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Sample records for bacon

  1. Debunking Bacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Brian

    2014-06-01

    A legend, a man ahead of his time or an overrated insignificance? These three historical portrayals of Roger Bacon should be put to rest, argues Brian Clegg, who travels to Oxford to uncover the medieval philosopher's true identity.

  2. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. PMID:17623872

  3. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior.

  4. Poetic and Francis Bacon's Ambivalence toward Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribble, Paula Tompkins

    Just as rhetoric is a way of knowing, so is poetic, both of which, for Francis Bacon, produce false knowledge. But Bacon is not entirely negative. When the poetic elements of language are used in strategic and public communication, like the scholarly communication Bacon attempts to reform, poetic and rhetoric work together to create a plurality of…

  5. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  6. Francis Bacon On Understanding, Reason and Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Karl R.

    1971-01-01

    Bacon's views of the faculties of understanding and reason are presented and explained in reference to Baconian rhetoric. Understanding, Rhetoric, Insinuative and Imaginative Reason are defined. (Author/MS)

  7. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  8. 9 CFR 319.107 - Bacon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bacon. 319.107 Section 319.107 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  9. Francis Bacon and the classification of natural history.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the place of natural history within Bacon's divisions of the sciences in The Advancement of Learning (1605) and the later De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum (1623). It is shown that at various points in Bacon's divisions, natural history converges or overlaps with natural philosophy, and that, for Bacon, natural history and natural philosophy are not discrete disciplines. Furthermore, it is argued that Bacon's distinction between operative and speculative natural philosophy and the place of natural history within this distinction, are discontinuous with the later distinction between experimental and speculative philosophy that emerged in the methodology of the Fellows of the early Royal Society. PMID:22702164

  10. Francis Bacon and the classification of natural history.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the place of natural history within Bacon's divisions of the sciences in The Advancement of Learning (1605) and the later De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum (1623). It is shown that at various points in Bacon's divisions, natural history converges or overlaps with natural philosophy, and that, for Bacon, natural history and natural philosophy are not discrete disciplines. Furthermore, it is argued that Bacon's distinction between operative and speculative natural philosophy and the place of natural history within this distinction, are discontinuous with the later distinction between experimental and speculative philosophy that emerged in the methodology of the Fellows of the early Royal Society.

  11. "THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

  12. Francis Bacon and the Historiography of Scientific Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappen, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three twentieth-century interpretations of Francis Bacon's science and rhetoric: positivistic science and the plain style; institutionalized science and its more highly figured style; and democratic science. Presents the author's own interpretation, and concludes that each interpretation reflects different perceptions of the good of the…

  13. Barbara Thayer-Bacon on Knowers and the Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Barbara Thayer-Bacon (1999) objects to the minimum proficiency examinations that are mandated for school students in Ohio. Similar tests are required by, or are under consideration by, governments in many other parts of the world. Various writers have objected to one or other of these tests by arguing that they are crude, invalid, unreliable,…

  14. 45 CFR 1309.54 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... funds awarded under the Head Start program are subject to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a et seq.) and the Regulations of the Department of Labor, 29 CFR part 5. The grantee must provide an...

  15. Nitrosamines in bacon: a case study of balancing risks.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, J W

    1984-01-01

    Nitrite has been used for centuries to preserve, color, and flavor meat. Today, about 10 billion pounds of cured meat products are produced annually, accounting for some one-tenth of the American food supply. Regulators became concerned about the safety of using nitrite in the early 1960s when studies showed the presence of carcinogenic nitrosamines in cured meat products. In the early 1970s, a study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology implicated nitrite itself as a carcinogen. As studies have raised concern over the safety of nitrite, regulators have had to weigh the potential risk from cancer against nitrite's proven role in protecting consumers from deadly food poisoning bacteria. Today there is little scientific support for the theory that nitrite is a direct carcinogen. To deal with the nitrosamine problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) lowered the permissible amount of nitrite in cured meats to that level considered necessary for botulism protection. Regulators, however, found it necessary to take additional steps with bacon because nitrosamines were found consistently in fried bacon samples. In addition to lowering the amount of nitrite that could be added to "pumped bacon" (cured by injecting liquid curing agents in the pork belly), USDA required the addition of nitrosamine inhibitors and began an intensive monitoring program in processing plants to ensure that fried bacon did not contain confirmable nitrosamines. The cooperative effort between Government and industry resulted in the virtual elimination of confirmable nitrosamines in pumped bacon by 1980. USDA is continuing its efforts to reduce nitrite in meats wherever possible. It is involved in active research programs in the Federal Government, academia, and industry.

  16. THE BACON not the bacon: How children and adults understand accented and unaccented noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4 and 5 year old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., the bacon) with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less accessible entities. Experiment 1 confirms that accenting is informative for adults, who show a bias toward previously-mentioned objects beginning 300 msec after the onset of unaccented nouns and pronouns. But contrary to findings in the literature, accented words produced no observable bias. In Experiment 2, 4 and 5 year olds were also biased toward previously-mentioned objects with unaccented nouns and pronouns. This builds on findings of limits on children’s on-line reference comprehension (Arnold, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, in press), showing that children’s interpretation of unaccented nouns and pronouns is constrained in contexts with one single highly accessible object. PMID:18358460

  17. The Prehistory of Serendipity, from Bacon to Walpole.

    PubMed

    Silver, Sean

    2015-06-01

    During the past four decades there has developed a burgeoning literature on the concept of serendipity, the name for sudden insights or conceptual breakthroughs that occur by chance or accident. Studies repeatedly note that it was Horace Walpole, the eighteenth-century man of letters, who coined the word. None of them, however, notice that Walpole's term is itself indebted to a much older tradition, invoking a formula developed by Francis Bacon. Recovering the prehistory of the term suggests that "serendipity," rather than being a name for a special mode of discovery invented by Walpole, has all along accompanied empiricism as the name for an essential gap in its epistemology. Serendipity bears directly on the "induction problem," or what has more recently been called the "conceptual leap." Though Walpole gave it its current name, versions of the concept have all along isolated a critical gap in the method of the sciences inaugurated by Bacon. PMID:26353434

  18. The "Visual Shock" of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics.

    PubMed

    Zeki, Semir; Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a "visual shock."We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain's visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs, and cars. We show that viewing stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his "visual shock" because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts. PMID:24339812

  19. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history. PMID:22702165

  20. The "Visual Shock" of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics.

    PubMed

    Zeki, Semir; Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a "visual shock."We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain's visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs, and cars. We show that viewing stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his "visual shock" because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts.

  1. The Prehistory of Serendipity, from Bacon to Walpole.

    PubMed

    Silver, Sean

    2015-06-01

    During the past four decades there has developed a burgeoning literature on the concept of serendipity, the name for sudden insights or conceptual breakthroughs that occur by chance or accident. Studies repeatedly note that it was Horace Walpole, the eighteenth-century man of letters, who coined the word. None of them, however, notice that Walpole's term is itself indebted to a much older tradition, invoking a formula developed by Francis Bacon. Recovering the prehistory of the term suggests that "serendipity," rather than being a name for a special mode of discovery invented by Walpole, has all along accompanied empiricism as the name for an essential gap in its epistemology. Serendipity bears directly on the "induction problem," or what has more recently been called the "conceptual leap." Though Walpole gave it its current name, versions of the concept have all along isolated a critical gap in the method of the sciences inaugurated by Bacon.

  2. Long-term preservation of bacon by high energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Kenneth W.; Simic, Michael G.

    Extra long-term storage of frozen, vacuum packed, cured bacon can be achieved by electronation, using 3 MeV electrons generated by an electron accelerator. A combination process consisting of low nitrite curing (40 ppm), smoking, vacuum packaging in Saran plastic, electronation (1-3 Mrad), and freezing (-10°C) allows storage for at least 2-1/2 years without any noticeable loss in quality, e.g., color, appearance, smell, or taste. This process also eliminates microbiological hazards associated with Salmonella and C. botulinum. Six Mrad tons/hour throughput of a 3 MeV 50 kw electron beam accelerator for standard sliced bacon packaging indicates a practical and economic commercial use for this combination process.

  3. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  4. 20 CFR 672.545 - Are YouthBuild programs subject to the Davis-Bacon Act labor standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulations at 29 CFR parts 1, 3, and 5, including the requirements contained in the Davis-Bacon contract provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5. (b) YouthBuild participants are subject to Davis-Bacon Act labor standards when they perform Davis-Bacon-covered laborer or mechanic work, defined at 29 CFR 5.2, on...

  5. 20 CFR 672.545 - Are YouthBuild programs subject to the Davis-Bacon Act labor standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulations at 29 CFR parts 1, 3, and 5, including the requirements contained in the Davis-Bacon contract provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5. (b) YouthBuild participants are subject to Davis-Bacon Act labor standards when they perform Davis-Bacon-covered laborer or mechanic work, defined at 29 CFR 5.2, on...

  6. 20 CFR 672.545 - Are YouthBuild programs subject to the Davis-Bacon Act labor standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations at 29 CFR parts 1, 3, and 5, including the requirements contained in the Davis-Bacon contract provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5. (b) YouthBuild participants are subject to Davis-Bacon Act labor standards when they perform Davis-Bacon-covered laborer or mechanic work, defined at 29 CFR 5.2, on...

  7. Thinking Constructively with Metaphors. A Review of Barbara J. Thayer-Bacon, Transforming Critical Thinking: Thinking Constructively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yob, Iris M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes Thayer-Bacon's book on metaphors and explores the role of metaphor in constructive thinking. Provides an in depth analysis of Thayer-Bacon's quilting bee metaphor and how it takes the organization, structures, entities, and forces of a literal quilting bee and applies them to the realm of learning. Concludes that Thayer-Bacon's…

  8. The mine and the furnace: Francis Bacon, Thomas Russell, and early Stuart mining culture.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding Francis Bacon's praise for the philosophical role of the mechanical arts, historians have often downplayed Bacon's connections with actual artisans and entrepreneurs. Addressing the specific context of mining culture, this study proposes a rather different picture. The analysis of a famous mining metaphor in The Advancement of Learning shows us how Bacon's project of reform of knowledge could find an apt correspondence in civic and entrepreneurial values of his time. Also, Bacon had interesting and so far unexplored links with the early modern English mining enterprises, like the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, ofwhich he was a shareholder. Moreover, Bacon's notes in a private notebook, Commentarius Solutus, and records of patents of invention, allow us to start grasping Bacon's connections with the metallurgist and entrepreneur Thomas Russell. Lastly, this paper argues that, to fully understand Bacon's links with the world of Stuart technicians and entrepreneurs, it is necessary to consider a different and insufficiently studied aspect of Bacon's interests, namely his work as patents referee while a Commissioner of Suits. PMID:20027760

  9. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    PubMed

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment. PMID:22702166

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 14 - Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 14 Anti-Kickback and Davis-Bacon Acts. (a) All work awarded under the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract is... thereby is not subject to the Davis-Bacon Act). Article 24 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract requires...

  15. Science and Rhetoric From Bacon to Hobbes; Responses to the Problem of Eloquence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappen, James P.

    Decisive changes in the history of rhetoric occurred with the publication of Francis Bacon's "Advancement of Learning" and "De augmentis scientiarum" and "Leviathan" by Thomas Hobbes. Bacon and Hobbes responded to the problem of eloquence common to scientists in the early seventeenth century, which centered on three major philosophical-rhetorical…

  16. The mine and the furnace: Francis Bacon, Thomas Russell, and early Stuart mining culture.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Notwithstanding Francis Bacon's praise for the philosophical role of the mechanical arts, historians have often downplayed Bacon's connections with actual artisans and entrepreneurs. Addressing the specific context of mining culture, this study proposes a rather different picture. The analysis of a famous mining metaphor in The Advancement of Learning shows us how Bacon's project of reform of knowledge could find an apt correspondence in civic and entrepreneurial values of his time. Also, Bacon had interesting and so far unexplored links with the early modern English mining enterprises, like the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, ofwhich he was a shareholder. Moreover, Bacon's notes in a private notebook, Commentarius Solutus, and records of patents of invention, allow us to start grasping Bacon's connections with the metallurgist and entrepreneur Thomas Russell. Lastly, this paper argues that, to fully understand Bacon's links with the world of Stuart technicians and entrepreneurs, it is necessary to consider a different and insufficiently studied aspect of Bacon's interests, namely his work as patents referee while a Commissioner of Suits.

  17. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    PubMed

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.

  18. Francis Bacon's concept of objectivity and the idols of the mind.

    PubMed

    Zagorin, P

    2001-12-01

    This paper examines the concept of objectivity traceable in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. After some historical background on this concept, it considers the question of whether it is not an anachronism to attribute such a concept to Bacon, since the word 'objectivity' is a later coinage and does not appear anywhere in his writings. The essay gives reasons for answering this question in the negative, and then criticizes the accounts given of Bacon's understanding of objectivity by Lorraine Daston and Julie Robin Solomon. It argues that this understanding is most directly and fully expressed in his discussion of the idols of the mind. In this connection, the paper notes Bacon's critical attitude to sixteenth-century scepticism and its relevance to the idea of objectivity implicit in his comments on the idols. In conclusion, the paper argues that Bacon was not a pure empiricist and describes the place assigned to theories and hypotheses in his natural philosophy. PMID:11831291

  19. Adelard of Bath and Roger Bacon: early English natural philosophers and scientists.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Jeremiah M

    2002-06-01

    The image of Roger Bacon as a 'modern' experimental scientist was propagated as historical truth in 19th century scientific historiography. Twentieth century criticisms attacked this tradition, arguing that Bacon was primarily a medieval philosopher with 'medieval' scientific interests. However, recent scholarship has provided a more careful and critical account of Bacon's science, and identifies his greatest achievement in terms of his successful attempt to assimilate the worlds of Greek and Islamic optics. It can be justly claimed that Roger Bacon was the first Western thinker in the middle ages to have mastered most of the Greek sources and the central Islamic source in optics. He made this scientific domain understandable for a Western Latin-reading audience. Yet, Bacon himself acknowledged Adelard of Bath, whose translations and commentary of Euclid's Elements set the foundations for a science of optics, as the true pioneer.

  20. Francis Bacon's concept of objectivity and the idols of the mind.

    PubMed

    Zagorin, P

    2001-12-01

    This paper examines the concept of objectivity traceable in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. After some historical background on this concept, it considers the question of whether it is not an anachronism to attribute such a concept to Bacon, since the word 'objectivity' is a later coinage and does not appear anywhere in his writings. The essay gives reasons for answering this question in the negative, and then criticizes the accounts given of Bacon's understanding of objectivity by Lorraine Daston and Julie Robin Solomon. It argues that this understanding is most directly and fully expressed in his discussion of the idols of the mind. In this connection, the paper notes Bacon's critical attitude to sixteenth-century scepticism and its relevance to the idea of objectivity implicit in his comments on the idols. In conclusion, the paper argues that Bacon was not a pure empiricist and describes the place assigned to theories and hypotheses in his natural philosophy.

  1. The medical philosophy of Francis Bacon (1561-1626).

    PubMed

    Boss, J

    1978-01-01

    Francis Bacon's view of man is dualistic but, although he takes note of mental faculties, he makes the relation between mind and body, rather than the substance of mind, the basis for enquiry into mental processes and, more particularly, for the medically relevant study of mind. (He uses "mind" and "soul" as equivalent terms.) The healing of the body requires study of the body, and the ineffectiveness of physicians is due to their failure in this respect rather than to the body's complexity. To learn about the body requires clinical observation and recording, together with the comparison of bodies, experiments on living animals and attention to pathological changes. The aims of medicine should include not only the restoration of health but also the relief of suffering and they are not to be limited by putting aside a disease as incurable. To learn from treatment it must be fixed in its ordering with controlled and limited variation. Bacon has no separation of medicine from natural science; his philosophy of medicine is his general philosophy of the advancement of knowledge, but limited to a particular field of application. If medicine is separated from natural philosophy it is changed wholly or greatly into empiricism. PMID:353452

  2. The medical philosophy of Francis Bacon (1561-1626).

    PubMed

    Boss, J

    1978-01-01

    Francis Bacon's view of man is dualistic but, although he takes note of mental faculties, he makes the relation between mind and body, rather than the substance of mind, the basis for enquiry into mental processes and, more particularly, for the medically relevant study of mind. (He uses "mind" and "soul" as equivalent terms.) The healing of the body requires study of the body, and the ineffectiveness of physicians is due to their failure in this respect rather than to the body's complexity. To learn about the body requires clinical observation and recording, together with the comparison of bodies, experiments on living animals and attention to pathological changes. The aims of medicine should include not only the restoration of health but also the relief of suffering and they are not to be limited by putting aside a disease as incurable. To learn from treatment it must be fixed in its ordering with controlled and limited variation. Bacon has no separation of medicine from natural science; his philosophy of medicine is his general philosophy of the advancement of knowledge, but limited to a particular field of application. If medicine is separated from natural philosophy it is changed wholly or greatly into empiricism.

  3. Formation of N-nitrosamines in microwaved versus skillet-fried bacon containing nitrite.

    PubMed

    Miller, B J; Billedeau, S M; Miller, D W

    1989-05-01

    Differences in volatile N-nitrosamines (NNAs) found in nitrite-cured bacon cooked in an electric skillet and a microwave oven were determined. Samples of bacon were fried in an electric skillet at 171 and 206 degrees C and in a standard microwave oven (rated at 700 W full power) for 45 and 75 sec/slice. The level of NNAs were determined in the cooked bacon and fried-out fat by using gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis. Both N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were detected in the fried-out bacon fat at levels up to 20.8 and 23.3 ng/g, respectively. The total NNAs (NDMA and NPYR) in the skillet-fried bacon was c. 11 ng/g for both the 171 and 206 degrees C fried samples. No NNAs were detected in the bacon or fried-out fat after cooking in a microwave oven for 45 sec/slice. However, excessive cooking of the bacon in a microwave oven (75 sec/slice) does produce levels of NPYR up to 5 ng/g. The minimum detectable level of NPYR was 2.08 ng/g and that of NDMA was 0.76 ng/g. These results indicated that the method of cooking meats containing nitrite could affect the level of NNAs in the cooked product, thereby affecting the level of human exposure to NNAs. PMID:2744660

  4. The intellect naturalized: Roger Bacon on the existence of corporeal species within the intellect.

    PubMed

    Raizman-Kedar, Yael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I challenge the claim that Bacon considered the operation of species as limited to the physical and sensory levels and demonstrate that in his view, the very same species issued by physical objects operate within the intellect as well. I argue that in Bacon the concept of illumination plays a secondary role in the acquisition of knowledge, and that he regarded innate knowledge as dispositional and confused. What was left as the main channel through which knowledge is gained were species received through the senses. I argue that according to Bacon these species, representing their agents in essence, definition and operation, arrive in the intellect without undergoing a complete abstraction from matter and while still retaining the character of agents acting naturally. In this way Bacon sets the intellect as separate from the natural world not in any essential way, but rather as it were in degree, thus supplying a theoretical justification for the ability to access and know nature.

  5. 48 CFR 22.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.404 Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. The Department of Labor is...

  6. 48 CFR 22.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.404 Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. The Department of Labor is...

  7. Francis Bacon: constructing natural histories of the invisible.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Doina-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature. PMID:22702168

  8. Francis Bacon: constructing natural histories of the invisible.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Doina-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature.

  9. Fault-tolerant quantum computation with asymmetric Bacon-Shor codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter; Preskill, John

    2013-03-01

    We develop a scheme for fault-tolerant quantum computation based on asymmetric Bacon-Shor codes, which works effectively against highly biased noise dominated by dephasing. We find the optimal Bacon-Shor block size as a function of the noise strength and the noise bias, and estimate the logical error rate and overhead cost achieved by this optimal code. Our fault-tolerant gadgets, based on gate teleportation, are well suited for hardware platforms with geometrically local gates in two dimensions.

  10. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new. PMID:22702172

  11. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  12. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  13. The effect of skatole and androstenone on consumer response towards streaky bacon and pork belly roll.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit D; De Lichtenberg Broge, Eva Honnens; Brockhoff, Per B; Christensen, Rune Haubo

    2015-12-01

    Consumer liking was assessed for streaky bacon and pork belly roll from entire male pigs with an androstenone (AND) content of up to 9.4 ppm and a skatole (SKA) content of up to 0.92 ppm in the back fat and castrates. No clear effect of either AND or SKA was seen in consumer liking, although an insignificant tendency was seen for SKA. A sensory profile analysis showed that AND increased the boar taint of bacon, while both AND and SKA increased the boar taint of the pork belly roll. Consumer sensitivity towards AND and SKA did not affect liking of the meat products. The lack of effect of AND and SKA on consumer liking could be due to a masking effect of the spices and smoke. Three consecutive weeks' exposure to bacon did not change the liking score, irrespective of the AND and SKA content. This indicates that the consumers did not become more sensitive towards boar taint.

  14. N-Nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine in fried bacon and fried out fat.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Libbey, L M; Scanlan, R A; Barbour, J

    1978-01-01

    N-Nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine was extracted from fried bacon and fried-out fat with water:methanol (3:2). After elimination of residual nitrite with ammonium sulfamate, the nitrosamine was removed from the water:methanol by continuous extraction with dichloromethane. Identification was accomplished by conversion of N-nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine to the trimethylsilyl derivative followed by separation on a capillary column and characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantification and recovery studies were conducted without derivatization. Concentrated dichloromethane extracts were analyzed using a gas chromatographic-thermal energy analyzer system. Recovery of N-nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine from fried bacon and fried-out fat was 62 and 63%, respectively. Five commercial samples of fried bacon contained 0.4-3.9 ppb, while the fried-out fat contained 0.3-2.2 ppb N-nitroso-3-hydroxypyrrolidine.

  15. A look at Bacon Flat, Grant Canyon oil fields of Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.H. )

    1993-05-17

    The prolific wells at Grant Canyon, and the puzzling geology, have intrigued explorationists and promoters. Many a Nevada prospect has been touted as 'another Grand Canyon.' But what processes formed Grant Canyon, and can others be found Last August, Equitable Resources Energy Co,'s Balcron Oil Division spudded a well at Bacon Flat, a mile west of Grant Canyon. A one well field, Bacon Flat had been abandoned in 1988. But just 900 ft north of the field opener, Balcron's well tested oil at a rate or 5,400 b/d. It turns out that Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon fields have a common geological history and, in fact, share the same faulted horst. However, they formed by an unusual combination of events that may be unique to those fields. This paper describes the geologic history, well logging interpretations, structures, the Jebco C seismic line, a geologic cross section, and the author's conclusions.

  16. [Francis Bacon on the origin and preservation of life: theory and experiments].

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Benedino

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses Bacon's views of life, as contained in De Sapientia Veterum, Historia vitae et mortis, and in a newly published manuscript, entitled De vijs mortis. Bacon saw the prolongation of life as one of the main goals of science and medicine, According to him, life is the result of the action of spirits on matter. In order to preserve life, it is necessary to investigate various kinds of generation, notably, those which occurr without seeds. The study of putrefaction is also crucial for the prolongation of life. PMID:15311430

  17. [The visual process as a theological analog of Roger Bacon's eye anatomy and physiology].

    PubMed

    Bergdolt, K

    1991-01-01

    The author presents Roger Bacon's conception of the anatomy and physiology of the human eye. The knowledge of ocular function is a precondition to understand the laws of the "perspectiva", the science of seeing. But Bacon doesn't stress perspective per se. The physical laws of light, which are to be analysed in geometrical forms, are analogous to those of the infusion of divine grace. Optics (in the Middle Ages synonymous with perspective) seemed to be the model by which God spread his grace to the world. To understand the physical laws of optics meant that one might gain insight into the nature of God.

  18. [Francis Bacon on the origin and preservation of life: theory and experiments].

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Benedino

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses Bacon's views of life, as contained in De Sapientia Veterum, Historia vitae et mortis, and in a newly published manuscript, entitled De vijs mortis. Bacon saw the prolongation of life as one of the main goals of science and medicine, According to him, life is the result of the action of spirits on matter. In order to preserve life, it is necessary to investigate various kinds of generation, notably, those which occurr without seeds. The study of putrefaction is also crucial for the prolongation of life.

  19. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    PubMed

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass.

  20. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key. PMID:22371983

  1. Bacon's Rebellion: A Unit of Study for Grade 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kent; Pearson, Jim

    This unit explores Virginia society between 1640 and 1680. By examining copies of original documents, students study the causes of Bacon's Rebellion in 1676. Although the rebellion was a failure, understanding the reasons for the conflict gives insight into colonial Virginia. Students learn that Virginia was initially a predominantly male society…

  2. 48 CFR 622.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 622.404 Section 622.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts...

  3. 48 CFR 422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 422.404 Section 422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  4. Francis Bacon's New Science: Rhetoric and the Transformative Power of Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckel, David

    The process of projecting textual models onto the phenomenal world began with the invention of writing and accelerated through the manuscript culture of classical antiquity and the Middle Ages into the age of print. In Francis Bacon's work, the book (a metaphor for the phenomenal world) adapted to the demands of the printed text and reflects the…

  5. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  6. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  7. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  8. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  9. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35.935-5 Section 35.935-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  10. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements. 906.37 Section 906.37 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC...

  11. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Rehabilitation, repairs, and accessibility modifications performed under an agreement or contract with the PHA or by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows: (i...-public housing units acquired by a PHA using Capital Funds that will be sold under a...

  12. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Rehabilitation, repairs, and accessibility modifications performed under an agreement or contract with the PHA or by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows: (i...-public housing units acquired by a PHA using Capital Funds that will be sold under a...

  13. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Rehabilitation, repairs, and accessibility modifications performed under an agreement or contract with the PHA or by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows: (i...-public housing units acquired by a PHA using Capital Funds that will be sold under a...

  14. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Rehabilitation, repairs, and accessibility modifications performed under an agreement or contract with the PHA or by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows: (i...-public housing units acquired by a PHA using Capital Funds that will be sold under a...

  15. 48 CFR 1422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 1422.404 Section 1422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  16. 48 CFR 1322.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determination. 1322.404 Section 1322.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  17. 48 CFR 422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 422.404 Section 422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  18. 48 CFR 1322.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determination. 1322.404 Section 1322.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  19. 48 CFR 1422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 1422.404 Section 1422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  20. 48 CFR 1422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 1422.404 Section 1422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  1. 48 CFR 622.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 622.404 Section 622.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts...

  2. 48 CFR 1322.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determination. 1322.404 Section 1322.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  3. 48 CFR 622.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 622.404 Section 622.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts...

  4. 48 CFR 422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 422.404 Section 422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  5. 48 CFR 622.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 622.404 Section 622.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts...

  6. 48 CFR 422.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 422.404 Section 422.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for...

  7. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...: A. Purpose Government contracting officers may include FAR clause 52.222-32, Davis-Bacon Act--Price... may reasonably require. The information is used by ] Government contracting officers to establish the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 76 FR 76438 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Davis-Bacon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... notice published in the Federal Register on August 8, 2011 (76 FR 48181). ] Interested parties are...; Davis-Bacon Certified Payroll ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the... Certified Payroll,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for continued...

  9. The Culture of Science and the Rhetoric of Scientism: From Francis Bacon to the Darwin Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    The culture of modern science continues to establish its public identity by appealing to values and historical conceptions that reflect its appropriation of various religious ideals during its formative period, most especially in the rhetoric of Francis Bacon. These elements have persisted because they continue to achieve similar goals, but the…

  10. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  11. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  12. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  13. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  14. 10 CFR 455.112 - Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provisions set forth in 29 CFR 5.5 and (b) A provision for payment of laborers and mechanics at the minimum...) as set forth in 29 CFR part 1. ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Davis-Bacon wage rate requirement. 455.112 Section...

  15. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key.

  16. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration. PMID:22702171

  17. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration.

  18. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    PubMed

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( < 0.01), regardless of management strategy or sex. Also, there was no sex or management strategy × week of frozen storage interaction for any traits evaluated ( ≥ 0.25). For Objective 1, lipid content of bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( < 0.05), regardless of age at slaughter. Additionally, there were no differences in sensory attributes of bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( < 0.05) in IC barrows compared with PC barrows but was not different than gilts ( > 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows

  19. New Techniques for Augmenting Saliva Collection: Bacon Rules and Lozenge Drools

    PubMed Central

    Miočević, Olga; Warner, Melissa C.; Slowey, Paul D.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Saliva is a reliable, noninvasive, and cost-effective alternative to biomarkers measured in other biological fluids. Within certain populations, saliva sampling may be difficult because of insufficient saliva flow, which may compromise disease diagnosis or research integrity. Methods to improve flow rates (eg, administering citric acid, chewing gum, or collecting cotton) may compromise biomarker integrity, especially if the methods involve the presence of a collection aid in the oral cavity. Anecdotal strategies (eg, looking at pictures of food or imagining food) have not been evaluated to date. In this study, we evaluate whether 2 novel collection techniques improve saliva flow or interfere with assay of common biomarkers (ie, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone). We evaluate an over-the-counter anhydrous crystalline maltose lozenge intended to increase saliva production for patients with xerostomia long after the lozenge dissolves. We then evaluate whether the smell of freshly cooked bacon stimulates a pavlovian-type reflex. Methods Saliva was collected from 27 healthy young adults (aged 20-34 years; 12 men) on a basal day and a lozenge day, providing 5 samples at 15-minute intervals. Twenty participants then returned for the bacon day condition, providing 2 saliva samples with an interval of 15 minutes between samples. Collection times required to generate 2 mL of saliva across collection strategies were recorded, and then saliva samples were assayed for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone. Findings Repeated analysis of variance measures revealed that both the lozenges and bacon significantly decreased collection time compared with the passive drool collection on the basal day. No significant effects were found related to the quantification of cortisol, testosterone, or dehydroepiandrosterone when comparing lozenge or bacon to the basal day. In addition, bivariate correlations revealed that concentrations from time

  20. From Bacon to Banks: the vision and the realities of pursuing science for the common good.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Rose-Mary

    2012-03-01

    Francis Bacon's call for philosophers to investigate nature and "join in consultation for the common good" is one example of a powerful vision that helped to shape modern science. His ideal clearly linked the experimental method with the production of beneficial effects that could be used both as "pledges of truth" and for "the comforts of life." When Bacon's program was implemented in the following generation, however, the tensions inherent in his vision became all too real. The history of the Royal Society of London, from its founding in 1660 to the 42-year presidency of Joseph Banks (1778-1820), shows how these tensions led to changes in the way in which both the experimental method and the ideal of the common good were understood. A more nuanced understanding of the problems involved in recent philosophical analyses of science in the public interest can be achieved by appreciating the complexity revealed from this historical perspective. PMID:22530484

  1. From Bacon to Banks: the vision and the realities of pursuing science for the common good.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Rose-Mary

    2012-03-01

    Francis Bacon's call for philosophers to investigate nature and "join in consultation for the common good" is one example of a powerful vision that helped to shape modern science. His ideal clearly linked the experimental method with the production of beneficial effects that could be used both as "pledges of truth" and for "the comforts of life." When Bacon's program was implemented in the following generation, however, the tensions inherent in his vision became all too real. The history of the Royal Society of London, from its founding in 1660 to the 42-year presidency of Joseph Banks (1778-1820), shows how these tensions led to changes in the way in which both the experimental method and the ideal of the common good were understood. A more nuanced understanding of the problems involved in recent philosophical analyses of science in the public interest can be achieved by appreciating the complexity revealed from this historical perspective.

  2. Radiolysis compounds in bacon and chicken. Final report 18 Sep 81-20 Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The results of this study are in agreement with the precepts established in studies published previously on beef, chicken, ham, and pork. The radiolysis compounds from bacon, chicken, ham, and pork are comparable in identity and amounts to those found in irradiated beef for comparable compositions and irradiation parameters (temperature, dose, etc.). The results of this study support the conclusions drawn in the CORC report of 'commonality in chemistry, predictability of products, and extrapolation of results.' Consequently, the same conclusions can be drawn concerning the wholesomeness of irradiated bacon, chicken, ham, and pork as for other irradiated meat products of similar composition and irradiation parameters as reported in the FASEB report and its supplements (I and II) on irradiated beef.

  3. The Rule of Three for Prizes in Science and the Bold Triptychs of Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L

    2016-09-22

    For many scientific awards, such as Nobels and Laskers, the maximum number of recipients is three. This Rule of Three forces selection committees to make difficult decisions that increase the likelihood of singling out those individuals who open a new field and continue to lead it. The Rule of Three is reminiscent of art's three-panel triptych, a form that the modern master Francis Bacon used to distill complex stories in a bold way. PMID:27634320

  4. The Rule of Three for Prizes in Science and the Bold Triptychs of Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L

    2016-09-22

    For many scientific awards, such as Nobels and Laskers, the maximum number of recipients is three. This Rule of Three forces selection committees to make difficult decisions that increase the likelihood of singling out those individuals who open a new field and continue to lead it. The Rule of Three is reminiscent of art's three-panel triptych, a form that the modern master Francis Bacon used to distill complex stories in a bold way.

  5. Francis Bacon and the "Interpretation of Nature" in the late Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The "interpretation of nature" (interpretatio naturae) is the leading idea in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. But by contrast with his ideas about method, induction, or experiment, the significance of the "interpretation of nature" has received very little scholarly attention. This essay tests the originality of Bacon's idea by means of a focused survey of existing forms of Renaissance natural knowledge-Aristotelian and anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy, Galenic and Paracelsian medicine, natural magic, physiognomy, natural history-before turning to consider the much more prominent place of "interpretation" in the fields of Renaissance logic, revealed and natural theology, and law. It finds that Bacon's application of the idea of "interpretation" to nature was highly original, but also that certain important aspects of his conception have analogies in Renaissance civil law. The essay concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for a recent body of scholarship in the history of the sciences that invokes the notion of the "interpretation of nature" to characterize pre-Baconian natural philosophy more generally. PMID:25665379

  6. Francis Bacon and the "Interpretation of Nature" in the late Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The "interpretation of nature" (interpretatio naturae) is the leading idea in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. But by contrast with his ideas about method, induction, or experiment, the significance of the "interpretation of nature" has received very little scholarly attention. This essay tests the originality of Bacon's idea by means of a focused survey of existing forms of Renaissance natural knowledge-Aristotelian and anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy, Galenic and Paracelsian medicine, natural magic, physiognomy, natural history-before turning to consider the much more prominent place of "interpretation" in the fields of Renaissance logic, revealed and natural theology, and law. It finds that Bacon's application of the idea of "interpretation" to nature was highly original, but also that certain important aspects of his conception have analogies in Renaissance civil law. The essay concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for a recent body of scholarship in the history of the sciences that invokes the notion of the "interpretation of nature" to characterize pre-Baconian natural philosophy more generally.

  7. The effect of skatole and androstenone on consumer response towards streaky bacon and pork belly roll.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit D; De Lichtenberg Broge, Eva Honnens; Brockhoff, Per B; Christensen, Rune Haubo

    2015-12-01

    Consumer liking was assessed for streaky bacon and pork belly roll from entire male pigs with an androstenone (AND) content of up to 9.4 ppm and a skatole (SKA) content of up to 0.92 ppm in the back fat and castrates. No clear effect of either AND or SKA was seen in consumer liking, although an insignificant tendency was seen for SKA. A sensory profile analysis showed that AND increased the boar taint of bacon, while both AND and SKA increased the boar taint of the pork belly roll. Consumer sensitivity towards AND and SKA did not affect liking of the meat products. The lack of effect of AND and SKA on consumer liking could be due to a masking effect of the spices and smoke. Three consecutive weeks' exposure to bacon did not change the liking score, irrespective of the AND and SKA content. This indicates that the consumers did not become more sensitive towards boar taint. PMID:26186398

  8. The Alma-Bacon County Story: A Model for Rural America. Committee Print, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session, July 24, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nipp, Robert E.

    Designed to illustrate the revitalization process of a small rural community via use of the Model Cities Program, this case study of Alma-Bacon County, Georgia traces Alma-Bacon's: (1) historical background; (2) community development beginnings; (3) political development; (4) outstanding problems; and (5) development plans and accomplishments…

  9. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  10. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  11. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  12. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  13. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  14. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon...

  15. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public...

  16. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public...

  17. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  18. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  19. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public...

  20. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  1. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  2. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public...

  3. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using their own funds or other non... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  4. Survival and death of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked bacon at three storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J

    2010-08-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked bacon cubes (a(w) 0.910 +/- 0.080), strips (a(w) 0.726 +/- 0.054), and bits (a(w) 0.620 +/- 0.038) was determined during a 25 week storage period at -20, 4.4, and 22 degrees C. Selective enrichment and subsequent enzyme-linked fluorescent antibody (ELFA) detection were used to asses survival on samples inoculated at ca. 1-log(10) CFU/g (LI). Samples inoculated at ca. 5.5-log(10) CFU/g (HI) were analyzed over time by direct plating on modified Oxford medium (MOX). The Baranyi model was fitted to the inactivation curves of HI samples using the DMFit program. At -20 degrees C, a decline of about 1-log(10) CFU/g occurred on all HI cooked bacon types by 14 weeks, although most LI samples remained positive by the ELFA detection method for 25 weeks. At 4.4 and 22 degrees C, some strips and bits LI samples were negative for the pathogen within 3 weeks, and >1.5 log(10) CFU/g reductions occurred on HI strips and bits by 8 weeks. Reductions on cubes at refrigeration and ambient temperature were ca. 0.5 log(10) CFU/g, and cubes remained positive on LI samples for 25 weeks. Rate parameter estimates indicated that the population declined fastest on strips and bits at 22 degrees C compared to all other product and temperature combinations. This study demonstrates that cooked bacon does not support the growth of L. monocytogenes and that the pathogen gradually dies off during storage. PMID:20510786

  5. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  6. Validation of bacon processing conditions to verify control of Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J; Bartholomew, Gene W

    2005-09-01

    It is unclear how rapidly meat products, such as bacon, that have been heat treated but not fully cooked should be cooled to prevent the outgrowth of spore-forming bacterial pathogens and limit the growth of vegetative cells. Clostridium perfringens spores and vegetative cells and Staphylococcus aureus cells were inoculated into ground cured pork bellies with and without 1.25% liquid smoke. Bellies were subjected to the thermal profiles of industrial smoking to 48.9 degrees C (120 degrees F) and normal cooling of bacon (3 h) as well as a cooling phase of 15 h until the meat reached 7.2 degrees C (45 degrees F). A laboratory-scale bacon smoking and cooling operation was also performed. Under normal smoking and cooling thermal conditions, growth of C. perfringens in ground pork bellies was <1 log regardless of smoke. Increase of S. aureus was 2.38 log CFU/g but only 0.68 log CFU/g with smoke. When cooling spanned 15 h, both C. perfringens and S. aureus grew by a total of about 4 log. The addition of liquid smoke inhibited C. perfringens, but S. aureus still achieved a 3.97-log increase. Staphylococcal enterotoxins were detected in five of six samples cooled for 15 h without smoke but in none of the six samples of smoked bellies. In laboratory-scale smoking of whole belly pieces, initial C. perfringens populations of 2.23 +/- 0.25 log CFU/g were reduced during smoking to 0.99 +/- 0.50 log CFU/g and were 0.65 +/- 0.21 log CFU/g after 15 h of cooling. Populations of S. aureus were reduced from 2.00 +/- 0.74 to a final concentration of 0.74 +/- 0.53 log CFU/g after cooling. Contrary to findings in the ground pork belly system, the 15-h cooling of whole belly pieces did not permit growth of either pathogen. This study demonstrates that if smoked bacon is cooled from 48.9 to 7.2 degrees C (120 to 45 degrees F) within 15 h, a food safety hazard from either C. perfringens or S. aureus is not likely to occur. PMID:16161681

  7. Redefining the role of experiment in Bacon's natural history: how Baconian was Descartes before emerging from his cocoon?

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Laura; Giurgea, Mădălina

    2012-01-01

    In this article we argue that the views that Francis Bacon and René Descartes held about the role of experiments in the process of discovery are closer than previously accepted. Looking at the way experiments and the heuristics of experimentation are embedded in Bacon's posthumous History of Dense and Rare and Descartes' Discourses 8, 9, 10 of the Meteorology, we will show that experiments help the investigator both in solving specific problems that could not have otherwise been foreseen and in generating relevant information that advances the scope of the investigation. PMID:22702170

  8. Redefining the role of experiment in Bacon's natural history: how Baconian was Descartes before emerging from his cocoon?

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Laura; Giurgea, Mădălina

    2012-01-01

    In this article we argue that the views that Francis Bacon and René Descartes held about the role of experiments in the process of discovery are closer than previously accepted. Looking at the way experiments and the heuristics of experimentation are embedded in Bacon's posthumous History of Dense and Rare and Descartes' Discourses 8, 9, 10 of the Meteorology, we will show that experiments help the investigator both in solving specific problems that could not have otherwise been foreseen and in generating relevant information that advances the scope of the investigation.

  9. Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Biesaga, Magdalena; Gierczak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces. Material/Methods Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors. Results All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around. Conclusions Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used. PMID:26264209

  10. The “Visual Shock” of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir; Ishizu, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the work of Francis Bacon in the context of his declared aim of giving a “visual shock.”We explore what this means in terms of brain activity and what insights into the brain's visual perceptive system his work gives. We do so especially with reference to the representation of faces and bodies in the human visual brain. We discuss the evidence that shows that both these categories of stimuli have a very privileged status in visual perception, compared to the perception of other stimuli, including man-made artifacts such as houses, chairs, and cars. We show that viewing stimuli that depart significantly from a normal representation of faces and bodies entails a significant difference in the pattern of brain activation. We argue that Bacon succeeded in delivering his “visual shock” because he subverted the normal neural representation of faces and bodies, without at the same time subverting the representation of man-made artifacts. PMID:24339812

  11. Ultra preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked bacon by a combination of SPE and DLLME.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Zhou, Shu; Zhu, Quanfei; Ye, Yong; Chen, Huaixia

    2014-09-01

    A sample pretreatment method, solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME), was established for the sensitive determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked bacon samples. In the SPE-DLLME process, three PAHs including naphthalene (Naph), phenanthrene (Phen) and pyrene (Pyr) were extracted from samples and transferred into C18 SPE cartridge. The target analytes were subsequently eluted with 1.2 ml of acetonitrile-dichloromethane (5:1, v/v) mixture solution. The eluent was injected directly into the 5.0 ml ultrapure water in the subsequent DLLME procedure. The sedimented phase was concentrated under a gentle nitrogen flow to 120.0 µl. Finally, the analytes in the extraction solvent were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a ultra-violet detector. Some important extraction parameters affecting the performance, such as the sample solution flow rate, breakthrough volume, salt addition as well as the type and volume of the elution solvent were optimized. The developed method provided an ultra enrichment factors for PAHs ranged from 3478 to 3824. The method was applied for the selective extraction and sensitive determination of PAHs in smoked bacon samples. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.05, 0.01, 0.02 μg kg(-1) for Naph, Phen, Pyr, respectively.

  12. Toward an epistemology of nano-technosciences: Probing technoscience from a historical perspective: on today's surprising prevalence and relevance of Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the attempts to clarify and classify the vague notion of "technosciences" from a historical perspective. A key question that is raised is as follows: Does Francis Bacon, one of the founding fathers of the modern age, provide a hitherto largely undiscovered programmatic position, which might facilitate a more profound understanding of technosciences? The paper argues that nearly everything we need today for an ontologically well-informed epistemology of technoscience can be found in the works of Bacon-this position will be called epistemological real-constructivism. Rather than realist or constructivist, empiricist or rationalist, Bacon's position can best be understood as real-constructivist since it challenges modern dichotomies. Reflection upon the contemporary relevance of Bacon could contribute to the expanding and critical discussion on technoscience. In the following I will reconstruct the term "technoscience". My finding is that at least four different understandings or types of the term "technoscience" co-exist. In a second step, I will analyze and elaborate on Bacon's epistemological position. I will identify central elements of the four different understandings in Bacon's work. Finally, I will conclude that the epistemology of technoscience is, indeed, very old-it is the epistemological position put forward by Bacon. PMID:22207829

  13. Toward an epistemology of nano-technosciences: Probing technoscience from a historical perspective: on today's surprising prevalence and relevance of Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the attempts to clarify and classify the vague notion of "technosciences" from a historical perspective. A key question that is raised is as follows: Does Francis Bacon, one of the founding fathers of the modern age, provide a hitherto largely undiscovered programmatic position, which might facilitate a more profound understanding of technosciences? The paper argues that nearly everything we need today for an ontologically well-informed epistemology of technoscience can be found in the works of Bacon-this position will be called epistemological real-constructivism. Rather than realist or constructivist, empiricist or rationalist, Bacon's position can best be understood as real-constructivist since it challenges modern dichotomies. Reflection upon the contemporary relevance of Bacon could contribute to the expanding and critical discussion on technoscience. In the following I will reconstruct the term "technoscience". My finding is that at least four different understandings or types of the term "technoscience" co-exist. In a second step, I will analyze and elaborate on Bacon's epistemological position. I will identify central elements of the four different understandings in Bacon's work. Finally, I will conclude that the epistemology of technoscience is, indeed, very old-it is the epistemological position put forward by Bacon.

  14. The effect of salt reduction on sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, ham and salami.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Vestergaard, Christian; Koch, Anette Granly

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a multi-functional ingredient used to inhibit microbial growth and to ensure good texture and taste in processed meat. This study showed how moderately (22-25%) and greatly (43-50%) reduction of NaCl affected yield, sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, cooked cured ham and salami. In greatly reduced products, the yield was reduced by 8% in sausages and 6% in ham, whereas the yield in bacon and salami remained unaffected. The microbial growth was generally not affected by reducing the content of NaCl to 2.0% in sausages, 2.3% in bacon, 1.7% in ham and 6.3% in salami (aqueous phase). Salt taste, juiciness and texture were the sensory parameters most affected by the NaCl reduction. In sausages and ham, reduction from 2.2% to 1.7% and from 2.3% to 1.3% (w/w), respectively, did not alter the sensory properties. In contrast, the sensory properties of bacon and salami were significantly affected already after a moderately reduction.

  15. From Bacon to Bush (Vannevar, Not G. W.): Common Ground between Useful Knowledge and Red Brick Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storella, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The theory about the power of useful knowledge to improve the human condition was published in Francis Bacon's "Novum organon" and his "New Atlantis" in the seventeenth century. The connection between useful knowledge and red brick institutions from University College in London to Framingham State College and MIT in…

  16. Images of trauma: pain, recognition, and disavowal in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Bose, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The role of art in the encounter with trauma and destructiveness is comparatively studied in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon as examples of a direct and a more indirect way of dealing with such experiences. A creative product may function intrapsychically as a kind of messenger between dissociated self-states and consciousness, and it may also serve as a witnessing presence in a self-supporting and self-constituting way. Artistic work may thus be used by the artist for an expressive as well as for a protective purpose, as a means of sympathetic participation in painful experience, or as a medium for a view from the outside. The act itself of finding and of making expressive forms at the time of traumatic experience is a remarkable assertion of the human capability to synthesize and to counteract fragmenting dissociative processes. PMID:15953776

  17. Are we doing any good by doing really well? (Where's the Bacon?).

    PubMed

    Herbert, Donald

    2003-04-01

    Francis Bacon, who with Rene Decartes laid the intellectual foundations for Western science in the seventeenth century, asserted that the purpose of all knowledge is "action in the production of works for ... the relief of man's estate." We assess briefly several aspects of a few of the current efforts directed to the production of such "works" with respect to such "relief" as they may provide: cancer mortality, the medical literature, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, observational databases and criteria for the promotion and tenure of the medical faculty. We suggest why each of these efforts appears to have failed to some degree and then propose some measures that may possibly serve as correctives. PMID:12722800

  18. Are we doing any good by doing really well? (Where's the Bacon?).

    PubMed

    Herbert, Donald

    2003-04-01

    Francis Bacon, who with Rene Decartes laid the intellectual foundations for Western science in the seventeenth century, asserted that the purpose of all knowledge is "action in the production of works for ... the relief of man's estate." We assess briefly several aspects of a few of the current efforts directed to the production of such "works" with respect to such "relief" as they may provide: cancer mortality, the medical literature, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, observational databases and criteria for the promotion and tenure of the medical faculty. We suggest why each of these efforts appears to have failed to some degree and then propose some measures that may possibly serve as correctives.

  19. Images of trauma: pain, recognition, and disavowal in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Bose, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The role of art in the encounter with trauma and destructiveness is comparatively studied in the works of Frida Kahlo and Francis Bacon as examples of a direct and a more indirect way of dealing with such experiences. A creative product may function intrapsychically as a kind of messenger between dissociated self-states and consciousness, and it may also serve as a witnessing presence in a self-supporting and self-constituting way. Artistic work may thus be used by the artist for an expressive as well as for a protective purpose, as a means of sympathetic participation in painful experience, or as a medium for a view from the outside. The act itself of finding and of making expressive forms at the time of traumatic experience is a remarkable assertion of the human capability to synthesize and to counteract fragmenting dissociative processes.

  20. Simulated restaurant cook exposure to emissions of PAHs, mutagenic aldehydes, and particles from frying bacon.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Strandberg, Bo; Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Johansen, Arve; Svendsen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of cooks to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), higher mutagenic aldehydes, total particles, and ultrafine particles during cooking. Experiments were performed by pan frying fresh and smoked bacon on both electric and gas stoves, and with the gas alone. Detailed analyses of PAHs were performed, with analyses of the levels of 32 different PAHs. A TSI-3939 scanning mobility particle sizer system was used to measure the ultrafine particles. The results showed that total PAHs were in the range of 270-300 ng/m(3) air. However, the smoked bacon experiment showed a somewhat different PAH pattern, whereby retene constituted about 10% of the total PAHs, which is a level similar to that of the abundant gas phase constituent phenanthrene. The reason for the elevated retene emissions is unknown. The total cancer risk, expressed as toxic equivalency factors, showed a somewhat higher risk on the electric stove (p < 0.05) compared with the gas stove. Levels of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal were between 34 and 54 μg/m(3) air. The level of total particles was between 2.2 and 4.2 mg/m(3). Frying on a gas stove caused a statistically significant higher amount of ultrafine particles compared with frying on an electric stove. Large variations in the mobility diameter at peak particle concentration were found (74.4 nm-153.5 nm). The highest mobility diameter was found for frying on an electric stove. The gas flame itself showed a maximum production of 19.5-nm-sized particles and could not be the explanation for the difference between frying on the gas stove and frying on the electric stove. No single indicator for the exposure to cooking fume could be selected. Each compound should be measured independently to provide a comprehensive characterization of the cooking exposure.

  1. The Interaction Between Lipoxygenase-Catalyzed Oxidation and Autoxidation in Dry-Cured Bacon and a Model System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyang; Tang, Jing; Zhao, Jianying; Wu, Haizhou; Ditta, Yasir Allah; Zhang, Jianhao

    2015-12-01

    A model system was conducted to characterize the interaction between lipid autoxidation and enzyme-catalyzed oxidation in dry-cured bacon. This involved the use of a hydroxyl radical (HO•) generating system and the extraction and purification of lipoxygenases (LOX) from pork belly. The results showed that LOX activity rapidly (P < 0.05) increased during the curing of dry-cured bacon. This may be because of the hydroxyl-radical-mediated oxidation from LOX-Fe(2+) to LOX-Fe(3+), which activates LOX. In addition, experiments of the model system also showed that LOX activity could be inhibited by increasing the substrate concentration, although substrate type and concentration had no effect on autoxidation. Moreover, LOX enzyme-catalyzed oxidation and autoxidation could act synergistically to promote lipid oxidation irrespective of the substrate (linoleic or arachidonic acid). These results provide useful information for regulating lipid oxidation during the production of dry-cured pork products.

  2. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment. PMID:25249030

  3. Four centuries on from Bacon: progress in building health research systems to improve health systems?

    PubMed

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2014-09-23

    In 1627, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis described a utopian society in which an embryonic research system contributed to meeting the needs of the society. In this editorial, we use some of the aspirations described in New Atlantis to provide a context within which to consider recent progress in building health research systems to improve health systems and population health. In particular, we reflect on efforts to build research capacity, link research to policy, identify the wider impacts made by the science, and generally build fully functioning research systems to address the needs identified. In 2014, Health Research Policy and Systems has continued to publish one-off papers and article collections covering a range of these issues in both high income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Analysis of these contributions, in the context of some earlier ones, is brought together to identify achievements, challenges and possible ways forward. We show how 2014 is likely to be a pivotal year in the development of ways to assess the impact of health research on policies, practice, health systems, population health, and economic benefits.We demonstrate how the increasing focus on health research systems will contribute to realising the hopes expressed in the World Health Report, 2013, namely that all nations would take a systematic approach to evaluating the outputs and applications resulting from their research investment.

  4. Geology and geothermal origin of Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat Oil Fields, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Goff, F. ); Ross, J.R. ); Bortz, L.C. ); Bereskin, S.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Eastern Nevada's Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields show strong evidence of formation in a still-active, moderate-temperature geothermal system. Modern manifestations of this system include unusually elevated oil-reservoir temperature at shallow depth, 116-122[degrees]C at 1.1-1.6 km, and dilute Na-HCO[sub 3]Cl thermal waters directly associated with hot oil. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that these thermal waters are meteoric in origin, but were probably recharged prior to the Holocene (before 10 ka). The waters apparently ascended to oil-reservoir elevations after deep heating in response to the normal regional thermal gradient; there is no evidence for a modern magmatic heat source. The beginning of oil-reservoir evolution at both fields is recorded by late-stage, fracture-filling quartz in the vuggy, brecciated, Paleozoic dolostone reservoir rocks. Oil and aqueous solutions were trapped as fluid inclusions in the quartz at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing in the reservoirs. Present day and fluid-inclusion temperatures define essentially coincident isothermal profiles through and beneath the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon consistent with near-constant convective heat transfer since inception of the geothermal system. Some basin and range oil fields have arisen as valuable byproducts of actively circulating geothermal systems and blending this concept into current exploration stratigies could hasten discovery of the 100 mbbl fields many geologists believe remain to be found in this region. 100 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Extensometer, water-level, and lithologic data from Bacon and Bethel Islands in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, September 1987 to August 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, Barry D.; Leighton, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Compaction, water-level, and lithologic data were collected at extensometer sites on Bacon and Bethel Islands, anchored at 436 and 536 feet below land surface, respectively. The data reported here are part of a study of the processes causing subsidence in the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta. The depths were selected to ensure that they were well below the peat layer and the primary aquifer, which minimized the effects of peat loss and shallow ground-water withdrawal. Compaction and depth to ground water were measured monthly at Bacon Island from September 1987 through August 1993 and at Bethel Island from August 1988 through August 1993. After automatic digital data loggers were installed at Bacon Island in December 1988 and at Bethel Island in September 1989, hourly readings also were made. Calculated rates of compaction were 0.0015 and 0.0016 feet per year at Bacon and Bethel Islands, respectively. Cumulative compaction at the Bacon Island site from September 1987 to August 1993 was about 0.009 feet. Cumulative compaction at the Bethel Island site from August 1988 to August 1993 was about 0.008 feet.

  6. Screening procedure for detection of volatile N-nitrosamines in cooked bacon by one-trap mineral oil vacuum distillation and thermal energy analyzer.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, E L; Vasco, G A; Legette, L; Malanoski, A

    1982-11-01

    A rapid screening procedure for the detection of volatile N-nitrosamines in fried bacon has been developed for the regulatory monitoring of bacon. This procedure uses vacuum mineral oil distillation of an alkaline sample. The distillate is collected in a prewet trap immersed in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the distillate is transferred to a separator. The trap is rinsed with methylene chloride which is then used to extract the nitrosamines. The methylene chloride is dried with Na2SO4 and concentrated. A gas-liquid chromatograph coupled to a thermal energy analyzer is used to identify and quantitate the nitrosamines. Recoveries of 7 volatile N-nitrosamines added to 25 g fried bacon at the 10 ppb level (microgram/kg) ranged from 78 to 92%. PMID:7174574

  7. Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus sakei as bio-protective culture to eliminate Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage and improve the shelf life and sensorial characteristics of commercial cooked bacon.

    PubMed

    Comi, Giuseppe; Andyanto, Debbie; Manzano, Marisa; Iacumin, Lucilla

    2016-09-01

    Cooked bacon is a typical Italian meat product. After production, cooked bacon is stored at 4 ± 2 °C. During storage, the microorganisms that survived pasteurisation can grow and produce spoilage. For the first time, we studied the cause of the deterioration in spoiled cooked bacon compared to unspoiled samples. Moreover, the use of bio-protective cultures to improve the quality of the product and eliminate the risk of spoilage was tested. The results show that Leuconostoc mesenteroides is responsible for spoilage and produces a greening colour of the meat, slime and various compounds that result from the fermentation of sugars and the degradation of nitrogen compounds. Finally, Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis and Lactobacillus sakei were able to reduce the risk of Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage.

  8. Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus sakei as bio-protective culture to eliminate Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage and improve the shelf life and sensorial characteristics of commercial cooked bacon.

    PubMed

    Comi, Giuseppe; Andyanto, Debbie; Manzano, Marisa; Iacumin, Lucilla

    2016-09-01

    Cooked bacon is a typical Italian meat product. After production, cooked bacon is stored at 4 ± 2 °C. During storage, the microorganisms that survived pasteurisation can grow and produce spoilage. For the first time, we studied the cause of the deterioration in spoiled cooked bacon compared to unspoiled samples. Moreover, the use of bio-protective cultures to improve the quality of the product and eliminate the risk of spoilage was tested. The results show that Leuconostoc mesenteroides is responsible for spoilage and produces a greening colour of the meat, slime and various compounds that result from the fermentation of sugars and the degradation of nitrogen compounds. Finally, Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis and Lactobacillus sakei were able to reduce the risk of Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage. PMID:27217354

  9. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation. PMID:23871020

  10. Investigating quality attributes and consumer acceptance of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added commercial hams, bacons, and frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Olson, D G; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A

    2007-10-01

    Increasing demands for natural, organic, and/or preservative-free foods have resulted in the consumer availability of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added processed meat and poultry products. A comprehensive understanding about the quality and sensory attributes of commercially available uncured products is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if quality and sensory differences exist between uncured and cured meat products. Five different commercial brands (Brands A to E; 4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added, and 1 nitrite-added) of 3 product types (hams, frankfurters, and bacons) were obtained from retail supermarkets. The samples were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite content, and consumer acceptance. All brands from all product types evaluated, except for 1 bacon (Brand B), had cured color, aroma, and flavor attributes similar to the nitrite-added control (Brand E). All product types and brands contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (< 1 ppm nitrite). Lipid oxidation as measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances revealed a large variation in the occurrence of lipid oxidation both between and within product types, with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of the brands within each product type were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings for surface/lean color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptance determined that variation existed. Brand E (nitrite-added control) and 1 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added brand for each product type were not different (P > 0.05) for overall acceptance and received higher scores (P < 0.05) than all other brands within each product type. PMID:17995620

  11. An evaluation of the deep reservoir conditions of the Bacon-Manito geothermal field, Philippines using well gas chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, Franco; Maniquis-Buenviaje, Marinela; Solis, Ramonito P.

    1993-01-28

    Gas chemistry from 28 wells complement water chemistry and physical data in developing a reservoir model for the Bacon-Manito geothermal project (BMGP), Philippines. Reservoir temperature, THSH, and steam fraction, y, are calculated or extrapolated from the grid defined by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and H2-H2S (HSH) gas equilibria reactions. A correction is made for H2 that is lost due to preferential partitioning into the vapor phase and the reequilibration of H2S after steam loss.

  12. Incidence, location and interrelationships between the sites of abscesses recorded in pigs at a bacon factory in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Huey, R J

    1996-05-25

    The position and incidence of all the abscesses detected during post mortem inspection of 75,130 bacon weight pigs were recorded. Abscesses were detected at one site only in 2.87 per cent of the carcases examined, and at more than one site in 0.26 per cent of the carcases. Tail biting was the cause of the infection in 61.7 per cent of all the carcases with lesions at more than one site. In almost all cases there was a statistically significant interrelationship between the visible abscesses at different sites. PMID:8761973

  13. Analysis of nitrosamines in cooked bacon by QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry with backflushing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf-life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which are mitigated by the addition of anti-oxidant...

  14. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, microbiological characteristics, and biogenic amines formation in dry-cured bacons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (tea polyphenol, grape seed extract, and gingerol) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, microbiological counts, and biogenic amines were determined in dry-cured bacons at the end of ripening. Results showed that plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol significantly...

  15. Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

    2014-03-01

    Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (p<0.05) in comparison with control (treatment I). The sensory analysis indicated that it was possible to reduce NaCl by 40% without adverse effects on sensory properties, but 70% replacement of NaCl with KCl resulted in bacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness.

  16. Effects of the porcine IGF2 intron 3-G3072A mutation on carcass cutability, meat quality, and bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Clark, D L; Bohrer, B M; Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Beever, J E; Dilger, A C

    2014-12-01

    A SNP in a regulatory region of intron 3 within the porcine IGF2 gene (IGF2-G3072A) is associated with increased lean deposition and decreased fat deposition in pigs with paternal A alleles (APat) compared with pigs with paternal G alleles (GPat). However, data regarding fresh and processed meat quality characteristics of pigs with different alleles for this polymorphism are limited. A single heterozygote (AG) boar was bred to homozygous (AA) commercial Yorkshire-cross sows producing F1 barrows and gilts with either GPat or APat. Two farrowing groups of barrows and gilts were group housed, provided ad libitum access to a diet that met or exceeded NRC nutrient recommendations throughout production, and slaughtered at 176 d (±4 d) of age. Fresh LM quality and estimated percent fat-free lean measurements were taken on the left side of carcasses, while carcass cutouts were completed with right sides. Fresh belly and bacon processing traits were characterized for only block 1 pigs. Pig was treated as the experimental unit for all analyses. Ending live weight and HCW were not affected by IGF2 allele; however, 10th rib backfat thickness was 0.41 cm less (P=0.01), loin eye area was 4.0 cm2 greater (P=0.01), and predicted fat-free lean was over 2 percentage units greater (P<0.01) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. Furthermore, boneless lean cuts from the shoulder, loin, and ham were heavier (P<0.05) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. Minolta L* value was 2.36 units greater (P=0.03) but cooking loss was 1.82 percentage units greater (P<0.01) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. Additionally, despite reductions in subcutaneous fat, extractable intramuscular lipid from the LM was 0.64 percentage units greater (P=0.02) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. Bellies were 7.17 mm thinner (P=0.01), had 7.27 cm less flop distance (P=0.05), and tended to have 1.34 units greater iodine value (P=0.09) in APat pigs compared with GPat pigs. While not statistically different (P=0

  17. Investigation of high-temperature, igneous-related hydraulic fracturing as a reservoir control in the Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat oil fields, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Research in progress to evaluate natural, igenous-related hydrothermal fracturing as a reservoir control in two eastern Nevada oil fields has revealed evidence of a far more comprehensive role for moderate- to high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Basin-and-Range oil-reservoir evolution. Fluid-inclusion and petrographic studies have shown that (now) oil-bearing dolomite breccias of the Blackburn field (Pine Valley, Eureka County) were formed when overpressured, magmatically-heated, high-temperature (>350{degrees}C) hydrothermal brines explosively ruptured their host rocks; similar studies of texturally identical breccias of the Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat field (Railroad Valley, Nye County) so far do not support such an explosive origin. At Grant Canyon, however, hydrothermal, breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary oil, aqueous/oil, and aqueous fluid inclusions (homogenization temperature = 120{degrees}C) which document a direct geothermal connection for oil migration and entrapment. Moreover, at both Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, the oil reservoirs are top- and side-sealed by hydrothermally altered Tertiary ignimbrites and epiclastic rocks. Contemporary geothermal activity is also apparent at grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, where subsurface water temperatures reach 171{degrees}C, and at Blackburn, above which a petroleum-providing hot spring issues at a temperature of 90{degrees}C. We suggest that in the Basin and Range province, hydrothermal systems may have: (1) matured oil from otherwise submature source rocks; (2) transported oil to ultimate entrapment sites by convection in moderate-to high-temperature fluids; and (3) sealed reservoir traps through hydrothermal alteration of overlying Tertiary caprocks. 69 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Influence of dietary oils and protein level on pork quality. 2. Effects on properties of fat and processing characteristics of bacon and frankfurter-style sausages.

    PubMed

    Teye, G A; Wood, J D; Whittington, F M; Stewart, A; Sheard, P R

    2006-05-01

    Palm kernel oil (PKO) and palm oil (PO) are used in tropical countries as cheaper substitutes for conventional feed sources such as soya bean oil (SBO) but little is known about their effects on meat quality. This study, therefore, evaluated the effects of these three dietary oils on the fatty acid composition (FA) of pork fat and the qualities of belly bacon and frankfurter sausage. The 3×2 factorial design also included high and low dietary protein. Total cooking loss, water loss and fat losses were determined in frankfurter sausages at chopping temperatures from 2 to 24°C. PKO resulted in a poor P:S ratio (0.34) and a relatively hard fat (slip point 32.8°C), but resulted in bacon with a higher tensile cohesive force and more high quality slices, judged subjectively. PO had a fatty acid composition closer to the SBO control, a better P:S ratio than PKO (0.48) and softer fat. There was a trend for total cooking losses and fat losses to be higher in PKO compared with PO and SBO at all chopping temperatures, suggesting that the firmest, most saturated fat (PKO) was least suitable for frankfurter production. The low protein diet increased the concentration of saturated fatty acids and increased fat firmness but its effect on fatty acid composition and other properties were less marked than those of oil type.

  19. Effects of time after a second dose of immunization against GnRF (Improvest) independent of age at slaughter on commercial bacon slicing characteristics of immunologically castrated barrows.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Herrick, R T; Mellencamp, M A; Matulis, R J; Ellis, M; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of time after a second dose of anti-GnRF immunization on fresh belly characteristics and slicing yields of immunologically castrated (IC) barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows and gilts slaughtered at 24 weeks of age. The second dose was staggered so that IC barrows were slaughtered at 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks after the second dose. Fresh belly characteristics (N=141) were collected at slaughter and bacon was manufactured commercially. The main effects in the model were treatment and the random effects of block and block within replication. Thickness, flop distance, and lipid content increased (L; P<0.04) and iodine value tended to decrease (L; P=0.08) with time after the second dose in IC barrows. Slicing yields increased with time after the second dose (L; P<0.01), but were similar (P=0.11) among sexes. Increasing time of slaughter after second anti-GnRF dose improves fresh belly and bacon slicing characteristics in IC barrows. PMID:26401629

  20. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, residual nitrites, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines formation during ripening and storage of dry-cured bacon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation, residual nitrite, microbiological counts, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines were determined in bacons during dry-curing and storage. Results show ...

  1. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

    2001-06-01

    Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A

  2. Effects of slaughter time post-second injection on carcass cutting yields and bacon characteristics of immunologically castrated male pigs.

    PubMed

    Boler, D D; Killefer, J; Meeuwse, D M; King, V L; McKeith, F K; Dilger, A C

    2012-01-01

    Body weights of finishing pigs can be variable within a finishing barn near the time of slaughter; therefore, it is common to market pigs over a period of time. This allows lighter pigs more time to gain BW and approach a desired end point. Use of immunological castration late in life to control boar taint, as an alternative to physical castration early in life, increases cutting yields of finishing male pigs compared with physical castrates. Because of common marketing strategies, it is important for advantages in cutting yields to span a broad spectrum of slaughter ages and BW. The primary objectives in this study were to evaluate carcass cutting yields, pork quality, belly quality, and bacon processing characteristics of immunologically castrated (IC) male pigs fed a moderate level of distillers dried grains with solubles and slaughtered at either 4 wk (early slaughter group) or 6 wk (late slaughter group) post-second injection. A total of 156 male pigs (physical castrates or IC males) were selected from a population of 1,200 finishing pigs. Data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS as a split-split plot design. Body weights of IC males were 3.60 kg heavier (P = 0.03) than physical castrates when slaughtered at 4 wk post-second injection and 7.52 kg heavier (P < 0.0001) than physical castrates when slaughtered at 6 wk post-second injection. Because of a lack of interaction (P > 0.05) between sex and time of slaughter post-second injection, some response variables were pooled. Hot carcass weights were not different (P = 0.57) between physical castrates (91.98 kg) and IC males (92.52 kg). There was a 2.77 percentage unit decrease (P < 0.001) in dressing percentage of IC males (71.78%) compared with physical castrates (74.55%). Lean cutting yields of IC males were 2.62 percentage units greater (P < 0.0001) than physical castrates and carcass cutting yields were 2.27 percentage units greater (P < 0.0001) for IC males when compared with physical castrates

  3. Of Bacon and Bananas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffioti, Carol Lee

    1977-01-01

    Exercises in sketching a scene of words, focusing, describing elemental structure (using comparison, contrast, analogy, and antithesis), and sketching and writing about still-life arrangements can heighten students' awareness of sense impressions and lead to improved writing skills. (TJ)

  4. Hydrothermal systematics, alteration, and mineralization in the Grant Canyon, Bacon Flat, and Blackburn Oil Fields, Nevada - Intriguing Parallels with Carlin-Type gold deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Nevada's three known thermally active oil reservoirs-Blackburn, Bacon Flat, and Grand Canyon-share a surprisingly long list of essential attributes with the Carlin-type, low-grade, sediment-hosted gold deposits, particularly those of the Alligator Ridge mining district. Like these rich precious-metal ore bodies, the three fields (1) are hosted by Paleozoic carbonate and calcareous silici-clastic strata; (2) occur in structural or structural/stratigraphic traps sealed beneath shales or hydrothermally argillized and silicified tuffs and epiclastic debris, (3) have undergone intense fracturing and brecciation, as well as massive hydrothermal decalcification as major porosity-creating processes; (4) occupy rocks partly altered to or veined by the secondary-mineral assemblage quartz-kaolin-barite-pyrite-marcasite; (5) have a direct geothermal connection; (6) are enriched in the elements arsenic, antimony, mercury, thallium, and even contain significant traces of gold-up 50 ppb in altered Mississippian Chainmain Shale in the Blackburn field. Moreover, measured temperatures, as well as late-stage, fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (T[sub h]) at the fields-all in the range 100-135[degrees]C-fall within the fluid-inclusion T[sub h] span of 90-165[degrees]C recorded for multiple Alligator Ridge deposits. Fracture-controlled live oil and oil-bearing fluid inclusions in some of the Alligator Ridge ores provide further evidence of genetic similarities with the oil reservoirs. The authors suggest that the three oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogs of the gold deposits or an incipient phase in their evolution ultimately leading to ore mineralization.

  5. Bacon, Boole, the EPA, and scientific standards.

    PubMed

    Root, David H

    2003-08-01

    The scientific standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) include the use of retrospective meta-analysis. This analysis entails a use of the theory of probability that is only a simulation and cannot accurately measure the confidence that should be placed in the results. The uncertainty necessary for probability is, in a retrospective study, simulated rather than real. There are three logical forms for establishing a proposition. In the logic of the syllogism, a proposition is established by deduction from assumed propositions. In the logic of the physical sciences, a proposition is established by its ability to predict the outcomes of future experiments. In the logic of the courtroom, a proposition is established by its ability to explain past events. The logic of the courtroom operates under the handicap of working with nonrepeatable events. It is more subject to the preferences of the judge than the logic of the physical sciences or that of the syllogism. Because the logic of the courtroom is less reliable than either the logic of the physical sciences or that of the syllogism, it is the logic of last resort, i.e., it is used only when the other two are not applicable. Under the EPA scientific standards, the logic of the courtroom is accepted for establishing propositions about the physical world. As the logic of the courtroom is less reliable than that of the physical sciences, this practice increases the likelihood of errors.

  6. Frankenswine, or bringing home the bacon

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Xenotransplantation—specifically from pig into human—could resolve the critical shortage of organs, tissues and cells for clinical transplantation. Genetic engineering techniques in pigs are relatively well-developed and to date have largely been aimed at producing pigs that either (1) express high levels of one or more human complement-regulatory protein(s), such as decay-accelerating factor or membrane cofactor protein, or (2) have deletion of the gene responsible for the expression of the oligosaccharide, Galα1,3Gal (Gal), the major target for human anti-pig antibodies, or (3) have both manipulations. Currently the transplantation of pig organs in adequately-immunosuppressed baboons results in graft function for periods of 2–6 months (auxiliary hearts) and 2–3 months (life-supporting kidneys). Pig islets have maintained normoglycemia in diabetic monkeys for >6 months. The remaining immunologic barriers to successful xenotransplantation are discussed, and brief reviews made of (1) the potential risk of the transmission of an infectious microorganism from pig to patient and possibly to the public at large, (2) the potential physiologic incompatibilities between a pig organ and its human counterpart, (3) the major ethical considerations of clinical xenotransplantation, and (4) the possible alternatives that compete with xenotransplantation in the field of organ or cell replacement, such as mechanical devices, tissue engineering, stem cell biology and organogenesis. Finally, the proximity of clinical trials is discussed. Islet xenotransplantation is already at the stage where clinical trials are actively being considered, but the transplantation of pig organs will probably require further genetic modifications to be made to the organ-source pigs to protect their tissues from the coagulation/anticoagulation dysfunction that plays a significant role in pig graft failure after transplantation in primates. PMID:19279708

  7. Reply to the two Comments, by A. Serra, D. J. Bacon and R. C. Pond, and by H. El Kadiri and C. Barrett on B. Li, H. El Kadiri and M.F. Horstemeyer "Extended zonal dislocations mediating ? ? twinning in titanium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Serra, Bacon and Pond argue that, when the direction of the resolved shear stress on the ? twinning plane is reversed, the K 2 plane for ? ? twinning changes from (0 0 0 1) to ? , and the core structure, configuration and magnitude of the twinning dislocation change from b ±1 to b ±3. I contend that such behaviour has not been observed in any twinning mode in metals. A twinning mode should have a K 2 plane and the corresponding twinning dislocation that is structurally and energetically favourable and independent of the direction of the resolved shear stress. El Kadiri and Barrett echo the Comment by Serra et al. and argue that the one-layer twinning dislocation is an "artifact", disregarding the fact that all the simulation results converge to one conclusion, i.e. the one-layer twinning dislocation is more favourable than the three-layer zonal dislocation, irrespective of the interatomic potentials used in the simulations. In this Reply, I seek to clarify such misinterpretations regarding twinning dislocation, twinning shear and shuffling in these Comments.

  8. 45 CFR 1309.54 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....) and the Regulations of the Department of Labor, 29 CFR part 5. The grantee must provide an assurance that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors in the construction...

  9. 45 CFR 1309.54 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....) and the Regulations of the Department of Labor, 29 CFR part 5. The grantee must provide an assurance that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors in the construction...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-6 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Labor under the Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and... or nearly so, to the performance of a contract. (b)(1) All laborers and mechanics employed or working... contractual relationship which may be alleged to exist between the Contractor and such laborers and...

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-6 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Labor under the Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and... or nearly so, to the performance of a contract. (b)(1) All laborers and mechanics employed or working... contractual relationship which may be alleged to exist between the Contractor and such laborers and...

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-6 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Labor under the Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and... or nearly so, to the performance of a contract. (b)(1) All laborers and mechanics employed or working... contractual relationship which may be alleged to exist between the Contractor and such laborers and...

  13. 45 CFR 1309.54 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....) and the Regulations of the Department of Labor, 29 CFR part 5. The grantee must provide an assurance that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors in the construction...

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-6 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Labor under the Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and... construction subcontractor that are transporting portions of the building or work between the secondary site of... industry. (iii) The proposed wage rate, including any bona fide fringe benefits, bears a...

  15. 29 CFR 5.22 - Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 1.2 of this subtitle. The fringe benefits amendments enlarge the scope of this authority by including certain bona fide fringe benefits within the meaning of the terms “wages”, “scale...

  16. Selling Indian Education: Fundraising and American Indian Identities at Bacone College, 1880-1941

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Lisa K.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, American Indian education in the United States was inextricably linked to Euro-American colonialism. By the late nineteenth century, many Euro-Americans thought Native Americans were a "vanishing race," and schools for Indians incorporated this belief into their design. In the United States, the large number and variety of schools…

  17. 29 CFR 778.6 - Effect of Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors performing construction activity on Federal and federally assisted projects. Laborers and mechanics performing work subject to such predetermined minimum... the Fair Labor Standards Act to such laborers and mechanics in any workweek when they are subject...

  18. 29 CFR 778.6 - Effect of Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors performing construction activity on Federal and federally assisted projects. Laborers and mechanics performing work subject to such predetermined minimum... the Fair Labor Standards Act to such laborers and mechanics in any workweek when they are subject...

  19. 29 CFR 778.6 - Effect of Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors performing construction activity on Federal and federally assisted projects. Laborers and mechanics performing work subject to such predetermined minimum... the Fair Labor Standards Act to such laborers and mechanics in any workweek when they are subject...

  20. 29 CFR 778.6 - Effect of Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors performing construction activity on Federal and federally assisted projects. Laborers and mechanics performing work subject to such predetermined minimum... the Fair Labor Standards Act to such laborers and mechanics in any workweek when they are subject...

  1. Characteristics of a cream of cheese with bacon frozen soup concentrate.

    PubMed

    Brown, C; Holmes, Z A; Soeldner, A

    1981-08-01

    The starch granules of both Purity W, a modified waxy cornstarch, and wheat flour were affected by processing, refrigeration, freezing, and reheating. The major change in starch granules shown by scanning electron micrographs was the trend towards greater deformation of the starch granule and, apparently, subsequent greater homogeneity of the mixture. Sensory evaluation revealed a statistically significant difference (p of less than 0.05) only in overall acceptability of the fresh vs. the frozen soup. The other quality characteristics of texture acceptability, consistency, and syneresis were not statistically (p of less than 0.05) different.

  2. Ethics in Technical Communication. The Allyn & Bacon Series in Technical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Paul

    Arguing that ethics is an important part of technical communication, this book discusses ethics in the broad sense including not only the act of communication but also where technical information came from and how it likely will be used. It is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate audiences, and assumes some familiarity with technical…

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requested. (c) The Contracting Officer will adjust the contract price or contract unit price labor rates to... decreases in wages and fringe benefits as described in paragraph (c) of this clause, and the accompanying.... Example: Asphalt Paving—Current Price $3.38 per Square Yard DBA craft New WD Hourly rate paid Diff....

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requested. (c) The Contracting Officer will adjust the contract price or contract unit price labor rates to... decreases in wages and fringe benefits as described in paragraph (c) of this clause, and the accompanying.... Example: Asphalt Paving—Current Price $3.38 per Square Yard DBA craft New WD Hourly rate paid Diff....

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requested. (c) The Contracting Officer will adjust the contract price or contract unit price labor rates to... decreases in wages and fringe benefits as described in paragraph (c) of this clause, and the accompanying.... Example: Asphalt Paving—Current Price $3.38 per Square Yard DBA craft New WD Hourly rate paid Diff....

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requested. (c) The Contracting Officer will adjust the contract price or contract unit price labor rates to... decreases in wages and fringe benefits as described in paragraph (c) of this clause, and the accompanying.... Example: Asphalt Paving—Current Price $3.38 per Square Yard DBA craft New WD Hourly rate paid Diff....

  7. 29 CFR 778.6 - Effect of Davis-Bacon Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors performing construction activity on Federal and federally assisted projects. Laborers and mechanics performing work subject to such predetermined minimum... the Fair Labor Standards Act to such laborers and mechanics in any workweek when they are subject...

  8. Bringing Home the Bacon? The Myth of the Role of Corporate Hog Farming in Rural Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    As rural communities decline due to job losses in agriculture and other industries, they often aggressively court new industries. In such circumstances, a community should question what a proposed new industry will require in terms of infrastructure; the effects of the new labor force on schools, businesses, and housing; the impact on the…

  9. Mineral oil vacuum distillation method for nitrosamines in fried bacon, with thermal energy analyzer: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, E L; Smith, W J; Malanoski, A J; Benson, M; Fiddler, W; Grabber, M; Herring, H; Hill, K; Legette, L; Meyer, K A; Robach, M; Wolfe, M

    1982-11-01

    Nine laboratories participated in a collaborative study of a method for determining 6 nitrosamines, dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, dibutylnitrosamine, nitrosopiperidine, nitrosopyrrolidine, and nitrosomorpholine, in the 5-17 ppb range. The coefficients of variation for repeatability were 10.8, 8.5, 10.4, 8.5, 8.7, and 7.8% with corresponding coefficients of variation for reproducibility of 16.4, 12.0, 13.6, 10.8, 11.2, and 10.3% and recoveries of 89.6, 91.6, 84.7, 90.0, 89.6, and 88.1%, respectively. The method was adopted official first action. PMID:7174575

  10. 48 CFR 22.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations apply only to those laborers and mechanics employed by a contractor upon the site of the work including drivers who transport to or from the site materials and equipment used in the course of contract..., and residential (referred to as rate schedules), and apply only to the types of...

  11. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...-0650, or via email Edward.loeb@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Government contracting... is used by Government contracting officers to establish the contract price adjustment for the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Oral Presentations for Technical Communication. The Allyn and Bacon Series in Technical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurak, Laura J.

    Integrating theory and practice, this book is designed to teach presentation skills to students of technical communication, whose careers will involve making complex scientific and technical information accessible to a variety of audiences (including lay audiences). It focuses exclusively on technical communication and provides a rich,…

  13. Mercury and sulphur among the High Medieval alchemists: from Rāzī and Avicenna to Albertus Magnus and pseudo-Roger Bacon.

    PubMed

    Newman, William R

    2014-11-01

    This essay challenges the often expressed view that the principles of metals, namely mercury and sulphur, were generally viewed by alchemists as being of a 'metaphysical' character that made them inaccessible to the tools and operations of the laboratory. By examining a number of Arabo-Latin and Latin alchemical texts in circulation before the end of the thirteenth century, the author presents evidence that most alchemists of the period considered mercury and sulphur to be materials subject to techniques of purification in the same way that naturally occurring salts and minerals could be freed of their impurities or dross. The article also points to the immense influence of Avicenna and Albertus Magnus in formulating the theory that mercury and sulphur were compounds of different materials, containing both fixed and unfixed components. Finally, the author briefly examines the relationship between this materialist approach to the principles and the chymical atomism of early modern authors who were deeply aware of medieval alchemical literature. PMID:25509633

  14. Mercury and sulphur among the High Medieval alchemists: from Rāzī and Avicenna to Albertus Magnus and pseudo-Roger Bacon.

    PubMed

    Newman, William R

    2014-11-01

    This essay challenges the often expressed view that the principles of metals, namely mercury and sulphur, were generally viewed by alchemists as being of a 'metaphysical' character that made them inaccessible to the tools and operations of the laboratory. By examining a number of Arabo-Latin and Latin alchemical texts in circulation before the end of the thirteenth century, the author presents evidence that most alchemists of the period considered mercury and sulphur to be materials subject to techniques of purification in the same way that naturally occurring salts and minerals could be freed of their impurities or dross. The article also points to the immense influence of Avicenna and Albertus Magnus in formulating the theory that mercury and sulphur were compounds of different materials, containing both fixed and unfixed components. Finally, the author briefly examines the relationship between this materialist approach to the principles and the chymical atomism of early modern authors who were deeply aware of medieval alchemical literature.

  15. 48 CFR 970.2204-1-1 - Administrative controls and criteria for application of the Davis-Bacon Act in operational or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... strength of structural members). (5) Experimental work in connection with peaceful uses of nuclear energy... peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These tests or experiments are varied in nature and some are only in a... or experiments in military uses of nuclear energy. As in 970.2204-1-1(c)(4), these tests...

  16. 48 CFR 970.2204-1-1 - Administrative controls and criteria for application of the Davis-Bacon Act in operational or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... strength of structural members). (5) Experimental work in connection with peaceful uses of nuclear energy... peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These tests or experiments are varied in nature and some are only in a... or experiments in military uses of nuclear energy. As in 970.2204-1-1(c)(4), these tests...

  17. 48 CFR 970.2204-1-1 - Administrative controls and criteria for application of the Davis-Bacon Act in operational or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... strength of structural members). (5) Experimental work in connection with peaceful uses of nuclear energy... peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These tests or experiments are varied in nature and some are only in a... or experiments in military uses of nuclear energy. As in 970.2204-1-1(c)(4), these tests...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2204-1-1 - Administrative controls and criteria for application of the Davis-Bacon Act in operational or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... strength of structural members). (5) Experimental work in connection with peaceful uses of nuclear energy... peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These tests or experiments are varied in nature and some are only in a... or experiments in military uses of nuclear energy. As in 970.2204-1-1(c)(4), these tests...

  19. 48 CFR 970.2204-1-1 - Administrative controls and criteria for application of the Davis-Bacon Act in operational or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... strength of structural members). (5) Experimental work in connection with peaceful uses of nuclear energy... peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These tests or experiments are varied in nature and some are only in a... or experiments in military uses of nuclear energy. As in 970.2204-1-1(c)(4), these tests...

  20. 9 CFR 424.22 - Certain other permitted uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., other than those specified in a regulation permitting that use in this chapter or in 21 CFR Chapter I... skin-free green weight of the bacon bellies. (3) Bacon made with dry curing materials. With respect to... based on the actual or estimated skin-free green weight of the bacon belly. (c) Irradiation of meat...

  1. Casing Tier 529.887-020; Sausage Packer; Skin Peeler 525.884-050; Sliced-Bacon Packer II; Packer 920.887-114 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. "Extreme Bold" in the Faculty Ranks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Boldness, defense, and the necessity of talking back remain as central to life with disability in one's time as in Francis Bacon's age. "Therefore all deformed persons are extreme bold," Bacon wrote, "first, as in their own defence, as being exposed to scorn, but in process of time, by a general habit." Perhaps no word carries more weight in the…

  3. The Great Instauration: Restoring Professional and Technical Writing to the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Renzo, Anthony

    If you wish to start an undergraduate professional and technical writing (PTW) program at a small liberal arts college, you will find good arguments for your project in the educational writings of Sir Francis Bacon. This paper gathers some of Bacon's educational ideas from various writings and applies them to the five stages of undergraduate…

  4. The Recognition of Phonologically Assimilated Words Does Not Depend on Specific Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitterer, Holger; Csepe, Valeria; Honbolygo, Ferenc; Blomert, Leo

    2006-01-01

    In a series of 5 experiments, we investigated whether the processing of phonologically assimilated utterances is influenced by language learning. Previous experiments had shown that phonological assimilations, such as /lean#bacon/ [right arrow] [leam bacon], are compensated for in perception. In this article, we investigated whether compensation…

  5. Trust Us to Do What We Do Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this article Pat Bacon, President of the Association of Colleges, discusses the estimated 200 million British Pounds cut to colleges' adult course budgets. With no flexibility to transfer money from one budget to another, colleges are having to face up to course closures and the threat of redundancies. Bacon contends that it's time ministers…

  6. 78 FR 15377 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Requests To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Benefit Plans Under the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts and Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act...; Requests To Approve Conformed Wage Classifications and Unconventional Fringe Benefit Plans Under the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts and Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  7. 48 CFR 22.407 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or Separately Specified Pricing Method), in solicitations and contracts if the contract is expected to be— (1) A fixed-price contract subject to the Davis-Bacon Act that will contain option provisions... (2) A cost-reimbursable type contract subject to the Davis-Bacon Act that will contain...

  8. 48 CFR 22.407 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or Separately Specified Pricing Method), in solicitations and contracts if the contract is expected to be— (1) A fixed-price contract subject to the Davis-Bacon Act that will contain option provisions... (2) A cost-reimbursable type contract subject to the Davis-Bacon Act that will contain...

  9. 48 CFR 22.403-4 - Department of Labor regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Division, or administrative law judges under the Davis-Bacon Act, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards... 22.403 and Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950 (3 CFR 1949-53 Comp., p. 1007), the Secretary of Labor... of weekly payroll records; (3) Part 5, relating to enforcement of the Davis-Bacon Act, Contract...

  10. 19. DETAIL, METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM WEST, SHOWING SIMPLE ORNAMENTATION OF BASE OF STANDARD, WITH 'UNION METAL' IMPRINT - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  11. 16. DETAIL, WEST PARAPET, FROM EAST, SHOWING SIMPLY ORNAMENTED SOLID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL, WEST PARAPET, FROM EAST, SHOWING SIMPLY ORNAMENTED SOLID PARAPET PANEL AT STIFF TOWER, SUPPORTING ORIGINAL METAL LIGHT STANDARD - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  12. 4. DECK VIEW, FROM NORTH, INCLUDING PARAPETS WITH METAL LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DECK VIEW, FROM NORTH, INCLUDING PARAPETS WITH METAL LIGHT STANDARDS, AND SINGLE SIDEWALK, AT EAST SIDE OF DECK - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  13. 18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ORIGINAL LIGHT STANDARD, WITH REPLACEMENT BRACKET AND COBRA-HEAD LAMP - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  14. 7. PARTIAL ELEVATION, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING DOUBLESPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PARTIAL ELEVATION, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING DOUBLE-SPAN REINFORCED CONCRETE RIGID FRAME AS BASIC STRUCTURAL UNIT OF BRIDGE - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  15. 47. PLANS FOR EXISTING THREESPAN PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. PLANS FOR EXISTING THREE-SPAN PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL AT 25TH AVENUE Plan Sheet D-5117 (delineated by R. H. Bacon, April 1939) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. The Great Instauration: Restoring Professional and Technical Writing to the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Renzo, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Gathers some of Sir Francis Bacon's educational ideas from his various writings and applies them to the five stages of undergraduate professional and technical writing program development: planning, implementation, mission, design and development, staffing, and administration. (SG)

  17. 20 CFR 632.81 - Payments to participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the implementing regulations in 29 CFR parts 1, 3, 5, and 7. (c) Payment of allowances. (1) A basic... afforded to similarly employed non-JTPA workers. (3) Davis-Bacon wages. All laborers and mechanics...

  18. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  19. Continental drift before 1900.

    PubMed

    Rupke, N A

    1970-07-25

    The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event.

  20. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from foods that are always high in salt. Some common ones are: Processed foods, such as cured or smoked meats, bacon, hot dogs, sausage, bologna, ham, and salami ... salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon ...

  1. Choose More than 50 Ways to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacon). They are high in salt. Cook in style, Kyle. 25. Cook with a mix of spices ... Care Professionals Community Outreach and Health Fairs Health Communication Programs FAQs About NIDDK Meet the Director Offices & ...

  2. Living with Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... pork, lamb, and processed meat (such as hot dogs, sausage, and bacon); and low in high-fat ... ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer ...

  3. Doser study in Maryland coastal plain: Use of lime doser to mitigate stream acidification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W.; Fischer, S.A.; Killen, W.D.; Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Klauda, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of the 1991 doser study was to determine the efficacy of automated lime slurry dosers to neutralize acidic pulses and improve water quality in Bacon Ridge Branch and Mattawoman Creek; measure physicochemical responses of Bacon Ridge Branch, Mattawoman Creek and Faulkner Branch to rain events and determine the use of the above three streams, North River, and Tull Branch for spawning by yellow perch, white perch, alewife and blueback herring.

  4. The history of life and death: a 'spiritual' history from invisible matter to prolongation of life.

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Benedino

    2012-01-01

    Over a long period of time, particularly from the nineteenth century on, Francis Bacon's philosophy has been interpreted as centred on the Novum organum and focused on the role that a well-organized method may play in securing a reliable knowledge of nature. In fact, if we examine Bacon's oeuvre as a whole, including some recent manuscript findings (De vijs mortis), we can safely argue that the issues addressed in the Novum organum represent only a part of Bacon's agenda, and not even the most important ones. By contrast, it is apparent that, from the very beginning of his investigations, he emphasized the central role of medicine, the need to establish new approaches in the study of the vital functions and the importance of promoting new discoveries in the medical field, not so much to find a cure for the many illnesses that plagued mankind as to prolong human life. In this sense, Historia vitae et mortis plays a central role in Bacon's programme to extend human knowledge and power, for, in his opinion, human beings could recover their lost ability to live a long and healthy life by embarking on careful investigations of nature. Far from being a purely descriptive or abstract exercise, Bacon's historia can therefore be seen as an operative tool to attain some of mankind's basic aims. PMID:22702169

  5. The history of life and death: a 'spiritual' history from invisible matter to prolongation of life.

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Benedino

    2012-01-01

    Over a long period of time, particularly from the nineteenth century on, Francis Bacon's philosophy has been interpreted as centred on the Novum organum and focused on the role that a well-organized method may play in securing a reliable knowledge of nature. In fact, if we examine Bacon's oeuvre as a whole, including some recent manuscript findings (De vijs mortis), we can safely argue that the issues addressed in the Novum organum represent only a part of Bacon's agenda, and not even the most important ones. By contrast, it is apparent that, from the very beginning of his investigations, he emphasized the central role of medicine, the need to establish new approaches in the study of the vital functions and the importance of promoting new discoveries in the medical field, not so much to find a cure for the many illnesses that plagued mankind as to prolong human life. In this sense, Historia vitae et mortis plays a central role in Bacon's programme to extend human knowledge and power, for, in his opinion, human beings could recover their lost ability to live a long and healthy life by embarking on careful investigations of nature. Far from being a purely descriptive or abstract exercise, Bacon's historia can therefore be seen as an operative tool to attain some of mankind's basic aims.

  6. Res, veluti per machinas, conficiatur: natural history and the 'mechanical' reform of natural philosophy.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits Bacon's persistent 'mechanical' imagery by which he described the 'aid' through which the human mind would be rendered adequate to framing axioms about nature's processes and properties that underlie all natural phenomena. It argues that the role Bacon ascribed to his own insights into the properties and motions of matter is crucial for grasping such instrumental imagery, because his own writings--both methodological and natural historical--need to be read as themselves comprising, at least in incipient form, the very instruments of which they speak. From that reflexive standpoint, this paper in particular focuses on the 'aid' to the senses that his natural histories were to have offered under the interpretative guidance offered by the Novum organum and other works. The 'hypothetical' status to which Bacon is often thought to have accorded his own natural philosophical insights does not adequately take into account the transformative power Bacon thought these insights should have through his own writings. The fact that Bacon was keenly sensitive to the psychological effects of textual authority in his intellectual milieu prompts new reflection concerning how he intended his own texts to be read, and how we should read them.

  7. Effects of ground flaxseed in swine diets on pig performance and on physical and sensory characteristics and omega-3 fatty acid content of pork: II. Duration of 15% dietary flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Romans, J R; Wulf, D M; Johnson, R C; Libal, G W; Costello, W J

    1995-07-01

    Four barrows and four gilts were assigned to each of five dietary treatments: a control (CO) diet or a 15% flaxseed (FS) diet fed for 7, 14, 21, or 28 d prior to slaughter. Flaxseed treatments did not affect any production or carcass traits (P > .10). No pork processing problems due to lack of firmness were encountered. Amounts (milligrams/gram of tissue) and percentages of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA [18: 3n-3]), arachidonic acid (AA [20:4n-6]), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA [20:5n-3]) increased (P < .001) in both backfat layers and in kidney (leaf) fat and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA [22:6n-3]) increased (P < .006) in the middle/inner backfat layer after FS. The effects of dietary FS on fatty acid profiles were maintained in lard and pastry. Alpha-linolenic acid, AA, and EPA increased (P < .001) and DHA increased (P < .021) in the raw belly in response to FS; the effect was maintained throughout processing to microwaved bacon. Percentage of oleic acid (OA [18:1n-9]) decreased (P < .016) in raw bellies after FS. Alpha-linolenic acid and EPA increased (P < .001) with duration of FS in longissimus thoracis and liver neutral lipids, polar lipids, and combined lipid fractions, but DHA increased (P < .004) only in longissimus thoracis polar and combined lipid fractions. Arachidonic acid decreased in the longissimus thoracis polar lipid fractions (P < .037) and in liver neutral (P < .01) and combined lipid fractions (P < .006) with FS. All ALA:AA and EPA:AA ratios increased (P < .001 to P < .048) with increased duration of FS (except ALA:AA in pastry [P = .56]). Processing of bellies into bacon and storing at -18 degrees C for 6 wk did not cause thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values to exceed a value of 1.0 after either the CO or FS diets. After microwaving bacon when TBA values approached 2.0, there was no FS dietary effect on TBA values. Trained panelists rated FS bacon more flavor-intense than CO bacon and recorded more flavor defects for FS bacon. A 105-member consumer

  8. Learning to Trust Our Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Thayer-Bacon uses this opportunity to further explore Ranciere's ideas concerning equality as described in "The Ignorant Schoolmaster" and their connection to democracy, as he explains in "Hatred of Democracy". For Ranciere, intelligence and equality are synonymous terms, just as reason and will are synonymous terms. Ranciere recommends the only…

  9. Naturalizing Science: Two Episodes in the Evolution of a Rhetoric of Scientism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that religious themes persist in the public rhetoric of science, but that they have been transposed into an evolutionary symbolism. Examines the discourse of two practitioners of scientism, Francis Bacon and Jacob Bronowski, to illustrate the religious features of scientism and to show the continuity of the ideological work that it has…

  10. 20 CFR 655.10 - Determination of prevailing wage for temporary labor certification purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... temporary labor certification purposes. 655.10 Section 655.10 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., 29 CFR part 1, or the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act, 41 U.S.C... job opportunity is covered by professional sports league rules or regulations, the wage set forth...

  11. Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services, Fall 2001-Spring 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Barbara J., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These journal articles, which address the education of students with physical disabilities, include the following: (1) an interview with Jim Silcock, a Joan Wald Bacon Award Recipient for 2000; (2) Students with Orthopedic Impairments in the General Education Classroom: A Survey of Teacher Roles and Responsibilities (Alison M. Stafford and…

  12. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination in the area under the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., 29 CFR part 1, or the McNamara-O... and investigation in the sciences, social sciences, or humanities. Applied research is research to... and investigation in the sciences, social sciences, or humanities. (2) Nonprofit organization...

  13. 76 FR 48181 - Proposed Extension of the Approval of Information Collection Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) approval of the Information Collection: Davis-Bacon Certified Payroll. A copy of... assisted construction. The Copeland Act (40 U.S.C. 3145) requires the Secretary of Labor to prescribe reasonable regulations for contractors and subcontractors engaged in construction work subject to...

  14. 76 FR 5375 - Submission for OMB Review; Request for Authorization of Additional Classification and Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ....5(a)(1)(i), 5.5(c), and 5.15 (records to be kept by employers under the Fair Labor Standards Act... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose This regulation prescribes labor standards for Federally financed and assisted construction contracts subject to the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts (DBRA), as well as...

  15. 75 FR 68608 - Information Collection; Request for Authorization of Additional Classification and Rate, Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...(c), and 5.15 (records to be kept by employers under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 CFR 516... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose This regulation prescribes labor standards for federally financed and assisted construction contracts subject to the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts (DBRA), as well as...

  16. Steer consumption and ergovaline recovery from in vitro digested residues of tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by cattle producers. These toxins are concentrated within seedheads of tall fescue tillers, which...

  17. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by livestock producers. While these toxins are often concentrated within the seedheads, there has...

  18. 38 CFR 41.320 - Report submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... auditee qualified as a low-risk auditee under § 41.530. (viii) The dollar threshold used to distinguish...) Activities allowed or unallowed. (B) Allowable costs/cost principles. (C) Cash management. (D) Davis-Bacon Act. (E) Eligibility. (F) Equipment and real property management. (G) Matching, level of...

  19. Continental drift before 1900.

    PubMed

    Rupke, N A

    1970-07-25

    The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event. PMID:16057953

  20. Philosophy and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  1. 29 CFR 5.28 - Unfunded plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unfunded plans. 5.28 Section 5.28 Labor Office of the... the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.28 Unfunded plans. (a) The costs to a contractor or subcontractor which may be... commitment to carry out a financially responsible plan or program, are considered fringe benefits within...

  2. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sausage containing pork muscle tissue, and pork such as bacon and jowls, other than those covered by..., containing pork muscle tissue (not including pork hearts, pork stomachs, and pork livers), or the pork muscle...) Heating. (i) All parts of the pork muscle tissue shall be heated according to one of the time...

  3. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sausage containing pork muscle tissue, and pork such as bacon and jowls, other than those covered by..., containing pork muscle tissue (not including pork hearts, pork stomachs, and pork livers), or the pork muscle...) Heating. (i) All parts of the pork muscle tissue shall be heated according to one of the time...

  4. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sausage containing pork muscle tissue, and pork such as bacon and jowls, other than those covered by..., containing pork muscle tissue (not including pork hearts, pork stomachs, and pork livers), or the pork muscle...) Heating. (i) All parts of the pork muscle tissue shall be heated according to one of the time...

  5. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sausage containing pork muscle tissue, and pork such as bacon and jowls, other than those covered by..., containing pork muscle tissue (not including pork hearts, pork stomachs, and pork livers), or the pork muscle...) Heating. (i) All parts of the pork muscle tissue shall be heated according to one of the time...

  6. 24 CFR 242.55 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under this part (except under 24 CFR 242.91) must comply with the prevailing wage rates determined under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 3141 et seq.), and U.S. Department of Labor regulations in 29 CFR parts... mortgages insured under section 242 of the National Housing Act. (b) The requirements stated in 24 CFR...

  7. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 327). (d) Volunteers. The requirements in 24 CFR part 70 concerning exemptions for the use of... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen...

  8. 24 CFR 1000.16 - What labor standards are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327). (d) Volunteers. The requirements in 24 CFR part 70 concerning... Secretary of Labor under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics... shall be paid to maintenance laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to...

  9. 24 CFR 242.55 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under this part (except under 24 CFR 242.91) must comply with the prevailing wage rates determined under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 3141 et seq.), and U.S. Department of Labor regulations in 29 CFR parts... mortgages insured under section 242 of the National Housing Act. (b) The requirements stated in 24 CFR...

  10. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 327). (d) Volunteers. The requirements in 24 CFR part 70 concerning exemptions for the use of... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen...

  11. Utopias past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, David J.; Blain, Barry

    2016-05-01

    In reply to Robert P Crease's article “Diversifying utopia” (March p29, http://ow.ly/104lZw), which discussed the near-absence of women in the novel New Atlantis, which was written in the 17th century by the natural philosopher Francis Bacon.

  12. 24 CFR 70.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... construction or maintenance work for which the individual volunteers. (b) Expenses, reasonable benefits, or... VOLUNTEERS ON PROJECTS SUBJECT TO DAVIS-BACON AND HUD-DETERMINED WAGE RATES § 70.3 Definitions. (a) A volunteer, for purposes of this part, is an individual who performs service for a public or private...

  13. 24 CFR 70.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... construction or maintenance work for which the individual volunteers. (b) Expenses, reasonable benefits, or... VOLUNTEERS ON PROJECTS SUBJECT TO DAVIS-BACON AND HUD-DETERMINED WAGE RATES § 70.3 Definitions. (a) A volunteer, for purposes of this part, is an individual who performs service for a public or private...

  14. 24 CFR 70.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... construction or maintenance work for which the individual volunteers. (b) Expenses, reasonable benefits, or... VOLUNTEERS ON PROJECTS SUBJECT TO DAVIS-BACON AND HUD-DETERMINED WAGE RATES § 70.3 Definitions. (a) A volunteer, for purposes of this part, is an individual who performs service for a public or private...

  15. Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian Resistance in Seventeenth-Century Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    In August 1676 Nathaniel Bacon brought his campaign to "ruin and extirpate all Indians in general" to the Green Dragon Swamp on the upper Pamunkey River. While there, he attacked and massacred nearly fifty Pamunkey Indians, who had been at peace with the government of Virginia for thirty years. Having once formed the backbone of the mighty…

  16. Re-Examining Evidence for the Use of Independent Relational Representations during Conceptual Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.; Ji, Hongbo

    2005-01-01

    In a recent study of conceptual combination, Estes (2003) presented evidence for the priming of relational information in the absence of shared constituents between the prime and target (e.g., "pancake spatula" was interpreted more quickly following "bacon tongs" than following "city riots"). He argued that these data support the view that…

  17. 29 CFR 5.28 - Unfunded plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Unfunded plans. 5.28 Section 5.28 Labor Office of the... the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.28 Unfunded plans. (a) The costs to a contractor or subcontractor which may be... commitment to carry out a financially responsible plan or program, are considered fringe benefits within...

  18. The Role of The "Other" in Reflection, Knowledge Formation and Action in A Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Reflection has long been an aspiration in education, from Aristotles Nicamachean Ethics, through Bacons (1605) Advancement of Learning and later articulated by John Dewey. Schon's reflective practitioner underpins the ethos in the professional training of teachers in the UK. This paper reviews approaches to reflection in learning and argues that…

  19. View of Dry Falls Dam Powerhouse (right) and headgates to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Dry Falls Dam Powerhouse (right) and headgates to Main Canal (left) leading to Bacon Siphon and on to Billy Clapp Lake, looking northeast - Columbia Basin Project, Banks Lake Dry Falls Dam & Main Canal Headworks, South end of Banks Lake, Northwest of Coulee City, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  20. 29 CFR 5.26 - “* * * contribution irrevocably made * * * to a trustee or to a third person”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT) Interpretation of the Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.26... (section 1(b)(2) of the Act) the amount of contributions for fringe benefits must be made to a trustee or... trustees by applicable law. The trust or fund must be set up in such a way that in no event will...

  1. Solving the Puzzle of <100> Interstitial Loop Formation in bcc Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Haixuan; Stoller, Roger E; Osetskiy, Yury N; Terentyev, Dmitry A

    2013-01-01

    Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, Center for Defect Physics, an Energy Frontier Research Center. The authors would like to thank G. M. Stocks, D. J. Bacon, and A. Barashev for their valuable comments on the manuscript.

  2. 21. DETAIL, METAL MANHOLE COVER IN DECK NEAR EAST PARAPET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL, METAL MANHOLE COVER IN DECK NEAR EAST PARAPET, SHOWING ROUND MANHOLE COVER, WITH SIMPLE GEOMETRIC ORNAMENTATION AND CENTRAL STYLIZED 'RBC' (RICHMOND BRIDGE CORPORATION) INSIGNIA - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  3. The Voices of English Women Technical Writers, 1641-1700: Imprints in the Evolution of Modern English Prose Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebeaux, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Examines the style of early women technical writers to show that plain English existed before Sir Francis Bacon and received its impetus from the utilitarian attitude that pervaded the 1475-1700 period. Finds that technical communication studied from this historical perspective deepens students' awareness of technical communication's roots in the…

  4. 7 CFR 1007.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRAIRIE 05117 0.10 AR PULASKI 05119 0.10 AR RANDOLPH 05121 0.10 AR SAINT FRANCIS 05123 0.10 AR SALINE... BACON 13005 1.15 GA BAKER 13007 0.85 GA BALDWIN 13009 0.70 GA BANKS 13011 0.70 GA BARROW 13013 0.70...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRAIRIE 05117 0.10 AR PULASKI 05119 0.10 AR RANDOLPH 05121 0.10 AR SAINT FRANCIS 05123 0.10 AR SALINE... BACON 13005 1.15 GA BAKER 13007 0.85 GA BALDWIN 13009 0.70 GA BANKS 13011 0.70 GA BARROW 13013 0.70...

  6. Home Economics as an Academic Discipline: A Short History. Topical Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Marie Negri

    The history of the home economics curriculum is traced from the late nineteenth century. The importance of the ideas of Sir Francis Bacon and Count Rumford in providing the philosophical justification for the application of science to everyday living is emphasized. The establishment of land grant colleges and women's colleges in the nineteenth…

  7. Binary Arithmetic From Hariot (CA, 1600 A.D.) to the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Anton

    This history of binary arithmetic begins with details of Thomas Hariot's contribution and includes specific references to Hariot's manuscripts kept at the British Museum. A binary code developed by Sir Francis Bacon is discussed. Briefly mentioned are contributions to binary arithmetic made by Leibniz, Fontenelle, Gauss, Euler, Benzout, Barlow,…

  8. Science Centres and Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie J.; McClafferty, Terence P.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the interactive science center and its history over the last four decades. Traces the original idea to Francis Bacon. Recommends the use of cross-site studies to develop a model of learning in this setting. Contains 141 references. (DDR)

  9. 7 CFR 1007.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRAIRIE 05117 0.10 AR PULASKI 05119 0.10 AR RANDOLPH 05121 0.10 AR SAINT FRANCIS 05123 0.10 AR SALINE... BACON 13005 1.15 GA BAKER 13007 0.85 GA BALDWIN 13009 0.70 GA BANKS 13011 0.70 GA BARROW 13013 0.70...

  10. Biography as an Art: Selected Criticism 1560-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, James L., Ed.

    Forty-seven essays from five centuries of writings on biography are contained in this book. Selections are arranged under the following headings: "Before 1700" (9 selections), "The Eighteenth Century" (5), "The Nineteenth Century" (11), "Early Twentieth Century" (14), and "Mid-Twentieth Century" (8). Authors range from Francis Bacon to Leon Edel.…

  11. Philosophy in Context: Reply to Trohler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper responds to Trohler's charge that my paper "As if by Machinery: The levelling of educational research" takes Francis Bacon's vision of scientific research out of context. I distinguish four senses of "decontextualisation": as ignorance, as belief in "timeless truths", as comparison of contexts, and as genealogy. I argue that Trohler has…

  12. Making Real Virtual Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Harry E.; Keller, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Francis Bacon began defining scientific methodology in the early 17th century, and secondary school science classes began to implement science labs in the mid-19th century. By the early 20th century, leading educators were suggesting that science labs be used to develop scientific thinking habits in young students, and at the beginning of the 21st…

  13. Scholarship and Scholarly Communication in the Electronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodorow, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses scholarly communication and economic factors that are affecting it. Highlights include a history of the scholarly community beginning with Francis Bacon; price increases that affected library budgets; relationships between faculty and universities; expansion of higher education; and use of the World Wide Web for scholarly communication.…

  14. What Teachers Can Learn from the Practice of Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article considers how primary teachers can learn from the practice of artists in their own teaching of art. Fundamental to artistic practice is the notion of practising with various materials and tools. In the article I look at some children's images, as well as scrutinising some statements made by the painter Francis Bacon. The practices of…

  15. As if by Machinery: The Levelling of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Much current educational research shows the influence of two powerful but potentially pernicious lines of thought. The first, which can be traced at least as far back as Francis Bacon, is the ambition to formulate precise techniques of research, or "research methods", which can be applied reliably irrespective of the talent of the researcher. The…

  16. Utopia e Educacao no Renascimento (Utopia and Education in the Renaissance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Joao Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Discusses education in utopian ideas of the Renaissance, privileging Thomas More's "Utopia," Tommaso Campanella's "City of the Sun," and Francis Bacon's "Nova Atlantis." Analyzes the importance Renaissance utopian thinkers had in the process of the construction of modern educational thinking, explaining how these authors dealt with education. (BT)

  17. 7 CFR 1007.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRAIRIE 05117 0.10 AR PULASKI 05119 0.10 AR RANDOLPH 05121 0.10 AR SAINT FRANCIS 05123 0.10 AR SALINE... BACON 13005 1.15 GA BAKER 13007 0.85 GA BALDWIN 13009 0.70 GA BANKS 13011 0.70 GA BARROW 13013 0.70...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.570 - Construction financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Davis-Bacon Act (published in the Department of Labor regulations 29 CFR parts 1, 2, and 5). ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Construction financing. 3560.570 Section 3560.570... financing. The requirements established in § 3560.71 apply to all applications involving off-farm...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.570 - Construction financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Davis-Bacon Act (published in the Department of Labor regulations 29 CFR parts 1, 2, and 5). ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction financing. 3560.570 Section 3560.570... financing. The requirements established in § 3560.71 apply to all applications involving off-farm...

  20. 24 CFR 1006.345 - Labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 327). (d) Volunteers. The requirements in 24 CFR part 70 concerning exemptions for the use of... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen...

  1. 24 CFR 1000.16 - What labor standards are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327). (d) Volunteers. The requirements in 24 CFR part 70 concerning... Secretary of Labor under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics... shall be paid to maintenance laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to...

  2. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 226 - Contract Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 11246 Relating to Equal Employment Opportunity,” and as supplemented by regulations at 41 CFR Chapter 60... regulations (29 CFR part 3, “Contractors and Subcontractors on Public Building or Public Work Financed in...-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to a-7) and as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part...

  3. Struggling for a New Identity: A Critique of the Curriculum Research Effort in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuga, Karen F.

    Historically, technology education evolved from several strands: Bacon's realism, Pestalozzi's belief in the practical application of knowledge, Rousseau's naturalism, Herbart's sense realism, Dewey's progressive and social reconstructionist thinking, and the influence of vocationalism. The mainstream practice of industrial arts was more a study…

  4. 48 CFR Appendix A to Part 2904 - Appendix A to Part 2904

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Proposed Federal Construction* 29 CFR 1.4 Annually; 20-Aug ESA Davis Bacon. Contractor Report of Government... Achievements Report* DLMS 2 1000 By the 20th of each month Office of Small Business Programs. A-76 & FAIR Act Inventory FAIR ACT & OMB MEMO June 30th of each year Office of Competitive Sourcing. SF 294,...

  5. 48 CFR Appendix A to Part 2904 - Appendix A to Part 2904

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Proposed Federal Construction* 29 CFR 1.4 Annually; 20-Aug ESA Davis Bacon. Contractor Report of Government... Achievements Report* DLMS 2 1000 By the 20th of each month Office of Small Business Programs. A-76 & FAIR Act Inventory FAIR ACT & OMB MEMO June 30th of each year Office of Competitive Sourcing. SF 294,...

  6. 48 CFR Appendix A to Part 2904 - Appendix A to Part 2904

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Proposed Federal Construction* 29 CFR 1.4 Annually; 20-Aug ESA Davis Bacon. Contractor Report of Government... Achievements Report* DLMS 2 1000 By the 20th of each month Office of Small Business Programs. A-76 & FAIR Act Inventory FAIR ACT & OMB MEMO June 30th of each year Office of Competitive Sourcing. SF 294,...

  7. 48 CFR Appendix A to Part 2904 - Appendix A to Part 2904

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Proposed Federal Construction* 29 CFR 1.4 Annually; 20-Aug ESA Davis Bacon. Contractor Report of Government... Achievements Report* DLMS 2 1000 By the 20th of each month Office of Small Business Programs. A-76 & FAIR Act Inventory FAIR ACT & OMB MEMO June 30th of each year Office of Competitive Sourcing. SF 294,...

  8. 48 CFR Appendix A to Part 2904 - Appendix A to Part 2904

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Proposed Federal Construction* 29 CFR 1.4 Annually; 20-Aug ESA Davis Bacon. Contractor Report of Government... Achievements Report* DLMS 2 1000 By the 20th of each month Office of Small Business Programs. A-76 & FAIR Act Inventory FAIR ACT & OMB MEMO June 30th of each year Office of Competitive Sourcing. SF 294,...

  9. 24 CFR 70.5 - Procedure for obtaining HUD waiver of prevailing wage rates for volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of prevailing wage rates for volunteers. 70.5 Section 70.5 Housing and Urban Development Office of... DAVIS-BACON AND HUD-DETERMINED WAGE RATES § 70.5 Procedure for obtaining HUD waiver of prevailing wage... authorized to waive prevailing wage requirements for volunteers, as referenced in § 70.1(b). (b) Local...

  10. 24 CFR 70.4 - Procedure for implementing prevailing wage exemptions for volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prevailing wage exemptions for volunteers. 70.4 Section 70.4 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... AND HUD-DETERMINED WAGE RATES § 70.4 Procedure for implementing prevailing wage exemptions for... otherwise subject to Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined prevailing wage rates which propose to use volunteers...

  11. 29 CFR 1.3 - Obtaining and compiling wage rate information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... also obtain data from agencies on wage rates paid on construction projects under their jurisdiction... to Davis-Bacon prevailing wage requirements, the number of workers employed in each classification on each project, and the respective wage rates paid such workers. (2) Signed collective...

  12. Basal Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Products evaluated in this column are two readiness kits: Readiness Steps (Houghton Mifflin) and Experiences in Reading Readiness (Milton Bradley) plus three text series for the full elementary grade span: Pathfinders (Allyn and Bacon); American Book Reading Program (American Book Company); and Young America Basic Series (Rand McNally). (SJL)

  13. Remedial/Reluctant Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Eight kits or series are reviewed: Headliners I (EMC Corporation); Pacemaker Bestsellers I and II (Fearon-Pitman); Rocket Reading (AIDS); Vistas (Houghton Mifflin); The New Action Unit (Scholastic); Superstars of Soil and Rock (Steck-Vaughn); Super A and Super B (SRA); and Shoptalk: Vocational Reading Skills (Allyn and Bacon). (SJL)

  14. 21 CFR 1404.940 - Disqualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... persons prohibited under— (a) The Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276(a)); (b) The equal employment opportunity acts and Executive orders; or (c) The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7606), Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C....

  15. 21 CFR 1404.940 - Disqualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... persons prohibited under— (a) The Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276(a)); (b) The equal employment opportunity acts and Executive orders; or (c) The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7606), Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C....

  16. 21 CFR 1404.940 - Disqualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... persons prohibited under— (a) The Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276(a)); (b) The equal employment opportunity acts and Executive orders; or (c) The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7606), Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C....

  17. 21 CFR 1404.940 - Disqualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... persons prohibited under— (a) The Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276(a)); (b) The equal employment opportunity acts and Executive orders; or (c) The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7606), Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C....

  18. 21 CFR 1404.940 - Disqualified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... persons prohibited under— (a) The Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276(a)); (b) The equal employment opportunity acts and Executive orders; or (c) The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7606), Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C....

  19. 75 FR 29205 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 0 2. The tables.... Max February 26, 2010 130057 6852P). March 19, 2010; Bacon, Mayor, City of Marietta Daily Smyrna,...

  20. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determination in the area under the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., 29 CFR part 1, or the McNamara-O... and investigation in the sciences, social sciences, or humanities. Applied research is research to... and investigation in the sciences, social sciences, or humanities. (2) Nonprofit organization...

  1. 7 CFR 98.3 - Analyses performed and locations of laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Army GL) Fat, salt, moisture 1 Table 4—Lard and Tallow Analysis Type of analysis Number of samples..., Canned) Fat, salt 1 Schedule BJ (Beef with Natural Juices, Canned) Fat 1 Schedule CS (Canned Meatball... or Sliced Bacon) Moisture, fat, salt 1 Schedule WS (Beef or Wafer Steaks) Fat 1 Table...

  2. Living with the DASH Eating Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... cured food such as bacon and ham. Choose fresh or frozen versus canned fruits and vegetables. Avoid food with added salt, such as pickles, pickled vegetables, olives, and sauerkraut. Avoid instant or flavored ... with salt-free seasoning blends, fresh or dried herbs and spices, or fresh lemon ...

  3. Development of a Content-Valid Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool (SOAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafave, Mark; Katz, Larry; Butterwick, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Content validation of an instrument that measures student performance in OSCE-type practical examinations is a critical step in a tool's overall validity and reliability [Hopkins (1998), "Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation" (8th ed.). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon]. The purpose of the paper is to outline the process employed to…

  4. Brief Report: Cognitive Performance in Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: What Are the Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders include autistic and Asperger's Syndrome (AS), often studied in terms of executive functions (EF), with controversial results. Using Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive theory (PASS; Das et al. in "Assessment of cognitive processes: the PASS theory of intelligence." Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA,…

  5. Gender, Science and Modernity in Seventeenth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    The seventeenth century in England, bounded by the scientific stimulus of Francis Bacon at the beginning and Isaac Newton at the end, seemingly saw a huge leap from the Aristotelian dialectic of the past to a reconstruction of knowledge based on inductive methods, empirical investigation and cooperative research. In mid-century, Puritan reformers…

  6. 29 CFR 5.32 - Overtime payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) under section 1(b)(1) of the Davis-Bacon Act. (See S. Rep. No. 963, p. 7.) Contributions by employees... under existing law. See H. Rep. No. 308, p. 5. (c)(1) The act permits a contractor or subcontractor to.... In this example the regular or basic hourly rate would continue to be $3 an hour. See S. Rep. No....

  7. 29 CFR 5.32 - Overtime payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) under section 1(b)(1) of the Davis-Bacon Act. (See S. Rep. No. 963, p. 7.) Contributions by employees... under existing law. See H. Rep. No. 308, p. 5. (c)(1) The act permits a contractor or subcontractor to.... In this example the regular or basic hourly rate would continue to be $3 an hour. See S. Rep. No....

  8. 24 CFR 983.4 - Cross-reference to other Federal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Davis-Bacon Act, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701-3708), 29 CFR part 5, and... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794). See 24 CFR parts 8 and 9. Protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. See 24 CFR part 5, subpart L. Protection for victims of domestic...

  9. 24 CFR 983.4 - Cross-reference to other Federal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Davis-Bacon Act, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701-3708), 29 CFR part 5, and... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794). See 24 CFR parts 8 and 9. Protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. See 24 CFR part 5, subpart L. Relocation assistance....

  10. 9 CFR 424.23 - Prohibited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 CFR Chapter III. (b) Nitrates. Nitrates shall not be used in curing bacon. ... greater value than it is. Therefore: (1) Paprika or oleoresin paprika may not be used in or on fresh meat... meat consisting of fresh meat (with or without seasoning). (2) Paprika or oleoresin paprika may be...

  11. 75 FR 57974 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ..., Janice Aytes, Michael L. Bacon, Roxana Baldwin, William D. Baroukh, Nader Barr, Suzanne E. Bathurst..., Donna A. Bucher, Steven P. Buckingham, Patricia A. Burke, Richard Butcher, Michael Button, Christopher Cahill, Donna L. Callahan, Mary Ellen Canton, Lynn G. Capps, Michael Carpenter, Dea D. Carter,...

  12. Firearm Advertising: Product Depiction in Consumer Gun Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Elizabeth A.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in "Bacon's Magazine Directory" "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers…

  13. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination in the area under the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., 29 CFR part 1, or the McNamara-O... education and research entities. In computing the prevailing wage for a job opportunity in an occupational classification in an area of intended employment for an employee of an institution of higher education, or...

  14. Scientific Imagination in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stableford, Brian M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between the religious and scientific imaginations as existing between the intellectual realms of unquestioning faith and constant questioning. Relates this conflict to writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g., Bacon, Kepler, Wilkins, Godwin, Harrington, Campanella, Cyrano, Le Bret, Defoe, Swift, Voltiare,…

  15. 'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, Stretton

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

  16. 78 FR 73853 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... facilities: (1) A forebay; (2) an intake structure; (3) a powerhouse containing two generating units with a... utilizing surplus water from the William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam, as directed by the Corps. m. A copy of... notice: (1) A copy of the water quality certification; (2) a copy of the request for...

  17. Oral Interpretation and the Teaching of English: A Collection of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Thomas L., Ed.

    The 10 readings collected in this volume emphasize the value of oral interpretation as an approach to teaching literature in the secondary school. Wallace A. Bacon indicates how the act of interpretation as it is experienced in the reader's mind can recreate the act of literature. Frances L. McCurdy, Margaret M. Neville, and Allen Bales discuss…

  18. Nurturing a Democratic Community in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Thayer-Bacon tells her story in a conversational tone that traces her personal and professional roots as she describes various chapters of her life: first as a philosopher, how she became involved in education, and then how that involvement became a career as a philosopher of education, in a large teacher education program, and now at a research…

  19. Computer Cache. The Web Has Tales to Tell: Traditional Literature Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    "Traditional Literature" is defined by Carl M. Tomlinson and Carol Lynch-Brown in "Essentials of Children's Literature (Allyn and Bacon, 2001) as "the body of ancient stories and poems that grew out of the human quest to understand the natural and spiritual worlds and that was preserved through time by the oral tradition of storytelling before…

  20. 48 CFR 22.406-13 - Semiannual enforcement reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts... enforcement of the construction labor standards requirements of the Davis-Bacon Act and Contract Work Hours... enforcement actions of the contracting agency and shall be prepared as prescribed in Department of...

  1. 48 CFR 22.406-13 - Semiannual enforcement reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts... enforcement of the construction labor standards requirements of the Davis-Bacon Act and Contract Work Hours... enforcement actions of the contracting agency and shall be prepared as prescribed in Department of...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.13 - Interpretation of statutory terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 276c) and the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act itself, which apply concurrently with the Miller Act and the Davis-Bacon Act on Federal construction contracts and also apply to most federally assisted construction contracts. The use of the same or identical terms in these statutes which...

  3. Determination of Cooking Yields and Nutrient Retention Factors of Choline in Meat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA’s recent research shows that meat products are good sources of choline. During cooking, nutrient levels are affected by moisture and fat losses and may be reduced by heating. To determine the impact of cooking on choline retention in meats, four nationwide composite samples of beef, bacon, cure...

  4. Benchmarking value in the pork supply chain: Characterization of US pork in the retail marketplace.

    PubMed

    Wright, L I; Scanga, J A; Belk, K E; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Person, R C; McKenna, D R; Griffin, D B; McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C

    2005-11-01

    Retail pork from eight US cities was obtained for quality and palatability evaluations. Boneless pork loin chops were classified into one of three quality categories - "high," "average," or "low" - with higher quality chops possessing more desirable color, marbling, juiciness, and shear force characteristics than lower quality chops. Loin chops that were enhanced (injected with solution to improve juiciness and/or tenderness) had higher (P<0.05) pH, less purge and cook loss, and higher palatability ratings compared to non-enhanced chops. Hams compared by their protein fat free (PFF) classifications showed that ham and water product received the highest (P<0.05) ratings for juiciness and tenderness, and ham with natural juices received the highest (P<0.05) texture, ham flavor intensity, and smoke flavor ratings. Bacon was compared by price/brand categories; however, the highest priced, national branded bacon (US$12.03/kg) was similar (P>0.05) for most quality and all palatability traits to the lowest priced, national branded bacon (US$6.47/kg) and the store branded bacon (US$8.30/kg) even though retail prices differed widely. Overall, there were tremendous ranges in values for these products indicating that retail pork is quite variable and that efforts to improve the quality and consistency of it must continue.

  5. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination in the area under the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., 29 CFR part 1, or the McNamara-O... education and research entities. In computing the prevailing wage for a job opportunity in an occupational classification in an area of intended employment for an employee of an institution of higher education, or...

  6. Computer Intelligence: Unlimited and Untapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Betsy

    1983-01-01

    Herbert Simon (Nobel prize-winning economist/professor) expresses his views on human and artificial intelligence, problem solving, inventing concepts, and the future. Includes comments on expert systems, state of the art in artificial intelligence, robotics, and "Bacon," a computer program that finds scientific laws hidden in raw data. (JN)

  7. 10 CFR 455.103 - Requirements for applications for credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of 10 CFR part 600, except that the project need not comply with the Davis-Bacon Act regarding labor standards or wage rates. (b) Credit for energy conservation measures will be considered only when supported by a technical assistance analysis that meets the requirements of § 455.62 and that was...

  8. 40 CFR 432.71 - Special definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sausage and Luncheon Meats Processors... product as fresh meat cuts, which includes steaks, roasts, chops or boneless meat, bacon or other smoked meats (except hams) such as sausage, bologna or other luncheon meats, or related products (except...

  9. 40 CFR 432.71 - Special definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sausage and Luncheon Meats Processors § 432.71... fresh meat cuts, which includes steaks, roasts, chops or boneless meat, bacon or other smoked meats (except hams) such as sausage, bologna or other luncheon meats, or related products (except canned...

  10. 40 CFR 432.71 - Special definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sausage and Luncheon Meats Processors... product as fresh meat cuts, which includes steaks, roasts, chops or boneless meat, bacon or other smoked meats (except hams) such as sausage, bologna or other luncheon meats, or related products (except...

  11. 40 CFR 432.71 - Special definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sausage and Luncheon Meats Processors... product as fresh meat cuts, which includes steaks, roasts, chops or boneless meat, bacon or other smoked meats (except hams) such as sausage, bologna or other luncheon meats, or related products (except...

  12. 75 FR 5716 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-024, Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers, except for Davis-Bacon Act, Service Contract Act, and trade... divisible by 5) of acquisition-related thresholds for inflation using the Consumer Price Index for all urban... thresholds for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all- urban consumers.......

  13. 7 CFR 3560.570 - Construction financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Davis-Bacon Act (published in the Department of Labor regulations 29 CFR parts 1, 2, and 5). ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Construction financing. 3560.570 Section 3560.570... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.570...

  14. 29 CFR 5.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subcontract of any tier thereunder, let under the prime contract. A State or local Government is not regarded... of 1937, State and local recipients of Federal-aid must pay these employees according to Davis-Bacon... (l)(3) of this section, job headquarters, tool yards, batch plants, borrow pits, etc., are part...

  15. 29 CFR 5.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the Davis-Bacon Act include medical or hospital care, pensions on retirement or death..., the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (other than those relating to safety and health), the... mental or managerial. The term laborer or mechanic includes apprentices, trainees, helpers, and, in...

  16. Effects of choice white grease or poultry fat on growth performance, carcass leanness, and meat quality characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Engel, J J; Smith, J W; Unruh, J A; Goodband, R D; O'Quinn, P R; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2001-06-01

    Eighty-four crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effects of dietary choice white grease (CWG) or poultry fat (PF) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and quality characteristics of longissimus muscle (LM), belly, and bacon of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (initially 60 kg) were fed a control diet with no added fat or diets containing 2, 4, or 6% CWG or PF. Diets were fed from 60 to 110 kg and contained 2.26 g lysine/Mcal ME. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial plus a control with main effects of fat source (CWG and PF) and fat level (2, 4, and 6%). Pigs fed the control diet, 2% fat, and 4% fat had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI than pigs fed 6% fat. Pigs fed 6% fat had greater (P < 0.05) gain/feed (G/F) than pigs fed the control diet or other fat levels. Subcutaneous fat over the longissimus muscle from pigs fed CWG had more (P < 0.05) moisture than that from pigs fed PF. Feeding dietary fat (regardless of source or level) reduced (P < 0.05) the amount of saturated fats present in the LM. Similarly, 4 or 6% fat decreased (P < 0.05) the amount of saturated fats and increased unsaturated fats present in the bacon. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed for ADG, dressing percentage, leaf fat weight, LM pH, backfat depth, LM area, percentage lean, LM visual evaluation, LM waterholding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation of the LM and bacon, fat color and firmness measurements, or bacon processing characteristics. Adding dietary fat improved G/F and altered the fatty acid profiles of the LM and bacon, but differences in growth rate, carcass characteristics, and quality and sensory characteristics of the LM and bacon were minimal. Dietary additions of up to 6% CWG or PF can be made with little effect on quality of pork LM, belly, or bacon.

  17. Effects of microwave cooking/reheating on nutrients and food systems: a review of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, C J; Zabik, M E

    1985-08-01

    Microwave-oven technology has been improved by the use of low power. With the utilization of low-power techniques, studies showed equal or better retention of nutrients for microwave, as compared with conventional, reheated foods for thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folacin, and ascorbic acid. Beef roasts microwaved at "simmer" were comparable with conventionally cooked roasts in sensory quality, while vegetables cooked by an institutional (1,150 w) microwave oven were superior to those cooked in a domestic (550 w) microwave oven. Microwave-cooked bacon had lower levels of nitrosamines than conventionally cooked bacon; however, the use of a new alpha-tocopherol coating system has been found to be a safe N-nitrosamine inhibitor regardless of cooking method used.

  18. The identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern paints and modern paintings using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russell, Joanna; Singer, Brian W; Perry, Justin J; Bacon, Anne

    2011-05-01

    A collection of more than 70 synthetic organic pigments were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). We report on the analysis of diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole, isoindolinone and perylene pigments which are classes not previously reported as being analysed by this technique. We also report on a number of azo pigments (2-naphthol, naphthol AS, arylide, diarylide, benzimidazolone and disazo condensation pigments) and phthalocyanine pigments, the Py-GC-MS analysis of which has not been previously reported. The members of each class were found to fragment in a consistent way and the pyrolysis products are reported. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of paints used by the artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992), to simultaneously identify synthetic organic pigments and synthetic binding media in two samples of paint taken from Bacon's studio and micro-samples taken from three of his paintings and one painting attributed to him. PMID:21416165

  19. Adaptation, teleology, and selection by consequences.

    PubMed

    Ringen, Jon D

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents and defends the view that reinforcement and natural selection are selection processes, that selection processes are neither mechanistic nor teleological, and that mentalistic and vitalistic processes are teleological but not mechanistic. The differences between these types of processes are described and used in discussing the conceptual and methodological significance of "selection type theories" and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorist view that "operant behavior is the field of intention, purpose, and expectation. It deals with that field precisely as the theory of evolution has dealt with another kind of purpose" (1986, p. 716). The antimentalism of radical behaviorism emerges as a post-Darwinian extension of Francis Bacon's (and Galileo's) influential view that "[the introduction of final causes] rather corrupts than advances the sciences" (Bacon, 1905, p. 302). PMID:16812698

  20. The Mpemba effect: When can hot water freeze faster than cold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2006-06-01

    We review the Mpemba effect, where initially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. Although the effect might appear impossible, it has been observed in numerous experiments and was discussed by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Roger Bacon, and Descartes. It has a rich and fascinating history, including the story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon is simple to describe and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. Proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect and the results of contemporary experiments on the phenomenon are surveyed. The observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes is also discussed.

  1. Adaptation, teleology, and selection by consequences

    PubMed Central

    Ringen, Jon D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents and defends the view that reinforcement and natural selection are selection processes, that selection processes are neither mechanistic nor teleological, and that mentalistic and vitalistic processes are teleological but not mechanistic. The differences between these types of processes are described and used in discussing the conceptual and methodological significance of “selection type theories” and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorist view that “operant behavior is the field of intention, purpose, and expectation. It deals with that field precisely as the theory of evolution has dealt with another kind of purpose” (1986, p. 716). The antimentalism of radical behaviorism emerges as a post-Darwinian extension of Francis Bacon's (and Galileo's) influential view that “[the introduction of final causes] rather corrupts than advances the sciences” (Bacon, 1905, p. 302). PMID:16812698

  2. Public illness: how the community recommended complementary and alternative medicine for a prominent politician with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Ray M

    When a prominent Australian politician, the then Premier of Tasmania, The Honourable Jim Bacon, publicly announced in February 2004 that he had lung cancer, he was inundated with well-wishing communications sent by post, email and other means. They included 157 items of correspondence recommending a wide variety of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). The most common CAMs recommended were meditation, Chinese medicine, "glyconutrients", juices, Laetrile and various diets and dietary supplements. Although proof of benefit exists or promising preliminary laboratory studies have been carried out for a small number of the recommendations, no scientific evaluation has been performed for most of these treatments. Their potential benefits and harms are not known. Several recommendations were for treatments known to be useless, harmful or fraudulent. Bacon's experience suggests that cancer patients may receive unsolicited advice to adopt one or more forms of CAM. Both patients and practitioners need access to authoritative evidence-based information about the benefits and dangers of CAMs.

  3. The identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern paints and modern paintings using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russell, Joanna; Singer, Brian W; Perry, Justin J; Bacon, Anne

    2011-05-01

    A collection of more than 70 synthetic organic pigments were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). We report on the analysis of diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole, isoindolinone and perylene pigments which are classes not previously reported as being analysed by this technique. We also report on a number of azo pigments (2-naphthol, naphthol AS, arylide, diarylide, benzimidazolone and disazo condensation pigments) and phthalocyanine pigments, the Py-GC-MS analysis of which has not been previously reported. The members of each class were found to fragment in a consistent way and the pyrolysis products are reported. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of paints used by the artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992), to simultaneously identify synthetic organic pigments and synthetic binding media in two samples of paint taken from Bacon's studio and micro-samples taken from three of his paintings and one painting attributed to him.

  4. Adaptation, teleology, and selection by consequences.

    PubMed

    Ringen, Jon D

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents and defends the view that reinforcement and natural selection are selection processes, that selection processes are neither mechanistic nor teleological, and that mentalistic and vitalistic processes are teleological but not mechanistic. The differences between these types of processes are described and used in discussing the conceptual and methodological significance of "selection type theories" and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorist view that "operant behavior is the field of intention, purpose, and expectation. It deals with that field precisely as the theory of evolution has dealt with another kind of purpose" (1986, p. 716). The antimentalism of radical behaviorism emerges as a post-Darwinian extension of Francis Bacon's (and Galileo's) influential view that "[the introduction of final causes] rather corrupts than advances the sciences" (Bacon, 1905, p. 302).

  5. Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

    2010-04-30

    Detection of abnormal supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of abnormal SCADA data detection based on state estimation residuals is presented. Preceded with a brief overview of outlier detection methods and bad SCADA data detection for state estimation, the framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection algorithm. The BACON algorithm is applied to the outlier detection task. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test base to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-σ method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

  6. Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

    2010-06-14

    Detection of manipulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for the safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of detecting manipulated SCADA data based on state estimation residuals is presented. A framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection process. The BACON algorithm is applied to detect outliers in the state estimation residuals. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test case to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-σ method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

  7. Complex genetic diseases: controversy over the Croesus code.

    PubMed

    Wright, A F; Hastie, N D

    2001-01-01

    The polarization of views on how best to exploit new information from the Human Genome Project for medicine reflects our ignorance of the genetic architecture underlying common diseases: are susceptibility alleles common or rare, neutral or deleterious, few or many? Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) technology is almost in place to dissect such diseases and to create a personalized medicine, but success is critically dependent on the biology and "Nature to be commanded must be obeyed" (Francis Bacon, 1620, Novum Organum). PMID:11532206

  8. Mechanisms of exertional dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Killian, K J; Jones, N L

    1994-06-01

    To understand why someone is dyspneic during exercise, we need to follow the advice of Sir Francis Bacon: "No natural phenomenon can be adequately studied in itself alone, but to be understood must be considered as it stands connected with all of nature." In the present context, this implies the careful measurement of events related to metabolism, circulation, and respiration and of the associated sensory events as these systems adapt to the strain and stress of exercise. PMID:8088091

  9. Mechanoluminescence: light from sonication of crystal slurries.

    PubMed

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2006-11-01

    Mechanoluminescence, also known as triboluminescence or fractoluminescence, is light emission induced as a result of mechanical action on a solid--for example, Francis Bacon noted as long ago as 1605 that lumps of sugar emitted light when scraped. Here we elicit mechanoluminescence by a new means, acoustic cavitation, and find intense luminescence and emission lines that are not generated by other mechanisms such as grinding, cleaving, rubbing, scratching, biting or thermal shock. PMID:17093442

  10. Freedom of inquiry and subjects' rights: historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Musto, D F

    1977-08-01

    The author presents an historical overview of the various attitudes toward animal and human experimentation. He cites advocates (Bacon, Welch) and opponents (Johnson, Shaw) and traces the debate from the Graeco-Roman era, through the rise of the scientific establishment, to the present. Controversy over the fundamental rights of individual research subjects versus a future-oriented freedom of inquiry has been and continues to be a dilemma for clinicians and research scientists.

  11. Telescopes in History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The precise origins of the optical telescope are hidden in the depths of time. In the thirteenth century Roger Bacon claimed to have devised a combination of lenses which enabled him to see distant objects as if they were near. Others who have an unsubstantiated claim to have invented the telescope in the sixteenth century include an Englishman, Leonard DIGGES, and an Italian, Giovanni Batista Po...

  12. Mechanisms of exertional dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Killian, K J; Jones, N L

    1994-06-01

    To understand why someone is dyspneic during exercise, we need to follow the advice of Sir Francis Bacon: "No natural phenomenon can be adequately studied in itself alone, but to be understood must be considered as it stands connected with all of nature." In the present context, this implies the careful measurement of events related to metabolism, circulation, and respiration and of the associated sensory events as these systems adapt to the strain and stress of exercise.

  13. Mechanoluminescence: light from sonication of crystal slurries.

    PubMed

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2006-11-01

    Mechanoluminescence, also known as triboluminescence or fractoluminescence, is light emission induced as a result of mechanical action on a solid--for example, Francis Bacon noted as long ago as 1605 that lumps of sugar emitted light when scraped. Here we elicit mechanoluminescence by a new means, acoustic cavitation, and find intense luminescence and emission lines that are not generated by other mechanisms such as grinding, cleaving, rubbing, scratching, biting or thermal shock.

  14. Complex genetic diseases: controversy over the Croesus code.

    PubMed

    Wright, A F; Hastie, N D

    2001-01-01

    The polarization of views on how best to exploit new information from the Human Genome Project for medicine reflects our ignorance of the genetic architecture underlying common diseases: are susceptibility alleles common or rare, neutral or deleterious, few or many? Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) technology is almost in place to dissect such diseases and to create a personalized medicine, but success is critically dependent on the biology and "Nature to be commanded must be obeyed" (Francis Bacon, 1620, Novum Organum).

  15. 20 CFR Appendix A to Subpart J of... - Documentation in Support of Attestations Made by Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., (see 29 CFR part 1) or the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq., (see 29 CFR part 4), an excerpt from the wage determination showing... under the Fair Labor Standards Act (see 29 CFR part 516) would include for each employee in...

  16. 20 CFR 655.10 - Determination of prevailing wage for temporary labor certification purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.10 Determination of prevailing...-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., 29 CFR part 1, or the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act, 41 U.S.C... available for the job opportunity; (B) The job opportunity was not listed in the Dictionary of...

  17. 20 CFR Appendix A to Subpart J of... - Documentation in Support of Attestations Made by Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., (see 29 CFR part 1) or the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq., (see 29 CFR part 4), an excerpt from the wage determination showing... under the Fair Labor Standards Act (see 29 CFR part 516) would include for each employee in...

  18. 20 CFR Appendix A to Subpart J of... - Documentation in Support of Attestations Made by Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., (see 29 CFR part 1) or the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq., (see 29 CFR part 4), an excerpt from the wage determination showing... under the Fair Labor Standards Act (see 29 CFR part 516) would include for each employee in...

  19. 20 CFR Appendix A to Subpart J of... - Documentation in Support of Attestations Made by Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., (see 29 CFR part 1) or the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq., (see 29 CFR part 4), an excerpt from the wage determination showing... under the Fair Labor Standards Act (see 29 CFR part 516) would include for each employee in...

  20. Guar gum--its acceptability to diabetic patients when incorporated into baked food products.

    PubMed

    Tredger, J; Ransley, J

    1978-12-01

    Guar gum was incorporated into 10 g carbohydrate portions of cheese biscuits and 20 g carbohydrate portions of pizza and egg and bacon flan. Their acceptability to diabetic patients was assessed by means of a taste panel. The results were favourable. Other diabetic patients were asked to judge three cheese biscuits of varying guar gum content. The biscuit with the lowest content was most favoured.

  1. 29 CFR 5.28 - Unfunded plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unfunded plans. 5.28 Section 5.28 Labor Office of the... the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.28 Unfunded plans. (a) The costs to a contractor or subcontractor which may be... Committee on Education and Labor, H. Rep. No. 308, 88th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 4.) (b) No type of...

  2. 29 CFR 5.28 - Unfunded plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unfunded plans. 5.28 Section 5.28 Labor Office of the... the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.28 Unfunded plans. (a) The costs to a contractor or subcontractor which may be... Committee on Education and Labor, H. Rep. No. 308, 88th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 4.) (b) No type of...

  3. 29 CFR 5.28 - Unfunded plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unfunded plans. 5.28 Section 5.28 Labor Office of the... the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.28 Unfunded plans. (a) The costs to a contractor or subcontractor which may be... Committee on Education and Labor, H. Rep. No. 308, 88th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 4.) (b) No type of...

  4. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 47-A-3). "Proposed alteration of office building at The U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island Cal proposed alterations of 1st and 2nd stories to accompany the report of the board of which pay director bacon is the senior member;" September, 1901. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 14 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Contract Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity,” and as supplemented by regulations at 41 CFR part 60, “Office of Federal...” Act (18 U.S.C. 874), as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 3, “Contractors... suspected or reported violations to NASA. 3. Davis-Bacon Act, as amended (40 U.S.C. 276a to a-7)....

  6. Shifting fundamental frequency in simulated electric-acoustic listening

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher A.; Scherrer, Nicole M.; Bacon, Sid P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown significant improvement in speech intelligibility under both simulated [Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2009a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 1658–1665; Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2010). Hear. Res. 266, 52–59] and real [Brown, C. A., and Bacon, S. P. (2009b). Ear Hear. 30, 489–493] electric-acoustic stimulation when the target speech in the low-frequency region was replaced with a tone modulated in frequency to track the changes in the target talker’s fundamental frequency (F0), and in amplitude with the amplitude envelope of the target speech. The present study examined the effects in simulation of applying these cues to a tone lower in frequency than the mean F0 of the target talker. Results showed that shifting the frequency of the tonal carrier downward by as much as 75 Hz had no negative impact on the benefit to intelligibility due to the tone, and that even a shift of 100 Hz resulted in a significant benefit over simulated electric-only stimulation when the sensation level of the tone was comparable to that of the tones shifted by lesser amounts. PMID:20815462

  7. Linking `The Book of Nature' and `The Book of Science': Using Circular Motion as an Exemplar beyond the Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Arthur

    Bacon exhorted the natural philosophers of his day to read and interpret the book of nature by clever and cunning experimentation. The increasing scientific activity after Bacon and Galileo, however, quickly produced a second book. This was a book of interpretations of nature, namely the the book of science. Newton went beyond Bacon and Galileo and developed an ongoing dialogue between these two books, a repeated give and take between mathematical construct and physical reality. Unfortunately, the physics textbook, the book of science the students read, does not acquaint them with this style of reasoning. As an example of high-grade scientific thinking this paper discusses Newton's long struggle with the concepts of inertia and especially of centrifugal force. In his quest to understand the dynamics of circular motion Newton clearly progressed through four levels of conceptualizations, leading to progressively less severe discrepancies, in his ascent to a full understanding of centripetal acceleration. While it is not possible or desirable to expect teachers or students to recapitulate high-grade scientific thinking, partial retelling of the intellectual struggle that was involved in establishing important scientific concepts must be seen as important. This kind of pedagogy, however, requires that physics teachers have a good understanding of the history of scientific ideas as well as the findings of cognitive science.

  8. Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Syne, Stacey-Marie; Ramsubhag, Adash; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A bacteriological assessment of the environment and food products at different stages of processing was conducted during the manufacture of ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken franks, chicken bologna and bacon at a large meat processing plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Methods Samples of air, surfaces (swabs), raw materials, and in-process and finished food products were collected during two separate visits for each product type and subjected to qualitative or quantitative analysis for bacterial zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator organisms. Results Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen detected in pre-cooked products (mean counts = 0.66, 1.98, and 1.95 log10CFU/g for franks, bologna, and bacon, respectively). This pathogen was also found in unacceptable levels in 4 (16.7%) of 24 post-cooked samples. Fifty percent (10 of 20) of pre-cooked mixtures of bacon and bologna were contaminated with Listeria spp., including four with L. monocytogenes. Pre-cooked mixtures of franks and bologna also contained E. coli (35 and 0.72 log10 CFU/g, respectively) while 5 (12.5%) of 40 pre-cooked mixtures of chicken franks had Salmonella spp. Aerobic bacteria exceeded acceptable international standards in 46 (82.1%) of 56 pre-cooked and 6 (16.7%) of 36 post-cooked samples. Both pre-and post-cooking air and surfaces had relatively high levels of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, including equipment and gloves of employees. A drastic decrease in aerobic counts and Staphylococcus aureus levels following heat treatment and subsequent increase in counts of these bacteria are suggestive of post-cooking contamination. Conclusion A relatively high level of risk exists for microbial contamination of RTE meats at the food plant investigated and there is a need for enhancing the quality assurance programs to ensure the safety of consumers of products manufactured at this plant. PMID:23878681

  9. 234U/238U and δ87Sr in peat as tracers of paleosalinity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Paces, James B.; Alpers, Charles N.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Neymark, Leonid; Bullen, Thomas D.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the history of paleosalinity over the past 6000+ years in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta), which is the innermost part of the San Francisco Estuary. We used a combination of Sr and U concentrations, d87Sr values, and 234U/238U activity ratios (AR) in peat as proxies for tracking paleosalinity. Peat cores were collected in marshes on Browns Island, Franks Wetland, and Bacon Channel Island in the Delta. Cores were dated using 137Cs, the onset of Pb and Hg contamination from hydraulic gold mining, and 14C. A proof of concept study showed that the dominant emergent macrophyte and major component of peat in the Delta, Schoenoplectus spp., incorporates Sr and U and that the isotopic composition of these elements tracks the ambient water salinity across the Estuary. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Sr and U in the three main water sources contributing to the Delta (seawater, Sacramento River water, and San Joaquin River water) were used to construct a three-end-member mixing model. Delta paleosalinity was determined by examining variations in the distribution of peat samples through time within the area delineated by the mixing model. The Delta has long been considered a tidal freshwater marsh region, but only peat samples from Franks Wetland and Bacon Channel Island have shown a consistently fresh signal (<0.5 ppt) through time. Therefore, the eastern Delta, which occurs upstream from Bacon Channel Island along the San Joaquin River and its tributaries, has also been fresh for this time period. Over the past 6000+ years, the salinity regime at the western boundary of the Delta (Browns Island) has alternated between fresh and oligohaline (0.5-5 ppt).

  10. Chili Cookoff 2016: The Largest Ever | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Marco Johnson decided to bring “the big guns” to the 13th annual Protective Services Chili Cookoff—his wife, Jill. The strategy paid off because Johnson’s chili recipe won first place, standing out against some stiff competition. Johnson, a shuttle bus driver for Protective Services, added his own special touches to the recipe developed by his wife; he used Kielbasa as the main ingredient and increased the smoky flavor, hence the name Jill’s Smoky Kielbasa Chili. The recipe also included crispy bacon, hot pepper seasonings, and a variety of diced tomatoes, from roasted to hot.

  11. Intellectual property, commercial needs and humanitarian benefits: must there be a conflict?

    PubMed

    Krattiger, Anatole

    2010-11-30

    'By far the best proof is experience,' wrote Francis Bacon. Given the experience of countries - both developing and developed - that have used intellectual property (IP), IP protection and IP management to stimulate innovation, there is ample proof that good IP management has benefited multitudes of people around the world with new technologies, products and services. Innovations in health and agriculture have greatly enriched lives. But does this experience apply to all countries? If the best proof is experience, then what can be said authoritatively about the effects of using IP systems wisely in developing countries? PMID:20472104

  12. The first President of the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-12-01

    Few people know the name of the Royal Society's first President, even though he features prominently in Thomas Sprat's famous allegorical frontispiece. In promotional images, his individual identity is irrelevant for proclaiming the Society's allegiance to Francis Bacon and commitment to experimental investigation. By contrast, William Brouncker's name does appear on Peter Lely's large portrait, which hung at the Royal Society. Brouncker was a gifted mathematician as well as a conscientious administrator, and Lely's portrait reproduces the diagram of one of his innovative algebraic proofs. PMID:14652036

  13. Surgical mistake causing an high recto-vaginal fistula. A case report with combined surgical and endoscopic approach: therapeutic considerations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) have multiple causes, size and location on which the surgical treatment depends. Description The Authors consider different approaches to RVFs and describe a clinical case of recurrent high RVF. Conclusions Most RVFs can be successfully repaired, although many interventions may be necessary. A colostomy with delayed repair may improve RVFs outcome. Moreover, several authors indicate Mucosal Advancement Flap and Babcock-Bacon technique as the treatments of choice respectively for low and high RVFs (complex and recurrent) and emphasize the placement of endoscopic prothesis in cases of difficult healing of the anastomosis. PMID:24266908

  14. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Ratanapradit, Punnares; Piawong, Witapong; Kreuzer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted. PMID:26949957

  15. History of Lung Diseases of Coal Miners in Great BritainPART III, 1920-1952*

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, Andrew

    1952-01-01

    All sciences are connected; they lend each other material aid as parts of one great whole, each doing its own work not for itself alone but for the other parts, as the eye guides the whole body and the foot sustains it and leads it from place to place. As with an eye torn out or a foot cut off, so it is with the different departments of knowledge; none can attain its proper result separately, since all are parts of one and the same complete wisdom. ROGER BACON (1214-1294). PMID:14944741

  16. The first President of the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-12-01

    Few people know the name of the Royal Society's first President, even though he features prominently in Thomas Sprat's famous allegorical frontispiece. In promotional images, his individual identity is irrelevant for proclaiming the Society's allegiance to Francis Bacon and commitment to experimental investigation. By contrast, William Brouncker's name does appear on Peter Lely's large portrait, which hung at the Royal Society. Brouncker was a gifted mathematician as well as a conscientious administrator, and Lely's portrait reproduces the diagram of one of his innovative algebraic proofs.

  17. Intellectual property, commercial needs and humanitarian benefits: must there be a conflict?

    PubMed

    Krattiger, Anatole

    2010-11-30

    'By far the best proof is experience,' wrote Francis Bacon. Given the experience of countries - both developing and developed - that have used intellectual property (IP), IP protection and IP management to stimulate innovation, there is ample proof that good IP management has benefited multitudes of people around the world with new technologies, products and services. Innovations in health and agriculture have greatly enriched lives. But does this experience apply to all countries? If the best proof is experience, then what can be said authoritatively about the effects of using IP systems wisely in developing countries?

  18. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products.

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Ratanapradit, Punnares; Piawong, Witapong; Kreuzer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted. PMID:26949957

  19. Analysis of heterocyclic amines and beta-carbolines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in cooked meats commonly consumed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Back, Y M; Lee, J H; Shin, H S; Lee, K G

    2009-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs), which form in meats during heating and cooking, are recognized as mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In this study, 13 HAs and 2 beta-carbolines (BCs) were analyzed in cooked Korean meat products, including griddled bacon, griddled pork loin, boiled pork loin, boiled chicken meat, chicken meat stock, chicken breast for salad and chicken patty. The samples were either cooked in the laboratory or purchased from local fast-food restaurants. The HAs and BCs in the samples were separated using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The most frequently detected HAs and BCs in the cooked meats were harman (1-methyl-9H pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 990.9 ng g(-1)), norharman (9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 412.7 ng g(-1)) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 258.2 ng g(-1)). The griddled pork loin and bacon contained higher levels of norharman, harman and PhIP than the other cooked meats. PhIP, which is classified as a Group 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, had levels of 258.2 and 168.2 ng g(-1) in the griddled pork loin and griddled bacon, respectively. The griddled bacon was the only sample containing TriMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 79.9 ng g(-1)). IQ (2-amino-3-methyl imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and AalphaC (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) were detected at trace levels in all samples. PMID:19680902

  20. From baconian to popperian neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work. PMID:22330680

  1. Analysis of heterocyclic amines and beta-carbolines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in cooked meats commonly consumed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Back, Y M; Lee, J H; Shin, H S; Lee, K G

    2009-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs), which form in meats during heating and cooking, are recognized as mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In this study, 13 HAs and 2 beta-carbolines (BCs) were analyzed in cooked Korean meat products, including griddled bacon, griddled pork loin, boiled pork loin, boiled chicken meat, chicken meat stock, chicken breast for salad and chicken patty. The samples were either cooked in the laboratory or purchased from local fast-food restaurants. The HAs and BCs in the samples were separated using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The most frequently detected HAs and BCs in the cooked meats were harman (1-methyl-9H pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 990.9 ng g(-1)), norharman (9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 412.7 ng g(-1)) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 258.2 ng g(-1)). The griddled pork loin and bacon contained higher levels of norharman, harman and PhIP than the other cooked meats. PhIP, which is classified as a Group 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, had levels of 258.2 and 168.2 ng g(-1) in the griddled pork loin and griddled bacon, respectively. The griddled bacon was the only sample containing TriMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 79.9 ng g(-1)). IQ (2-amino-3-methyl imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and AalphaC (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) were detected at trace levels in all samples.

  2. Studies of the behavior of a reactor neutron beam at the sample position of a diffractometer using silicon monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, F. U.; Ahsan, M. H.; Khan, Aysha A.; Kamal, I.; Awal, M. A.; Ahmad, A. A. Z.

    1992-02-01

    A computer program TISTA has been developed for calculation of different aspects of designing a double axis neutron spectrometer at the TRIGA Mark II research reactor of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The mathematical algorithms used in this program are based on the formalisms used by Fischer, Sabine and Bacon. Angle and energy resolutions and flux density as functions of neutron wave length, beam collimation, crystal asymmetry and deviation from zero-Bragg-angle position for different silicon crystal planes (111, 220, 311) have been calculated.

  3. A novel method for teaching key steps of strabismus surgery in the wet lab.

    PubMed

    White, Cassandra A; Wrzosek, James A; Chesnutt, David A; Enyedi, Laura B; Cabrera, Michelle T

    2015-10-01

    The surgical laboratory environment plays an important role in modern surgical education. Learning how to complete the key steps of strabismus surgery prior to actual surgery may enhance efficiency and sensitize the surgeon to potential complications. Cadaveric extraocular muscle is difficult to manipulate and specimens are not readily available; therefore, an alternative is needed to teach strabismus surgery techniques. We developed a wet lab to practice the key steps of strabismus surgery using commercially available bacon as an extraocular muscle substitute and cadaveric pig eyes for conjunctival and scleral tissue in a framework of peer teaching, expert supervision, and validated written feedback.

  4. The "New World of Sciences". The temporality of the research agenda and the unending ambitions of science.

    PubMed

    Keller, Vera

    2012-12-01

    Lists foreground multiplicity: both of objects to be pursued and, for distant objects, of far-flung networks enabling their pursuit. The future-oriented or projective list stretches such networks not only around the world but forward through time. Research agendas are one kind of future-oriented, projective list. Sketching how such lists have functioned over time, from Francis Bacon's "The New World of Sciences, or Desiderata" to today's desiderata lists, suggests how an early modern model of imperial expansion has shaped, in unintended ways, a scientific rhetoric of collaborative advance on shared targets.

  5. Effects of ground flaxseed in swine diets on pig performance and on physical and sensory characteristics and omega-3 fatty acid content of pork: I. Dietary level of flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Romans, J R; Johnson, R C; Wulf, D M; Libal, G W; Costello, W J

    1995-07-01

    Forty-eight barrows and gilts were fed diets containing 0 (CO), 5, 10, or 15% ground flaxseed (FS) for the final 25 d before slaughter. Flaxseed treatments did not affect any production or carcass traits (P > .10). No pork processing problems due to lack of firmness were encountered. Amounts (milligrams/gram of tissue) of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA [18:3n-3]) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA [20:5n-3]) increased (P < .01) in both backfat layers and ALA increased (P < .01) in kidney (leaf) fat after FS. Alpha-linolenic acid and EPA increased (P < .001) in the raw belly in response to FS; the effect was maintained throughout processing (P < .01) to microwaved bacon. Alpha-linolenic acid and EPA increased (P < .01, P < .05, respectively) with amount of FS in longissimus thoracis and liver. In the brain, DHA decreased (P < .05) with amount of FS. Trained panelists in triangle tests were able to identify bacon from pigs fed 10 and 15% flaxseed. Panelists could not identify various treatments in the loin tests.

  6. QTL mapping for growth and carcass traits in an Iberian by Landrace pig intercross: additive, dominant and epistatic effects.

    PubMed

    Varona, L; Ovilo, C; Clop, A; Noguera, J L; Pérez-Enciso, M; Coll, A; Folch, J M; Barragán, C; Toro, M A; Babot, D; Sánchez, A

    2002-10-01

    Results from a QTL experiment on growth and carcass traits in an experimental F2 cross between Iberian and Landrace pigs are reported. Phenotypic data for growth, length of carcass and muscle mass, fat deposition and carcass composition traits from 321 individuals corresponding to 58 families were recorded. Animals were genotyped for 92 markers covering the 18 porcine autosomes (SSC). The results from the genomic scan show genomewide significant QTL in SSC2 (longissimus muscle area and backfat thickness), SSC4 (length of carcass, backfat thickness, loin, shoulder and belly bacon weights) and SSC6 (longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, loin, shoulder and belly bacon weights). Suggestive QTL were also found on SSC1, SSC5, SSC7, SSC8, SSC9, SSC13, SCC14, SSC16 and SSC17. A bidimensional genomic scan every 10 cM was performed to detect interaction between QTL. The joint action of two suggestive QTL in SSC2 and SSC17 led to a genome-wide significant effect in live weight. The results of the bidimensional genomic scan showed that the genetic architecture was mainly additive or the experimental set-up did not have enough power to detect epistatic interactions.

  7. Examples and experience: on the uncertainty of medicine.

    PubMed

    Pender, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    After a brief account of the uncertainty of medicine in early modern thought, this paper focuses on two supple, sophisticated accounts of medicine by 'non-medical' writers--Michel de Montaigne's views of medical theory and medical practice and Francis Bacon's proposals for renovating both--in which the claims of individual sufferers are set against the normativity of medicine as a whole. From around 1500 to around 1680, in the common ensemble of both learned and popular invective, medicine was disparaged as poor philosophy and worse practice, even as the 'lowest of professions'. In remarkably broad, elegant interventions, Montaigne argues that medicine is based on 'examples and experience' (and 'so is my opinion', he adds), impugning its universalizing claims with the tractable experience of his own embodiment, with his own historia and consilium, while Francis Bacon enlists dietetics, Hippocratic case-taking and medical history in his broad programme for the reform of medicine. He more or less accepts Montaigne's argument for particularity in medical theory and practice, but presses the particular into service in his reformist programme. Like many sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century scholars and physicians frustrated with Galenic methods and models, both turn to Hippocratic practice and to hygiene and dietetics as salves for an ailing discipline. Finally, I argue that both writers enquire into viable means for inflecting learned medicine with particular experience, and both settle on rhetorical tools - analogy and exemplarity - as the means by which universalized medical models might be particularized or reformed. PMID:17153468

  8. "Masculine love," Renaissance writing, and the "new invention" of homosexuality: an addendum.

    PubMed

    Forker, C R

    1996-01-01

    Joseph Cady's recent article, "Masculine Love," Renaissance Writing, and the "New Invention' of Homosexuality," Journal of Homosexuality 23.1-2 (1992): 9-40, did much to shed new light on the controversial issue of whether homosexual identity is a relatively late phenomenon (late seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century at the earliest according to scholars of the "constructivist" persuasion) or already existed in the age of the Renaissance and before. Cady argues that homosexual identity is at least as old as the Elizabethan age, and cites from widely divergent sources several early modern instances of the term "masculine love," a term that seems to have been used exclusively to refer to the sexual preference of men for members of their own gender. The present note adds a further example to buttress Cady's case-namely the term "masculine conversation" from Arthur Wilson's History of Great Britain (1653), an account of the reign of James I (who was widely recognized to be sexually attracted to men). The term "conversation" often referred to sexual intercourse, being used in legal discourse to define adultery, and therefore constitutes an even more explicit example of denotative language than those Cady cites. Since Wilson discusses Sir Francis Bacon as well as James I, this brief article explores the historically documentable sexual preferences of these two figures in addition to that of the dramatist Christopher Marlowe and of Bacon's brother Anthony, a diplomat, all of whom seem to have been strongly oriented to "masculine love" and "masculine conversation". PMID:8895030

  9. Proteus rebound: reconsidering the "torture of nature".

    PubMed

    Pesic, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Though Carolyn Merchant has agreed that Francis Bacon did not advocate the "torture of nature," she still maintains that "the very essence of the experimental method arose out of human torture transferred onto nature." Her arguments do not address serious problems of logic, context, and contrary evidence. Her particular insistence on the influence of the torture of witches ignores Bacon's skepticism about witchcraft as superstitious or imaginary. Nor do the writings of his successors sustain her claim that they carried forward his supposed program to abuse nature. We should be wary of metaphorical generalizations that ignore the context of the metaphor, the larger intent of the writers, and the fundamental limitations of such metaphors as descriptions of science. There are no scientific methods which alone lead to knowledge! We have to tackle things experimentally, now angry with them and now kind, and be successively just, passionate, and cold with them. One person addresses things as a policeman, a second as a father confessor, a third as an inquisitive wanderer. Something can be wrung from them now with sympathy, now with force; reverence for their secrets will take one person forwards, indiscretion and roguishness in revealing their secrets will do the same for another. We investigators are, like all conquerors, discoverers, seafarers, adventurers, of an audacious morality and must reconcile ourselves to being considered on the whole evil. PMID:18702399

  10. The fuel cell in space: Yesterday, today and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, Marvin; Prokopius, Paul R.

    1989-01-01

    The past, present, and future of space fuel cell power systems is reviewed, starting with the first practical fuel cell by F.T. Bacon which led to the 1.5 kW Apollo alkaline fuel cell. However, the first fuel cell to be used for space power was the Gemini 1.0 kW Acid IEM fuel cell. The successor to the Apollo fuel cell is today's 12 kW Orbiter alkaline fuel cell whose technology is considerably different and considerably better than that of its ancestor, the Bacon cell. And in terms of specific weight there has been a steady improvement from the past to the present, from the close to 200 lb/kW of Apollo to the 20 lb/kW of the orbiter. For NASA future Lunar and Martian surface power requirements the regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage system is enabling technology, with the alkaline and the PEM the leading RFC candidate systems. The U.S. Air Force continues to support fuel cell high power density technology development for its future short duration applications.

  11. Identification of crude oil source facies in Railroad Valley, Nevada, using multivariate analysis of crude oil and hydrous pyrolysis data from the Meridian Spencer Federal 32-29 well

    SciTech Connect

    Conlan, L.M.; Francis, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Comparison of biological markers of a hydrous pyrolyzate of Mississippian-Chainman Shale from the Meridian Spencer Federal 32-29 well with two crude oils produced from the same well and crude oils produced from Trap Springs, Grant Canyon, Bacon Flats, and Eagle Springs fields indicate the possibility of three distinct crude oil source facies within Railroad Valley, Nevada. The two crude oil samples produced in the Meridian Spencer Federal 32-29 well are from the Eocene Sheep Pass Formation (MSF-SP) at 10,570 ft and the Joana Limestone (MSF-J) at 13,943 ft; the pyrolyzate is from the Chainman Shale at 10,700 ft. The Chainman Shale pyrolyzate has a similar composition to oils produced in Trap Springs and Grant Canyon fields. Applying multivariate statistical analysis to biological marker data shows that the Chainman Shale is a possible source for oil produced at Trap Springs because of the similarities between Trap Springs oils and the Chainman Shale pyrolyzate. It is also apparent that MSF-SP and oils produced in the Eagle Springs field have been generated from a different source (probably the Sheep Pass Formation) because of the presence of gammacerane (C{sub 30}). MSF-J and Bacon Flats appear to be either sourced from a pre-Mississippian unit or from a different facies within the Chainman Shale because of the apparent differences between MSF-J and Chainman Shale pyrolyzate.

  12. Examples and experience: on the uncertainty of medicine.

    PubMed

    Pender, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    After a brief account of the uncertainty of medicine in early modern thought, this paper focuses on two supple, sophisticated accounts of medicine by 'non-medical' writers--Michel de Montaigne's views of medical theory and medical practice and Francis Bacon's proposals for renovating both--in which the claims of individual sufferers are set against the normativity of medicine as a whole. From around 1500 to around 1680, in the common ensemble of both learned and popular invective, medicine was disparaged as poor philosophy and worse practice, even as the 'lowest of professions'. In remarkably broad, elegant interventions, Montaigne argues that medicine is based on 'examples and experience' (and 'so is my opinion', he adds), impugning its universalizing claims with the tractable experience of his own embodiment, with his own historia and consilium, while Francis Bacon enlists dietetics, Hippocratic case-taking and medical history in his broad programme for the reform of medicine. He more or less accepts Montaigne's argument for particularity in medical theory and practice, but presses the particular into service in his reformist programme. Like many sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century scholars and physicians frustrated with Galenic methods and models, both turn to Hippocratic practice and to hygiene and dietetics as salves for an ailing discipline. Finally, I argue that both writers enquire into viable means for inflecting learned medicine with particular experience, and both settle on rhetorical tools - analogy and exemplarity - as the means by which universalized medical models might be particularized or reformed.

  13. "Masculine love," Renaissance writing, and the "new invention" of homosexuality: an addendum.

    PubMed

    Forker, C R

    1996-01-01

    Joseph Cady's recent article, "Masculine Love," Renaissance Writing, and the "New Invention' of Homosexuality," Journal of Homosexuality 23.1-2 (1992): 9-40, did much to shed new light on the controversial issue of whether homosexual identity is a relatively late phenomenon (late seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century at the earliest according to scholars of the "constructivist" persuasion) or already existed in the age of the Renaissance and before. Cady argues that homosexual identity is at least as old as the Elizabethan age, and cites from widely divergent sources several early modern instances of the term "masculine love," a term that seems to have been used exclusively to refer to the sexual preference of men for members of their own gender. The present note adds a further example to buttress Cady's case-namely the term "masculine conversation" from Arthur Wilson's History of Great Britain (1653), an account of the reign of James I (who was widely recognized to be sexually attracted to men). The term "conversation" often referred to sexual intercourse, being used in legal discourse to define adultery, and therefore constitutes an even more explicit example of denotative language than those Cady cites. Since Wilson discusses Sir Francis Bacon as well as James I, this brief article explores the historically documentable sexual preferences of these two figures in addition to that of the dramatist Christopher Marlowe and of Bacon's brother Anthony, a diplomat, all of whom seem to have been strongly oriented to "masculine love" and "masculine conversation".

  14. Proteus rebound: reconsidering the "torture of nature".

    PubMed

    Pesic, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Though Carolyn Merchant has agreed that Francis Bacon did not advocate the "torture of nature," she still maintains that "the very essence of the experimental method arose out of human torture transferred onto nature." Her arguments do not address serious problems of logic, context, and contrary evidence. Her particular insistence on the influence of the torture of witches ignores Bacon's skepticism about witchcraft as superstitious or imaginary. Nor do the writings of his successors sustain her claim that they carried forward his supposed program to abuse nature. We should be wary of metaphorical generalizations that ignore the context of the metaphor, the larger intent of the writers, and the fundamental limitations of such metaphors as descriptions of science. There are no scientific methods which alone lead to knowledge! We have to tackle things experimentally, now angry with them and now kind, and be successively just, passionate, and cold with them. One person addresses things as a policeman, a second as a father confessor, a third as an inquisitive wanderer. Something can be wrung from them now with sympathy, now with force; reverence for their secrets will take one person forwards, indiscretion and roguishness in revealing their secrets will do the same for another. We investigators are, like all conquerors, discoverers, seafarers, adventurers, of an audacious morality and must reconcile ourselves to being considered on the whole evil.

  15. All age-depth models are wrong, but are getting better

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachsel, Mathias; Chipperfield, Joseph D.; Telford, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    Construction of accurate age-depth relationships and realistic assessment of their uncertainties is one of the fundamental prerequisites for comparing and correlating Late Quaternary stratigraphic proxy records. Four widely used age-depth modelling routines: i) clam, ii) OxCal, iii) Bacon, and iv) Bchron were tested using radiocarbon dates simulated from varved sediment stratigraphies. All methods produced average age-depth models that were close to the true varve age, but the uncertainty estimation differed considerably among models. Age uncertainties were underestimated by clam, whereas age uncertainties produced by Bchron were too large. Using OxCal and Bacon, setting of model specific parameters influenced the estimated uncertainties, which varied from too large to too small. Still, compared to the study by Telford et al. (2004), the use of Bayesian age-depth models greatly improved on the assessment of uncertainties of age-depth models. Reference: Telford et al. (2004), All age-depth models are wrong: but how badly? Quaternary Science Reviews, 23,1-5.

  16. Digital Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, C. R.; Ramsey, D. W.

    2002-12-01

    Crater Lake caldera formed ~7700 cal yr B.P. by the eruption of 50 km3 of mainly rhyodacitic magma and the resulting collapse of Mount Mazama. A new 1:24,000-scale digital geologic map compiled in ArcInfo depicts the geology of this volcanic center, peripheral volcanoes, the caldera walls and floor, and superjacent pyroclastic, talus, and glacial deposits. The geology of the caldera walls was mapped in the field on photographs taken from the lake (see accompanying abstract and poster, "Geologic panoramas of the walls of Crater Lake caldera,Oregon"); the geology of the flanks of Mount Mazama and the surrounding area was mapped on aerial photographs; and features of the caldera floor were mapped on a multibeam echo-sounding bathymetric map (Gardner et al., 2001; Bacon et al., 2002). Volcanic map units are defined on the basis of chemical composition and petrographic characteristics. Map unit colors were chosen to indicate the compositions of volcanic rocks, cooler colors for mafic units and warmer colors for silicic units. Map unit color intensity indicates age, with more intense coloring for younger units. Ages of many units have been determined by K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating by M.A. Lanphere. Several undated units have been correlated using paleomagnetic secular variation measurements by D.E. Champion. Crystallization facies of some of the larger lava flows are mapped separately (e.g., vitrophyre, felsite, carapace), as are breccia and lava facies of submerged postcaldera volcanoes. Also shown on the caldera floor are landslide (debris avalanche) and sediment gravity-flow deposits. A major north-south normal fault system traverses the map area west of the caldera and displaces dated late Pleistocene lava flows, allowing determination of a long-term slip rate of ~0.3 mm/yr (Bacon et al., 1999). Faults bounding large downdropped blocks of the south caldera wall are also shown. Where practical, lava flow margins are represented as intra-unit contacts. A number of small

  17. [Longlived examples. Function and formal principles of historical exempla of old age in the early-modern dietetic literature].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Since antiquity, the exemplum can be proven in numerous types of texts, as it fulfills a notable didactic and rhetorical function: On the one hand it serves to a deductive illustration of common doctrines; on the other it is until the Enlightenment the scientific basis of cognition: in the view of medieval artistotelists, of who FRANCIS BACON was (in a special sense) one of the last champions, the exemplum takes on an inductive function: the sensual perception of the exampla generates the understanding of the universal, as the exemplum always refers to the exemplar, to the original form. Regarding the eminent deductive/inductive significance of the exempla, it is not surprising that they are an essential factor in dietetic literature. Whereas such exemples were very rare in the general literature on health care written by physicians and in specific papers of old-age assistance, they formed an integral part of texts composed for a large public by medical laymen such as (Ps.-) ROGER BACON, MARSILIO FICINO, ALVISE CORNARO or FRANCIS BACON. In these studies, the issue of a natural limit of human life was discussed intensively. In this context the "historical" sources were of high importance, even if, from a todays point of view, their use was completely non-historical. Often their crude instrumentalization and new interpretations can only be understood in the scholarly context of the time: E.g. in debates of specialists with outsiders or when serving as argument for physiological theories and therapeutical regimes. Not until late Renaissance, the historical exemple was replaced by the individual experience. It is striking that most of all historical exemples found in dietetic papers were positive. This humanistic and Christian ideal concept of old age, which completely contradicts the medical reality, had obviously a stronger fascination on the authors of early modern times than the inductive function of negative exempla (which are very important for a rational

  18. [Longlived examples. Function and formal principles of historical exempla of old age in the early-modern dietetic literature].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Since antiquity, the exemplum can be proven in numerous types of texts, as it fulfills a notable didactic and rhetorical function: On the one hand it serves to a deductive illustration of common doctrines; on the other it is until the Enlightenment the scientific basis of cognition: in the view of medieval artistotelists, of who FRANCIS BACON was (in a special sense) one of the last champions, the exemplum takes on an inductive function: the sensual perception of the exampla generates the understanding of the universal, as the exemplum always refers to the exemplar, to the original form. Regarding the eminent deductive/inductive significance of the exempla, it is not surprising that they are an essential factor in dietetic literature. Whereas such exemples were very rare in the general literature on health care written by physicians and in specific papers of old-age assistance, they formed an integral part of texts composed for a large public by medical laymen such as (Ps.-) ROGER BACON, MARSILIO FICINO, ALVISE CORNARO or FRANCIS BACON. In these studies, the issue of a natural limit of human life was discussed intensively. In this context the "historical" sources were of high importance, even if, from a todays point of view, their use was completely non-historical. Often their crude instrumentalization and new interpretations can only be understood in the scholarly context of the time: E.g. in debates of specialists with outsiders or when serving as argument for physiological theories and therapeutical regimes. Not until late Renaissance, the historical exemple was replaced by the individual experience. It is striking that most of all historical exemples found in dietetic papers were positive. This humanistic and Christian ideal concept of old age, which completely contradicts the medical reality, had obviously a stronger fascination on the authors of early modern times than the inductive function of negative exempla (which are very important for a rational

  19. Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Crater Lake partly fills one of the most spectacular calderas of the world, an 8-by-10-km basin more than 1 km deep formed by collapse of the volcano known as Mount Mazama (fig. 1) during a rapid series of explosive eruptions about 7,700 years ago. Having a maximum depth of 594 m, Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. Crater Lake National Park, dedicated in 1902, encompasses 645 km2 of pristine forested and alpine terrain, including the lake itself, virtually all of Mount Mazama, and most of the area of the geologic map. The geology of the area was first described in detail by Diller and Patton (1902) and later by Williams (1942), whose vivid account led to international recognition of Crater Lake as the classic collapse caldera. Because of excellent preservation and access, Mount Mazama, Crater Lake caldera, and the deposits formed by the climactic eruption constitute a natural laboratory for study of volcanic and magmatic processes. For example, the climactic ejecta are renowned among volcanologists as evidence for systematic compositional zonation within a subterranean magma chamber. Mount Mazama's climactic eruption also is important as the source of the widespread Mazama ash, a useful Holocene stratigraphic marker throughout the Pacific Northwest, adjacent Canada, and offshore. A detailed bathymetric survey of the floor of Crater Lake in 2000 (Bacon and others, 2002) provides a unique record of postcaldera eruptions, the interplay between volcanism and filling of the lake, and sediment transport within this closed basin. Knowledge of the geology and eruptive history of the Mount Mazama edifice, greatly enhanced by the caldera wall exposures, gives exceptional insight into how large volcanoes of magmatic arcs grow and evolve. Lastly, the many smaller volcanoes of the High Cascades beyond the limits of Mount Mazama are a source of information on the flux of mantle-derived magma through the region. General principles of magmatic and eruptive

  20. Building a large magma chamber at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, H. M.; Karlstrom, L.; Bacon, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Crater Lake caldera, Oregon, a structure produced by the 50 km3 eruption of Mount Mazama ~7.7 ka, is one of only three identified Quaternary calderas in the Cascades volcanic chain (Hildreth 2007). What were the conditions necessary to build a large volume magma chamber capable of producing this caldera-forming eruption at Mount Mazama? Using the well-documented >400,000 year volcanic history at Mazama (Bacon and Lanphere 2006), an approximation of vent locations for each eruptive unit (Bacon 2008), and a compilation of over 900 whole-rock compositions from Mount Mazama and regional volcanic rocks, we examine questions of magma chamber assembly in an active volcanic arc. These questions include: (1) is magmatic input approximately constant in composition between Mazama and regional monogenetic volcanic centers? (2) how did melt evolution differ in the two cases (Mazama vs. regional volcanism)? (3) is there spatiotemporal evidence in eruption data (including eruptive volume and chemistry) for a growing magma chamber at depth? and (4) does stability of that chamber require pre-warming of the surrounding country rock? An assumption of approximately constant major-element composition magmatic input is consistent with observed compositional overlap between basaltic to basaltic andesitic eruptive products at Mount Mazama and its vicinity (within 15 km of the volcano). MELTS modeling (Ghiorso and Sack 1995) from an initial composition of magnesian basaltic andesite of monogenetic Red Cone (erupted at a distance of ~8 km from the climactic vent) is consistent with water-saturated magmatic evolution at relatively shallow depths (<500 MPa, with the caveat that shallow pressure calibration data are largely lacking from MELTS models). Within this pressure range, differences in whole-rock compositions indicate that regional magmatic rocks evolved at shallower depths and/or drier conditions than those at the Mazama center. Observations of eruptive ages, compositions, vent

  1. Improved Error Thresholds for Measurement-Free Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Daniel; Joynt, Robert; Saffman, M.

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by limitations and capabilities of neutral atom qubits, we examine whether measurement-free error correction can produce practical error thresholds. We show that this can be achieved by extracting redundant syndrome information, giving our procedure extra fault tolerance and eliminating the need for ancilla verification. The procedure is particularly favorable when multiqubit gates are available for the correction step. Simulations of the bit-flip, Bacon-Shor, and Steane codes indicate that coherent error correction can produce threshold error rates that are on the order of 10-3 to 10-4—comparable with or better than measurement-based values, and much better than previous results for other coherent error correction schemes. This indicates that coherent error correction is worthy of serious consideration for achieving protected logical qubits.

  2. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  3. Food choices and the cancer guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, B H; Block, G

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from 11,658 adult respondents in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) (1976-80) were used to examine the American diet in relation to certain of the cancer dietary guidelines from the National Academy of Sciences and the American Cancer Society. The per cent who reported consuming any food in those food groups considered protective was small: cruciferous vegetables (18 per cent); fruits and vegetables high in vitamin A (21 per cent); high fiber breads and cereals (16 per cent). The per cent consuming foods potentially increasing cancer risk was high: red meat (55 per cent); bacon and lunch meats (43 per cent). Proportions of persons eating fruits and vegetables increased with income. Diets were closer to the guidelines for females than males, for Blacks than Whites, and for older than younger Americans. PMID:3341498

  4. The body of the soul. Lucretian echoes in the Renaissance theories on the psychic substance and its organic repartition.

    PubMed

    Tutrone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In the 16th and 17th centuries, when Aristotelianism still was the leading current of natural philosophy and atomistic theories began to arise, Lucretius' De Rerum Natura stood out as an attractive and dangerous model. The present paper reassesses several relevant aspects of Lucretius' materialistic psychology by focusing on the problem of the soul's repartition through the limbs discussed in Book 3. A very successful Lucretian image serves as flu rouge throughout this survey: the description of a snake chopped up, with its pieces moving on the ground (Lucretius DRN 1969, 3.657-669). The paper's first section sets the poet's theory against the background of ancient psychology, pointing out its often neglected assimilation of Aristotelian elements. The second section highlights the influence of De Rerum Natura and its physiology of the soul on Bernardino Telesio, Agostino Doni and Francis Bacon, since all of these authors engage in an original recombination of mechanical and teleological explanations. PMID:25707096

  5. Handedness and situs inversus in primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Martin, N; Stubbings, G F; Chung, E M K; Mitchison, H M

    2004-12-22

    ... The limbs on the right side are stronger. [The] cause may be ... [that] ... motion, and abilities of moving, are somewhat holpen from the liver, which lieth on the right side. (Sir Francis Bacon, Sylva sylvarum (1627).)Fifty per cent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (also known as immotile cilia syndrome or Siewert-Kartagener syndrome) have situs inversus, which is thought to result from absent nodal ciliary rotation and failure of normal symmetry breaking. In a study of 88 people with PCD, only 15.2% of 46 individuals with situs inversus, and 14.3% of 42 individuals with situs solitus, were left handed. Because cerebral lateralization is therefore still present, the nodal cilia cannot be the primary mechanism responsible for symmetry breaking in the vertebrate body. Intriguingly, one behavioural lateralization, wearing a wrist-watch on the right wrist, did correlate with situs inversus. PMID:15615683

  6. [The function of analogies in natural sciences, also in contrast to metaphors and models].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    This introduction surveys the various functions of analogies in science, medicine and technology. The focus is on their heuristic importance. The productiveness of analogies is linked to the systematic depth and breadth of the established connections. Various examples are presented from different periods in the history of science, most notably Galileo; such late-Victorian Maxwellians as George Francis FitzGerald and Oliver Lodge; and Heinrich HERTZ and Niels BOHR. These examples are examined in terms of the specific differing temporal ranges of their claimed validities. They serve as evidence or counterevidence for various systematic analyses of analogies as put forward by various philosophers of science, most notably Francis Bacon, John Stuart Mill, Ernst Mach, Harald Høffding, Ernest Nagel, Mary Hesse and Peter Achinstein. The analytic framework for analogies supported here is what the cognitive scientist Dedre Gentner has termed structure-mapping. PMID:21560601

  7. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs)

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) made at control decision meetings on November 16, 17, and 18, 1999, on April 19,2000, and on May 10,2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996) for DCRTs. Following the contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval.

  8. Bell inequalities with communication assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Katherine; Chitambar, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the possible correlations between two parties using local machines and shared randomness with an additional amount of classical communication. This is a continuation of the work initiated by Bacon and Toner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157904 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.157904] who characterized the correlation polytope for 2×2 measurement settings with binary outcomes plus one bit of communication. Here, we derive a complete set of Bell inequalities for 3×2 measurement settings and a shared bit of communication. When the communication direction is fixed, nine Bell inequalities characterize the correlation polytope, whereas when the communication direction is bidirectional, 143 inequalities describe the correlations. We then prove a tight lower bound on the amount of communication needed to simulate all no-signaling correlations for a given number of measurement settings.

  9. The general theory of relativity - Why 'It is probably the most beautiful of all existing theories'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to objectively evaluate the frequent judgment of Einstein's general theory of relativity, by such distinguished physicists as Pauli (1921), Dirac, Born, and Rutherford, as 'beautiful' and 'a work of art'. The criteria applied are that of Francis Bacon ('There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportions') and that of Heisenberg ('Beauty is the proper conformity of the parts to one another and to the whole'). The strangeness in the proportions of the theory of general relativity consists in its relating, through juxtaposition, the concepts of space and time and those of matter and motion; these had previously been considered entirely independent. The criterion of 'conformity' is illustrated through the directness with which the theory allows the description of black holes.

  10. Modeling microbial competition in food: application to the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid flora in pork meat products.

    PubMed

    Cornu, M; Billoir, E; Bergis, H; Beaufort, A; Zuliani, V

    2011-06-01

    Competition between background microflora and microbial pathogens raises questions about the application of predictive microbiology in situ, i.e., in non-sterile naturally contaminated foods. In this article, we present a review of the models developed in predictive microbiology to describe interactions between microflora in foods, with a special focus on two approaches: one based on the Jameson effect (simultaneous deceleration of all microbial populations) and one based on the Lotka-Volterra competition model. As an illustration of the potential of these models, we propose various modeling examples in estimation and in prediction of microbial growth curves, all related to the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes with lactic acid bacteria in three pork meat products (fresh pork meat and two types of diced bacon).

  11. Did Ptolemy understand the moon illusion?

    PubMed

    Ross, H E; Ross, G M

    1976-01-01

    Ptolemy is often wrongly credited with an explanation of the moon illusion based on the size-distance invariance principle. This paper elucidates the two Ptolemaic accounts: one in the Almagest, based on atmospheric refraction, and the other in the Optics, based on the difficulty of looking upwards. It is the latter passage which has been thought to refer to size-distance invariance, but it is more probable that it refers to the idea that the visual rays are diminished by the force of gravity (i.e. that the retinal image is reduced in size). Alhazen was probably the first author to explain the illusion by the size-distance invariance principle, and Roger Bacon the first to explain the enlarged apparent distance of the horizon by the presence of intervening objects. Della Porta was the first to credit Ptolemy with these explanations, and this mistake was repeated by many subsequent authors.

  12. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The findings of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Gunnison, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. Results of surface soil sample analyses and direct gamma radiation measurements indicate limited spread of tailings off the site. The only significant above background measurements off the site were obtained in an area previously covered by the tailings pile. There was little evidence of contamination of the surface or of unconfined groundwater in the vicinity of the tailings pile; however, the hydrologic conditions at the site indicate a potential for such contamination. The concentration of /sup 226/Ra in all water samples except one from the tailings pile was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The subsurface distribution of /sup 226/Ra in 14 bore holes located on and around the tailings pile was calculated from gamma ray monitoring data obtained jointly with Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc.

  13. A historical review of the concept of vascular dementia: lessons from the past for the future.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1999-01-01

    The history of senile dementia begins in the Greco-Roman period with basic concepts of senility by Pythagoras and Hippocrates. During the Middle Ages, the main contribution was by Roger Bacon in 1290. The first textbook of neurology, De cerebri morbis, by Jaso de Pratis (1549), included a chapter on dementia ("De memoriae detrimento"). In the 17th century, Thomas Willis recognized intellectual loss with aging. In the 19th century, Philippe Pinel removed chains from the mentally ill; his student Esquirol wrote the first modern classification of mental disease, including senile dementia. In 1860, Morel recognized brain atrophy with aging. The modern history of vascular dementia began in 1896, when Emil Kraepelin in his textbook Psychiatrie included "arteriosclerotic dementia" among the senile dementias, following the ideas of Otto Binswanger and Alois Alzheimer, who had differentiated clinically and pathologically arteriosclerotic brain lesions from senile dementia and from neurosyphilitic general paresis of the insane. Binswanger's and Alzheimer's contributions are reviewed in detail.

  14. Engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, and investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  15. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Ellis, B.S.; Chou, K.D.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Durango, Colorado, conducted in April 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented together with descriptions of the instruments and techniques used to obtain the data. Direct above-ground gamma measurements and analysis of surface soil and sediment samples indicate movement of tailings from the piles toward Lightner Creek on the north and the Animas River on the east side of the piles. The concentration of /sup 226/Ra in the former raffinate pond area is only slightly above the background level. Two structures in Durango were found to contain high concentrations of airborne radon daughters, where tailings are known to have been utilized in construction. Near-background concentrations of radon daughters were found in a well-ventilated building close to the tailings.

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  18. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters.

  19. Coherent x-ray scatter imaging for foodstuff contamination detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Gerhard; Bomsdorf, H.; Harding, Geoffrey L.; Kanzenbach, Jurgen; Linde, R.

    1994-03-01

    Using the novel technique of energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction tomography, measurements were made of the coherent X-ray scatter from various types of foodstuff (chocolate, bacon, cherry jam, chicken breast) with their typical contaminants (macrolon, blue foil, cherry stones/wood and bone, respectively). In addition, it is shown how the use of a window technique in the diffraction spectrum allows cancellation of the foodstuff contribution in scatter images, leaving only that of the contaminant. The extension to multicomponent systems, allowing arbitrary elimination of unwanted materials in coherent scatter images, is possible. Taken together, these results indicate the great potential of coherent X-ray scatter analysis for contamination detection in the foodstuff industry. By development of more efficient X-ray scatter geometries, using e.g. fan beam irradiation with simultaneous acquisition of spectra from different voxels, the requirements of industrial mass production with respect to inspection time and resolution are likely to be met.

  20. Color vision in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Kelling, Angela S; Snyder, Rebecca J; Marr, M Jackson; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Gardner, Wendy; Maple, Terry L

    2006-05-01

    Hue discrimination abilities of giant pandas were tested, controlling for brightness. Subjects were 2 adult giant pandas (1 male and 1 female). A simultaneous discrimination procedure without correction was used. In five tasks, white, black, and five saturations each of green, blue, and red served as positive stimuli that were paired with one or two comparison stimuli consisting of 16 saturations of gray. To demonstrate discrimination, the subjects were required to choose the positive stimulus in 16 of 20 trials (80% correct) for three consecutivesessions. Both subjects reached criterion forgreen and red. The female subject also reached criterion for blue. The male was not tested for blue. This study is a systematic replication of Bacon and Burghardt's (1976) color discrimination experiment on black bears. The results suggest that color vision in the giant panda is comparable to that of black bears and other carnivores that are not strictly nocturnal.

  1. The body of the soul. Lucretian echoes in the Renaissance theories on the psychic substance and its organic repartition.

    PubMed

    Tutrone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In the 16th and 17th centuries, when Aristotelianism still was the leading current of natural philosophy and atomistic theories began to arise, Lucretius' De Rerum Natura stood out as an attractive and dangerous model. The present paper reassesses several relevant aspects of Lucretius' materialistic psychology by focusing on the problem of the soul's repartition through the limbs discussed in Book 3. A very successful Lucretian image serves as flu rouge throughout this survey: the description of a snake chopped up, with its pieces moving on the ground (Lucretius DRN 1969, 3.657-669). The paper's first section sets the poet's theory against the background of ancient psychology, pointing out its often neglected assimilation of Aristotelian elements. The second section highlights the influence of De Rerum Natura and its physiology of the soul on Bernardino Telesio, Agostino Doni and Francis Bacon, since all of these authors engage in an original recombination of mechanical and teleological explanations.

  2. Handedness and situs inversus in primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Martin, N; Stubbings, G F; Chung, E M K; Mitchison, H M

    2004-12-22

    ... The limbs on the right side are stronger. [The] cause may be ... [that] ... motion, and abilities of moving, are somewhat holpen from the liver, which lieth on the right side. (Sir Francis Bacon, Sylva sylvarum (1627).)Fifty per cent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (also known as immotile cilia syndrome or Siewert-Kartagener syndrome) have situs inversus, which is thought to result from absent nodal ciliary rotation and failure of normal symmetry breaking. In a study of 88 people with PCD, only 15.2% of 46 individuals with situs inversus, and 14.3% of 42 individuals with situs solitus, were left handed. Because cerebral lateralization is therefore still present, the nodal cilia cannot be the primary mechanism responsible for symmetry breaking in the vertebrate body. Intriguingly, one behavioural lateralization, wearing a wrist-watch on the right wrist, did correlate with situs inversus.

  3. Considering the opposite: a corrective strategy for social judgment.

    PubMed

    Lord, C G; Lepper, M R; Preston, E

    1984-12-01

    It is proposed that several biases in social judgment result from a failure--first noted by Francis Bacon--to consider possibilities at odds with beliefs and perceptions of the moment. Individuals who are induced to consider the opposite, therefore, should display less bias in social judgment. In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, this reasoning was applied to two domains--biased assimilation of new evidence on social issues and biased hypothesis testing of personality impressions. Subjects were induced to consider the opposite in two ways: through explicit instructions to do so and through stimulus materials that made opposite possibilities more salient. In both experiments the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible. The results are viewed as consistent with previous research on perseverance, hindsight, and logical problem solving, and are thought to suggest an effective method of retraining social judgment.

  4. Firearm advertising: product depiction in consumer gun magazines.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Elizabeth A; Vittes, Katherine A; Sorenson, Susan B

    2004-10-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in Bacon's Magazine Directory "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers spent an estimated $1,195,680 on firearm advertising during the month studied. Annual advertising costs ranged widely; manufacturers spent an estimated $28.16 in advertising per firearm produced. Firearms generally were presented as a part of a lifestyle. Self-protection was noted infrequently in the advertisements. By contrast, attributes of the gun, typically technological characteristics, were noted in almost every advertisement. PMID:15358905

  5. Thorium adsorption in the ocean: reversibility and distribution amongst particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert M.; Hunter, Keith A.

    1985-11-01

    Experiments have been carried out to determine whether the adsorption of Th by marine suspended particles is a reversible process. The results indicate reversibility on a time scale of hours. The distribution of Th between the 'dissolved' state (<0.22 μm particle size) and various particle size fractions has been compared with predictions based on a hyperbolic size distribution of marine particles assuming spherical geometry and surface adsorption. Thorium is present in small particles to a much smaller degree than such a model would predict, so that the use of 1 μm pore size filters to separate 'dissolved' and 'particulate' Th does not introduce serious errors. The implications of these results on the reversible exchange model of BACON and ANDERSON (1982) and on the settling model of TSUNOGAI and MINAGAWA (1978) are discussed.

  6. Two science communities and coastal wetlands policy

    SciTech Connect

    LeVine, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study compares the attitudes of academic and government wetlands scientists about wetlands science and policy. Analysis of one thousand seven hundred responses to Delphi-type questions posed to twenty California scientists on a wide range of issues about California coastal wetlands found significant differences between academic and government scientists about wetlands definitions, threats to wetlands, wetlands policies, wetlands health, and wetlands mitigation strategies. These differences were consistent with descriptive models of political sociology developed by D. Price and C.P. Snow and with normative models of the philosophy of science developed in the renaissance by F. Bacon and R. Descartes. Characteristics, preferences, and personality attributes consistent with group functions and roles have been described in these models. These findings have serious implications for policy. When academic and government wetlands scientists act as advisors to the major parties in land use conflicts, basic differences in perspective have contributed to costly contention over the future use of wetlands.

  7. Dai nippon printing co., ltd, Medi-Ca AC for enumeration of aerobic bacteria. Performance tested method 041302.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Mamoru; Kiso, Shoichi; Kinoshita, Mai; Okita, Yurie; Kazama, Keisuke; Saito, Rui

    2014-01-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for aerobic count, the MediCa AC method, was compared to the AOAC Official Method 966.23, Microbiological Methods, for seven different heat-processed meat matrixes: cooked roast beef, Chinese barbecued pork (barbecued pork seasoned with honey-based sauce), bacon, cooked ham, frankfurter (made from beef and pork), and boiled and cooked pork sausage. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for each matrix fell within the range of -0.50 to 0.50, and no statistical difference was observed at all three contamination levels for five matrixes. These results demonstrate that the Medi-Ca AC method is a reasonable alternative to the AOAC 966.23 method for cooked meat products.

  8. Beliefs about the satiating effect of bread with spread varying in macronutrient content.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, C; Stafleu, A; Staal, P; Wijne, M

    1992-04-01

    Beliefs about the satiating effect of foods varying in contents of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and fibre were investigated by face-to-face interviews with a random telephone sample of 101 subjects. Respondents were presented with photographs of two slices of bread covered with common spreads. Fibre level was manipulated by using white bread or wholemeal bread. Levels of proteins, fats and carbohydrates were manipulated by using different kinds of spread. Low and high levels of proteins, fats and carbohydrates had similar energy contents. The results showed that protein-rich spreads (lean meat products) and high-fibre (wholemeal) bread were believed to have a strong satiating effect. The satiating effect of high-fat spreads (butter, bacon) was believed to be much smaller, whereas the sweet carbohydrate spreads (jam, honey) were believed to have no satiating effect.

  9. Sources of N-nitrosamine contamination in foods.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, J H

    1984-01-01

    It has been well established that human foods may contain trace amounts of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. Originally, it was thought that the use of nitrite as a curing agent for flesh foods was the major source of these trace compounds in the diet. Subsequent research has clearly shown that other processing and packaging procedures can also introduce trace amounts of these carcinogens into foods. These procedures include drying foods in direct flame heated air, migration from food contact surfaces and direct addition as contaminants. In addition, other reports of N-nitrosamines in foods have less well defined routes of contamination. These sources of N-nitrosamines in foods will each be briefly reviewed in this paper and recent data from our laboratory concerning N-nitrosamines in products which directly contact foods presented. We also are reporting the N-nitrosothiazolidine content of fried-out bacon fat.

  10. Brief report: cognitive performance in autism and Asperger's syndrome: what are the differences?

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorders include autistic and Asperger's Syndrome (AS), often studied in terms of executive functions (EF), with controversial results. Using Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive theory (PASS; Das et al. in Assessment of cognitive processes: the PASS theory of intelligence. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA, 1994), this research compares the cognitive profiles obtained by the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri and Das in Cognitive assessment system. Riverside, Itasca, IL, 1997) of 15 subjects with typical development, 18 with autistic disorder and 20 with AS. Results highlight lower profiles for children with autistic and AS compared with typical development and even lower Planning and Attention processes for the group with autistic disorders than that with Asperger's. Subjects with Asperger's diagnosis do not differ from those with typical development as regards Simultaneous and Successive processes. Results are discussed in the light of current studies about EF.

  11. Did Ptolemy understand the moon illusion?

    PubMed

    Ross, H E; Ross, G M

    1976-01-01

    Ptolemy is often wrongly credited with an explanation of the moon illusion based on the size-distance invariance principle. This paper elucidates the two Ptolemaic accounts: one in the Almagest, based on atmospheric refraction, and the other in the Optics, based on the difficulty of looking upwards. It is the latter passage which has been thought to refer to size-distance invariance, but it is more probable that it refers to the idea that the visual rays are diminished by the force of gravity (i.e. that the retinal image is reduced in size). Alhazen was probably the first author to explain the illusion by the size-distance invariance principle, and Roger Bacon the first to explain the enlarged apparent distance of the horizon by the presence of intervening objects. Della Porta was the first to credit Ptolemy with these explanations, and this mistake was repeated by many subsequent authors. PMID:794813

  12. Commercializing microwave systems: Paths to success or failure

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffmann, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    Although the application of microwave power to industrial processing began 40 years ago, the actual adoption by processors has been disappointingly small. Approximately 90% of all installed microwave processing systems in the US are devoted to three applications - meat tempering, bacon cooking and rubber vulcanization. Among the reasons are: unrealistic expectations for the microwave process; lack of resources and capital to develop commercial processes; high cost of microwave processing equipment; and competitive conventional processes. In order to improve the opportunities for success the following questions must be addressed: (1) what is the real problem; (2) what are the true economics of the situation; (3) is the effect of the microwave system truly unique; would direct or indirect labor charges be reduced; what is the best combination of the energy sources for the new application?

  13. The exhumed ``Carlin-type'' fossil oil reservoir at Yankee Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Collister, James W.; Stout, Bill; Curtiss, David K.; Dahdah, Nicolas F.

    1998-12-01

    The Carlin-type disseminated gold orebodies of Yankee basin in the southern part of the Alligator Ridge mining district in Nevada contain widespread oil as smears, open-space fillings, and fluid inclusions in syn- and pre-mineral calcite veins. These unusual oils are the relicts of an exhumed and deeply oxidized oil reservoir that encom-passes the orebodies at the crest of a dissected, anticlinal trap. Results of fluid-inclusion microthermometry and organic geochemistry demonstrate that the oils experienced peak paleotemperatures of no more than about 150°C, a temperature unusually low for Carlin-type mineralization, but ideal for the transport, entrapment, and preservation of liquid hydrocarbon. Similar geothermal systems are actively circulating at three of Nevada’s producing oil fields—Grant Canyon, Bacon Flat, and Blackburn. Accordingly, concealed Carlin-type fossil hydrothermal systems of this type, even if subeconomic for gold, could contain commercial concentrations of oil.

  14. [The function of analogies in natural sciences, also in contrast to metaphors and models].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    This introduction surveys the various functions of analogies in science, medicine and technology. The focus is on their heuristic importance. The productiveness of analogies is linked to the systematic depth and breadth of the established connections. Various examples are presented from different periods in the history of science, most notably Galileo; such late-Victorian Maxwellians as George Francis FitzGerald and Oliver Lodge; and Heinrich HERTZ and Niels BOHR. These examples are examined in terms of the specific differing temporal ranges of their claimed validities. They serve as evidence or counterevidence for various systematic analyses of analogies as put forward by various philosophers of science, most notably Francis Bacon, John Stuart Mill, Ernst Mach, Harald Høffding, Ernest Nagel, Mary Hesse and Peter Achinstein. The analytic framework for analogies supported here is what the cognitive scientist Dedre Gentner has termed structure-mapping.

  15. Whole-rock and sulfide-mineral geochemical data for samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Koenig, Alan E.; Foley, Nora K.; Oscarson, Robert L.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report presents geochemical data for outcrop and drill-core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and associated metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The data consist of major- and trace-element whole-rock geochemical analyses, and major- and trace-element analyses of sulfide minerals determined by electron microprobe and laser ablation—inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. The PDF consists of text, appendix explaining the analytical methods used for the analyses presented in the data tables, a sample location map, and seven data tables. The seven tables are also available as spreadsheets in several file formats. Descriptions and discussions of the Bonnifield deposits are given in Dusel-Bacon and others (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010).

  16. John Gregory (1724-1773) and his lectures on the duties and qualifications of a physician establishing modern medical ethics on the base of the moral philosophy and the theory of science of the empiric British Enlightenment.

    PubMed

    Strätling, M

    1997-01-01

    In 1769/70 the Scottish physician and philosopher John Gregory (1724-1773) published Lectures On the Duties and Qualifications of a Physician. Gregory developed a truely ethical - in the sense of (moral) philosophically based - system of conduct in a physician. His concept of practising and teaching ethics in medicine and science is established on a very broad footing: combining Bacon's (1561-1626) general philosophy of nature and science with both, the general, likewise empirically based moral philosophy of his personal friend David Hume (1711-1776), and with the principles upheld by the so-called Common-Sense Philosophy. His Lectures had - particularly via the famous Code of Medical Ethics of Thomas Percival (1740-1804) - a decisive influence on our contemporary concepts of ethics in medicine and science. John Gregory is, without doubt, one of the most important and certainly the most comprehensive among the founders of what is known today as modern Bioethics.

  17. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE ArcGIS data 2

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    archive of ArcGIS data from the West Flank FORGE site located in Coso, California. Archive contains: 8 shapefiles polygon of the 3D geologic model polylines of the traces 3D modeled faults polylines of the fault traces from Duffield and Bacon, 1980 polygon of the West Flank FORGE site polylines of the traces of the geologic cross-sections (cross-sections in a separate archive in the GDR) polylines of the traces of the seismic reflection profiles through and adjacent to the West Flank site (seismic reflection profiles in a separate archive in the GDR) points of the well collars in and around the West Flank site polylines of the surface expression of the West Flank well paths

  18. Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century commentators on the chemical composition of the brain.

    PubMed

    Sourkes, T L

    1995-01-01

    The period between 1600 and 1800 was one of great change in the history of science, generally, and in the history of chemistry, specifically. It opened with Francis Bacon's visionary recognition of the benefits to mankind that would accrue from the expansion of scientia and closed with the overthrow of the phlogiston hypothesis. New chemical knowledge resulted from the efforts of the alchemists, especially in Paracelsians, and of the phlogistic philosophers, some of it recorded by writers of magic books (Thorndike, 1958; Camporesi, 1989). The authors of these works reflected 'the general mentality ... imbued with magic, occult beliefs, unreal suggestions, 'voices', and 'rumours', ... 'errors' and 'prejudices'. In respect to brain chemistry there appeared, beside the fantastic, elements of fact that characterise this period as embracing the 'pre-history' of neurochemistry. PMID:11619025

  19. Discovery and problem solving: Triangulation as a weak heuristic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Recently the artificial intelligence community has turned its attention to the process of discovery and found that the history of science is a fertile source for what Darden has called compiled hindsight. Such hindsight generates weak heuristics for discovery that do not guarantee that discoveries will be made but do have proven worth in leading to discoveries. Triangulation is one such heuristic that is grounded in historical hindsight. This heuristic is explored within the general framework of the BACON, GLAUBER, STAHL, DALTON, and SUTTON programs. In triangulation different bases of information are compared in an effort to identify gaps between the bases. Thus, assuming that the bases of information are relevantly related, the gaps that are identified should be good locations for discovery and robust analysis.

  20. Geochemistry of Apatite in Climactic and Pre-Climactic Tephra from Mt. Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, C. W.; Langstaff, M.

    2007-12-01

    Apatite is a common accessory mineral in arc volcanic rocks that potentially records information about the dissolved volatile (S,Cl,F,OH) and trace-element concentrations (Sr, Ba, REEs) of the melt from which it crystallized. In a previous study of apatite from arc and convergent margin volcanic rocks, Peng et al. (1997) reported 0.63 wt.% SO3 in Mazama apatite grains with a corresponding SrO content of 0.18 wt.%, comprising some of the highest SO3 and SrO values in their data. Our electron microprobe study of apatite in climactic and pre-climactic Mazama tephra was done in order to assess possible correlation of apatite SO3 with Sr content of low-Sr and high-Sr recharge magmas identified based on whole-rock and matrix glass data (Bacon and Druitt, 1988) and Sr content of plagioclase (Druitt and Bacon 1989). Samples chosen represent all magmatic components erupted during the ca. 7700 year before present climactic eruption and precursor Llao Rock and Cleetwood eruptions. We compare the S, Cl, and F content of Mazama apatites with recent experimental data for S, Cl, and F partitioning between apatite and melt and with dissolved volatiles previously measured in melt inclusions from corresponding or similar Mazama samples. Our electron microprobe data confirm the presence of rare Mazama apatites with up to 0.78 wt.% SO3 and 0.12 wt.% SrO in Llao Rock, Cleetwood, and climactic scoria and pumice samples. However, high SO3 and SrO apatites are not restricted to high-Sr scoria hosts, but have been observed in low-Sr scoria, in Llao Rock rhyodacitic pumices and in Cleetwood rhyodacitic pumices, thus indicating significant magma mixing prior to the Llao Rock, Cleetwood and climactic eruptions. Most apatite SO3 and SrO data falls within the 0.06 to 0.36 wt.% and 0.04 to 0.12 wt.% range, respectively. Experimental data on SO3 partitioning between apatite and melt and maximum sulfur contents of 300 to 350 ppm measured in climactic and Cleetwood rhyodacitic melt inclusions

  1. Prevalence and concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced ready-to-eat meat products in the Hellenic retail market.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the prevalence and concentration of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged precut (slices or cubes) ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products available in the Hellenic retail market. Samples of these RTE meat products (n = 209) were taken from local supermarkets during a 3-month period and analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes with an automated enzymatic qualitative immunoassay followed by biochemical confirmation of positive results. The concentration of the pathogen in the positive samples was also determined. Seventeen samples (8.1%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Eight (47.1%) of these 17 samples were from the same manufacturer; 36.4% of the products tested from this manufacturer were positive for L. monocytogenes. When bacon samples were not considered, the estimated prevalence of L. monocytogenes in sliced RTE meat products was much lower (3.1%). The L. monocytogenes populations in all positive samples were low, < or = 10 CFU/g. In 64.7% of the L. monocytogenes-positive samples, other Listeria species, including L. innocua and L. welshimeri, were also present at <10 to 690 CFU/g. These results indicate that L. monocytogenes is present in low numbers but is in a considerable proportion of the packaged precut RTE meat products that are sold in the Hellenic retail market. Cooked ham and bacon cut in cubes were the sample types most often contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The higher level of handling (e.g., cutting) associated with these products may further increase the risk of contamination with L. monocytogenes.

  2. The nomological image of nature: explaining the tide in the thirteenth century.

    PubMed

    Kedar, Yael

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the relevance of the nomological view of nature to three discussions of tide in the thirteenth century. A nomological conception of nature assumes that the basic explanatory units of natural phenomena are universally binding rules stated in quantitative terms. (1) Robert Grosseteste introduced an account of the tide based on the mechanism of rarefaction and condensation, stimulated by the Moon's rays and their angle of incidence. He considered the Moon's action over the sea an example of the general efficient causality exerted through the universal activity of light or species. (2) Albert the Great posited a plurality of causes which cannot be reduced to a single cause. The connaturality of the Moon and the water is the only principle of explanation which he considered universal. Connaturality, however, renders neither formulation nor quantification possible. While Albert stressed the variety of causes of the tide, (3) Roger Bacon emphasized regularity and reduced the various causes producing tides into forces. He replaced the terminology of 'natures' by one of 'forces'. Force, which in principle can be accurately described and measured, thus becomes a commensurable aspect of a diverse cosmos. When they reasoned why waters return to their place after the tide, Grosseteste argued that waters return in order to prevent a vacuum, Albert claimed that waters 'follow their own nature', while Bacon held that the 'proper force' of the water prevails over the distant force of the first heaven. I exhibit, for the thirteenth century, moments of the move away from the Aristotelian concerns. The basic elements of these concerns were essences and natures which reflect specific phenomena and did not allow for an image of nature as a unified system. In the new perspective of the thirteenth century the key was a causal link between the position of the Moon and the tide cycle, a link which is universal and still qualitative, yet expressed as susceptible to

  3. Historical and social contexts for scientific writing and use of passive voice: Toward an undergraduate science literacy course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dan Xiong

    The passive voice is a major stylistic feature of modern scientific discourse, but such a feature did not dominate scientific writing until the 1890s. It has its roots in the philosophical thoughts of experimental science of Francis Bacon and his followers such as Thomas Sprat and John Locke. In the early seventeenth century. Bacon called for a new science that emphasized collective knowledge of nature. Such a science was a cooperative and public enterprise in which scientists should work as a group to advance knowledge of nature. When science was moving gradually toward a public enterprise from the early seventeenth century, the passive voice gradually replaced the active voice in science writing as a dominant stylistic feature. The passive voice in scientific writing is thus historically and socially conditioned. Scientists take advantage of the linguistic functions of the passive voice to serve their rhetorical and pragmatic purposes such as presenting experiments as they are for others to reproduce and verify the results. It embodies two major conventions of scientific communities: (1) science is a public enterprise and (2) it is also a cooperative venture. Other conventions are related to these two: the collective authority of an scientific community is above the personal authority of any one individual scientist; science is not an infallible force, so any research result needs to be verified by a scientific community before it becomes knowledge; scientists use passive voice to approach their writing to make it appear as if it were objective; and science is a human profession. Therefore, we need to teach science students to use the passive voice, and more importantly, why and when to use it. We should emphasize writing practice to have students' see that they use passives rhetorically to present experimental processes, materials and methods.

  4. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet.

    PubMed

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling of 100-475 degrees C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs and egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperatures above 225 degrees C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  5. Simultaneous determination of seven nitroimidazole residues in meat by using HPLC-UV detection with solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han-Wen; Wang, Feng-Chi; Ai, Lian-Feng

    2007-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of the seven nitroimidazoles including metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ), dimetridazole (DMZ), tinidazole (TNZ), ornidazole (ONZ), secnidazole (SNZ) and the common metabolite of RNZ and hydroxydimetridazole (DMOHZ) in poultry and pork muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection (UV). After extraction with ethyl acetate and evaporation, the nitroimidazoles were redissolved in ethyl acetate and purified using strong cation exchange (SCX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The HPLC separation was carried through on a C(18) bonded silica column with a deionized water-methanol-acetonitrile mobile phase using a gradient elution procedure. The limit of detection of all the seven nitroimidazoles was 0.2 microg/kg. The recoveries of the seven nitroimidazoles for chicken, pork and bacon samples spiked with 1-20 microg/kg were in the range of 71.4-99.5%. The linearity is satisfactory with a correlation coefficient of >0.998 at concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 60 microg/kg. The relative standard deviations of 10 measurements for spiked chicken, pork and bacon samples at the concentration of 1 and 20 microg/kg were in the range of 6.2-13.9% and 4.0-8.7%, respectively. The intra-day precision (n=5) for nitroimidazoles residues in chicken spiked at 20 microg/kg is 6.9%, and the inter-day precision for 5 days (n=25) is 11%. The method is capable of identifying nitroimidazole residues at > or =0.7 microg/kg levels and was applied in the determination of nitroimidazole residues in meat sample. PMID:17719280

  6. Limbic activation to novel versus familiar food cues predicts food preference and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Subrize, Mike; Kim, Ronald; Robison, Lisa; Hurd, Yasmin L; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Thanos, Panayotis K

    2013-05-28

    Expectation of salient rewards and novelty seeking are processes implicated in substance use disorders but the neurobiological substrates underlying these associations are not well understood. To better understand the regional circuitry of novelty and reward preference, rats were conditioned to pair unique cues with bacon, an initially novel food, or chow, a familiar food. In the same animals, after training, cue-induced brain activity was measured, and the relationships between activity and preference for three rewards, the conditioned foods and ethanol (EtOH), were separately determined. Activity in response to the food paired cues was measured using brain glucose metabolism (BGluM). Rats favoring bacon-paired (BAP) cues had increased BGluM in mesocorticolimbic brain regions after exposure to these cues, while rats favoring chow-paired (CHP) cues showed relative deactivation in these regions. Rats exhibiting BAP cue-induced activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) also consumed more EtOH while rats with cortical activation in response to CHP cues showed lower EtOH consumption. Additionally, long-term stable expression levels of PFC Grin2a, a subunit of the NMDA receptor, correlated with individual differences in EtOH preference insomuch that rats with high EtOH preference had enduringly low PFC Grin2a mRNA expression. No other glutamatergic, dopaminergic or endocannabinoid genes studied showed this relationship. Overall, these results suggest that natural variation in mesocorticolimbic sensitivity to reward-paired cues underlies behavioral preferences for and vulnerability to alcohol abuse, and support the notion of common neuronal circuits involved in food- and drug-seeking behavior. The findings also provide evidence that PFC NMDA-mediated glutamate signaling may modulate these associations.

  7. Quantum Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidar, Daniel A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2013-09-01

    Prologue; Preface; Part I. Background: 1. Introduction to decoherence and noise in open quantum systems Daniel Lidar and Todd Brun; 2. Introduction to quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 3. Introduction to decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems Daniel Lidar; 4. Introduction to quantum dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 5. Introduction to quantum fault tolerance Panos Aliferis; Part II. Generalized Approaches to Quantum Error Correction: 6. Operator quantum error correction David Kribs and David Poulin; 7. Entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes Todd Brun and Min-Hsiu Hsieh; 8. Continuous-time quantum error correction Ognyan Oreshkov; Part III. Advanced Quantum Codes: 9. Quantum convolutional codes Mark Wilde; 10. Non-additive quantum codes Markus Grassl and Martin Rötteler; 11. Iterative quantum coding systems David Poulin; 12. Algebraic quantum coding theory Andreas Klappenecker; 13. Optimization-based quantum error correction Andrew Fletcher; Part IV. Advanced Dynamical Decoupling: 14. High order dynamical decoupling Zhen-Yu Wang and Ren-Bao Liu; 15. Combinatorial approaches to dynamical decoupling Martin Rötteler and Pawel Wocjan; Part V. Alternative Quantum Computation Approaches: 16. Holonomic quantum computation Paolo Zanardi; 17. Fault tolerance for holonomic quantum computation Ognyan Oreshkov, Todd Brun and Daniel Lidar; 18. Fault tolerant measurement-based quantum computing Debbie Leung; Part VI. Topological Methods: 19. Topological codes Héctor Bombín; 20. Fault tolerant topological cluster state quantum computing Austin Fowler and Kovid Goyal; Part VII. Applications and Implementations: 21. Experimental quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 22. Experimental dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 23. Architectures Jacob Taylor; 24. Error correction in quantum communication Mark Wilde; Part VIII. Critical Evaluation of Fault Tolerance: 25. Hamiltonian methods in QEC and fault tolerance Eduardo Novais, Eduardo Mucciolo and

  8. The nomological image of nature: explaining the tide in the thirteenth century.

    PubMed

    Kedar, Yael

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the relevance of the nomological view of nature to three discussions of tide in the thirteenth century. A nomological conception of nature assumes that the basic explanatory units of natural phenomena are universally binding rules stated in quantitative terms. (1) Robert Grosseteste introduced an account of the tide based on the mechanism of rarefaction and condensation, stimulated by the Moon's rays and their angle of incidence. He considered the Moon's action over the sea an example of the general efficient causality exerted through the universal activity of light or species. (2) Albert the Great posited a plurality of causes which cannot be reduced to a single cause. The connaturality of the Moon and the water is the only principle of explanation which he considered universal. Connaturality, however, renders neither formulation nor quantification possible. While Albert stressed the variety of causes of the tide, (3) Roger Bacon emphasized regularity and reduced the various causes producing tides into forces. He replaced the terminology of 'natures' by one of 'forces'. Force, which in principle can be accurately described and measured, thus becomes a commensurable aspect of a diverse cosmos. When they reasoned why waters return to their place after the tide, Grosseteste argued that waters return in order to prevent a vacuum, Albert claimed that waters 'follow their own nature', while Bacon held that the 'proper force' of the water prevails over the distant force of the first heaven. I exhibit, for the thirteenth century, moments of the move away from the Aristotelian concerns. The basic elements of these concerns were essences and natures which reflect specific phenomena and did not allow for an image of nature as a unified system. In the new perspective of the thirteenth century the key was a causal link between the position of the Moon and the tide cycle, a link which is universal and still qualitative, yet expressed as susceptible to

  9. Cruise report R/V Surf Surveyor cruise S1-00-CL, mapping the bathymetry of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Buktenica, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    During the Spring of 1999, the US Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project (PSMP) was contacted by the US National Park Service Crater Lake National Park (CLNP) to inquire about the plausibility of producing a high-resolution multibeam bathymetric map of Crater Lake. The purpose was to generate a much higher-resolution and more geographically accurate bathymetric map than was produced in 1959, the last time the lake had been surveyed. Scientific interest in various aspects of Crater Lake (aquatic biology, geochemistry, volcanic processes, etc.) has increased during the past decade but the basemap of bathymetry was woefully inadequate. Funds were gathered during the early part of 2000 and the mapping began in late July, 2000. Crater Lake (see fig. 1 in report) is located in south central Oregon (see fig. 2 in report) within the Cascades Range, a chain of volcanoes that stretches from northern California to southern British Columbia. Crater Lake is the collapsed caldera of Mt. Mazama from a climatic eruption about 7700-yr ago (Nelson et al., 1988; Bacon and Lanphere, 1990; Bacon et al., 1997). The floor of Crater Lake has only been mapped three times since the lake was first stumbled upon by gold prospectors in the 1853. The first survey was carried by out by William G. Steel during a joint USGS-US Army expedition under the direction of Maj. Clarence E. Dutton in 1886 (Dutton, 1889). Steel�s mapping survey collected 186 soundings using a Millers lead-line sounding machine (see fig.3 in report). The resulting map (see fig.4 in report) shows only soundings and no attempts were made to generate contours. The second survey, conducted in 1959 by the US Coast and Geodetic Survey, mapped the bathymetry of Crater Lake with an acoustic echo sounder using radar navigation and collected 4000 soundings. The data were contoured by Williams (1961) and Byrne (1962) and the result is a fairly detailed map of the large-scale features of Crater Lake (see fig. 5

  10. Evolutionary consequences of shifts to bird-pollination in the Australian pea-flowered legumes (Mirbelieae and Bossiaeeae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interactions with pollinators are proposed to be one of the major drivers of diversity in angiosperms. Specialised interactions with pollinators can lead to specialised floral traits, which collectively are known as a pollination syndrome. While it is thought that specialisation to a pollinator can lead to either an increase in diversity or in some cases a dead end, it is not well understood how transitions among specialised pollinators contribute to changes in diversity. Here, we use evolutionary trait reconstruction of bee-pollination and bird-pollination syndromes in Australian egg-and-bacon peas (Mirbelieae and Bossiaeeae) to test whether transitions between pollination syndromes is correlated with changes in species diversity. We also test for directionality in transitions that might be caused by selection by pollinators or by an evolutionary ratchet in which reversals to the original pollination syndrome are not possible. Results Trait reconstructions of Australian egg-and-bacon peas suggest that bee-pollination syndrome is the ancestral form and that there has been replicated evolution of bird-pollination syndromes. Reconstructions indicate potential reversals from bird- to bee-pollination syndromes but this is not consistent with morphology. Species diversity of bird-pollination syndrome clades is lower than that of their bee-pollination syndrome sisters. We estimated the earliest transitions from bee- to bird-pollination syndrome occurred between 30.8 Ma and 10.4 Ma. Geographical structuring of pollination syndromes was found; there were fewer bird-pollination species in the Australian southeast temperate region compared to other regions of Australia. Conclusions A consistent decrease in diversification rate coincident with switches to bird pollination might be explained if greater dispersal by bird pollinators results in higher levels of connectivity among populations and reduced chances of allopatric speciation. The earliest transitions

  11. Petrology of the zoned calcalkaline magma chamber of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druitt, T.H.; Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Evolution of the magma chamber at Mount Mazama involved repeated recharge by two types of andesite (high-Sr and low-Sr), crystal fractionation, crystal accumulation, assimilation, and magma mixing (Bacon and Druitt 1988). This paper addresses the modal compositions, textures, mineral chemistry and magmatic temperatures of (i) products of the 6845??50 BP climactic eruption, (ii) blocks of partially fused granitoid wallrock found in the ejecta, and (iii) preclimactic rhyodacitic lavas leaked from the chamber in late Pleistocene and early Holocene time. Immediately prior to the climactic eruption the chamber contained ??? 40 km3 of rhyodacite (10 vol% plag + opx + aug + hb + mt + ilm, ???880?? C) overlying high-Sr andesite and cumulus-crystal mush (28-51 vol% plag + hb ?? opx ?? aug + mt ?? ilm, 880?? to ???950?? C), which in turn overlay low-Sr crystal mush (50-66 vol% plag + opx + aug ?? hb ?? ol + mt + ilm, 890?? to ???950??? C). Despite the well known compositional gap in the ejecta, no thermal discontinuity existed in the chamber. Pre-eruptive water contents of pore liquids in most high-Sr and low-Sr mushes were 4-6 wt%, but on average the high-Sr mushes were slightly richer in water. Although parental magmas of the crystal mushes were andesitic, xenocrysts of bytownite and Ni-rich magnesian olivine in some scoriae record the one-time injection of basalt into the chamber. Textures in ol-bearing scoriae preserve evidence for the reactions ol + liq = opx and ol + aug + liq(+ plag?) = hb, which occurred in andesitic liquids at Mount Mazama. Strontium abundances in plagioclase phenocrysts constrain the petrogenesis of preclimactic and climactic rhyodacites. Phenocryst cores derived from high-Sr and low-Sr magmas have different Sr contents which can be resolved by microprobe. Partition coefficients for plagioclase in andesitic to rhyolitic glasses range from 2 to 7, and increase as glass %SiO2 increases. Evolved Pleistocene rhyodacites (???30-25,000 BP) and

  12. Slim by Design: Serving Healthy Foods First in Buffet Lines Improves Overall Meal Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets – many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. Method The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit). The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa). Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. Results With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (p<0.001). Indeed, diners in this line more frequently chose less healthy foods in combinations, such as cheesy eggs and bacon (r = 0.47; p<0.001) or cheesy eggs and fried potatoes (r = 0.37; p<0.001). This co-selection of healthier foods was less common. Conclusions Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner’s plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of “first foods most” may be relevant in other contexts – such as when serving or passing food at family dinners. PMID:24194859

  13. Reduction of Listeria Innocua Contamination in Vacuum-Packaged Dry-Cured Italian Pork Products After High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Ramini, Mattia; Ravanetti, Emanuela; Gherri, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to present the results of the application of a treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on Italian fermented and dry-cured pork products. The products used in this study were portioned cured ham, portioned bacon and salami, vacuumpackaged and produced by a single processing company. Two studies were conducted on a single batch of the three products by means of an artificial contamination with Listeria innocua as a surrogate of L. monocytogenes. In the first trial a superficial contamination was obtained by immersion for 3 min in the culture broth with a concentration of approximately 9 log cfu/mL. At the end of the inoculum step, the pieces were dred at room temperature and vacuum packaged. In the second trial 50 kg of minced pork meat were contaminated before production of salami. In both cases the inoculum contained 5 strains of L. innocua. Subsequently, in both trials, 10 samples were randomly divided into two groups of 5 pieces each: i) TH group, samples treated with HHP; ii) group C, control samples, not subjected to any treatment. All samples were stored at refrigeration temperature at the end of HHP treatments (if applied), and analyzed for the determination of the surface (1st trial) and deep (2nd trial) quantitative contamination of L. innocua. pH and aW were also determined on 3 pieces of each products belonging to group C. The difference between the medians of the log cfu/cm2 or g established between controls and treated were compared using the non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) with P<0.01. In all products and in both trials the level of contamination detected in treatment groups was always significantly lower than in controls (P<0.01). In particular, in vacuum-packaged ham, bacon and salami viability logarithmic viability reductions equal to -2.29, -2.54 and -2.51 were observed, respectively. This study aimed to evaluate a not-thermal treatment on Italian cured or fermented pork products. The results of this study

  14. Reduction of ochratoxin A in dry-cured meat products using gamma-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Domijan, Ana-Marija; Pleadin, Jelka; Mihaljević, Branka; Vahčić, Nada; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of gamma (γ)-irradiation in the reduction of ochratoxin A (OTA) present in dry-cured meat products prepared from intentionally contaminated raw materials from OTA-treated pigs. OTA concentrations determined in the samples (n = 24) ranged from 25.8 μg kg(-1) in bacon to 17.8 μg kg(-1) in smoked ham. After γ-irradiation at doses of 3, 7 and 10 kGy (i.e. the doses used in the food industry), a dose-depended OTA reduction was observed; however, it was not statistically significant. The mean OTA reduction achieved with 3-, 7- and 10-kGy γ-doses was approximated to 8.5%, 13.9% and 22.5%, respectively. The storage of irradiated samples (1 month, 4°C) did not significantly affect OTA levels. Based on the correlation between the OTA reduction level and basic chemical composition of dry-cured meat samples, OTA reduction may be linked to the samples' fat content. The results indicate that γ-irradiation can reduce OTA levels in dry-cured meat products, but only to a limited extent due to the complexity of the matrix.

  15. Basaltic injections into floored silicic magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, R. A.

    Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that many large accumulations of silicic volcanic rocks erupted from long-lasting, floored chambers of silicic magma that were repeatedly injected by basaltic magma. These basaltic infusions are commonly thought to play an important role in the evolution of the silicic systems: they have been proposed as a cause for explosive silicic eruptions [Sparks and Sigurdsson, 1977], compositional variation in ash-flow sheets [Smith, 1979], mafic magmatic inclusions in silicic volcanic rocks [Bacon, 1986], and mixing of mafic and silicic magmas [Anderson, 1976; Eichelberger, 1978]. If, as seems likely, floored silicic magma chambers have frequently been invaded by basalt, then plutonic bodies should provide records of these events. Although plutonic evidence for mixing and commingling of mafic and silicic magmas has been recognized for many years, it has been established only recently that some intrusive complex originated through multiple basaltic injections into floored chambers of silicic magma [e.g., Wiebe, 1974; Michael, 1991; Chapman and Rhodes, 1992].

  16. Inside Solomon's house: an archaeological study of the Old Ashmolean chymical laboratory in Oxford.

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2012-03-01

    This paper is based on the archaeological and analytical study of the laboratory remains from the Officina Chimica of the Old Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. Following a contextualisation of this laboratory, founded in the wake of Bacon's utopian idea of Solomon's Temple, it is argued that the assemblage is likely to date from the late seventeenth century and thus be connected to the work of Robert Plot, Christopher White, and, indirectly, Robert Boyle. The analytical study of the equipment reveals that the chymists at the Old Ashmolean obtained crucibles from the best manufacturers in Europe, and that they used these and other utensils for experiments involving mercury, sulphur, zinc, lead glass, manganese, and antimony. The importance of these elements for early modern chymistry is discussed in the light of relevant historical sources, including some of Boyle's chymical texts. Altogether, these finds illustrate some of the rich diversity of experiments that took place in one of the most prominent laboratories of the period, showing strong connections with longstanding alchemical concerns as well as with cutting-edge research and development ventures.

  17. A Shining Galaxy of Intellect Unrivaled in the Annals of Shadow-Seeking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, T.; Riggsbee, G.

    2005-12-01

    Wadesboro, North Carolina was the site of choice for observing the total solar eclipse of 1900 May 28. According to a regional newspaper, "the town was full of professional and amateur observers and telescopes of all sorts and sizes." And indeed it was. Four major expeditions (Yerkes, Smithsonian, Princeton, and the BAA) were dispatched to Wadesboro, and at least a dozen other institutions were represented there. The giants of American astrophysics - three generations of them - were on site, including Charles A. Young, Samuel P. Langley, George Ellery Hale, and Henry Norris Russell. But the observing grounds were thick with other notables, including several future college presidents and deans, government and public officials, and important contributors to a variety of fields of research and technology. In compiling a "who's who of Wadesboro," we have collected scientific and biographical information about almost all of the observers noted in popular and technical published accounts of the eclipse at Wadesboro, and have identified several unknowns in noted Wadesboro expedition photographs. We have also clarified the identity and pedigree of Nevil Maskelyne, a member of the British expedition who took the first successful moving pictures of an eclipse in Wadesboro, and who claimed relation to the fifth Astronomer Royal. The poster title is from an account by Gertrude Bacon, an aviation pioneer and author, and a member of the British Wadesboro expedition. This research was supported in part by the Herbert C. Pollock Award of the Dudley Observatory.

  18. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  19. Curiosity, forbidden knowledge, and the reformation of natural philosophy in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P

    2001-06-01

    From the patristic period to the beginning of the seventeenth century curiosity was regarded as an intellectual vice. Curious individuals were considered to be proud and "puffed up," and the objects of their investigations were deemed illicit, dispute engendering, unknowable, or useless. Seventeenth-century projects for the advancement of learning had to distance themselves from curiosity and its dubious fruits or, alternatively, enhance the moral status of the curious sensibility. Francis Bacon's proposals for the instauration of knowledge were an integral part of a process by which curiosity underwent a remarkable transformation from vice to virtue over the course of the seventeenth century. The changing fortunes of this human propensity highlight the morally charged nature of early modern debates over the status of natural philosophy and the particular virtues required of its practitioners. The rehabilitation of curiosity was a crucial element in the objectification of scientific knowledge and led to a gradual shift of focus away from the moral qualities of investigators and the propriety of particular objects of knowledge to specific procedures and methods. PMID:11590893

  20. Considering the opposite: a corrective strategy for social judgment.

    PubMed

    Lord, C G; Lepper, M R; Preston, E

    1984-12-01

    It is proposed that several biases in social judgment result from a failure--first noted by Francis Bacon--to consider possibilities at odds with beliefs and perceptions of the moment. Individuals who are induced to consider the opposite, therefore, should display less bias in social judgment. In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, this reasoning was applied to two domains--biased assimilation of new evidence on social issues and biased hypothesis testing of personality impressions. Subjects were induced to consider the opposite in two ways: through explicit instructions to do so and through stimulus materials that made opposite possibilities more salient. In both experiments the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible. The results are viewed as consistent with previous research on perseverance, hindsight, and logical problem solving, and are thought to suggest an effective method of retraining social judgment. PMID:6527215

  1. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  2. Nutrition research and education in the Age of Franklin. A Bicentennial study.

    PubMed

    Bing, F C

    1976-01-01

    Two hundred years ago, the United States was just emerging as a new nation. Chemistry and biology, on which the science of nutrition is based, were also just beginning or in their infancy. Dietetics and nutrition education, being applied sciences, were concerned then--as they are now--with the solution of practical problems of everyday living. Dietetics was an important part of medical practice in colonial days. Much of the teaching then about the value of diet in health and disease was provided by pithy statements, based on empiricism backed by authority, by which the science of medicine was taught to students, and by which health instruction was offered to the public. The experimental method of studying "Nature," promulgated by Francis Bacon, was just beginning to be employed in studies of nutrition. Delay in accepting experimental results, such as Lind's demonstration of the value of citrus fruits in the treatment of scurvy, may be attributed in part to a lack of understanding of the experimental method. In part, it may have been due to the absence of animal experimental methods that are capable of providing clear-cut and convincing evidence. Three of the greatest experimental scientists of the eighteenth century--Lavoisier, Count Rumford, and Benjamin Franklin--busied themselves with matters of concern to dietitians and home economists. Their work and that of others provided a firm foundation for the advances in scientific knowledge during the last two hundred years. PMID:1104697

  3. Chapter 24: the coming of molecular biology and its impact on clinical neurology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    Although the chemical study of the nervous system dates back well into the 19th century, molecular biology and especially molecular neurobiology only began to be established in the second half of the 20th century. This chapter reviews their impact on clinical neuroscience during the 50 years since Watson and Crick published their seminal paper. After a short review of the part played by F.O. Schmitt in establishing molecular neuroscience the chapter outlines work that led to a detailed understanding of the biochemical structure and function of nerve cell membranes and their embedded channel proteins, receptors, and other molecules. The chapter then turns to the numerous pathologies that result from disorders of these elements: the various channel and gap-junction pathologies. The chapter continues with a discussion of some of the diseases caused by defective DNA, especially the trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases (TREDs) and ends with a short account of the development of molecular approaches to prion diseases, myasthenia gravis, and the neurodegenerative diseases of old age. Francis Bacon said long ago that "knowledge is power." The hope is that increasing molecular knowledge will help cure some of the human suffering seen in the neurological ward and clinic. PMID:19892127

  4. The Renaissance Kidney-Nephrology in and about the Sixteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-07-01

    The endeavor to understand the workings of the human body is as old as civilization; but it is in the intellectual movement of the Renaissance that its actual scientific study began in earnest and has not ceased growing since then. It was in the 16th century that the study of organs was launched and with it that of the kidney, which was then conceived as an accessory organ to clear the excess water ingested with food. The study of the structural basis of kidney function was launched by Bartolomeo Eustachio (1514-1574); the elements of its physiology and pathology were promulgated by Jean Fernel (1497-1558), and that of the chemical study of urine and of the principal cause of kidney disease then, calculi, instigated by Joan Baptista Van Helmont (1577-1644). The methodological approaches of these and their contemporary investigators, which were crystallized and formulated by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), opened the gates of the Scientific Revolution that followed in the 17th century, beginning with that of describing the circulation in 1628 by William Harvey (1564-1657) that would finally free the kidney from the shackles imposed on it as a mere accessory organ to the liver in Galen's physiology. PMID:22320147

  5. A critique of the hypothesis, and a defense of the question, as a framework for experimentation.

    PubMed

    Glass, David J

    2010-07-01

    Scientists are often steered by common convention, funding agencies, and journal guidelines into a hypothesis-driven experimental framework, despite Isaac Newton's dictum that hypotheses have no place in experimental science. Some may think that Newton's cautionary note, which was in keeping with an experimental approach espoused by Francis Bacon, is inapplicable to current experimental method since, in accord with the philosopher Karl Popper, modern-day hypotheses are framed to serve as instruments of falsification, as opposed to verification. But Popper's "critical rationalist" framework too is problematic. It has been accused of being: inconsistent on philosophical grounds; unworkable for modern "large science," such as systems biology; inconsistent with the actual goals of experimental science, which is verification and not falsification; and harmful to the process of discovery as a practical matter. A criticism of the hypothesis as a framework for experimentation is offered. Presented is an alternative framework-the query/model approach-which many scientists may discover is the framework they are actually using, despite being required to give lip service to the hypothesis. PMID:20511448

  6. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulaik, S A

    1987-07-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources. From the Greek rationalists and atomists comes the idea that appearance is to be explained by something not observed. From Aristotle comes the idea of induction and seeking common features of things as explanations of them. From Francis Bacon comes the idea of an automatic algorithm for inductively discovering common causes. From Descartes come the ideas of analysis and synthesis that underlie the emphasis on analysis of variables into orthogonal or linearly independent factors and focus on reproducing (synthesizing) the correlation matrix from the factors. From empiricist statisticians like Pearson and Yule comes the idea of exploratory, descriptive statistics. Also from the empiricist heritage comes the false expectation some have that factor analysis yields unique and unambiguous knowledge without prior assumptions -- the inductivist fallacy. This expectation founders on the indeterminacy of factors, even after their loadings are defined by rotation. Indeterminacy is unavoidable in the interpretation of common factors because the process of interpretation is inductive and inductive inferences are not uniquely determined by the data on which they are based. But from Kant we learn not to discard inductive inferences but to treat them as hypotheses that must be tested against additional data to establish their objectivity. And so the conclusions of exploratory factor analyses are never complete without a subsequent confirmatory analysis with additional variables and new data. PMID:26776378

  7. Hydrogen-bond memory and water-skin supersolidity resolving the Mpemba paradox.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Huang, Yongli; Ma, Zengsheng; Zhou, Yichun; Zhou, Ji; Zheng, Weitao; Jiang, Qing; Sun, Chang Q

    2014-11-14

    The Mpemba paradox, that is, hotter water freezes faster than colder water, has baffled thinkers like Francis Bacon, René Descartes, and Aristotle since B.C. 350. However, a commonly accepted understanding or theoretical reproduction of this effect remains challenging. Numerical reproduction of observations, shown herewith, confirms that water skin supersolidity [Zhang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., DOI: ] enhances the local thermal diffusivity favoring heat flowing outwardly in the liquid path. Analysis of experimental database reveals that the hydrogen bond (O:H-O) possesses memory to emit energy at a rate depending on its initial storage. Unlike other usual materials that lengthen and soften all bonds when they absorb thermal energy, water performs abnormally under heating to lengthen the O:H nonbond and shorten the H-O covalent bond through inter-oxygen Coulomb coupling [Sun et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2013, 4, 3238]. Cooling does the opposite to release energy, like releasing a coupled pair of bungees, at a rate of history dependence. Being sensitive to the source volume, skin radiation, and the drain temperature, the Mpemba effect proceeds only in the strictly non-adiabatic 'source-path-drain' cycling system for the heat "emission-conduction-dissipation" dynamics with a relaxation time that drops exponentially with the rise of the initial temperature of the liquid source. PMID:25253165

  8. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods.

    PubMed

    Zeisel, Steven H; Mar, Mei-Heng; Howe, Juliette C; Holden, Joanne M

    2003-05-01

    Choline is important for normal membrane function, acetylcholine synthesis and methyl group metabolism; the choline requirement for humans is 550 mg/d for men (Adequate Intake). Betaine, a choline derivative, is important because of its role in the donation of methyl groups to homocysteine to form methionine. In tissues and foods, there are multiple choline compounds that contribute to total choline concentration (choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin). In this study, we collected representative food samples and analyzed the choline concentration of 145 common foods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Foods with the highest total choline concentration (mg/100 g) were: beef liver (418), chicken liver (290), eggs (251), wheat germ (152), bacon (125), dried soybeans (116) and pork (103). The foods with the highest betaine concentration (mg/100 g) were: wheat bran (1339), wheat germ (1241), spinach (645), pretzels (237), shrimp (218) and wheat bread (201). A number of epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dietary folic acid and cancer or heart disease. It may be helpful to also consider choline intake as a confounding factor because folate and choline methyl donation can be interchangeable. PMID:12730414

  9. Cumulative coffee consumption and reduced risk of oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Rotundo, Ligia Drovandi Braga; Brasileiro, Rosana Sarmento; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; de Góis Filho, José Francisco; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2011-01-01

    We examined the association between coffee consumption and oral cancer in a hospital-based case-control study comprising 143 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma attended at 3 major hospitals in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and 240 controls without cancer, recruited from outpatient units of the same hospitals and matched with cases by sex and age. Associations were assessed by multivariate logistic regression conditioned on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and higher intake of bacon and deep-fried foods were directly related to disease; the inverse was observed to family income and salad intake. Coffee consumption and tobacco smoking were partially correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.14 among cases, 0.31 among controls). When adjusted for all covariates, a cumulative coffee consumption higher than 18.0 daily liters × year during lifetime was indicated to be protective against disease (adjusted odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.94, P = 0.037). This observation may have pharmacological implications for clinical medication of these cancers and is relevant to programs aimed at reducing the burden of disease.

  10. Real-time particle monitor calibration factors and PM2.5 emission factors for multiple indoor sources.

    PubMed

    Dacunto, Philip J; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Klepeis, Neil E; Repace, James L; Ott, Wayne R; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2013-08-01

    Indoor sources can greatly contribute to personal exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). To accurately assess PM2.5 mass emission factors and concentrations, real-time particle monitors must be calibrated for individual sources. Sixty-six experiments were conducted with a common, real-time laser photometer (TSI SidePak™ Model AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor) and a filter-based PM2.5 gravimetric sampler to quantify the monitor calibration factors (CFs), and to estimate emission factors for common indoor sources including cigarettes, incense, cooking, candles, and fireplaces. Calibration factors for these indoor sources were all significantly less than the factory-set CF of 1.0, ranging from 0.32 (cigarette smoke) to 0.70 (hamburger). Stick incense had a CF of 0.35, while fireplace emissions ranged from 0.44-0.47. Cooking source CFs ranged from 0.41 (fried bacon) to 0.65-0.70 (fried pork chops, salmon, and hamburger). The CFs of combined sources (e.g., cooking and cigarette emissions mixed) were linear combinations of the CFs of the component sources. The highest PM2.5 emission factors per time period were from burned foods and fireplaces (15-16 mg min(-1)), and the lowest from cooking foods such as pizza and ground beef (0.1-0.2 mg min(-1)). PMID:23784066

  11. Origin and nature of the hydrocarbon seal in Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.E. ); Hulen, J.B. )

    1993-08-01

    Over 33 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Basin-Range oil fields of Railroad Valley in eastern Nevada. Oil-reservoir rocks are Devonian to Tertiary age, forming structural or structural/stratigraphic traps beneath a widespread seal at the base of an alluvial and lacustrine, Miocene-Pliocene valley-fill sequence. This seal is mandated by Railroad Valley drilling results to date: sub-valley-fill strata are oil rich, but of 850,000 ft of valley fill penetrated by 214 wells, fewer than 150 ft have yielded oil shows. Temperatures from drill-stem tests also indicated that the seal commonly coincides with a thermocline. The nature and origin of the seal have been investigated at Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon fields in east-central Railroad Valley, and in nearby Horse Camp basin where a contemporaneous valley-fill sequence is exposed. At all three sites, the basal valley fill consists of tuffaceous clastic rocks in which volcanic ash has been altered to montmorillonite. At the two oil fields, these clay-rich rocks have also been hydrothermally kaolinized and silicified, enhancing the permeability barrier at the unconformity. The sealed zone and associated thermocline could affect the thermal regime of the basin, and thereby the size and distribution of potential hydrocarbon generation sites; they could mask the presence of commercial geothermal systems. Improved understanding of the sealing processes also could help constrain models of hydrocarbon-associated precious-metal deposits.

  12. Mining Tacitus: secrets of empire, nature and art in the reason of state.

    PubMed

    Keller, Vera

    2012-06-01

    A new political practice, the 'reason of state', informed the ends and practices of natural study in the late sixteenth century. Informed by the study of the Roman historian Tacitus, political writers gathered 'secrets of empire' from both history and travel. Following the economic reorientation of 'reason of state' by Giovanni Botero (1544-1617), such secrets came to include bodies of useful particulars concerning nature and art collected by an expanding personnel of intelligencers. A comparison between various writers describing wide-scale collections, such as Botero, Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Jakob Bornitz (1560-1625) and Matthias Bernegger (1582-1640), reveals that seventeenth-century natural intelligencers across Europe not only were analogous to political intelligencers, but also were sometimes one and the same. Those seeking political prudence cast themselves as miners, prying precious particulars from the recesses of history, experience and disparate disciplines, including mathematics, alchemy and natural philosophy. The seventeenth-century practice of combining searches for secrets of empire, nature and art contests a frequent historiographical divide between empirical science and Tacitism or reason of state. It also points to the ways political cunning shaped the management of information for both politics and the study of nature and art. PMID:23050367

  13. THE CONCEPT OF PLANT LIFE: THE DAWN.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    An elementary but correct concept of plant life has come to us in writings of Theophrastus who divided the plant life in its three basic stages: generation, sprouting, growth. This image of plants remained practically unchanged until the seventeenth-century, when the scientific method based on experimentation was introduced by Bacon. The invention of the microscope and the change of the traditional alchemy for an embryonic chemistry allowed some penetrating minds to look upon plants as highly complex living structures, to which had to correspond some specific functions. The observations and deductions of Mariotte, Malpighi, Grew and Ray revealed that the plant was operating as a real factory that, with the contribution of sunrays, changed inert matter in the components of plant structure and that these transformations could give an account for its concept of life. The subsequent work of Hales supported the concept of plant life as a materialistic processes planned by a divine architect. With Hales began a new phase of research, which reached its full development from the nineteenth century. PMID:27167913

  14. Heterocyclic amine content in commercial ready to eat meat products.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2011-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are produced in meats cooked at high temperature, which are potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of HCAs in some commonly consumed ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. The RTE products were purchased from a local grocery store, and HCA were analyzed using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (not detected-7.9 ng/g) and MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.6 ng/g). Products ranked in order of increasing total HCA content: pepperoni (0.05 ng/g)bacon (1.1 ng/g)

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Spook site, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Spook site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings 48 mi northeast of Casper, in Converse County, Wyoming. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 187,000 tons of tailings at the Spook site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover makes and gamma densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation.

  16. Occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in porcine liver in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Moore, J E; Madden, R H

    1998-04-01

    Pork liver (400) from bacon pigs (37 herds) obtained at six pork-processing in Northern Ireland were studied to assess the rate of contamination with Campylobacter spp. These animals average 95 to 100 kg live weight. Deep tissue areas were sampled immediately postevisceration and revealed that ca. 6% of livers were infected with Campylobacter spp., consisting of C. coli (67%), C. jejuni (30%) and C. lari (3%). Mean log10 CFU g(-1) for aerobic plate count and coliforms were 3.60 and 2.94 respectively, indicating reasonable maintenance of slaughter-house hygiene procedures. A combination of direct swabbing of liver coupled with plating on both Skirrow and Blaser-Wang selective media was the most efficient combination of selective media employed. These data confirm the presence of Campylobacter spp. in porcine liver, thereby emphasizing the need to define safe processing parameters in the manufacture of liver-based products that are subjected to mild thermal processes, in order to eliminate the risk of disease to man.

  17. Philosophical Concepts in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, James T.

    1998-01-01

    Preface; Part I. The Scientific Enterprise: 1. Ways of knowing; 2. Aristotle and Francis Bacon; 3. Science and metaphysics; Part II. Ancient and Modern Models of the Universe: 4. Observational astronomy and the Ptolemaic model; 5. The Copernican model and Kepler's laws; 6. Galileo on motion; Part III. The Newtonian Universe: 7. Newton's Principia; 8. Newton's law of universal gravitation; 9. Some old questions revisited; Part IV. A Perspective: 10. Galileo's Letter to the Grand Duchess; 11. An overarching Newtonian framework; 12. A view of the world based on science: determinism; Part V. Mechanical Versus Electrodynamical World Views: 13. Models of the aether; 14. Maxwell's theory; 15. The Kaufmann experiments; Part VI. The Theory of Relativity: 16. The background to and essentials of special relativity; 17. Further logical consequences of Einstein's postulates; 18. General relativity and the expanding universe; Part VII. The Quantum World and the Completeness of Quantum Mechanics: 19. The road to quantum mechanics; 20. 'Copenhage' quantum mechanics; 21. Is quantum mechanics complete?; Part VIII. Some Philosophical Lessons from Quantum Mechanics: 22. The EPR paper and Bell's theorem; 23. An alternative version of quantum mechanics; 24. An essential role for historical contingency?; Part IX. A Retrospective: 25. The goals of science and the status of its knowledge; Notes; General references; Bibliography; Author index; Subject index.

  18. When Knowledge Isn't Power: Science, Technology, and the Environment in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2012-12-01

    Ever since Sir Francis Bacon coined the adage, scientists have believed that "knowledge is power," but this presupposes that people are willing to embrace knowledge. Today, a significant proportion of the American public rejects the scientific evidence of climate change, and many of these Americans are highly educated, so their views cannot be attributed to scientific illiteracy or misunderstanding. Historical evidence shows that resistance to scientific evidence of climate change--like the earlier resistance to the evidence of acid rain, the ozone hole, and the harms of tobacco use--is rooted in intellectual commitments to freedom, individualism, and the power of the free market to protect political freedom while delivering goods and services. Therefore, good public policy is not likely to be achieved by producing more science, better science, or communicating that science more effectively. Rather, it suggests that effective public policy must acknowledge these commitments and concerns, and offer solutions that are not perceived to threaten the American way of life.

  19. Fluvial erosion of impact craters: Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1984-01-01

    Geomorphic studies of impact structures in central Australia are being used to understand the complexities of fluvial dissection in the heavily cratered terrains of Mars. At Henbury, Northern Territory, approximately 12 small meteorite craters have interacted with a semiarid drainage system. The detailed mapping of the geologic and structural features at Henbury allowed this study to concentrate on degradational landforms. The breaching of crater rims by gullies was facilitated by the northward movement of sheetwash along an extensive pediment surface extending from the Bacon Range. South-facing crater rims have been preferentially breached because gullies on those sides were able to tap the largest amounts of runoff. At crater 6 a probable rim-gully system has captured the headward reaches of a pre-impact stream channel. The interactive history of impacts and drainage development is critical to understanding the relationships in the heavily cratered uplands of Mars. Whereas Henbury craters are younger than 4700 yrs. B.P., the Gosses Bluff structure formed about 130 million years ago. The bluff is essentially an etched central peak composed of resistant sandstone units. Fluvial erosion of this structure is also discussed.

  20. ARTIST'S CONCEPT -- 'HOT JUPITER' AROUND THE STAR HD 209458

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's impression of the gas-giant planet orbiting the yellow, Sun-like star HD 209458, 150 light-years from Earth. Astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to look at this world and make the first direct detection of an atmosphere around an extrasolar planet. The planet was not directly seen by Hubble. Instead, the presence of sodium was detected in light filtered through the planet's atmosphere when it passed in front of its star as seen from Earth (an event called a transit). The planet was discovered in 1999 by its subtle gravitational pull on the star. The planet is 70 percent the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our solar system. Its orbit is tilted nearly edge-on to Earth, which allows repeated transit observations. The planet is merely 4 million miles from the star. The distance between the pair is so close that the yellow star looms in the sky, with an angular diameter 23 times larger than the full Moon's diameter as seen from Earth, and glows 500 times brighter than our Sun. At this precarious distance the planet's atmosphere is heated to 2000 degrees Fahrenheit (1100 degrees Celsius). But the planet is big enough to hold onto its seething atmosphere. Illustration Credit: NASA and Greg Bacon (STScI/AVL)

  1. A formal mammalian biostratigraphy for the Late Pleistocene of Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currant, Andrew; Jacobi, Roger

    2001-10-01

    A series of distinctive mammalian assemblages spanning much of the British Late Pleistocene is defined on the basis of type localities and a formal biozonation proposed. The Joint Mitnor Cave mammal assemblage-zone includes the famous "Hippopotamus fauna" of the early part of the Last Interglacial complex (Oxygen Isotope Substage 5e). This is succeeded by the Bacon Hole mammal assemblage-zone in which hippopotamus is no longer present and species like mammoth, roe deer and northern vole re-enter the British region. This assemblage-zone appears to represent the later substages of OIS 5. A faunal grouping dominated by bison and reindeer is named the Banwell Bone Cave mammal assemblage-zone and is believed to correlate closely with the Early Devensian (OIS 4). The Pin Hole mammal assemblage-zone includes the familiar mammoth-steppe faunas of the Middle Devensian (OIS 3) dominated by horse, woolly rhinoceros and mammoth. The Lateglacial Interstadial is characterized by the Gough's Cave mammal assemblage-zone in which horse, red deer and humans are well represented (part of OIS 2). No definitive evidence for human activity can be found for a period spanning the Last Interglacial complex (OIS 5) and the Early Devensian (OIS 4). Human populations return to Britain with the Pin Hole mammal assemblage-zone fauna during the Middle Devensian (OIS 3) and reappear after the Dimlington Stadial during the Late Devensian (OIS 2) but in a different faunal association.

  2. Water resources of Teton County, Wyoming, exclusive of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, B.T.; Miller, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water data were collected and analyzed to describe the water resources of that part of Teton County, Wyoming located south of Yellowstone National Park. Wells and springs inventoried in the Teton County study area most commonly were completed in or issued from Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and Tertiary, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic rocks. The largest measured, reported, or estimated discharges were from Quaternary uncon- solidated deposits (3,000 gallons per minute), the Bacon Ridge Sandstone of Cretaceous age (800 gallons per minute), and the Madison Limestone of Mississippian age (800 gallons per minute). Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples from Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and Tertiary, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic rocks ranged from 80 to 1,060 milligrams per liter. A time-domain electromagnetic survey of Jackson Hole indicated that the depth of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits ranged from about 380 feet in the northern part of Antelope Flats to about 2,400 feet near the Potholes area in Grand Teton National Park. A streamflow gain-and-loss study indicated that the ground-water discharge to the Snake River between gaging stations near Moran and south of the Flat Creek confluence, near Jackson, was 395 cubic feet per second. Water level contours generated from 137 water-level measurements and 118 stream altitudes indicated that water in Quaternary unconsolidated deposits flows southwest in the general direction of the Snake River.

  3. Continuous on-line steam quality monitoring system of the Bacman Geothermal Production Field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, R.P.; Chavez, F.C.; Garcia, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    In any operating geothermal power plant, steam quality is one of the most important parameters being monitored. In the Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field (BGPF), an online steam quality monitoring system have been installed in two operating power plants which provides an accurate, efficient and continuous real-time data which is more responsive to the various requirements of the field operation. The system utilizes sodium as an indicator of steam purity. Sodium concentration is read by the flame photometer located at the interface after aspirating a sample of the condensed steam through a continuous condensate sampler. The condensate has been degassed through a condensate-NCG separator. The flame photometer analog signal is then converted by a voltage-to-current converter/transmitter and relayed to the processor which is located at the control center through electrical cable to give a digital sodium concentration read-out at the control panel. The system features a high and high-high sodium level alarm, a continuous strip-chart recorder and a central computer for data capture, retrieval, and processing for further interpretation. Safety devices, such as the flame-off indicator at the control center and the automatic fuel cut-off device along the fuel line, are incorporated in the system.

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radiactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actons. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ content.

  5. New ideas and their acceptance. As it has related to preservation of chordae tendinea and certain other discoveries.

    PubMed

    Lillehei, C W

    1995-10-01

    The significant benefits of preserving chordal-papillary muscle integrity in mitral valve replacement took some two decades to become widely accepted. Familiarity with history clearly tells us that this paradox between our dedication to "new ideas" on the one hand, and opposition to their acceptance on the other has existed for hundreds of years. Most "new ideas" have been surrounded by controversy and opposition before wide acceptance. Selected examples from history are cited beginning with Roger Bacon in the 13th century, and continuing with Galileo, Semmelweiss, Lister, and Forssmann. The author cites two notable examples from his personal experiences. They occurred during the development of open heart surgery, and another during the development of the rigid bileaflet cardiac prosthesis, now known as the St. Jude cardiac prosthesis. Some of the basic reasons for this inevitable opposition are: an innate skepticism over anything "new." Simplicity is often resented, as well as any need to change patterns of behavior/habits. Determination, persistence, stubbornness are the most important components for successful research. In addition, the successful innovator must learn to expect opposition and not be deterred by it, but rather must learn to take sustenance from it, and "learn to thrive upon opposition." In conclusion, these observations and suggestions are summarized in a satire on "The Seven Ages in the Evolution of an Idea--with particular reference to the critic."

  6. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium-mill tailings, Bowman Site, Bowman, North Dakota. [Burning of uranium-bearing lignite

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive residues from the burning of uranium-bearing lignite at Bowman, North Dakota. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 97,000 tons of ash and contaminated materials at the Bowman site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although windblown ash and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the contaminated materials to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the ashing site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,740,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $3,060,000 for disposal at a distance of about 4 mi. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ content.

  7. Anatomy of the eye from the view of Ibn Al-Haitham (965-1039). The founder of modern optics.

    PubMed

    Unal, Nedim; Elcioglu, Omur

    2009-03-01

    Ibn Al-Haitham (known as Alhazen in Latin [965 Basra, Iraq-1039, Cairo, Egypt]) was a scientist who played an important role in the middle age Islam world. He wrote many books and novels, but only 90 of them are known. His main book Kitab al-Manazir was translated into Western languages in the late twelfth century, and in the early thirteenth century. In this book, he formulated many hypotheses on optical science. The book, which is also known as Optic treasure (opticae thesaurus), affected many famous Western scientists. He became an authority until the seventeenth century in the Eastern and Western countries. Roger Bacon (1212-1294), who made radical changes in the Western optical traditions, reconfirmed Ibn Al-Haitham's findings. Ibn al-Haitham began his book Kitab al-Manazir with the anatomy and physiology of the eye. He specifically described cornea, humor aqueous, lens, and corpus vitreum. He examined the effect of light on seeing. He caused changes in the prevailing ideas of his age, and suggested that light came from objects, not from the eye. He provided information regarding the optic nerve, retina, iris, and conjunctiva. He showed the system of the eye as a dioptric, and the relations between the parts of the eye. It is understood that he mastered all knowledge on the structure of the eye in his century. The best proof of this is the eye picture that he drew.

  8. A short history of the soil science discipline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Hartemink, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Since people have cultivated the land they have generated and created knowledge about its soil. By the 4th century most civilizations around had various levels of soil knowledge and that includes irrigation, the use of terraces to control soil erosion, methods to maintain and improve soil fertility. The early soil knowledge was largely empirical and based on observations. Many famous scientists, for example, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Charles Darwin, and Leonardo da Vinci worked on soil issues. Soil science became a true science in the 19th century with the development of genetic soil science, lead by the Russian Vasilii V. Dokuchaev. In the beginning soil science had strong ties to both geology and agriculture but in the 20th century, soil science is now being applied in residential development, the planning of highways, building foundations, septic systems, wildlife management, environmental management, and many other applications. The discipline is maturing and soil science plays a crucial role in many of the current issues that confront the world like climate change, water scarcity, biodiversity and environmental degradation.

  9. Degrees of separation as a statistical tool for evaluating candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ronald M; Pettersson, Mats E

    2014-12-01

    Selection of candidate genes is an important step in the exploration of complex genetic architecture. The number of gene networks available is increasing and these can provide information to help with candidate gene selection. It is currently common to use the degree of connectedness in gene networks as validation in Genome Wide Association (GWA) and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping studies. However, it can cause misleading results if not validated properly. Here we present a method and tool for validating the gene pairs from GWA studies given the context of the network they co-occur in. It ensures that proposed interactions and gene associations are not statistical artefacts inherent to the specific gene network architecture. The CandidateBacon package provides an easy and efficient method to calculate the average degree of separation (DoS) between pairs of genes to currently available gene networks. We show how these empirical estimates of average connectedness are used to validate candidate gene pairs. Validation of interacting genes by comparing their connectedness with the average connectedness in the gene network will provide support for said interactions by utilising the growing amount of gene network information available.

  10. Steady state deformation of the Coso Range, east central California, inferred from satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicks, C.W.; Thatcher, W.; Monastero, F.C.; Hasting, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Observations of deformation from 1992 to 1997 in the southern Coso Range using satellite radar interferometry show deformation rates of up to 35 mm yr-1 in an area ???10 km by 15 km. The deformation is most likely the result of subsidence in an area around the Coso geothermal field. The deformation signal has a short-wavelength component, related to production in the field, and a long-wavelength component, deforming at a constant rate, that may represent a source of deformation deeper than the geothermal reservoir. We have modeled the long-wavelength component of deformation and inferred a deformation source at ???4 km depth. The source depth is near the brittle-ductile transition depth (inferred from seismicity) and ???1.5 km above the top of the rhyolite magma body that was a source for the most recent volcanic eruption in the Coso volcanic field [Manley and Bacon, 2000]. From this evidence and results of other studies in the Coso Range, we interpret the source to be a leaking deep reservoir of magmatic fluids derived from a crystallizing rhyolite magma body.

  11. Emergence of complementarity and the Baconian roots of Niels Bohr's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovic, Slobodan

    2013-08-01

    I argue that instead of a rather narrow focus on N. Bohr's account of complementarity as a particular and perhaps obscure metaphysical or epistemological concept (or as being motivated by such a concept), we should consider it to result from pursuing a particular method of studying physical phenomena. More precisely, I identify a strong undercurrent of Baconian method of induction in Bohr's work that likely emerged during his experimental training and practice. When its development is analyzed in light of Baconian induction, complementarity emerges as a levelheaded rather than a controversial account, carefully elicited from a comprehensive grasp of the available experimental basis, shunning hasty metaphysically motivated generalizations based on partial experimental evidence. In fact, Bohr's insistence on the "classical" nature of observations in experiments, as well as the counterintuitive synthesis of wave and particle concepts that have puzzled scholars, seem a natural outcome (an updated instance) of the inductive method. Such analysis clarifies the intricacies of early Schrödinger's critique of the account as well as Bohr's response, which have been misinterpreted in the literature. If adequate, the analysis may lend considerable support to the view that Bacon explicated the general terms of an experimentally minded strand of the scientific method, developed and refined by scientists in the following three centuries.

  12. [Epistemology and medicine].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Holguín, H D

    1998-01-01

    Within a conceptualization concerning the health-disease process as a whole (which systematically correlates its biological, psychological, social and historical aspects), it becomes very difficult to find something in the universe involving humankind, without any direct or indirect relationship with that vital process. This fact had expanded medicine toward a very extensive and complex field of knowledge and practices. Just considering it from the scientific perspective, different and opposing acquaintances and research methods vie with each other, equally claiming their own worth and stature within science. Because of all this and from its origin, allopathic medicine has required the assistance and support of philosophy and, in particular, from one specific branch: epidemiology. Nevertheless, since Bacon's empiricism (17th century) and, above all, since Comte's positivism (19th century), there had predominated until now (Piaget) a scientific current which was the enemy of philosophical thinking. In spite of the fact that it constituted, in itself, an epistemological position, being generalized also among biomedical scientists, there is in medicine at least disdain against the philosophy of science. Nevertheless, it is objectively indispensable. So, the present essay is presented in this sense, through the analytic characterization of the prototypic epistemologies and their relationships with medicine throughout history. PMID:9618998

  13. Effects of prestresses on mechanical properties of isotropic graphite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, T.; Kurumada, A.; Imamura, Y.; Kawamata, K.; Shiraishi, M.

    1998-10-01

    Graphite materials which are used for plasma facing components and other components are subjected to stresses due to the high heat flux from the fusion plasma. Some mechanical properties of graphite materials can change due to the prestresses. The property changes should be considered for the design of the plasma facing components. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of prestresses on the mechanical properties of isotropic graphite materials. Compressive prestresses were applied to two kinds of isotropic fine-grained graphites (IG-430 and IG-11) at 298 K (both), 1873 K (IG-11), 2273 K (IG-11) and 2283 K (IG-430). As a result, the decrease in Young's modulus for IG-430 due to high-temperature prestressing was 56% which was much larger than the 6.4% that was due to prestressing at 298 K. The results for IG-11 were the same as those for IG-430 graphite. This finding was considered to be due primarily to a difference in degree of the preferred orientation of crystallites in the graphite on the basis of the Bacon anisotropy factor (BAF) obtained from X-ray diffraction measurement of the prestressed specimens. Furthermore, high-temperature compressive prestressing produced an increase in the strength of the isotropic graphite, although room temperature prestressing produced no such effect. The results obtained here suggest that the isotropic graphite which is subjected to high-temperature compressive stresses can become anisotropic in service.

  14. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  15. Curiosity, forbidden knowledge, and the reformation of natural philosophy in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P

    2001-06-01

    From the patristic period to the beginning of the seventeenth century curiosity was regarded as an intellectual vice. Curious individuals were considered to be proud and "puffed up," and the objects of their investigations were deemed illicit, dispute engendering, unknowable, or useless. Seventeenth-century projects for the advancement of learning had to distance themselves from curiosity and its dubious fruits or, alternatively, enhance the moral status of the curious sensibility. Francis Bacon's proposals for the instauration of knowledge were an integral part of a process by which curiosity underwent a remarkable transformation from vice to virtue over the course of the seventeenth century. The changing fortunes of this human propensity highlight the morally charged nature of early modern debates over the status of natural philosophy and the particular virtues required of its practitioners. The rehabilitation of curiosity was a crucial element in the objectification of scientific knowledge and led to a gradual shift of focus away from the moral qualities of investigators and the propriety of particular objects of knowledge to specific procedures and methods.

  16. The Renaissance Kidney-Nephrology in and about the Sixteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-07-01

    The endeavor to understand the workings of the human body is as old as civilization; but it is in the intellectual movement of the Renaissance that its actual scientific study began in earnest and has not ceased growing since then. It was in the 16th century that the study of organs was launched and with it that of the kidney, which was then conceived as an accessory organ to clear the excess water ingested with food. The study of the structural basis of kidney function was launched by Bartolomeo Eustachio (1514-1574); the elements of its physiology and pathology were promulgated by Jean Fernel (1497-1558), and that of the chemical study of urine and of the principal cause of kidney disease then, calculi, instigated by Joan Baptista Van Helmont (1577-1644). The methodological approaches of these and their contemporary investigators, which were crystallized and formulated by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), opened the gates of the Scientific Revolution that followed in the 17th century, beginning with that of describing the circulation in 1628 by William Harvey (1564-1657) that would finally free the kidney from the shackles imposed on it as a mere accessory organ to the liver in Galen's physiology.

  17. Nutrition research and education in the Age of Franklin. A Bicentennial study.

    PubMed

    Bing, F C

    1976-01-01

    Two hundred years ago, the United States was just emerging as a new nation. Chemistry and biology, on which the science of nutrition is based, were also just beginning or in their infancy. Dietetics and nutrition education, being applied sciences, were concerned then--as they are now--with the solution of practical problems of everyday living. Dietetics was an important part of medical practice in colonial days. Much of the teaching then about the value of diet in health and disease was provided by pithy statements, based on empiricism backed by authority, by which the science of medicine was taught to students, and by which health instruction was offered to the public. The experimental method of studying "Nature," promulgated by Francis Bacon, was just beginning to be employed in studies of nutrition. Delay in accepting experimental results, such as Lind's demonstration of the value of citrus fruits in the treatment of scurvy, may be attributed in part to a lack of understanding of the experimental method. In part, it may have been due to the absence of animal experimental methods that are capable of providing clear-cut and convincing evidence. Three of the greatest experimental scientists of the eighteenth century--Lavoisier, Count Rumford, and Benjamin Franklin--busied themselves with matters of concern to dietitians and home economists. Their work and that of others provided a firm foundation for the advances in scientific knowledge during the last two hundred years.

  18. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulaik, S A

    1987-07-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources. From the Greek rationalists and atomists comes the idea that appearance is to be explained by something not observed. From Aristotle comes the idea of induction and seeking common features of things as explanations of them. From Francis Bacon comes the idea of an automatic algorithm for inductively discovering common causes. From Descartes come the ideas of analysis and synthesis that underlie the emphasis on analysis of variables into orthogonal or linearly independent factors and focus on reproducing (synthesizing) the correlation matrix from the factors. From empiricist statisticians like Pearson and Yule comes the idea of exploratory, descriptive statistics. Also from the empiricist heritage comes the false expectation some have that factor analysis yields unique and unambiguous knowledge without prior assumptions -- the inductivist fallacy. This expectation founders on the indeterminacy of factors, even after their loadings are defined by rotation. Indeterminacy is unavoidable in the interpretation of common factors because the process of interpretation is inductive and inductive inferences are not uniquely determined by the data on which they are based. But from Kant we learn not to discard inductive inferences but to treat them as hypotheses that must be tested against additional data to establish their objectivity. And so the conclusions of exploratory factor analyses are never complete without a subsequent confirmatory analysis with additional variables and new data.

  19. A critique of the hypothesis, and a defense of the question, as a framework for experimentation.

    PubMed

    Glass, David J

    2010-07-01

    Scientists are often steered by common convention, funding agencies, and journal guidelines into a hypothesis-driven experimental framework, despite Isaac Newton's dictum that hypotheses have no place in experimental science. Some may think that Newton's cautionary note, which was in keeping with an experimental approach espoused by Francis Bacon, is inapplicable to current experimental method since, in accord with the philosopher Karl Popper, modern-day hypotheses are framed to serve as instruments of falsification, as opposed to verification. But Popper's "critical rationalist" framework too is problematic. It has been accused of being: inconsistent on philosophical grounds; unworkable for modern "large science," such as systems biology; inconsistent with the actual goals of experimental science, which is verification and not falsification; and harmful to the process of discovery as a practical matter. A criticism of the hypothesis as a framework for experimentation is offered. Presented is an alternative framework-the query/model approach-which many scientists may discover is the framework they are actually using, despite being required to give lip service to the hypothesis.

  20. Law of 22 April 2005 on patients' rights and the end of life in France: setting the boundaries of euthanasia, with regard to current legislation in other European countries.

    PubMed

    Clin, Bénédicte; Ophélie, Ferrant

    2010-10-01

    The term 'euthanasia' is not clearly defined. Euthanasia is evoked in many aspects of terminal care: interruption of curative treatment at the end of life, palliative care or the act of deliberately provoking death through compassion. A law on 'patients' rights and the end of life', promulgated in France on 22 April 2005, led to changes in the French Code of Public Health. In this work, we have first outlined the key provisions of this law and the changes it has brought, then we have compared current legislation on the subject throughout Europe, where a rapid overview of current practice in terminal patient care revealed four different types of legislation: the first authorizes euthanasia (in the sense of provoking death, if this choice is medically justified), the second legalizes 'assisted suicide', the third, which is sometimes referred to as 'passive euthanasia', consists of the non-administration of life-sustaining treatment and, finally, the fourth prohibits euthanasia in any form whatsoever. In the last section, we have attempted to clarify the as yet indistinct notion of 'euthanasia' in order to determine whether the conception of terminal care in the Law of 22 April 2005 was consistent with that put forward by the philosopher Francis Bacon, who claimed that, 'The physician's role is to relieve pain, not only when such relief can lead to healing, but also when it can proffer a calm and trouble-free death, thus putting an end to the suffering and the agony of death' (modern adaptation of the original quote).