salt Lake Basin. The problem crosses three significant scales where different physics are predominant: atmospheric mesoscale, city scale, and building scale. Three different computational fluid dynamics models were used, each with strengths at particular spatial and temporal scales. We show preliminary results and discuss what we believe to be the relevant phenomenon one must model as one crosses from atmospheric scale to engineering scale flow problems. We also describe our model validation efforts, including wind-tunnel and tow-tank experiments and a recently completed urban field experiment.

  9. Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Toohey, D. W.; Alvarado, E. C.; Crounse, J. D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Fisher, M. E.; Wold, C. E.; Campos, T. L.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

    2007-11-01

    The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOx to volatile organic compounds (VOC) for these MC-area mountain fires was ~0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (~0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO) for the mountain fires was 0.012±0.007, which is 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003±0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MC-area (~98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.0115 and 0.0037) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as ~79-92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50±30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

  10. Emissions from Forest Fires near Mexico City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokelson, R.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Toohey, D.; Alvarado, E.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P.; Fisher, M.; Wold, C.; Campos, T.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

    2007-01-01

    The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOX to volatile organic compounds (VOC) for these MC-area mountain fires was approximately 0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (approximately 0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO) for the mountain fires was 0.012 +/- 0.007, which is 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003 +/- 0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MCarea (approximately 98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.01 15 and 0.0037) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as approximately 79-92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50 +/- 30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

  11. Thermal evolution of sedimentary basins in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, Mark J.; Howell, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The complex tectonic collage of Alaska is reflected in the conjunction of rocks of widely varying thermal maturity. Indicators of the level of thermal maturity of rocks exposed at the surface, such as vitrinite reflectance and conodont color alteration index, can help constrain the tectonic evolution of such complex regions and, when combined with petrographic, modern heat flow, thermogeochronologic, and isotopic data, allow for the detailed evaluation of a region?s burial and uplift history. We have collected and assembled nearly 10,000 vitrinite-reflectance and conodont-color-alteration index values from the literature, previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations, and our own studies in Alaska. This database allows for the first synthesis of thermal maturity on a broadly regional scale. Post-accretionary sedimentary basins in Alaska show wide variability in terms of thermal maturity. The Tertiary interior basins, as well as some of the forearc and backarc basins associated with the Aleutian Arc, are presently at their greatest depth of burial, with immature rocks exposed at the surface. Other basins, such as some backarc basins on the Alaska Peninsula, show higher thermal maturities, indicating modest uplift, perhaps in conjunction with higher geothermal gradients related to the arc itself. Cretaceous ?flysch? basins, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk basin, are at much higher thermal maturity, reflecting great amounts of uplift perhaps associated with compressional regimes generated through terrane accretion. Many sedimentary basins in Alaska, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk and Colville basins, show higher thermal maturity at basin margins, perhaps reflecting greater uplift of the margins in response to isostatic unloading, owing to erosion of the hinterland adjacent to the basin or to compressional stresses adjacent to basin margins.

  12. Li-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A.; Widory, D.; Bourrain, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Loire River in France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117 800 km2. Upstream, the Loire River flows following a south to north direction from the Massif Central down to the city of Orléans, 650 km from its source. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, its basin has been exposed to numerous sources of anthropogenic metal pollutions, such as metal mining, industry, agriculture and domestic inputs. The Loire River basin is thus an excellent study site to develop new isotope systematics for tracking anthropogenic sources of metal pollutions (Zn and Pb) and also to investigate Li isotope tracing that can provide key information on the nature of weathering processes at the Loire River Basin scale. Preliminary data show that Li-Zn-Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions span a wide range in river waters of the Loire River main stream and the main tributaries. There is a clear contrast between the headwaters upstream and rivers located downstream in the lowlands. In addition, one of the major tributaries within the Massif Central (the Allier River) is clearly influenced by inputs resulting from mineralizations and thermomineral waters. The results showed that, on their own, each of these isotope systematics reveals important information about the geogenic or anthropogenic origin Li-Zn-Pb. Considered together, they are however providing a more integrated understanding of the overall budgets of these elements at the scale of the Loire River Basin.

  13. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  14. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Copula-Based Flood Frequency Analysis at Ungauged Basin Confluences: Nashville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Many cities are located at or near the confluence of streams where availability of water resources may be enhanced to sustain user needs while also posing an increased flooding risk from multiple tributaries. An accurate flood frequency estimator that models the joint flood potential at a basin confluence is needed. Given that long-term flow observations are often unavailable, estimating flood frequency at ungaged basin confluences proves challenging. Through the use of copulas, this case study demonstrates how an improved flood frequency analysis can be performed for stream confluences at Nashville, TN. The approach involves four major steps including initial data quality control, fitting of marginal distributions of tributary peak flows, construction of a suitable dependence structure, and identification of flood frequency at the confluence point based on synthesized peak flows. This case study may help researchers and practitioners develop a better understanding of joint flood frequency with consideration of upstream dam regulation among several contributing watersheds.

  16. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fenn, M E; Perea-Estrada, V M; de Bauer, L I; Pérez-Suárez, M; Parker, D R; Cetina-Alcalá, V M

    2006-03-01

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and Co, were higher at the high pollution sites. However, positive plant growth responses to P and sometimes to N, and results of wheat root elongation bioassays, suggest that heavy metal concentrations were not directly phytotoxic. Further studies are needed to determine if heavy metal toxicity to mycorrhizal symbionts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) from high pollution sites may explain the P deficiency and stunted growth. P deficiency is expected to limit the capacity for biotic N retention in N saturated forested watersheds in the Basin of Mexico dominated by Andisols.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Middle Rio Grande Basin Study; proceedings of the first annual workshop, Denver, Colorado, November 12-14, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 40 percent (about 600,000 people) of the total population of New Mexico lives within the Middle Rio Grande Basin, which includes the City of Albuquerque. Ongoing analyses of the central portion of the Middle Rio Grande Basin by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque and other cooperators have shown that ground water in the basin is not as readily accessible as earlier studies indicated. A more complete characterization of the ground-water resources of the entire Middle Rio Grande Basin is hampered by a scarcity of data in the northern and southern areas of the basin. The USGS Middle Rio Grande Basin Study is a 5-year effort by the USGS and other agencies to improve the understanding of the hydrology, geology, and land-surface characteristics of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. The primary objective of this study is to improve the understanding of the water resources of the basin. Of particular interest is to determine the extent of hydrologic connection between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer. Additionally, ground-water quality affects the availability of water supplies in the basin. Improving the existing USGS- constructed ground-water flow model of the Middle Rio Grande Basin will integrate all the various tasks that improve our knowledge of the various components of the Middle Rio Grande water budget. Part of this improvement will be accompanied by extended knowledge of the aquifer system beyond the Albuquerque area into the northern and southern reaches of the basin. Other improvements will be based on understanding gained through process-oriented research and improved geologic characterization of the deposits. The USGS will study the hydrology, geology, and land-surface characteristics of the basin to provide the scientific information needed for water- resources management and for managers to plan for water supplies needed for a growing population. To facilitate exchange of information among the

  18. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  19. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  20. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  1. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  2. Project WISH: The Emerald City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project WISH (Wandering Interplanetary Space Harbor) is a three-year design effort currently being conducted at The Ohio State University. Its goal is the design of a space oasis to be used in the exploration of the solar system during the midtwenty-first century. This spacecraft, named Emerald City, is to conduct and provide support for missions to other planetary bodies with the purpose of exploration, scientific study, and colonization. It is to sustain a crew of between 500 and 1000 people at a time, and be capable of traveling from a nominal orbit to the planets in reasonably short flight times. Such a ship obviously presents many technical and design challenges, some of which were examined through the course of Project WISH. This year, Phase 2 (1990-1991) of Project WISH was carried out. The basic design of the Emerald City resulting from Phase 1 (1989-1990) was taken and improved upon through more detailed analysis and revision. At the core of this year's study were orbital mechanics, propulsion, attitude control, and human factors. Throughout the year, these areas were examined and information was compiled on their technologies, performances, and relationships. Then, using the data obtained through these studies, two specific missions were designed: an envelope mission from a nominal orbit of 4 AU to Saturn and a single point design for a specific mission from the Earth to Mars. The latter was designed in view of the special interest that Mars is attracting for near-future space exploration. The mission to Saturn has all the first six planets within its flight envelope in less than or equal to a 3-year flight time at any time upon demand, and it has Uranus in its flight envelope most of the time upon demand. These mission studies provided data on the approximate size, weight, number of engines, and other important design values that would be required for the Emerald City.

  3. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and supplies ground water for irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes in Beckham, Custer, Roger Mills, and Washita Counties along the divide between the Washita and Red River basins. The Elk City aquifer consists of the Elk City Sandstone and overlying terrace deposits, made up of clay, silt, sand and gravel, and dune sands in the eastern part and sand and gravel of the Ogallala Formation (or High Plains aquifer) in the western part of the aquifer. The Elk City aquifer is unconfined and composed of very friable sandstone, lightly cemented with clay, calcite, gypsum, or iron oxide. Most of the grains are fine-sized quartz but the grain size ranges from clay to cobble in the aquifer. The Doxey Shale underlies the Elk City aquifer and acts as a confining unit, restricting the downward movement of ground water. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Elk City aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:63,360. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  4. Climate Change in the Tahoe Basin: Trends, Impacts and Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the decadal-scale time trends in air temperature, precipitation form and intensity, spring snowmelt timing, and lake temperature in the Tahoe basin, and to relate the trends to regional climatic trends in the western U.S. Temperature data for six long-term weather stations in the Tahoe region were analyzed for trends in annual and monthly means of maximum and minimum daily temperature. Precipitation data (1910-2007) at Tahoe City were analyzed for trends in form (rain versus snow), decadal standard deviation, and intensity of rainfall. Daily streamflow data for nine gaging stations in and around the Tahoe basin were examined for trends in snowmelt timing, by two methods, and an existing record for the temperature of Lake Tahoe was updated. The results for the Tahoe basin, which contrast somewhat with the surrounding region, indicate strong upward trends in air temperature, a shift from rain to snow, a shift in snowmelt timing to earlier dates of about 0.4 days per year since 1961, increased rainfall intensity, increased interannual variability, and continued increase in the temperature of Lake Tahoe. This contrast, together with energy budget considerations, suggests the 'lake climate change enhancement hypothesis': that the lake itself may be enhancing the climate-warming effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Continued warming in the Tahoe basin has important implications for efforts to manage biodiversity and maintain clarity of the lake. Documented effects on the lake include 1) increased thermal stability and resistance to mixing; 2) changes in depth and duration of the thermocline; 3) invasion by non-native warm- water fish; and 4) changes in phytoplankton populations. Changes hypothesized but not yet measured or modeled include 1) a change in the 'insertion depth' of streams flowing into the lake; 2) increased inflow of nutrients and fine (< 10 microns) sediment, which impairs water clarity; 3

  5. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  6. A GIS-based urban landscape change analysis of Lanzhou City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Caihong; Yang, Yongchun; Liu, Yanjun; Hu, Haojie

    2011-10-01

    Well located at the geometric center of China, Lanzhou is one of the typical valley-basin cities in the western China. In this study, we aim to resolve two questions: (1) from the spatial analysis, we want to know what changes have happened on urban landscape characteristics from 1976 to 2004? (2) What is the main driving force behind the changes? This research is based on American quick bird remote sensing image of 2004 with a high resolution of 0.61m and the topographical map of Lanzhou city. In addition, the detailed land use data and some cadastral data in 1976 are collected as well as the current land use data. Based on the calculated result, we analyse the change characteristics of the classlevel metrics and landscape-level metrics of the Lanzhou city. Our results show that the change trend in landscape associated with urbanization of Lanzhou city can be effectively captured by spatial analysis using the remote sensing image and GIS data processing technique, and by calculating several landscape pattern metrics, such as patch density, edge density, Shannon diversity index, contagion, etc.

  7. Topography Restoration of Historic City Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ho, L. Sung; soo, H. Dong

    2015-08-01

    The preservation of historic cities requires a balance between conservation and development because the urban structures of the old and new city are interwoven on same space. Existing restoration plans rely on old records and excavation reports and are based on the present topography. However, historic cities have undergone significant natural and anthropogenic topographic changes such as alluvial sediment accumulation and uneven terrain construction. Therefore, considering only the present topography is misleading. Thus, to understand a historic city's structure more appropriately, it is necessary to comprehend the ancient geographic environment. This study provides an analysis and GIS visualization of the ancient topography of a historic city, Sabi capital city of the Baekje Dynasty, which collapsed 1,500 years ago.

  8. The Effects of Landuse Changes on Osse-Ossiomo River Basin Hydrology: a Nigerian example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhile, C. I.

    2006-05-01

    The Osse-Ossiomo River Basin of Edo State, Nigeria was investigated in terms of landuse changes from 1970 to 2000 using Geographic Information System (GIS). The landuse classes investigated included built-up areas, other settlements, vegetation, agriculture, transportation network and water bodies. The topography map of 1965, Landsat ETM images of 1987 and 2000 were used to investigate these changes. The AutoCAD 2000 and Arcview GIS 3.2 softwares were also used. Results obtained show that landuse in Osse-Ossiomo River Basin has changed between 1970 and 2000. The built-up area is principally Benin City. As at 1965, the areal extent was about 25 km2 or 2,500 hectares, which increased to 645 km2 or 64,500 hectares in 1987 and 804 km2 or 80,400 hectares by 2000. The other settlements, which included very many villages of different sizes (ranging from 5km to 10km) have merged with Benin City metropolis. The number of roads has increased and the original tropical rainforest vegetation has changed to a more open guinea savanna vegetation type. The very many rubber plantations that existed in the 1960's have been drastically converted to built-up areas and farm lands. These changes are occasioned by rapid population growth and have impacted seriously on the basin hydrology leading to turbid water and increased flood magnitudes. Appropriate landuse laws are recommended to check the eventual destruction of the natural ecosystem and the dynamic modification of the basin hydrology.

  9. Map showing general chemical quality of surface water in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don

    1979-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area, Utah Published sources of water-quality data used in the preparation of this map included Iorns, Hembree, Phoenix, and Oakland (1964), Goode (1966, 1969), U.S. Bureau of Land Management (1976), and U.S. Geological Survey (1961-75). Sources of unpublished data include the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Southeastern Utah Association of Governments. Some of the unpublished data was provided by Vaughn Hansen Associates of Salt Lake City, Utah, whose assistance is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application...

  11. Design Analysis, Basin F Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado, FY81.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    proposed will probably destroy or reduce the integrity of the existing asphalt liner. If this integrity needs to be maintained then alternate construction...SUBJECT D.ATE. & ? 7 e DOT h ,/ VEATCH SET UP BY-_ -_ CONSULTinGl WORK 4 si -L .la- COMPUTED By---r - ENGINEERS CHECKED BY DALLA*SPG DENVER PROJECT No. F...1robnzee u.4STrchlorophenoxypropionic acid (2.4.-5 lodomethanei Pentachloroethane TPI (Silvex) Isocyanic acid, methyl aster Peafchlortmiftobenzene W=CN) ’T

  12. Crescent City, California Inner Harbor Basin and Entrance Channel. Draft. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    days. Marine Mamals . The early history of the Pacific coast of North America was greatly influenced by its marine mamal populations. Exploration of...endangered or threatened species, (6) co rcial and sport fisheries, (7) marine mamals , and (8) intertidal flats, energ, local government finance and...this element economically unjustified and environmentally unacceptable. The outer harbor is subject to severe southeast winds known as kickback or back

  13. Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Neogene San Joaquin basin in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc basin. The transition from forearc basin to the more restricted Neogene marine basin occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the basin include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the Basin and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the west side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene basin history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-west compression in the basin, resulting from extension in the Basin and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the west side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the basin, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the basin paleogeography through the Cenozoic.

  14. Urban Pulse: Capturing the Rhythm of Cities.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Fabio; Doraiswamy, Harish; Lage, Marcos; Zhao, Kai; Goncalves, Bruno; Wilson, Luc; Hsieh, Mondrian; Silva, Claudio T

    2017-01-01

    Cities are inherently dynamic. Interesting patterns of behavior typically manifest at several key areas of a city over multiple temporal resolutions. Studying these patterns can greatly help a variety of experts ranging from city planners and architects to human behavioral experts. Recent technological innovations have enabled the collection of enormous amounts of data that can help in these studies. However, techniques using these data sets typically focus on understanding the data in the context of the city, thus failing to capture the dynamic aspects of the city. The goal of this work is to instead understand the city in the context of multiple urban data sets. To do so, we define the concept of an "urban pulse" which captures the spatio-temporal activity in a city across multiple temporal resolutions. The prominent pulses in a city are obtained using the topology of the data sets, and are characterized as a set of beats. The beats are then used to analyze and compare different pulses. We also design a visual exploration framework that allows users to explore the pulses within and across multiple cities under different conditions. Finally, we present three case studies carried out by experts from two different domains that demonstrate the utility of our framework.

  15. The carbon emissions of Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.; Bi, J.

    2012-07-01

    As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories for twelve Chinese cities, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, were developed using a bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average contributions of sectors to per capita emissions for all Chinese cities were 65.1% for industrial energy consumption, 10.1% for industrial processes, 10.4% for transportation, 7.7% for household energy consumption, 4.2% for commercial energy consumption and 2.5% for waste processing. However, these shares are characterized by considerable variability due to city-specific factors. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of ten cities in other parts of the world. This is mainly due to the major contribution of the industry sector in Chinese cities.

  16. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  17. Rethinking GIS Towards The Vision Of Smart Cities Through CityGML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, C.

    2016-10-01

    Smart cities present a substantial growth opportunity in the coming years. The role of GIS in the smart city ecosystem is to integrate different data acquired by sensors in real time and provide better decisions, more efficiency and improved collaboration. Semantically enriched vision of GIS will help evolve smart cities into tomorrow's much smarter cities since geospatial/location data and applications may be recognized as a key ingredient of smart city vision. However, it is need for the Geospatial Information communities to debate on "Is 3D Web and mobile GIS technology ready for smart cities?" This research places an emphasis on the challenges of virtual 3D city models on the road to smarter cities.

  18. City-Level Energy Decision Making. Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Aznar, Alexandra; Day, Megan; Doris, Elizabeth; Mathur, Shivani; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    2015-07-08

    The Cities-LEAP technical report, City-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities, explores how a sample of cities incorporates data into making energy-related decisions. This report provides the foundation for forthcoming components of the Cities-LEAP project that will help cities improve energy decision making by mapping specific city energy or climate policies and actions to measurable impacts and results.

  19. Basin structure beneath the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California: Implications for damage caused by the 1969 Santa Rosa and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Hartzell, S.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Aagaard, B.T.; Jachens, R.C.; McCabe, C.

    2007-01-01

    Regional gravity data in the northern San Francisco Bay region reflect a complex basin configuration beneath the Santa Rosa plain that likely contributed to the significant damage to the city of Santa Rosa caused by the 1969 M 5.6, 5.7 Santa Rosa earthquakes and the 1906 M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Inversion of these data indicates that the Santa Rosa plain is underlain by two sedimentary basins about 2 km deep separated by the Trenton Ridge, a shallow west-northwest-striking bedrock ridge west of Santa Rosa. The city of Santa Rosa is situated above the 2- km-wide protruding northeast corner of the southern basin where damage from both the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes was concentrated. Ground-motion simulations of the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes, two events with opposing azimuths, using the gravity- defined basin surface, show enhanced ground motions along the northeastern edge of this corner, suggesting that basin-edge effects contributed to the concentration of shaking damage in this area in the past and may also contribute to strong shaking during future earthquakes.

  20. Stormwater Drains and Catch Basins as Sources for Production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1,761 stormwater drains – located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city – over dry and wet seasons from March 2012–March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. PMID:24582840

  1. Burial History, Thermal Maturity, and Oil and Gas Generation History of Source Rocks in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for seven key source-rock units at eight well locations throughout the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Also modeled was the timing of cracking to gas of Phosphoria Formation-sourced oil in the Permian Park City Formation reservoirs at two well locations. Within the basin boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon; it is thought that the Phosphoria oil produced from Park City and other reservoirs migrated from the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. Other petroleum source rocks include the Cretaceous Thermopolis Shale, Mowry Shale, Frontier Formation, Cody Shale, Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the Bighorn Basin (Emblem Bench, Red Point/Husky, and Sellers Draw), three at intermediate depths (Amoco BN 1, Santa Fe Tatman, and McCulloch Peak), and two at relatively shallow locations (Dobie Creek and Doctor Ditch). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep central part of the basin and decreases to the south, east, and north toward the basin margins. The Thermopolis and Mowry Shales are predominantly gas-prone source rocks, containing a mix of Type-III and Type-II kerogens. The Frontier, Cody, Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Fort Union Formations are gas-prone source rocks containing Type-III kerogen. Modeling results indicate that in the deepest areas, (1) the onset of petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from early Paleocene through early Eocene time, (2) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred during Eocene time, and (3) onset of gas generation from the Fort Union Formation occurred during early Eocene time and peak generation occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Only in the deepest part of the basin did the oil generated from the Thermopolis and

  2. 77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... August 3 through 5, 2012, The Nautical City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's 100th Anniversary....

  3. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD....

  4. Gods of the City? Reflecting on City Building Games as an Early Introduction to Urban Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereitschaft, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    For millions of gamers and students alike, city building games (CBGs) like SimCity and the more recent Cities: Skylines present a compelling initial introduction to the world of urban planning and development. As such, these games have great potential to shape players' understanding and expectations of real urban patterns and processes. In this…

  5. 75 FR 22333 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City,...

  6. TODAY:EPA Administrator to Attend National League of Cities Congressional City Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy will speak on a panel at the National League of Cities' annual Congressional City Conference on Monday moderated by NLC President and Salt Lake City Mayor Ralph Becker addre

  7. 77 FR 39413 - Safety Zone: Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Crescent City Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Crescent City, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters near Crescent City Harbor...

  8. 75 FR 34932 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City, Indiana. This zone...

  9. MONDAY: EPA Administrator to Attend National League of Cities Congressional City Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy will speak on a panel at the National League of Cities' annual Congressional City Conference on Monday moderated by NLC President and Salt Lake City Mayor Ralph Becker addre

  10. 78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... City, Bay City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... regulatory act for the celebration specific to Bay City, MI, the Coast Guard recently published a separate... various events throughout the Great Lakes this summer, to include the Tall Ships Celebration Bay...

  11. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City,...

  12. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, MD to support...

  13. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2000: A 25-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during the year 2000, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 25 major cities whose mayors were members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on emergency food supplies and services, the causes of hunger and…

  14. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings,…

  15. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5-mortality associations in US cities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclass...

  16. Elizabeth City State University: Elizabeth City, North Carolina (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1985-09-25

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from July 1985 through December 1996. Funded by DOE, the six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of direct normal, global, and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at NREL to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Historical HBCU data available online include quality assessed 5-min data, monthly reports, and plots. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network and data from the two remaining active stations, Bluefield State College and Elizabeth City State University, are collected by the NREL Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center (MIDC).

  17. Oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Roohi, M.; Aburawi, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    Sirte Basin is an asymmetrical cratonic basin, situated in the north-central part of Libya. It covers an area of over 350,000km{sup 2} and is one of the most prolific oil-producing basins in the world. Sirte Basin is divided into large NW-SE trending sub-parallel platforms and troughs bounded by deep seated syndepositional normal faults. A very unique combination of thick sediments with rich source rocks in the troughs vs. thinner sediments with prolific reservoir rocks on the platforms accounts for the productivity of the basin. Analysis of oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin will certainly help to discover the remaining reserves, and this can only be achieved if the important parameter of structural configuration of the basin at the time of oil migration is known. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the time of oil migration, to define the structural picture of the 4 Basin during the time of migration and to delineate the most probable connecting routes between the hydrocarbon kitchens and the oil fields.

  18. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  19. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  20. Frontier sedimentary basins of New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum-prospective basins of New Zealand began to form by mid-Cretaceous rifting of crustal elements previously assembled at the Gondwana continental margin. During the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic New Zealand separated from Australia and Antarctica by sea-floor spreading. An overall transgression in widely recorded in this post-rift phase, with decreasing clastic sediment supply as land area and relief were reduced. Mid-Cenozoic initiation of the modern plate boundary has resulted in uplift of mountain ranges, subsidence and filling of troughs, progradation of the shelf, and common reactivation or eversion of older structures. Petroleum potential of less explored basins can be compared to the productive Taranki basin. Source rocks are coal-rich deposits of the rift phase, also developed in Great South, Canterbury/Chatham, Western Southland, West Coast, and Northland basins. A different source contributes to oil and gas seeps on the East Coast, a continental margin during Late Cretaceous. The main reservoirs of Taranaki are early Cenozoic coastal and fluvial sands, also present in Great South, Canterbury, and West Coast and possibly other basins. Other Taranaki reservoirs include mid-Cenozoic limestone and Miocene turbidites, which are widespread in most other basins. Pliocene limestones have excellent reservoir potential on the East Coast. Late Cenozoic tectonics, essential to trap development and significant for maturation in Taranaki, have created similar structures in basins near the plate boundary but are less significant in the development of Great South, eastern Canterbury/Chatham, and Northland basins.

  1. African sedimentary basins - Tectonic controls on prospectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bunter, M.A.G.; Crossley, R.; Hammill, M.; Jones, P.W.; Morgan, R.K.; Needham, D.T.; Spaargaren, F.A. )

    1991-03-01

    An important prerequisite for the evaluation of any sedimentary basin is the understanding of its regional tectonic setting. This is especially so in the underexplored regions of Africa. The majority of African sedimentary basins developed in an extensional setting although some have undergone subsequent compressional or transpressional deformation. The geometry and evolution of these basins is often influenced by basement structure. The extensional phase of basin development controls not only the distribution of syn-rift sediments but also the magnitude of post-rift regional subsidence and the preservation or removal of pre-rift sediments. This has important consequences for exploration models of syn-rift and pre-rift source rocks and reservoirs. Post-rift basin inversion and uplift provide crucial controls on the preservation of mature source rocks and quality of reservoirs. The distribution, nature, timing, and possible mechanisms of this uplift in Africa will be addressed. The hydrocarbon prospectivity of African basis appears to be highly variable although the limited exploration of some regions makes the exact extent of this variability unclear. Basins considered potentially prospective range from late Precambrian to Tertiary in age. The various tectonic controls outlined above, and criteria for the evaluation of underexplored areas, will be demonstrated by reference to basins studied by The Robertson Group. Examples described include basins from Bagon, Angola, Namibia, East Africa, Tertiary Rift and Karoo Rifts, and North Africa (Sudan, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco).

  2. Aerosols upwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign: regional scale biomass burning, dust and volcanic ash from aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the MILAGRO Campaign March/April 2006 a series of aircraft flights with the FZK microlight D-MIFU were performed in the area southeast of Mexico City starting from Puebla airport, circling the national park area of Ixtachiuatl and Popocatepetl and scanning the Chalco valley down to Cuautla in the Cuernavaca province. All flights were combined with vertical profiles up to 4500 m a.s.l. in several locations, typically north of volcano Ixtachiuatl on the Puebla side, above Chalco or Tenago del Aire and south of volcano Popocatepetl, either at Cuautla or Atlixco. In Tenango del Aire a ceilometer was additionally operated continuously for characterization of the planetary boundary layer. The aircraft carried a set of aerosol instrumentation, fine and coarse particles and size distributions as well as a 7 wavelength aethalometer. Additionally meteorological parameters, temperature and dewpoint, global radiation and actinic radiation balance, respectively photolysis rates, and ozone concentrations were measured. The instrumentation allowed to characterize the aerosol according to their sources and also their impact on radiation transfer. Biomass burning aerosol, windblown dust and volcanic ash were identified within the upwind area of Mexico City with large differences between the dry season in the first weeks of the campaign and the by far cleaner situation after beginning thunderstorm activity towards the end of the campaign. Also the aerosol characteristics inside and outside the Mexico City basin were often completely different. With wind speeds of ~ 5 m/sec from southerly directions in the Chalco valley the aerosol mixture can reach the City within ~ 2 h. Rural aerosol mixtures from the Cuernavaca plain were mixed during the transport with dust from the MC basin. Very high intensity biomass burning plumes normally reached higher altitudes and produced pyrocumulus clouds. These aerosols were injected mainly into the free troposphere. Within the MC basin a large

  3. The Challenge of Urbanization. The World's Large Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This publication concentrates on city problems and special city planning issues in the world's large cities, pinpointing their demographic characteristics, economic structure, available social services, and infrastructures, as well as current issues facing city planners. Profiles of 100 large cities across the world, from Abidjan to Yangon, make…

  4. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  5. Uncertainties in city greenhouse gas inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattenbach, Martin; Redweik, Richard; Luedtke, Stefan; Deng-Beck, Chang; Ross, Lutz; Nagel, Claus

    2015-04-01

    In 1993 mayors from 50 cities in 20 countries gathered at the UN in New York under the umbrella of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) to issue a declaration aimed at cutting carbon dioxide emissions from cities. By today 465 cities report their GHG emissions in ICLEIs carbonn Cities Climate Registry (cCR) . Many cities worldwide are on the route to implement the combined new standard for city-based GHG accounting and reporting, named the Global Protocol for Community-Scale GHG Emissions (GPC). These extensive data sources offer the unique chance to better understand, manage and reduce city GHG emissions. However, many cities are already reporting or have reported their GHG emission in non GPC conform tools. This heterogeneous data source raises the question on how these data could be potentially transferred to a GPC conform level. For the transfer process it is very important to understand and quantify the potential losses of information and increase or decrease in uncertainty due to class conversions and associated recalculations of GHG data. Here we compare existing GHG reports from different sources based on the use of different tools. We look at data from the carbonn Registry by ICLEI, the CDP, C40 and the Ecoregion tool. Using examples of existing data form cities in Europe we demonstrate potential information losses and inconsistencies leading to increased uncertainty. We also illustrate the potential mapping schemes for the data structures and identify uncertainties from using alternative mappings. In conclusion it is essential to develop consistent data structures in order to allow the use of city GHG data for time series analysis and city intercomparison.

  6. The Impact of Meteorology on Ozone Levels in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiss, Sandra

    The Lake Tahoe Basin is located on the California-Nevada border and occasionally experiences elevated levels of ozone exceeding the 70 ppb California Air Resources Board (CARB) ambient air quality standard (8-hour average). Previous studies indicate that both the local generation of ozone in the Basin and long-range transport from out-of-Basin sources are important in contributing to ozone exceedances, but little is known about the impact of meteorology on the distribution of ozone source regions. In order to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting ozone levels and sources in the Lake Tahoe Basin, this study combines observational data from a 2010 and 2012 summer field campaigns, HYSPLIT back trajectories, and WRF model output to examine the meteorological influences of ozone transport in the topographically complex Lake Tahoe Basin. Findings from the field work portions of this study include enhanced background ozone levels at higher elevations, the local circulation pattern of lake breezes occurring at Lake level sites, and an indication that ozone precursors are coming off the Lake. Our analysis also showed that if transport of ozone does occur, it is more likely to come from the San Joaquin Valley to the south rather than originate in the large cities to the west, such as Sacramento and San Francisco. Analysis of modeled PBL schemes as compared with observational data showed that the ACM2 PBL scheme best represented the geographical domain. The ACM2 PBL scheme was then used to show wind circulation patterns in the Lake Tahoe Basin and concluded that there is decent vertical mixing over the Basin and no indication of ozone transport from the west however some indication of transport from the east. Overall this study concludes that transport from the west is less significant than transport from the south and east, and that transport only influences ozone values at higher elevations. Within the Basin itself (at lower elevations), local factors

  7. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition (major ions and pollutants such as metals) of the dissolved load of rivers. Furthermore, this influence can also be evidenced in the suspended solid matter known to play an important role in the transport of heavy metals through river systems. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. Initially, the Loire upstream flows in a south to north direction originating in the Massif Central, and continues up to the city of Orléans, 650 km from the source. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The Loire River then follows a general east to west direction to the Atlantic Ocean. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for heavy metals Zn-Cd-Pb-Hg in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for these metals for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of

  8. Long-period Ground Motion Simulation in the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Sato, K.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude long-period ground motions (1-10s) with long duration were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) and its aftershock (Ibaraki-Oki, Mw7.7), which is about 600 km away from the source regions. Sato et al. (2013) analyzed strong ground motion records from the source region to the Osaka basin and showed the following characteristics. (1) In the period range of 1 to 10s, the amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified in the Osaka basin sites. The predominant period is about 7s in the bay area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier amplitude spectra with their predominant period of around 7s are observed at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. Those characteristics were observed during both of the mainshock and the largest aftershock. Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. They simulated ground motions due to the largest aftershock as a simple point source model using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). They used a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012), with the minimum effective period of the computation of 3s. Their simulation result reproduced the observation characteristics well and it validates the applicability of the JIVSM for the long period ground motion simulation. In this study, we try to simulate long-period ground motions during the mainshock. The source model we used for the simulation is based on the SMGA model obtained by Asano and Iwata (2012). We succeed to simulate long-period ground motion propagation from Kanto area to the Osaka basin fairly well. The long-period ground motion simulations with the several Osaka basin velocity structure models are done for improving the model applicability. We used strong motion

  9. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  10. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  11. Hydrological research basins and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, V. M.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.

    The role and relative importance of experimental and representative basins in pre-dieting anthropogenic effects on water resources and the environment was the goal of the International Conference on Hydrological Research Basins and the Environment, held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, September 24-28, 1990. About 70 persons, almost exclusively from Europe, attended the meeting, which was organized by the Committee of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins and the National Committee of the Netherlands for the International Hydrological Program of Unesco.During the conference, the 3rd General Meeting of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins was held. This network of basins, covering nine countries in Europe, organizes periodic meetings and tries to enhance the compatibility of observations and methods of analysis, and to implement research projects of common interest.

  12. Reorientation of icy satellites by impact basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Matsuyama, I.

    2007-10-01

    Large impact basins are present on many of the icy satellites of the outer solar system. Assuming that their present-day topography is uncompensated, such basins can cause significant poleward reorientations for slow-rotating satellites. This reorientation may have been accompanied by transient large-amplitude wobble. The largest basins on Tethys, Rhea and Titania are predicted to have caused reorientations of roughly 4°, 7° and 12°, respectively, resulting in global tectonic stresses up to ~0.5 MPa. The potential anomalies associated with the basins can be up to one-third of those expected for a hydrostatic, tidally- and rotationally-deformed body, and may complicate interpretation of the satellite interior structure. Pluto and Charon, because of their slow rotation, are also likely to have undergone reorientation of 10-20° if they possess impact basins of comparable sizes to those of the Saturnian satellites.

  13. Petroleum geochemistry of the Zala Basin, Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.; Koncz, I.

    1994-01-01

    The Zala basin is a subbasin within the Pannonian basin. Geochemical study of oils and rocks in the basin indicate that two, and possibly three, genetic oil types are present in the basin. Miocene source rocks, previously believed to be the predominant source rock, have expelled minor amounts of hydrocarbons. The main source rock is the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian) Kossen Marl Formation or its stratigraphic equivalent. Knowledge of the geochemical characteristics of oils derived from these Upper Triassic source rocks and understanding of the source rock distribution and maturation history are important for recognizing Triassic oil-source bed relationships and for further exploration in other basins in Hungary and other parts of Europe where Triassic source rocks are present. -from Authors

  14. Thermal state of the Arkoma Basin and the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngmin

    1999-12-01

    One of the most fundamental physical processes that affects virtually all geologic phenomena in sedimentary basins is the flow of heat from the Earth's interiors. The Arkoma Basin and the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma, are a prolific producer of both oil and natural gas. Both basins also have important geologic phenomena. Understanding the thermal state of the these basins is crucial to understanding the timing and extent of hydrocarbon generation, the genesis of Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits, and the origin of overpressures in the Anadarko Basin. In chapter one, heat flow and heat production in the Arkoma basin and Oklahoma Platform are discussed. Results of this study are not generally supportive of theories which invoke topographically driven regional groundwater flow from the Arkoma Basin in Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian time (˜290 Ma) to explain the genesis of geologic phenomena. In chapter 2, different types of thermal conductivity temperature corrections that are commonly applied in terrestrial heat flow studies are evaluated. The invariance of the relative rankings with respect to rock porosity suggests the rankings may be valid with respect to in situ conditions. Chapter three addresses heat flow and thermal history of the Anadarko Basin and the western Oklahoma Platform. We found no evidence for heat flow to increase significantly from the Anadarko Basin in the south to the Oklahoma Platform to the north. In chapter four, overpressures in the Anadarko Basin, southwestern Oklahoma are discussed. Using scale analyses and a simple numerical model, we evaluated two endmember hypotheses (compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation) as possible causes of overpressuring. Geopressure models which invoke compaction disequilibrium do not appear to apply to the Anadarko Basin. The Anadarko Basin belongs to a group of cratonic basins which are tectonically quiescent and are characterized by the association of abnormal pressures with natural gas

  15. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  16. Environmental setting and water-quality issues of the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Kidd, Robert E.; Journey, Celeste; Zappia, Humbert; Atkins, J. Brian

    2002-01-01

    wheat), and pasture land accounts for about 26 percent of the study unit. Agricultural land use is concentrated along the Black Prairie Belt district of the Coastal Plain. Urban areas account for only 3 percent of the total land use; however, the areal extent of the metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) may indicate more urban influences. The MSAs include urban areas outside of the city boundaries and can include adjacent counties. Seven MSAs are delineated in the Mobile River Basin, including Montgomery, Mobile, Tuscaloosa, Birmingham, Gadsden, Anniston, and Atlanta. The total population for the Mobile River Basin was about 3,673,100 in 1990. State water-quality agencies have identified numerous causes and sources of water-body impairment in the Mobile River Basin. In 1996, organic enrichment, dissolved oxygen depletion, elevated nutrient concentrations, and siltation were the most frequently cited causes of impairment, affecting the greatest number of river miles. Bacteria, acidic pH, and elevated metal concentrations also were identified as causes of impairment. The sources for impairment varied among river basins, were largely a function of land use, and were attributed primarily to municipal and industrial sources, mining, and agricultural activities.

  17. Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in an inverted sedimentary basin: Vera basin, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin

    2008-08-01

    The Vera basin is one of a series of interconnected Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins located within the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (southeast Spain). Since the Pliocene the Vera basin has been subjected to low uplift rates (11-21 m Ma - 1 ) and inverted via compressive tectonics that are related to the ongoing oblique collision between the African and Iberian plates. Within this paper the sedimentary and geomorphic response to basin inversion is explored. Sedimentary processes and environments are established for key stratigraphic units of the Pliocene/Plio-Pleistocene basin fill and Pleistocene dissectional landscape. These data are subsequently utilised to reconstruct an evolving basin palaeogeography. Fault and uplift data are employed to discuss the role of tectonically driven basin inversion for controlling the resultant palaeogeographic changes and associated patterns of drainage development. During the Early-Mid Pliocene the Vera basin was characterised by shallow marine shelf conditions (Cuevas Formation). A major palaeogeographic reorganisation occurred during the Mid-Late Pliocene. Strike-slip movement along the eastern basin margin, coupled with uplift and basin emergence created a protected, partially enclosed marine embayment that was conducive for Gilbert-type fan-delta sedimentation from fluvial inputs along the northern and eastern basin margins (Espíritu Santo Formation). The Vera basin then became fully continental and internally drained through the development of a consequent drainage network that formed following the withdrawal of marine conditions during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Alluvial fans developed along the northern and western basin margins, grading to a bajada and terminating in a playa lake in central basin areas (Salmerón Formation). During the Early-Mid Pleistocene a switch from basin infilling to dissection took place, recorded by alluvial fan incision, a switch to braided river sedimentation and

  18. Geo-environmental Study to Identify the Affecting Factors on Dohuk's Dam and the city (Northren Iraq) by Use Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdon, Alaa

    2010-05-01

    The Dohuk's dam is one of the most important Aggregated dams in Iraq, located about 1 km from Dohuk city in northern Iraq, So; this vital project provides Dohuk city by water while the city formerly dependent on wells water prior to the establishing of the dam, and this is one of the main reasons for land-use expansion in Dohuk city and its vicinity,which is meant that the Dohuk's dam safety factor ,it is the key of the city safety factor .This dam has initiated the establishment of the dam in 1980 and was established in 1988, and it's capacity is 47.5 million cubic meters. This study aims to analyze the morphometric or geometric properties and the environmental factors at drainage systems and drainage network for Dohuk area's drainage basins (which recharges water of Dohuk Dam's Lake and it is accumulated by rainfall and spring water) scientifically and geometrically. Study of the geology of construction area of the dam Structuraly and tectonically. Satellite image, topographic maps and aerial photographs used in this study for merging its results together and preparing a drainage basin's maps and a geologic interpretation map for the study area to recognize the important geologic impact on the river which comes out from dam lake, also some of the field work investigation has been depended in this study. As a final result from morphometric analysis of drainage basins, tectonic analysis and geological investigations for study area, found as the following: 1 - Determining the amount of the accumulated sediments on the dam body, which has been carried by the collected rain-full water from the drainage basins, snow and spring water (the resources of Dam Lake). Study of the impact of these deposits on dam stability and evaluate the risk of these deposits on dam body and on its safety. 2 - Identification of geological features, which are that threaten the safety of the river of city which concern the only resource for the city and stability of dam body and its related

  19. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  20. City Life: Rankings (Livability) versus Perceptions (Satisfaction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between the popular Mercer city ranking (livability) and survey data (satisfactions). Livability aims to capture "objective" quality of life such as infrastructure. Survey items capture "subjective" quality of life such as satisfaction with city. The relationship between objective measures of quality of life and…