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Sample records for bacteria controls coagulation

  1. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by 'quorum acting'.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Christian J; Boedicker, James Q; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Moayeri, Mahtab; Bian, Yao; Pompano, Rebecca R; Kline, Timothy R; Sylvestre, Patricia; Shen, Feng; Leppla, Stephen H; Tang, Wei-Jen; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-12-01

    Blood coagulation often accompanies bacterial infections and sepsis and is generally accepted as a consequence of immune responses. Though many bacterial species can directly activate individual coagulation factors, they have not been shown to directly initiate the coagulation cascade that precedes clot formation. Here we demonstrated, using microfluidics and surface patterning, that the spatial localization of bacteria substantially affects coagulation of human and mouse blood and plasma. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax-causing pathogen, directly initiated coagulation of blood in minutes when bacterial cells were clustered. Coagulation of human blood by B. anthracis required secreted zinc metalloprotease InhA1, which activated prothrombin and factor X directly (not via factor XII or tissue factor pathways). We refer to this mechanism as 'quorum acting' to distinguish it from quorum sensing--it does not require a change in gene expression, it can be rapid and it can be independent of bacterium-to-bacterium communication.

  2. Controlling coagulation dysregulation in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Peter J; Robson, Simon C; d'Apice, Anthony J F

    2011-04-01

    Deletion of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) gene in pigs has removed a major xenoantigen but has not eliminated the problem of dysregulated coagulation and vascular injury. Rejecting GalT knockout organ xenografts almost invariably show evidence of thrombosis and platelet sequestration, and primate recipients frequently develop consumptive coagulopathy. This review examines recent findings that illuminate potential mechanisms of this current barrier to successful xenotransplantation. The coagulation response to xenotransplantation differs depending on the type of organ and quite likely the distinct vasculatures. Renal xenografts appear more likely to initiate consumptive coagulopathy than cardiac xenografts, possibly reflecting differential transcriptional responses. Liver xenografts induce rapid and profound thrombocytopenia resulting in recipient death within days due to bleeding; ex-vivo data suggest that liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes are responsible for platelet consumption by a coagulation-independent process.It has been proposed that expression of recipient tissue factor on platelets and monocytes is an important trigger of consumptive coagulopathy. Finally, pigs transgenic for human anticoagulants and antithrombotics are slowly but surely coming on line, but have not yet been rigorously tested to date. Successful control of coagulation dysregulation in xenotransplantation may require different combinatorial pharmacological and genetic strategies for different organs.

  3. Research on soybean curd coagulated by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jianming, Wang; Qiuqian, Lin; Yiyun, Wang; Xi, Chen

    2013-12-01

    Chinese traditional soybean curd is coagulated by calcium salt. In order to investigate the feasibility of soybean curd coagulation by lactic acid bacteria, we studied the effective factors in soybean curd coagulation when using common soybean curd strains. In soybean curd concentration, incubating time and temperature as well as the inoculated amount and the edible gum additives were studied as the coagulating factors of soybean curd fermented by lactic acid bacteria. Based on the single factor and orthogonal experiment design, the optimized conditions of lactic acid bacteria fermentation curd was determined as follows: soybean curd concentration 12.5%(v/v)and the fermentation conducted at 42°C for 5 hours when the inoculating amount was 4.0% and edible gum additives was 1.4% (carrageenan 1.0% (m/v), soluble starch 0.4% (m/v)). Under the optimum conditions, the water-holding rate of the bean curd was measured as 69.82%, and the gel strength was 25.6 g/cm(2). Compared with the traditional tofu coagulated by calcium salt, our products has less off-flavor and softer texture, which was accepted as new type of soybean curd according to the overall sensory evaluation.

  4. COAGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study conventional and enhanced coagulation for the control of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and the surrogate total organic halide in t...

  5. Fibrinolysis and the control of blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, John C.; Hajjar, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis as both the primary product of the coagulation cascade and the ultimate substrate for fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis efficiency is greatly influenced by clot structure, fibrinogen isoforms and polymorphisms, the rate of thrombin generation, the reactivity of thrombus-associated cells such as platelets, and the overall biochemical environment. Regulation of the fibrinolytic system, like that of the coagulation cascade, is accomplished by a wide array of cofactors, receptors, and inhibitors. Fibrinolytic activity can be generated either on the surface of a fibrin-containing thrombus, or on cells that express profibrinolytic receptors. In a widening spectrum of clinical disorders, acquired and congenital defects in fibrinolysis contribute to disease morbidity, and new assays of global fibrinolysis now have potential predictive value in multiple clinical settings. Here, we summarize the basic elements of the fibrinolytic system, points of interaction with the coagulation pathway, and some recent clinical advances. PMID:25294122

  6. Fibrinolysis and the control of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Chapin, John C; Hajjar, Katherine A

    2015-01-01

    Fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis as both the primary product of the coagulation cascade and the ultimate substrate for fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis efficiency is greatly influenced by clot structure, fibrinogen isoforms and polymorphisms, the rate of thrombin generation, the reactivity of thrombus-associated cells such as platelets, and the overall biochemical environment. Regulation of the fibrinolytic system, like that of the coagulation cascade, is accomplished by a wide array of cofactors, receptors, and inhibitors. Fibrinolytic activity can be generated either on the surface of a fibrin-containing thrombus, or on cells that express profibrinolytic receptors. In a widening spectrum of clinical disorders, acquired and congenital defects in fibrinolysis contribute to disease morbidity, and new assays of global fibrinolysis now have potential predictive value in multiple clinical settings. Here, we summarize the basic elements of the fibrinolytic system, points of interaction with the coagulation pathway, and some recent clinical advances.

  7. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-13

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions.

  8. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  9. Dose control for noncontact laser coagulation of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggan, Andre; Albrecht, Hansjoerg; Bocher, Thomas; Rygiel, Reiner; Winter, Harald; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1995-01-01

    Nd:YAG lasers emitting at 1064 nm are often used for coagulation of tissue in a non-contact mode, i.e. the treatment of verrucae, endometriosis, tumor coagulation and hemostasis. During this process an uncontrolled temperature rise of the irradiated area leads to vaporization and, finally, to a carbonization of the tissue surface. To prevent this, a dose controlled system was developed using an on-line regulation of the output laser power. The change of the backscattered intensity (remission) of the primary beam was used as a dose dependent feedback parameter. Its dependence on the temperature was determined with a double integrating sphere system and Monte-Carlo simulations. The remission of the tissue was calculated in slab geometry from diffusion theory and Monte-Carlo simulations. The laser control was realized with a PD-circuit and an A/D-converter, enabling the direct connection to the internal bus of the laser system. Preliminary studies with various tissues revealed the practicability of the system.

  10. Model-based advanced process control of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C W; Shariff, R; Stanley, S J; Smith, D W; Zhang, Q; Saumer, E D

    2002-01-01

    The drinking water treatment industry has seen a recent increase in the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for process modelling and offline process control tools and applications. While conceptual frameworks for integrating the ANN technology into the real-time control of complex treatment processes have been proposed, actual working systems have yet to be developed. This paper presents development and application of an ANN model-based advanced process control system for the coagulation process at a pilot-scale water treatment facility in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The system was successfully used to maintain a user-defined set point for effluent quality, by automatically varying operating conditions in response to changes in influent water quality. This new technology has the potential to realize significant operational cost saving for utilities when applied in full-scale applications.

  11. Optoacoustic temperature determination and automatic coagulation control in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Luft, Susanne; Baade, Alex; Bever, Marco; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2011-03-01

    Retinal laser photocoagulation is an established treatment method for many retinal diseases like macula edema or diabetic retinopathy. The selection of the laser parameters is so far based on post treatment evaluation of the lesion size and strength. Due to local pigment variations in the fundus and individual transmission the same laser parameters often lead to an overtreatment. Optoacoustic allows a non invasive monitoring of the retinal temperature increase during retinal laser irradiation by measuring the temperature dependent pressure amplitudes, which are induced by short probe laser pulses. A 75 ns/ 523 nm Nd:YLF was used as a probe laser at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and a cw / 532 nm treatment laser for heating. A contact lens was modified with a ring-shaped ultrasonic transducer to detect the pressure waves at the cornea. Temperatures were collected for irradiations leading to soft or invisible lesions. Based on this data the threshold for denaturation was found. By analyzing the initial temperature increase, the further temperature development during irradiation could be predicted. An algorithm was found to calculate the irradiation time, which is needed for a soft lesion formation, from the temperature curve. By this it was possible to provide a real-time dosimetry by automatically switching off the treatment laser after the calculated irradiation time. Automatically controlled coagulations appear softer and more uniformly.

  12. Coagulation increased the growth potential of various species bacteria of the effluent of a MBR for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong; Li, Guoqiang; Lin, Wenqi; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Microbial regrowth in reclaimed water is an important issue restricting water reclamation and reuse. Previous studies about the effect of coagulation on microbial growth in reclaimed water were limited and inconsistent. In this study, microbial growth potentials of the effluent of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of domestic wastewater after coagulation was evaluated by using bacteria of various phyla, classes (α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteriaa) or species isolated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test strains. Bacterial growth increased considerably after coagulation with polyaluminum for the samples investigated in this study. The results revealed that the microbial growth potentials in the effluent of the MBR evidently increased after coagulation. The increase ratio of bacterial growth could reach up to 929 %. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) of the samples averagely decreased 16.3 %, but the removal efficiencies of the excitation emission matrices (EEMs) were less than 5 % after coagulation. It is suggested that the organic matter which affected the bacterial growth might be substances having aromaticity (i.e., UV254 absorbance) but little fluorescence. According to molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis, the coagulation was indeed effective in removing organic matters with large MW. The removal of large MW organic matters might be related to bacterial growth increase. The results indicated that posttreatments are needed after coagulation to maintain the biological stability of reclaimed water.

  13. Cell Size Control in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chien, An-Chun; Hill, Norbert S.; Levin, Petra Anne

    2012-01-01

    Like eukaryotes, bacteria must coordinate division with growth to ensure cells are the appropriate size for a given environmental condition or developmental fate. As single-celled organisms, nutrient availability is one of the strongest influences on bacterial cell size. Classic physiological experiments conducted over four decades ago first demonstrated that cell size is directly correlated with nutrient source and growth rate in the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. This observation subsequently served as the basis for studies revealing a role for cell size in cell cycle progression in a closely related organism, Escherichia coli. More recently, the development of powerful genetic, molecular, and imaging tools has allowed us to identify and characterize the nutrient-dependent pathway responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size with growth rate in the Gram-positive model organism B. subtilis. Here, we discuss the role of cell size in bacterial growth and development and propose a broadly applicable model for cell size control in this important and highly divergent domain of life. PMID:22575476

  14. Control of coagulation: a gift of Canadian agriculture.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Vivian

    2006-12-01

    Vitamin K, heparin and their antagonists remain the basis of coagulation therapies today, more than half a century after their discovery. Failure of blood clotting in chicks that were fed a fat-depleted diet was observed by William McFarlane, William Graham Jr. and Frederick Richardson of the Ontario Agricultural College; it led to the search that yielded vitamin K. Investigation of hemorrhagic disease in cattle by Francis Schofield of the Ontario Veterinary College found an anti-thrombin substance in spoiled clover which was later characterized as dicoumarol, a vitamin K antagonist, and led to the development of warfarin. In Toronto, a systematic approach lead by Charles Best resulted in the world's first plentiful supply of purified heparin. Clinical usefulness of heparin in thrombosis, embolism, cardiovascular surgery, dialysis and transplantation was demonstrated first by Gordon Murray and Louis Jaques. The roles and the careers of Canadian coagulation research pioneers are briefly presented in this review, which shows how clinical medicine benefited by the systematic development of agricultural science in Guelph, Ontario.

  15. Pre-chlorination contact time and the removal and control of Microcystis aeroginosa in coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapsongpon, T.; Leungprasert, S.; Yoshimura, C.

    2017-05-01

    The use of pre-oxidation is known to improve algae removal by coagulation and control the growth of algae. The contact time between oxidants and algae in pre-oxidation stage has been found as important parameter. This study investigated the effect of pre-chlorination contact time on the control and removal of cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa by coagulation. The results showed that when the alum dose was sufficient, increasing contact time showed an improvement in algae removal by coagulation in case of high chlorine dose. The algae removal ratio at high chlorine dose, 3 mg L-1 increased when contact time increased and it decreased after 30 minutes of contact time. In contrast, the result from chlorine dose, 2 mg L-1, showed an unclear trend when contact time increased. Adding 2 mg L-1 of pre-chlorination with 10 minutes of contact time was enough to control the regrowth of M. aeruginosa. In addition, dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and UV absorbance at 254 nm, which particulary indicates aromatic compounds, tended to increase when the contact time increased. The increased of DOC and UV 254 indicated the release of intracellular organic matter (IOM) from M. aeruginosa. High level of DOC, 0.68 mg L-1 in this study showed negative effect on M. aeruginosa removal by coagulation and could not be removed by coagulation process.

  16. Coagulation of humic waters for diffused pollution control and the influence of coagulant type on DOC fractions removed.

    PubMed

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Leiviskä, Tiina; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the suitability of organic coagulants for treatment of typically humic peat extraction runoff water by comparing their performance with that of ferric sulphate (FS). The influence of coagulant type on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions removed was analysed in detail using LC-OCD-OND (size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and organic nitrogen detection) fractionation techniques. In general, lower coagulant dosage was needed under acidic (pH 4.5) than neutral (pH 6.5) conditions. Chitosan (Chit) and poly (diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (pDMAC) required significantly lower dosage (40-55%) than FS for acceptable purification, while a tannin-based coagulant (Tan2) required substantially higher dosage (55-75%) independent of water pH. FS demonstrated the best removal of DOC (<81%) and phosphorus (<93%) followed by pDMAC, while Chit and Tan2 achieved the highest removal of suspended solids (SS) (<58%), with flocs formed by Tan2 presenting the best settling properties. Higher molecular weight (MW) DOC fractions were more efficiently removed by all coagulants, with FS being the most efficient (biopolymers 69% and humic substances 91%), followed by Tan2. FS also displayed satisfactory removal of lower MW fractions (building blocks ∼46% and low MW neutrals 62%). Overall, FS was the best performing coagulant. Nevertheless, the organic polymers demonstrated satisfactory overall performance, achieving purification rates mostly inside the requirements set by Finnish environmental authorities.

  17. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  18. Blood flow controls coagulation onset via the positive feedback of factor VII activation by factor Xa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Blood coagulation is a complex network of biochemical reactions, which is peculiar in that it is time- and space-dependent, and has to function in the presence of rapid flow. Recent experimental reports suggest that flow plays a significant role in its regulation. The objective of this study was to use systems biology techniques to investigate this regulation and to identify mechanisms creating a flow-dependent switch in the coagulation onset. Results Using a detailed mechanism-driven model of tissue factor (TF)-initiated thrombus formation in a two-dimensional channel we demonstrate that blood flow can regulate clotting onset in the model in a threshold-like manner, in agreement with existing experimental evidence. Sensitivity analysis reveals that this is achieved due to a combination of the positive feedback of TF-bound factor VII activation by activated factor X (Xa) and effective removal of factor Xa by flow from the activating patch depriving the feedback of "ignition". The level of this trigger (i.e. coagulation sensitivity to flow) is controlled by the activity of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Conclusions This mechanism explains the difference between red and white thrombi observed in vivo at different shear rates. It can be speculated that this is a special switch protecting vascular system from uncontrolled formation and spreading of active coagulation factors in vessels with rapidly flowing blood. PMID:20102623

  19. Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pre-treatment for Microcystis aeruginosa removal by Al coagulation: simultaneous enhanced cyanobacterium removal and residual coagulant control.

    PubMed

    Ma, Min; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-11-15

    A novel Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pre-treatment was proposed to simultaneously enhance the removal of Microcystis aeruginosa by aluminum chloride (AlCl3) coagulation and enabled lowering the dose of Al as effective coagulation can be achieved only by Al, however, at higher doses. In this process, permanganate [Mn(VII)] and ferrous sulfate [Fe(II)] were dosed sequentially prior to Al. The application of Fe(II) not only avoids the extensive oxidation of M. aeruginosa by Mn(VII) but also introduces Fe(III) formed in situ into the system. Results show that, at Al doses of 83.3-108.3 μM, Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pretreatment (Mn(VII) dose: 8.3-16.7 μM; Fe(II) dose: 39.5 μM) is capable of enhancing M. aeruginosa removal by 73.4-81.4%. In contrast, only 0-65.4% and 2.7-8.2% increase in M. aeruginosa removal is achieved by Mn(VII) and Fe(II) pre-treatment, respectively. The ESI-MS spectrum shows that the freshly formed Fe(III) hydrolyzes much more slowly than pre-formed Fe(III) does, and this effect results in its higher efficiency towards the removal of M. aeruginosa. Moreover, in the co-existing system, Fe tends to hydrolyze preferentially and the presence of Fe salts improves the precipitation of Al and vice versa. Thus, the use of Fe and Al as dual-coagulants is practically valuable to control the residual level of coagulant(s) besides its improvement on the removal of M. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Albumin on Coagulation Competence and Hemorrhage During Major Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Pär I; Kridina, Irina; Kistorp, Thomas; Salling, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henning B; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Pedersen, Tom; Secher, Niels H

    2016-03-01

    For patients exposed to a massive blood loss during surgery, maintained coagulation competence is important. It is less obvious whether coagulation competence influences bleeding during elective surgery where patients are exposed to infusion of a crystalloid or a colloid. This randomized controlled trial evaluates whether administration of 5% human albumin (HA) or lactated Ringer solution (LR) affects coagulation competence and in turn blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer. Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included to receive either 5% HA (n = 20) or LR (n = 20). Nineteen patients were analyzed in the HA group and 20 patients in the lactated Ringer group. Blinded determination of the blood loss was similar in the 2 groups of patients: 1658 (800-3300) mL with the use of HA and 1472 (700-4330) mL in the lactated Ringer group (P = 0.45). Yet, by thrombelastography (TEG) evaluated coagulation competence, albumin affected clot growth (TEG-angle 69 ± 5 vs 74° ± 3°, P < 0.01) and strength (TEG-MA: 59 ± 6 vs 67 ± 6 mm, P < 0.001) more than LR. Furthermore, by multivariate linear regression analyses reduced TEG-MA was independently associated with the blood loss (P = 0.042) while administration of albumin was related to the changes in TEG-MA (P = 0.029), aPPT (P < 0.022), and INR (P < 0.033). This randomized controlled trial demonstrates that administration of HA does not affect the blood loss as compared to infusion of LR. Also the use of HA did not affect the need for blood transfusion, the incidence of postoperative complications, or the hospital in-stay. Yet, albumin decreases coagulation competence during major surgery and the blood loss is related to TEG-MA rather than to plasma coagulation variables.

  1. Fouling control in a lab-scale MBR system: Comparison of several commercially applied coagulants.

    PubMed

    Gkotsis, P K; Batsari, E L; Peleka, E N; Tolkou, A K; Zouboulis, A I

    2017-12-01

    The Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) integrate the biological degradation of pollutants with membrane filtration-separation during wastewater treatment. Membrane fouling, which is considered as the main process drawback, stems from the interaction between the membrane material and the (organic or inorganic) foulants, leading to membrane's efficiency deterioration. It is widely recognized that the mixed liquor colloidal and Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) are in principal responsible for this undesirable situation. As a result, the appropriate pretreatment of wastewater feed is often considered as necessary procedure and the coagulation/flocculation (C/F) process is regarded as a relevant viable option for wastewater treatment by MBRs in order to improve the effective removal of suspended solids (SS), of colloidal particles, of natural organic matter (NOM), as well as of other soluble materials. The objective of this study is the application of coagulation/flocculation for fouling control of MBR systems by using several commercially available chemical coagulant/flocculant agents. For this purpose, an appropriate lab-scale continuous-flow, fully automatic MBR system has been assembled and various (inorganic) coagulants (i.e. FeCl3∙6H2O, Fe2(SO4)3·5H2O, FeClSO4, PFS0.3, PAC A9-M, PAC-A16, Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, FO4350SSH, NaAlO2) have been examined. Filterability tests and SMP concentration measurements were also conducted in order to investigate the reversible, as well as the irreversible fouling, respectively. Based upon the obtained results and after selecting the most efficient coagulants (FeCl3·6H2O, Fe2(SO4)3·5H2O, FeClSO4, PAC-A9, PAC-A16), an attempt was subsequently performed to correlate the major fouling indices (i.e. TMP, TTF, SMP concentration) in order to improve the overall process operability by this fouling control method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A new approach to feedback control of radiofrequency ablation systems for large coagulation zones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Moser, Michael A J; Zhang, Edwin M; Luo, Yigang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of achieving relatively large coagulation zones (i.e. ≥3 cm in diameter) with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) by using a broad control system. A broad control system consists of information such as (i) the area of the tumour tissue for feedback control, (ii) the set-point temperature and (iii) the control law. The proposed approach has advanced knowledge in (i) and (ii) in particular. RFA is known to be limited by tissue dehydration that occurs around the electrode, which results in impedance such that no further energy can be delivered to the tissues. We proposed the notion of "energy gate", an area on the electrode, which is not covered by the dehydrated tissue and through which energy can still be delivered to the surrounding tissues. Given a specific size of energy gate, both (i) the area of the tissue in which the temperature is monitored and (ii) the set-point temperature were determined. A reliable finite element model or simulator for a commercially available electrode was used and the tissue surrounding the RFA electrode was divided into three areas for a comprehensive study of the issues (i) and (ii). Porcine liver tissue (30 specimens in total) and a custom-made RFA device with a RF power generator (100 W and 460 ± 30 kHz) and a Covidien cool-tip electrode (17 gauge and 30 mm exposure) were used to validate the findings regarding the area of the tissue for feedback control and the set-point temperature. The size of coagulation zone achieved was maximised when the area of tissue surrounding the middle part of the active tip (i.e. Point 7) was used for feedback control and when the set-point temperature was set to 90 (^) C (this temperature is determined based on the energy gate through a trial-and-error procedure). At both 80 and 90 (^) C, the coagulation zones generated using Area II were significantly larger than that generated using Area I (p = 0.0028 and 0.0003, respectively) and Area

  3. Argon plasma coagulation versus injection sclerotherapy in peptic ulcer hemorrhage--a prospective, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Skok, Pavel; Krizman, Igor; Skok, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In Slovenia, the annual incidence of peptic ulcer hemorrhage is 118/100,000 inhabitants, with mortality up to 14%. Interventional endoscopy has largely reduced mortality in these patients. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation and injection sclerotherapy in bleeding peptic ulcer. A prospective, controlled study which includes 100 patients with peptic ulcer hemorrhage (male 63, female 37, av.age 57.1 years, SD+/-16, span 26-80; gastric ulcer 50 patients, duodenal ulcer 50 patients) in the period between 1.01.1999 and 15.05.2000 treated in our institution. The bleeding activity was determined according to the Forrest classification. Fifty patients were randomized to receive argon plasma coagulation (ARCO 2000 ES unit, group A) and in fifty patients injection sclerotherapy (sclerosing with diluted adrenalin 1:10,000 plus polidocanol 1%, group B) was performed. The groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, site, severity of bleeding, use of NSAID and additional diseases. Clinically and endoscopically diagnosed rebleeding occured in 7/50 patients (14%) in group A and in 9/50 patients (18%) in group B; p=0.78. The majority of rebleeding occured within 48 hours after endoscopic hemostasis, group A 4-/7 (57.1%), group B 7/9 (77.7%), p = 0.74. Repeated endoscopic hemostasis did not prove successful in 8 patients (group A 3/50, 6%, group B 5/50, 10%), p=0.71. Seven patients were treated operatively. The total mortality rate was 9% (9/100 patients, group A 4/50, 8%, group B 5/50, 10%), p>0.05. Only one patient died due to peptic ulcer hemorrhage, other 8 patients died due to concomitant diseases. Argon plasma coagulation seems to be an effective and safe alternative to other hemostatic modalities in peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

  4. Transglutaminase-mediated semen coagulation controls sperm storage in the malaria mosquito.

    PubMed

    Rogers, David W; Baldini, Francesco; Battaglia, Francesca; Panico, Maria; Dell, Anne; Morris, Howard R; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2009-12-01

    Insect seminal fluid proteins are powerful modulators of many aspects of female physiology and behaviour including longevity, egg production, sperm storage, and remating. The crucial role of these proteins in reproduction makes them promising targets for developing tools aimed at reducing the population sizes of vectors of disease. In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, seminal secretions produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs) are transferred to females in the form of a coagulated mass called the mating plug. The potential of seminal fluid proteins as tools for mosquito control demands that we improve our limited understanding of the composition and function of the plug. Here, we show that the plug is a key determinant of An. gambiae reproductive success. We uncover the composition of the plug and demonstrate it is formed through the cross-linking of seminal proteins mediated by a MAG-specific transglutaminase (TGase), a mechanism remarkably similar to mammalian semen coagulation. Interfering with TGase expression in males inhibits plug formation and transfer, and prevents females from storing sperm with obvious consequences for fertility. Moreover, we show that the MAG-specific TGase is restricted to the anopheline lineage, where it functions to promote sperm storage rather than as a mechanical barrier to re-insemination. Taken together, these data represent a major advance in our understanding of the factors shaping Anopheles reproductive biology.

  5. Coagulation of human prostate volumes with MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy: Results in gel phantoms

    PubMed Central

    N’Djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Hadjis, Stefan; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy were demonstrated recently in a preliminary human study in which a small subvolume of prostate tissue was treated prior to radical prostatectomy. Translation of this technology to full clinical use, however, requires the capability to generate thermal coagulation in a volume up to that of the prostate gland itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters required to treat a full 3D human prostate accurately with a multi-element transurethral applicator and multiplanar MR temperature control. Methods: The approach was a combination of simulations (to select appropriate parameters) followed by experimental confirmation in tissue-mimicking phantoms. A ten-channel, MRI-compatible transurethral ultrasound therapy system was evaluated using six human prostate models (average volume: 36 cm3) obtained from the preliminary human feasibility study. Real-time multiplanar MR thermometry at 3 T was used to control the spatial heating pattern in up to nine planes simultaneously. Treatment strategies incorporated both single (4.6 or 8.1 MHz) and dual (4.6 and 14.4 MHz) frequencies, as well as maximum acoustic surface powers of 10 or 20 W cm−2. Results: Treatments at 4.6 MHz were capable of coagulating a volume equivalent to 97% of the prostate. Increasing power from 10 to 20 W cm−2 reduced treatment times by approximately 50% with full treatments taking 26 ± 3 min at a coagulation rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 cm3 min−1. A dual-frequency 4.6/14.4 MHz treatment strategy was shown to be the most effective configuration for achieving full human prostate treatment while maintaining good treatment accuracy for small treatment radii. The dual-frequency approach reduced overtreatment close to the prostate base and apex, confirming the simulations. Conclusions: This study reinforces the capability of MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy to treat

  6. Coagulation of human prostate volumes with MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy: Results in gel phantoms.

    PubMed

    N'Djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Hadjis, Stefan; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy were demonstrated recently in a preliminary human study in which a small subvolume of prostate tissue was treated prior to radical prostatectomy. Translation of this technology to full clinical use, however, requires the capability to generate thermal coagulation in a volume up to that of the prostate gland itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters required to treat a full 3D human prostate accurately with a multi-element transurethral applicator and multiplanar MR temperature control. The approach was a combination of simulations (to select appropriate parameters) followed by experimental confirmation in tissue-mimicking phantoms. A ten-channel, MRI-compatible transurethral ultrasound therapy system was evaluated using six human prostate models (average volume: 36 cm(3) ) obtained from the preliminary human feasibility study. Real-time multiplanar MR thermometry at 3 T was used to control the spatial heating pattern in up to nine planes simultaneously. Treatment strategies incorporated both single (4.6 or 8.1 MHz) and dual (4.6 and 14.4 MHz) frequencies, as well as maximum acoustic surface powers of 10 or 20 W cm(-2) . Treatments at 4.6 MHz were capable of coagulating a volume equivalent to 97% of the prostate. Increasing power from 10 to 20 W cm(-2) reduced treatment times by approximately 50% with full treatments taking 26 ± 3 min at a coagulation rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 cm(3)  min(-1) . A dual-frequency 4.6/14.4 MHz treatment strategy was shown to be the most effective configuration for achieving full human prostate treatment while maintaining good treatment accuracy for small treatment radii. The dual-frequency approach reduced overtreatment close to the prostate base and apex, confirming the simulations. This study reinforces the capability of MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy to treat full prostate volumes in a

  7. Coagulation of human prostate volumes with MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy: results in gel phantoms.

    PubMed

    N'djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Hadjis, Stefan; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy were demonstrated recently in a preliminary human study in which a small subvolume of prostate tissue was treated prior to radical prostatectomy. Translation of this technology to full clinical use, however, requires the capability to generate thermal coagulation in a volume up to that of the prostate gland itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters required to treat a full 3D human prostate accurately with a multi-element transurethral applicator and multiplanar MR temperature control. The approach was a combination of simulations (to select appropriate parameters) followed by experimental confirmation in tissue-mimicking phantoms. A ten-channel, MRI-compatible transurethral ultrasound therapy system was evaluated using six human prostate models (average volume: 36 cm(3)) obtained from the preliminary human feasibility study. Real-time multiplanar MR thermometry at 3 T was used to control the spatial heating pattern in up to nine planes simultaneously. Treatment strategies incorporated both single (4.6 or 8.1 MHz) and dual (4.6 and 14.4 MHz) frequencies, as well as maximum acoustic surface powers of 10 or 20 W cm(-2). Treatments at 4.6 MHz were capable of coagulating a volume equivalent to 97% of the prostate. Increasing power from 10 to 20 W cm(-2) reduced treatment times by approximately 50% with full treatments taking 26 ± 3 min at a coagulation rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 cm(3) min(-1). A dual-frequency 4.6∕14.4 MHz treatment strategy was shown to be the most effective configuration for achieving full human prostate treatment while maintaining good treatment accuracy for small treatment radii. The dual-frequency approach reduced overtreatment close to the prostate base and apex, confirming the simulations. This study reinforces the capability of MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy to treat full prostate volumes in a short

  8. Identification of acquired coagulation disorders and effects of target-controlled coagulation factor substitution on the incidence and severity of spontaneous intracranial bleeding during veno-venous ECMO therapy.

    PubMed

    Kalbhenn, J; Wittau, N; Schmutz, A; Zieger, B; Schmidt, R

    2015-11-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage is a redoubtable complication during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. The underlying mechanisms of haemorrhagic diathesis are still not completely understood. This study was performed to evaluate a coagulation protocol for the regular analysis of acquired coagulation disorders and the systematic substitution of coagulation factors to reach predefined target values. We hypothesised that using this strategy would lead to the identification of acquired bleeding disorders which cannot be monitored with standard coagulation tests and that substitution of the respective factors in a target-controlled approach could have an impact on the incidence and severity of intracranial haemorrhage. A protocol for the analysis of acquired coagulation disorders and the subsequent administration of associated factor concentrates was introduced. Previously, coagulation management was mainly based on clinical bleeding signs as the trigger for the administration of blood products. In this investigation, nineteen consecutive patients before (control group) and twenty consecutive patients after the implementation of the protocol (intervention group) have been included in the study. Eighty-eight percent of the patients developed factor XIII deficiency, 79% acquired von Willebrand syndrome, 40% fibrinogen deficiency and 54% of the patients showed a decline in platelet count >20% within the first 24 hours of ECMO therapy. In 6 out of 19 (31%) patients in the control group and in 2 patients out of 20 (10%) in the intervention group, intracranial haemorrhage was detected. Whilst 5 of 6 patients in the control group died because of fatal bleeding, both of the patients in the intervention group recovered with a favourable neurologic outcome. Veno-venous ECMO therapy leads to thrombocytopenia, factor XIII and fibrinogen deficiency as well as acquired von Willebrand syndrome. The implementation of a coagulation protocol including a standardized

  9. Effect of combined treatment with immunoadsorption and membrane filtration on plasma coagulation--Results of a randomized controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Biesenbach, Peter; Eskandary, Farsad; Ay, Cihan; Wiegele, Marion; Derfler, Kurt; Schaden, Eva; Haslacher, Helmuth; Oberbauer, Rainer; Böhmig, Georg A

    2016-02-01

    The combined use of immunoadsorption (IA) and membrane filtration (MF) may markedly enhance removal of IgM and complement component C1q, supporting its use as an element of recipient desensitization in antibody-incompatible transplantation. However, coagulation factor removal may contribute to altered hemostasis, posing a risk of bleeding in the perioperative setting. This secondary endpoint analysis of standard coagulation assays and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) was performed in the context of a randomized controlled crossover study designed to assess the effect of combined IA (GAM-146-peptide) and MF on levels of ABO antigen-specific IgM. Fourteen patients with autoimmune disorders were randomized to a single treatment with IA+MF followed by IA alone, or vice versa. MF was found to markedly enhance fibrinogen depletion (57% vs. 28% median decrease after IA alone, P < 0.001), whereby four patients showed post-treatment fibrinogen concentrations below 100 mg dL(-1). In support of a critical contribution of fibrinogen depletion to impaired coagulation, extrinsically activated ROTEM(®) analysis revealed a marked reduction in fibrinogen-dependent clot formation upon IA+MF (59% median decrease in FIBTEM mean clot firmness (MCF) as compared to 24% after IA alone, P < 0.001). Moreover, the addition of MF led to a substantial prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, possibly due to depletion of macromolecular coagulation factors contributing to intrinsically activated coagulation. Our study demonstrates substantial effects of combined IA+MF on clot formation, which may be mainly attributable to fibrinogen depletion. We suggest that the use of combined apheresis in the setting of transplant surgery may necessitate a careful monitoring of coagulation.

  10. Size sensors in bacteria, cell cycle control, and size control

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria proliferate by repetitive cycles of cellular growth and division. The progression into the cell cycle is admitted to be under the control of cell size. However, the molecular basis of this regulation is still unclear. Here I will discuss which mechanisms could allow coupling growth and division by sensing size and transmitting this information to the division machinery. Size sensors could act at different stages of the cell cycle. During septum formation, mechanisms controlling the formation of the Z ring, such as MinCD inhibition or Nucleoid Occlusion (NO) could participate in the size-dependence of the division process. In addition or alternatively, the coupling of growth and division may occur indirectly through the control of DNA replication initiation. The relative importance of these different size-sensing mechanisms could depend on the environmental and genetic context. The recent demonstration of an incremental strategy of size control in bacteria, suggests that DnaA-dependent control of replication initiation could be the major size control mechanism limiting cell size variation. PMID:26074903

  11. Size sensors in bacteria, cell cycle control, and size control.

    PubMed

    Robert, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria proliferate by repetitive cycles of cellular growth and division. The progression into the cell cycle is admitted to be under the control of cell size. However, the molecular basis of this regulation is still unclear. Here I will discuss which mechanisms could allow coupling growth and division by sensing size and transmitting this information to the division machinery. Size sensors could act at different stages of the cell cycle. During septum formation, mechanisms controlling the formation of the Z ring, such as MinCD inhibition or Nucleoid Occlusion (NO) could participate in the size-dependence of the division process. In addition or alternatively, the coupling of growth and division may occur indirectly through the control of DNA replication initiation. The relative importance of these different size-sensing mechanisms could depend on the environmental and genetic context. The recent demonstration of an incremental strategy of size control in bacteria, suggests that DnaA-dependent control of replication initiation could be the major size control mechanism limiting cell size variation.

  12. Evaluation of the hemostatic and coagulation effects of AUTO CUT and DRY CUT using a computer-controlled cutting system.

    PubMed

    Szyrach, Mara N I; Tolba, Rene H; Voigtländer, Matthias; Neugebauer, Alexander; Enderle, Markus D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate a newly developed computer-controlled cutting system for the generation of standardized resections and to systematically compare the hemostatic properties and tissue effect of 2 cutting modes, namely, AUTO CUT and DRY CUT used in urologic procedures. An isolated perfused kidney model was used to assess blood loss and coagulation depth after resection of tissue specimens of standardized geometry, size, and cutting velocity with a resection loop. Three different effect settings (E1, E3, and E6; 200 W) of the electrosurgical modes AUTO CUT and DRY CUT were compared. Blood loss was determined semiquantitatively by weighing a swab before and after placing it onto the resection area. The coagulation depth was estimated microscopically on cross sections. The computer-controlled cutting system creates resections of standardized geometry and size with a high reproducibility. An effect level-dependent increase in hemostasis and coagulation depth could be demonstrated with the cutting modes DRY CUT and AUTO CUT using this computer-controlled cutting system. The hemostatic effect with DRY CUT is significantly more pronounced than with AUTO CUT (E1, E3: P < .0001, E6: P = .004), and the coagulation is significantly deeper (E1, E3, E6: P < .0001). The computer-controlled cutting system creating reproducible resections in combination with the isolated perfused kidney model offers the possibility to systematically investigate bleeding rate and coagulation depth. The stronger hemostatic properties of the DRY CUT mode are more favorable for urologic interventions requiring a higher hemostatic effect than the AUTO CUT mode. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. FACTORS WHICH CONTROL MAXIMAL GROWTH OF BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, N. A.; Stokes, J. L.

    1962-01-01

    Sinclair, N. A. (Washington State University, Pullman) and J. L. Stokes. Factors which control maximal growth of bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 83:1147–1154. 1962.—In a chemically defined medium containing 1% glucose and 0.1% (NH4)2SO4, both of these compounds are virtually exhausted by the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens. If these carbon, energy, and nitrogen sources are added back to the culture filtrate, maximal growth to the level of the original culture is obtained. This process can be repeated several times with the same results. Eventually, however, the supply of minerals in the culture limits growth. When the nutrient levels are raised to 3% glucose and 0.3% (NH4)2SO4, lack of oxygen and low pH limit growth before the supply of nutrients is exhausted. There is no evidence that specific autoinhibitory substances are produced either in chemically defined or complex nitrogenous media or that physical crowding of the cells limits growth. The results with Escherichia coli are similar to those with P. fluorescens. However, after a few growth cycles aerobically and after only one growth cycle anaerobically, inhibitory substances, probably organic acids, accumulate and limit growth. PMID:13913264

  14. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE. PMID:27483327

  15. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-07-30

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE.

  16. Two-wavelength approach for control of coagulation depth during laser tissue soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Martin; Aden, Mirko; Toedter, Nina; Rosenkranz, Beate

    2015-03-01

    In laser tissue soldering (LTS) protein solutions are used for closing of incisions or fixation of wound dressings. During coagulation and thermal denaturation of the protein solutions their morphology changes significantly such that light is strongly scattered. When scattering becomes major component extinction increases and the optical penetration depth shrinks which could lead to unsufficient coagulation and bonding. For adaption of extinction during coagulation we are investigating a two-wavelength approach. A strongly absorbed laser wavelength (1540 nm) and weakly absorbed wavelength (980 nm) can be applied simultaneously. Simulation of beam propagation is performed in natural and coagulated state of the solder. The model describes a three-layer system consisting of membrane, solder and phantom. The optical properties are determined by spectrometric measurements both in natural and coagulated state. The absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropy factor γ are determined by numerical analysis from the spectrometric data. Beam propagation is simulated for 980 nm and 1540 nm radiation with ZEMAX® software based on the Monte Carlo method. For both wavelengths the beginning of the process with a clear solder layer, and the final state characterized by a coagulated solder layer are examined. The optical penetration depth depends mainly on the optical properties of the solder, which change in the course of coagulation process. The coagulation depth can be varied between 1.5 mm to 3.5 mm by changing the proportion of both laser sources. This leads to concepts for minimizing heat input while maintaining a constant coagulation depth.

  17. A Multiscale Model of Venous Thrombus Formation with Surface-Mediated Control of Blood Coagulation Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiliang; Lioi, Joshua; Mu, Jian; Kamocka, Malgorzata M.; Liu, Xiaomin; Chen, Danny Z.; Rosen, Elliot D.; Alber, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A combination of the extended multiscale model, new image processing algorithms, and biological experiments is used for studying the role of Factor VII (FVII) in venous thrombus formation. A detailed submodel of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation is introduced within the framework of the multiscale model to provide a detailed description of coagulation cascade. Surface reactions of the extrinsic coagulation pathway on membranes of platelets are studied under different flow conditions. It is shown that low levels of FVII in blood result in a significant delay in thrombin production, demonstrating that FVII plays an active role in promoting thrombus development at an early stage. PMID:20441735

  18. [The effects of Arnica Montana on blood coagulation. Randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, L; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L; Leroux, D; Audet, D

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  19. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: A randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren; Hornbech, Kåre; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Licht, Peter B.; Nybo, Mads; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the impact of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH) on the coagulation system in patients undergoing minimal invasive lung cancer surgery is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) lobectomy for primary lung cancer. Methods Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomized to either subcutaneous injection with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily or no intervention. Coagulation was assessed pre-, peri-, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. Results Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority of the assessed coagulation parameters after LMWH, except that the no intervention group had a higher peak thrombin and a shorter INTEM clotting time on the first postoperative day and a lower fibrinogen level on the second postoperative day. A lower level of fibrin d-dimer in the LMWH group was found on the 1. and 2.postoperative day, although not statistical significant. No differences were found between the two groups in the amount of bleeding or number of thromboembolic events. Conclusions Use of LMWH administered once daily as thromboprophylaxis did not alter the coagulation profile per se. As the present study primarily evaluated biochemical endpoints, further studies using clinical endpoints are needed in regards of an optimized thromboprophylaxis approach. PMID:28199364

  20. Coagulation and oxidation for controlling ultrafiltration membrane fouling in drinking water treatment: Application of ozone at low dose in submerged membrane tank.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenzheng; Graham, Nigel J D; Fowler, Geoffrey D

    2016-05-15

    Coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) is widely applied for treating contaminated surface water sources for potable supply. While beneficial, coagulation alone is unable to control membrane fouling effectively in many cases, and there is continuing interest in the use of additional, complementary methods such as oxidation in the pre-treatment of raw water prior to UF. In this study, the application of ozone at low dose in the membrane tank immediately following coagulation has been evaluated at laboratory-scale employing model raw water. In parallel tests with and without the application of ozone, the impact of applied ozone doses of 0.5 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1) (approximately 0.18 mg L(-1) and 0.54 mg L(-1) consumed ozone, respectively) on the increase of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) was evaluated and correlated with the quantity and nature of membrane deposits, both as a cake layer and within membrane pores. The results showed that a dose of 0.5 mgO3 L(-1) gave a membrane fouling rate that was substantially lower than without ozone addition, while a dose of 1.5 mgO3 L(-1) was able to prevent fouling effects significantly (no increase in TMP). Ozone was found to decrease the concentration of bacteria (especially the concentration of bacteria per suspended solid) in the membrane tank, and to alter the nature of dissolved organic matter by increasing the proportion of hydrophilic substances. Ozone decreased the concentration of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), such as polysaccharides and proteins, in the membrane cake layer; the reduced EPS and bacterial concentrations resulted in a much thinner cake layer, although the suspended solids concentration was much higher in the ozone added membrane tank. Ozone also decreased the accumulation and hydrophobicity of organic matter within the membrane pores, leading to minimal irreversible fouling. Therefore, the application of low-dose ozone within the UF membrane tank is a potentially important

  1. Relationship between control of ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation and systemic coagulation activation in patients with mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Atak, Ramazan; Turhan, Hasan; Senen, Kubilay; Yalta, Kenan; Ayaz, Selime; Alyan, Omer; Basar, Nurcan; Demirkan, Deniz

    2004-03-01

    Systemic thromboembolism is a major complication in patients with mitral stenosis (MS), especially in those who have atrial fibrillation (AF). It has been suggested that systemic coagulation activity may be increased in these patients. The study aim was to investigate the relationship between control of ventricular rate and systemic coagulation factors in patients with MS and AF by measuring plasma levels of prothrombin fragment (PF) 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Fifty-four consecutive patients with moderate to severe MS and AF were included in the study. Patients with resting heart rates < 100 beats per min were considered as having a controlled ventricular response rate (group A; n = 28) and those with > 100 beats per min as an uncontrolled ventricular response rate (group B; n = 26). Group A patients had a lower mean mitral gradient and pulmonary artery pressure than group B patients (11 +/- 6 versus 15 +/- 5 and 35 +/- 7 versus 39 +/- 8; p < 0.05, respectively). Plasma concentrations of PF 1+2 (4.17 +/- 2.1 versus 2.95 +/- 1.21; p < 0.01) and TAT III (4.61 +/- 1.75 versus 3.12 +/- 1.01; p < 0.01) were elevated in group B compared with group A. Similarly, group B patients had higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels than group A patients (7.87 +/- 3.8 versus 5.8 +/- 2.9; p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found between heart rate and plasma PF 1+2 and TAT levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that heart rate and mean mitral gradient were independent predictors of systemic coagulation activation. Besides contributing towards hemodynamic and symptomatic relief, the control of AF rate in MS patients induces a drastic decline in coagulation activation, and may also reduce the incidence of thromboembolism.

  2. Thermal control of virulence factors in bacteria: A hot topic

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Oliver; Wheeler, Jun; Tang, Christoph M

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria sense environmental cues, including the local temperature, to control the production of key virulence factors. Thermal regulation can be achieved at the level of DNA, RNA or protein and although many virulence factors are subject to thermal regulation, the exact mechanisms of control are yet to be elucidated in many instances. Understanding how virulence factors are regulated by temperature presents a significant challenge, as gene expression and protein production are often influenced by complex regulatory networks involving multiple transcription factors in bacteria. Here we highlight some recent insights into thermal regulation of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. We focus on bacteria which cause disease in mammalian hosts, which are at a significantly higher temperature than the outside environment. We outline the mechanisms of thermal regulation and how understanding this fundamental aspect of the biology of bacteria has implications for pathogenesis and human health. PMID:25494856

  3. Control of microfabricated structures powered by flagellated bacteria using phototaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steager, Edward; Kim, Chang-Beom; Patel, Jigarkumar; Bith, Socheth; Naik, Chandan; Reber, Lindsay; Kim, Min Jun

    2007-06-01

    Flagellated bacteria have been employed as microactuators in low Reynolds number fluidic environments. SU-8 microstructures have been fabricated and released on the surface of swarming Serratia marcescens, and the flagella propel the structures along the swarm surface. Phototactic control of these structures is demonstrated by exposing the localized regions of the swarm to ultraviolet light. The authors additionally discuss the control of microstructures in an open channel powered by bacteria which have been docked through a blotting technique. A tracking algorithm has been developed to analyze swarming patterns of the bacteria as well as the kinematics of the microstructures.

  4. A simple method for estimation of coagulation efficiency in mixed aerosols. [environmental pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Boyd, A.; Wolochow, H.

    1975-01-01

    Aerosols of KBr and AgNO3 were mixed, exposed to light in a glass tube and collected in the dark. About 15% of the collected material was reduced to silver upon development. Thus, two aerosols of particles that react to form a photo-reducible compound can be used to measure coagulation efficiency.

  5. A case control study on the structural equation model of the mechanism of coagulation and fibrinolysis imbalance in chronic schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Le, Aiping; Zhang, Lunli; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaopeng; Ren, Jianwei; Ning, An

    2017-02-01

    A structural equation model was used for verification with chronic schistosomiasis to investigate the coagulation-anticoagulation system imbalance and to deduce the mechanism of D-dimer (D-D) level elevation in patients with advanced schistosome hepatic disease. We detected the plasma levels of tissue-type fiber plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP), plasminogen (PLG), antithrombin (AT), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), D-D, factor VIII: C (FVIII:C), antithrombin-III (AT-III), PLG, protein S (PS), and protein C (PC) in the healthy people as control (69), patients with chronic schistosomiasis (150) or advanced chronic schistosomiasis (90). FVIII, PAP, D-D, tPA, and uPA plasma levels were significantly higher in the chronic group than in the control group and were also significantly higher in the advanced group. However, AT-III, PC, PS, AT, PLG, and PAI1 plasma levels in the advanced and chronic groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. With progression of disease in patients with schistosomiasis japonica, a hypercoagulable state is induced by the coagulation-anticoagulation imbalance, eventually leading to patients with high levels of D-D. Furthermore, we established a structural equation model path of a "chronic schistosomiasis disease stage-(coagulation-anticoagulation-fibrinolysis)-D-D." By using analysis of moment structures (AMOS), it was shown that the chronic schistosomiasis stage was positively related to factor VIII and had negative correlation with AT-III; a good positive correlation with PAP, tPA, and uPA; and a good negative correlation with PLG and PAI1. In addition, our results show that the path coefficient of anticoagulation-fibrinolysis system to the chronic stage of schistosomiasis or D-D levels was significantly higher than that of the coagulation system. In conclusion, the coagulation and fibrinolysis imbalance in patients with chronic

  6. Coagulation and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Severe sepsis is almost invariably associated with systemic activation of coagulation. There is ample evidence that demonstrates a wide-ranging cross-talk between hemostasis and inflammation, which is probably implicated in the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction in patients with sepsis. Inflammation not only leads to initiation and propagation of coagulation activity, but coagulation also markedly influences inflammation. Molecular mechanisms that play a role in inflammation-induced effects on coagulation have been recognized in much detail. Pro-inflammatory cells and cyto- and chemokines can activate the coagulation system and downregulate crucial physiological anticoagulant mechanisms. Initiation of coagulation activation and consequent thrombin generation is caused by expression of tissue factor on activated monocytes and endothelial cells and is ineffectually offset by tissue factor pathway inhibitor. At the same time, endothelial-associated anticoagulant pathways, in particular the protein C system, is impaired by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, fibrin removal is severely obstructed by inactivation of the endogenous fibrinolytic system, mainly as a result of upregulation of its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Increased fibrin generation and impaired break down lead to deposition of (micro)vascular clots, which may contribute to tissue ischemia and ensuing organ dysfunction. The foundation of the management of coagulation in sepsis is the explicit and thorough treatment of the underlying disorder by antibiotic treatment and source control measures. Adjunctive strategies focused at the impairment of coagulation, including anticoagulants and restoration of physiological anticoagulant mechanisms, may supposedly be indicated and have been found advantageous in experimental and initial clinical trials.

  7. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  8. Biological Control of Nematodes with Bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control of nematodes is receiving increased attention as environmental considerations with the use of nematicides have increased in importance and their high cost prohibits use on many crops. In addition, nematode resistant cultivars are not available for many crops and resistance that i...

  9. Cell size control and homeostasis in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradde, Serena; Taheri, Sattar; Sauls, John; Hill, Nobert; Levine, Petra; Paulsson, Johan; Vergassola, Massimo; Jun, Suckjoon

    2015-03-01

    How cells control their size is a fundamental question in biology. The mechanisms for sensing size, time, or a combination of the two are not supported by experimental evidence. By analysing distributions of size at division at birth and generation time of hundreds of thousands of Gram-negative E. coli and Gram-positive B. subtilis cells under a wide range of tightly controlled steady-state growth conditions, we are now in the position to validate different theoretical models. In this talk I will present all possible models in details and present a general mechanism that quantitatively explains all measurable aspects of growth and cell division at both population and single-cell levels.

  10. [Coagulation behavior of Al13 species].

    PubMed

    Hu, Cheng-zhi; Liu, Hui-juan; Qu, Jiu-hui

    2006-12-01

    Coagulation behavior of Al13 species was examined in synthetic water with high alkalinity and high humic acid concentration from viewpoint of the transformation of Al hydrolysis products during the coagulation process. The results indicated that coagulation efficiency of Al coagulants positively correlated with the content of Al13 in the coagulation process. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was more effective than polyaluminum chloride (PACI) in removing turbidity and dissolved organic matter in the synthetic water because AlCl3 could not only generate Al13 species but also function as pH control agent in the coagulation process. During coagulation process pH control can improve coagulation process through regulating Al speciation, and AlCl3 benefited most from pH control.

  11. Effect of the colloids gelatin and HES 130/0.4 on blood coagulation in cardiac surgery patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kimenai, D M; Bastianen, G W; Daane, C R; Megens-Bastiaanse, C M; van der Meer, N J M; Scohy, T V; Gerritse, B M

    2013-11-01

    The choice of the prime solution for cardiopulmonary bypass can play an important role in limiting the effect on blood coagulation, but it is still unclear what the effect of colloids on blood coagulation is. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of synthetic colloids on blood loss and blood coagulation in patients after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures. Sixty elective, on-pump CABG patients were randomly assigned to receive the prime solutions lactated Ringer's solution combined with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES, 6% Volulyte, Fresenius Kabi Nederland BV, Zeist, the Netherlands) (HES group) or gelatin (Gelofusin(®), B Braun Melsung AG, Melsungen, Germany) (Gelo group). Blood loss was assessed using post-operative chest tube output; secondary endpoints were number of blood component transfusions, routine coagulation test values and rotation thromboelastometry values (Rotem(®) delta, Pentapharm GmbH, Munich, Germany). Total post-operative chest tube output was 500 ± 420 ml in the HES group versus 465 ± 390 ml in the Gelo group (p = 0.48). No significant differences were observed in any of the routine coagulation tests values, thromboelastometry parameters or number of blood component transfusions between the groups. In this randomized, controlled trial of adults after on-pump CABG procedures, there was no significant difference in blood loss or blood coagulation between the HES group and the Gelo group.

  12. Membrane fouling controlled by coagulation/adsorption during direct sewage membrane filtration (DSMF) for organic matter concentration.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hui; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Xian; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-06-01

    Unlike the role of the membrane in a membrane bioreactor, which is designed to replace a sediment tank, direct sewage membrane filtration (DSMF), with the goal of concentrating organic matters, is proposed as a pretreatment process in a novel sewage treatment concept. The concept of membrane-based pretreatment is proposed to divide raw sewage into a concentrated part retaining most organics and a filtered part with less pollutant remaining, so that energy recovery and water reuse, respectively, could be realized by post-treatment. A pilot-scale experiment was carried out to verify the feasibility of coagulant/adsorbent addition for membrane fouling control, which has been the main issue during this DSMF process. The results showed that continuous coagulant addition successfully slowed down the increase in filtration resistance, with the resistance maintained below 1.0×10(13) m(-1) in the first 70 hr before a jump occurred. Furthermore, the adsorbent addition contributed to retarding the occurrence of the filtration resistance jump, achieving simultaneous fouling control and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration improvement. The final concentrated COD amounted to 7500 mg/L after 6 days of operation.

  13. Controlling biofilms of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Many bacteria can form aggregates on interfaces, called biofilms, where they are much more protected against toxic agents such as antibiotics or antibodies. Bacteria organized in biofilms are therefore very difficult to control and often even high dosages of antibiotics cannot clear infectious biofilms. To form biofilms bacteria have to start a complex genetic program to switch from planktonic to sessile lifestyle. This starts with the determination of their cell density, a process called quorum sensing, triggered by small, water soluble molecules, so called autoinducers. From Gram-positive bacteria several small peptides are known, many of them thiolactones. More recently another group of compounds was discovered probably formed from ribose-homocysteine and the first autoinducer-II identified is a furanosyl borate diester. While small peptides are found to trigger the intraspecies communication autoinducer-II is assumed to be used for communication at the interspecies level. Taking the lead structure from these peptides several derivatives have been developed which prevent biofilm formation in many Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. Some of these compounds are already in clinical studies. In this review the different approaches to control bacterial biofilms are discussed together with the difficulties arising from the species-specificity of the autoinducers.

  14. Fouling of microfiltration membranes by organic polymer coagulants and flocculants: controlling factors and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Liu, Charles; Li, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Organic polymers are commonly used as coagulants or flocculants in pretreatment for microfiltration (MF). These high molecular weight compounds are potential membrane foulants when carried over to the MF filters. This study examined fouling of three MF membranes of different materials by three commonly used water treatment polymers: poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (pDADMAC), polyacrylamide (PAM), and poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide (PACA) with a wide range of molecular weights. The effects of polymer molecular characteristics, membrane surface properties, solution condition and polymer concentration on membrane fouling were investigated. Results showed severe fouling of microfiltration membranes at very low polymer concentrations, suggesting that residual polymers carried over from the coagulation/flocculation basin can contribute significantly to membrane fouling. The interactions between polymers and membranes depended strongly on the molecular size and charge of the polymer. High molecular weight, positively charged polymers caused the greatest fouling. Blockage of membrane pore openings was identified as the main fouling mechanism with no detectable internal fouling in spite of the small molecular size of the polymers relative to the membrane pore size. Solution conditions (e.g., pH and calcium concentration) that led to larger polymer molecular or aggregate sizes resulted in greater fouling.

  15. ENGINEERING OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN HYDROLASES FOR CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriophages are viruses exclusively infecting bacteria and therefore offer suitable tools for their detection and control. At the end of their multiplication cycle, most phages lyse their hosts from within by means of an endolysin (peptidoglycan hydrolase), thereby enabling release of the phage p...

  16. Control of disseminated intravascular coagulation in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome using enoxaparin and recombinant activated factor VIIa: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Vascular malformation is associated with coagulopathies, especially when hemostasis is challenged. Case presentation We present the case of an 11-year-old Hispanic girl with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome that developed disseminated intravascular coagulation after minor surgery, which was controlled by blood product transfusions and enoxaparin to address an ongoing consumptive coagulopathy. The patient, however, developed bacteremia and liver trauma that resulted in severe bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first known instance of administering recombinant coagulation factor VIIa to control acute bleeding in a patient with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. Conclusions This case illustrates the concept of enoxaparin maintenance to suppress an ongoing consumptive coagulopathy and the use of recombinant coagulation factor VIIa to control its potentially fatal severe bleeding episodes. PMID:20302608

  17. [Perioperative coagulation management controlled by thrombelastography. Clinical implementation illustrated by reference to a case of acquired coagulopathy following aortic stab injury].

    PubMed

    Grashey, R; Mathonia, P; Mutschler, W; Heindl, B

    2007-03-01

    Uncontrolled bleeding is one of the main reasons for a lethal outcome of severe trauma. Loss, consumption and dilution of clotting factors and platelets induce a complex acquired coagulopathy. Beside surgical control of bleeding, early and precise coagulation therapy is essential for successful treatment. We report on a patient whose life-threatening bleeding and perioperative coagulopathy after a knife injury to the aorta was successfully treated by surgical control of the bleeding and subsequent targeted coagulation therapy with factor concentrates and fresh-frozen plasma. The coagulopathy was diagnosed and managed by means of bed-side thrombelastography.

  18. Coagulant modulates the hypocholesterolemic effect of tofu (coagulated soymilk).

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2007-06-01

    The recent increase in soymilk and tofu (coagulated soymilk) consumption, especially in Western countries, is due to the recognition of the health benefits of soy foods; consumption of soybean would prevent heart diseases. Since the amount and the type of coagulated biomolecules (such as isoflavones) will vary with the type of coagulant, this will inevitably alter their biological activity. This study sought to assess the effect of some coagulants (calcium chloride, alum, and steep water from pap production) commonly used in the production of tofu in Nigeria on the serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in albino rats fed tofu for 14 days. The results of this study revealed that there was a significant difference (P < .05) in the total phenol [calcium chloride (0.9%), alum (0.8%), and steep water (1.2%)] content of all the tofu produced. Furthermore, feeding albino rats with tofu and water ad libitum for 14 days caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum cholesterol and LDL when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < .05) in serum HDL when compared with the control. However, rats fed steep water-coagulated tofu had the lowest serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, followed by those fed alum- and calcium chloride-coagulated tofu, respectively, while those fed with alum-coagulated tofu had the highest serum HDL level, closely followed by those fed steep water-coagulated tofu. It was therefore concluded that of all the coagulants, steep water appeared to be the most promising coagulant with regard to the production of tofu with a high hypocholesterolemic effect based on the low serum cholesterol and LDL levels and high HDL level.

  19. Light controlled 3D micromotors powered by bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Frangipane, Giacomo; Maggi, Claudio; Saglimbeni, Filippo; Bianchi, Silvio; di Leonardo, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Self-propelled bacteria can be integrated into synthetic micromachines and act as biological propellers. So far, proposed designs suffer from low reproducibility, large noise levels or lack of tunability. Here we demonstrate that fast, reliable and tunable bio-hybrid micromotors can be obtained by the self-assembly of synthetic structures with genetically engineered biological propellers. The synthetic components consist of 3D interconnected structures having a rotating unit that can capture individual bacteria into an array of microchambers so that cells contribute maximally to the applied torque. Bacterial cells are smooth swimmers expressing a light-driven proton pump that allows to optically control their swimming speed. Using a spatial light modulator, we can address individual motors with tunable light intensities allowing the dynamic control of their rotational speeds. Applying a real-time feedback control loop, we can also command a set of micromotors to rotate in unison with a prescribed angular speed.

  20. Effective control of relapsing disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis by recombinant soluble thrombomodulin.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takumu; Sawada, Koji; Nakajima, Shunsuke; Maeda, Shigeaki; Abe, Masami; Suzuki, Yasuaki; Ohtake, Takaaki; Hasebe, Chitomi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese man was hospitalized for expanding purpura and chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) caused by decompensated liver cirrhosis. As there are no effective treatments for chronic DIC caused by liver cirrhosis, we decided to administer recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM) after he provided informed consent. The DIC was rapidly improved; however, the purpura and coagulopathy recurred after two months, and repeated rhsTM treatments were required. The rhsTM treatment sufficiently controlled the coagulopathy for two years, without any complications, including bleeding. This is the first report demonstrating that rhsTM can be administered safely and repeatedly to a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis, and that it appears to be associated with a favorable outcome.

  1. Quality control lockout function on Medtronic ACT Plus coagulation timer system can be bypassed for same-patient samples.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    If Medtronic's ACT Plus automated coagulation timer system (an activated clotting time analyzer) is used on a single patient, its quality control (QC) lockout function may not activate--that is, the device may not lock the user out from performing sample analysis when QC has not been performed within the required time frame. The unit will indicate that QC is due by beeping three times and providing an onscreen message, but it will still analyze the sample and provide the user with results. These results may be inaccurate, and if they are used to make anticoagulation therapy decisions, they may lead to incorrect and potentially dangerous heparin therapy. Users should be made aware of this behavior (which is not described in the device's user manual) and should be instructed to verify that required QC checks have been performed before analyzing each sample.

  2. Cell morphology governs directional control in swimming bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guadayol, Òscar; Thornton, Katie L; Humphries, Stuart

    2017-05-17

    The ability to rapidly detect and track nutrient gradients is key to the ecological success of motile bacteria in aquatic systems. Consequently, bacteria have evolved a number of chemotactic strategies that consist of sequences of straight runs and reorientations. Theoretically, both phases are affected by fluid drag and Brownian motion, which are themselves governed by cell geometry. Here, we experimentally explore the effect of cell length on control of swimming direction. We subjected Escherichia coli to an antibiotic to obtain motile cells of different lengths, and characterized their swimming patterns in a homogeneous medium. As cells elongated, angles between runs became smaller, forcing a change from a run-and-tumble to a run-and-stop/reverse pattern. Our results show that changes in the motility pattern of microorganisms can be induced by simple morphological variation, and raise the possibility that changes in swimming pattern may be triggered by both morphological plasticity and selection on morphology.

  3. Light controllable surface coating for effective photothermal killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Eun Bi; Jeong, Chan Jin; Sharker, Shazid Md; In, Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2015-07-22

    Although the electronic properties of conducting films have been widely explored in optoelectronic fields, the optical absorption abilities of surface-coated films for photothermal conversion have been relatively less explored in the production of antibacterial coatings. Here, we present catechol-conjugated poly(vinylpyrrolidone) sulfobetaine (PVPS) and polyaniline (PANI) tightly linked by ionic interaction (PVPS:PANI) as a novel photothermal antibacterial agent for surface coating, which can absorb broadband near-infrared (NIR) light. Taking advantage of the NIR light absorption, this coating film can release eminent photothermal heat for the rapid killing of surface bacteria. The NIR light triggers a sharp rise in photothermal heat, providing the rapid and effective killing of 99.9% of the Gram-positive and -negative bacteria tested within 3 min of NIR light exposure when used at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Although considerable progress has been made in the design of antibacterial coatings, the user control of NIR-irradiated rapid photothermal destruction of surface bacteria holds increasing attention beyond the traditional boundaries of typical antibacterial surfaces.

  4. Acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure and blood coagulation: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2015-12-14

    Recent evidence suggests that Ca supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular events, but the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is uncertain. In a study primarily assessing the effects of various Ca supplements on blood Ca levels, we also investigated the effects of Ca supplements on blood pressure and their acute effects on blood coagulation. We randomised 100 post-menopausal women to 1 g/d of Ca or a placebo containing no Ca. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and every 2 h up to 8 h after their first dose and after 3 months of supplementation. Blood coagulation was measured by thromboelastography (TEG) in a subgroup of participants (n 40) up to 8 h only. Blood pressure declined over 8 h in both the groups, consistent with its normal diurnal rhythm. The reduction in systolic blood pressure was smaller in the Ca group compared with the control group by >5 mmHg between 2 and 6 h (P≤0·02), and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was smaller at 2 h (between-groups difference 4·5 mmHg, P=0·004). Blood coagulability, assessed by TEG, increased from baseline over 8 h in the calcium citrate and control groups. At 4 h, the increase in the coagulation index was greater in the calcium citrate group compared with the control group (P=0·03), which appeared to be due to a greater reduction in the time to clot initiation. These data suggest that Ca supplements may acutely influence blood pressure and blood coagulation. Further investigation of this possibility is required.

  5. A case control study on the structural equation model of the mechanism of coagulation and fibrinolysis imbalance in chronic schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Le, Aiping; Zhang, Lunli; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaopeng; Ren, Jianwei; Ning, An

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A structural equation model was used for verification with chronic schistosomiasis to investigate the coagulation–anticoagulation system imbalance and to deduce the mechanism of D-dimer (D-D) level elevation in patients with advanced schistosome hepatic disease. We detected the plasma levels of tissue-type fiber plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP), plasminogen (PLG), antithrombin (AT), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), D-D, factor VIII: C (FVIII:C), antithrombin-III (AT-III), PLG, protein S (PS), and protein C (PC) in the healthy people as control (69), patients with chronic schistosomiasis (150) or advanced chronic schistosomiasis (90). FVIII, PAP, D-D, tPA, and uPA plasma levels were significantly higher in the chronic group than in the control group and were also significantly higher in the advanced group. However, AT-III, PC, PS, AT, PLG, and PAI1 plasma levels in the advanced and chronic groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. With progression of disease in patients with schistosomiasis japonica, a hypercoagulable state is induced by the coagulation–anticoagulation imbalance, eventually leading to patients with high levels of D-D. Furthermore, we established a structural equation model path of a “chronic schistosomiasis disease stage–(coagulation–anticoagulation–fibrinolysis)–D-D.” By using analysis of moment structures (AMOS), it was shown that the chronic schistosomiasis stage was positively related to factor VIII and had negative correlation with AT-III; a good positive correlation with PAP, tPA, and uPA; and a good negative correlation with PLG and PAI1. In addition, our results show that the path coefficient of anticoagulation–fibrinolysis system to the chronic stage of schistosomiasis or D-D levels was significantly higher than that of the coagulation system. In conclusion, the coagulation and fibrinolysis imbalance in

  6. Controlling weeds with fungi, bacteria and viruses: a review.

    PubMed

    Harding, Dylan P; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Weeds are a nuisance in a variety of land uses. The increasing prevalence of both herbicide resistant weeds and bans on cosmetic pesticide use has created a strong impetus to develop novel strategies for controlling weeds. The application of bacteria, fungi and viruses to achieving this goal has received increasingly great attention over the last three decades. Proposed benefits to this strategy include reduced environmental impact, increased target specificity, reduced development costs compared to conventional herbicides and the identification of novel herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on examples from North America. Among fungi, the prominent genera to receive attention as bioherbicide candidates include Colletotrichum, Phoma, and Sclerotinia. Among bacteria, Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas share this distinction. The available reports on the application of viruses to controlling weeds are also reviewed. Focus is given to the phytotoxic mechanisms associated with bioherbicide candidates. Achieving consistent suppression of weeds in field conditions is a common challenge to this control strategy, as the efficacy of a bioherbicide candidate is generally more sensitive to environmental variation than a conventional herbicide. Common themes and lessons emerging from the available literature in regard to this challenge are presented. Additionally, future directions for this crop protection strategy are suggested.

  7. Controlling weeds with fungi, bacteria and viruses: a review

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Dylan P.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Weeds are a nuisance in a variety of land uses. The increasing prevalence of both herbicide resistant weeds and bans on cosmetic pesticide use has created a strong impetus to develop novel strategies for controlling weeds. The application of bacteria, fungi and viruses to achieving this goal has received increasingly great attention over the last three decades. Proposed benefits to this strategy include reduced environmental impact, increased target specificity, reduced development costs compared to conventional herbicides and the identification of novel herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on examples from North America. Among fungi, the prominent genera to receive attention as bioherbicide candidates include Colletotrichum, Phoma, and Sclerotinia. Among bacteria, Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas share this distinction. The available reports on the application of viruses to controlling weeds are also reviewed. Focus is given to the phytotoxic mechanisms associated with bioherbicide candidates. Achieving consistent suppression of weeds in field conditions is a common challenge to this control strategy, as the efficacy of a bioherbicide candidate is generally more sensitive to environmental variation than a conventional herbicide. Common themes and lessons emerging from the available literature in regard to this challenge are presented. Additionally, future directions for this crop protection strategy are suggested. PMID:26379687

  8. Fabrication and magnetic control of bacteria-inspired robotic microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, U. Kei; Roy, Dheeraj; Lee, Jun Hee; Kim, Min Jun

    2010-11-01

    A biomimetic, microscale system using the mechanics of swimming bacteria has been fabricated and controlled in a low Reynolds number fluidic environment. The microswimmer consists of a polystyrene microbead conjugated to a magnetic nanoparticle via a flagellar filament using avidin-biotin linkages. The flagellar filaments were isolated from the bacterium, Salmonella typhimurium. Propulsion energy was supplied by an external rotating magnetic field designed in an approximate Helmholtz configuration. Further, the finite element analysis software, COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS, was used to develop a simulation of the robotic devices within the magnetic controller. The robotic microswimmers exhibited flagellar propulsion in two-dimensional magnetic fields, which demonstrate controllability of the biomimetically designed devices for future biomedical applications.

  9. Nanoformulated antibiotics: the next step for pathogenic bacteria control.

    PubMed

    Saúde, Amanda Caroline Marques; Cherobim, Mariana Dornelles; Amaral, André Corrêa; Dias, Simoní Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The resistance of infectious bacteria to current antibiotics is a worldwide problem. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nanostructured molecules against pathogens as an innovative methodology for the development of novel drugs. Currently, 95% of properties limited pharmacies applicability such as low solubility, short half-life in the circulatory system, toxicity associated to controlled release and immunogenicity. Furthermore, nanobiotechnology provides a different perspective for modifying these properties and allows innovative drug development. In this context, this review aims to describe different methods, polymers, and drugs used to obtain and analyze nanostructures associated with antibiotics as an unconventional and innovative tool for bacterial control. Biotechnology provides a different perspective for modifying drug properties and allows innovative drug development. This review describes nanostructures in association with antibiotics as an unconventional and innovative tool for bacterial control.

  10. Partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) reactor and its working mechanism: a new prospective chemical technology for phosphorus pollution control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Abbas, Ghulam; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus pollution control and phosphorus recycling, simultaneously, are focus of attention in the wastewater treatment. In this work, a novel reactor named partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) was invented for phosphorus control. The working performance and process mechanism of PEC reactor were investigated. The results showed that the PEC technology was highly efficient and cost-effective. The volumetric removal rate (VRR) reached up to 2.86 ± 0.04 kg P/(m(3) d) with a phosphorus removal rate of over 97%. The precipitant consumption was reduced to 2.60-2.76 kg Fe(II)/kg P with low operational cost of $ 0.632-0.673/kg P. The peak phosphorus content in precipitate was up to 30.44% by P2O5, which reveal the benefit of the recycling phosphorus resource. The excellent performance of PEC technology was mainly attributed to the partitionable-space and 'flocculation filter'. The partition limited the trans-regional back-mixing of reagents along the reactor, which promoted the precipitation reaction. The 'flocculation filter' retained the microflocs, enhancing the flocculation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Growth characteristics and control of iron bacteria on cast iron in drinking water distribution systems].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Yu-Qiao; Lu, Pin-Pin; Chen, Chao

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the growth characteristics of iron bacteria on cast iron and relationship between suspended and attached iron bacteria. The steady-state growth of iron bacteria would need 12 d and iron bacteria level in effluents increased 1 lg. Hydraulics influence on iron bacteria level and detachment rate of steady-state attached iron bacteria was not significant. But it could affect the time of attached iron bacteria on cast-iron coupons reaching to steady state. When the chlorine residual was 0.3 mg/L, the iron bacteria growth could be controlled effectively and suspended and attached iron bacteria levels both decreased 1 lg. When the chlorine residual was more than 1.0 mg/L, it could not inactivate the iron bacteria of internal corrosion scale yet. There was little effect on inhibiting the iron bacteria growth that the chlorine residual was 0.05 mg/L in drinking water quality standard of China. The iron bacteria on coupons reached to steady state without disinfectant and then increased the chlorine residual to 1.25 mg/L, the attached iron bacteria level could decrease 2 lg to 3 lg. Under steady-state, the suspended iron bacteria levels were linearly dependent on the attached iron bacteria. The control of iron bacteria in drinking water distribution systems was advanced: maintaining the chlorine residual (0.3 mg/L), flushing the pipeline with high dosage disinfectant, adopting corrosion-resistant pipe materials and renovating the old pipe loop.

  12. Issues involved with non-characterized control of methanotrophic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, D.L.; Tolle, C.R.; Noah, K.S.; Davis, D.A.; Miller, K.S.; Fife, D.J.

    1998-05-11

    Methane-utilizing bacteria, methanotrophs, have application as biocatalysts in the commodity chemical production, waste treatment and environmental remediation industries. Methanotrophs have the ability to oxidize many chemical compounds into more desired products, such as the production of propylene oxide. Methanotrophs can also degrade toxic compounds such as trichloroethylene. However, there are many physical, chemical and biological problems associated with the continuous oxidation of chemicals. These include, low mass transfer of methane, oxygen and propylene; toxicity of substrates and degradation products, and competition between the growth substrate, i.e., methane and chemical feed stock, e.g., propylene for the biocatalyst. To supervise methanotrophic bioprocesses, an intelligent control system must accommodate any biological limitations, e.g., toxicity, and mitigate the impact of the physical and chemical limitations, e.g., mass transfer of methane and the solubility of propylene. The intelligent control system must have the capability to assess the current conditions and metabolic state of the bacteria; recognize and diagnose instrument faults; and select and maintain sets of parameters that will result in high production and growth.

  13. Targeting Two Coagulation Cascade Proteases with a Bivalent Aptamer Yields a Potent and Antidote-Controllable Anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Soule, Erin E; Bompiani, Kristin M; Woodruff, Rebecca S; Sullenger, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Potent and rapid-onset anticoagulation is required for several clinical settings, including cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. In addition, because anticoagulation is associated with increased bleeding following surgery, the ability to rapidly reverse such robust anticoagulation is also important. Previously, we observed that no single aptamer was as potent as heparin for anticoagulating blood. However, we discovered that combinations of two aptamers were as potent as heparin. Herein, we sought to combine two individual anticoagulant aptamers into a single bivalent RNA molecule in an effort to generate a single molecule that retained the potent anticoagulant activity of the combination of individual aptamers. We created four bivalent aptamers that can inhibit Factor X/Xa and prothrombin/thrombin and anticoagulate plasma, as well as the combination of individual aptamers. Detailed characterization of the shortest bivalent aptamer indicates that each aptamer retains full binding and functional activity when presented in the bivalent context. Finally, reversal of this bivalent aptamer with a single antidote was explored, and anticoagulant activity could be rapidly turned off in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate that bivalent anticoagulant aptamers represent a novel and potent approach to actively and reversibly control coagulation.

  14. Targeting Two Coagulation Cascade Proteases with a Bivalent Aptamer Yields a Potent and Antidote-Controllable Anticoagulant

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Erin E.; Bompiani, Kristin M.; Woodruff, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Potent and rapid-onset anticoagulation is required for several clinical settings, including cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. In addition, because anticoagulation is associated with increased bleeding following surgery, the ability to rapidly reverse such robust anticoagulation is also important. Previously, we observed that no single aptamer was as potent as heparin for anticoagulating blood. However, we discovered that combinations of two aptamers were as potent as heparin. Herein, we sought to combine two individual anticoagulant aptamers into a single bivalent RNA molecule in an effort to generate a single molecule that retained the potent anticoagulant activity of the combination of individual aptamers. We created four bivalent aptamers that can inhibit Factor X/Xa and prothrombin/thrombin and anticoagulate plasma, as well as the combination of individual aptamers. Detailed characterization of the shortest bivalent aptamer indicates that each aptamer retains full binding and functional activity when presented in the bivalent context. Finally, reversal of this bivalent aptamer with a single antidote was explored, and anticoagulant activity could be rapidly turned off in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate that bivalent anticoagulant aptamers represent a novel and potent approach to actively and reversibly control coagulation. PMID:26584417

  15. Virus inactivation in aluminum and polyaluminum coagulation.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Sakuma, Satoru; Gojo, Takahito; Mamiya, Teppei; Suzuoki, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takanobu

    2003-11-15

    Inorganic aluminum salts, such as aluminum sulfate, are coagulants that cause small particles, such as bacteria and viruses as well as inorganic particles, to destabilize and combine into larger aggregates. In this investigation, batch coagulation treatments of water samples spiked with Qbeta, MS2, T4, and P1 viruses were conducted with four different aluminum coagulants. The total infectious virus concentration in the suspension of floc particles that eventually formed by dosing with coagulant was measured after the floc particles were dissolved by raising the pH with an alkaline beef extract solution. The virus concentrations were extremely reduced after the water samples were dosed with aluminum coagulants. Viruses mixed with and adsorbed onto preformed aluminum hydroxide floc were, however, completely recovered after the floc dissolution. These results indicated that the aluminum coagulation process inactivates viruses. Virucidal activity was most prominent with the prehydrolyzed aluminum salt coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PACl). Virucidal activity was lower in river water than in ultrapure water--natural organic matter in the river water depressed the virucidal activity. Mechanisms and kinetics of the virus inactivation were discussed. Our results suggest that intermediate polymers formed during hydrolysis of the aluminum coagulants sorbed strongly to viruses, either rendering them inactive or preventing infectivity.

  16. Systems Biology of Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate computer simulation of blood function can inform drug target selection, patient-specific dosing, clinical trial design, biomedical device design, as well as the scoring of patient-specific disease risk and severity. These large-scale simulations rely on hundreds of independently measured physical parameters and kinetic rate constants. However, the models can be validated against large scale, patient-specific laboratory measurements. By validation with high dimensional data, modelling becomes a powerful tool to predict clinically complex scenarios. Currently, it is possible to accurately predict the clotting rate of plasma or blood in a tube as it is activated with a dose of tissue factor, even as numerous coagulation factors are altered by exogenous attenuation or potentiation. Similarly, the dynamics of platelet activation, as indicated by calcium mobilisation or inside-out signalling, can now be numerically simulated with accuracy in cases where platelets are exposed to combinations of agonists. Multiscale models have emerged to combine platelet function and coagulation kinetics into complete physics-based descriptions of thrombosis under flow. Blood flow controls platelet fluxes, delivery and removal of coagulation factors, adhesive bonding, and von Willebrand factor conformation. The field of Blood Systems Biology has now reached a stage that anticipates the inclusion of contact, complement, and fibrinolytic pathways along with models of neutrophil and endothelial activation. Along with “-omics” data sets, such advanced models seek to predict the multifactorial range of healthy responses and diverse bleeding and clotting scenarios, ultimately to understand and improve patient outcomes. PMID:23809126

  17. Quality assurance and quality control of thrombelastography and rotational Thromboelastometry: the UK NEQAS for blood coagulation experience.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Dianne P; Kitchen, Steve; Jennings, Ian; Woods, Tim; Walker, Isobel

    2010-10-01

    Global hemostasis devices are currently being employed in operating rooms to assess the bleeding risk and outcomes for patients undergoing surgery. Two devices currently available are the TEG (Thromboelastograph; Haemoscope Corp., Niles, IL) and the ROTEM (Rotation Thromboelastometer; Pentapharm GmbH, Munich, Germany). Both measure the speed of clot formation, the strength of the clot when formed, and clot fibrinolysis kinetics. The two devices use different parameters so no cross comparisons of results can be made. The devices are usually operated by a member of the operating team and not a laboratory scientist; thus their testing and performance is generally not laboratory controlled, despite quality control being required to ensure reliable results. The UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (NEQAS) for Blood Coagulation has undertaken a series of exercises evaluating the provision of External Quality Assessment (EQA) material for these devices. A series of four studies have taken place using lyophilized plasmas as the test material. Up to 18 TEG users and 10 ROTEM users have been involved in testing two samples per study, for a total of eight samples tested. The samples were normal plasmas, factor VIII or XI deficient samples, or normal plasmas spiked with heparin. The precision of the tests varied greatly for both devices, with coefficients of variances ranging from 7.1 to 39.9% for TEG and 7.0 to 83.6% for ROTEM. Some centers returned results that were sufficiently different from those obtained by other participants to predict alterations in patient management decisions. Our data indicate that regular EQA/proficiency testing is needed for these devices. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  18. [Monitoring of blood coagulation in perioperative care].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hisanari

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation disorders often occur perioperatively and monitoring of blood coagulation should be fast and adequate to treat these disorders to protect patients from massive bleeding. Control of hemostasis is one of the main issues in major surgeries. Coagulation test results from a central laboratory may delay making such a perioperative decision. Recently, point-of-care monitoring (POCM), which is able to examine coagulation disorder in an operation theater with short waiting time, has become important. Both prothrombin time (PT) and activated clotting time (ACT) are very useful and popular, but also criticized because they can be monitored only until fibrin formation. On the other hand, viscoelastic monitorings of whole blood, are able to estimate fibrin formation, clot fixation, platelet function and fibrinolysis. In this review article, among variable perioperative POCMs of blood coagulation, three thromboelastographic monitorings, such as TEG ROTEM, and Sonoclot as well as PT and ACT, are described along with their utilities and limits to examine perioperative coagulation.

  19. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Verschuere, Laurent; Rombaut, Geert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  20. Evaluation of coagulation activation after Rhinovirus infection in patients with asthma and healthy control subjects: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma exacerbations are frequently triggered by rhinovirus infections. Both asthma and respiratory tract infection can activate haemostasis. Therefore we hypothesized that experimental rhinovirus-16 infection and asthmatic airway inflammation act in synergy on the haemostatic balance. Methods 28 patients (14 patients with mild allergic asthma and 14 healthy non-allergic controls) were infected with low-dose rhinovirus type 16. Venous plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid) were obtained before and 6 days after infection to evaluate markers of coagulation activation, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, von Willebrand factor, plasmin-antiplasmin complexes, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, endogenous thrombin potential and tissue factor-exposing microparticles by fibrin generation test, in plasma and/or BAL fluid. Data were analysed by nonparametric tests (Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney and Spearman correlation). Results 13 patients with mild asthma (6 females, 19-29 y) and 11 healthy controls (10 females, 19-31 y) had a documented Rhinovirus-16 infection. Rhinovirus-16 challenge resulted in a shortening of the fibrin generation test in BAL fluid of asthma patients (t = -1: 706 s vs. t = 6: 498 s; p = 0.02), but not of controls (t = -1: 693 s vs. t = 6: 636 s; p = 0.65). The fold change in tissue factor-exposing microparticles in BAL fluid inversely correlated with the fold changes in eosinophil cationic protein and myeloperoxidase in BAL fluid after virus infection (r = -0.517 and -0.528 resp., both p = 0.01). Rhinovirus-16 challenge led to increased plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 levels in plasma in patients with asthma (26.0 ng/mL vs. 11.5 ng/mL in healthy controls, p = 0.04). Rhinovirus-16 load in BAL showed a linear correlation with the fold change in endogenous thrombin potential, plasmin-antiplasmin complexes and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1. Conclusions Experimental rhinovirus

  1. The use of bacteria in conformance control - Initial studies

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, F.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.M.; Cusack, F.; Costerton, J.W.

    1988-05-01

    Bacteria respond to nutrient starvation by reducing in size to form ultramicrobacteria (UMB) less than 0.3 ..mu..m in diameter. Work in the authors' laboratory has established that two bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and a Psuedomonas species, isolated from oilwell waters decreased in size when deprived of nutrients. Subsequent restoration of nutrients resulted in the resuscitation of the UMB and they returned to normal size. When injected into model rock cores, the UMB penetrated deeper than the full-sized bacteria. Higher counts of bacteria and carbohydrate production were found around the core inlet with the full-sized bacteria. However, the UMB were located throughout the entire core. This work demonstrates that UMB may provide a new selective plugging technique by virtue of their superior penetration properties throughout solid matrices.

  2. Full 3D translational and rotational optical control of multiple rod-shaped bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hörner, Florian; Woerdemann, Mike; Müller, Stephanie; Maier, Berenike; Denz, Cornelia

    2010-07-01

    The class of rod-shaped bacteria is an important example of non-spherical objects where defined alignment is desired for the observation of intracellular processes or studies of the flagella. However, all available methods for orientational control of rod-shaped bacteria are either limited with respect to the accessible rotational axes or feasible angles or restricted to one single bacterium. In this paper we demonstrate a scheme to orientate rod-shaped bacteria with holographic optical tweezers (HOT) in any direction. While these bacteria have a strong preference to align along the direction of the incident laser beam, our scheme provides for the first time full rotational control of multiple bacteria with respect to any arbitrary axis. In combination with the translational control HOT inherently provide, this enables full control of all three translational and the two important rotational degrees of freedom of multiple rod-shaped bacteria and allows one to arrange them in any desired configuration.

  3. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Ali, M. E.; Mian, I. H.; Akanda, A. M.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  4. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  5. Efficacy of entomopathogenic bacteria for control of Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cristine R; Dias de Castro, Luciana L; Pires, Sabrina M; Delgado Menezes, Adriane M; Ribeiro, Paulo B; Leivas Leite, Fábio P

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity, and sub lethal effects of entomopathogenic bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki, and a commercial formulation of Bacillus sphaericus on Musca domestica. Bacterial suspensions were prepared in different concentrations and added to the diet of newly-hatched larvae which were monitored until the adult stage. The larvae were susceptible to the B. laterosporus, B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, and B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki bacteria in varied concentration levels. These bacteria have larvicidal and sub lethal effects on the development of flies, reducing both adult size, and impairing the reproductive performance of the species.

  6. Systems biology of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S L

    2013-06-01

    Accurate computer simulation of blood function can inform drug target selection, patient-specific dosing, clinical trial design, biomedical device design, as well as the scoring of patient-specific disease risk and severity. These large-scale simulations rely on hundreds of independently measured physical parameters and kinetic rate constants. However, the models can be validated against large-scale, patient-specific laboratory measurements. By validation with high-dimensional data, modeling becomes a powerful tool to predict clinically complex scenarios. Currently, it is possible to accurately predict the clotting rate of plasma or blood in a tube as it is activated with a dose of tissue factor, even as numerous coagulation factors are altered by exogenous attenuation or potentiation. Similarly, the dynamics of platelet activation, as indicated by calcium mobilization or inside-out signaling, can now be numerically simulated with accuracy in cases where platelets are exposed to combinations of agonists. Multiscale models have emerged to combine platelet function and coagulation kinetics into complete physics-based descriptions of thrombosis under flow. Blood flow controls platelet fluxes, delivery and removal of coagulation factors, adhesive bonding, and von Willebrand factor conformation. The field of blood systems biology has now reached a stage that anticipates the inclusion of contact, complement, and fibrinolytic pathways along with models of neutrophil and endothelial activation. Along with '-omics' data sets, such advanced models seek to predict the multifactorial range of healthy responses and diverse bleeding and clotting scenarios, ultimately to understand and improve patient outcomes. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals benthic bacteria changes responsing to heavy deposition of Microcystis scum in lab — searching bacteria for bloom control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yali; Cheng, Dongmei; Guan, Baohua; Zhang, Xiufeng; Liu, Zhengwen; Liu, Zejun

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading cyanobacteria Microcystis are crucial for determining the ecological consequences of Microcystis blooms in freshwater lakes. Scum derived from Microcystis blooms tends to accumulate in bays of large lakes and then sink to the sediments where it is finally consumed by benthic bacteria. Understanding the response of benthic bacterial communities to massive Microcystis deposition events may help identify the bacteria best suited to Microcystis hydrolyzation and even bloom control. For that purpose, an experimental system was set up in which intact sediment cores were incubated in the laboratory with normal and heavy deposits of Microcystis detritus. Pyrosequencing was performed in order to describe a phylogenetic inventory of bacterial communities in samples taken at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths in incubated sediments and in original untreated sediment. A hierarchical cluster tree was constructed expose differences between sediments. Similarity percentage calculations were also performed to identify the bacterial species contributing to variation. The results of this study suggest that: (1) deposition of Microcystis scums exerts a strong effect on the bacterial community composition in the surface (0-1 cm) and sub-surface (1-2 cm) sediment layers; (2) bacterial community responses to Microcystis detritus deposition vary across vertical gradients. A list of bacteria with potential roles in Microcystis degradation was compiled. These findings may inform the development of future measures for Microcystis bloom control in lakes.

  8. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  9. Bacteria clustering by polymers induces the expression of quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Leong T.; Xue, Xuan; Sui, Cheng; Brown, Alan; Pritchard, David I.; Halliday, Nigel; Winzer, Klaus; Howdle, Steven M.; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Krasnogor, Natalio; Alexander, Cameron

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria deploy a range of chemistries to regulate their behaviour and respond to their environment. Quorum sensing is one method by which bacteria use chemical reactions to modulate pre-infection behaviour such as surface attachment. Polymers that can interfere with bacterial adhesion or the chemical reactions used for quorum sensing are therefore a potential means to control bacterial population responses. Here, we report how polymeric ‘bacteria sequestrants’, designed to bind to bacteria through electrostatic interactions and therefore inhibit bacterial adhesion to surfaces, induce the expression of quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes as a consequence of cell clustering. A combination of polymer and analytical chemistry, biological assays and computational modelling has been used to characterize the feedback between bacteria clustering and quorum sensing signalling. We have also derived design principles and chemical strategies for controlling bacterial behaviour at the population level.

  10. Bacteria clustering by polymers induces the expression of quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lui, Leong T; Xue, Xuan; Sui, Cheng; Brown, Alan; Pritchard, David I; Halliday, Nigel; Winzer, Klaus; Howdle, Steven M; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Krasnogor, Natalio; Alexander, Cameron

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria deploy a range of chemistries to regulate their behaviour and respond to their environment. Quorum sensing is one method by which bacteria use chemical reactions to modulate pre-infection behaviour such as surface attachment. Polymers that can interfere with bacterial adhesion or the chemical reactions used for quorum sensing are therefore a potential means to control bacterial population responses. Here, we report how polymeric 'bacteria sequestrants', designed to bind to bacteria through electrostatic interactions and therefore inhibit bacterial adhesion to surfaces, induce the expression of quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes as a consequence of cell clustering. A combination of polymer and analytical chemistry, biological assays and computational modelling has been used to characterize the feedback between bacteria clustering and quorum sensing signalling. We have also derived design principles and chemical strategies for controlling bacterial behaviour at the population level.

  11. Bacteria clustering by polymers induces the expression of quorum sense controlled phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Leong T.; Xue, Xuan; Sui, Cheng; Brown, Alan; Pritchard, David I.; Halliday, Nigel; Winzer, Klaus; Howdle, Steven M.; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Krasnogor, Natalio; Alexander, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria deploy a range of chemistries to regulate their behaviour and respond to their environment. Quorum sensing is one mean by which bacteria use chemical reactions to modulate pre-infection behaviour such as surface attachment. Polymers that can interfere with bacterial adhesion or the chemical reactions used for quorum sensing are thus a potential means to control bacterial population responses. Here we report how polymeric “bacteria sequestrants”, designed to bind to bacteria through electrostatic interactions and thus inhibit bacterial adhesion to surfaces, induce the expression of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes as a consequence of cell clustering. A combination of polymer and analytical chemistry, biological assays and computational modelling has been used to characterise the feedback between bacteria clustering and quorum sensing signaling. We have also derived design principles and chemical strategies for controlling bacterial behaviour at the population level. PMID:24256871

  12. Controlling Magnetotactic Bacteria through an Integrated Nanofabricated Metallic Island and Optical Microscope Approach

    PubMed Central

    González, Lina M.; Ruder, Warren C.; Leduc, Philip R.; Messner, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the control of magnetotactic bacteria through the application of magnetic field gradients with real-time visualization. We accomplish this control by integrating a pair of macroscale Helmholtz coils and lithographically fabricated nanoscale islands composed of permalloy (Ni80Fe20). This system enabled us to guide and steer amphitrichous Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 to specific location via magnetic islands. The geometries of the islands allowed us to have control over the specific magnetic field gradients on the bacteria. We estimate that magnetotactic bacteria located less than 1 μm from the edge of a diamond shaped island experience a maximum force of approximately 34 pN, which engages the bacteria without trapping them. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications including magnetic fabrication, self-assembly, and probing the sensing apparatus of magnetotactic bacteria. PMID:24553101

  13. Controlling Magnetotactic Bacteria through an Integrated Nanofabricated Metallic Island and Optical Microscope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Lina M.; Ruder, Warren C.; Leduc, Philip R.; Messner, William C.

    2014-02-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the control of magnetotactic bacteria through the application of magnetic field gradients with real-time visualization. We accomplish this control by integrating a pair of macroscale Helmholtz coils and lithographically fabricated nanoscale islands composed of permalloy (Ni80Fe20). This system enabled us to guide and steer amphitrichous Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 to specific location via magnetic islands. The geometries of the islands allowed us to have control over the specific magnetic field gradients on the bacteria. We estimate that magnetotactic bacteria located less than 1 μm from the edge of a diamond shaped island experience a maximum force of approximately 34 pN, which engages the bacteria without trapping them. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications including magnetic fabrication, self-assembly, and probing the sensing apparatus of magnetotactic bacteria.

  14. Toward a better understanding of coagulation for dissolved organic nitrogen using polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate coagulant.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Qian; Yin, Jun; Li, Zhongwu; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Bozhi; Fan, Gongduan; Wan, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The increase of agricultural related activities and the lack of effective waste control has led to an increase of organic nitrogen in water. The development of coagulants to effectively remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a high priority in the water treatment industry. We developed a polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate (ZnFeP) coagulant and investigated its coagulation effect on DON removal. Optimum coagulant for coagulation for DON and TDN removals was characterized by the dense convex-concave packing structure differing from other zinc-based coagulant, polycrystalline structure and high content colloidal species, which could account up to 87% of the total colloidal species. Coagulation experiments showed the DON removal rate to vary greatly depending on principal components and their interaction with metals, phosphate and hydroxyl. DON removal efficiency increased with the increase of colloidal species. The coagulation was also dependent on coagulant dosage and water quality parameters: Coagulation efficiency increased with coagulant dosage in the investigated range of 1-16 mg/l, and a pH of 6 was found to be superior for the coagulation. DON removal efficiency was also higher than and linearly correlated with total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) removal, which implies that an effective coagulation for TDN is also effective for DON. The findings in this study indicate that coagulation of DON is largely influenced by coagulant composition and species. We also found the removal of DON by our newly developed polymeric ZnFeP coagulant to be effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. STUDIES IN BLOOD COAGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Van Allen, C. M.

    1927-01-01

    Description is given of changes in blood coagulability found in diseases of the rabbit, including malignant tumor, spontaneous infections, non-bacterial diseases and lesions, and hemorrhagic states specifically induced. The changes involved variously the time of onset of blood coagulation, clot formation rate and the rate and extent of clot retraction. PMID:19869243

  16. Biological control of potato black scurf by rhizosphere associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Mohsin; Yasmin, Sumera; Hafeez, Fauzia Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present work was carried out to study the potential of plant rhizosphere associated bacteria for the biocontrol of potato black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun AG-3. A total of twenty-eight bacteria isolated from diseased and healthy potato plants grown in the soil of Naran and Faisalabad, Pakistan were evaluated for their antagonistic potential. Nine bacterial strains were found to be antagonistic in vitro, reduced the fungal growth and caused the lysis of sclerotia of R. solani in dual culture assay as well as in extracellular metabolite efficacy test. The selected antagonistic strains were further tested for the production and efficacy of volatile and diffusible antibiotics, lytic enzymes and siderophores against R. solani. Selected antagonistic bacteria were also characterized for growth promoting attributes i.e., phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation and indole acetic acid production. Biocontrol efficacy and percent yield increase by these antagonists was estimated in greenhouse experiment. Statistical analysis showed that two Pseudomonas spp. StT2 and StS3 were the most effective with 65.1 and 73.9 percent biocontrol efficacy, as well as 87.3 and 98.3 percent yield increase, respectively. Potential antagonistic bacterial strain StS3 showed maximum homology to Pseudomonas sp. as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These results suggest that bacterial isolates StS3 and StT2 have excellent potential to be used as effective biocontrol agents promoting plant growth with reduced disease incidence. PMID:24031515

  17. Hydroxyethyl starch reduces coagulation competence and increases blood loss during major surgery: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael; Kridina, Irina; Kistorp, Thomas; Thind, Peter; Nielsen, Henning B; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Pedersen, Tom; Secher, Niels H

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) only a minor effect on coagulation competence is expected. Eighty patients were scanned for enrollment in the study, and 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two patients withdrew their consent to participate in the study, and 5 patients were excluded. Thus, 16 patients were randomized to receive lactated Ringer's solution and 17 to receive HES 130/0.4. Among the patients receiving HES 130/0.4, thrombelastography indicated reduced clot strength (P < 0.001) and blinded evaluation of the perioperative blood loss was 2.2 (range 0.5 to 5.0) versus 1.4 (range 0.5 to 2.4) L in the patients who received HES 130/0.4 or lactated Ringer, respectively (P < 0.038). The patients in the lactated Ringer's group, however, received more fluid (P < 0.0001) than those in the HES 130/0.4 group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with regard to frequency of reoperations or the length of hospital stay, but use of HES 130/0.4 was both more expensive and less efficacious than the use of lactated Ringer. Administration of HES 130/0.4 reduced clot strength and perioperative hemorrhage increased by more than 50%, while administration of lactated Ringer's solution provoked an approximately 2.5 times greater positive volume balance at the end of surgery.

  18. Microwave coagulation for liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Riemsma, Robert P; Wolff, Robert; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-10-13

    Primary liver cancer and liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma are the two most common malignant tumours to affect the liver. The liver is second only to the lymph nodes as the most common site for metastatic disease. More than half of patients with metastatic liver disease will die from metastatic complications. Microwave coagulation involves placing an electrode into a lesion under ultrasound or computed tomography guidance. The microwave coagulator generates and transmits microwave energy to the electrode. Coagulative necrosis causes cellular death and destroys tissue in the treatment area, resulting in reduction of tumour size. To study the beneficial and harmful effects of microwave coagulation compared with no intervention, other ablation methods, or systemic treatments in patients with liver metastases. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS, and CINAHL up to December 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials assessing beneficial and harmful effects of microwave coagulation and its comparators, irrespective of the location of the primary tumour. We extracted relevant information on participant characteristics, interventions, and study outcomes and data on outcome measures for our review, as well as information on design and methodology of the studies. Bias risk assessment of trials, determination of whether they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and data extraction from retrieved for final evaluation trials were done by one review author and were checked by a second review author. One randomised clinical trial fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the review. Forty participants with multiple liver metastases of colorectal cancer and no evidence of extrahepatic disease were randomly assigned. Thirty of these participants (14 females and 16 males) were included in the

  19. Effective combination therapy of polymyxin-B direct hemoperfusion and recombinant thrombomodulin for septic shock accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation: a historical controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Masafumi; Minematsu, Yusuke; Fujii, Junya; Mori, Kohei; Minato, Takumi; Miyagawa, Sachie; Fujimura, Ryuta; Morikage, Naoko; Arata, Yuka; Nakano, Chisako; Wada, Akira; Ito, Takahito

    2013-10-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and multiple organ failure often occur via the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation, which is mediated by High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1). In septic shock, Polymyxin-B direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) ameliorates hemodynamics by endogenous cannabinoid adsorption and improves pulmonary oxygenation by indirect cytokine reduction through the adsorption of activated mononuclear cells. However, PMX-DHP has no direct effect on HMGB1 circulating in the plasma. In cases with DIC, recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM), an effective drug for DIC, exerts not only anticoagulation but also antiinflammatory properties via direct anti-HMGB1 activity. Therefore, a combination of PMX-DHP and rTM is expected to block the vicious cycle of a cytokine storm ending up with multiple organ failure in DIC. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of combination therapy for septic shock associated with DIC. This study comprised 22 consecutive patients with sepsis-induced DIC who received PMX-DHP. The initial eight patients were treated without rTM (historical control group), and the following 14 patients were given rTM (rTM group). The baseline Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score or age was not different between both groups. Sixty-day survival rate in the rTM group was significantly higher than that in the control group (85.7% vs. 37.5%, P = 0.015). A combination of PMX-DHP and rTM may be effective in septic shock accompanied by DIC and is expected to improve survival rates. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  20. Coagulation in chaotic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzio, F.J.; Ottino, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    We study coagulation in the flow field of a time-periodic deterministic chaotic flow and focus on the simplest case: point particles convected without diffusion and allowed to coagulate with probability 1 when the distance is less than d. An analysis of the underlying physics is presented. Under ''well-mixed'' conditions the system behaves as if the particles were moved by Brownian motion, and a simple kinetic model describes the main results. The poorly mixed case is considerably more complex. Spatial inhomogeneities result from competition between the rate of coagulation and mixing, and trapping and leaking of clusters due to Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser surfaces.

  1. Dust coagulation in ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  2. [Coagulation disorders in cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Téllez-Avila, Felix I; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in the clotting process. In this organ are sintetizated the major part of the coagulation factors. Historically, was considered that alteration in liver function causes important bleeding disorders. However, actual evidence is not in agreement with this asseveration. Decreased synthesis of clotting and inhibitor factors, decrease clearance of activated factors, quantitative and qualitative platelet defects, hyperfibrinolysis and intravascular coagulation are some of the defects observed in liver diseases. Thrombotic events, even if rare in cirrhotic patients, occur manly in the portal and mesenteric veins. The aim of the present work is to review the present evidence in coagulation disorders and liver disease.

  3. The Use of Predatory Bacteria to Control Select Pathogens and Treat Respiratory Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    pressure of a drug and can develop in both free-floating bacteria, and in surface-attached bacteria or biofilms . An additional potential threat is the...problem of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-bacterial infections, biofilm related infections and the risk of weaponized biological agents has driven...capability to feed and proliferate on an array of human pathogens and biofilms , make these organisms ideal candidates for use as biological control agents. We

  4. The Mechanisms of Coagulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Richard; Jesty, Jolyon

    1994-01-01

    Several topics such as heart disease, strokes, biochemical reactions, blood components, and genetics can be related to blood clotting. Introduces a simple, safe and inexpensive hands-on demonstration using bovine (cattle) blood plasma of normal and abnormal coagulation. (ZWH)

  5. [Diagnostic of blood coagulation].

    PubMed

    Barthels, M

    2008-12-01

    A survey is given on the peculiar characteristics of laboratory methods for analyzing the blood coagulation system with special regard to the preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical phase. Routinely used methods are described.

  6. The Mechanisms of Coagulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Richard; Jesty, Jolyon

    1994-01-01

    Several topics such as heart disease, strokes, biochemical reactions, blood components, and genetics can be related to blood clotting. Introduces a simple, safe and inexpensive hands-on demonstration using bovine (cattle) blood plasma of normal and abnormal coagulation. (ZWH)

  7. Engineering strategies aimed at control of acidification rate of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Jan; Solem, Christian; Holm, Anders Koefoed; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-04-01

    The ability of lactic acid bacteria to produce lactic acid from various sugars plays an important role in food fermentations. Lactic acid is derived from pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis and thus a fast lactic acid production rate requires a high glycolytic flux. In addition to lactic acid, alternative end products--ethanol, acetic acid and formic acid--are formed by many species. The central role of glycolysis in lactic acid bacteria has provoked numerous studies aiming at identifying potential bottleneck(s) since knowledge about flux control could be important not only for optimizing food fermentation processes, but also for novel applications of lactic acid bacteria, such as cell factories for the production of green fuels and chemicals. With respect to the control and regulation of the fermentation mode, some progress has been made, but the question of which component(s) control the main glycolytic flux remains unanswered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coagulation monitoring: current techniques and clinical use of viscoelastic point-of-care coagulation devices.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Michael T; Hofer, Christoph K

    2008-05-01

    Perioperative monitoring of blood coagulation is critical to better understand causes of hemorrhage, to guide hemostatic therapies, and to predict the risk of bleeding during the consecutive anesthetic or surgical procedures. Point-of-care (POC) coagulation monitoring devices assessing the viscoelastic properties of whole blood, i.e., thrombelastography, rotation thrombelastometry, and Sonoclot analysis, may overcome several limitations of routine coagulation tests in the perioperative setting. The advantage of these techniques is that they have the potential to measure the clotting process, starting with fibrin formation and continue through to clot retraction and fibrinolysis at the bedside, with minimal delays. Furthermore, the coagulation status of patients is assessed in whole blood, allowing the plasmatic coagulation system to interact with platelets and red cells, and thereby providing useful additional information on platelet function. Viscoelastic POC coagulation devices are increasingly being used in clinical practice, especially in the management of patients undergoing cardiac and liver surgery. Furthermore, they provide useful information in a large variety of clinical scenarios, e.g., massive hemorrhage, assessment of hypo- and hypercoagulable states, guiding pro- and anticoagulant therapies, and in diagnosing of a surgical bleeding. A surgical etiology of bleeding has to be considered when viscoelastic test results are normal. In summary, viscoelastic POC coagulation devices may help identify the cause of bleeding and guide pro- and anticoagulant therapies. To ensure optimal accuracy and performance, standardized procedures for blood sampling and handling, strict quality controls and trained personnel are required.

  9. Blood flow and mass transfer regulation of coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Neeves, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    Blood flow regulates coagulation and fibrin formation by controlling the transport, or mass transfer, of zymogens, co-factors, enzymes, and inhibitors to, from, and within a growing thrombus. The rate of mass transfer of these solutes relative to their consumption or production by coagulation reactions determines, in part, the rate of thrombin generation, fibrin deposition, and thrombi growth. Experimental studies on the influence of blood flow on specific coagulation reactions are reviewed here, along with a theoretical framework that predicts how flow influences surface-bound coagulation binding and enzymatic reactions. These flow-mediated transport mechanisms are also used to interpret the role of binding site densities and injury size on initiating coagulation and fibrin deposition. The importance of transport of coagulation proteins within the interstitial spaces of thrombi is shown to influence thrombi architecture, growth, and arrest. PMID:27133256

  10. Control of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Control of the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is essential for the appropriate use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of infections. Hospitals are regarded as the place where antibiotic-resistant bacteria might often develop. Control of antibiotic use in hospitals is therefore one of the most important measures for effective control of antibiotic resistance. Another effective means to control antibiotic resistance is to develop a surveillance programme on a national, and international scale. This would be of great assistance, especially for forecasting future changes in the resistance of bacteria. The prevention of disease by measures other than the use of antibiotics could also reduce antibiotic resistance. This Memorandum of the WHO Scientific Working Group on Antibiotic Resistance describes the measures for controlling the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by (a) the surveillance of antibiotic resistance, including surveillance of resistance in human pathogens and resistance determinants in the general population, and (b) control of antibiotic use in hospitals, the essential elements of which are the establishment of appropriate hospital antibiotic policy, elaboration of general strategy, and the monitoring of antibiotic use. Further research needs are also described and a number of areas are indicated where research might lead to improvements in antibiotic use and in methods for the containment of resistance. Guidelines for the appropriate use of antibiotics are presented in an Annex. PMID:6603916

  11. Identification and disruption of bacteria associated with sheep scab mites-novel means of control?

    PubMed

    Hall, S A; Mack, K; Blackwell, A; Evans, K A

    2015-10-01

    Psoroptes ovis mites, which cause psoroptic mange (sheep scab), were investigated to identify potential bacterial targets for endosymbiont control of sheep scab. In addition, transmission of bacteria to the sheep skin was investigated through the characterisation of bacteria present in P. ovis faecal trails and on the fleece environment by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. A diverse range of bacteria was identified in addition to a potential endosymbiont candidate, Comamonas sp, which was detected in P. ovis by both ITS PCR and endosymbiont-specific PCR. Disruption of these bacteria within P. ovis, through the use of antibiotics, was explored; with significant reduction in mean mite survival when administered antibiotic diets compared with controls (LR4 = 23.12, P < 0.001). The antibiotic treatments also significantly affected the bacterial density (CFU/mite) within P. ovis, indicating that mite survival may be linked to the bacterial communities that they harbour. Although antibiotics are not suitable for practical application, these results suggest disrupting bacteria associated with P. ovis should be further investigated for novel control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined dielectrophoretic and impedance system for on-chip controlled bacteria concentration: Application to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Moral-Zamora, Beatriz; Punter-Villagrassa, Jaime; Oliva-Brañas, Ana M; Álvarez-Azpeitia, Juan Manuel; Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi; Samitier, Josep; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Miribel-Català, Pere Ll

    2015-05-01

    The present paper reports a bacteria autonomous controlled concentrator prototype with a user-friendly interface for bench-top applications. It is based on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip and its associated custom instrumentation, which consists of a dielectrophoretic actuator, to preconcentrate the sample, and an impedance analyzer, to measure concentrated bacteria levels. The system is composed of a single microfluidic chamber with interdigitated electrodes and an instrumentation with custom electronics. The prototype is supported by a real-time platform connected to a remote computer, which automatically controls the system and displays impedance data used to monitor the status of bacteria accumulation on-chip. The system automates the whole concentrating operation. Performance has been studied for controlled volumes of Escherichia coli samples injected into the microfluidic chip at constant flow rate of 10 μL/min. A media conductivity correcting protocol has been developed, as the preliminary results showed distortion of the impedance analyzer measurement produced by bacterial media conductivity variations through time. With the correcting protocol, the measured impedance values were related to the quantity of bacteria concentrated with a correlation of 0.988 and a coefficient of variation of 3.1%. Feasibility of E. coli on-chip automated concentration, using the miniaturized system, has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the impedance monitoring protocol had been adjusted and optimized, to handle changes in the electrical properties of the bacteria media over time.

  13. Argon plasma coagulation is effective for prevention of recurrent esophageal varices after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy: Single-center case-control study.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Hisanobu; Kato, Jun; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moribata, Kosaku; Shingaki, Naoki; Niwa, Toru; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal varices are usually treated with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) or endoscopic band ligation (EBL). However, frequent recurrences of varices after those procedures have been problematic. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) after EIS may be effective for preventing varix recurrence and, in recent years, we have routinely carried out APC after EIS. The aim of the present study was to verify the effectiveness of APC for preventing recurrence of varices after EIS. A case-control study was carried out using a historical control cohort in a single center. The varix recurrence rate in 62 patients (34 men and 28 women, median age; 69 years) who underwent APC after EIS for hemorrhagic or risky esophageal varices (APC group) was compared with that of control patients who did not undergo APC after EIS (control group). Age-, sex-, and liver function-matched two control subjects were selected for one case subject (control group). Recurrence of varices was defined as rupture of varices or reappearance of risky varices. The 1-year and 2-year recurrence rates of the APC group were 9.7% and 11.3%, respectively. In contrast, the rates of the control group were 29.0% and 34.7%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significantly lower recurrence rate in the APC group (P = 0.013, log-rank test). No APC-related severe adverse events were observed. APC after EIS was safe and could significantly prevent recurrence of esophageal varices. Therefore, the addition of APC should be routinely carried out after EIS. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. Growth laws and mechanisms of global control in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    The growth laws of Schaechter, Maaløe and Kjeldgaard are among the most striking discoveries in bacterial growth physiology: cell composition (mass/cell, RNA/cell, etc.) is a simple function of growth rate alone -- irrespective of how that growth rate is established. I will review the growth laws, and discuss recent experiments that have uncovered new laws. A systems-level mathematical model is developed that suggests the growth laws arise from the partitioning of the protein synthesizing machinery of the cell (the ribosomes), and furthermore indicates a deep connection between growth rate control and central metabolism.

  15. Nanopatterned smart polymer surfaces for controlled attachment, killing, and release of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Cho, Janghwan; Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Ista, Linnea K; López, Gabriel P

    2013-10-09

    Model surfaces with switchable functionality based on nanopatterned, thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) brushes were fabricated using interferometric lithography combined with surface-initiated polymerization. The temperature-triggered hydration and conformational changes of nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes reversibly modulate the spatial concealment and exposure of molecules that are immobilized in the intervals between nanopatterned brushes. A biocidal quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) was used to demonstrate the utility of nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes to control biointerfacial interactions with bacteria. QAS was integrated into polymer-free regions of the substrate between nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes. The biocidal efficacy and release properties of these surfaces were tested against Escherichia coli K12. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAAm, desolvated, collapsed polymer chains facilitate the attachment of bacteria and expose QAS moieties that kill attached bacteria. Upon a reduction of the temperature below the LCST, swollen PNIPAAm chains promote the release of dead bacteria. These results demonstrate that nanopatterned PNIPAAm/QAS hybrid surfaces are model systems that exhibit an ability to undergo noncovalent, dynamic, and reversible changes in structure that can be used to control the attachment, killing, and release of bacteria in response to changes in temperature.

  16. [Blood coagulation in hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Zwierzina, W D; Herold, M; Günther, R; Kunz, F

    1980-01-01

    Young healthy volunteers were treated with physical hyperthermia (baths) in order to investigate changes in blood coagulation. Such therapy is used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Single hot baths (mean body temperature 38,2-39,9 degrees C) resulted in a rise of fibrinogen, factors IX and XII, maximal amplitude of the thrombelastogram and hemoglobin and in a decrease of plasminogen. In a series of hypothermic baths no additional changes of coagulation or fibrinolysis could be found. The results suggest that hyperthermia causes a tendency to thrombosis.

  17. Bacteria used in the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: populations, mechanisms of action, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baoyu; Yang, Jinkui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2007-08-01

    As a group of important natural enemies of nematode pests, nematophagous bacteria exhibit diverse modes of action: these include parasitizing; producing toxins, antibiotics, or enzymes; competing for nutrients; inducing systemic resistance of plants; and promoting plant health. They act synergistically on nematodes through the direct suppression of nematodes, promoting plant growth, and facilitating the rhizosphere colonization and activity of microbial antagonists. This review details the nematophagous bacteria known to date, including parasitic bacteria, opportunistic parasitic bacteria, rhizobacteria, Cry protein-forming bacteria, endophytic bacteria and symbiotic bacteria. We focus on recent research developments concerning their pathogenic mechanisms at the biochemical and molecular levels. Increased understanding of the molecular basis of the various pathogenic mechanisms of the nematophagous bacteria could potentially enhance their value as effective biological control agents. We also review a number of molecular biological approaches currently used in the study of bacterial pathogenesis in nematodes. We discuss their merits, limitations and potential uses.

  18. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  19. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  20. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  1. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  2. Increased coagulation in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Yildiz Dallar; Alioglu, Bulent; Simşek, Enver; Tapci, Ayse Esra; Ozen, Cınar

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to explore the relation between childhood obesity and procoagulant and anticoagulant systems. Fifty-one obese children and 32 normal-weighted children with similar age and gender distribution and between ages of 5 and 16 years were recruited to the study. Antropometric measures of all subjects, existence of any accompanying disease, and medication histories had been recorded. Full blood count, procoagulant, and anticoagulant coagulation tests were run for all subjects. When hematologic variables of obese children were compared with those of healthy controls, it was found that average erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte distribution width, and platelet count of obese children are significantly higher than healthy control group. It was also found that fibrinogen, thrombin time, factor (F) VIII, FIX, FX, and von Willebrand factor levels of obese children are higher than healthy control group. By contrast, antithrombin levels of obese children are found to be lower. In our study, we found that there is a procoagulant increase in the coagulation system activity of obese children compared to non-obese healthy children, whereas there is a significant decrease in anticoagulant system. These changes occurred in obese patients, especially higher levels of plasma procoagulant factors such as fibrinogen, FVIII, FIX, and von Willebrand factor, lead us to think that there is an activity in these patients at endothelial level. Further studies are needed on endothelial activity of obese children.

  3. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  4. Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant.

    PubMed

    Babu, Raveendra; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2005-03-01

    Seeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml(-1), and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml(-1)), with seeds of S. potatorum or M. oleifera as coagulant, produced a substantial improvement in its aesthetic and microbiological quality (turbidity 0.3-1.5 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 5-20 cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms 5-10 MPN 100 ml(-1)). The method appears suitable for home water treatment in rural areas of developing countries. These natural coagulants produce a 'low risk' water; however, additional disinfection or boiling should be practised during localised outbreaks/epidemics of enteric infections.

  5. Can recombinant human thrombomodulin increase survival among patients with severe septic-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation: a single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Tanaka, Noriko; Uemura, Tatsuki; Matsuda, Wataru; Kimura, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatment with recombinant human thrombomodulin (rhTM) increases survival among patients with severe septic-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Design Single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Setting Single tertiary hospital. Participant 92 patients with severe septic-induced DIC. Interventions Patients with DIC scores ≥4, as defined by the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine, were diagnosed with DIC. The envelope method was used for randomisation. The treatment group (rhTM group, n=47) was intravenously treated with rhTM within 24 hours of admission (day 0), and the control group (n=45) did not receive any anticoagulants, except in cases of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Primary and secondary measurements Data were collected on days 0 (admission), 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10. The primary outcome was survival at 28 and 90 days. The secondary end points comprised changes in DIC scores, platelet counts, d-dimer, antithrombin III and C reactive protein levels, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. All analyses were conducted on an intent-to-treat basis. Main results The 28-day survival rates were 84% and 83% in the control and rhTM groups, respectively (p=0.745, log-rank test). The 90-day survival rates were 73% and 72% in the control and rhTM groups, respectively (p=0.94, log-rank test). Meanwhile, the rates of recovery from DIC (<4) were significantly higher in the rhTM group than in the control group (p=0.001, log-rank test). Relative change from baseline of d-dimer levels was significantly lower in the rhTM group than in the control group, on days 3 and 5. Conclusions rhTM treatment decreased d-dimer levels and facilitated DIC recovery in patients with severe septic-induced DIC. However, the treatment did not improve survival in this cohort. Trial registration number UMIN000008339. PMID:28039291

  6. Rate of mixing controls rate and outcome of autocatalytic processes: theory and microfluidic experiments with chemical reactions and blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Pompano, Rebecca R; Li, Hung-Wing; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-08-01

    This article demonstrates that the rate of mixing can regulate the rate and outcome of both biological and nonbiological autocatalytic reaction systems that display a threshold response to the concentration of an activator. Plug-based microfluidics was used to control the timing of reactions, the rate of mixing, and surface chemistry in blood clotting and its chemical model. Initiation of clotting of human blood plasma required addition of a critical concentration of thrombin. Clotting could be prevented by rapid mixing when thrombin was added near the critical concentration, and mixing also affected the rate of clotting when thrombin was added at concentrations far above the critical concentration in two clinical clotting assays for human plasma. This phenomenon was modeled by a simple mechanism--local and global competition between the clotting reaction, which autocatalytically produces an activator, and mixing, which removes the activator. Numerical simulations showed that the Damköhler number, which describes this competition, predicts the effects of mixing. Many biological systems are controlled by thresholds, and these results shed light on the dynamics of these systems in the presence of spatial heterogeneities and provide simple guidelines for designing and interpreting experiments with such systems.

  7. Control of magnetite nanocrystal morphology in magnetotactic bacteria by regulation of mms7 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayana; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Lenders, Jos J M; Thiesbrummel, Jarla; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Arakaki, Atsushi

    2016-07-15

    Living organisms can produce inorganic materials with unique structure and properties. The biomineralization process is of great interest as it forms a source of inspiration for the development of methods for production of diverse inorganic materials under mild conditions. Nonetheless, regulation of biomineralization is still a challenging task. Magnetotactic bacteria produce chains of a prokaryotic organelle comprising a membrane-enveloped single-crystal magnetite with species-specific morphology. Here, we describe regulation of magnetite biomineralization through controlled expression of the mms7 gene, which plays key roles in the control of crystal growth and morphology of magnetite crystals in magnetotactic bacteria. Regulation of the expression level of Mms7 in bacterial cells enables switching of the crystal shape from dumbbell-like to spherical. The successful regulation of magnetite biomineralization opens the door to production of magnetite nanocrystals of desired size and morphology.

  8. Diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum sensing in pathogenic bacteria and its exploitation for disease control.

    PubMed

    Dow, J M

    2017-01-01

    Cell-to-cell signals of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids of differing chain length and branching pattern. DSF signalling has been described in diverse bacteria to include plant and human pathogens where it acts to regulate functions such as biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and the production of virulence factors. DSF family signals can also participate in interspecies signalling with other bacteria and interkingdom signalling such as with the yeast Candida albicans. Interference with DSF signalling may afford new opportunities for the control of bacterial disease. Such strategies will depend in part on detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of signal synthesis, perception and turnover. Here, I review both recent progress in understanding DSF signalling at the molecular level and prospects for translating this knowledge into approaches for disease control. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Control of magnetite nanocrystal morphology in magnetotactic bacteria by regulation of mms7 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Ayana; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Lenders, Jos J. M.; Thiesbrummel, Jarla; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Arakaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms can produce inorganic materials with unique structure and properties. The biomineralization process is of great interest as it forms a source of inspiration for the development of methods for production of diverse inorganic materials under mild conditions. Nonetheless, regulation of biomineralization is still a challenging task. Magnetotactic bacteria produce chains of a prokaryotic organelle comprising a membrane-enveloped single-crystal magnetite with species-specific morphology. Here, we describe regulation of magnetite biomineralization through controlled expression of the mms7 gene, which plays key roles in the control of crystal growth and morphology of magnetite crystals in magnetotactic bacteria. Regulation of the expression level of Mms7 in bacterial cells enables switching of the crystal shape from dumbbell-like to spherical. The successful regulation of magnetite biomineralization opens the door to production of magnetite nanocrystals of desired size and morphology. PMID:27417732

  10. Natural control of bacteria affecting meat quality by a neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cake extract.

    PubMed

    Del Serrone, P; Failla, S; Nicoletti, M

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 μL NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 μg). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 μg NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria.

  11. Asthma and coagulation.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J Daan; Majoor, Christof J; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Bel, Elisabeth H D; van der Poll, Tom

    2012-04-05

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by paroxysmal airflow obstruction evoked by irritative stimuli on a background of allergic lung inflammation. Currently, there is no cure for asthma, only symptomatic treatment. In recent years, our understanding of the involvement of coagulation and anticoagulant pathways, the fibrinolytic system, and platelets in the pathophysiology of asthma has increased considerably. Asthma is associated with a procoagulant state in the bronchoalveolar space, further aggravated by impaired local activities of the anticoagulant protein C system and fibrinolysis. Protease-activated receptors have been implicated as the molecular link between coagulation and allergic inflammation in asthma. This review summarizes current knowledge of the impact of the disturbed hemostatic balance in the lungs on asthma severity and manifestations and identifies new possible targets for asthma treatment.

  12. Coagulation in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Maureane

    2015-07-01

    The liver plays a key role in hemostasis as the site of synthesis of many of the proteins involved in the coagulation, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic systems that interact to both establish hemostasis, and preventing thrombosis. The common laboratory tests, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), evolved from studies of plasma clotting in test tubes. Such studies laid the basis for the coagulation cascade model of hemostasis. However, thought has evolved to place a greater emphasis on the active roles of cells in localizing and regulating hemostasis. The PT and aPTT do not reflect the roles of cellular elements in hemostasis, nor do they reflect the crucial roles of antithrombotic and fibrinolytic systems. Thus, though the PT may indeed reflect the synthetic capacity of the liver, it does not accurately reflect the risk of bleeding or thrombosis in patients with liver failure.

  13. Fate of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes during Wastewater Chlorination: Implication for Antibiotic Resistance Control

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fates of nine antibiotic-resistant bacteria as well as two series of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treated by various doses of chlorine (0, 15, 30, 60, 150 and 300 mg Cl2 min/L). The results indicated that chlorination was effective in inactivating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most bacteria were inactivated completely at the lowest dose (15 mg Cl2 min/L). By comparison, sulfadiazine- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria exhibited tolerance to low chlorine dose (up to 60 mg Cl2 min/L). However, quantitative real-time PCRs revealed that chlorination decreased limited erythromycin or tetracycline resistance genes, with the removal levels of overall erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes at 0.42 ± 0.12 log and 0.10 ± 0.02 log, respectively. About 40% of erythromycin-resistance genes and 80% of tetracycline resistance genes could not be removed by chlorination. Chlorination was considered not effective in controlling antimicrobial resistance. More concern needs to be paid to the potential risk of antibiotic resistance genes in the wastewater after chlorination. PMID:25738838

  14. Preliminary Results of Bacteria Distribution in Chinese Loess and Their Control on the Calcite Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Lian, B.; Hu, Q.; Teng, H. H.; Wu, T.; Ji, J.; Chen, J.

    2005-12-01

    Continuous loess-paleosol sequences on the Chinese Loess Plateau are viewed as one of best continental archives of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes of the Late Cenozoic era. Carbonate, mainly calcite, commonly occurs throughout the entire sequence; though some are detrital, most are in-situ pedogenic. TEM studies have shown various morphologies of calcites in Chinese loess, especially nano-rod calcite widely occurring in loess and paleosols which are biogenic. In this study, we collected fresh and undisturbed loess and paleosol samples and successfully separated dominant microbial communities. These microbes are mainly bacteria, especially Bacillus anthracis, and a few fungi. The amount of bacteria decreases sharply with the depth. Then we added the bacteria into the near saturated solution of CaCl2 and Na2CO3. It is interesting that the original calcite crystals formed under abiotic conditions changed from quadrilateral face to pentagonal or hexagonal and the crystal size enlarged almost twice. SEM and AFM observations display bacteria control on the growth of calcite, which cause the lighter carbon isotopic ratios.

  15. Fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes during wastewater chlorination: implication for antibiotic resistance control.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fates of nine antibiotic-resistant bacteria as well as two series of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treated by various doses of chlorine (0, 15, 30, 60, 150 and 300 mg Cl2 min/L). The results indicated that chlorination was effective in inactivating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most bacteria were inactivated completely at the lowest dose (15 mg Cl2 min/L). By comparison, sulfadiazine- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria exhibited tolerance to low chlorine dose (up to 60 mg Cl2 min/L). However, quantitative real-time PCRs revealed that chlorination decreased limited erythromycin or tetracycline resistance genes, with the removal levels of overall erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes at 0.42 ± 0.12 log and 0.10 ± 0.02 log, respectively. About 40% of erythromycin-resistance genes and 80% of tetracycline resistance genes could not be removed by chlorination. Chlorination was considered not effective in controlling antimicrobial resistance. More concern needs to be paid to the potential risk of antibiotic resistance genes in the wastewater after chlorination.

  16. Cable Bacteria Control Iron-Phosphorus Dynamics in Sediments of a Coastal Hypoxic Basin.

    PubMed

    Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Seitaj, Dorina; Meysman, Filip J R; Schauer, Regina; Polerecky, Lubos; Slomp, Caroline P

    2016-02-02

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for life. The release of phosphorus from sediments is critical in sustaining phytoplankton growth in many aquatic systems and is pivotal to eutrophication and the development of bottom water hypoxia. Conventionally, sediment phosphorus release is thought to be controlled by changes in iron oxide reduction driven by variations in external environmental factors, such as organic matter input and bottom water oxygen. Here, we show that internal shifts in microbial communities, and specifically the population dynamics of cable bacteria, can also induce strong seasonality in sedimentary iron-phosphorus dynamics. Field observations in a seasonally hypoxic coastal basin demonstrate that the long-range electrogenic metabolism of cable bacteria leads to a dissolution of iron sulfides in winter and spring. Subsequent oxidation of the mobilized ferrous iron with manganese oxides results in a large stock of iron-oxide-bound phosphorus below the oxic zone. In summer, when bottom water hypoxia develops and cable bacteria are undetectable, the phosphorus associated with these iron oxides is released, strongly increasing phosphorus availability in the water column. Future research should elucidate whether formation of iron-oxide-bound phosphorus driven by cable bacteria, as observed in this study, contributes to the seasonality in iron-phosphorus cycling in aquatic sediments worldwide.

  17. Control of coliform bacteria detected from diarrhea associated patients by extracts of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Akhter, S; Jamal, M A H M; Pandeya, D R; Haque, M A; Alam, M F; Rahman, A

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the total population of coliform bacteria in the samples collected from diarrhea associated patients from the local area of Bangladesh and to examine the antibacterial efficacy of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) against the isolated coliform bacteria. The coliform bacteria detected in these samples by some microbial-biochemical tests such as Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. The total isolation rate of coliform bacterial species was ranged from 38.01-3.51%. At the concentration of 300 ig/disc, the organic extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf exhibited a remarkable antibacterial effect against all the tested bacterial pathogens. The zones of inhibition against all the tested bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 8.0 to 23.2 mm, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 62.5-1000 ig/mL. The results obtained in this study suggest that the extracts from Moringa oleifera leaf can be a source of natural antimicrobials with potential applications in pharmaceutical industry to control coliform bacteria.

  18. Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC): protocol and statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shakur, Haleema; Fawole, Bukola; Kuti, Modupe; Olayemi, Oladapo; Bello, Adenike; Ogunbode, Olayinka; Kotila, Taiwo; Aimakhu, Chris O; Huque, Sumaya; Gregg, Meghann; Roberts, Ian

    2016-12-16

    Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized controlled trial of its effect on maternal health outcomes in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial) is ongoing. We will examine the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a subset of WOMAN trial participants. Methods. Adult women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion in the WOMAN trial. In a sub-group of trial participants, blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of tranexamic acid or matching placebo.  Our primary objective is to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis will be assessed by measuring D-dimers and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Secondary outcomes are international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, haemoglobin and platelets. We aim to include about 180 women from the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria. Discussion:  This sub-study of WOMAN trial participants should provide information on the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in women with postpartum haemorrhage. We present the trial protocol and statistical analysis plan. The trial protocol was registered prior to the start of patient recruitment. The statistical analysis plan was completed before un-blinding. Trial registration: The trial was registered: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00872469 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00872469; ISRCTN registry, Identifier ISRCTN76912190 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date: 22/03/2012).

  19. Lymphocele prevention after pelvic laparoscopic lymphadenectomy by a collagen patch coated with human coagulation factors: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tinelli, Andrea; Mynbaev, Ospan A; Tsin, Daniel Alberto; Giorda, Giorgio; Malvasi, Antonio; Guido, Marcello; Nezhat, Farr R

    2013-06-01

    Lymphoceles are among the most common postoperative complications of pelvic lymphadenectomy (PL), with a reported incidence of 1% to 50%. Symptoms are pelvic pain, leg edema, gastrointestinal obstruction, obstructive uropathy, and deep vein thrombosis, and severe complications such as sepsis and lymphatic fistula formation. After laparoscopic PL, we tested the prevention of lymphoceles using collagen patch coated with the human coagulation factors (TachoSil, Nycomed International Management GmbH, Zurich, Switzerland) on 55 patients with endometrial cancer stages IB to II who had undergone laparoscopy. The authors divided the patients into 2 laparoscopy groups: PL plus TachoSil (group 1: 26 patients) and PL without TachoSil in a control group (group 2: 29 patients), as historical cohort of patients who underwent PL between 2010 and 2012. We collected surgical parameters, and the patients underwent ultrasound examination on postoperative days 7, 14, and 28. The main outcome measures were the development of symptomatic or asymptomatic lymphoceles, the need for further surgical intervention, as adverse effect of surgery, and the drainage volume and duration. The same number of lymph nodes in both groups was removed; group 1 showed a lower drainage volume. Lymphoceles developed in 5 patients in group 1 and in 15 patients in group 2; of these, only 2 patients were symptomatic in group 1 and 5 patients were symptomatic in group 2, without statistical difference and no percutaneous drainage request. In this preliminary investigation, the intraoperative laparoscopy application of TachoSil seems to reduce the rate of postoperative lymphoceles after PL, providing a useful additional treatment option for reducing drainage volume and preventing lymphocele development after PL.

  20. Effect of tranexamic acid on coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with postpartum haemorrhage (WOMAN-ETAC): protocol and statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized controlled trial of its effect on maternal health outcomes in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial) is ongoing. We will examine the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and coagulation in a subset of WOMAN trial participants. Methods. Adult women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion in the WOMAN trial. In a sub-group of trial participants, blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of tranexamic acid or matching placebo.  Our primary objective is to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis will be assessed by measuring D-dimers and by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Secondary outcomes are international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, haemoglobin and platelets. We aim to include about 180 women from the University College Hospital, Ibadan in Nigeria. Discussion:  This sub-study of WOMAN trial participants should provide information on the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid in women with postpartum haemorrhage. We present the trial protocol and statistical analysis plan. The trial protocol was registered prior to the start of patient recruitment. The statistical analysis plan was completed before un-blinding. Trial registration: The trial was registered: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT00872469 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00872469; ISRCTN registry, Identifier ISRCTN76912190 http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN76912190 (Registration date: 22/03/2012). PMID:28317031

  1. Argon plasma coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Zenker, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) is an application of gas discharges in argon in electrosurgery, which is increasingly used especially in endoscopy. The major application fields are haemostasis, tissue devitalization and tissue reduction. This review describes the physics and technology of electrosurgery and APC. Some characteristics of the argon discharge are shown and discussed, and thermal effects in biological tissue are described. Subsequently, examples of medical applications are given. PMID:20204117

  2. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  3. A legume genetic framework controls infection of nodules by symbiotic and endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B; Madsen, Lene H; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule.

  4. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  5. Overview of the coagulation system

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Palta, Anshu

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ‘coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same. PMID:25535411

  6. Impact of source water quality on multiwall carbon nanotube coagulation.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, R David; Kline, Carly N; Filliben, James J

    2010-02-15

    Potable water treatment facilities may become an important barrier in limiting human exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) as ENPs begin to contaminate natural aquatic systems. Coagulation of ENPs will likely be a major process that controls the ENP fate and the subsequent removal in the aqueous phase. The influence that source water quality has on ENP coagulation is still relatively unknown. The current study uses a 2(3) x 2(4-1) fractional factorial design to identify seven key surface water constituents that affect multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) coagulation. These seven factors include: influent concentrations of kaolin, organic matter (OM), alginate, and MWCNTs; type and dosage of coagulant; and method of MWCNT stabilization. MWCNT removal was most affected by coagulant type and dosage, with alum outperforming ferric chloride at circumneutral pH. None of the other factors were universally significant but instead depended on coagulant type, dose, and method of stabilization. In all cases where factors were found to have a significant impact on MWCNT removal, however, the relationship was consistent: higher influent concentrations of kaolin and alginate improved MWCNT removal while higher influent concentrations of OM hindered MWCNT coagulation. Once MWCNTs are released into the natural environment, their coagulation behavior will be determined by the type and quantity of pollutants (i.e., factors) present in the aquatic environment and are governed by the same mechanisms that influence the colloidal stability of "natural" nanoparticles.

  7. Direct observation on the Brownian coagulation of PSL particles through optical microscope in the regime near critical coagulation concentration (CCC).

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Tomonori; Adachi, Yasuhisa

    2010-04-15

    Microscopic monitoring of floc structure, floc size distribution and the rate of coagulation was carried out for Brownian coagulation of PSL particles. Experiments were designed for the condition of salt concentration that is slightly below critical coagulation concentration (CCC). The density of the solvent was controlled by using deuterium oxide (D(2)O) to avoid sedimentation. Results are summarized as follows: (i) Near CCC, floc restructuring from the beginning stage of coagulation was evidenced, i.e., the ratio of linear triplet is found to be remarkably reduced as compared with the result obtained for the case of rapid coagulation which was implemented under sufficiently high salt concentration. (ii) The increase of fractal dimension from 1.8 in the case of rapid coagulation to 2.2 was confirmed by the analysis of mass balance using size distribution of flocs. This increment resulted in the decrease of effective excluded volume of flocs. (iii) The rate of coagulation was constant until later stage. This result contrasts to the result of rapid coagulation [T. Fukasawa, Y. Adachi, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 304 (2006) 115]. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of an oregano oil nanoemulsion to the control of foodborne bacteria on fresh lettuce.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Kanika; Conti, Denise S; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-05-01

    Although antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils are well documented, challenges remain as to their application in fresh produce due to the hydrophobic nature of essential oils. Oregano oil nanoemulsions were formulated with a food-grade emulsifier and evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating the growth of foodborne bacteria on fresh lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, followed by a one-minute dipping in oregano oil nanoemulsions (0.05% or 0.1%). Samples were stored at 4 °C and enumerated for bacteria at fixed intervals (0 h, 3 h, 24 h, and 72 h). Compared to control, 0.05% nanoemulsion showed an up to 3.44, 2.31, and 3.05 log CFU/g reductions in L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Up to 3.57, 3.26, and 3.35 log CFU/g reductions were observed on the same bacteria by the 0.1% treatment. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) demonstrated disrupted bacterial membranes due to the oregano oil treatment. The data suggest that applying oregano oil nanoemulsions to fresh produce may be an effective antimicrobial control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Micro-electro-fluidic module to control magnetotactic bacteria for micromanipulation tasks under an optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Walder; Lu, Zhao; Moufarrej, Bechara; Martel, Sylvain

    2007-10-01

    This project describes a Multi-Chip Module (MCM) that contains a microelectronic circuit and a microfluidic device that could be combined to implement a "bacterial microfactory". The microchip contains two decoders connected to arrays of horizontal and vertical wires respectively, forming a matrix used to process commands received from an external computer. The electrical current flowing through the matrix is generated from internal voltage-to-current converters. The electrical current circulating through a metal conductor generates a magnetic field that is used to guide the movement of Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB) in the microfluidic device. The dedicated microfluidic device is micro-fabricated on a glass wafer. Preliminary results show that a single MC-1 MTB can push a 2 μm microbead at speeds reaching 100μm/s under the control of an external magnetic field of less than 10 Gauss. A Carl Zeiss microscopy software (AxioVision) is used to control and configure the Axio Imager Z1 optical microscope and allows us to develop customized plug-in with Visual Basic for Application (VBA). The control electronic die was hence programmed as a VBA module, simplifying interoperability between the control, data recordings and microscopy observations. The parallel port of an Intel Pentium 4, 3.0 GHz equipped with 2.87 Go of RAM running Windows XP was used to communicate with the circuit. Connected to the parallel port, two demultiplexers interface the chip and the port. Patterns to control the bacteria such as left-right and up-down displacements were implemented and tested. Other more complex patterns to capture, attract and repel the bacteria from the center of the chip were also designed and validated.

  10. Culturable leaf-associated bacteria on tomato plants and their potential as biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Enya, Junichiro; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Tsukiboshi, Takao; Negishi, Hiromitsu; Suyama, Kazuo; Tsushima, Seiya

    2007-05-01

    Culturable leaf-associated bacteria inhabiting a plant have been considered as promising biological control agent (BCA) candidates because they can survive on the plant. We investigated the relationship between bacterial groups of culturable leaf-associated bacteria on greenhouse- and field-grown tomato leaves and their antifungal activities against tomato diseases in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the isolated bacteria were analyzed for N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, which have been reported to associate with bacterial colonization, and resistance to a tomato alkaloid (alpha-tomatine). Leaf washings and subsequent leaf macerates were used to estimate the population size of epiphytic and more internal bacteria. Bacterial population sizes on leaves at the same position increased as the leaves aged under both greenhouse and field conditions. Field-grown tomatoes had significantly larger population sizes than greenhouse-grown tomatoes. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequencing using 887 culturable leaf-associated bacteria revealed a predominance of the Bacillus and Pseudomonas culturable leaf-associated bacterial groups on greenhouse- and field-grown tomatoes, respectively. Curtobacterium and Sphingomonas were frequently recovered from both locations. From the 2138 bacterial strains tested, we selected several strains having in vitro antifungal activity against three fungal pathogens of tomato: Botrytis cinerea, Fulvia fulva, and Alternaria solani. Among bacterial strains with strong in vitro antifungal activities, Bacillus and Pantoea tended to show strong antifungal activities, whereas Curtobacterium and Sphingomonas were not effective. The results indicated the differences in antifungal activity among predominant bacterial groups. Analysis of alpha-tomatine resistance revealed that most bacterial strains in the dominant groups exhibited moderate or high resistance to alpha-tomatine in growth medium. Furthermore, some

  11. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. The technical work program was initiated on July 1, 1992. Force-distance curves were generated for DDOA Br-coated mica surfaces in water and used to calculate hydrophobicity constants and decay lengths for this system; and a new device for the measurement of water contact angles, similar to the Wilhelmy plate balance, has been built 225 kg samples of Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhom No. 3 seam coals were obtained; a static mixer test facility for the study of coagula growth was set up and was undergoing shakedown tests at the end of the quarter; a bench-scale lamella thickener was being constructed; and preliminary coagula/ mineral separation tests were being conducted in a bench-scale continuous drum filter.

  12. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contracts AC22-86PC91221 and AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. During the quarter, the Anutech Mark IV surface force apparatus was used to generate surface force-distance data for the mica/dodecylamine hydrochloride system (Task 2.1.1). Work to characterize the hydrophobicity of this system and the mica/DDOA[sup [minus

  13. Establishing reference intervals in the coagulation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Castellone, D D

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining a reference interval (RI) is a challenge for any laboratory and becomes more complicated in the coagulation laboratory due to testing on samples with limited stability on reagents that are poorly standardized. Reference intervals are required to be able to evaluate results in relation to a patients' hemostatic disorder. This becomes one of the most important tasks conducted in the coagulation laboratory. However, many laboratories lack the time, finances and in many cases the expertise to conduct this study. Many RI are obtained from package inserts, or from publications written by experts in lieu of laboratories conducting their own studies. An overview of validating reference intervals and options for verifying or transference of reference intervals is discussed. Based on the confidence interval and the acceptability of risk laboratories are willing to accept, coagulation laboratories have options to conduct robust studies for their RI. Data mining or global reference studies may help to provide data for age specific ranges. Pre-analytical variables and selection of healthy subjects have the largest impact on coagulation testing outcomes and need to be well controlled during the establishment of reference intervals. Laboratories have options in lieu of conducting a full validation on how to verify RI based on smaller RI studies or transference of RI after determining compatibility of the original RI study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Blood coagulation: hemostasis and thrombin regulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi A; Key, Nigel S; Levy, Jerrold H

    2009-05-01

    Perioperative bleeding is a major challenge particularly because of increasing clinical use of potent antithrombotic drugs. Understanding current concepts of coagulation is important in determining the preoperative bleeding risk of patients, and in managing hemostatic therapy perioperatively. The serine protease thrombin plays pivotal roles in the activation of additional serine protease zymogens (inactive enzymatic precursors), cofactors, and cell-surface receptors. Thrombin generation is closely regulated to locally achieve rapid hemostasis after injury without causing uncontrolled systemic thrombosis. During surgery, there are major disturbances in coagulation and inflammatory systems because of hemorrhage/hemodilution, blood transfusion, and surgical stresses. Postoperative bleeding often requires allogeneic blood transfusions, which support thrombin generation and hemostasis. However, procoagulant activity and inflammation are increased postoperatively; thus, antithrombotic therapy may be required to prevent perioperative thrombotic complications. There have been significant advances in the management of perioperative hemostasis and thrombosis because of the introduction of novel hemostatic and antithrombotic drugs. However, a limitation of current treatment is that conventional clotting tests do not reflect the entire physiological processes of coagulation making optimal pharmacologic therapy difficult. Understanding the in vivo regulatory mechanisms and pharmacologic modulation of thrombin generation may help control bleeding without potentially increasing prothrombotic risks. In this review, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms of hemostasis and thrombin generation using multiple, simplified models of coagulation.

  15. Arsenic removal by coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.N.; Green, J.F.; Do, H.D.; McLean, S.J.

    1995-04-01

    This study evaluated the removal of naturally occurring arsenic in a full-scale (106-mgd) conventional treatment plant. When the source water was treated with 3--10 mg/L of ferric chloride or 6, 10, or 20 mg/L of alum, arsenic removal was 81--96% (ferric chloride) and 23--71% (alum). Metal concentrations in the sludge produced during this study were below the state`s current hazardous waste levels at all coagulant dosages. No operational difficulties were encountered.

  16. Isolation and characterization of rhizosphere bacteria with potential for biological control of weeds in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Flores-Vargas, R D; O'Hara, G W

    2006-05-01

    Deleterious rhizosphere inhabiting bacteria (DRB) have potential to suppress plant growth. This project focuses on the isolation of DRB with potential for development as commercial products for weed control. Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and endorhizosphere of seedlings and mature plants of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) and capeweed (Arctotheca calendula) growing in vineyards in the Swan Valley, Western Australia. A majority (81.5%) of the 442 strains was obtained from either rhizospheres or rhizoplanes. Rapid screening techniques were developed to evaluate in the laboratory and glasshouse the effects of bacteria on plants. Strains were screened in the glasshouse for deleterious effects on annual ryegrass, wild radish, grapevine rootlings (Vitis vinifera) and the legume cover crop subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum). Three strains were identified using the Biolog system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing as two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens (WSM3455 and WSM3456) and one strain of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (WSM3457). One of the P. fluorescens (WSM3455) strain produced hydrogen cyanide, an inhibitor of plant roots and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound. Three strains specifically inhibited wild radish but had no significant deleterious effects on either grapevine rootlings or subterranean clover. This study suggested manipulation of the weed seedling rhizosphere using identified DRB as a potential biocontrol agent for wild radish.

  17. Control of cell morphogenesis in bacteria: two distinct ways to make a rod-shaped cell.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Richard A; Errington, Jeff

    2003-06-13

    Cell shape in most eubacteria is maintained by a tough external peptidoglycan cell wall. Recently, cell shape determining proteins of the MreB family were shown to form helical, actin-like cables in the cell. We used a fluorescent derivative of the antibiotic vancomycin as a probe for nascent peptidoglycan synthesis in unfixed cells of various Gram-positive bacteria. In the rod-shaped bacterium B. subtilis, synthesis of the cylindrical part of the cell wall occurs in a helical pattern governed by an MreB homolog, Mbl. However, a few rod-shaped bacteria have no MreB system. Here, a rod-like shape can be achieved by a completely different mechanism based on use of polar growth zones derived from the division machinery. These results provide insights into the diverse molecular strategies used by bacteria to control their cellular morphology, as well as suggesting ways in which these strategies may impact on growth rates and cell envelope structure.

  18. Protamine overdose and its impact on coagulation, bleeding, and transfusions after cardiopulmonary bypass: results of a randomized double-blind controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koster, Andreas; Börgermann, Jochen; Gummert, Jan; Rudloff, Markus; Zittermann, Armin; Schirmer, Uwe

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the effects of protamine overdosing on thrombelastometry, bleeding, and transfusions in patients after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In group 1 (n = 15), representing the clinical standard, the protamine dose was based on the initial heparin dose, and group 2 (n = 15) received protamine based on the heparin concentration measured after CPB. Primary end points were thromboelastometric parameters. Secondary end points were perioperative blood loss and utilization of blood products. During CPB, heparin concentrations decreased by 40%, resulting in overdosing of protamine in group 1. Thromboelastometry revealed longer clotting time (CT) in group 1 (P values < .05). Four patients in group 1 but none in group 2 had excessive prolonged CT values (>360 seconds) and concomitant microvascular bleeding, requiring substantial replacement of coagulation factors. Heparin dose-based protamine management leads to protamine overdosing with inhibition of the coagulation process. Protamine management guided by heparin concentration avoids these complications.

  19. Randomized controlled study of endoscopic band ligation and argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of gastric antral and fundal vascular ectasia.

    PubMed

    Elhendawy, Mohammed; Mosaad, Samah; Alkhalawany, Walaa; Abo-Ali, Lobna; Enaba, Mohamed; Elsaka, Aymen; Elfert, Asem A

    2016-06-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is characterized by mucosal and submucosal vascular ectasia causing recurrent hemorrhage and thus, chronic anemia, in patients with cirrhosis. Treatment with argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective and safe method, but requires multiple sessions of endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) was found to be a good alternative for APC as a treatment for GAVE, especially in refractory cases. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EBL, as compared to APC, in the treatment of GAVE and gastric fundal vascular ectasia (GFVE). A total of 88 cirrhotic patients with GAVE were prospectively randomized to endoscopic treatment with either EBL or APC, every 2 weeks until complete obliteration was accomplished; then they were followed up endoscopically after 6 months, plus they had monthly measurement of hemoglobin levels during that period. We describe the presence of mucosal and submucosal lesions in the gastric fundal area that were similar to those found in GAVE in 13 patients (29.5%) of the EBL group and 9 patients (20.5%) of the APC group; we named this GFVE. In these cases, we treated the fundal lesions with the same techniques we had used for treating GAVE, according to the randomization. We found that EBL significantly decreased the number of sessions required for complete obliteration of the lesions (2.98 sessions compared to 3.48 sessions in the APC group (p < 0.05)). Hemoglobin levels increased significantly after obliteration of the lesions in both groups, compared to pretreatment values (p < 0.05), but with no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05); however, the EBL group of patients required a significantly smaller number of units of blood transfusion than the APC group of patients (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse events nor complications between the two groups (p > 0.05). This study

  20. The effects of oral hydrolytic enzymes and flavonoids on inflammatory markers and coagulation after marathon running: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grabs, Viola; Nieman, David C; Haller, Bernhard; Halle, Martin; Scherr, Johannes

    2014-02-22

    Regular moderate intensity physical activity positively influences the immune system with a lower incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers. However, marathon running due to its strenuous and prolonged nature results in immune perturbations with a major increase in pro-inflammatory markers and subsequent increased incidence of URTI. Furthermore, marathon running results in muscle damage and changes in hemostasis that promote a pro-thrombotic state.Naturally occurring hydrolytic enzymes and flavonoids have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and fibrinolytic effects, and may serve as countermeasures to exercise-induced inflammation, immune dysfunction and URTI.The aim of this study is to determine whether the ingestion of oral hydrolytic enzymes and flavonoids before and after a marathon attenuates post-race muscle damage and inflammation, counters pro-thrombotic changes in hemostasis and decreases URTI incidence. The Enzy-MagIC-study (Enzymes, Marathon runninG, Inflammation, Coagulation) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, monocenter phase I trial. 160 healthy males (age 20-65 years) will be randomized to receive either placebo or treatment (Wobenzym, MUCOS Pharma, Berlin, Germany) which contains the hydrolytic enzymes (bromelain, trypsin) and the flavonoid rutoside. One week before the marathon race, participants will begin daily ingestion of the investigational product (3×4 tablets). Intake will be continued for two weeks after the race (3×2 tablets per day). Clinical and laboratory measures will be collected 5-weeks and 1-week before the race, and immediately-, 24-h, 72-h, and 2 weeks after the race. The primary endpoint is the influence of the treatment on the pre-to-post marathon race plasma concentration change of the inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6). Secondary endpoints include the effect of treatment on salivary IgA concentration and the frequency of upper respiratory tract

  1. Randomized controlled study of endoscopic band ligation and argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of gastric antral and fundal vascular ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Mosaad, Samah; Alkhalawany, Walaa; Abo-Ali, Lobna; Enaba, Mohamed; Elsaka, Aymen; Elfert, Asem A

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is characterized by mucosal and submucosal vascular ectasia causing recurrent hemorrhage and thus, chronic anemia, in patients with cirrhosis. Treatment with argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective and safe method, but requires multiple sessions of endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) was found to be a good alternative for APC as a treatment for GAVE, especially in refractory cases. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EBL, as compared to APC, in the treatment of GAVE and gastric fundal vascular ectasia (GFVE). Patients and methods A total of 88 cirrhotic patients with GAVE were prospectively randomized to endoscopic treatment with either EBL or APC, every 2 weeks until complete obliteration was accomplished; then they were followed up endoscopically after 6 months, plus they had monthly measurement of hemoglobin levels during that period. Results We describe the presence of mucosal and submucosal lesions in the gastric fundal area that were similar to those found in GAVE in 13 patients (29.5%) of the EBL group and 9 patients (20.5%) of the APC group; we named this GFVE. In these cases, we treated the fundal lesions with the same techniques we had used for treating GAVE, according to the randomization. We found that EBL significantly decreased the number of sessions required for complete obliteration of the lesions (2.98 sessions compared to 3.48 sessions in the APC group (p < 0.05)). Hemoglobin levels increased significantly after obliteration of the lesions in both groups, compared to pretreatment values (p < 0.05), but with no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05); however, the EBL group of patients required a significantly smaller number of units of blood transfusion than the APC group of patients (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse events nor complications between the

  2. Assessment of Gut Bacteria for a Paratransgenic Approach To Control Dermolepida albohirtum Larvae▿

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Geoffrey W.; Brumbley, Stevens M.; Allsopp, Peter G.; O'Neill, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria from the hindguts of Dermolepida albohirtum larvae were assessed for their potential to be used in paratransgenic strategies that target scarab pests of sugarcane. Bacteria isolated in pure culture from the hindguts of D. albohirtum larvae were from the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria phyla and matched closely with taxa from intestinal and rhizosphere environments. However, these isolates were not the most common gut-associated bacteria identified in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) hindgut profiles. Subsequently, eight species of gut bacteria were fed to larvae, and RNA-based DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA was used to detect the persistence of these isolates in the hindgut environment. One of these isolates (Da-11) remained metabolically active in the hindgut for 19 days postconsumption. Da-11 most likely forms a new genus within the Burkholderiales order, along with taxa independently identified from larvae of the European scarab pest, Melolontha melolontha. Using the EZ::Tn5 transposon system, a kanamycin resistance gene was inserted into the chromosome of Da-11, thus establishing a stable transformation technique for this species. A second feeding trial that included inoculating approximately 400 transgenic Da-11 cells onto a food source resulted in a density of 1 × 106 transgenic Da-11 cells/ml in the hindguts of larvae at 9 days postconsumption. These populations were maintained in the hindgut for at least another 12 days. The successful isolation, genetic transformation, and establishment of transgenic Da-11 cells in the hindguts of D. albohirtum larvae fulfill fundamental requirements for the future development of a paratransgenic approach to control scarab pests of sugarcane. PMID:18456847

  3. Use of an Intelligent Control System To Evaluate Multiparametric Effects on Iron Oxidation by Thermophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Daphne L.; Miller, Karen S.; Fife, Dee Jay; Larsen, Eric D.; Tolle, Charles R.; Johnson, John A.

    1998-01-01

    A learning-based intelligent control system, the BioExpert, was developed and applied to the evaluation of multiparametric effects on iron oxidation by enrichment cultures of moderately thermophilic, acidophilic mining bacteria. The control system acquired and analyzed the data and then selected and maintained the sets of conditions that were evaluated. Through multiple iterations, the BioExpert selected sets of conditions that resulted in improved iron oxidation rates. The results obtained with the BioExpert suggested that temperature and pH were coupled, or interactive, parameters. Elevated temperatures (51.5°C) in combination with a moderately high pH (pH 1.84) impaired the growth of and iron oxidation by the enrichment culture. Moderate-to-high oxidation rates were achieved with a relatively high pH in combination with a relatively low temperature or, conversely, with a relatively low pH in combination with a relatively high temperature. The interactive effect of pH and temperature was not apparent from the results obtained in an experiment in which temperature was the only parameter that was varied. When the BioExpert was applied to a mixed culture containing mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, the computer “learned” that pH 1.8, 45°C, and an inlet iron concentration from 30 to 35 mM were most favorable for iron oxidation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the learning-based intelligent control system BioExpert was an effective experimental tool that can be used to examine multiparametric effects on the growth and metabolic activity of mining bacteria. PMID:9797322

  4. Effect of biological and coagulation pre-treatments to control organic and biofouling potential components of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of lake water.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Kajol, Annaduzzaman; Suja, Fatihah; Md Zain, Shahrom

    2017-03-01

    Biological aerated filter (BAF), sand filtration (SF), alum and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic and biofouling potential component of an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the treatment of lake water. The carbohydrate content was mainly responsible for reversible fouling of the UF membrane compared to protein or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. All pre-treatment could effectively reduce these contents and led to improve the UF filterability. Both BAF and SF markedly led to improvement in flux than coagulation processes, and alum gave greater flux than M. oleifera. This was attributed to the effective removal and/or breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics by biofilters. BAF led to greater improvement in flux than SF, due to greater breakdown of high MW organics, and this was also confirmed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Coagulation processes were ineffective in removing biofouling potential components, whereas both biofilters were very effective as shown by the reduction of low MW organics, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents. This study demonstrated the potential of biological pre-treatments for reducing organic and biofouling potential component and thus improving flux for the UF of lake water treatment.

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of Bacteria Undergoing Programmed Population Control in a Microchemostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagaddé, Frederick K.; You, Lingchong; Hansen, Carl L.; Arnold, Frances H.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2005-07-01

    Using an active approach to preventing biofilm formation, we implemented a microfluidic bioreactor that enables long-term culture and monitoring of extremely small populations of bacteria with single-cell resolution. We used this device to observe the dynamics of Escherichia coli carrying a synthetic ``population control'' circuit that regulates cell density through a feedback mechanism based on quorum sensing. The microfluidic bioreactor enabled long-term monitoring of unnatural behavior programmed by the synthetic circuit, which included sustained oscillations in cell density and associated morphological changes, over hundreds of hours.

  6. Long-term monitoring of bacteria undergoing programmed population control in a microchemostat.

    PubMed

    Balagaddé, Frederick K; You, Lingchong; Hansen, Carl L; Arnold, Frances H; Quake, Stephen R

    2005-07-01

    Using an active approach to preventing biofilm formation, we implemented a microfluidic bioreactor that enables long-term culture and monitoring of extremely small populations of bacteria with single-cell resolution. We used this device to observe the dynamics of Escherichia coli carrying a synthetic "population control" circuit that regulates cell density through a feedback mechanism based on quorum sensing. The microfluidic bioreactor enabled long-term monitoring of unnatural behavior programmed by the synthetic circuit, which included sustained oscillations in cell density and associated morphological changes, over hundreds of hours.

  7. Coagulation equations with gelation

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, E.M.; Ernst, M.H.; Ziff, R.M.

    1983-06-01

    Smoluchowski's equation for rapid coagulation is used to describe the kinetics of gelation, in which the coagulation kernel K/sub i/j models the bonding mechanism. For different classes of kernels we derive criteria for the occurrences of gelation, and obtain critical exponents in the pre- and postgelation stage in terms of the model parameters; we calculate bounds on the time of gelation t/sub c/, and give an exact postgelation solution for the model K/sub i/j = (ij)/sup ..omega../ (..omega..>1/2) and K/sub i/j = ..cap alpha../sup i/+j (..cap alpha..>1). For the model K/sub i/j = i/sup ..omega../+j/sup ..omega../ (..omega..<1, without gelation) initial solutions are given. It is argued that the kernel K/sub i/japprox. (ij)/sup ..omega../ with ..omega..approx. =1-1/d (d is dimensionality) effectively models the sol-gel transformation is polymerizing systems and approximately accounts for the effects of cross-linking and steric hindrance neglected in the classical theory of Flory and Stockmayer (..omega.. = 1). For all ..omega.. the exponents, tau = ..omega..+3/2 and sigma = ..omega..-1/2, ..gamma.. = (3/2-..omega..)/(..omega..-1/2) and ..beta.. = 1, characterize the size distribution, at the slightly below the gel point, under the assumption that scaling is valid.

  8. Evaluation of the coagulation profile among oral and vaginal combined hormonal contraceptive users using sonoclot coagulation analyzer.

    PubMed

    Brandy, Kyle R; Meyer, Rachel M; Luo, Xianghua; Rao, Gundu H; Datta, Yvonne H; Divani, Afshin A

    2012-11-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptives possess an inherent risk of thrombus-related events. The purpose of this study is to elucidate alterations in the coagulation profile among young women using combined oral contraceptive (COC) or combined vaginal contraceptive (CVC) compared to a normal, healthy, female control group using the Sonoclot coagulation analyzer. We enrolled 159 participants (64 control individuals, 51 COC users, and 44 CVC users). Each participant completed a survey of medical history, family medical history, and lifestyle choices. Citrated venous whole blood was collected and analyzed using the Sonoclot coagulation analyzer. After adjusting for age, race, alcohol consumption, sleeping habits, and family history of cardiovascular disease, and stroke, we observed COC and CVC users had mostly similar coagulation profiles except when compared to the control, and COC and CVC users had an elevated glass bead peak signal while COC users had a shorter peak time.

  9. The Prevalence and Control of Bacillus and Related Spore-Forming Bacteria in the Dairy Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Nidhi; Hill, Colin; Ross, Paul R.; Beresford, Tom P.; Fenelon, Mark A.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Milk produced in udder cells is sterile but due to its high nutrient content, it can be a good growth substrate for contaminating bacteria. The quality of milk is monitored via somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts, with prescribed regulatory limits to ensure quality and safety. Bacterial contaminants can cause disease, or spoilage of milk and its secondary products. Aerobic spore-forming bacteria, such as those from the genera Sporosarcina, Paenisporosarcina, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Geobacillus and Bacillus, are a particular concern in this regard as they are able to survive industrial pasteurization and form biofilms within pipes and stainless steel equipment. These single or multiple-species biofilms become a reservoir of spoilage microorganisms and a cycle of contamination can be initiated. Indeed, previous studies have highlighted that these microorganisms are highly prevalent in dead ends, corners, cracks, crevices, gaskets, valves and the joints of stainless steel equipment used in the dairy manufacturing plants. Hence, adequate monitoring and control measures are essential to prevent spoilage and ensure consumer safety. Common controlling approaches include specific cleaning-in-place processes, chemical and biological biocides and other novel methods. In this review, we highlight the problems caused by these microorganisms, and discuss issues relating to their prevalence, monitoring thereof and control with respect to the dairy industry. PMID:26733963

  10. Indirect and suboptimal control of gene expression is widespread in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Wetmore, Kelly M; Ruths, Troy; Mar, Jordan S; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Shao, Wenjun; Arkin, Adam P

    2013-01-01

    Gene regulation in bacteria is usually described as an adaptive response to an environmental change so that genes are expressed when they are required. We instead propose that most genes are under indirect control: their expression responds to signal(s) that are not directly related to the genes' function. Indirect control should perform poorly in artificial conditions, and we show that gene regulation is often maladaptive in the laboratory. In Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, 24% of genes are detrimental to fitness in some conditions, and detrimental genes tend to be highly expressed instead of being repressed when not needed. In diverse bacteria, there is little correlation between when genes are important for optimal growth or fitness and when those genes are upregulated. Two common types of indirect control are constitutive expression and regulation by growth rate; these occur for genes with diverse functions and often seem to be suboptimal. Because genes that have closely related functions can have dissimilar expression patterns, regulation may be suboptimal in the wild as well as in the laboratory. PMID:23591776

  11. Blood Coagulation, Inflammation and Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Seydel, Karl B.; Monteiro, Robson Q.

    2010-01-01

    I. ABSTRACT Malaria remains a highly prevalent disease in more than 90 countries and accounts for at least 1 million deaths every year. Plasmodium falciparum infection is often associated with a procoagulant tonus characterized by thrombocytopenia and activation of the coagulation cascade and fibrinolytic system; however, bleeding and hemorrhage are uncommon events, suggesting that a compensated state of blood coagulation activation occurs in malaria. This article i) reviews the literature related to blood coagulation and malaria in a historic perspective, ii) describes basic mechanisms of coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis, iii) explains the laboratory changes in acute and compensated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), iv) discusses the implications of tissue factor (TF) expression in the endothelium of P. falciparum-infected patients, and v) emphasizes the pro-coagulant role of parasitized erythrocytes (pRBC) and activated platelets in the pathogenesis of malaria. This article also presents the ‘Tissue Factor Model’ (TFM) for malaria pathogenesis, which places TF as the interface between sequestration, endothelial cell activation, blood coagulation disorder and inflammation often associated with the disease. The relevance of the coagulation-inflammation cycle for the multiorgan dysfunction and coma is discussed in the context of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:18260002

  12. The “Coagulation Box” and a New Hemoglobin-Driven Algorithm for Bleeding Control in Patients with Severe Multiple Traumas

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Peter; Hofmann, Gunther Olaf; Teichmann, Jörg; Struck, Manuel F.; Stuttmann, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Background Extensive hemorrhage is the leading cause of death in the first few hours following multiple traumas. Therefore, early and aggressive treatment of clotting disorders could reduce mortality. Unfortunately, the availability of results from commonly performed blood coagulation studies are often delayed whereas hemoglobin (Hb) levels are quickly available. Objectives In this study, we evaluated the use of initial hemoglobin (Hb) levels as a guide line for the initial treatment of clotting disorders in multiple trauma patients. Patients and Methods We have developed an Hb-driven algorithm to initiate the initial clotting therapy. The algorithm contains three different steps for aggressive clotting therapy depending on the first Hb value measured in the shock trauma room, (SR) and utilizes fibrinogen, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), factor VIIa, tranexamic acid and desmopressin. The above-mentioned drugs were stored in a special “coagulation box” in the hospital pharmacy, and this box could be immediately brought to the SR or operating room (OR) upon request. Despite the use of clotting factors, transfusions using red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were performed at an RBC-to-FFP ratio of 2:1 to 1:1. Results Over a 12-month investigation period, 123 severe multiple trauma patients needing intensive care therapy were admitted to our trauma center (mean age 48 years, mean ISS (injury severity score) 30). Fourteen (11%) patients died; 25 (mean age 51.5 years, mean ISS 53) of the 123 patients were treated using the “coagulation box,” and 17 patients required massive transfusions. Patients treated with the “coagulation box” required an average dose of 16.3 RBC and 12.9 FFP, whereas 17 of the 25 patients required an average dose of 3.6 platelet packs. According to the algorithm, 25 patients received fibrinogen (average dose of 8.25 g), 24 (96%) received PCC (3000 IU.), 14 (56%) received desmopressin (36.6 µg), 13 (52%) received

  13. Simulation program for wastewater coagulation.

    PubMed

    Ratnaweera, H; Lei, L; Lindholm, O

    2002-01-01

    The lack of comprehensive simulation models for wastewater coagulation is one of the obstacles to achieving optimal coagulant dosing. Two approaches for developing a model to describe the coagulation process are presented. The comprehensiveness in describing the influent quality with several parameters, rather than with one parameter, is identified to give high efficiency in dosing models based on algorithms constructed using the partial least squares method. The concept was tested on two full-scale wastewater treatment plants, with coagulant savings and effluent quality improvements. Significant differences were observed with the increase of online parameters in the models. The second approach is based on distribution of coagulant for particle and phosphate removal processes and is discussed for inert fractions. The concept is integrated into existing simulation software as a module. The calibration results and dosage predictions are demonstrated.

  14. Platelet coagulation-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Peter N

    2004-08-01

    The biochemical mechanisms by which activated platelets participate in exposing receptors for the assembly of enzyme-cofactor-substrate complexes at all stages of the blood coagulation cascade are reviewed. Information derived from studies conducted during the last 30 years supports the concept that the initiation of blood coagulation is triggered by exposure of tissue factor at injury sites, leading to the generation of minute quantities of thrombin (limited by tissue factor pathway inhibitor), sufficient to activate platelets, factors XI, VIII, and V, and trigger the consolidation pathway (i.e., the sequential activation of factors XI, IX, X, and prothrombin on the activated platelet surface), leading to the generation of sufficient thrombin to convert fibrinogen to fibrin and effect hemostasis. Platelets localize coagulation to the hemostatic thrombus and protect coagulation enzymes from inhibition by both plasma and platelet inhibitors (e.g., protease nexin 2), thus preventing disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  15. Comparative experimental study of argon plasma and bipolar coagulation techniques.

    PubMed

    Riegel, T; Tirakotai, W; Mennel, H D; Hellwig, D; Sure, U; Bertalanffy, H; Celik, I

    2006-07-01

    Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is based on the principle of ionised argon creating conductive plasma between an activating electrode and tissue surface and is used as an effective alternative coagulation technique in various surgical disciplines. This trial aims to compare thermal injury in rat brain caused by APC and conventional bipolar coagulation technique. A controlled study design with constant power setting and application time was established. Twenty rats were randomised into the APC and bipolar groups. Each group of ten rats had 20 treated lesions. Early and late histopathological changes, as well as maximum extent of the lesion after 48 hours (h) and 12 days were studied in overall 20 lesions. Although the maximum depth of the lesions was different in APC (2.2 mm) and bipolar (1.8 mm) groups after 48 h, this did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.151). The superficially coagulated area was significantly larger after APC compared with the bipolar technique at the 48 h time point (p=0.032). After twelve days there were no differences in penetration depth (p=0.310) or coagulated area (p=0.222). Tissue defects after APC application on rat brains were comparable to conventional bipolar technique in this trial. The results suggest that argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective coagulation technique.

  16. Promoting fertilizer use via controlled release of a bacteria-encapsulated film bag.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-San

    2010-05-26

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( Burkholderia cepacia isolate) encapsulated in maleic anhydride (MA) grafted onto poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA) and then combined with starch as film bag material (PBSA-g-MA/starch) incubated in a saline solution required approximately 20 days to deplete the starch in the film bags. Thereafter, the cell concentration in the saline solution increased significantly because of the release of cells from the severely destroyed film bags and also their growth by use of depolymerized PBSA-g-MA fragments as a substrate. The incubation proceeded for 60 days, by which time the PBSA-g-MA/starch composite had suffered a >80% weight loss. For practical application, effectiveness of the above-mentioned film bags was demonstrated because it could improve the absorbability of a fertilizer for plants and promote the growth of plants. As a result, it can avoid the accumulation of the phosphate in excess fertilizer that lead to the phenomenon of poor soils. These results demonstrate that PBSA-g-MA/starch can be used to encapsulate cells of an indigenous phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( B. cepacia isolate) to form a controlled release of bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB). The B. cepacia isolate was able to degrade the film bags material, causing cell release. Biodegradability of the film bags depended upon the type of material used, because the PBSA film bags were also degraded but to a lesser degree. The addition of starch made the film bags more biodegradable. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity was also higher for the starch composite, suggesting a strong connection between the biodegradability and these characteristics. The results suggest that the release of fertilizer-promoted bacteria might be controllable via a suitable film bag material formulation. In addition, this work adopted live bacteria to promote the absorption of phosphate, which is superior to the phosphate used in the traditional way.

  17. Control of Histamine-Producing Bacteria and Histamine Formation in Fish Muscle by Trisodium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Green, David P; Bolton, Greg E; McClellan-Green, Patricia D

    2015-06-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning remains the primary cause of seafood poisoning outbreaks despite preventive guidelines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of pH for the control of growth and histamine formation by histamine-producing bacteria in fish muscle. We examined pH effects on growth and histamine formation in tuna fish infusion broth and in inoculated tuna and mahi-mahi fish muscle. Histamine production was significantly less for all bacterial strains at pH 8.5 compared to pH 5.5 in tuna fish infusion broth with no significant difference in growth. Elevated pH due to phosphate treatment of fish muscle tissues significantly reduced histamine formation with no effect on the growth of histamine-producing bacteria. This study revealed that phosphate treatment of mahi-mahi and tuna fish muscle resulted in significantly lower histamine production over 4 d of storage at 10 °C. Phosphate treatment of fish muscle may serve as a secondary barrier in addition to FDA recommended time and temperature controls for reducing public health concerns of scombrotoxin fish poisoning. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Thermodynamic and Probabilistic Metabolic Control Analysis of Riboflavin (Vitamin B₂) Biosynthesis in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, Markus; Mack, Matthias; Röder, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we applied a coupled in silico thermodynamic and probabilistic metabolic control analysis methodology to investigate the control mechanisms of the commercially relevant riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in bacteria. Under the investigated steady-state conditions, we found that several enzyme reactions of the pathway operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium (transformed Gibbs energies of reaction below about -17 kJ mol(-1)). Using the obtained thermodynamic information and applying enzyme elasticity sampling, we calculated the distributions of the scaled concentration control coefficients (CCCs) and scaled flux control coefficients (FCCs). From the statistical analysis of the calculated distributions, we inferred that the control over the riboflavin producing flux is shared among several enzyme activities and mostly resides in the initial reactions of the pathway. More precisely, the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase II activity, and therefore the bifunctional RibA protein of Bacillus subtilis because it catalyzes this activity, appears to mainly control the riboflavin producing flux (mean FCCs = 0.45 and 0.55, respectively). The GTP cyclohydrolase II activity and RibA also exert a high positive control over the riboflavin concentration (mean CCCs = 2.43 and 2.91, respectively). This prediction is consistent with previous findings for microbial riboflavin overproducing strains.

  19. Microfluidics and Coagulation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Colace, Thomas V.; Tormoen, Garth W.

    2014-01-01

    The study of blood ex vivo can occur in closed or open systems, with or without flow. Microfluidic devices facilitate measurements of platelet function, coagulation biology, cellular biorheology, adhesion dynamics, pharmacology, and clinical diagnostics. An experimental session can accommodate 100s to 1000s of unique clotting events. Using microfluidics, thrombotic events can be studied on defined surfaces of biopolymers, matrix proteins, and tissue factor under constant flow rate or constant pressure drop conditions. Distinct shear rates can be created on a device with a single perfusion pump. Microfluidic devices facilitated the determination of intraluminal thrombus permeability and the discovery that platelet contractility can be activated by a sudden decrease in flow. Microfluidics are ideal for multicolor imaging of platelets, fibrin, and phosphatidylserine and provide a human blood analog to the mouse injury models. Overall, microfluidic advances offer many opportunities for research, drug testing under relevant hemodynamic conditions, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:23642241

  20. Thermophoretically modified aerosol Brownian coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Zugasti, Manuel; Rosner, Daniel E.

    2011-08-01

    A theory of aerosol coagulation rates resulting from continuum-regime Brownian coagulation in the presence of size-dependent particle thermophoresis is developed and explored here. We are motivated by a wide variety of applications in which particle Brownian coagulation occurs in a nonisothermal gas where differential thermophoretic drift contributes to, but does not dominate, the encounter frequency between suspended spherical particles (e.g., mist droplets) of different sizes. We employ a Smoluchowski-like population-balance to demonstrate the relative roles of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis in shaping the short and long time (asymptotic or “coagulation-aged”) mist-droplet size distribution (DSD) function. To carry out these combined-mechanism DSD-evolution calculations we developed a rational “coupled” coagulation rate constant (allowing for simultaneous Brownian diffusion and relative thermophoretic drift) rather than simply adding the relevant individual coagulation “kernels.” Dimensionless criteria are provided to facilitate precluding other coagulation mechanisms not considered here (such as simultaneous sedimentation or Marangoni-flow-induced mist-droplet phoresis) and potential complications not included in the present model [as finite-rate coalescence, initial departures from the continuum (Stokes drag-) limit, and even dense (nonideal) vapor effects].

  1. Thermophoretically modified aerosol brownian coagulation.

    PubMed

    Arias-Zugasti, Manuel; Rosner, Daniel E

    2011-08-01

    A theory of aerosol coagulation rates resulting from continuum-regime brownian coagulation in the presence of size-dependent particle thermophoresis is developed and explored here. We are motivated by a wide variety of applications in which particle brownian coagulation occurs in a nonisothermal gas where differential thermophoretic drift contributes to, but does not dominate, the encounter frequency between suspended spherical particles (e.g., mist droplets) of different sizes. We employ a Smoluchowski-like population-balance to demonstrate the relative roles of brownian diffusion and thermophoresis in shaping the short and long time (asymptotic or "coagulation-aged") mist-droplet size distribution (DSD) function. To carry out these combined-mechanism DSD-evolution calculations we developed a rational "coupled" coagulation rate constant (allowing for simultaneous brownian diffusion and relative thermophoretic drift) rather than simply adding the relevant individual coagulation "kernels." Dimensionless criteria are provided to facilitate precluding other coagulation mechanisms not considered here (such as simultaneous sedimentation or Marangoni-flow-induced mist-droplet phoresis) and potential complications not included in the present model [as finite-rate coalescence, initial departures from the continuum (Stokes drag-) limit, and even dense (nonideal) vapor effects].

  2. Effect of copper(II) on natural organic matter removal during drinking water coagulation using aluminum-based coagulants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guojing; Zhang, Xiangru; Talley, Jeffrey W

    2007-06-01

    Coagulation has been proposed as a best available technology for controlling natural organic matter (NOM) during drinking water treatment. The presence of heavy metals such as copper(II) in source water, which may form copper-NOM complexes and/or interact with a coagulant, may pose a potential challenge on the coagulation of NOM. In this work, the effect of copper(II) on NOM removal by coagulation using alum or PAX-18 (a commercial polymerized aluminum chloride from Kemiron Inc., Bartow, Florida) was examined. The results show that the presence of 1 to 10 mg/L of copper(H) in the simulated waters improved the total organic carbon (TOC) removal by up to 25% for alum coagulation and by up to 22% for PAX-18 coagulation. The increased NOM removal with the presence of copper(II) in the waters can most likely be ascribed to the formation copper-NOM complexes that may be more adsorbable on aluminum precipitates and to the formation of copper(II) co-precipitates that may also adsorb NOM. The presence of 1 to 5 mg/L of copper(I) in the waters containing 3 mg/L NOM as carbon was reduced below the maximum contaminant level goal (1.3 mg/L as copper) using either coagulant. The results suggest that the presence of copper(H) in source water may not adversely affect the NOM removal by coagulation. A good linear correlation was observed between the TOC removal efficiency and the log-total moles of the precipitated metals, which include the metal ion from a coagulant and the divalent metal ion(s) in source water.

  3. The activity of ferulic and gallic acids in biofilm prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borges, Anabela; Saavedra, Maria J; Simões, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The activity of two phenolic acids, gallic acid (GA) and ferulic acid (FA) at 1000 μg ml(-1), was evaluated on the prevention and control of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of the two phenolic acids was tested on planktonic cell susceptibility, bacterial motility and adhesion. Biofilm prevention and control were tested using a microtiter plate assay and the effect of the phenolic acids was assessed on biofilm mass (crystal violet staining) and on the quantification of metabolic activity (alamar blue assay). The minimum bactericidal concentration for P. aeruginosa was 500 μg ml(-1) (for both phenolic acids), whilst for E. coli it was 2500 μg ml(-1) (FA) and 5000 μg ml(-1) (GA), for L. monocytogenes it was >5000 μg ml(-1) (for both phenolic acids), and for S. aureus it was 5000 μg ml(-1) (FA) and >5000 μg ml(-1) (GA). GA caused total inhibition of swimming (L. monocytogenes) and swarming (L. monocytogenes and E. coli) motilities. FA caused total inhibition of swimming (L. monocytogenes) and swarming (L. monocytogenes and E. coli) motilities. Colony spreading of S. aureus was completely inhibited by FA. The interference of GA and FA with bacterial adhesion was evaluated by the determination of the free energy of adhesion. Adhesion was less favorable when the bacteria were exposed to GA (P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes) and FA (P. aeruginosa and S. aureus). Both phenolics had preventive action on biofilm formation and showed a higher potential to reduce the mass of biofilms formed by the Gram-negative bacteria. GA and FA promoted reductions in biofilm activity >70% for all the biofilms tested. The two phenolic acids demonstrated the potential to inhibit bacterial motility and to prevent and control biofilms of four important human pathogenic bacteria. This study also emphasizes the potential of phytochemicals as an emergent source of biofilm

  4. Factors controlling bacteria and protists in selected Mazurian eutrophic lakes (North-Eastern Poland) during spring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bottom-up (food resources) and top-down (grazing pressure) controls, with other environmental parameters (water temperature, pH) are the main factors regulating the abundance and structure of microbial communities in aquatic ecosystems. It is still not definitively decided which of the two control mechanisms is more important. The significance of bottom-up versus top-down controls may alter with lake productivity and season. In oligo- and/or mesotrophic environments, the bottom-up control is mostly important in regulating bacterial abundances, while in eutrophic systems, the top-down control may be more significant. Results The abundance of bacteria, heterotrophic (HNF) and autotrophic (ANF) nanoflagellates and ciliates, as well as bacterial production (BP) and metabolically active cells of bacteria (CTC, NuCC, EST) were studied in eutrophic lakes (Mazurian Lake District, Poland) during spring. The studied lakes were characterized by high nanoflagellate (mean 17.36 ± 8.57 × 103 cells ml-1) and ciliate abundances (mean 59.9 ± 22.4 ind. ml-1) that were higher in the euphotic zone than in the bottom waters, with relatively low bacterial densities (4.76 ± 2.08 × 106 cells ml-1) that were lower in the euphotic zone compared to the profundal zone. Oligotrichida (Rimostrombidium spp.), Prostomatida (Urotricha spp.) and Scuticociliatida (Histiobalantium bodamicum) dominated in the euphotic zone, whereas oligotrichs Tintinnidium sp. and prostomatids Urotricha spp. were most numerous in the bottom waters. Among the staining methods used to examine bacterial cellular metabolic activity, the lowest percentage of active cells was recorded with the CTC (1.5–15.4%) and EST (2.7–14.2%) assay in contrast to the NuCC (28.8–97.3%) method. Conclusions In the euphotic zone, the bottom-up factors (TP and DOC concentrations) played a more important role than top-down control (grazing by protists) in regulating bacterial numbers and activity

  5. Bio-responsive polymer hydrogels homeostatically regulate blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Maitz, Manfred F.; Freudenberg, Uwe; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Fischer, Marion; Beyrich, Theresa; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, which—in turn—becomes inactivated due to released heparin. The bio-responsive hydrogel quantitatively quenches blood coagulation over several hours in the presence of pro-coagulant stimuli and during repeated incubation with fresh, non-anticoagulated blood. These features enable the introduced material to provide sustainable, autoregulated anticoagulation, addressing a key challenge of many medical therapies. Beyond that, the explored concept may facilitate the development of materials that allow the effective and controlled application of drugs and biomolecules. PMID:23868446

  6. Evaluation of native bacteria and manganese phosphite for alternative control of charcoal root rot of soybean.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Ester; Viso, Natalia Pin; Montecchia, Marcela; Zilli, Carla; Balestrasse, Karina; Carmona, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potential agents to control plant pathogens and their combined use with biopesticides such as phosphites may constitute a novel strategy to incorporate in disease management programs. In the present study, 11 bacterial isolates were selected on the basis of their antagonistic activity against Macrophomina phaseolina in dual-culture tests, and their plant growth promoting traits. Selected isolates were characterised on the basis of auxin and siderophore production, phosphate solubilisation and rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Two of these isolates, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens 9 and Bacillus subtilis 54, were further evaluated for their inhibitory capacity against M. phaseolina using in vitro (on soybean seeds) and in vivo (greenhouse assay) tests. Both bacteria were applied individually as well as in combined treatment with manganese phosphite as seed treatments. Damage severity on soybean seeds was significantly reduced, compared with the untreated control, by both bacterial strains; however, the individual application of phosphite showed to be least effective in controlling M. phaseolina. Interestingly, the phosphite treatment improved its performance under greenhouse conditions compared to the results from the in vitro assays. In the greenhouse trials, the greatest reductions in disease severity were achieved when strain P. fluorescens 9 was applied singly or when strain B. subtilis 54 was combined with manganese phosphite, achieving 82% of control in both cases. This work is the first to report the control of M. phaseolina using combined treatment with PGPR and phosphite under greenhouse conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Ice-nucleating bacteria control the order and dynamics of interfacial water.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravindra; Usui, Kota; Livingstone, Ruth A; Fischer, Sean A; Pfaendtner, Jim; Backus, Ellen H G; Nagata, Yuki; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Schmüser, Lars; Mauri, Sergio; Scheel, Jan F; Knopf, Daniel A; Pöschl, Ulrich; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Ice-nucleating organisms play important roles in the environment. With their ability to induce ice formation at temperatures just below the ice melting point, bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae attack plants through frost damage using specialized ice-nucleating proteins. Besides the impact on agriculture and microbial ecology, airborne P. syringae can affect atmospheric glaciation processes, with consequences for cloud evolution, precipitation, and climate. Biogenic ice nucleation is also relevant for artificial snow production and for biomimetic materials for controlled interfacial freezing. We use interface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to show that hydrogen bonding at the water-bacteria contact imposes structural ordering on the adjacent water network. Experimental SFG data and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that ice-active sites within P. syringae feature unique hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterns to enhance ice nucleation. The freezing transition is further facilitated by the highly effective removal of latent heat from the nucleation site, as apparent from time-resolved SFG spectroscopy.

  8. Ice-nucleating bacteria control the order and dynamics of interfacial water

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Ravindra; Usui, Kota; Livingstone, Ruth A.; Fischer, Sean A.; Pfaendtner, Jim; Backus, Ellen H. G.; Nagata, Yuki; Frohlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Schmuser, Lars; Mauri, Sergio; Scheel, Jan F.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Poschl, Ulrich; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-04-22

    Ice-nucleating organisms play important roles in the environment. With their ability to induce ice formation at temperatures just below the ice melting point, bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae attack plants through frost damage using specialized ice-nucleating proteins. Besides the impact on agriculture and microbial ecology, airborne P. syringae can affect atmospheric glaciation processes, with consequences for cloud evolution, precipitation, and climate. Biogenic ice nucleation is also relevant for artificial snow production and for biomimetic materials for controlled interfacial freezing. We use interface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to show that hydrogen bonding at the water-bacteria contact imposes structural ordering on the adjacent water network. Experimental SFG data and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that ice active sites within P. syringae feature unique hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterns to enhance ice nucleation. Finally, the freezing transition is further facilitated by the highly effective removal of latent heat from the nucleation site, as apparent from time-resolved SFG spectroscopy.

  9. Active screening of multi-drug resistant bacteria effectively prevent and control the potential infections.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuguo; Ma, Guoliang; Peng, Lin; Ren, Yufeng; Zhang, Fengmei

    2015-03-01

    Our objective is to determine if actively screen the multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) infection in intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent, control, and decrease the infection rate and transmission of MDRB. The patients admitted in ICU of one hospital in 2013 were analyzed. The throat swab, blood, defecation, and urine of patients were actively collected for bacteria cultures to screen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii in patients. All patients received screening of MDRB infection and colonization within 2 days and after 2 days of admission, the results showed that there were 418 infectious bacterial strains in total and P. aeruginosa was the main bacterium. The asymptomatic infection rates of P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, E. coli, S. aureus, and A. baumannii were 39.02, 24.74, 44.00, 29.17, and 33.33 %, respectively; the symptomatic infection rates were 60.98, 75.26, 56.00, 70.83, and 66.67 %. 59.70 % patients received antibiotics treatment, 27.45 % patients received trachea cannula, 32.95 % patients received mechanism ventilation, 2.27 % patients received arterial cannula or venous cannula and 4.00 % patients received indwelling urinary catheters. The main MDRB in ICU is P. aeruginosa. The active screening of MDRB infection and colonization can provide the opportunity to take the life-saving measure against MDRB and treat patients. This can decrease the infection risk and the nosocomial transmission of MDRB.

  10. Ice-nucleating bacteria control the order and dynamics of interfacial water

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ravindra; Usui, Kota; Livingstone, Ruth A.; Fischer, Sean A.; Pfaendtner, Jim; Backus, Ellen H. G.; Nagata, Yuki; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Schmüser, Lars; Mauri, Sergio; Scheel, Jan F.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Ice-nucleating organisms play important roles in the environment. With their ability to induce ice formation at temperatures just below the ice melting point, bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae attack plants through frost damage using specialized ice-nucleating proteins. Besides the impact on agriculture and microbial ecology, airborne P. syringae can affect atmospheric glaciation processes, with consequences for cloud evolution, precipitation, and climate. Biogenic ice nucleation is also relevant for artificial snow production and for biomimetic materials for controlled interfacial freezing. We use interface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to show that hydrogen bonding at the water-bacteria contact imposes structural ordering on the adjacent water network. Experimental SFG data and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that ice-active sites within P. syringae feature unique hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterns to enhance ice nucleation. The freezing transition is further facilitated by the highly effective removal of latent heat from the nucleation site, as apparent from time-resolved SFG spectroscopy. PMID:27152346

  11. Ice-nucleating bacteria control the order and dynamics of interfacial water

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Ravindra; Usui, Kota; Livingstone, Ruth A.; ...

    2016-04-22

    Ice-nucleating organisms play important roles in the environment. With their ability to induce ice formation at temperatures just below the ice melting point, bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae attack plants through frost damage using specialized ice-nucleating proteins. Besides the impact on agriculture and microbial ecology, airborne P. syringae can affect atmospheric glaciation processes, with consequences for cloud evolution, precipitation, and climate. Biogenic ice nucleation is also relevant for artificial snow production and for biomimetic materials for controlled interfacial freezing. We use interface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to show that hydrogen bonding at the water-bacteria contact imposes structural ordering onmore » the adjacent water network. Experimental SFG data and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that ice active sites within P. syringae feature unique hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterns to enhance ice nucleation. Finally, the freezing transition is further facilitated by the highly effective removal of latent heat from the nucleation site, as apparent from time-resolved SFG spectroscopy.« less

  12. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or semiautomated device used to determine the onset of clot formation for in vitro coagulation studies. (b...

  13. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or semiautomated device used to determine the onset of clot formation for in vitro coagulation studies. (b...

  14. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or semiautomated device used to determine the onset of clot formation for in vitro coagulation studies. (b...

  15. Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral bacteria in blood pressure control

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Vikas; Haydar, Syed M.A.; Pearl, Vanessa; Lundberg, Jon O.; Weitzberg, Eddie; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2013-01-01

    Circulating nitrate (NO3−), derived from dietary sources or endogenous nitric oxide production, is extracted from blood by the salivary glands, accumulates in saliva, and is then reduced to nitrite (NO2−) by the oral microflora. This process has historically been viewed as harmful, because nitrite can promote formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. More recent research, however, suggests that nitrite can also serve as a precursor for systemic generation of vasodilatory nitric oxide, and exogenous administration of nitrate reduces blood pressure in humans. However, whether oral nitrate-reducing bacteria participate in “setting” blood pressure is unknown. We investigated whether suppression of the oral microflora affects systemic nitrite levels and hence blood pressure in healthy individuals. We measured blood pressure (clinic, home, and 24-h ambulatory) in 19 healthy volunteers during an initial 7-day control period followed by a 7-day treatment period with a chlorhexidine-based antiseptic mouthwash. Oral nitrate-reducing capacity and nitrite levels were measured after each study period. Antiseptic mouthwash treatment reduced oral nitrite production by 90% (p < 0.001) and plasma nitrite levels by 25% (p = 0.001) compared to the control period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2–3 .5 mm Hg, increases correlated to a decrease in circulating nitrite concentrations (r2 = 0.56, p = 0.002). The blood pressure effect appeared within 1 day of disruption of the oral microflora and was sustained during the 7-day mouthwash intervention. These results suggest that the recycling of endogenous nitrate by oral bacteria plays an important role in determination of plasma nitrite levels and thereby in the physiological control of blood pressure. PMID:23183324

  16. Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral bacteria in blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Vikas; Haydar, Syed M A; Pearl, Vanessa; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2013-02-01

    Circulating nitrate (NO(3)(-)), derived from dietary sources or endogenous nitric oxide production, is extracted from blood by the salivary glands, accumulates in saliva, and is then reduced to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) by the oral microflora. This process has historically been viewed as harmful, because nitrite can promote formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. More recent research, however, suggests that nitrite can also serve as a precursor for systemic generation of vasodilatory nitric oxide, and exogenous administration of nitrate reduces blood pressure in humans. However, whether oral nitrate-reducing bacteria participate in "setting" blood pressure is unknown. We investigated whether suppression of the oral microflora affects systemic nitrite levels and hence blood pressure in healthy individuals. We measured blood pressure (clinic, home, and 24-h ambulatory) in 19 healthy volunteers during an initial 7-day control period followed by a 7-day treatment period with a chlorhexidine-based antiseptic mouthwash. Oral nitrate-reducing capacity and nitrite levels were measured after each study period. Antiseptic mouthwash treatment reduced oral nitrite production by 90% (p < 0.001) and plasma nitrite levels by 25% (p = 0.001) compared to the control period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2-3 .5mmHg, increases correlated to a decrease in circulating nitrite concentrations (r(2) = 0.56, p = 0.002). The blood pressure effect appeared within 1 day of disruption of the oral microflora and was sustained during the 7-day mouthwash intervention. These results suggest that the recycling of endogenous nitrate by oral bacteria plays an important role in determination of plasma nitrite levels and thereby in the physiological control of blood pressure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese using protective lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Coelho, M C; Silva, C C G; Ribeiro, S C; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Rosa, H J D

    2014-11-17

    In the past years, there has been a particular focus on the application of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria in foods. The aim of this study was to select LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, previously isolated from a traditional Azorean artisanal cheese (Pico cheese), in order to identify those with the greatest potential in reducing Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese. Eight bacteriocin producer strains identified as Lactococcus lactis (1) and Enterococcus faecalis (7) were tested. In general, the bacteriocin-producing strains presented a moderate growth in fresh cheese at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C), increasing one log count in three days. They exhibited slow acidification capacity, despite the increased production of lactic acid displayed by some strains after 24h. Bacteriocin activity was only detected in the whey of fresh cheese inoculated with two Enterococcus strains, but all cheeses made with bacteriocin-producing strains inhibited L. monocytogenes growth in the agar diffusion bioassay. No significant differences were found in overall sensory evaluation made by a non-trained panel of 50-52 tasters using the isolates as adjunct culture in fresh cheese, with the exception of one Enterococcus strain. To test the effect of in situ bacteriocin production against L. monocytogenes, fresh cheese was made from pasteurized cows' milk inoculated with bacteriocin-producing LAB and artificially contaminated with approximately 10(6) CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes. The numbers of L. monocytogenes were monitored during storage of fresh cheese at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) for up to 15 days. All strains controlled the growth of L. monocytogenes, although some Enterococcus were more effective in reducing the pathogen counts. After 7 days, this reduction was of approximately 4 log units compared to the positive control. In comparison, an increase of 4 log CFU/mL in pathogen numbers was

  18. Primary metabolism and its control in streptomycetes: a most unusual group of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, D A

    2000-01-01

    Streptomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria with a unique capacity for the production of a multitude of varied and complex secondary metabolites. They also have a complex life cycle including differentiation into at least three distinct cell types. Whilst much attention has been paid to the pathways and regulation of secondary metabolism, less has been paid to the pathways and the regulation of primary metabolism, which supplies the precursors. With the imminent completion of the total genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), we need to understand the pathways of primary metabolism if we are to understand the role of newly discovered genes. This review is written as a contribution to supplying these wants. Streptomycetes inhabit soil, which, because of the high numbers of microbial competitors, is an oligotrophic environment. Soil nutrient levels reflect the fact that plant-derived material is the main nutrient input; i.e. it is carbon-rich and nitrogen- and phosphate-poor. Control of streptomycete primary metabolism reflects the nutrient availability. The variety and multiplicity of carbohydrate catabolic pathways reflects the variety and multiplicity of carbohydrates in the soil. This multiplicity of pathways has led to investment by streptomycetes in pathway-specific and global regulatory networks such as glucose repression. The mechanism of glucose repression is clearly different from that in other bacteria. Streptomycetes feed by secreting complexes of extracellular enzymes that break down plant cell walls to release nutrients. The induction of these enzyme complexes is often coordinated by inducers that bear no structural relation to the substrate or product of any particular enzyme in the complex; e.g. a product of xylan breakdown may induce cellulase production. Control of amino acid catabolism reflects the relative absence of nitrogen catabolites in soil. The cognate amino acid induces about half of the catabolic pathways and half are constitutive

  19. Powdered activated carbon coupled with enhanced coagulation for natural organic matter removal and disinfection by-product control: application in a Western Australian water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, Ina; Joll, Cynthia; Heitz, Anna

    2011-04-01

    The removal of organic precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), i.e. natural organic matter (NOM), prior to disinfection and distribution is considered as the most effective approach to minimise the formation of DBPs. This study investigated the impact of the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to an enhanced coagulation treatment process at an existing water treatment plant on the efficiency of NOM removal, the disinfection behaviour of the treated water, and the water quality in the distribution system. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the efficacy of plant-scale application of PAC combined with enhanced coagulation on an Australian source water. As a result of the PAC addition, the removal of NOM improved by 70%, which led to a significant reduction (80-95%) in the formation of DBPs. The water quality in the distribution system also improved, indicated by lower concentrations of DBPs in the distribution system and better maintenance of disinfectant residual at the extremities of the distribution system. The efficacy of the PAC treatment for NOM removal was shown to be a function of the characteristics of the NOM and the quality of the source water, as well as the PAC dose. PAC treatment did not have the capacity to remove bromide ion, resulting in the formation of more brominated DBPs. Since brominated DBPs have been found to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, their preferential formation upon PAC addition must be considered, especially in source waters containing high concentrations of bromide.

  20. Disorders of coagulation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, D; Beilin, Y

    2015-12-01

    The process of haemostasis is complex and is further complicated in the parturient because of the physiological changes of pregnancy. Understanding these changes and the impact that they have on the safety profile of the anaesthetic options for labour and delivery is crucial to any anaesthetist caring for the parturient. This article analyses current theories on coagulation and reviews the physiological changes to coagulation that occur during pregnancy and the best methods with which to evaluate coagulation. Finally, we examine some of the more common disorders of coagulation that occur during pregnancy, including von Willebrand disease, common factor deficiencies, platelet disorders, the parturient on anticoagulants, and the more rare acute fatty liver of pregnancy, with a focus on their implications for neuraxial anaesthesia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Proteins influencing the blood coagulation].

    PubMed

    Alberio, Lorenzo

    2011-11-01

    This review describes some natural proteins, which can be employed, either as factor concentrates derived from human plasma or as recombinant drug, to modulate the coagulation system. I will address some biochemical characteristics and the physiological role of von Willebrand factor, the coagulation factors of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, and the physiological anticoagulant protein C. In addition, I will detail the pharmacological compounds, which are available for influencing or substituting the coagulation proteins: desmopressin (DDAVP), single coagulation factor concentrates, prothrombin complex concentrates, and protein C concentrate. In particular, I will address some treatment topics of general medical interest, such as the treatment of massive bleeding, the correction of the coagulopathy induced by vitamin K-antagonists in patients with cerebral haemorrhage, and of the coagulopathy of meningococcemia. Finally, I will describe some properties and practical clinical applications of the recombinant anticoagulans lepirudin and bivalirudin, which are derived from hirudin, the natural anticoagulant of the medical leech.

  2. A gut-vascular barrier controls the systemic dissemination of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Spadoni, Ilaria; Zagato, Elena; Bertocchi, Alice; Paolinelli, Roberta; Hot, Edina; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Caprioli, Flavio; Bottiglieri, Luca; Oldani, Amanda; Viale, Giuseppe; Penna, Giuseppe; Dejana, Elisabetta; Rescigno, Maria

    2015-11-13

    In healthy individuals, the intestinal microbiota cannot access the liver, spleen, or other peripheral tissues. Some pathogenic bacteria can reach these sites, however, and can induce a systemic immune response. How such compartmentalization is achieved is unknown. We identify a gut-vascular barrier (GVB) in mice and humans that controls the translocation of antigens into the blood stream and prohibits entry of the microbiota. Salmonella typhimurium can penetrate the GVB in a manner dependent on its pathogenicity island (Spi) 2-encoded type III secretion system and on decreased β-catenin-dependent signaling in gut endothelial cells. The GVB is modified in celiac disease patients with elevated serum transaminases, which indicates that GVB dismantling may be responsible for liver damage in these patients. Understanding the GVB may provide new insights into the regulation of the gut-liver axis.

  3. Controlled bacteria-gold nanorod interactions for enhancement of optoacoustic contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liopo, Anton; Derry, Paul J.; Ermolinsky, Boris; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Ermilov, Sergey; Zubarev, Eugene R.; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Gold-based contrast agents, gold nanorod (GNR), were designed for the enhancement of optoacoustic signal. After synthesis, the GNR-CTAB complexes were modified by pegylation (PEG), or replacement of CTAB (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide) with MTAB (16-mercaptohexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide) for coverage of gold nanorods with heparin (GNR-HP). Modified GNR are purified through centrifugation and filtration. GNRCTAB can be used as a model of positively charged gold surface for quantitative optoacoustic sensing in GNRbacteria interactions, whereas GNR-PEG and GNR-HP can be used as negatively charged gold surface models. We studied controlled agglomeration of contrast agents with the bacteria E.Coli and Vibrio Cholerae. For bacterial sensing, the localized plasmon resonance peak shifts as a function of electrostatic binding, which was detected with two different wavelengths through 3D optoacoustic imaging.

  4. Control of Soybean Cyst Nematode by Chitinolytic Bacteria with Chitin Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Honglin; Riggs, Robert D.; Crippen, Devany L.

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-four chitinolytic bacterial isolates from soybean fields in Arkansas were tested for suppression of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in a heat-treated silt loam soil amended with 0.6% (w/w) chitin in a greenhouse. Five isolates consistently reduced numbers of H. glycines compared to controls receiving neither chitin nor bacteria, or only chitin. Four of the five isolates interacted with the chitin substrate to enhance its effectiveness in reducing numbers of the nematode. The size of the clear-zone produced by some of the isolates in colloidal chitin medium, an indication of chitinolytic activity in vitro, was not related to suppression of nematode numbers in soil. PMID:19270991

  5. Whole blood coagulation analyzers.

    PubMed

    1997-08-01

    Whole blood Coagulation analyzers (WBCAs) are widely used point-of-care (POC) testing devices found primarily in cardiothoracic surgical suites and cardia catheterization laboratories. Most of these devices can perform a number of coagulation tests that provide information about a patient's blood clotting status. Clinicians use the results of the WBCA tests, which are available minutes after applying a blood sample, primarily to monitor the effectiveness of heparin therapy--an anticoagulation therapy used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery, angioplasty, hemodialysis, and other clinical procedures. In this study we evaluated five WBCAs from four suppliers. Our testing focused on the applications for which WBCAs are primarily used: Monitoring moderate to high heparin levels, as would be required, for example, during CPB are angioplasty. For this function, WCBAs are typically used to perform an activated clotting time (ACT) test or, as one supplier refers to its test, a heparin management test (HMT). All models included in this study offered an ACT test or an HMT. Monitoring low heparin levels, as would be required, for example,during hemodialysis. For this function, WBCAs would normally be used to perform either a low-range ACT (LACT) test or a whole blood activated partial thromboplastin time (WBAPTT) test. Most of the evaluated units could perform at least one of these tests; one unit did not offer either test and was therefore not rated for this application. We rated and ranked each evaluated model separately for each of these two applications. In addition, we provided a combined rating and ranking that considers the units' appropriateness for performing both application. We based our conclusions on a unit's performance and humans factor design, as determined by our testing, and on its five-year life-cycle cost, as determined by our net present value (NPV) analysis. While we rated all evaluated units acceptable for each appropriate category, we did

  6. Coagulation Parameters in Wilson Disease.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Mark; Weber, Laura; Gotthardt, Daniel; Seessle, Jessica; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Weiss, Karl Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Alterations of copper metabolism have been associated with changes in coagulation factors. The aim of the present study was the analysis of coagulation factors in WD patients. 100 patients attending a tertiary WD outpatient clinic were analyzed in a prospective cross sectional cohort study. Out of peripheral venous blood samples coagulation factors were assessed including: full blood count, INR, partial thromboplastin time (PTT), clotting factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, von Willebrand factor/-antigen, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, protein S, protein C, activated protein C (APC) resistance. Subgroup analyses of the blood tests were performed for sex, initial clinical presentation, WD treatment and liver function. Subgroup analysis by liver function showed decreased levels of factors II, V, VII and X. Subgroup analysis by gender or clinical course of the disease did not reveal significant coagulation changes. In patients treated with trientine significantly decreased levels of factors II, VII and antithrombin III and increased von Willebrand factor/-antigen levels were detected. Factor VIII levels were significantly reduced in patients receiving zinc. Although significant differences of some coagulation parameters in subgroup analysis were found, no clinically relevant alterations of the coagulation system in WD patients could be detected.

  7. Inherited disorders of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-08-01

    Hemostasis is traditionally defined as a physiological response to blood vessel injury and bleeding, which entails a co-ordinated process involving the blood vessel, platelets, and blood clotting proteins (i.e. coagulation factors). Hemostasis can be divided into primary and secondary components. The former rapidly initiates after endothelial damage and is characterized by vascular contraction, platelet adhesion, and formation of a soft aggregate plug. The latter is initiated following the release of tissue factor and involves a complex sequence of events known as the blood coagulation cascade, encompassing serial steps where each coagulation factor activates another in a chain reaction that culminates in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Patients carrying abnormalities of the coagulation cascade (i.e. deficiencies of coagulation factors) have an increased bleeding tendency, where the clinical severity is mostly dependent upon the type and the plasma level of the factor affected. These disorders also impose a heavy medical and economic burden on individual patients and society in general. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview on the pathophysiology, clinics, diagnostics, and therapy of inherited disorders of coagulation factors.

  8. Comparison of coagulation performance and floc properties of a novel zirconium-glycine complex coagulant with traditional coagulants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhilin; Wu, Chunde; Wu, Yue; Hu, Caixia

    2014-05-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material zirconium-glycine complex (ZGC) was firstly used as a coagulant in a coagulation process to treat Pearl River raw water. Its coagulation performance was compared with commonly used aluminum (Al) coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC), in terms of water quality parameters and floc properties. ZGC coagulation achieved higher removal of turbidity (93.8%) than other traditional coagulants. Charge neutralization was proven to act as a dominant mechanism during ZGC coagulation. The aggregated flocs with ZGC showed the fastest growth rate and good recovery ability compared with the other coagulants and achieved the largest floc size within 5 min. The ZGC coagulant can decrease the hydraulic retention time and increase removal efficiency.

  9. PLASMA COAGULATION BY ORGANISMS OTHER THAN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

    PubMed

    BAYLISS, B G; HALL, E R

    1965-01-01

    Bayliss, Berenice G. (Washington State University, Pullman), and Elizabeth R. Hall. Plasma coagulation by organisms other than Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 89:101-105. 1965.-Approximately 200 organisms were investigated for their ability to clot human and rabbit plasma. Various anticoagulants were used in preparing the plasma: acid-citrate-dextrose, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, balanced oxalate, potassium and sodium oxalates, and heparin. Twelve organisms were found which coagulated citrated plasma in less than 8 hr: four strains of Streptococcus faecalis; two strains of S. faecalis var. zymogenes; three strains of S. faecalis var. liquefaciens; and one strain each of S. pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Serratia marcescens. Six strains of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus were selected for use as controls. Experiments were performed to determine the mechanism by which these microorganisms coagulated citrated plasma. As this was the only plasma clotted, it was presumed that the citrate was utilized by the microorganisms, thereby releasing the calcium which was then made available so that normal physiological clotting could occur. To test this hypothesis, a chromatographic method was employed to determine the presence or absence of citrate. Coagulation tests, by use of increasing amounts of citrate, showed a linear relationship between the amount of citrate in the plasma and the coagulation time. It was demonstrated that the organisms must be actively metabolizing to clot citrated plasma. Proof for this was obtained by using a cell-free filtrate, to which thimerosal had been added to inhibit growth, instead of whole cultures for the coagulation test. Only the coagulase-positive staphylococci coagulated the citrated plasma under these conditions. From the results obtained, it was concluded that plasma coagulation by these organisms was by citrate utilization.

  10. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  11. Coagulation-Flocculation Process in Landfill Leachate Treatment: Focus on Coagulants and Coagulants Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, M. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Yusoff, M. S.; Alrozi, R.; Neculai, O.

    2017-06-01

    In physico-chemical treatment, the separation of suspended particles from the liquid phase is usually accomplished by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Coagulation-flocculation processes have been widely used as alternative treatment to remove leachate pollutants such as BOD, COD, TSS, heavy metals, colour, and nitrogen compounds prior to other treatment methods. It is often coupled with treatment methods like biological process, chemical oxidation, adsorption or filtration to achieve desirable effluent quality. In spite of being economical, the dewatering and disposal of the precipitated sludge could be laborious and time-consuming. In this manuscript, brief discussions on coagulant and coagulants aid in landfill leachate treatment is discussed with respect to their mechanism.

  12. Signal transduction and transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of iron-regulated genes in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Crosa, J H

    1997-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for nearly all living cells. Thus, the ability of bacteria to utilize iron is a crucial survival mechanism independent of the ecological niche in which the microorganism lives, because iron is scarce both in potential biological hosts, where it is bound by high-affinity iron-binding proteins, and in the environment, where it is present as part of insoluble complex hydroxides. Therefore, pathogens attempting to establish an infection and environmental microorganisms must all be able to utilize the otherwise unavailable iron. One of the strategies to perform this task is the possession of siderophore-mediated iron uptake systems that are capable of scavenging the hoarded iron. This metal is, however, a double-edged sword for the cell because it can catalyze the production of deadly free hydroxyl radicals, which are harmful to the cells. It is therefore imperative for the cell to control the concentration of iron at levels that permit key metabolic steps to occur without becoming a messenger of cell death. Early work identified a repressor, Fur, which as a complex with iron repressed the expression of most iron uptake systems as well as other iron-regulated genes when the iron concentration reached a certain level. However, later work demonstrated that this regulation by Fur was not the only answer under low-iron conditions, there was a need for activation of iron uptake genes as well as siderophore biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, it was also realized that in some instances the actual ferric iron-siderophore complex induced the transcription of the cognate receptor and transport genes. It became evident that control of the expression of iron-regulated genes was more complex than originally envisioned. In this review, I analyze the processes of signal transduction, transcriptional control, and posttranscriptional control of iron-regulated genes as reported for the ferric dicitrate system in Escherichia coli; the pyochelin, pyoverdin, and

  13. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  14. Global coagulation in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Armando; Chantarangkul, Veena; Gianniello, Francesca; Clerici, Marigrazia; Lemma, Laura; Padovan, Lidia; Gatti, Loredana; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Peyvandi, Flora

    2013-12-01

    In spite of their recognized risk of thrombosis, patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) show little or no abnormalities of traditional coagulation tests, perhaps because these are unable to represent the balance between pro- and anticoagulants nor the effect of platelets and blood cells. We investigated whether global tests such as thrombin generation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or thromboelastometry in whole blood were able to detect signs of procoagulant imbalance in MPN. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) of 111 patients and 89 controls was measured in PRP with platelet count adjusted to the original patient- or control-count. Testing was performed with and without thrombomodulin (the physiological protein C activator) and results were expressed as ETP ratios (with/without thrombomodulin). High ETP ratios reflect resistance to thrombomodulin and were taken as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. Patients were also investigated by thromboelastometry that provides such parameters as the clot formation time (CFT) and maximal clot firmness (MCF). Short CFT or high MCF were taken as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. ETP ratios were higher in patients than in controls and were directly correlated with platelet counts and inversely with the plasma levels of free protein S, protein C and antithrombin. Patients on hydroxyurea had lower ETP ratios than those on other treatments. CFT was shorter and MCF was greater in patients than controls; CFT and MCF were correlated with platelet counts. In conclusion, patients with MPN display a procoagulant imbalance detectable by thrombin generation and thromboelastometry. These tests might be useful in the frame of clinical trials to assess their association with the occurrence of thrombosis and with the effect of therapeutic strategies in MPN.

  15. Case-control study of pneumonia patients with Streptococcus anginosus group bacteria in their sputum.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Jun; Sakanashi, Daisuke; Haranaga, Shusaku; Kinjo, Takeshi; Hagihara, Mao; Kato, Hideo; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Yamagishi, Yuka; Fujita, Jiro; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) bacteria are becoming increasingly recognized as important pneumonia-causing pathogens. Although several small studies have been reported, the features of SAG pneumonia remain unclear, because the identification of SAG from sputum cultures is not routinely performed in most microbiology laboratories. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of SAG pneumonia. This was a retrospective case-control study utilizing data obtained in our hospital between September 2009 and June 2016. We investigated 31 patients with SAG pneumonia (PWP), and also assessed the difference between the 31 PWP and 37 patients without pneumonia (PWOP) in whose sputum SAG was detected. Seventy-one percent of the patients were men and the median age was 78 years in the PWP. Univariate analysis indicated that the PWP were significantly more often a bed-ridden (p < 0.01) with comorbid aspiration than were the PWOP (p < 0.05). Among the PWP, nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) was the more common type of pneumonia (54.8%). S. anginosus was detected significantly more frequently in sputum cultures of PWP than PWOP (p < 0.01), and multiple pathogens were detected more frequently in PWP (p < 0.01). Streptococcus constellatus was the most frequently detected pathogen in patients with a single bacterial infection. Empyema was observed only in patients with multiple bacteria. SAG should be recognized as important causative pathogens of pneumonia, particularly among elderly patients with underlying disease associated with aspiration. NHCAP was the more common type of SAG pneumonia in this study. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quorum quenching bacteria isolated from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant and their application for controlling biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Leum; Park, Son-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2014-11-28

    Bacteria recognize changes in their population density by sensing the concentration of signal molecules, N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). AHL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) plays a key role in biofilm formation, so the interference of QS, referred to as quorum quenching (QQ), has received a great deal of attention. A QQ strategy can be applied to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for advanced wastewater treatment to control biofouling. To isolate QQ bacteria that can inhibit biofilm formation, we isolated diverse AHL-degrading bacteria from a laboratory-scale MBR and sludge from real wastewater treatment plants. A total of 225 AHLdegrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge sample by enrichment culture. To identify the enzyme responsible for AHL degradation in QQ bacteria, AHL-degrading activities were analyzed using cell-free lysate, culture supernatant, and whole cells. Afipia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains produced the intracellular QQ enzyme, whereas Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus sp. produced the extracellular QQ enzyme that was most likely to produce AHLacylase. AHL-degrading activity was observed in whole-cell assay with the Microbacterium sp. and Rhodococcus sp. strains. There has been no report for AHL-degrading capability in the case of Streptococcus sp. and Afipia sp. strains. Finally, inhibition of biofilm formation by isolated QQ bacteria or enzymes was observed on glass slides and 96-well microtiter plates using crystal violet staining. QQ strains or enzymes not only inhibited initial biofilm development but also reduced established biofilms.

  17. Soil moisture and pH control relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to N2O production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaihai; Mothapo, Nape V; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fungal N(2)O production has been progressively recognized, but its controlling factors remain unclear. This study examined the impacts of soil moisture and pH on fungal and bacterial N(2)O production in two ecosystems, conventional farming and plantation forestry. Four treatments, antibiotic-free soil and soil amended with streptomycin, cycloheximide, or both were used to determine N(2)O production of fungi versus bacteria. Soil moisture and pH effects were assessed under 65-90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS) and pH 4.0-9.0, respectively. Irrespective of antibiotic treatments, soil N(2)O fluxes peaked at 85-90 % WFPS and pH 7.0 or 8.0, indicating that both fungi and bacteria preferred more anoxic and neutral or slightly alkaline conditions in producing N(2)O. However, compared with bacteria, fungi contributed more to N(2)O production under sub-anoxic and acidic conditions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction of 16S, ITS rDNA, and denitrifying genes for quantifications of bacteria, fungi, and denitrifying bacteria, respectively, showed that fungi were more abundant at acidic pH, whereas total and denitrifying bacteria favored neutral conditions. Such variations in the abundance appeared to be related to the pH effects on the relative fungal and bacterial contribution to N(2)O production.

  18. [Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia Bacteriana, Chile: recommendations 2014 towards the control of bacteria resistance].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; Arancibia, J Miguel; Rosales, Ruth; Ajenjo, M Cristina; Riedel, Gisela; Camponovo, Rossana; Labarca, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    Five issues were reviewed in depth at the 2014 annual meeting of Colaborative Group Against Bacterial Resistance and the antecedents and conclusions are detailed in this document. I.- News in CLSI 2014: the difficulties and implications on its implementation at the local level were reviewed and recommendations were set. II.- Criteria for determining the incidence of multi-resistant microorganism in critical care units where indicators and monitoring methodology for better quantification of microorganisms were defined. III.- Quality requirements were established to be considered by the professionals involved in the selection of antimicrobials in the hospital. IV.- Transfer policies, screening and contact precautions for the control of transmission of multiresistant bacteria. V.- Recommendations for health facilities when a carbapenemase producing enterobacteriacea is detected, in a checklist format for rapid deployment in hospitals without endemia of these agents. These are suggestions that arise from the joint work of specialists from many hospitals that do not represent consensus or recommendation, but may help to control the resistance level of each health facility in the country.

  19. Hydrolysis of polyaluminum chloride prior to coagulation: Effects on coagulation behavior and implications for improving coagulation performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongguo; Wang, Jun; Liu, Dan; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Xiaolin; Song, Boyu; Yue, Bing; Zhao, Kehui; Song, Yun

    2017-07-01

    The effects of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) hydrolysis prior to coagulation on both the coagulation zone and coagulation performance of a kaolin suspension were investigated by a novel jar test named the "reversed coagulation test". The tests showed that PACl hydrolysis prior to coagulation decreased the performance of charge neutralization coagulation in the case of short-time slow mixing (10min; G=15sec(-1)) and increased the optimal dosage for charge neutralization and sweep coagulation. Moreover, the hydrolysis time had insignificant effects on the size and zeta potential of PACl precipitates and the residual turbidity of the raw water. However, PACl hydrolysis prior to coagulation and the size of PACl precipitates had a negligible effect on the performance of sweep coagulation. The results imply that, in practice, preparing a PACl solution with deionized water, rather than tap water or the outlet water from a wastewater treatment unit, can significantly save PACl consumption and improve the performance of charge neutralization coagulation, while preparing the PACl solution with tap or outlet water would not affect the performance of sweep coagulation. In addition, the optimal rapid mixing intensity appears to be determined by a balance between the degree of coagulant hydrolysis before contacting the primary particles and the average size of flocs in the rapid mixing period. These results provide new insights into the role of PACl hydrolysis and will be useful for improving coagulation efficiency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A Novel Role for Pro-Coagulant Microvesicles in the Early Host Defense against Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Oehmcke, Sonja; Westman, Johannes; Malmström, Johan; Mörgelin, Matthias; Olin, Anders I.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Herwald, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stimulation of whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells with bacterial virulence factors results in the sequestration of pro-coagulant microvesicles (MVs). These particles explore their clotting activity via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of coagulation; however, their pathophysiological role in infectious diseases remains enigmatic. Here we describe that the interaction of pro-coagulant MVs with bacteria of the species Streptococcus pyogenes is part of the early immune response to the invading pathogen. As shown by negative staining electron microscopy and clotting assays, pro-coagulant MVs bind in the presence of plasma to the bacterial surface. Fibrinogen was identified as a linker that, through binding to the M1 protein of S. pyogenes, allows the opsonization of the bacteria by MVs. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a strong interaction between pro-coagulant MVs and fibrinogen with a KD value in the nanomolar range. When performing a mass-spectrometry-based strategy to determine the protein quantity, a significant up-regulation of the fibrinogen-binding integrins CD18 and CD11b on pro-coagulant MVs was recorded. Finally we show that plasma clots induced by pro-coagulant MVs are able to prevent bacterial dissemination and possess antimicrobial activity. These findings were confirmed by in vivo experiments, as local treatment with pro-coagulant MVs dampens bacterial spreading to other organs and improved survival in an invasive streptococcal mouse model of infection. Taken together, our data implicate that pro-coagulant MVs play an important role in the early response of the innate immune system in infectious diseases. PMID:23935504

  1. [Coagulation disorders in the intensive care station].

    PubMed

    Hart, C; Spannagl, M

    2014-05-01

    Coagulation disorders are frequently encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are challenging due to a variety of potential etiologies. Critically ill patients with coagulation abnormalities may present with an increased risk of bleeding, show coagulation activation resulting in thromboembolism, or have no specific symptoms. Hemostatic abnormalities observed in ICU patients range from isolated thrombocytopenia or prolonged global clotting tests to complex and life-threatening coagulation defects. Successful management of coagulation disorders requires prompt and accurate identification of the underlying cause. This review describes the most frequently occurring diagnoses found in intensive care patients with thrombocytopenia and coagulation test abnormalities and summarizes appropriate diagnostic interventions and current approaches to differential diagnosis.

  2. Ultrasonic measurement of milk coagulation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, F.; Moudden, A.; Faiz, B.; Amghar, A.; Maze, G.; Montero de Espinosa, F.; Akhnak, M.

    2001-12-01

    Using a pulse reflection technique an ultrasonic system has been developed to monitor in situ the coagulation process of rennetted milk. The velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through coagulating milk were continuously monitored. The observed changes in ultrasonic velocity during coagulation were used to predict the coagulation time. The coagulation time is indicative of the transition from the enzymatic phase to the physicochemical phase. The determination of coagulation time has a decisive role in determining the qualities of the end product in cheesemaking.

  3. Advances of Coagulation Factor XIII

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Da-Yu; Wang, Shu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To provide a comprehensive literature review on roles of coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) in coagulation, wound healing, neoplasm, bone metabolism, and pregnancy. Data Sources: All articles in PubMed with key words Coagulation factor XIII, wound, leukemia, tumor, bone, and pregnancy with published date from 2001 to 2016 were included in the study. Frequently cited publications before 2000 were also included. Study Selection: We reviewed the role of FXIII in biologic processes as documented in clinical, animal, and in vitro studies. Results: FXIII, a member of the transglutaminase (TG) family, plays key roles in various biological processes. Besides its well-known function in coagulation, the cross-linking of small molecules catalyzed by FXIII has been found in studies to help promote wound healing, improve bone metabolism, and prevent miscarriages. The study has also shown that FXIII concentration level differs in the blood of patients with leukemia and solid tumors and offers promises as a diagnostic indicator. Conclusions: FXIII has many more biologic functions besides being known as coagulation factor. The TG activity of FXIII contributes to several processes, including wound healing, bone extracellular matrix stabilization, and the interaction between embryo and decidua of uterus. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between FXIII and leukemia and solid tumors. PMID:28091415

  4. Interspecies differences in coagulation profile.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, Jolanta M; Plasenzotti, Roberto; Spiel, Alexander; Quehenberger, Peter; Jilma, Bernd

    2008-09-01

    Many animals are used in research on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, but the relevance of animal models to human health is often questioned because of differences between species. The objective was to find an appropriate animal species, which mimics the coagulation profile in humans most adequately. Species differences in the coagulation profile with and without thrombin stimulation in vitro were assessed in whole blood by Rotation Thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Endogenous thrombin generation was measured in platelet-poor plasma. Measurements were performed in blood from five different species: humans, rats, pigs, sheep and rabbits. In humans and sheep, the clotting time (ROTEM) was in the same range with or without thrombin stimulation and a 100-fold lower dose of thrombin (0.002 IU) was required to cause a shortening in the clotting time as compared to rats, pigs and rabbits (0.2 IU) (p<0.05). Similarly, the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was in the same range in humans and sheep. The maximum clot firmness with or without thrombin stimulation was similar in rabbits and humans. The maximum lysis with or without thrombin stimulation was similar in humans and pigs. Significant species differences exist in the coagulation profile with or without thrombin stimulation. Most importantly, sheep had a clotting time most similar to humans and could thus be a suitable species for translational coagulation studies. Moreover, our findings confirm the potential usefulness of pigs as an experimental species to study fibrinolytic pathway and support the usefulness of rabbits as a species for examining platelets.

  5. Tissue Adhesives for Battlefield Hemorrhage Control. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    M acetic acid will dissolve the coagulated fibrin, thus releasing fibrin monomer. However, subsequent lyophilization of the solution resulted an...bleeding, then to prevent infection by controlling local bacteria with the use of antimicrobials. Traditional wound dressings have generally consisted of...MTVR) while still remaining occlusive to water and bacteria . The choice of acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive over other polymers is based upon the

  6. Coagulation assays and anticoagulant monitoring.

    PubMed

    Funk, Dorothy M Adcock

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy, including conventional agents and a variety of new oral, fast-acting drugs, is prescribed for millions of patients annually. Each anticoagulant varies in its effect on routine and specialty coagulation assays and each drug may require distinct laboratory assay(s) to measure drug concentration or activity. This review provides an overview of the assorted assays that can measure anticoagulant drug concentration or activity and includes key assay interferences. The effect of these conventional and new anticoagulant agents on specialty coagulation assays used to evaluate for bleeding or clotting disorders, and whether this impact is physiological or factitious, is included. Also provided is a short review of superwarfarin poisoning and features distinguishing this from warfarin overdose. Knowledge of clinically significant pearls and pitfalls pertinent to coagulation assays in relation to anticoagulant therapy are important to optimize patient care.

  7. Growth rate and resource imbalance interactively control biomass stoichiometry and elemental quotas of aquatic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Casey M; Whitaker, Emily A; Cotner, James B

    2017-03-01

    The effects of resource stoichiometry and growth rate on the elemental composition of biomass have been examined in a wide variety of organisms, but the interaction among these effects is often overlooked. To determine how growth rate and resource imbalance affect bacterial carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and elemental content, we cultured two strains of aquatic heterotrophic bacteria in chemostats at a range of dilution rates and P supply levels (C:P of 100:1 to 10,000:1). When growing below 50% of their maximum growth rate, P availability and dilution rate had strong interactive effects on biomass C:N:P, elemental quotas, cell size, respiration rate, and growth efficiency. In contrast, at faster growth rates, biomass stoichiometry was strongly homeostatic in both strains (C:N:P of 70:13:1 and 73:14:1) and elemental quotas of C, N, and P were tightly coupled (but not constant). Respiration and cell size increased with both growth rate and P limitation, and P limitation induced C accumulation and excess respiration. These results show that bacterial biomass stoichiometry is relatively constrained when all resources are abundant and growth rates are high, but at low growth rates resource imbalance is relatively more important than growth rate in controlling bacterial biomass composition.

  8. Bacteria and fungi controlling plant growth by manipulating auxin: balance between development and defense.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Plant diseases cause huge losses by changing the quality and quantity of harvested crops. Many disease symptoms caused by bacteria or fungi rely on the involvement of plant hormones, while other plant hormones act as defense signals in the plant. In this review the role of auxins in these processes will be evaluated. Some growth promoting plant hormones cause disease symptoms. For example auxins stimulate cell division and cell elongation in a healthy plant, but tumor formation after bacterial infection. Thus, control of auxin levels and auxin signaling pathways significantly contribute to the defense network in plants. Auxin can also act directly as defense molecule with antimicrobial activity. Since much research has been done in the recent years on auxin as a pathogenicity factor for many diseases, several examples will be presented to highlight the complexity between normal plant growth, which is regulated by auxin, and processes determining resistance or susceptibility, triggered by the same class of molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical dynamics controlling variability in nearshore fecal pollution: fecal indicator bacteria as passive particles.

    PubMed

    Rippy, M A; Franks, P J S; Feddersen, F; Guza, R T; Moore, D F

    2013-01-15

    We present results from a 5-h field program (HB06) that took place at California's Huntington State Beach. We assessed the importance of physical dynamics in controlling fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations during HB06 using an individual based model including alongshore advection and cross-shore variable horizontal diffusion. The model was parameterized with physical (waves and currents) and bacterial (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) observations made during HB06. The model captured surfzone FIB dynamics well (average surfzone model skill: 0.84 {E. coli} and 0.52 {Enterococcus}), but fell short of capturing offshore FIB dynamics. Our analyses support the hypothesis that surfzone FIB variability during HB06 was a consequence of southward advection and diffusion of a patch of FIB originating north of the study area. Offshore FIB may have originated from a different, southern, source. Mortality may account for some of the offshore variability not explained by the physical model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sulfide controls on mercury speciation and bioavailability to methylating bacteria in sediment pore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.M. |; Gilmour, C.C.; Heyes, A.; Mason, R.P.

    1999-03-15

    A chemical equilibrium model for Hg complexation in sediments with sulfidic pore waters is presented. The purpose of the model was to explain observed relationships between pore water sulfide, dissolved inorganic Hg (Hg{sub D}), and bulk methylmercury (MeHg) in surficial sediments of two biogeochemically different ecosystems, the Florida Everglades and Patuxent River, MD. The model was constructed to test the hypothesis that the availability of Hg for methylation in sediments is a function of the concentration of neutral dissolved Hg complexes rather than Hg{sup 2+} or total Hg{sub D}. The model included interaction of mercury with solids containing one or two sulfide groups, and it was able to reproduce observed Hg{sub D} and bulk MeHg trends in the two ecosystems. The model is consistent with HgS{sup 0} as the dominant neutral Hg complex and the form of Hg accumulated by methylating bacteria in sulfidic pore waters. The model-estimated decline in HgS{sup 0} with increasing sulfide was consistent with the observed decline in bulk sediments MeHg. Since bacterial Hg uptake rate is one of the factors affecting methylation rate, Hg complexation models such as the one presented are helpful in understanding the factors that control MeHg production and accumulation in aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Hybrid spiral-dynamic bacteria-chemotaxis algorithm with application to control two-wheeled machines.

    PubMed

    Goher, K M; Almeshal, A M; Agouri, S A; Nasir, A N K; Tokhi, M O; Alenezi, M R; Al Zanki, T; Fadlallah, S O

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the hybrid spiral-dynamic bacteria-chemotaxis (HSDBC) approach to control two different configurations of a two-wheeled vehicle. The HSDBC is a combination of bacterial chemotaxis used in bacterial forging algorithm (BFA) and the spiral-dynamic algorithm (SDA). BFA provides a good exploration strategy due to the chemotaxis approach. However, it endures an oscillation problem near the end of the search process when using a large step size. Conversely; for a small step size, it affords better exploitation and accuracy with slower convergence. SDA provides better stability when approaching an optimum point and has faster convergence speed. This may cause the search agents to get trapped into local optima which results in low accurate solution. HSDBC exploits the chemotactic strategy of BFA and fitness accuracy and convergence speed of SDA so as to overcome the problems associated with both the SDA and BFA algorithms alone. The HSDBC thus developed is evaluated in optimizing the performance and energy consumption of two highly nonlinear platforms, namely single and double inverted pendulum-like vehicles with an extended rod. Comparative results with BFA and SDA show that the proposed algorithm is able to result in better performance of the highly nonlinear systems.

  12. Fabricating upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles modified substrate for dynamical control of cancer cells and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen; Urmila, Khulal

    2016-09-07

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted widespread interests in the field of biomedicine because of their unique upconverting capability by converting near infrared (NIR) excitation to visible or ultraviolet (UV) emission. Here, we developed a novel UCNP-based substrate for dynamic capture and release of cancer cells and pathogenic bacteria under NIR-control. The UCNPs harvest NIR light and convert it to ultraviolet light, which subsequently result in the cleavage of photoresponsive linker (PR linker) from the substrate, and on demand allows the release of a captured cell. The results show that after seeding cells for 5 h, the cells were efficiently captured on the surface of the substrate and ˜89.4% of the originally captured S. aureus was released from the surface after exposure to 2 W/cm(2) NIR light for 30 min, and ˜92.1% of HepG2 cells. These findings provide a unique platform for exploring an entirely new application field for this promising luminescent nanomaterial.

  13. Larger amounts of nitrite and nitrate-reducing bacteria in megaesophagus of Chagas' disease than in controls.

    PubMed

    Pajecki, D; Zilberstein, B; Cecconello, I; Dos Santos, M A A; Yagi, O K; Gama-Rodrigues, J J

    2007-02-01

    In the megaesophagus of Chagas' disease, chronic esophagitis is caused by stasis of swallowed food and saliva. In this environment, the overgrowth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including nitrate-reducing bacteria, is observed. The reduction of nitrate into nitrite by the action of these bacteria has been associated with the formation of volatile nitrosamines in different situations of gastric bacterial overgrowth. We have hypothesized that this phenomenon could occur in the esophageal lumen of patients with megaesophagus. To evaluate the concentration of nitrite, the presence of volatile nitrosamines and the concentration of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the esophageal lumen of patients with non-advanced megaesophagus of Chagas' disease and in a group of patients without esophageal disease. Fifteen patients with non-advanced megaesophagus [megaesophagus group (MG)] and 15 patients without any esophageal disease [control group (CG)] were studied. Saliva samples were taken for nitrate and nitrite quantitative determination and esophageal stasis liquid samples were taken for nitrate and nitrite quantitative determination, volatile nitrosamines qualitative determination and reductive bacteria quantitative determination. MG and CG were equivalent in nitrate and nitrite saliva concentration and in nitrate esophageal concentration. Significant difference was found in nitrite (p = 0.003) and reductive bacteria concentration (p < 0.0001), both higher in MG. Volatile nitrosamines were identified in three MG patients and in none of the CG patients, but this was not significant (p = 0.113). There is a higher concentration of reductive bacteria in MG, responsible for the rise in nitrite concentration at the esophageal lumen and, eventually, for the formation of volatile nitrosamines.

  14. Enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.C.; Liang, S.; Wang, H.C.; Beuhler, M.D. )

    1994-09-01

    The possible use of enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal was examined at the facilities of a California utility in 1992 and 1993. The tests were conducted at bench, pilot, and demonstration scales, with two source waters. Alum and ferric chloride, with cationic polymer, were investigated at various influence arsenic concentrations. The investigators concluded that for the source waters tested, enhanced coagulation could be effective for arsenic removal and that less ferric chloride than alum, on a weight basis, is needed to achieve the same removal.

  15. Depinning as a coagulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İşeri, M.; Kaspar, D.; Mungan, M.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a one-dimensional model that describes the depinning of an elastic string of particles in a strongly pinning, phase-disordered periodic environment under a slowly increasing force. The evolution towards depinning occurs by the triggering of avalanches in regions of activity which are at first isolated, but later grow and merge. For large system sizes the dynamically critical behavior is dominated by the coagulation of these active regions. Our analysis and numerical simulations show that the evolution of the sizes of active regions is well described by a Smoluchowski coagulation equation, allowing us to predict correlation lengths and avalanche sizes in terms of certain moments of the size distribution.

  16. Coagulation reaction in a one-dimensional gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, W.; Van den Broeck, C.; Lindenberg, K. Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0340 )

    1991-04-15

    An extension of previous work on the ballistic annihilation reaction {ital A}+{ital A}{r arrow}0 to the coagulation reaction {ital A}+{ital A}{r arrow}{ital A} is presented. Three possible velocities {ital c} (with probability {ital p}), {minus}{ital c} (with probability {ital q}), and zero are considered. While the long-time behavior is controlled by moving particles when {ital p}={ital q}, it is controlled by the stationary particles when {ital p}{ne}{ital q}. The comparison of the coagulation reaction with the annihilation reaction shows that the long-time results are essentially the same except for a rescaling of the time. In addition, the time dependences of the decay in the ballistic coagulation reaction when {ital p}={ital q} and the diffusion-limited coagulation reaction are also identical, but for different physical reasons. The reason for this becomes transparent by rederiving the ballistic coagulation results using a random-walk formalism, which can perhaps be generalized to more complicated ballistic reactions.

  17. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Vigsnæs, L K; Brynskov, J; Steenholdt, C; Wilcks, A; Licht, T R

    2012-12-01

    Detailed knowledge about the composition of the intestinal microbiota may be critical to unravel the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease, since the intestinal microbes are expected to influence some of the key mechanisms involved in the inflammatory process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even with the relatively low number of subjects in each group, we were able to detect a statistically significant underrepresentation of Lactobacillus spp. and Akkermansia muciniphila in UC patients with clinically active disease compared to the healthy controls. In line with previous communications, we have shown that the microbiota in UC patients with active disease differ from that in healthy controls. Our findings indicate that alterations in the composition of the Gram-negative bacterial population, as well as reduced numbers of lactobacilli and A. muciniphila may play a role in UC.

  18. Effectiveness of Active Packaging on Control of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Total Aerobic Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2015-06-01

    Contaminated leafy green vegetables have been linked to several outbreaks of human gastrointestinal infections. Antimicrobial interventions that are adoptable by the fresh produce industry for control of pathogen contamination are in great demand. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of sustained active packaging on control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria on lettuce. Commercial Iceberg lettuce was inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2) or 10(4) CFU/g. The contaminated lettuce and un-inoculated controls were placed respectively in 5 different active packaging structures. Traditional, nonactive packaging structure was included as controls. Packaged lettuce was stored at 4, 10, or 22 °C for 3 wk and sampled weekly for the population of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria. Results showed that packaging structures with ClO2 generator, CO2 generator, or one of the O2 scavengers effectively controlled the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria under all storage conditions. Packaging structure with the ClO2 generator was most effective and no E. coli O157:H7 was detected in samples packaged in this structure except for those that were inoculated with 4 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 22 °C. Packaging structures with an oxygen scavenger and the allyl isothiocyanate generator were mostly ineffective in control of the growth of the bacteria on Iceberg lettuce. The research suggests that some of the packaging structures evaluated in the study can be used to control the presence of foodborne pathogens on leafy green vegetables. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Common Virulence Factors and Tissue Targets of Entomopathogenic Bacteria for Biological Control of Lepidopteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Anaïs; Stock, S. Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on common insecticidal virulence factors from entomopathogenic bacteria with special emphasis on two insect pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus (Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus (Firmicutes: Bacillaceae). Insect pathogenic bacteria of diverse taxonomic groups and phylogenetic origin have been shown to have striking similarities in the virulence factors they produce. It has been suggested that the detection of phage elements surrounding toxin genes, horizontal and lateral gene transfer events, and plasmid shuffling occurrences may be some of the reasons that virulence factor genes have so many analogs throughout the bacterial kingdom. Comparison of virulence factors of Photorhabdus, and Bacillus, two bacteria with dissimilar life styles opens the possibility of re-examining newly discovered toxins for novel tissue targets. For example, nematodes residing in the hemolymph may release bacteria with virulence factors targeting neurons or neuromuscular junctions. The first section of this review focuses on toxins and their context in agriculture. The second describes the mode of action of toxins from common entomopathogens and the third draws comparisons between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fourth section reviews the implications of the nervous system in biocontrol. PMID:24634779

  20. Common Virulence Factors and Tissue Targets of Entomopathogenic Bacteria for Biological Control of Lepidopteran Pests.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Anaïs; Stock, S Patricia

    2014-01-06

    This review focuses on common insecticidal virulence factors from entomopathogenic bacteria with special emphasis on two insect pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus (Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus (Firmicutes: Bacillaceae). Insect pathogenic bacteria of diverse taxonomic groups and phylogenetic origin have been shown to have striking similarities in the virulence factors they produce. It has been suggested that the detection of phage elements surrounding toxin genes, horizontal and lateral gene transfer events, and plasmid shuffling occurrences may be some of the reasons that virulence factor genes have so many analogs throughout the bacterial kingdom. Comparison of virulence factors of Photorhabdus, and Bacillus, two bacteria with dissimilar life styles opens the possibility of re-examining newly discovered toxins for novel tissue targets. For example, nematodes residing in the hemolymph may release bacteria with virulence factors targeting neurons or neuromuscular junctions. The first section of this review focuses on toxins and their context in agriculture. The second describes the mode of action of toxins from common entomopathogens and the third draws comparisons between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fourth section reviews the implications of the nervous system in biocontrol.

  1. More Efficient Media Design for Enhanced Biofouling Control in a Membrane Bioreactor: Quorum Quenching Bacteria Entrapping Hollow Cylinder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang H; Lee, Seonki; Lee, Kibaek; Nahm, Chang H; Kwon, Hyeokpil; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Won, Young-June; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Chung-Hak; Park, Pyung-Kyu

    2016-08-16

    Recently, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria entrapping beads have been reported as a new paradigm in biofouling control because, unlike conventional post-biofilm control methods, bacterial QQ can inhibit biofilm formation through its combined effects of physical scouring of the membrane and inhibition of quorum sensing (QS). In this study, using a special reporter strain (Escherichia coli JB525), the interaction between QS signal molecules and quorum quenching bacteria entrapping beads (QQ-beads) was elucidated through visualization of the QS signal molecules within a QQ-bead using a fluorescence microscope. As a result, under the conditions considered in this study, the surface area of QQ-media was likely to be a dominant parameter in enhancing QQ activity over total mass of entrapped QQ bacteria because QQ bacteria located near the core of a QQ-bead were unable to display their QQ activities. On the basis of this information, a more efficient QQ-medium, a QQ hollow cylinder (QQ-HC), was designed and prepared. In batch experiments, QQ-HCs showed greater QQ activity than QQ-beads as a result of their higher surface area and enhanced physical washing effect because of their larger impact area against the membrane surface. Furthermore, it was shown that such advantages of QQ-HCs resulted in more effective mitigation of membrane fouling than from QQ-beads in lab-scale continuous MBRs.

  2. Biological control of broad-leaved dock infestation in wheat using plant antagonistic bacteria under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Tasawar; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair

    2017-06-01

    Conventional weed management systems have produced many harmful effects on weed ecology, human health and environment. Biological control of invasive weeds may be helpful to minimize these harmful effects and economic losses incurred to crops by weeds. In our earlier studies, plant antagonistic bacteria were obtained after screening a large number of rhizobacteria for production of phytotoxic substances and effects on wheat and its associated weeds under laboratory conditions. In this study, five efficient strains inhibitory to broad-leaved dock and non-inhibitory to wheat were selected and applied to broad-leaved dock co-seeded with wheat both in pot trial and chronically infested field trial. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria on the weed and infested wheat were studied at tillering, booting and harvesting stage of wheat. The applied strains significantly inhibited the germination and growth of the weed to variable extent. Similarly, variable recovery in losses of grain and straw yield of infested wheat from 11.6 to 68 and 13 to 72.6% was obtained in pot trial while from 17.3 to 62.9 and 22.4 to 71.3% was obtained in field trial, respectively. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria were also evident from the improvement in physiology and nutrient contents of infested wheat. This study suggests the use of these plant antagonistic bacteria to biologically control infestation of broad-leaved dock in wheat under field conditions.

  3. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p<0.001 for all variables except for PT; p=0.08). Elderly age (>50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  4. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-06

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.

  5. Coagulants modulate the antioxidant properties & hypocholesterolemic effect of tofu (curdled soymilk).

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Ekperigin, M M; Akindahunsi, A A

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase in Soymilk and tofu (coagulated soymilk) consumption especially in Western Country is due to the recognition of the health benefits of soy foods; consumption of soybean would prevent heart diseases. In Nigeria Calcium salt, alum and steep water from pap production are usually used as coagulant in tofu production. The effect of those coagulants on the antioxidant properties of tofu and serum cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level of albino rats fed tofu for 14 days is been assessed. The result of the study revealed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the tofu yield (17.6-18.3%), however steep water coagulated tofu had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) total phenol (12.0 g/kg) content, reducing power (0.6 OD700) and DPPH free radical scavenging ability (69.1%) than tofu produced using other coagulants. Furthermore, feeding albino rats with tofu and water ad libitum for 14 days caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the serum cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins when compared with the control, while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the average daily feed intake of the rats. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the serum high-density lipoproteins when compared with the control. However, rats fed steep water coagulated tofu had the lowest serum level of cholesterol and LDL level followed by those fed CaCl2 and alum coagulated tofu respectively, while those fed with calcium chloride coagulated tofu had the highest serum HDL level, and closely followed by those fed steep water coagulated tofu. It was therefore concluded that of all the coagulant, steep water appeared to be the most promising coagulant with regard to the production of tofu with higher antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect.

  6. Characteristics of meso-particles formed in coagulation process causing irreversible membrane fouling in the coagulation-microfiltration water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Q; Yamamura, H; Murata, N; Aoki, N; Yonekawa, H; Hafuka, A; Watanabe, Y

    2016-09-15

    In coagulation-membrane filtration water treatment processes, it is still difficult to determine the optimal coagulation condition to minimize irreversible membrane fouling. In microfiltration (MF), meso-particles (i.e., 20 nm-0.5 μm) are thought to play an important role in irreversible membrane fouling, especially their characteristics of particle number (PN) and zeta potential (ZP). In this study, a new nanoparticle tracker combined a high-output violet laser with a microscope was developed to identify the physicochemical characteristics of these microscopic and widely dispersed meso-particles. The effects of pH and coagulant dose on ZP and PN of micro-particles (i.e., >0.5 μm) and meso-particles were investigated, and then coagulation-MF tests were conducted. As the result, irreversible membrane fouling was best controlled for both types of membranes, while meso-particle ZP approached zero at around pH 5.5 for both types of natural water. Since PN was greatest under these conditions, ZP is more important in determining the extent of irreversible membrane fouling than PN. However, the acidic condition to neutralize meso-particles is not suitable for actual operation, as considering residual aluminum concentration, pipe corrosion, and chlorination efficiency. It is therefore necessary to investigate coagulants or other methods for the appropriate modification of meso-particle characteristics.

  7. Getting into shape: How do rod-like bacteria control their geometry?

    PubMed

    Amir, Ariel; van Teeffelen, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Rod-like bacteria maintain their cylindrical shapes with remarkable precision during growth. However, they are also capable to adapt their shapes to external forces and constraints, for example by growing into narrow or curved confinements. Despite being one of the simplest morphologies, we are still far from a full understanding of how shape is robustly regulated, and how bacteria obtain their near-perfect cylindrical shapes with excellent precision. However, recent experimental and theoretical findings suggest that cell-wall geometry and mechanical stress play important roles in regulating cell shape in rod-like bacteria. We review our current understanding of the cell wall architecture and the growth dynamics, and discuss possible candidates for regulatory cues of shape regulation in the absence or presence of external constraints. Finally, we suggest further future experimental and theoretical directions which may help to shed light on this fundamental problem.

  8. Top-down controls on bacterial community structure: microbial network analysis of bacteria, T4-like viruses and protists.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Kim, Diane Y; Sachdeva, Rohan; Caron, David A; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2014-04-01

    Characterizing ecological relationships between viruses, bacteria and protists in the ocean are critical to understanding ecosystem function, yet these relationships are infrequently investigated together. We evaluated these relationships through microbial association network analysis of samples collected approximately monthly from March 2008 to January 2011 in the surface ocean (0-5 m) at the San Pedro Ocean Time series station. Bacterial, T4-like myoviral and protistan communities were described by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding the major capsid protein (g23) and 18S ribosomal DNA, respectively. Concurrent shifts in community structure suggested similar timing of responses to environmental and biological parameters. We linked T4-like myoviral, bacterial and protistan operational taxonomic units by local similarity correlations, which were then visualized as association networks. Network links (correlations) potentially represent synergistic and antagonistic relationships such as viral lysis, grazing, competition or other interactions. We found that virus-bacteria relationships were more cross-linked than protist-bacteria relationships, suggestive of increased taxonomic specificity in virus-bacteria relationships. We also found that 80% of bacterial-protist and 74% of bacterial-viral correlations were positive, with the latter suggesting that at monthly and seasonal timescales, viruses may be following their hosts more often than controlling host abundance.

  9. Physiological and hydrological controls on mineral redox cycling by long-range electron transport by bacteria in anaerobic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, K.; Werth, C. J.; Sanford, R. A.; Valocchi, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The cycling of iron and manganese oxides plays a critical role in the bioavailability of trace elements and macronutrients, the flux of carbon across terrestrial and atmospheric ecosystems, and the remediation of groundwater contaminated by toxic metals and radionuclides. Bacteria control one half of the redox cycle as the primary drivers of iron and manganese reduction in anaerobic soils and sediments. However, Fe(III) and Mn(IV) are almost exclusively present under anaerobic conditions as insoluble oxides, the reduction of which are facilitated by extracellular electron transport via conductive `nanowires', electron shuttling, and direct contact with outer membrane cytochromes. Our research focus is on the relative contribution of nanowires and electron shuttles under different physiological and hydrological conditions, which remains unexplored. We present a novel microfluidic platform that allows us to directly observe these phenomena under a controlled environment representative of groundwater conditions, monitor the metabolic activity and redox state of bacteria, and determine the presence of reduced products in-situ using Raman spectroscopy. Using Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella oneidensis as model metal-reducing bacteria, and insoluble manganese dioxide (i.e. birnessite) as an electron acceptor, we show that 1) electron shuttling is more effective under static conditions 2) the presence of exogenous shuttles allows efficient electron transport under all flow regimes 3) redox potential of the bulk medium exerts significant control over reduction by both nanowires and electron shuttles 4) shuttling is amplified by orders of magnitude in nanopores.

  10. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater - results, quality control, and interpretation methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes large enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bac...

  11. Culturable bacteria from plum fruit surfaces and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit microflora has been the richest source of antagonists against fruit decays and the active ingredient in all currently available commercial biocontrol products. A comprehensive evaluation of plum bacteria for biocontrol activity against Monilinia fructicola, causing brown rot of stone fruit, w...

  12. Resident bacteria of plums and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit microflora has been the richest source of antagonists against fruit decays and the active ingredient in all currently available commercial biocontrol products. A comprehensive evaluation of plum bacteria for biocontrol activity against Monilinia fructicola, causing brown rot of stone fruit, w...

  13. Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Fioreze, Gabriela Tondolo; Anjos, Margarida; Baltazar, Célia; Elias, Ana Paula; Itskov, Pavel M.; Piper, Matthew D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food. Furthermore, commensal bacteria buffer the animal from the lack of dietary eAAs: both increased yeast appetite and decreased reproduction induced by eAA deprivation are rescued by the presence of commensals. Surprisingly, these effects do not seem to be due to changes in AA titers, suggesting that gut bacteria act through a different mechanism to change behavior and reproduction. Thus, eAAs and commensal bacteria are potent modulators of feeding decisions and reproductive output. This demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavioral decisions and life history traits. PMID:28441450

  14. Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Leitão-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Carvalho-Santos, Zita; Francisco, Ana Patrícia; Fioreze, Gabriela Tondolo; Anjos, Margarida; Baltazar, Célia; Elias, Ana Paula; Itskov, Pavel M; Piper, Matthew D W; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food. Furthermore, commensal bacteria buffer the animal from the lack of dietary eAAs: both increased yeast appetite and decreased reproduction induced by eAA deprivation are rescued by the presence of commensals. Surprisingly, these effects do not seem to be due to changes in AA titers, suggesting that gut bacteria act through a different mechanism to change behavior and reproduction. Thus, eAAs and commensal bacteria are potent modulators of feeding decisions and reproductive output. This demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavioral decisions and life history traits.

  15. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  16. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of foodborne pathogens and soft-rot bacteria on bell pepper by three strains of bacterial antagonists.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ching-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    Forty-two representative strains of native bacteria associated with fresh peeled baby carrots were isolated and characterized. Two of these strains, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens AG3A (Pf AG3A) and Bacillus YD1, were evaluated in conjunction with another known antagonist, P. fluorescens 2-79 (Pf 2-79), for their potential as biocontrol agents of human pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7) and soft-rot bacteria (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Pseudomonas marginalis, and Pseudomonas viridiflava). When grown on iron-deficient agar media, all three antagonists produced inhibition zones up to 25 mm in diameter against the growth of human pathogens and soft-rot bacteria. However, when grown on iron-rich agar media, only Pf 2-79 and Bacillus YD1 exhibited antimicrobial activity. Treatment of bell pepper disks with Pf 2-79 or Bacillus YD1 reduced the growth of pathogen by 1.4 to 4.1 log units, depending upon the ratio of the number of antagonist cells to pathogen cells (1:1, 10:1, 100:1, or 1,000:1). The greatest reduction was observed when 10- to 100-fold higher number of antagonists than pathogens was applied. Pf AG3A and Bacillus YD1 reduced the growth of pathogens on pepper disks at 20 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C. However, Pf 2-79 reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica by up to 4 log units at either 20 or 10 degrees C. Treatment of pepper disks with Pf 2-79 also reduced the incidence of soft rot induced by soft-rot bacteria by 40 to 70%. Pf 2-79 is the most effective of the three antagonists tested for control of spoilage bacteria and human pathogens on bell pepper.

  18. Microbiological and biochemical profile of cv. Conservolea naturally black olives during controlled fermentation with selected strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panagou, Efstathios Z; Schillinger, Ulrich; Franz, Charles M A P; Nychas, George-John E

    2008-04-01

    The effect of controlled fermentation processes on the microbial association and biochemical profile of cv. Conservolea naturally black olives processed by the traditional anaerobic method was studied. The different treatments included (a) inoculation with a commercial starter culture of Lactobacillus pentosus, (b) inoculation with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a fermented cassava product and (c) uninoculated spontaneous process. Microbial growth, pH, titratable acidity, organic acids and volatile compounds were monitored throughout the fermentation. The initial microbiota consisted of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria was evident in all processes. Both starter cultures were effective in establishing an accelerated fermentation process and reduced the survival period of Gram-negative bacteria by 5 days compared with the spontaneous process, minimizing thus the likelihood of spoilage. Higher acidification of the brines was observed in inoculated processes without any significant difference between the two selected starter cultures (113.5 and 117.6mM for L. plantarum and L. pentosus, respectively). L. pentosus was also determined as the major species present during the whole process of spontaneous olive fermentation. It is characteristic that lactic acid fermentation was also initiated rapidly in the spontaneous process, as the conditions of fermentation, mainly the low salt level (6%, w/v) favored the dominance of lactic acid bacteria over yeasts. Lactic, acetic and propionic were the organic acids detected by HPLC in considerable amounts, whereas citric and malic acids were also present at low levels and degraded completely during the processes. Ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate were the major volatile compounds identified by GC. Their concentrations varied among the different treatments, reflecting varying degrees of microbial activity in the brines. The results obtained

  19. Blood and coagulation support in trauma care.

    PubMed

    Hess, John R

    2007-01-01

    Injuries are common and account for almost 15% of all blood use in the U.S. The historic view that the coagulopathy associated with severe injury was largely dilutional is being replaced by epidemiologic and molecular evidence for a distinct syndrome of trauma-associated coagulopathy. This coagulopathy of trauma is the sum of the effects of blood loss and dilution, coagulation factor and platelet consumption, hypothermic platelet dysfunction and acidosis-induced decreases in coagulation factor activity, and fibrinolysis. Preventing the coagulopathy of trauma is best accomplished by preventing injury and hypothermia. Treating the coagulopathy of trauma requires its early recognition, prompt control of hemorrhage with local and systemic treatments, including in some patients the use of plasma instead of crystalloid solutions, and the prompt treatment of acidosis and hypothermia. The planned early use of allogenic plasma to treat many tens of thousands of massively transfused patients each year creates new demands for the immediate availability and improved safety of plasma products.

  20. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  1. Investigations on bacteria as a potential biological control agent of summer chafer, Amphimallon solstitiale L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Sezen, Kazim; Demir, Ismail; Kati, Hatice; Demirbag, Zihni

    2005-10-01

    Studying the bacteria of hazardous insects allows the opportunity to find potentially better biological control agents. Therefore, in this study, bacteria from summer chafer (Amphimallon solstitiale L., Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) we isolated and identified the insecticidal effects of bacteria isolated from A. solstitiale and Melolontha melolontha L. (common cockchafer, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the mixtures of these bacterial isolates were investigated on A. solstitiale larvae. Crystals from Bacillus sp. isolated from M. melolontha were also purified, and tested against the second and third-stage larvae of A. solstitiale. The bacterial isolates of A. solstitiale were identified as Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus, based on their morphology, spore formation, nutritional features, and physiological and biochemical characteristics. The insecticidal effects of the bacterial isolates determined on the larvae of A. solstitiale were 90% with B. cereus isolated from A. solstitiale, and 75% with B. cereus, B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis isolated from M. melolontha within ten days. The highest insecticidal effects of the mixed infections on the larvae of A. solstitiale were 100% both with B. cereus+B. sphaericus and with B. cereus+B. thuringiensis. In the crystal protein bioassays, the highest insecticidal effect was 65% with crystals of B. thuringiensis and B. sphaericus isolated from M. melolontha within seven days. Finally, our results showed that the mixed infections could be utilized as microbial control agents, as they have a 100% insecticidal effect on the larvae of A. solstitiale.

  2. [Combined use of active chlorine and coagulants for drinking water purification and disinfection].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Zholdakova, Z I; Poliakova, E E; Kir'ianova, L F; Miasnikov, I N; Tul'skaia, E A; Artemova, T Z; Ivanova, L V; Dmitrieva, R A; Doskina, T V

    2004-01-01

    The authors made an experimental study of the efficiency of water purification procedures based on the combined use of active chlorine and coagulants and hygienically evaluated the procedures. The study included the evaluation of water disinfection with various coagulants and active chlorine; the investigation of the processes of production of deleterious organic chlorine compounds; the assessment of the quality of water after its treatment. The coagulants representing aluminum polyoxychloride: RAX-10 (AQUA-AURATE 10) and RAX-18 (AQUA-AURATE 18), and aluminum sulfate, technically pure grade were tested. The treatment of river water with the coagulants RAX-10 and RAX-18, followed by precipitation, filtration, and chlorination under laboratory conditions, was shown to result in water disinfection to the levels complying with the requirements described in SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01. RAX-18 showed the best disinfecting activity against total and heat-tolerant coliform bacteria, but also to the highly chlorine-resistant microrganisms--the spores of sulfite-reducing Clostridia, phages, and viruses. Since the coagulants have an increased sorptive capacity relative to humus and other organic substances, substitution of primary chlorination for coagulant treatment may induce a reduction in the risk of formation of oncogenically and mutagenically hazardous chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  3. [In vitro control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Gaeumannomyces graminis by bacteria of the fluorescent Pseudomonas group].

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Y E; Laich, F S; Navarro, C A

    1993-01-01

    Thirty six fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere of sunflower plants. By antibiosis tests, the six more efficient strains in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum growth inhibition, were selected. Simultaneously, twenty three fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates were recuperated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants and the five most efficient strains in growth inhibition of the fungi Gaeumannomyces graminis were selected. The strains selected from the rhizosphere of sunflower plants had no antagonistic effect on G. graminis and the bacteria isolated from the wheat rhizosphere showed no fungistatic activity on S. sclerotiorum. These results suggest the existence of a certain degree of plant bacteria pathogenic specificity. Among the selected bacteria, the strain FF5 of P. fluorescens originated the major inhibiting halo in vitro against S. sclerotiorum (Figure 1). In liquid culture medium this bacterium produces an antifungal substance that promotes lysis of fungi mycelium (Figure 2) and inhibition of ascospore germination and is not inhibited by the presence of Fe+3 in the culture medium (Table 1). Its synthesis is not associated with the production of fluorescein. Its action is not enzymatic because it is a substance of low molecular weight (< 2000), resistant to autoclave sterilization and photo-stable. The amount of NH4+ and the high pH values produced by the FF5 strain in the liquid culture medium (Table 2) are not responsible for the antifungalal action.

  4. The reciprocal relationship between inflammation and coagulation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Mauria

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation and coagulation constitute two host defense systems with complementary roles in eliminating invading pathogens, limiting tissue damage, and restoring homeostasis. Extensive cross talk exists between these 2 systems, whereby inflammation leads to activation of coagulation, and coagulation considerably affects inflammatory activity. Infection leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines that, in turn, stimulate the production of tissue factor. Activation of the coagulation system and ensuing thrombin generation are dependent on the expression of tissue factor. Conversely, activated coagulation proteases may affect specific receptors on inflammatory cells and endothelial cells and thereby modulate the inflammatory response. Activation of coagulation with the simultaneous down-regulation of endothelial-bound anticoagulant mechanisms and endogenous fibrinolysis characterizes the pathophysiology of sepsis. The mechanisms by which these highly complex and codependent defense strategies are linked together both in health and disease is the focus of this review.

  5. Simulation of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Smoczynski, L; Bukowski, Z; Wardzynska, R; Zaleska-Chrost, B; Dluzynska, K

    2009-04-01

    The computer program ZB2 was used to study simulated coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. The effect of the initial velocity of soil particles on the values of reaction-rate constants was investigated. In this respect, the results obtained with the program ZB2 corresponded to the theory and realities of coagulation carried out under practical conditions. The effect of coagulant excess/deficiency on the formation of the first floc and on the rate of coagulation of 50% of a soil was also estimated. An increase in simulated coagulant excess caused a decrease in the simulated rate of soil coagulation. In this respect, the results obtained with the program ZB2 did not correspond to the realities of coagulation carried out under practical conditions. An attempt was made to explain this inconsistency referring to the coagulation-flocculation theory. The simulation program ZB2 may provide a basis for developing "local" programs simulating coagulation-flocculation, which can be successfully applied at wastewater treatment plants.

  6. Change of coagulation parameters after double plateletpheresis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mustafa; Dikmen, Tamer; Sonmez, Mehmet; Akdogan, Elif; Durmus, Ahmet; Omay, Serdar Bedii; Ovali, Ercument

    2007-10-01

    In the previous studies, some authors reported that automated apheresis leads to a hypercoagulable state. We tried to find out changes in coagulation parameters after double plateletpheresis in this study. Forty-five donors were recruited to the study, and coagulation parameters were assessed before and after double plateletpheresis. After double plateletpheresis, fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII and factor IX were decreased compared with the values before apheresis. Although serum levels of this coagulation parameters are decreasing, they are still in the normal limits. Therefore, we suggest that double plateletpheresis is a safe procedure for healthy volunteers taking into account these coagulation parameters.

  7. Coagulation in patients with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel; Poll, Tom van der

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of patients with severe sepsis, systemic activation of coagulation is present. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between coagulation and inflammation that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation, but coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. Molecular pathways that contribute to inflammation-induced activation of coagulation have been precisely identified. Proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators are capable of activating the coagulation system and downregulating important physiological anticoagulant pathways. Activation of the coagulation system and ensuing thrombin generation is dependent on expression of tissue factor on activated mononuclear cells and endothelial cells, and is insufficiently counteracted by TFPI. Simultaneously, endothelial-bound anticoagulant mechanism, in particular the protein C system, is shutoff by proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, fibrin removal is severely inhibited, because of inactivation of the fibrinolytic system, caused by an upregulation of its main inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Increased fibrin formation and impaired removal lead to (micro)vascular thrombosis, which may result in tissue ischemia and subsequent organ damage. The cornerstone of the management of coagulation in sepsis is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying disorder. Strategies aimed at the inhibition of coagulation activation may theoretically be justified and have been found beneficial in experimental and initial clinical studies. Heparin may be an effective anticoagulant approach and alternative strategies comprise restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways.

  8. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis.

  9. Efficacy of Papacarie® in reduction of residual bacteria in deciduous teeth: a randomized, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Campanelli, Ana Paula; da Silva, André Luis; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; de Lima Navarro, Maria Fidela

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of Papacarie® gel compared with the traditional method (low-speed bur) in reducing the counts of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, total Streptococcus and Streptococcus mutans group. METHODS: A randomized, controlled clinical trial with a split-mouth design was performed. The sample comprised 40 deciduous teeth in 20 children (10 males and 10 females) aged four to seven years. The teeth were randomly allocated to two groups: G1, or chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo®, and G2, or the removal of carious dentin tissue with a low-speed bur. Infected dentin was collected prior to the procedure, and the remaining dentin was collected immediately following the removal of the carious tissue. Initial and final counts of bacterial colonies were performed to determine whether there was a reduction in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) of each microorganism studied. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01811420. RESULTS: Reductions were found in the numbers of total bacteria, total Streptococcus and Streptococcus mutans group following either of the caries removal methods (p<0.05). A reduction was also noted in the number of Lactobacillus CFUs; however, this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Papacarie® is an excellent option for the minimally invasive removal of carious tissue, achieving significant reductions in total bacteria, total Streptococcus and S. mutans with the same effectiveness as the traditional caries removal method. PMID:24838896

  10. Efficacy of Papacarie(®) in reduction of residual bacteria in deciduous teeth: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Silva, André Luis da; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal de; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of Papacarie(®) gel compared with the traditional method (low-speed bur) in reducing the counts of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, total Streptococcus and Streptococcus mutans group. A randomized, controlled clinical trial with a split-mouth design was performed. The sample comprised 40 deciduous teeth in 20 children (10 males and 10 females) aged four to seven years. The teeth were randomly allocated to two groups: G1, or chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo(®), and G2, or the removal of carious dentin tissue with a low-speed bur. Infected dentin was collected prior to the procedure, and the remaining dentin was collected immediately following the removal of the carious tissue. Initial and final counts of bacterial colonies were performed to determine whether there was a reduction in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) of each microorganism studied. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01811420. Reductions were found in the numbers of total bacteria, total Streptococcus and Streptococcus mutans group following either of the caries removal methods (p<0.05). A reduction was also noted in the number of Lactobacillus CFUs; however, this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p>0.05). Papacarie(®) is an excellent option for the minimally invasive removal of carious tissue, achieving significant reductions in total bacteria, total Streptococcus and S. mutans with the same effectiveness as the traditional caries removal method.

  11. The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Loof, Torsten G.; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus, provides a remarkable example of the extraordinary capacity of pathogens to exploit the host hemostatic system to support microbial survival and dissemination. The coagulation cascade comprises the contact system (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), both leading to fibrin formation. During the early phase of S. pyogenes infection, the activation of the contact system eventually leads to bacterial entrapment within a fibrin clot, where S. pyogenes is immobilized and killed. However, entrapped S. pyogenes can circumvent the antimicrobial effect of the clot by sequestering host plasminogen on the bacterial cell surface that, after conversion into its active proteolytic form, plasmin, degrades the fibrin network and facilitates the liberation of S. pyogenes from the clot. Furthermore, the surface-localized fibrinolytic activity also cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, thereby enabling S. pyogenes to migrate across barriers and disseminate within the host. This review summarizes the knowledge gained during the last two decades on the role of coagulation/fibrinolysis in host defense against S. pyogenes as well as the strategies developed by this pathogen to evade and exploit these host mechanisms for its own benefit. PMID:25309880

  12. Coagulation state in patients with Crohn's disease: the effect of infliximab therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Ge; Wang, Jinghui; Liu, Shi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Liping; Wu, Ting; Huang, Meifang; Li, Jin; Song, Lu; Xia, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Growing evidence has shown that coagulation processes play an important role in disease pathogenesis and/or disease progression in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, no study has ever focused on the possible influence of infliximab (IFX) therapy on the coagulation status in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). To investigate the difference in the coagulation biomarkers between the CD patients and the control participants, and evaluate the impact of IFX usage on the coagulation status of CD patients. A retrospective study that included a case-control study and a self-control study was designed. The medical records of CD patients and control participants were evaluated according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of laboratory tests including blood routine, coagulation, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were retrieved to assess the coagulation state. In the case-control study, almost all the parameters showed a statistically significant difference between the CD patients and the control participants, except for activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time (the P value ranged from 0.000 to 0.002). Most of the values of the parameters reverted to normal over time during IFX therapy in the self-control study. Moreover, the fibrinogen concentration decreased obviously after IFX infusion (P=0.000) and the D-dimer concentration also decreased obviously by about half of the start value after IFX usage (P=0.018). IFX therapy could ameliorate the hypercoagulable state in patients with CD.

  13. A plasma proteolysis pathway comprising blood coagulation proteases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Li, Yun; Bhattacharya, Arup; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2016-07-05

    Coagulation factors are essential for hemostasis. Here, we show that these factors also team up to degrade plasma proteins that are unrelated to hemostasis. Prolidase, SRC and amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42) are used as probes. Each probe, upon entering the blood circulation, binds and activates factor XII (FXII), triggering the intrinsic and common coagulation cascades, which in turn activate factor VII, a component of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. Activated factor VII (FVIIa) rapidly degrades the circulating probes. Therefore, FXII and FVIIa serve as the sensor/initiator and executioner, respectively, for the proteolysis pathway. Moreover, activation of this pathway by one probe leads to the degradation of all three probes. Significant activation of this pathway follows tissue injury and may also occur in other disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, of which Aβ1-42 is a key driver. However, enoxaparin, a clinically used anticoagulant, inhibits the proteolysis pathway and elevates plasma levels of the probes. Enoxaparin may also mitigate potential impact of activators of the proteolysis pathway on coagulation. Our results suggest that the proteolysis pathway is important for maintaining low levels of various plasma proteins. Our finding that enoxaparin inhibits this pathway provides a means to control it. Inhibition of this pathway may facilitate the development of disease biomarkers and protein therapeutics, e.g., plasma Aβ1-42 as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease or recombinant human prolidase as an antitumor agent.

  14. Extracellular RNA constitutes a natural procoagulant cofactor in blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Kannemeier, Christian; Shibamiya, Aya; Nakazawa, Fumie; Trusheim, Heidi; Ruppert, Clemens; Markart, Philipp; Song, Yutong; Tzima, Eleni; Kennerknecht, Elisabeth; Niepmann, Michael; von Bruehl, Marie-Luise; Sedding, Daniel; Massberg, Steffen; Günther, Andreas; Engelmann, Bernd; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2007-01-01

    Upon vascular injury, locally controlled haemostasis prevents life-threatening blood loss and ensures wound healing. Intracellular material derived from damaged cells at these sites will become exposed to blood components and could contribute to blood coagulation and pathological thrombus formation. So far, the functional and mechanistic consequences of this concept are not understood. Here, we present in vivo and in vitro evidence that different forms of eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA serve as promoters of blood coagulation. Extracellular RNA was found to augment (auto-)activation of proteases of the contact phase pathway of blood coagulation such as factors XII and XI, both exhibiting strong RNA binding. Moreover, administration of exogenous RNA provoked a significant procoagulant response in rabbits. In mice that underwent an arterial thrombosis model, extracellular RNA was found associated with fibrin-rich thrombi, and pretreatment with RNase (but not DNase) significantly delayed occlusive thrombus formation. Thus, extracellular RNA derived from damaged or necrotic cells particularly under pathological conditions or severe tissue damage represents the long sought natural “foreign surface” and provides a procoagulant cofactor template for the factors XII/XI-induced contact activation/amplification of blood coagulation. Extracellular RNA thereby reveals a yet unrecognized target for antithrombotic intervention, using RNase or related therapeutic strategies. PMID:17405864

  15. Genetic engineering and coagulation factors.

    PubMed

    Fass, D N; Toole, J J

    1985-06-01

    It is unfortunate that we cannot report, in the area of coagulation, advances that have been seen in related fields such as thrombolytic therapy. The reported progress (Gold et al, 1984; Van de Werf et al, 1984) with human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Pennica et al, 1983) augers well for the application of recombinant technology to the problems faced by patients with coagulation defects. While plasminogen activator is being assessed in an acute therapeutic setting, its use signals a beginning of the application of the technology to abnormalities of the haemostatic mechanism. Chronic administration of coagulation factors for prophylaxis and replacement therapy would appear to be just one more step down the pathway illuminated by the biochemists, microbiologists and cell biologists who have preceded the clinicians in this promising area. There is no record of the use of genetically engineered materials in the treatment of coagulation defects, primarily because the body of knowledge and refined techniques have only recently been acquired. For this reason we have had to project developments in other areas onto the problems that exist for the haemostatically compromised patient. In describing the potential usefulness of these technologies, it is difficult to ascertain where the logical projection, from a fully investigated model system, diverges from flights of imaginative fancy. Cloning projects considered overly ambitious and grandiose at the beginning of this decade are already accomplished feats. The feasibility of gene therapy in the mammalian system has been demonstrated, and trade publications now discuss governmental approval for investigative use of this procedure in 1985. Panels of physicians, scientists and even politicians now seriously contemplate and promulgate views and regulations pertaining to the efficacy and ethics of the use of genetic engineering in the treatment of human disease. The haemophilias will certainly be among the first

  16. Effects of ethanol intoxication and gender on blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, Nicholas; Underwood, Samantha; Differding, Jerome; Van, Phil; Sambasivan, Chitra; Shapiro, David; Schreiber, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication is a common contributor to traumatic injury. It is unknown whether ethanol consumption contributes to the coagulation differences seen between men and women after trauma. Our aim was to examine the combined effect of ethanol intoxication and gender on coagulation. Fifty-eight healthy subjects participated and chose to enter into a control group (CG; n = 20; 10 men and 10 women) or drinking group (DG; n = 38; 20 men and 18 women). Venous blood samples for thrombelastography, plasminogen activator inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and tissue plasminogen activator were drawn at the beginning of the study. Subjects then interacted in a social atmosphere for at least 2 hours, eating and consuming alcoholic (DG) or nonalcoholic (CG) beverages. After 2 hours, blood alcohol level was determined and blood was drawn for a second set of coagulation studies. Demographics were similar between groups except for age (36.7 years CG vs. 29.9 years DG; p = 0.009). All baseline thrombelastography measurements were similar between the CG and DG. Blood alcohol levels in the DG were similar between genders at the end of study. At the end of study, a decreased rate of fibrin formation, decreased clot strength, and a decreased rate of fibrin cross-linking was seen in men but not in women. Fibrinolysis was inhibited in drinkers compared with controls. Consumption of commonly ingested quantities of alcohol correlated with the development of a hypocoagulable state in men but had no effect on coagulation status in women. This phenomenon may contribute to differences in post-trauma coagulation status previously noted between genders.

  17. Tissue Adhesives for Battlefield Hemorrhage Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    solution of acetic acid will dissolve the coagulated fibrin and thrombin, thus releasing fibrin monomer. However, subsequent lyophilization of the solution...polymers used for controlled release systems are poly(DL- lactide co-glycolide) (PLGA), polymethylmethacrylate and polycyanoacrylates. All of these...against both bacteria and fungi. However, there appears to be several suitable combinations which can bridge the gap. One such pair is chlorhexidine

  18. Preparation and properties of hollow fiber membranes for removing virus and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung Moon; Chung, Youn Suk; Lee, Sun Yong; Nam, Sang Yong

    2014-12-01

    In this study, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane was successfully prepared by phase inversion method for separation of virus and bacteria. When we prepare the hollow fiber membrane, we controlled various factors such as the polymer concentration, air gap and internal coagulation to investigate effect to membrane property. Morphology of surface and cross section of membrane were measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Water flux of membrane was measured using test modules. Mean pore diameter of membrane was calculated using rejection of polystyrene (PS) latex beads for separation of virus and bacteria. Flux and mean flow pore diameter of prepared membrane show 800 L/mh, 0.03 μm at 1.0 kgf/cm2. The bacteria removal performance of prepared UF membranes was over 6 logs

  19. Biological Control of Chickpea Collar Rot by Co-inoculation of Antagonistic Bacteria and Compatible Rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Hameeda, B; Harini, G; Rupela, O P; Kumar Rao, J V D K; Reddy, Gopal

    2010-10-01

    Two hundred and seven bacteria were isolated from composts and macrofauna and screened for plant growth promoting and antagonistic traits. Seven of the 207 isolates showed antagonistic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii in plate culture. Inhibition of S. rolfsii by the bacterial isolates ranged between 61 and 84%. Two of the seven isolates were Bacillus sp. and rest belonged to Pseudomonas sp. Two isolates, Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35 and Pseudomonas sp. BWB 21 was compatible with chickpea Rhizobium sp. IC 59 and IC 76 in plate culture conditions. Increase in plant biomass (dry weight) ranged between 18 and 30% on application of these bacteria by seed coating and seed priming methods. However, by seed-priming there was an increase in plant biomass by 5-7% compared to seed coating. Number of nodules and the nodule weight was similar by both seed coating and seed priming methods. Disease incidence was reduced up to 47% in treatments where captan (fungicide) or antagonistic Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35 was applied. Increase in shoot weight was 36% by seed coating with Rhizobium sp. IC 59 and Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35 when compared to captan application. Whereas by seed priming with IC 59 and CDB 35 increased shoot weight by 3 and 39% increase in nodulation was observed.

  20. Gut Microbiota-Induced Immunoglobulin G Controls Systemic Infection by Symbiotic Bacteria and Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Melody Y; Cisalpino, Daniel; Varadarajan, Saranyaraajan; Hellman, Judith; Warren, H Shaw; Cascalho, Marilia; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-03-15

    The gut microbiota is compartmentalized in the intestinal lumen and induces local immune responses, but it remains unknown whether the gut microbiota can induce systemic response and contribute to systemic immunity. We report that selective gut symbiotic gram-negative bacteria were able to disseminate systemically to induce immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, which primarily targeted gram-negative bacterial antigens and conferred protection against systemic infections by E. coli and Salmonella by directly coating bacteria to promote killing by phagocytes. T cells and Toll-like receptor 4 on B cells were important in the generation of microbiota-specific IgG. We identified murein lipoprotein (MLP), a highly conserved gram-negative outer membrane protein, as a major antigen that induced systemic IgG homeostatically in both mice and humans. Administration of anti-MLP IgG conferred crucial protection against systemic Salmonella infection. Thus, our findings reveal an important function for the gut microbiota in combating systemic infection through the induction of protective IgG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gut Microbiota-Induced Immunoglobulin G Controls Systemic Infection by Symbiotic Bacteria and Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Melody Y.; Cisalpino, Daniel; Varadarajan, Saranyaraajan; Hellman, Judith; Warren, H. Shaw; Cascalho, Marilia; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is compartmentalized in the intestinal lumen and induces local immune responses, but it remains unknown whether the gut microbiota can induce systemic response and contribute to systemic immunity. We report that selective gut symbiotic gram-negative bacteria were able to disseminate systemically to induce immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, which primarily targeted gram-negative bacterial antigens and conferred protection against systemic infections by E. coli and Salmonella by directly coating bacteria to promote killing by phagocytes. T cells and Toll-like receptor 4 on B cells were important in the generation of microbiota-specific IgG. We identified murein lipoprotein (MLP), a highly conserved gram-negative outer membrane protein, as a major antigen that induced systemic IgG homeostatically in both mice and humans. Administration of anti-MLP IgG conferred crucial protection against systemic Salmonella infection. Thus, our findings reveal an important function for the gut microbiota in combating systemic infection through the induction of protective IgG. PMID:26944199

  2. The coagulation profile of preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Keren-Politansky, Anat; Breizman, Tatiana; Brenner, Benjamin; Sarig, Galit; Drugan, Arieh

    2014-04-01

    Hypercoagulation was suggested to be involved in preterm birth etiology; however, the coagulation state of preterm parturients remains unelucidated. The study aim was to evaluate the haemostatic system of pregnant women with premature uterine contractions (PUC). The cohort study population consisted of 76 healthy pregnant women admitted with regular PUC. The study group included 38 women who experienced preterm birth; 14 of them had preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The control group included 38 women who eventually had term delivery. Groups were matched for maternal age, number of births and gestational age at admission. Blood samples were tested for haemostatic parameters and coagulation activation markers. Significantly shorter PT and aPTT were documented in the study compared to control group (25.7±2 vs. 27.4±2.7seconds, P=0.003, and 9.96±0.5 vs. 10.1±0.4seconds, P=0.05, respectively), although differences in absolute values were small. There was no significant difference between the two groups in levels of: fibrinogen, D-dimer, protein C-global, free protein S antigen, factor VIII activity, Von Willebrand factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, prothrombin fragments F1+2 (PT F1+2), tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Women with PPROM had significantly lower PT F1+2 levels compared to those who had preterm delivery with intact membranes (351±99 vs. 561±242pmol/L, P=0.003). Shortened PT and aPTT, reflecting increased thrombotic activity in maternal plasma, could serve as a marker of real preterm labor in women with premature uterine contractions. Further prospective studies in a larger cohort are warranted to validate these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Saliva-Induced Clotting Captures Streptococci: Novel Roles for Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Host Defense and Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Tirthankar; Karlsson, Christofer; Mörgelin, Matthias; Frick, Inga-Maria; Malmström, Johan; Björck, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcal pharyngitis is among the most common bacterial infections, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the interactions among three major players in streptococcal pharyngitis: streptococci, plasma, and saliva. We find that saliva activates the plasma coagulation system through both the extrinsic and the intrinsic pathways, entrapping the bacteria in fibrin clots. The bacteria escape the clots by activating host plasminogen. Our results identify a potential function for the intrinsic pathway of coagulation in host defense and a corresponding role for fibrinolysis in streptococcal immune evasion. PMID:27456827

  4. Bacteria Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc.'s ATP Photometer makes a rapid and accurate count of the bacteria in a body fluid sample. Instrument provides information on the presence and quantity of bacteria by measuring the amount of light emitted by the reaction between two substances. Substances are ATP adenosine triphosphate and luciferase. The reactants are applied to a human body sample and the ATP Photometer observes the intensity of the light emitted displaying its findings in a numerical output. Total time lapse is usually less than 10 minutes, which represents a significant time savings in comparison of other techniques. Other applications are measuring organisms in fresh and ocean waters, determining bacterial contamination of foodstuffs, biological process control in the beverage industry, and in assay of activated sewage sludge.

  5. [Blood coagulation disorders in oncological patients].

    PubMed

    von Depka Prondzinski, M

    2005-01-01

    Patients with malignancies often experience acute disorders of coagulation. They may manifest as thromboembolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation or a tendency to bleed. Either disorder carries a high rate of complications and a difficult task in diagnosing and treating them. Some complications typical for patients with malignancies are discussed. Among these are tumor associated thrombophilia, acquired von Willebrand's disease, and thrombocytopenia.

  6. Envelope control of outer membrane vesicle production in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schwechheimer, Carmen; Sullivan, Claretta J; Kuehn, Meta J

    2013-05-07

    All Gram-negative bacteria studied to date have been shown to produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are budded, released spheres of outer membrane with periplasmic content. OMVs have been implicated in the delivery of virulence factors in pathogenesis. However, OMVs also benefit nonpathogenic species by delivering degradative enzymes to defend an ecological niche against competing bacterial species, and they can serve as an envelope stress response. Despite these important roles, very little is known about the mechanism of production of OMVs. Here we review the advantage of vesiculation, particularly in a nonpathogenic context, as well as the hurdles that have to be overcome in Gram-negative envelope architecture before a vesicle can form and bud. Lastly, we address the question of whether OMV production is a stochastic or regulated process.

  7. Why is co-infection with influenza virus and bacteria so difficult to control?

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Linda S.; Vella, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses are genetically labile pathogens which avoid immune detection by constantly changing their coat proteins. Most human infections are caused by mildly pathogenic viruses which rarely cause life-threatening disease in healthy people, but some individuals with a weakened immune system can experience severe complications. Widespread infections with highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus are less common, but have the potential to cause enormous death tolls among healthy adults if infection rates reach pandemic proportions. Increased virulence has been attributed to a variety of factors, including enhanced susceptibility to co-infection with common strains of bacteria. The mechanisms that facilitate dual infection are a major focus of current research, as preventative measures are needed to avert future pandemics PMID:25636959

  8. Ecofriendly control of potato late blight causative agent and the potential role of lactic acid bacteria: a review.

    PubMed

    Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Guo, Jiahui; Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    In times of increasing societal pressure to reduce the application of pesticides on crops, demands for environmentally friendly replacements have intensified. In the case of late blight, a devastating potato plant disease, the historically most widely known plant destroyer has been the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. To date, the most important strategy for control of this pathogen has been the frequent application of fungicides. Due to the aforementioned necessity to move away from traditional chemical treatments, many studies have focused on finding alternative ecofriendly biocontrol systems. In general, due to the different modes of actions (i.e. antagonistic effects or induction of plant defence mechanisms), the use of microorganisms as biological control agents has a definite potential. Amongst them, several species of lactic acid bacteria have been recognised as producers of bioactive metabolites which are functional against a broad spectrum of undesirable microorganisms, such as fungi, oomycetes and other bacteria. Thus, they may represent an interesting tool for the development of novel concepts in pest management. This review describes the present situation of late blight disease and summarises current literature regarding the biocontrol of the phytopathogen P. infestans using antagonistic microorganisms.

  9. Self-assembled molecular platforms for bacteria/material biointerface studies: importance to control functional group accessibility.

    PubMed

    Böhmler, Judith; Ponche, Arnaud; Anselme, Karine; Ploux, Lydie

    2013-11-13

    Highly controlled mixed molecular layers are crucial to study the role of material surface chemistry in biointerfaces, such as bacteria and subsequent biofilms interacting with biomaterials. Silanes with non-nucleophilic functional groups are promising to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) due to their low sensitivity to side-reactions. Nevertheless, the real control of surface chemistry, layer structure, and organization has not been determined. Here, we report a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of undecyltrichlorosilane- and 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane-based mixed SAMs on silicon substrates. The impact of the experimental conditions on the control of surface chemistry, layer structure, and organization was investigated by combining survey and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, wettability measurements, and ellipsometry. The most appropriate conditions were first determined for elaborating highly reproducible, but easily made, pure 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane SAMs. We have demonstrated that the control is maintained on more complex surfaces, i.e., surfaces revealing various chemical densities, which were obtained with different ratios of undecyltrichlorosilane and 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane. The control is also maintained after bromine to amine group conversion via SN2 bromine-to-azide reactions. The appropriateness of such highly controlled amino- and methyl-group revealing platforms (NH2-X%/CH3) for biointerface studies was shown by the higher reproducibility of bacterial adhesion on NH2-100%/CH3 SAMs compared to bacterial adhesion on molecular layers of overall similar surface chemistry but less control at the molecular scale.

  10. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between D-Dimer levels and histological subtypes of NSCLC, pointing an elevated plasma D-dimer level in squamous cell cancer (p = 0.035). Patients with extensive stage SCLC exhibited evidently higher levels of D-Dimer, INR and PLT (p = 0.037, p = 0.042, p = 0.04, respectively). Prolongation of PT and INR had statistically significant adverse effect on survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.014, respectively). Although prolonged aPTT and high levels of D-dimer was associated with worse survival, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.117, p = 0.104). Multivariate analysis revealed INR as the sole independent prognostic variable among coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  11. Immunoassays for diagnosis of coagulation disorders.

    PubMed

    Kappel, A; Ehm, M

    2010-11-01

    Immunoassays play a pivotal role in the clinical laboratory. In the coagulation section of the laboratory, they are used as an aid for diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, thrombophilia screening, or detection of coagulation factor deficiencies, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and latex agglutination immunoassay technologies are currently most widely used, while Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Immunoassay (LOCI®) and other chemiluminescence-based immunoassays are emerging technologies for the coagulation laboratory. However, not all immunoassay technologies employed are compatible with the workflow requirements of the coagulation laboratory, and, not all technologies are suitable for detection or quantification of every marker. This review focuses on technical and performance aspects of those immunoassay technologies that are most widely used in the coagulation laboratory, and provides a description of markers that are typically tested by immunoassays.

  12. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  13. Local Recurrence After Hepatic Radiofrequency Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Mulier, Stefaan; Ni, Yicheng; Jamart, Jacques; Ruers, Theo; Marchal, Guy; Michel, Luc

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence local recurrence after radiofrequency coagulation of liver tumors. Summary Background Data: Local recurrence rate varies widely between 2% and 60%. Apart from tumor size as an important risk factor for local recurrence, little is known about the impact of other factors. Methods: An exhaustive literature search was carried out for the period from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2004. Only series with a minimal follow-up of 6 months and/or mean follow-up of 12 months were included. Univariate and multivariate meta-analyses were carried out. Results: Ninety-five independent series were included, allowing the analysis of the local recurrence rate of 5224 treated liver tumors. In a univariate analysis, tumor-dependent factors with significantly less local recurrences were: smaller size, neuroendocrine metastases, nonsubcapsular location, and location away from large vessels. Physician-dependent favorable factors were: surgical (open or laparoscopic) approach, vascular occlusion, general anesthesia, a 1-cm intentional margin, and a greater physician experience. In a multivariate analysis, significantly less local recurrences were observed for small size (P < 0.001) and a surgical (versus percutaneous) approach (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Radiofrequency coagulation by laparoscopy or laparotomy results in superior local control, independent of tumor size. The percutaneous route should mainly be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate a laparoscopy or laparotomy. The short-term benefits of less invasiveness for the percutaneous route do not outweigh the longer-term higher risk of local recurrence. PMID:16041205

  14. Efficient synthesis of mosquitocidal toxins in Asticcacaulis excentricus demonstrates potential of gram-negative bacteria in mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Liu, J W; Yap, W H; Thanabalu, T; Porter, A G

    1996-03-01

    The control of mosquitoes with chemical insecticides pollutes the environment and leads to resistance in mosquito populations. Bacterial control of mosquito larvae with Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, which produce protein toxins, has proved useful, safe, and nonpolluting. These bacteria do, however, suffer from disadvantages, including rapid setting, UV sensitivity, and lack of persistance of spores, proteolysis of toxins, narrow host range, and high production costs. Here we show that the Gram-negative bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus is a promising host for delivering toxins to mosquito larvae. Plasmid-transformed A. excentricus cells expressing the binary toxin of B. sphaericus exhibited toxicity to Culex and Anopheles mosquito larvae similar to that of the high-toxicity strains of B. sphaericus which produce several toxins. A. excentricus has potential advantages as a larvicide compared with the bacilli, especially persistance in the larval feeding zone, resistance to UV light, lack of toxin-degrading proteases, and low production costs.

  15. Interstitial laser coagulation therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNicholas, Thomas A.; Alsudani, Mohammed

    1996-05-01

    Alternatives to the side-firing laser method include controlled destruction of prostatic adenoma by an atraumatic saline cooled laser fiber introduced endoscopically into the prostate under visual and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) control. Laser light produces intense heating and interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) occurs with characteristic TRUS changes which are used to control the volume of tissue destruction. The prostatic urethral lining is preserved which may reduce laser side effects). Thirty-six men with symptomatic BPH were treated by ILC between April 1994 and September 1995. All were discharged home on the first post-operative day and reviewed periodically to 12 months post-treatment with measurement of IPSS, flow rate (FR), residual volume, complications, potency and TRUS. Seventeen men (47%) voided immediately, 15 (42%) performed intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) for 3.5 days (2 - 5). Four men (11%) required catheterization for 1/52. Thirty-five men tolerated the treatment well, requiring only mild oral analgesia. One man developed dysuria and required early transurethral resection revealing a large volume of coagulative necrosis. Improvement in symptoms and flow rate developed from 1 - 30 days later. There were no significant complications. Hyperechoic and cystic zones developed at the ILC site which persisted to 12 months. This clinical study indicates the feasibility and safety of intense heating by ILC with visible and ultrasound control to coagulate the adenoma while preserving the urethra. Changes are easily seen on TRUS, symptomatic improvement is good and there have been minimal urethral symptoms or complications.

  16. Control of tyramine and histamine accumulation by lactic acid bacteria using bacteriocin forming lactococci.

    PubMed

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Bargossi, Eleonora; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Felis, Giovanna; Torriani, Sandra; Gardini, Fausto

    2014-11-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the competitive effects of three bacteriocin producing strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis against two aminobiogenic lactic acid bacteria, i.e. the tyramine producing strain Enterococcus faecalis EF37 and the histamine producing strain Streptococcus thermophilus PRI60, inoculated at different initial concentrations (from 2 to 6 log cfu/ml). The results showed that the three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were able to produce bacteriocins: in particular, L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 and EG46 produced, respectively, nisin Z and lacticin 481, while for the strains CG27 the bacteriocin has not been yet identified, even if its peptidic nature has been demonstrated. The co-culture of E. faecalis EF37 in combination with lactococci significantly reduced the growth potential of this aminobiogenic strain, both in terms of growth rate and maximum cell concentration, depending on the initial inoculum level of E. faecalis. Tyramine accumulation was strongly reduced when E. faecalis EF37 was inoculated at 2 log cfu/ml and, to a lesser extent, at 3 log cfu/ml, as a result of a lower cell load of the aminobiogenic strain. All the lactococci were more efficient in inhibiting streptococci in comparison with E. faecalis EF37; in particular, L. lactis subsp. lactis VR84 induced the death of S. thermophilus PRI60 and allowed the detection of histamine traces only at higher streptococci inoculum levels (5-6 log cfu/ml). The other two lactococcal strains did not show a lethal action against S. thermophilus PRI60, but were able to reduce its growth extent and histamine accumulation, even if L. lactis subsp. lactis EG46 was less effective when the initial streptococci concentration was 5 and 6 log cfu/ml. This preliminary study has clarified some aspects regarding the ratio between bacteriocinogenic strains and aminobiogenic strains with respect to the possibility to accumulate BA and has also showed that different bacteriocins can have

  17. [Coagulation profiles during cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Bitkova, E E; Zvereva, N Iu; Khvatov, V B; Chumakov, M V; Timerbaev, V Kh; Dublev, A V; Redkoborodyĭ, A V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate patients' hemostasis after cardiac surgery using thromboelastometric and impedance aggregometry. 66 patients were examined intraoperatively. Comparison group included 45 blood donors. Hemostasis was tested for thromboelastometricRotem Gamma with the assessment of external (exTem) and internal (inTem) pathways of coagulation tests performed detection of heparin (hepTem) and cytochalasin-D-inactivation of platelets (fibTem) to assess the level of fibrinogen. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was determined in an aggregometer CHRONO-LOG (USA). Significant deviations of the parameters of hemostasis were detected in 52 of the 66 studied patients. In group-1 (23 patients) revealed a residual effect of heparin. The effect manifested prolongation CT (clotting time) inTem to an average of 241 +/- 15 s, compared with CT hepTem--181 +/- 7. Patients in this group were in need of additional administration of protamine sulfate. Postoperative bleeding and resternotomia were observed in 3 patients of group-1. In group-2 (25 patients) CT inTem was 216 +/- 21 with significantly fewer CT hepTem (272 +/- 26). The data indicated excess of protamine sulfate. Platelets aggregation decreased compared to the norm. According to the obtained results, the addition of protamine sulfate is not required, however, in 7 cases the protamine sulfate was administered in a dose of 8.9 +/- 0.8 mg in 6 cases resternotomiya required. In the third group (n = 6) bleeding was observed in 4 patients. The difference in CT-hepCT was significant. Significant variations were revealed in the tests of the activity of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation and cytochalasin-D-induced inactivation of platelets: exMCF- 42 +/- 2 mm (normal 57 +/- 15 mm), fibMCF 5.0 +/- 0.3 mm (norm 12.8 +/- 4.3 mm). The concentration of platelets and their aggregation activity was sharply reduced. Disorders of hemostasis in the third group, designated as dilution coagulopathy. Turning thromboelastometric and impedance

  18. Oil field souring control by nitrate-reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. that outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for organic electron donors.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-04-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB.

  19. Effects on Weight, Blood Lipids, Serum Fatty Acid Profile and Coagulation by an Energy-Dense Formula to Older Care Residents: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Tylner, Sara; Cederholm, Tommy; Faxén-Irving, Gerd

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intake in frail old adults is often lower than estimated needs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an energy-dense oral supplement on nutritional status, food intake, and physical function in residents living in care residential homes. Randomized controlled intervention trial with a crossover design. Five care residential homes in the southern Stockholm area. Older people living at care residential homes: age 65 or older, malnourished or at risk of malnutrition according to Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). Energy-dense formula (oleic and linoleic acid emulsion enriched with protein and micronutrients) (Calogen Extra, Nutricia) 30 mL distributed 3 times daily for 6 weeks. Body weight, 3-day food and fluid record, appetite rating, and physical function (ie, Short Physical Performance Battery, grip strength, and peak expiratory flow). Biochemical indicators of nutritional status, blood lipids, and serum phospholipid fatty acid (FA) profile. Twenty-eight participants completed the 2 phases of the crossover study; group A (n = 14, 87 ± 6 years, 50% women) and group B (n = 14, 82 ± 8 years, 71% women). The intervention periods combined resulted in significantly (P < .05) increased energy intake (238 ± 544 kcal), weight gain (1.4 ± 3.7 kg), improved appetite, relative reduction of saturated FA and increase in polyunsaturated FA, increased apoliporotein A, and reduced serum fibrinogen (-0.9 ± 1.5 g/L). Distribution of an oleic and linoleic acid based fat emulsion enriched with protein and micronutrients (Calogen Extra) 3 times daily to old people in care residential homes improved nutritional status, had positive effects on fatty acid profile and blood lipids, and a potential antithrombotic effect. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01259999. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of spoilage fungi by protective lactic acid bacteria displaying probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Priya, Sulochana; Devendra, Leena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2014-04-01

    Thirty-six lactic acid bacteria belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus were isolated, and the spectrum of antifungal activity was verified against Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 42109), Aspergillus niger (KACC 42589), Fusarium moniliforme (KACC 08141), Penicillium chrysogenum (NII 08137), and the yeast Candida albicans (MTCC 3017). Three isolates, identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus (TG2), Lactobacillus casei (DY2), and Lactococcus (BSN) were selected further, and their antifungal compounds were identified by ESI-MS and HPLC analysis as a range of carboxylic acids along with some unidentified, higher molecular weight compounds. An attempt to check out the shelf life extension of wheat bread without fungal spoilage was performed by fermenting the dough with the Lactococcus isolate. Apart from growth in low pH and tolerance to bile salts, probiotic potential of these three isolates was further substantiated by in vitro screening methods that include transit tolerance to the conditions in the upper human gastrointestinal tract and bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines.

  1. Potential application of Northern Argentine propolis to control some phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, R M; Zampini, I C; Moreno, M I Nieva; Isla, M I

    2011-10-20

    The antimicrobial activity of samples of Northern Argentine propolis (Tucumán, Santiago del Estero and Chaco) against phytopathogenic bacteria was assessed and the most active samples were identified. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by agar macrodilution and broth microdilution assays. Strong antibacterial activity was detected against Erwinia carotovora spp carotovora CECT 225, Pseudomonas syringae pvar tomato CECT 126, Pseudomonas corrugata CECT 124 and Xanthomonas campestris pvar vesicatoria CECT 792. The most active propolis extract (Tucumán, T1) was selected to bioguide isolation and identified for antimicrobial compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone). The antibacterial chalcone was more active than the propolis ethanolic extract (MIC values of 0.5-1 μg ml(-1) and 9.5-15 μg ml(-1), respectively). Phytotoxicity assays were realized and the propolis extracts did not retard germination of lettuce seeds or the growth of onion roots. Propolis solutions applied as sprays on tomato fruits infected with P. syringae reduced the severity of disease. Application of the Argentine propolis extracts diluted with water may be promising for the management of post harvest diseases of fruits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of virginiamycin to control the growth of lactic acid bacteria during alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hynes, S H; Kjarsgaard, D M; Thomas, K C; Ingledew, W M

    1997-04-01

    The antibiotic virginiamycin was investigated for its effects on growth and lactic acid production by seven strains of lactobacilli during the alcoholic fermentation of wheat mash by yeast. The lowest concentration of virginiamycin tested (0.5 mg Lactrol kg-1 mash), was effective against most of the lactic acid bacteria under study, but Lactobacillus plantarum was not significantly inhibited at this concentration. The use of virginiamycin prevented or reduced potential yield losses of up to 11% of the produced ethanol due to the growth and metabolism of lactobacilli. However, when the same concentration of virginiamycin was added to mash not inoculated with yeast, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. paracasei grew after an extensive lag of 48 h and L. plantarum grew after a similar lag even in the presence of 2 mg virginiamycin kg-1 mash. Results showed a variation in sensitivity to virginiamycin between the different strains tested and also a possible reduction in effectiveness of virginiamycin over prolonged incubation in wheat mash, especially in the absence of yeast.

  3. Effect of microparticulated whey proteins on milk coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Sturaro, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; Varotto, A; De Marchi, M

    2014-11-01

    The enhancement of milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the reuse of whey produced by the dairy industry are of great interest to improve the efficiency of the cheese-making process. Native whey proteins (WP) can be aggregated and denatured to obtain colloidal microparticulated WP (MWP). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of MWP on MCP; namely, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition. Six concentrations of MWP (vol/vol; 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0%) were added to 3 bulk milk samples (collected and analyzed during 3 d), and a sample without MWP was used as control. Within each day of analysis, 6 replicates of MCP for each treatment were obtained, changing the position of the treatment in the rack. For control samples, 2 replicates per day were performed. In addition to MCP, WP fractions were measured on each treatment during the 3 d of analysis. Milk coagulation properties were measured on 144 samples by using a Formagraph (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). Increasing the amount of MWP added to milk led to a longer RCT. In particular, significant differences were found between RCT of the control samples (13.5 min) and RCT of samples with 3.0% (14.6 min) or more MWP. A similar trend was observed for curd-firming time, which was shortest in the control samples and longest in samples with 9.0% MWP (21.4 min). No significant differences were detected for curd firmness at 30 min across concentrations of MWP. Adjustments in cheese processing should be made when recycling MWP, in particular during the coagulation process, by prolonging the time of rennet activity before cutting the curd.

  4. The effects of oral hydrolytic enzymes and flavonoids on inflammatory markers and coagulation after marathon running: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular moderate intensity physical activity positively influences the immune system with a lower incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers. However, marathon running due to its strenuous and prolonged nature results in immune perturbations with a major increase in pro-inflammatory markers and subsequent increased incidence of URTI. Furthermore, marathon running results in muscle damage and changes in hemostasis that promote a pro-thrombotic state. Naturally occurring hydrolytic enzymes and flavonoids have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and fibrinolytic effects, and may serve as countermeasures to exercise-induced inflammation, immune dysfunction and URTI. The aim of this study is to determine whether the ingestion of oral hydrolytic enzymes and flavonoids before and after a marathon attenuates post-race muscle damage and inflammation, counters pro-thrombotic changes in hemostasis and decreases URTI incidence. Methods/design The Enzy-MagIC-study ( Enzy mes, Ma rathon runnin G , I nflammation, C oagulation) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, monocenter phase I trial. 160 healthy males (age 20-65 years) will be randomized to receive either placebo or treatment (Wobenzym, MUCOS Pharma, Berlin, Germany) which contains the hydrolytic enzymes (bromelain, trypsin) and the flavonoid rutoside. One week before the marathon race, participants will begin daily ingestion of the investigational product (3×4 tablets). Intake will be continued for two weeks after the race (3×2 tablets per day). Clinical and laboratory measures will be collected 5-weeks and 1-week before the race, and immediately-, 24-h, 72-h, and 2 weeks after the race. The primary endpoint is the influence of the treatment on the pre-to-post marathon race plasma concentration change of the inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6). Secondary endpoints include the effect of treatment on salivary IgA concentration and the

  5. Comparison of a novel polytitanium chloride coagulant with polyaluminium chloride: coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Phuntsho, S; Gao, B Y; Yang, Y Z; Kim, J-H; Shon, H K

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized inorganic coagulants are increasingly being used in the water supply and wastewater treatment process, yet there is limited research on the development of polytitanium coagulants. The aim of this study is to synthesize polytitanium chloride (PTC) coagulants and investigate their coagulation behavior and floc characteristics for humic acid removal in comparison to polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The PTC samples with different B (molar ratios of OH/Ti) values were prepared using an instantaneous base-feeding method, employing sodium carbonate as the basification agent. The coagulation efficiency was significantly influenced by different B values. The results suggest that the humic acid removal increased with the increasing B value for PAC, while the inverse trend was observed for PTC. The optimum B value was chosen at 1.0 and 2.0 for PTC and PAC, respectively. Under the optimum coagulant dose and initial solution pH conditions, the PTC coagulant performed better than the PAC coagulant and the floc properties were significantly improved in terms of floc growth rate and floc size. However, the PAC coagulants produced flocs with better floc recoverability than the PTC coagulants.

  6. pH-Controlled Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Inhibition of Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria Growth

    PubMed Central

    Alpaslan, Ece; Geilich, Benjamin M.; Yazici, Hilal; Webster, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Here, the antibacterial activity of dextran-coated nanoceria was examined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis by varying the dose, the time of treatment, and the pH of the solution. Findings suggested that dextran-coated nanoceria particles were much more effective at killing P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis at basic pH values (pH = 9) compared to acidic pH values (pH = 6) due to a smaller size and positive surface charge at pH 9. At pH 9, different particle concentrations did cause a delay in the growth of P. aeruginosa, whereas impressively S. epidermidis did not grow at all when treated with a 500 μg/mL nanoceria concentration for 24 hours. For both bacteria, a 2 log reduction and elevated amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per colony were observed after 6 hours of treatment with nanoceria at pH 9 compared to untreated controls. After 6 hours of incubation with nanoceria at pH 9, P. aeruginosa showed drastic morphological changes as a result of cellular stress. In summary, this study provides significant evidence for the use of nanoceria (+4) for a wide range of anti-infection applications without resorting to the use of antibiotics, for which bacteria are developing a resistance towards anyway. PMID:28387344

  7. Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Xie, Shanni; Tian, Da; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Jun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth control of Listeria innocua 2030c on vacuum-packaged cold-smoked salmon by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Elisabetta; Gibbs, Paul A; Teixeira, Paula C

    2008-02-10

    Five bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB): Enterococcus faecium ET05, Lactobacillus curvatus ET06, L. curvatus ET30, L. deldrueckii ET32 and Pediococcus acidilactici ET34, selected by their capacity for growth and producing inhibition in vitro at high salt-on-water content, low temperature and anaerobic atmosphere, conditions simulating cold-smoked fish, were inoculated onto salmon fillets, in co-culture with Listeria innocua 2030c, and cold-smoked processed (dry salted for 6 h; drying for 6 h; smoke for 2 h). The finished product was then packed under vacuum and stored at 5 degrees C. Enumeration of LAB and L. innocua was performed during storage. Results showed that strain E. faecium ET05 was the best biopreservative candidate for controlling L. innocua growth in vacuum-packaged cold-smoked salmon (CSS) processed under the salting/drying/smoking parameters referred above. L. curvatus ET30 and L. delbrueckii ET32 also showed a good biopreservation potential for CSS although they were less effective than the former. L. curvatus ET06 and P. acidilactici ET34 showed a bacteriostatic mode of action against the target bacteria in vitro as well as when inoculated into the salmon fillets. This study describes a potential application of five different LAB in the biopreservation of Listeria in CSS.

  9. Use of Predatory Prokaryotes to Control Drug-Resistant Bacteria and Microbial Biofilms Associated with Burn and Wound Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Bdellovibrio and Micavibrio are Gram -negative obligatory predators that feed on other Gram -negative bacteria. The focus of the study was to evaluate the...both Gram -negative bacteria ubiquitous to many natural environments. Unlike most bacteria, these organisms are obligatory parasites that survive by...feeding exclusively on other Gram -negative bacteria. Earlier studies have suggested that Bdellovibrio and Micavibrio have an ability to rapidly reduce

  10. Transfusion and coagulation management in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V

    2014-01-01

    There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation. PMID:24876736

  11. Coagulation abnormalities in the cirrhotic patient.

    PubMed

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2013-01-01

    The clotting process is a dynamic array of multiple processes which can be described in four phases: platelet plug initiation and formation, clotting process propagation by the coagulation cascade, clotting termination by antithrombotic mechanisms and clot removal by fibrinolysis. The liver plays a central role in each of these phases of clotting process, as it synthesizes the majority of coagulation factors and proteins involved in fibrinolysis as well as thrombopoeitin, which is responsible for platelet production from megakaryocytes. Many pathological processes associated with cirrhosis, such as portal hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, as well as co-morbid conditions, may also alter the coagulation process. Consequently, patients with liver disease have a disturbed balance of procoagulant and anti-coagulant factors which deviates from the normal coagulation cascade. This situation poses an additional problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this group of patients, since traditional coagulation test may not be reliable for assessing bleeding or thrombotic risk and traditional transfusional strategies may not be applicable in cirrhotic patients. In this article, we review the pathophysiological bases of coagulation abnormalities, in cirrhotic patients, the diagnostic therapeutic strategies to be followed and its impact on the clinical outcome in the cirrhotic patient.

  12. Transfusion and coagulation management in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V

    2014-05-28

    There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation.

  13. Routine coagulation testing in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Musca, Steven; Desai, Shilpa; Roberts, Brigit; Paterson, Timothy; Anstey, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    To test a simple clinical guideline to reduce unnecessary routine testing of coagulation status. A prospective, unblinded, observational study of coagulation testing frequency before and after introduction of a simple clinical guideline. We included 253 patients admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit: 100 patients consecutively enrolled before our intervention (May - July 2015) and 153 patients consecutively enrolled after our intervention (August - September 2015). We introduced a clinical guideline and educational program in the ICU from 18 August 2015. The number of coagulation tests performed per patient bed-day, and the associated pathology costs. Over the 3-month sample period, 999 coagulation profiles were performed for 253 patients: 720 (72%) in 100 patients before, and 279 (28%) in 153 patients after our intervention. The testing frequency fell from 1.12 to 0.41 per patient bed-day (P < 0.001). A total of 463 pre-intervention coagulation profiles (64%) were classified as unnecessary, and the cost of all coagulation tests fell by 60.5% per bedday after the intervention. A simple clinical guideline and educational package reduced unnecessary coagulation tests and costs in a tertiary referral ICU.

  14. Magnetic Control of Potential Microrobotic Drug Delivery Systems: Nanoparticles, Magnetotactic Bacteria and Self-Propelled Microjets

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    Development of targeted drug delivery systems using magnetic microrobots increases the therapeutic indices of drugs. These systems have to be incorporated with precise motion controllers. We demonstrate closed-loop motion control of microrobots under the influence of controlled magnetic fields. Point-to-point motion control of a cluster of iron oxide nanoparticles (diameter of 250 nm) is achieved by pulling the cluster towards a reference position using magnetic field gradients. Magnetotactic bacterium (MTB) is controlled by orienting the magnetic fields towards a reference position. MTB with membrane length of 5 μm moves towards the reference position using the propulsion force generated by its flagella. Similarly, self-propelled microjet with length of 50 μm is controlled by directing the microjet towards a reference position by external magnetic torque. The microjet moves along the field lines using the thrust force generated by the ejecting oxygen bubbles from one of its ends. Our control system positions the cluster of nanoparticles, an MTB and a microjet at an average velocity of 190 μm/s, 28 μm/s, 90 μm/s and within an average region-of-convergence of 132 μm, 40 μm, 235 μm, respectively. PMID:24110932

  15. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  16. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 μm h−1). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger (∼100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature. PMID:21107443

  17. Genetic control for light-induced carotenoid production in non-phototrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hideaki; Asker, Dalal; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring yellow or orange pigments that serve as a protectant against photo-oxidative damages. Among the wide variety of producers, the prokaryotes generate a broad spectrum of carotenoids with diverse chemical structures that are expected to have a high potential in biotechnological applications. Bacterial carotenogenesis occurs in a constitutive or light-induced manner, which suggests the diversity of the regulatory mechanism. The mechanism for light-induced carotenoid production in non-phototrophic bacteria has been studied in detail in Myxococcus xanthus, a Gram-negative gliding bacterium. The complicated mechanism involves the activation of an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor (CarQ), which leads to the sequestration of a MerR family transcriptional regulator (CarA) that represses the expression of the carotenoid biosynthesis genes in the dark. Recently, we identified another regulatory mechanism for light-induced carotenogenesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), a Gram-positive soil bacterium. In this organism, the transcription of the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster is specified by LitS, a photo-inducible ECF sigma factor. The evidence indicates that the photo-dependent transcription of litS is mediated by LitR, a MerR family transcriptional regulator. In addition, it is suggested that the conformational alteration of LitR upon receiving the illumination signal determines its binding to DNA. The carboxy-terminal domain of LitR contains a possible binding site for Vitamin B12, which may serve as a capturing apparatus for the illumination signal.

  18. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Kilic, Leyla; Bilgin, Elif; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Yasasever, Vildan

    2012-10-01

    The activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently found among cancer patients. Such tumors are considered to be associated with a higher risk of invasion, metastases, and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical and prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for melanoma patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin activity (PTA), international normalized ratio (INR), D-dimer (DD), fibrinogen (F) levels, and platelet (PLT) counts were carried out. This prospective study included 61 melanoma patients [stage I-II (n=10), stage III (n=14), stage IV (n=37), M1c (n=26) disease], and 50 healthy controls. It included 34 (56%) men, median age 53 years, range 16-88 years. Over half of the patients (54%) were in the metastatic stage and most of them (70%) had M1c. The plasma level of pretreatment blood coagulation tests including DD, F, APTT, INR levels, and PLT counts showed a statistically significant difference between the patient and the control group (P<0.001 for all, but P=0.049 for INR). The levels of INR, DD, F, and PLT counts were higher and APTT was lower in the melanoma group, whereas the PT and PTA levels did not show any significant difference. There was a significant association between PT, PTA, INR, and PLT levels and the age of the patient. Patients with node metastasis in M0 disease had higher levels of PTA and PLT counts (P=0.002 and 0.048, respectively) and lower levels of PT and INR (P=0.056 and 0.046, respectively). The M1c patients tended to have higher plasma F levels (437 vs. 297 mg/dl, P=0.055) than M1a and M1b patients. The 1-year survival rate for all patients was 70%. In association with distant metastasis, advanced metastatic stage (M1c), elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, only elevated plasma F levels had a significantly adverse effect on survival among the coagulation

  19. Perception and Homeostatic Control of Iron in the Rhizobia and Related Bacteria.

    PubMed

    O'Brian, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient, but it can also be toxic. Therefore, iron homeostasis must be strictly regulated. Transcriptional control of iron-dependent gene expression in the rhizobia and other taxa of the Alphaproteobacteria is fundamentally different from the Fur paradigm in Escherichia coli and other model systems. Rather than sense iron directly, the rhizobia employ the iron response regulator (Irr) to monitor and respond to the status of an iron-dependent process, namely, heme biosynthesis. This novel control mechanism allows iron homeostasis to be integrated with other cellular processes, and it permits differential control of iron regulon genes in a manner not readily achieved by Fur. Moreover, studies of Irr have defined a role for heme in conditional protein stability that has been subsequently described in eukaryotes. Finally, Irr-mediated control of iron metabolism may reflect a cellular strategy that accommodates a greater reliance on manganese.

  20. Reaction-diffusion waves of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Galochkina, Tatiana; Bouchnita, Anass; Kurbatova, Polina; Volpert, Vitaly

    2017-06-01

    One of the main characteristics of blood coagulation is the speed of clot growth. In the current work we consider a mathematical model of the coagulation cascade and study existence, stability and speed of propagation of the reaction-diffusion waves of blood coagulation. We also develop a simplified one-equation model that reflects the main features of the thrombin wave propagation. For this equation we estimate the wave speed analytically. The resulting formulas provide a good approximation for the speed of wave propagation in a more complex model as well as for the experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  2. Review of Coagulation Technology for Removal of Arsenic: Case of Chile

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation technology has been used since 1970 in northern Chile for removing arsenic from drinking-water. This experience suggests that coagulation is an effective technology for the removal of arsenic. It is currently possible to reduce arsenic from 400 μg/L to 10 μg/L at a rate of 500 L/sec, assuming pH, oxidizing and coagulation agents are strictly controlled. The Chilean experience with the removal of arsenic demonstrates that the water matrix dictates the selection of the arsenic-removal process. This paper presents a summary of the process, concepts, and operational considerations for the use of coagulation technology for removal of arsenic in Chile. PMID:17366767

  3. Control of membrane biofouling in MBR for wastewater treatment by quorum quenching bacteria encapsulated in microporous membrane.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Suk; Yeon, Kyung-Min; Yang, Cheon-Seok; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Park, Son Young; Han, Jong Yun; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2012-05-01

    Recently, enzymatic quorum quenching has proven its potential as an innovative approach for biofouling control in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) for advanced wastewater treatment. However, practical issues on the cost and stability of enzymes are yet to be solved, which requires more effective quorum quenching methods. In this study, a novel quorum quenching strategy, interspecies quorum quenching by bacterial cell, was elaborated and proved to be efficient and economically feasible biofouling control in MBR. A recombinant Escherichia coli which producing N-acyl homoserine lactonase or quorum quenching Rhodococcus sp. isolated from a real MBR plant was encapsulated inside the lumen of microporous hollow fiber membrane, respectively. The porous membrane containing these functional bacteria (i.e., "microbial-vessel") was put into the submerged MBR to alleviate biofouling on the surface of filtration membrane. The effect of biofouling inhibition by the microbial-vessel was evaluated over 80 days of MBR operation. Successful control of biofouling in a laboratory scale MBR suggests that the biofouling control through the interspecies quorum quenching could be expanded to the plant scale of MBR and various environmental engineering systems with economic feasibility. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Control of infection with multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in a hospital renal unit: the value of plasmid characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, C. S.; Barrett, S. P.; Threlfall, E. J.; Cheasty, T.

    1995-01-01

    An outbreak of infections due to multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria took place over a period of approximately 18 months in a renal unit. Strains of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were involved, and a variety of antibiotic resistances was encountered. Closely related plasmids encoding resistance to aztreonam, ceftazidime and piperacillin, possibly derived from an archetypal plasmid of 105 kb were found in the majority of isolates examined. After limiting the use of aztreonam the incidence of new patient isolates of multiple-resistant organisms was greatly reduced. This study demonstrated how molecular studies can contribute to the control of an outbreak situation in a hospital unit by providing an impetus to reduce the use of specific antibiotics. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7641839

  5. Proteins, Platelets, and Blood Coagulation at Biomaterial Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Chong; Bauer, James; Siedlecki, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Blood coagulation and platelet adhesion remain major impediments to the use of biomaterials in implantable medical devices. There is still significant controversy and question in the field regarding the role that surfaces play in this process. This manuscript addresses this topic area and reports on state of the art in the field. Particular emphasis is placed on the subject of surface engineering and surface measurements that allow for control and observation of surface-mediated biological responses in blood and test solutions. Appropriate use of surface texturing and chemical patterning methodologies allow for reduction of both blood coagulation and platelet adhesion, and new methods of surface interrogation at high resolution allow for measurement of the relevant biological factors. PMID:25448722

  6. Chemistry of arsenic removal during coagulation and Fe-Mn oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Arsenic removal during coagulation or Fe-Mn oxidation is examined to aid utilities that desire to improve arsenic removal. Fundamental mechanisms of arsenic removal are discussed, optimization strategies are forwarded, and some new insights are provided to guide future research. Specifically, As(III) removals by coagulation are primarily controlled by coagulant dose and relatively unaffected by solution pH, whereas the converse is true for As(V). When compared on the basis of moles iron or aluminum hydroxide solid formed during coagulation, iron and aluminum coagulants are of demonstrably equal effectiveness in removing As(V) at pH < 7.5. However, iron-based coagulants are advantageous if soluble metal residuals are problematic, if pH is > 7.5, or if the raw water contains As(III). Arsenic removal during Fe-Mn oxidation is controlled by the quantity of iron removed [Fe(OH)[sub 3] formed] and is relatively independent of the quantity of manganese removed (MnOOH formed). 63 refs.

  7. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  8. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-01

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  9. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging. PMID:26568136

  10. Plasmatic coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy and Otostrongylus-affected Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sarrah; Johnson, Shawn; Rios, Carlos; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2017-09-13

    Prepatent Otostrongylus arteritis results in hemorrhagic diathesis in free-ranging Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) attributed to aberrant larval migration of the lungworm, Otostrongylus circumlitus. Clinical signs are often nonspecific, including lethargy, anorexia, and blepharospasm, but can progress to spontaneous frank hemorrhage and death within 72 hours of onset. Previously published case reports describe coagulopathy with prolonged PT and APTT, normal to elevated platelet counts, normal antithrombin concentrations, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was proposed as the cause of hemorrhage, but is inconsistent with some of the reported clinicopathologic changes. The purpose of this study was to compare plasmatic coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy and Otostrongylus-affected elephant seals, in order to identify potential therapy. We hypothesized that hyperfibrinolysis contributed to hemorrhage in these cases. Citrated plasma samples were collected from 3- to 4-month-old Northern elephant seals in a wildlife rehabilitation hospital. The sampled population included 25 healthy, prerelease seals and 32 clinically ill seals diagnosed with presumptive Otostrongylus arteritis. Twenty-one of the included seals had Otostrongylus infestation confirmed at necropsy. Standard coagulation tests and plasma thromboelastography were performed for a complete assessment of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Northern elephant seals with definitive Otostrongylus infestation were hypocoagulable and hypofibrinolytic compared to healthy controls. Results were most consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Treatment with antifibrinolytic drugs to control hemorrhage may be unrewarding; alternative therapies such as plasma transfusions or coagulation factor concentrates should be investigated. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Genetic Factors Influencing Coagulation Factor XIII B-Subunit Contribute to Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hanscombe, Ken B; Traylor, Matthew; Hysi, Pirro G; Bevan, Stephen; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Worrall, Bradford B; Seshadri, Sudha; Sudlow, Cathie; Williams, Frances M K; Markus, Hugh S; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal coagulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but how this association is mediated and whether it differs between ischemic stroke subtypes is unknown. We determined the shared genetic risk between 14 coagulation factors and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Using genome-wide association study results for 14 coagulation factors from the population-based TwinsUK sample (N≈2000 for each factor), meta-analysis results from the METASTROKE consortium ischemic stroke genome-wide association study (12 389 cases, 62 004 controls), and genotype data for 9520 individuals from the WTCCC2 ischemic stroke study (3548 cases, 5972 controls-the largest METASTROKE subsample), we explored shared genetic risk for coagulation and stroke. We performed three analyses: (1) a test for excess concordance (or discordance) in single nucleotide polymorphism effect direction across coagulation and stroke, (2) an estimation of the joint effect of multiple coagulation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke, and (3) an evaluation of common genetic risk between coagulation and stroke. One coagulation factor, factor XIII subunit B (FXIIIB), showed consistent effects in the concordance analysis, the estimation of polygenic risk, and the validation with genotype data, with associations specific to the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Effect directions for FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly discordant with cardioembolic disease (smallest P=5.7×10(-04)); the joint effect of FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly predictive of ischemic stroke (smallest P=1.8×10(-04)) and the cardioembolic subtype (smallest P=1.7×10(-04)). We found substantial negative genetic covariation between FXIIIB and ischemic stroke (rG=-0.71, P=0.01) and the cardioembolic subtype (rG=-0.80, P=0.03). Genetic markers associated with low FXIIIB levels increase risk of ischemic stroke cardioembolic subtype. © 2015 The

  12. Characterizing culturable microflora of nectarines: bacteria and their potential for biological control of postharvest fruit decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microorganisms isolated from fruit surfaces have been used to control postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces during fruit ...

  13. Use of a powered coverlet for moisture removal, skin temperature reduction, odor, and bacteria control.

    PubMed

    Reger, Steven I; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; McNulty, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of a powered coverlet (PCL) to control moisture, reduce skin temperature, and help control odor and microbial growth at the skin/support-surface interface. A human torso was simulated using a water temperature-regulated loading gauge. The PCL is a 3-tier coverlet composed of vapor-permeable, liquid-impermeable layers with a foam spacer inbetween and a fan blower to draw moisture and heat away from the patient's skin through the spacer. A fabric moisture reservoir simulated sweating skin. It was placed between the simulated human torso and pressure redistribution support surface. A change in moisture reservoir weight was used to calculate moisture vapor transfer rate; temperature and relative humidity at the support surface interface were recorded as a function of time. To test for odor control, a malodorous compound was applied daily to the coverlet with and without power for 30 days in a laboratory setting. In a separate test, both a PCL and a standard hospital sheet were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 32°C to observe the PCL's ability to mitigate microbial growth. Results indicated a higher moisture vapor transfer rate with the PCL as compared to a standard hospital bed sheet (129.5 g/m/h vs 34.1 g/m/h, P < .005). The PCL also had a larger reduction in skin temperature (1.1ºC vs 0.7ºC, P = .13) when compared to control. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the PCL helped control odor better than a non-PCL (P < .05). At 24 hours, the PCL showed greater than 2 log difference of S aureus over the standard hospital sheet (P < .05). These studies indicate the potential ability of the PCL to remove moisture at the patient/support-surface interface, thus creating a microenvironment with improved moisture management and reduction in odor and microbial growth.

  14. Comparative assessment of water treatment using polymeric and inorganic coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Innocent K. M.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Saka, John D. K.; Biswick, Timothy T.

    2016-06-01

    Portable water plays a vital role in improving human life, particularly in controlling the spread of diseases. However, problems associated with lack of potable water are still common especially in developing countries including Malawi. Until now little information exists on the effectiveness of available commercial coagulants used by national water boards in Malawi. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) to investigate the efficiency of polymeric coagulants (sufdfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s) in turbidity reduction comparative with inorganic coagulant (aluminium sulphate) at Zomba, Liwonde, Mangochi, Chikwawa and Mulanje Treatment plants. The jar test method was used to determine the effectiveness of the water coagulants. The results revealed that sudfloc 3850 was most effective in reducing turbidity at Mangochi (99.4 ± 0.06%) and Liwonde (97.2 ± 0.04%) using 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dose. The Zomba, Mulanje and Chikwawa plants gave 19.56 ± 0.03%, 29.23 ± 0.02% and 9.43 ± 0.02% total reductions respectively. Algaefloc 19s afforded the highest turbidity reduction at Liwonde and Mangochi plants (98.66 ± 0.06 and 97.48 ± 0.05% at a dose of 0.4 and 0.6 mg L-1 respectively), while Chikwawa provided the lowest (9.52 ± 0.01%). At the Zomba and Mulanje plants 20.5 ± 0.03% and 28.4 ± 0.04% reductions were obtained respectively. The inorganic flocculant, alum provided a 99.0 ± 0.05% and 98.6 ± 0.04% reduction at a dose of 4.0 mg L-1 and 6.0 mg L-1 at Zomba and Liwonde plants respectively. The lowest reductions in turbidity were achieved at Chikwawa (7.50 ± 0.01%), Mangochi (12.97 ± 0.02%) and Mulanje (25.00 ± 0.02). The best and optimum pH ranges for polymeric and inorganic coagulants were 7.20-7.80 and 7.35 to 7.57 respectively. The results further revealed that sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s achieved faster formation of heavy flocs than alum. At 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dosage sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s required ten times

  15. Ferric coagulant recovered from coagulation sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, N; Li, G B

    2009-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the feasibility of ferric coagulant recovery from chemical sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) to make the process more cost-effective, as well as reduce sludge volume. The optimum conditions and efficiency of the acidification for ferric coagulant recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated. Experimental results showed that the recovered coagulants can be used in CEPT and the pollutants removal efficiency is similar to that of fresh coagulant, and for some aspects the effect of recovered coagulants is better than that of fresh ones, such as turbidity removal. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on treated wastewater quality. Acidification condition also had significant influence on reduction of sludge volume. The efficiency of coagulant recovery had a linear relationship with sludge reduction. Experiments verify that it would be a sustainable and cost-effective way to recover ferric coagulant from coagulation sludge in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and then recycle it to CEPT, as well as reduce sludge volume.

  16. Markers of coagulation activation after hepatic resection for cancer: evidence of sustained upregulation of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L; Scurrah, N; Parker, F C; Dauer, R; Marshall, J; McCall, P; Story, D; Smith, C; McNicol, L

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the possibility that despite postoperative derangements of routine laboratory coagulation tests, markers of coagulation activation and thrombin generation would be normal or increased in patients undergoing hepatic resection for cancer In addition to the conventional coagulation tests prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, we measured select markers of coagulation activation prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (PF1 + 2), thrombin-antithrombin complexes and plasma von Willebrand Factor antigen in 21 patients undergoing hepatic resection. The impact of hepatic resection on coagulation and fibrinolysis was studied with thromboelastography. Preoperatively, routine laboratory coagulation and liver function tests were normal in all patients. On the first postoperative day, prothrombin time was prolonged (range 16 to 22 seconds) in eight patients (38%). For these patients, thromboelastography was normal in six (75%), PF1 + 2 was elevated in four (50%), and thrombin-antithrombin complexes and von Willebrand Factor antigen were elevated in all, which was evidence of acute phase reaction, sustained coagulation factor turnover and activation. By the fifth postoperative day, despite normalisation of prothrombin time, markers of increased coagulation activity remained greater than 85% of baseline values. The findings indicate that in patients undergoing liver resection for cancer, there is significant and prolonged postoperative activation of the haemostatic system despite routine coagulation tests being normal or even prolonged. Before considering therapeutic interventions an integrated approach to interpreting haematological data with clinical correlation is essential.

  17. Effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency of coagulants recovery by acidification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jui; Wang, Wen-May; Wei, Ming-Jun; Chen, Jiann-Long; He, Ju-Liang; Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Wu, Chih-Chao

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency ofcoagulant recovery by acidification with H2SO4. Two sludge characteristics were studied: types of coagulant and textures of the suspended solid in raw water. The coagulant types are aluminium sulphate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl); the textures of the suspended solid are sand-based and clay-based. Efficiency of aluminium recovery at a pH of 2 was compared for different sludges obtained from water treatment plants in Taiwan. The results showed that efficiency of aluminium recovery from sludge containing clayey particles was higher than that from sludge containing sandy particles. As for the effect of coagulant types, the aluminium recovery efficiency for sludge using PACl ranged between 77% and 100%, whereas it ranged between 65% and 72% for sludge using aluminium sulphate as the coagulant. This means using PACl as the coagulant could result in higher recovery efficiency of coagulant and be beneficial for water treatment plants where renewable materials and waste reduction as the factors for making decisions regarding plant operations. However, other metals, such as manganese, could be released with aluminium during the acidification process and limit the use of the recovered coagulants. It is suggested that the recovered coagulants be used in wastewater treatment processes.

  18. Coagulation assessment by rotation thrombelastometry in normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Huissoud, Cyril; Carrabin, Nicolas; Benchaib, Mehdi; Fontaine, Oriane; Levrat, Albrice; Massignon, Denis; Touzet, Sandrine; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Berland, Michel

    2009-04-01

    We analysed changes in coagulation during normal pregnancy with a novel point-of-care device based on thrombelastometry (ROTEM). We compared the results obtained with those of standard coagulation tests in 104 patients: 20 non-pregnant women (controls) and 84 women in the first (T1, n = 17), second (T2, n = 9) and third (T3, n = 58) trimesters of pregnancy. We measured the clotting time (CT), the maximum clot firmness (MCF), the early clot amplitude at 5 and 15 minutes (CA(5), CA(15)) and the clot lysis index (CLI(30)) with four tests containing specific reagents. (a) The INTEM test involving ellagic acid activated the intrinsic pathway and (b) the EXTEM test using tissue factor triggered the extrinsic pathway; (c) The FIBTEM test based on a platelet inhibitor (cytochalasin D) evaluated the contribution of fibrinogen to clot formation and (d) the APTEM test was similar to the EXTEM but was based on inhibition in vitro of fibrinolysis by aprotinin. CT and CLI(30) were not significantly modified during pregnancy whereas MCF, CA(5) and CA(15) (INTEM, EXTEM, FIBTEM) increased significantly between the second and third trimesters (e.g. median [interquartile range]: MCF-FIBTEM, 13 [11-16] mm vs. 19 [17-23] mm, respectively, in controls and T3, p < 0.001). EXTEM values were not significantly different from those measured with APTEM. There were significant correlations between the results obtained with ROTEM and those from standard coagulation tests. ROTEM analysis showed a marked increase in coagulability during normal pregnancy. ROTEM values may serve as the basis for future studies in pregnant women.

  19. Differences in Coagulation Between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Donald F.; Carl, Daniel E.; Mohammed, Bassem M.; Song, Jingmei; Martin, Erika J.; Bostic, Jessica L.; Gehr, Todd W.B.

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: End-stage renal disease patients have significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but little is known about differences in coagulation profiles between patients on hemodialysis (HD) and on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Given their long-term exposure to glucose-based dialysate, patients on PD can experience metabolic derangements. Theoretically, that exposure should create a more prothrombotic environment than occurs in HD patients. The objective of the present study was to quantify potential differences in baseline coagulation between PD and HD patients. ♦ Methods: Our single-center cross-sectional study at a large academic health science center enrolled 50 age-, race-, and sex-matched subjects (10 control subjects, 20 HD patients, and 20 PD patients). Measurements included platelet function, platelet receptor distribution, and coagulation dynamics by thromboelastography and Hemodyne hemostasis assay (Hemodyne, Richmond, VA, USA). ♦ Results: Compared with healthy control subjects, patients on both forms of dialysis showed prothrombotic coagulation protein profiles. The tissue-factor pathway was markedly elevated in both groups, but PD was associated with significantly greater concentrations of tissue factor (p = 0.0056) and tissue-factor pathway inhibitor (p = 0.0138). Similarly, compared with patients receiving HD, patients on PD had greater concentrations of fibrinogen (p = 0.0325), which corresponded with platelet hyperfunction as measured by platelet contractile force and clot elastic modulus (p = 0.003 and 0.017 respectively, compared with values in HD patients). Platelet receptor distribution was similar between the groups. ♦ Conclusions: Compared with patients on HD, patients on PD appear to have a more prothrombotic profile. The clinical relevance of these findings needs to be studied in a prospective manner. PMID:24293664

  20. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatarajan, Venkatesan; Pruett, Ashlee; Adhikary, Sanjib Das

    2014-09-01

    Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is guided by many in vivo and in vitro tests. The introduction of newer anticoagulant medications and the implementation of the modified in vivo coagulation cascade have given a new dimension to the field of perioperative transfusion medicine. A proper understanding of the application and interpretation of the coagulation tests is vital for a good perioperative outcome.

  1. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkatarajan, Venkatesan; Pruett, Ashlee; Adhikary, Sanjib Das

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is guided by many in vivo and in vitro tests. The introduction of newer anticoagulant medications and the implementation of the modified in vivo coagulation cascade have given a new dimension to the field of perioperative transfusion medicine. A proper understanding of the application and interpretation of the coagulation tests is vital for a good perioperative outcome. PMID:25535418

  2. Linking internal and external bacterial community control gives mechanistic framework for pelagic virus‐to‐bacteria ratios

    PubMed Central

    Pree, Bernadette; Thingstad, T. Frede

    2016-01-01

    Summary For more than 25 years, virus‐to‐bacteria ratios (VBR) have been measured and interpreted as indicators of the importance of viruses in aquatic ecosystems, yet a generally accepted theory for understanding mechanisms controlling VBR is still lacking. Assuming that the denominator (total bacterial abundance) is primarily predator controlled, while viral lysis compensates for host growth rates exceeding this grazing loss, the numerator (viral abundance) reflects activity differences between prokaryotic hosts. VBR is then a ratio between mechanisms generating structure within the bacterial community and interactions between different plankton functional types controlling bacterial community size. We here show how these arguments can be formalized by combining a recently published model for co‐evolutionary host‐virus interactions, with a previously published “minimum” model for the microbial food web. The result is a framework where viral lysis links bacterial diversity to microbial food web structure and function, creating relationships between different levels of organization that are strongly modified by organism‐level properties such as cost of resistance. PMID:27231817

  3. Linking internal and external bacterial community control gives mechanistic framework for pelagic virus-to-bacteria ratios.

    PubMed

    Våge, Selina; Pree, Bernadette; Thingstad, T Frede

    2016-11-01

    For more than 25 years, virus-to-bacteria ratios (VBR) have been measured and interpreted as indicators of the importance of viruses in aquatic ecosystems, yet a generally accepted theory for understanding mechanisms controlling VBR is still lacking. Assuming that the denominator (total bacterial abundance) is primarily predator controlled, while viral lysis compensates for host growth rates exceeding this grazing loss, the numerator (viral abundance) reflects activity differences between prokaryotic hosts. VBR is then a ratio between mechanisms generating structure within the bacterial community and interactions between different plankton functional types controlling bacterial community size. We here show how these arguments can be formalized by combining a recently published model for co-evolutionary host-virus interactions, with a previously published "minimum" model for the microbial food web. The result is a framework where viral lysis links bacterial diversity to microbial food web structure and function, creating relationships between different levels of organization that are strongly modified by organism-level properties such as cost of resistance. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology Reports published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Shared control of gene expression in bacteria by transcription factors and global physiology of the cell

    PubMed Central

    Berthoumieux, Sara; de Jong, Hidde; Baptist, Guillaume; Pinel, Corinne; Ranquet, Caroline; Ropers, Delphine; Geiselmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the joint effect of (i) the global physiological state of the cell, in particular the activity of the gene expression machinery, and (ii) DNA-binding transcription factors and other specific regulators. We present a model-based approach to distinguish between these two effects using time-resolved measurements of promoter activities. We demonstrate the strength of the approach by analyzing a circuit involved in the regulation of carbon metabolism in E. coli. Our results show that the transcriptional response of the network is controlled by the physiological state of the cell and the signaling metabolite cyclic AMP (cAMP). The absence of a strong regulatory effect of transcription factors suggests that they are not the main coordinators of gene expression changes during growth transitions, but rather that they complement the effect of global physiological control mechanisms. This change of perspective has important consequences for the interpretation of transcriptome data and the design of biological networks in biotechnology and synthetic biology. PMID:23340840

  5. A Numerical Study on Microwave Coagulation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    treated by applying localized heat to cancerous tissues, often in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Microwave coagulation therapy is one...such clinical technique for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. In the treatment, a thin microwave antenna is inserted into the cancerous tissue and...the microwave energy heats up the tumor, killing the cancer cells by producing a coagulated region. Numerical models of microwave cancer therapy have

  6. Verifying apple cider plant sanitation and hazard analysis critical control point programs: choice of indicator bacteria and testing methods.

    PubMed

    Lang, M M; Ingham, S C; Ingham, B H

    1999-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the survival of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci in refrigerated apple cider; (ii) to develop simple and inexpensive presumptive methods for detection of these bacteria; (iii) to perform a field survey to determine the prevalence of these bacteria on apples and in apple cider; and (iv) based on our results, to recommend the most useful of these three indicator groups for use in verifying apple cider processing plant sanitation and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs. Eight of 10 coliform strains (5 E. coli, 1 Enterobacter aerogenes, and 2 Klebsiella spp.) inoculated into preservative-free apple cider (pH 3.4, 13.3(o) Brix) survived well at 4 degrees C for 6 days (< or = 3.0 log10 CFU/ml decrease). Of 21 enterococci strains (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and E. durans), only 2 E. durans and 3 E. faecium strains survived well. Simple broth-based colorimetric methods were developed that detected the presence of approximately 10 cells of coliforms or enterococci. In three field studies, samples of unwashed apples (drops and picked), washed apples, and freshly pressed cider were presumptively analyzed for total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci using qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Drop apples were more likely than picked apples to be contaminated with E. coli (26.7% vs. 0%) and enterococci (20% vs. 0%). Washing had little effect on coliform populations and in one field study was associated with increased numbers. Total coliform populations in cider ranged from < 1 CFU/ml to > 738 most probable number/ml, depending on the enumeration method used and the sample origin. E. coli was not recovered from washed apples or cider, but enterococci were present on 13% of washed apple samples. The qualitative coliform method successfully detected these bacteria on apples and in cider. Based on its exclusively fecal origin, good survival in apple cider, and association with drop apples

  7. Dust Coagulation in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, W.; Henning, Th.; Mucha, R.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution of dust particles in circumstellar disk-like structures around protostars and young stellar objects is discussed. In particular, we consider the coagulation of grains due to collisional aggregation. The coagulation of the particles is calculated by solving numerically the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. The different physical processes leading to relative velocities between the grains are investigated. The relative velocities may be induced by Brownian motion, turbulence and drift motion. Starting from different regimes which can be identified during the grain growth we also discuss the evolution of dust opacities. These opacities are important for both the derivation of the circumstellar dust mass from submillimeter/millimeter continuum observations and the dynamical behavior of the disks. We present results of our numerical studies of the coagulation of dust grains in a turbulent protoplanetary accretion disk described by a time-dependent one-dimensional (radial) alpha-model. For several periods and disk radii, mass distributions of coagulated grains have been calculated. From these mass spectra, we determined the corresponding Rosseland mean dust opacities. The influence of grain opacity changes due to dust coagulation on the dynamical evolution of a protostellar disk is considered. Significant changes in the thermal structure of the protoplanetary nebula are observed. A 'gap' in the accretion disk forms at the very frontier of the coagulation, i.e., behind the sublimation boundary in the region between 1 and 5 AU.

  8. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism.

  9. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Tang, Ting; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-10-15

    Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca(2+) and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A PARAFAC-based long-term assessment of DOM in a multi-coagulant drinking water treatment scheme.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Nancy P; Skeriotis, Andrew T; Miller, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    A parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis approach was used to study the character and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a multicoagulant (two aluminum-based coagulants) full scale drinking water treatment plant. A three year, long-term assessment was conducted based on deconstruction of the excitation-emission matrices (EEM) of over 1000 water samples collected before and after parallel coagulation treatment basins. Two humic moieties and a protein-like group were identified in the raw and treated waters. Apportionment of fluorophores was established using a novel approach based on the overall fluorescence intensity (OFI) of PARAFAC components. Uncorrected matrix correlation (UMC) revealed minimal changes of the fluorescence moieties after treatment (UMC > 0.98), and a comparable effect of both coagulants on the structure (UMC > 0.99) and distribution of these groups. Coagulation increased the proportion of the protein-like fluorophore and preferentially removed a humic-like group irrespective of the coagulant. Preference for this moiety was supported by a coagulant-affinity factor derived from the association between PARAFAC components after treatment. The suitability of a PARAFAC-based approach for coagulant evaluation/selection was demonstrated when compared to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-based criterion. This paper contributes to the understanding of the behavior of PARAFAC components in water treatment processes and presents several approaches for the future monitoring and control of coagulation at full scale treatment facilities.

  11. Expression of an Antimicrobial Peptide via the Chloroplast Genome to Control Phytopathogenic Bacteria and Fungi

    PubMed Central

    DeGray, Gerald; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Smith, Franzine; Sanford, John; Daniell, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide MSI-99, an analog of magainin 2, was expressed via the chloroplast genome to obtain high levels of expression in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Petit Havana) plants. Polymerase chain reaction products and Southern blots confirmed integration of MSI-99 into the chloroplast genome and achievement of homoplasmy, whereas northern blots confirmed transcription. Contrary to previous predictions, accumulation of MSI-99 in transgenic chloroplasts did not affect normal growth and development of the transgenic plants. This may be due to differences in the lipid composition of plastid membranes compared with the membranes of susceptible target microbes. In vitro assays with protein extracts from T1 and T2 plants confirmed that MSI-99 was expressed at high levels to provide 88% (T1) and 96% (T2) inhibition of growth against Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci, a major plant pathogen. When germinated in the absence of spectinomycin selection, leaf extracts from T2 generation plants showed 96% inhibition of growth against P. syringae pv tabaci. In addition, leaf extracts from transgenic plants (T1) inhibited the growth of pregerminated spores of three fungal species, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, and Verticillium dahliae, by more than 95% compared with non-transformed control plant extracts. In planta assays with the bacterial pathogen P. syringae pv tabaci resulted in areas of necrosis around the point of inoculation in control leaves, whereas transformed leaves showed no signs of necrosis, demonstrating high-dose release of the peptide at the site of infection by chloroplast lysis. In planta assays with the fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum destructivum, showed necrotic anthracnose lesions in non-transformed control leaves, whereas transformed leaves showed no lesions. Genetically engineering crop plants for disease resistance via the chloroplast genome instead of the nuclear genome is desirable to achieve high levels of expression

  12. Perioperatively acquired disorders of coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Grottke, Oliver; Fries, Dietmar; Nascimento, Bartolomeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of acquired coagulopathies that can occur in various perioperative clinical settings. Also described are coagulation disturbances linked to antithrombotic medications and currently available strategies to reverse their antithrombotic effects in situations of severe hemorrhage. Recent findings Recent studies highlight the link between low fibrinogen and decreased fibrin polymerization in the development of acquired coagulopathy. Particularly, fibrin(ogen) deficits are observable after cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery, on arrival at the emergency room in trauma patients, and with ongoing bleeding after child birth. Regarding antithrombotic therapy, although new oral anticoagulants offer the possibility of efficacy and relative safety compared with vitamin K antagonists, reversal of their anticoagulant effect with nonspecific agents, including prothrombin complex concentrate, has provided conflicting results. Specific antidotes, currently being developed, are not yet licensed for clinical use, but initial results are promising. Summary Targeted hemostatic therapy aims to correct coagulopathies in specific clinical settings, and reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions, thus preventing massive transfusion and its deleterious outcomes. Although there are specific guidelines for reversing anticoagulation in patients treated with antiplatelet agents or warfarin, there is currently little evidence to advocate comprehensive recommendations to treat drug-induced coagulopathy associated with new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25734869

  13. Coagulation algorithms with size binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statton, David M.; Gans, Jason; Williams, Eric

    1994-01-01

    The Smoluchowski equation describes the time evolution of an aerosol particle size distribution due to aggregation or coagulation. Any algorithm for computerized solution of this equation requires a scheme for describing the continuum of aerosol particle sizes as a discrete set. One standard form of the Smoluchowski equation accomplishes this by restricting the particle sizes to integer multiples of a basic unit particle size (the monomer size). This can be inefficient when particle concentrations over a large range of particle sizes must be calculated. Two algorithms employing a geometric size binning convention are examined: the first assumes that the aerosol particle concentration as a function of size can be considered constant within each size bin; the second approximates the concentration as a linear function of particle size within each size bin. The output of each algorithm is compared to an analytical solution in a special case of the Smoluchowski equation for which an exact solution is known . The range of parameters more appropriate for each algorithm is examined.

  14. [The application of argon plasma coagulation in thoracic surgery: principles, surgical technique and clinical results].

    PubMed

    Radev, R; Nenkov, R; Kornovski, S; Dokov, V; Kuzmanov, Ia; Kuzmanov, S; Nenkova, S; Nanev, B

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, together with the well-known high-frequency electro-coagulation, the application of plasma coagulation has been also introduced in the clinical practice. The argon plasma coagulator (APC) is one of the representatives of this surgical technique. By its nature, the APC represents a non-contact electrothermal tissue coagulation, combining the principle of the augmented surface and enhanced autogenous haemostatic mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether APC is an effective and safe modality in the open pulmonary surgery. For the period from 01.01.2003 to 30.01.2004 year, in the Clinic of Thoracic Surgery, we have applied the technique of APC to 15 patients. The distribution by sex was: 10 males and 5 females. According to the nosological units, the distribution was as follows: pulmonary carcinoma in 3, pulmonary echinococcosis in 4, pleural empyema in 6, pulmonary abscessus in 1 and esophageal ahalasia in 1 patient. In our practice, we have used an argon plasma coagulator of BERCHTOLD GmbH. A power setting of 20W with exposition time 15 s and an argon gas flow setting of 1,5-2 1/h have been used in our series. Energy dose applied in our patients didn't exceed 300 J/cm2. The results we have obtained demonstrate the following fundamental advantages of APC: a possibility to work with long electrode--tissue distance; a possibility for large surface coagulation as well as coagulation under variable angle, limited and well controlled depth of penetration, substantial reduction of carbonization; regular distribution of the energy over the whole coagulating surface, a possibility to treat effectively larger bleeding surfaces. Although initial, our experience gives us the confidence to recommend the use of APC as an effective and safe procedure in the pulmonary surgery.

  15. [Algae removal of high algae raw water by coagulation enhanced by ozonation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zhi-Yong; Li, Zheng-Jian; Cheng, Fang-Qin

    2009-07-15

    Apparent molecular weight distribution (AMWD) and resin fractionation were used to characterize organic matters of the raw water. Removal of algae, change and removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disinfection by products (DBPs) control during the preozonation enhanced coagulation treatments in the jar-scale and pilot-scale experiment were studied. Algae activity (AA) was measured and used to elucidate the mechanisms of algae removal by above treatments. Results show that algae removal can be improved distinctively by proper preozonation, as the ozone dose 1.0 mg x L(-1), for instance. Algae removal could be increased from 55%-85% by traditional coagulation to 95% by enhanced coagulation after preozonation; and the best removal achieved 99.3% with ozone 1.0 mg x L(-1) and PACl 3.0 mg x L(-1); the residual THMFP (Trihalomethanes formation potential) was lowered from 117 microg x L(-1) by traditional coagulation to 46 microg x L(-1). But higher dose of ozone (as > or = 2.0 mg x L(-1)) impairs organic matter removal, although it decreases algae activity further. Significant differences were found in algae removal by AA detection between ozonation and traditional coagulation. Traditional coagulation had little effect on AA no matter the different PAC1 doses; while AA decreased clearly after ozonation. AA was lowered below 12 under 0.5-2.0 mg x L(-1) ozonation; and it kept decreasing with increase of ozone dosage. During the following coagulation, coagulant or some of its hydrolysised components enhanced the AA decrease by ozonation. Compared to the method of normal microscopy counting, AA test expresses the influence of algae living state by water treatment processes more clearly; which would provide treatment process designer with more distinct information about algae removal mechanisms and how to arrange the treatment processes to improve algae removal.

  16. Genetic Factors Influencing Coagulation Factor XIII B-Subunit Contribute to Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Traylor, Matthew; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bevan, Stephen; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Seshadri, Sudha; Sudlow, Cathie; Williams, Frances M.K.; Markus, Hugh S.; Lewis, Cathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Abnormal coagulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but how this association is mediated and whether it differs between ischemic stroke subtypes is unknown. We determined the shared genetic risk between 14 coagulation factors and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Methods— Using genome-wide association study results for 14 coagulation factors from the population-based TwinsUK sample (N≈2000 for each factor), meta-analysis results from the METASTROKE consortium ischemic stroke genome-wide association study (12 389 cases, 62 004 controls), and genotype data for 9520 individuals from the WTCCC2 ischemic stroke study (3548 cases, 5972 controls—the largest METASTROKE subsample), we explored shared genetic risk for coagulation and stroke. We performed three analyses: (1) a test for excess concordance (or discordance) in single nucleotide polymorphism effect direction across coagulation and stroke, (2) an estimation of the joint effect of multiple coagulation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke, and (3) an evaluation of common genetic risk between coagulation and stroke. Results— One coagulation factor, factor XIII subunit B (FXIIIB), showed consistent effects in the concordance analysis, the estimation of polygenic risk, and the validation with genotype data, with associations specific to the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Effect directions for FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly discordant with cardioembolic disease (smallest P=5.7×10−04); the joint effect of FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly predictive of ischemic stroke (smallest P=1.8×10−04) and the cardioembolic subtype (smallest P=1.7×10−04). We found substantial negative genetic covariation between FXIIIB and ischemic stroke (rG=−0.71, P=0.01) and the cardioembolic subtype (rG=−0.80, P=0.03). Conclusions— Genetic markers associated with low FXIIIB levels

  17. pH modeling for maximum dissolved organic matter removal by enhanced coagulation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiankun; Wang, Dongsheng; van Leeuwen, John; Zhao, Yanmei; Xing, Linan; Chow, Christopher W K

    2012-01-01

    Correlations between raw water characteristics and pH after enhanced coagulation to maximize dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal using four typical coagulants (FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and high performance polyaluminum chloride (HPAC)) without pH control were investigated. These correlations were analyzed on the basis of the raw water quality and the chemical and physical fractionations of DOM of thirteen Chinese source waters over three seasons. It was found that the final pH after enhanced coagulation for each of the four coagulants was influenced by the content of removable DOM (i.e. hydrophobic and higher apparent molecular weight (AMW) DOM), the alkalinity and the initial pH of raw water. A set of feed-forward semi-empirical models relating the final pH after enhanced coagulation for each of the four coagulants with the raw water characteristics were developed and optimized based on correlation analysis. The established models were preliminarily validated for prediction purposes, and it was found that the deviation between the predicted data and actual data was low. This result demonstrated the potential for the application of these models in practical operation of drinking water treatment plants.

  18. The effects of 2-chloroprocaine on coagulation and fibrinolysis in the parturient: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Bhavani Shankar; Sa Rego, Monica; Kaynar, A Murat; Urman, Richard D

    2014-12-01

    Amide local anesthetics are known to inhibit coagulation. 2-chloroprocaine is the only ester agent used in obstetric anesthesia. It is used during obstetric emergencies, and also to supplement inadequate epidural block produced by amide local anesthetics. There is no study to date that has evaluated the effect of ester local anesthetics on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in the parturient. In this study, we obtained blood samples from healthy, term-parturients and mixed them with varying amounts of 2-chloroprocaine for final concentrations ranging from 0.26 to 7.8 mM. Thromboelastograph(®) was used to study the coagulation profile of these samples. Chloroprocaine impaired coagulation in a dose dependent manner, with increased R and K, and decreased MA and α. The difference, when compared to saline controls, reached statistical significance at a dose of 7.8 mM. An additional significant finding was that 2-chloroprocaine also enhanced fibrinolysis. Amide local anesthetics are known to impair coagulation, but 2-chloroprocaine produced significant fibrinolysis in addition to decreasing coagulation. This is the first study to date to demonstrate fibrinolytic properties of an ester local anesthetic. Further study evaluations are required to determine the cause of the variation in fibrinolysis. There is also a need to address the mechanism of increased fibrinolysis observed with 2-chroloprocaine.

  19. [Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process]. [Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, known as Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy since 1986 (Contracts DE-AC22-86PC91221 and DE-AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear flocculation, polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. Often, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. When the coal is superficially oxidized, a small dosage of reagents may be used to promote coagulation. During the last quarter, work was completed on the collection of the surface force and hydrophobicity data required for the estimation of the parameters in the hydrophobic interaction energy function. The estimation of these parameters will be completed in May, and the development of the extended DLVO equation for coal should be completed by the end of the next quarter. In Task 3, the mixing/coagulation characteristics of in-line mixers have been established and work with the ultrasonic horn has begun. The study of the recovery of coagula by column flotation will be completed in early May, and work on the remaining sub-tasks of Advanced Separation Methods has been accelerated in an effort to complete this task on schedule.

  20. Evaluation of milk compositional variables on coagulation properties using partial least squares.

    PubMed

    Bland, Julie H; Grandison, Alistair S; Fagan, Colette C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of numerous milk compositional factors on milk coagulation properties using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Milk from herds of Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cattle was collected across the year and blended (n=55), to maximise variation in composition and coagulation. The milk was analysed for casein, protein, fat, titratable acidity, lactose, Ca2+, urea content, micelles size, fat globule size, somatic cell count and pH. Milk coagulation properties were defined as coagulation time, curd firmness and curd firmness rate measured by a controlled strain rheometer. The models derived from PLS had higher predictive power than previous models demonstrating the value of measuring more milk components. In addition to the well-established relationships with casein and protein levels, CMS and fat globule size were found to have as strong impact on all of the three models. The study also found a positive impact of fat on milk coagulation properties and a strong relationship between lactose and curd firmness, and urea and curd firmness rate, all of which warrant further investigation due to current lack of knowledge of the underlying mechanism. These findings demonstrate the importance of using a wider range of milk compositional variables for the prediction of the milk coagulation properties, and hence as indicators of milk suitability for cheese making.

  1. [Bacteria, multiresistant to antibiotics, in intensive care units: epidemiological context and strategies of control].

    PubMed

    Régnier, B

    1996-02-01

    In France, many hospitals have reported high prevalence of multiply resistant strains, mostly in intensive care units. However, resistance has spred to other medical or surgical wards, and to rehabilitation or long term care facilities as well. Both antibiotic misure and cross-colonization via tronsient carriage on bouds of caregivers account for these epidemics. In turn, high prevalence of resistance leads to increased antibiotic prescriting which results in extra costs and further emergence of new resistance mechanisms. In addition, such high prevalence might well contribute to increased morbidity and extra-incidence of nosocomial infections. Control of resistant strains requires proper use of antibiotics and prevention of cross-colonization, which relies on identification of reservoirs and effective implementation of isolation precautions.

  2. Coagulation and rheological behaviors of soy milk colloidal dispersions.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2017-04-01

    Coagulation and rheological behaviors of soy milk are reviewed from the viewpoint of colloidal dispersion system. From the results of relative viscosity in the range of small oil body volume fractions, oil bodies containing oleosin behave as rigid spheres. The Krieger-Dougherty equation was found to describe relative viscosities well under high oil body volume fraction. These results indicate that oil bodies in soy milk behave as though suspended matter. Cross-linking between colloid particles occurs when the coagulant is added, and bulky clusters are formed. The viscosity rises due to the hydrodynamic effects of these bulky clusters. A new viscosity equation that combines the Krieger-Dougherty equation and the effective volume fraction could describe the viscos behavior well for wide range of solid contents. Tofu is made by adding a coagulant to soy milk. For lipid concentrations of less than 2%, rupture stress increases depending on the lipid concentration, whereas at concentrations of more than 3%, rupture stress tends to decline. Kinugoshi tofu samples have a maximum value for rupture stress depending on lipid concentration. Digestion of oleosin in high-fat soy milk using papain treatment results in the centrifugal separation of soy milk cream easily. This result indicates that oleosin let oil bodies in soy milk stable. Therefore, it is important to control the state of soy milk colloidal dispersions.

  3. Effect of coagulation on laser light distribution in myocardial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agah, Ramtin; Sheth, Devang; Motamedi, Massoud

    1991-05-01

    The changes in total reflection and transmission of porcine myocardium due to thermal coagulation were measured during tissue heating in a temperature-controlled water bath, at different temperature ranging between 54 degree(s)-63 degree(s)C. At 633 nm, the measurements yield a picture of continuous decrease in transmission and a peak with a subsequent fall (approximately 10% from the peak) in reflection measurements of the tissue during coagulation process. Utilizing these measurements and an inverse solution to the radiative transfer equation, the optical properties of tissue, absorption, (mu)a, and effective scattering, (mu)s=(mu)s(1-g) were calculated. A one-dimensional diffusion approximation was used to demonstrate the effects of thermally induced changes in the optical properties of tissue on light distribution in tissue. The pattern of changes in (mu)a and (mu)s seem to indicate that several simultaneous rate processes may be responsible for tissue coagulation. A postulate is put forward to use one such rate process to characterize threshold thermal damage to porcine myocardium and the accompanying protein denaturation.

  4. The prevalence of abnormal preoperative coagulation tests in pediatric patients undergoing spinal surgery for scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Katie M; O'Brien, Kirsty; Regan, Irene; O'Byrne, John M; Moore, David; Kelly, Paula M; Noel, Jacques; Butler, Joseph; Nolan, Beatrice; Kiely, Patrick J

    2015-06-01

    scoliosis compared with those without; PT (t=3.37, p=.001), APTT (t=4.26, p<.001), TT (t=4.52, p<.001). Of the coagulation factors analyzed, only factor X was significantly different in scoliosis patients compared with non-scoliosis controls (t=-4.41, p<.001). Children with scoliosis have a higher prevalence of preoperative coagulation abnormalities compared with normal healthy patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of the selective coagulation process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  6. Coagulation Profiling of Random-Source Cats

    PubMed Central

    McGeehan, Elizabeth; Wielgus, Karen; Cera, Lee; Azarafrooz, Farshid; Buesing, Rose; Dubach, Jean; Fareed, Jawed

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry and hemostatic parameters of class B vendor cats (Felis catus) can show wide levels of variation, possibly because of initial health status. We compared prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, common pathway assay and thrombin time between Class B vendor cats (n = 30) and a control group of healthy cats (n = 16). The antiprotease activities of antiXa, antiIIa, heparin cofactor II, and antithrombin were measured also. Plasma samples from citrated blood were analyzed by using standard clotting assays and commercially available chromogenic substrate assays. Tests for homogeneity of variances and 1-way ANOVA were used to test for significant differences between groups. Results of ANOVA were highly significant between groups for heparin cofactor II and Heptest activity levels. Variances were significantly different between groups for prothrombin time; therefore, an ANOVA was not done. These studies suggest that the class B cats exhibited sufficiently wide variations in their coagulation parameters that they may not be optimal subjects for vascular or cardiovascular research. PMID:20122312

  7. Blood coagulation reactions on nanoscale membrane surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureza, Vincent S.

    Blood coagulation requires the assembly of several membrane-bound protein complexes composed of regulatory and catalytic subunits. The biomembranes involved in these reactions not only provide a platform for these procoagulant proteins, but can also affect their function. Increased exposure of acidic phospholipids on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane can dramatically modulate the catalytic efficiencies of such membrane-bound enzymes. Under physiologic conditions, however, these phospholipids spontaneously cluster into a patchwork of membrane microdomains upon which membrane binding proteins may preferentially assemble. As a result, the membrane composition surrounding these proteins is largely unknown. Through the development and use of a nanometer-scale bilayer system that provides rigorous control of the phospholipid membrane environment, I investigated the role of phosphatidylserine, an acidic phospholipid, in the direct vicinity (within nanometers) of two critical membrane-bound procoagulant protein complexes and their respective natural substrates. Here, I present how the assembly and function of the tissue factor˙factor VIIa and factor Va˙factor Xa complexes, the first and final cofactor˙enzyme complexes of the blood clotting cascade, respectively, are mediated by changes in their immediate phospholipid environments.

  8. Designing and using synthetic RNA thermometers for temperature-controlled gene expression in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Neupert, Juliane; Bock, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Many techniques have been developed for studying inducible gene expression, but all of them are multicomponent systems consisting of cis-acting elements at the DNA or RNA level, trans-acting regulator proteins and/or small molecules as inducers. RNA thermometers are the only known single-component regulators of gene expression. They consist of a temperature-sensitive secondary structure in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA, which contains the ribosome-binding site. The ribosome-binding site can be masked or unmasked by a simple temperature shift, thereby repressing or inducing translation. Recently, we and others have designed synthetic RNA thermometers that are considerably simpler than naturally occurring thermometers and can be exploited as convenient on/off switches of gene expression. In this protocol, we describe the construction and use of synthetic RNA thermometers. We provide guidelines for the in silico design of thermometer-controlled mRNA leaders and for their experimental testing and optimization; the entire procedure can be completed in 2-3 weeks.

  9. Genetically engineered virulent phage banks in the detection and control of emergent pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Flavie; Blois, Hélène; Iris, François

    2010-06-01

    Natural outbreaks of multidrug-resistant microorganisms can cause widespread devastation, and several can be used or engineered as agents of bioterrorism. From a biosecurity standpoint, the capacity to detect and then efficiently control, within hours, the spread and the potential pathological effects of an emergent outbreak, for which there may be no effective antibiotics or vaccines, become key challenges that must be met. We turned to phage engineering as a potentially highly flexible and effective means to both detect and eradicate threats originating from emergent (uncharacterized) bacterial strains. To this end, we developed technologies allowing us to (1) concurrently modify multiple regions within the coding sequence of a gene while conserving intact the remainder of the gene, (2) reversibly interrupt the lytic cycle of an obligate virulent phage (T4) within its host, (3) carry out efficient insertion, by homologous recombination, of any number of engineered genes into the deactivated genomes of a T4 wild-type phage population, and (4) reactivate the lytic cycle, leading to the production of engineered infective virulent recombinant progeny. This allows the production of very large, genetically engineered lytic phage banks containing, in an E. coli host, a very wide spectrum of variants for any chosen phage-associated function, including phage host-range. Screening of such a bank should allow the rapid isolation of recombinant T4 particles capable of detecting (ie, diagnosing), infecting, and destroying hosts belonging to gram-negative bacterial species far removed from the original E. coli host.

  10. Evaluation of the use of liquid dishwashing compounds to control bacteria in kitchen sponges.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Peter; Brumbaugh, Ernie; Kananen, Lafonna

    2002-01-01

    A test procedure for evaluating the effect of adding commercial liquid hand dishwashing detergents to kitchen sponges to control microbial growth is described. Claims for this type of application are being made on dishwashing detergents throughout the world. In this evaluation, commercially available kitchen sponges were stripped of antimicrobial compounds. Sponges were then inoculated with a pool of 7 microorganisms which consisted of gram positives, gram negatives, and yeast. Inoculated sponges were treated with the detergent as recommended by the manufacturer and allowed to incubate for 16 h at ambient temperature. Surviving microorganisms were then quantitated using either the spiral or pour plate method. Tests were run using both clean sponges and sponges soiled with 0.5% nonfat dry milk (NFDM). Untreated sponges showed stasis or slightly increased bacterial populations after the incubation period in the absence of NFDM. Significant increases of up to 3 log cfu/mL were observed for untreated sponges when soiled with NFDM. Statistically significant reductions were observed for clean sponges (99.8-99.9998%) and sponges soiled with NFDM (87.6-99.9%) when detergents making "antibacterial sponge" claims were added to the inoculated sponges. Statistically significant differences between detergents making "antibacterial sponge" claims were also observed.

  11. Oral and endotracheal tubes colonization by periodontal bacteria: a case-control ICU study.

    PubMed

    Porto, A N; Cortelli, S C; Borges, A H; Matos, F Z; Aquino, D R; Miranda, T B; Oliveira Costa, F; Aranha, A F; Cortelli, J R

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal infection is a possible risk factor for respiratory disorders; however, no studies have assessed the colonization of periodontal pathogens in endotracheal tubes (ET). This case-control study analyzed whether periodontal pathogens are able to colonize ET of dentate and edentulous patients in intensive care units (ICU) and whether oral and ET periodontal pathogen profiles have any correlation between these patients. We selected 18 dentate and 18 edentulous patients from 78 eligible ICU patients. Oral clinical examination including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index , and plaque index was performed by a single examiner, followed by oral and ET sampling and processing by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (total bacterial load, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia). Data were statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney U, two-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Among dentate, there was no correlation between clinical parameters and ET bacterial levels. Both dentate and edentulous patients showed similar ET bacterial levels. Dentate patients showed no correlation between oral and ET bacterial levels, while edentulous patients showed positive correlations between oral and ET levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia. Periodontal pathogens can colonize ET and the oral cavity of ICU patients. Periodontal pathogen profiles tend to be similar between dentate and edentulous ICU patients. In ICU patients, oral cavity represents a source of ET contamination. Although accompanied by higher oral bacterial levels, teeth do not seem to influence ET bacterial profiles.

  12. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) removal efficiency by a combination of coagulation and ultrafiltration to minimize SWRO membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Lee, Shang-Tse; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Leiknes, TorOve; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of coagulation on the transformation between colloidal and particulate transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in seawater; and the effectiveness of a combined pretreatment consisting of coagulation and UF on minimizing TEP fouling of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes. Coagulation with ferric chloride at pH 5 substantially transformed colloidal TEP (0.1-0.4) into particulate TEP (>0.4) leading to a better membrane fouling control. Both 50 and 100 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) UF membranes removed most of particulate and colloidal TEP without the assistance of coagulation, but coagulation is still necessary for better UF fouling control. The improvement of combined SWRO pretreatment with coagulation and 50 kDa UF membranes was not that much significant compared to UF pretreatment with 50 KDa alone. Therefore, the minimal coagulant dosage for seawater containing TEP should be based on the UF fouling control requirements rather than removal efficiency.

  13. Influence of coagulation mechanisms on the residual aluminum--the roles of coagulant species and MW of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ruyuan; Xu, Hui; Xu, Weiying; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Dongsheng

    2015-06-15

    Aluminum (Al) based coagulants are widely used in coagulation process to enhance the removal of turbidity and dissolved substances in the drinking water treatment. However, it raised more concerns due to the increase of residual aluminum in treated water, which can cause even more issues. In this study, the effects of organic matter molecular weight and coagulants species on the concentration and aluminum distribution in residual aluminum were investigated. The residual aluminum concentration decreases as the organic matter (OM) molecular weight (MW) rises. Charge neutralization mechanism was found to be the most important factor that determines the residual aluminum concentration directly. Basically, higher Ala percentage leads to lower residual Al concentration at acidic conditions, and Alb/Alc plays an important role in controlling the residual Al concentration at neutral and alkaline condition. The flocs structures formed by charge neutralization mechanism will be more compact for the mid and high MW OM, and fractal dimension (Df) was important to reflect the dissolved residual aluminum rather than the flocs size. The total dissolved residual aluminum concentration of Al13 and Al30 was mainly contributed by the fractions with low and/or high MW, especially by the fraction with MW range of 0-1 kDa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solutions of the coagulation equation with time-dependent coagulation rates. [For stellar formation mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Lejeune, C.; Bastien, P.

    1986-10-01

    In attempting to reproduce the initial stellar mass function, the authors solved analytically the coagulation equation with an explicit time dependence in the coagulation rate in order to simulate the gravitational collapse of the fragments upon themselves as they move within the progenitor cloud. Two separate cases have been studied, with and without a mass dependence in the coagulation rate. The solutions show that: (1) inclusion of self-gravitation can change the results to the point of preventing coalescence to work altogether, depending on the values of the two free parameters; (2) the precise form of the mass dependence of the coagulation rate is not of prime importance in most situations of astrophysical interest; (3) coagulation alone is not sufficient to yield a realistic mass spectrum, and fragmentation must also be taken into account. 30 references.

  15. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHEAT TAKE-ALL DISEASE: II – RAPID SELECTION OF BACTERIA SUPPRESSIVE TO GAEUMANNOMYCES GRAMINIS VAR. TRITICI IN LABORATORY WITH GREENHOUSE AND FIELD CONFIRMATION TRIALS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screening large collections of bacteria for potential biological control activity on economically important diseases is often difficult. A quick test tube assay was developed to rapidly screen selected bacterial isolates for their ability to suppress take-all disease of wheat, caused by Gaeumannomyc...

  16. Which strategies follow from the surveillance of multidrug-resistant bacteria to strengthen the control of their spread? A French experience.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, Didier; Perron, Stéphanie; Huguenin, Hélène; Picard, Monique; Bemer, Pascale; Caillon, Jocelyne; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Drugeon, Henri Bernard

    2004-02-01

    Efforts to enhance standard precautions and to isolate patients with positive routine clinical cultures during 3 years were insufficient to decrease multidrug-resistant bacteria infection rates. Routine screening for carriage in high-risk patients may be necessary to halt transmission and control the hospital reservoir.

  17. Impacts of coagulation on the adsorption of organic micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon in treated domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Johannes; Zietzschmann, Frederik; Geiling, Eva-Linde; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Sperlich, Alexander; Jekel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) as an advanced wastewater treatment step for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) necessitates complete separation of the PAC particles, e.g. by coagulation. In this study, potential positive or negative indirect or direct effects of coagulation on the adsorption of OMPs onto PAC in treated wastewater were investigated. Although the concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was significantly reduced by coagulation, the selective removal of mainly larger DOM components such as biopolymers and humic substances did not improve subsequent OMP adsorption onto PAC, demonstrating that coagulation has minor effects on DOM constituents that are relevant for direct competition or pore blocking. The combination of coagulation and adsorption yielded the sum of the individual removals, as adsorption predominantly affected smaller compounds. While the formation of flocs led to visible incorporation of PAC particles, no significant mass transfer limitations impeded the OMP adsorption. As a result, the dosing sequence of coagulant and PAC is not critical for efficient adsorption of OMPs onto PAC. The relationships between adsorptive OMP removal and corresponding reduction of UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA254) as a promising surrogate correlation for the real-time monitoring and PAC adjustment were affected by coagulation, leading to individual correlations depending on the water composition. Correcting for UVA254 reduction by coagulation produces adsorptive UVA254 removal, which correlates highly with OMP removal for different WWTP effluents and varying coagulant doses and can be applied in combined adsorption/coagulation processes to predict OMP removal and control PAC dosing.

  18. Microrheological Coagulation Assay Exploiting Micromechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Francesco; Duffy, James; Hegner, Martin

    2017-01-03

    Rheological measurements in biological liquids yield insights into homeostasis and provide information on important molecular processes that affect fluidity. We present a fully automated cantilever-based method for highly precise and sensitive measurements of microliter sample volumes of human blood plasma coagulation (0.009 cP for viscosity range 0.5-3 cP and 0.0012 g/cm(3) for density range 0.9-1.1 g/cm(3)). Microcantilever arrays are driven by a piezoelectric element, and resonance frequencies and quality factors of sensors that change over time are evaluated. A highly accurate approximation of the hydrodynamic function is introduced that correlates resonance frequency and quality factor of cantilever beams immersed in a fluid to the viscosity and density of that fluid. The theoretical model was validated using glycerol reference solutions. We present a surface functionalization protocol that allows minimization of unspecific protein adsorption onto cantilevers. Adsorption leads to measurement distortions and incorrect estimation of the fluid parameters (viscosity and density). Two hydrophilic terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) sensor surfaces are compared to a hydrophobic terminated SAM coating. As expected, the hydrophobic modified surfaces induced the highest mass adsorption and could promote conformational changes of the proteins and subsequent abnormal biological activity. Finally, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assay was performed, and the viscosity, density, and coagulation rate of human blood plasma were measured along with the standard coagulation time. The method could extend and improve current coagulation testing.

  19. [Investigation of coagulation time: PT and APTT].

    PubMed

    Ramakers, Christian; van der Heul, Cees; van Wijk, Eduard M

    2012-01-01

    The first case report describes an extremely prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in a patient with no history of increased bleeding tendency. Heparin use was excluded. The APTT mixing study combined with the medical history suggests a deficiency in one of the non-essential coagulation factors. This was confirmed by factor XII activity of <1%. The second case report describes a prolonged APTT in a patient with no history of increased bleeding tendency. The negative bleeding tendency in combination with a failure of the mixing study to correct the coagulation assay results suggests a factor inhibitor, most probably lupus anticoagulant. Indeed, the lupus anticoagulant was positive and the anti-cardiolipin antibody titre was also positive. Aberrations in the process of haemostasis can be efficiently screened using a platelet count, an APTT, a PT and a thorough physical examination combined with a thorough medical history taking. Common causes of prolonged PT and/or APTT are the use of oral anticoagulants or heparin, vitamin K deficiency and liver disease. Other causes include coagulation factor deficiencies, coagulation factor inhibitors and diffuse intravascular coagulation.

  20. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kenya Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  1. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  2. Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Polyether ionophores: broad-spectrum and promising biologically active molecules for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kevin, Dion A; Meujo, Damaris AF; Hamann, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Background As multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens continue to emerge, there is a substantial amount of pressure to identify new drug candidates. Carboxyl polyethers, also referred to as polyether antibiotics, are a unique class of compounds with outstanding potency against a variety of critical infectious disease targets including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. The characteristics of these molecules that are of key interest are their selectivity and high potency against several MDR etiological agents. Objective Although many studies have been published about carboxyl polyether antibiotics, there are no recent reviews of this class of drugs. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of the spectrum of activity of polyether antibiotics, their mechanism of action, toxicity and potential as drug candidates to combat drug-resistant infectious diseases. Conclusion Polyether ionophores show a high degree of promise for the potential control of drug-resistant bacterial and parasitic infections. Despite the long history of use of this class of drugs, very limited medicinal chemistry and drug optimization studies have been reported, thus leaving the door open to these opportunities in the future. Scifinder and PubMed were the main search engines used to locate articles relevant to the topic presented in the present review. Keywords used in our search were specific names of each of the 88 compounds presented in the review as well as more general terms such as polyethers, ionophores, carboxylic polyethers and polyether antibiotics. PMID:23480512

  4. Evaluation of bacteria isolated from rice for plant growth promotion and biological control of seedling disease of rice.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, T B; Joseph, C M; Yang, G; Phillips, D A; Nelson, L M

    2001-10-01

    Of 102 rhizoplane and endophytic bacteria isolated from rice roots and stems in California, 37% significantly (P < or = 0.05) inhibited the growth in vitro of two pathogens, Achlya klebsiana and Pythium spinosum, causing seedling disease of rice. Four endophytic strains were highly effective against seedling disease in growth pouch assays, and these were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (S3), Pseudomonas tolaasii (S20), Pseudomonas veronii (S21), and Sphingomonas trueperi (S12) by sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Strains S12, S20, and S21 contained the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, but only S12 was able to reduce acetylene in pure culture. The four strains significantly enhanced plant growth in the absence of pathogens, as evidenced by increases in plant height and dry weight of inoculated rice seedlings relative to noninoculated rice. Three bacterial strains (S3, S20, and S21) were evaluated in pot bioassays and reduced disease incidence by 50%-73%. Strain S3 was as effective at suppressing disease at the lowest inoculum density (106 CFU/mL) as at higher density (10(8) CFU/mL or undiluted suspension). This study indicates that selected endophytic bacterial strains have potential for control of seedling disease of rice and for plant growth promotion.

  5. Formulation and quality control of semi-solid containing harmless bacteria by-products: chronic wounds pro-healing activity.

    PubMed

    Sesto Cabral, Maria Eugenia; Ramos, Alberto Nicolas; Macedo, Alexandre Jose; Trentin, Danielle S; Treter, Janine; Manzo, Ruben H; Valdez, Juan Carlos

    2014-07-08

    Abstract Chronic wounds are those that remain in a chronic inflammatory state and fail to follow normal healing process. Infection is one of the most important causes of chronicity. A frequent pathogen isolated from chronic infections is Pseudomonas aeruginosa; refractory to therapy and host immune attack in its biofilm phenotype. Lactobacillus plantarum cultures supernatants (LAPS) interfere with its pathogenic capacity. In addition, LAPS showed bacteriostatic and bactericide properties and is neither cytotoxic nor an inductor of necrosis-apoptosis. LAPSs chemical composition was determined; allowing us to propose a correlation between its constituents and their biological activity. This article shows a pharmaceutical dosage form designed by using LAPS as an API with pro-healing activity and its quality control. Pharmacotechnical and anti-microbial assays were adapted to demonstrate that the vehicle used does not modify LAPS activities. Selected formulation (F100) showed fair mechanical and technological properties. From the in vitro release assays was found an adequate release from the carrier matrix and maintains its anti-pathogenic activity for 6 months. We propose F100 for chronic wounds treatment. The use of harmless bacteria by-products, such as LAPS, to antagonize infectious pathogens that have ability to form biofilm is an efficient and economic approach to treat infected chronic wounds.

  6. Preparation of Thermosensitive Gel for Controlled Release of Levofloxacin and Their Application in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Danilo Antonini; Machado, Daisy; Pereira, Rafaella Fabiana Carneiro; de Hollanda, Luciana Maria; Araújo, Daniele Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for oral or intravenous administration. Chemically, levofloxacin is the levorotatory isomer (L-isomer) of racemate ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. Quinolone derivatives rapidly and specifically inhibit the synthesis of bacterial DNA. Levofloxacin has in vitro activity against a broad range of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, formulation of combined poloxamers thermoregulated (as Pluronic® F127) and levofloxacin for use in multiresistant bacterial treatment were poorly described in the current literature. Thus, the aim of the present work is to characterize poloxamers for levofloxacin controlled release and their use in the treatment of multidrug bacterial resistance. Micelles were produced in colloidal dispersions, with a diameter between 5 and 100 nm, which form spontaneously from amphiphilic molecules under certain conditions as concentration and temperature. Encapsulation of levofloxacin into nanospheres showed efficiency and enhancement of antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae when compared with only levofloxacin. Furthermore, all formulations were not cytotoxic for NIH/3T3 cell lineage. In conclusion, poloxamers combined with levofloxacin have shown promising results, better than alone, decreasing the minimal inhibitory concentration of the studied bacterial multiresistance strains. In the future, this new formulation will be used after being tested in animal models in patients with resistant bacterial strains. PMID:27689094

  7. Altered blood coagulation in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    von Känel, Roland; Hepp, Urs; Buddeberg, Claus; Keel, Marius; Mica, Ladislav; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, though the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved are elusive. A hypercoagulable state before occurrence of coronary thrombosis contributes to atherosclerosis development. We investigated whether PTSD would be associated with increased coagulation activity. We measured resting plasma levels of clotting factor VII activity (FVII:C), FVIII:C, FXII:C, fibrinogen, and D-dimer in 14 otherwise healthy patients with PTSD and in 14 age- and gender-matched, trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls. Categorical and dimensional diagnoses of PTSD were made using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) interview. We also investigated to what extent the relationship between PTSD and coagulation measures would be confounded by demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle variables, time since trauma, and mood. Coagulation factor levels did not significantly differ between patients with a categorical diagnosis of PTSD and controls while controlling for covariates. In all subjects, FVIII:C was predicted by hyperarousal severity (beta = 0.46, p = .014) independent of covariates and by overall PTSD symptom severity (beta = 0.38, p = .045); the latter association was of borderline significance when separately controlling for gender, smoking, exercise, and anxiety (p values <.07). In patients, fibrinogen was predicted by hyperarousal severity (beta = 0.70, p = .005) and by overall PTSD symptom severity (beta = 0.61, p = .020), with mood partially affecting these associations. FVII:C, fibrinogen, and D-dimer showed no independent association with PTSD symptoms. PTSD may elicit hypercoagulability, even at subthreshold levels, offering one psychobiological pathway by which posttraumatic stress might contribute to atherosclerosis progression and clinical cardiovascular disease.

  8. Bacteriophage: Time to Re-Evaluate the Potential of Phage Therapy as a Promising Agent to Control Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Mohammadi, Avid

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays the most difficult problem in treatment of bacterial infections is the appearance of resistant bacteria to the antimicrobial agents so that the attention is being drawn to other potential targets. In view of the positive findings of phage therapy, many advantages have been mentioned which utilizes phage therapy over chemotherapy and it seems to be a promising agent to replace the antibiotics. This review focuses on an understanding of phages for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases as a new alternative treatment of infections caused by multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria. Therefore, utilizing bacteriophage may be accounted as an alternative therapy. It is appropriate time to re-evaluate the potential of phage therapy as an effective bactericidal and a promising agent to control multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:23494063

  9. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk containing three probiotic bacteria in patients with irritable bowel syndrome - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Simrén, M; Ohman, L; Olsson, J; Svensson, U; Ohlson, K; Posserud, I; Strid, H

    2010-01-15

    The effects of probiotic bacteria in IBS remain controversial. To study the effects of a probiotic product on IBS symptoms. We randomized 74 IBS patients to receive 8 weeks of daily treatment with 400 mL milk fermented with the yoghurt bacteria and containing Lactobacillus paracasei, ssp. paracasei F19, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Cultura; active) or acidified milk without these bacteria (control). The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects reporting adequate relief of their IBS symptoms at least 50% of the weeks. IBS symptom severity, psychological symptoms and quality of life were assessed. The proportion of responders was 38% (14/37 patients) in the active group and 27% (10/37 patients) in the control group (P = 0.3). IBS symptom severity improved significantly in both groups during the treatment period. This change was greater in the active group during the first 2 weeks, but thereafter, no significant group differences were seen. We could not detect a clearly positive effect of fermented milk containing three probiotic bacteria on GI symptoms in IBS patients compared with the control treatment. However, a trend towards a more favourable effect during the first weeks was seen in the active group.

  10. Racemization in reverse: evidence that D-amino acid toxicity on Earth is controlled by bacteria with racemases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosen; Sun, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    D-amino acids are toxic for life on Earth. Yet, they form constantly due to geochemical racemization and bacterial growth (the cell walls of which contain D-amino acids), raising the fundamental question of how they ultimately are recycled. This study provides evidence that bacteria use D-amino acids as a source of nitrogen by running enzymatic racemization in reverse. Consequently, when soils are inundated with racemic amino acids, resident bacteria consume D- as well as L-enantiomers, either simultaneously or sequentially depending on the level of their racemase activity. Bacteria thus protect life on Earth by keeping environments D-amino acid free.

  11. Racemization in Reverse: Evidence that D-Amino Acid Toxicity on Earth Is Controlled by Bacteria with Racemases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaosen; Sun, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    D-amino acids are toxic for life on Earth. Yet, they form constantly due to geochemical racemization and bacterial growth (the cell walls of which contain D-amino acids), raising the fundamental question of how they ultimately are recycled. This study provides evidence that bacteria use D-amino acids as a source of nitrogen by running enzymatic racemization in reverse. Consequently, when soils are inundated with racemic amino acids, resident bacteria consume D- as well as L-enantiomers, either simultaneously or sequentially depending on the level of their racemase activity. Bacteria thus protect life on Earth by keeping environments D-amino acid free. PMID:24647559

  12. Dysfunction in the coagulation system and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Amaral, O B; Mezzasalma, M A U; Panizzutti, R; Nardi, A E

    2016-01-01

    Although different hypotheses have been formulated to explain schizophrenia pathogenesis, the links between them are weak. The observation that five psychotic patients on chronic warfarin therapy for deep-vein thrombosis showed long-term remission of psychotic symptoms made us suspect that abnormalities in the coagulation pathway, specifically low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, could be one of the missing links. Our hypothesis is supported by a high prevalence of conditions affecting tPA activity in drug-naive schizophrenia, such as antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated cytokine levels, hyperinsulinemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. We recently screened a group of schizophrenia patients and controls for conditions affecting tPA activity. Free-protein S deficiency was highly prevalent among patients, but not found in controls. Free-protein S and functional protein C are natural anticoagulants that form complexes that inhibit tPA inhibitors. All participants had normal protein C levels, suggesting that protein S could have a role in schizophrenia, independent of protein C. Chronic patients and those studied during acute episodes had between three and six conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity, while patients in remission had up to two, which led us to postulate that multiple conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity could contribute to the full expression of schizophrenia phenotype. This paper describes the physiological roles of tPA and protein S, reviewing how their activity influences pathogenesis and comorbidity of schizophrenia. Next, it analyzes how activity of tPA and protein S is influenced by biochemical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Last, it suggests future directions for research, such as studies on animal models and on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia aiming at increasing tPA and protein S activity. PMID:26731441

  13. Coagulation-membrane filtration of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Liao, Guan-Yu; Chang, Yin-Ru; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-03-01

    Filtration-based separation of Chlorella vulgaris, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was investigated using a surface-modified hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Coagulation using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) attained maximum turbidity removal at 200 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3). The membrane filtration flux at 1 bar increased as the PACl dose increased, regardless of overdosing in the coagulation stage. The filtered cake at the end of filtration tests peaked in solid content at 10 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3), reaching 34% w/w, roughly two times that of the original suspension. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests demonstrate that the cake with minimum water-solid binding strength produced the driest filter cake. Coagulation using 10 mg L(-1) PACl as Al(2)O(3), followed by PTFE membrane filtration at 1 bar, is an effective process for harvesting C. vulgaris from algal froth.

  14. Prostate cancer: beware of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mihir; John, Babbin; Evans, Gillian; Eddy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological systemic condition resulting from aberrant activation of the coagulation system. It is characterised by the release and activation of procoagulants into the blood, with an associated consumption coagulopathy. Its association with solid and haematological malignancies is well described in literature. This case describes an elderly man, known to have prostate cancer, who following transurethral resection of the prostate developed DIC with haematuria, spontaneous ecchymoses and mucosal bleeding. Subsequent investigations revealed a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >1000 µg/L, and staging CT showed multiple sclerotic metastatic lesions affecting the thoracic and lumbar vertebra, as well as infiltration into his left femur. Coagulation normalised with blood products and vitamin K within 1 week, and the patient responded to antiandrogen therapy with a reduction in pain and PSA on discharge. PMID:25819815

  15. Coagulation of carbon clusters in detonation front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupershtokh, A. L.; Ershov, A. P.; Medvedev, D. A.

    1996-05-01

    During the detonation synthesis, diamonds of ˜3 nm in size are produced from the excess carbon released in explosion. Coagulation occurs generally well below the melting temperature. Molecular dynamic simulations within the framework of simple Lennard-Jones model showed important features of interacting carbon clusters: 1) Coagulation is exothermic, and small clusters merge as liquid drops. Clusters larger than ˜3 nm unite keeping their shape, but surface atoms are in quasimolten state and can migrate between two grains. This "wetting" is rather slow. For small clusters there exist considerable temperature fluctuations due to interaction with the thermal bath. 2) Coagulation is accompanied by strong tensions. Both positive and negative pressure phases during the collision can reach ˜30 GPa. This can explain why the region of good diamond yield lies on P-T plane much higher than the graphite-diamond transition line.

  16. Coagulation characteristics of titanium (Ti) salt coagulant compared with aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) salts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Gao, B Y; Shon, H K; Cao, B C; Kim, J-H

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the performance of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl(4)) coagulation and flocculation is compared with commonly used coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (Al(2)(SO(4))(3)), polyaluminum chloride (PACl), iron chloride (FeCl(3)), and polyferric sulfate (PFS) in terms of water quality parameters and floc properties. TiCl(4) flocculation achieved higher removal of UV(254) (98%), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (84%) and turbidity (93%) than other conventional coagulants. Charge neutralization and physical entrapment of colloids within coagulant precipitates and adsorption, seemed to play a significant role during TiCl(4) flocculation, while the main mechanism for conventional coagulants was bridge-aggregation and adsorption. The aggregated flocs after TiCl(4) flocculation showed the fastest growth rate compared to the other coagulants, with the largest floc size (801 μm) occurring within 8 min. The floc strength factor of PACl, Al(2)(SO(4))(3), PFS, FeCl(3) and TiCl(4) was 34, 30, 29, 26 and 29, respectively, while the floc recovery factor of the TiCl(4) coagulant was the lowest. Based on the results of the above study, it is concluded that the TiCl(4) flocculation can reduce the hydraulic retention time of slow and rapid mixing, however, careful handling of sludge is required due to the low recoverability of the aggregated floc. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Inara Oliveira do Carmo; Guedes, Ana Rosa Pinto; Perelo, Louisa Wessels; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation-flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests with aluminium sulphate (Al(2) (SO(4))(3).14 H(2)O) as coagulant. In addition, acute toxicity tests were carried using the duckweed Lemna minor and the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata as test organisms. The analytic hierarchy process was employed for selecting the most appropriate coagulant. Mean values of true colour removal efficiency of 80% and turbidity removal efficiency of 91.4% were reached at chitosan dosages of 960 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5. The acute toxicity tests showed that organisms were sensitive to all samples, mainly after coagulation-flocculation using chitosan. CE(50) for L. minor was not determined because there was no inhibition of the average growth rate and biomass production; LC(50) for P. reticulata was 23% (v v(-1)). Multi-criteria analysis showed that alum was the most appropriate coagulant. Therefore, chitosan as primary coagulant was not considered to be a viable alternative in the post-treatment of landfill leachate.

  18. Coagulation Gene Expression Profiling in Infants With Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Stefano; Tan, Yew-Wei; Zheng, Dongling; Petropoulou, Evmorfia; Sohail, Ali; Bradley, Sarah; Richards, Justin; Kennea, Nigel; Jamshidi, Yalda

    2016-12-01

    Coagulopathy and mesenteric thrombosis are common in premature neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This pilot study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that there are changes in the gene expression related to the coagulation and anticoagulation systems in NEC. Consecutive neonates (n = 11) with NEC (Bell stages 2-3) were recruited. Two comparison groups, matched for birth weight and corrected gestational age, were selected based on the absence of inflammation and coagulopathy (healthy control, n = 10), or the presence of a confirmed blood infection (sepsis control, n = 12). A pathway-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction array was used to determine the expression of 94 genes involved in human blood coagulation and anticoagulation cascade. Twelve genes of the coagulation and anticoagulation systems were significantly altered in the patients with NEC compared with healthy controls. In particular, neutrophil elastase, CD63, PROS1, HGF, and F12 were significantly upregulated (mean fold changes [FCs] +2.74, P < 0.05) with an overall procoagulant effect; MFGE8, factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 (F2RL1), FGL2, PLAT, PROCR, SERPIND1, and HNF4A were significantly downregulated (mean FCs -2.45, P < 0.05) with a reduction in fibrinolysis and endothelial regeneration. In the comparison between NEC and sepsis, we did observe a significant difference in expression of F2RL1 (FC -2.50, P = 0.01). We have identified potential biomarkers associated with coagulopathy and disease progression in NEC. In particular, the overall procoagulant status, at the transcriptional level, should be further investigated to unveil molecular mechanisms leading to intestinal necrosis, multiorgan failure, and death.

  19. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an economical method for producing low-sulfur and low-ash coals using the selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process. This work has been divided into three tasks: (1) project planning and sample acquisition; (2) studies of the fundamental mechanism(s) of the selective coagulation process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur; and (3) bench-scale process development test work to establish the best possible method(s) of separating the hydrophobic and coagula from the dispersed mineral matter.

  20. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  1. Assessing blood coagulation status with laser speckle rheology

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed and investigated a novel optical approach, Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR), to evaluate a patient’s coagulation status by measuring the viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation. In LSR, a blood sample is illuminated with laser light and temporal speckle intensity fluctuations are measured using a high-speed CMOS camera. During blood coagulation, changes in the viscoelastic properties of the clot restrict Brownian displacements of light scattering centers within the sample, altering the rate of speckle intensity fluctuations. As a result, blood coagulation status can be measured by relating the time scale of speckle intensity fluctuations with clinically relevant coagulation metrics including clotting time and fibrinogen content. Our results report a close correlation between coagulation metrics measured using LSR and conventional coagulation results of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and functional fibrinogen levels, creating the unique opportunity to evaluate a patient’s coagulation status in real-time at the point of care. PMID:24688816

  2. Effects of dimethylformamide (DMF) on coagulation and platelet activity

    SciTech Connect

    Imbriani, M.; Ghittori, S.; Prestinoni, A.; Longoni, P.; Cascone, G.; Gamba, G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of dimethylformamide (DMF) on hemostatic functions, especially on platelet activity, were examined both in vitro and in vivo in 15 workers exposed to DMF (27 mg/m3, median value). Twenty-eight control subjects who were not exposed to DMF, but comparable for age, anthropometric data, and smoking habits, were also studied. Workers exposed to DMF showed a decrease in the number of platelets and had longer coagulation times, probably due to a change caused by DMF on the membrane receptor of platelets and on the phospholipid components of the clotting system.

  3. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  4. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m(3) was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m(3) for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  5. Hi-tech of the prostate: interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hypertrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschter, Rolf; Hofstetter, Alfons G.; Hessel, Stefan F. F.; Keiditsch, Ernst; Rothenberger, Karl-Heinz; Schneede, Peter; Frank, Klaus H.

    1992-06-01

    We report on the new technique of interstitial laser coagulation of the prostate (ILCP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Basic experiments by use of a Nd:YAG laser in combination with a newly designed fiber tip homogeneously distributing the laser irradiation have been performed in potato, muscle, liver, and surgically removed human BPH-tissue to determine the volume of coagulation. The coagulation zone surrounding the probe was well defined and homogeneous. The size was dependent on laser power and irradiation time. Carbonization was never present except in darker tissues irradiated with high energy. Volume and time resolved measurements correlated well with the size of coagulation. 10 W and 5 minutes, for example, resulted in a coagulation zone of 17 X 15 mm. Comparable results have been seen in in-vivo experiments in surgically exposed canine prostates. Specimen for macroscopic and microscopic examination were taken immediately after treatment and after 5 and 35 days. The well demarked coagulation necrosis of the early stage resulted in cystic degeneration and fibrosis in the later stages. This was combined with shrinkage and reduction in volume. The urothelium of the urethra, the external sphincter and the rectum showed no damage. Until now, 15 patients suffering from obstructive symptoms due to BPH have been treated with interstitial laser coagulation. The probes were inserted from the perineum into the center of each lateral lobe of the prostate by transrectal ultrasound guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic control. Dependent on the size of the prostate irradiation, time was 5 to 10 minutes per lobe at a power setting of 5 to 10 W.

  6. Fenton's reagent and coagulation-flocculation as pretreatments of combined wastewater for reuse.

    PubMed

    Durán Moreno, A; González Lorenzo, E; Durán De Bazúa, C; Malpica De La Torre, J; Ramírez Zamora, R M

    2003-01-01

    In Mexico City, drinking water is mainly produced from groundwater (70%). This practice has caused collateral problems such as Mexico City's soil sinking (5-30 cm/year). One of the most viable alternatives to palliate this problem is the treatment of wastewater for reuse in either irrigation or for groundwater artificial recharge. This paper presents the evaluation of two physicochemical pretreatment systems to treat the wastewater from the metropolitan area of the Mexican Valley that are conducted by two main sewage systems called Great Canal and Churubusco River. In this research two treatment processes were studied: 1) coagulation-flocculation and, 2) Fenton's reagent. For each one of these processes suggested, tests were performed with wastewater samples of the Great Canal and the Churubusco River mixed in a volume ratio of 1:1. In the case of the coagulation-flocculation process, additional experiments were performed to determine the optimal conditions by applying an experimental design technique. In this experimental design, six coagulant agents were considered (alum, ferric chloride, three coagulant reagents of polymeric kind with aluminium and a coagulant reagent of natural origin), and three flocculant agents (an anionic, a cationic, and a non ionic polymers). Concerning the application of the Fenton's reagent (Fe2+:H2O2), the experimental variables were the weight ratio of the ferrous iron and the hydrogen peroxide and the concentrations of these reagents. The pH value was controlled to be near to 4. For the best experimental conditions, the effluent of the Fenton's method showed similar physicochemical characteristics to the wastewater treated by coagulation-flocculation. Nevertheless, Fenton's reagent showed two very important advantages compared to the coagulation-flocculation process: a disinfecting effect and a lower production of residual sludges.

  7. Grow with the flow: a spatial–temporal model of platelet deposition and blood coagulation under flow

    PubMed Central

    Leiderman, Karin; Fogelson, Aaron L.

    2011-01-01

    The body's response to vascular injury involves two intertwined processes: platelet aggregation and coagulation. Platelet aggregation is a predominantly physical process, whereby platelets clump together, and coagulation is a cascade of biochemical enzyme reactions. Thrombin, the major product of coagulation, directly couples the biochemical system to platelet aggregation by activating platelets and by cleaving fibrinogen into fibrin monomers that polymerize to form a mesh that stabilizes platelet aggregates. Together, the fibrin mesh and the platelet aggregates comprise a thrombus that can grow to occlusive diameters. Transport of coagulation proteins and platelets to and from an injury is controlled largely by the dynamics of the blood flow. To explore how blood flow affects the growth of thrombi and how the growing masses, in turn, feed back and affect the flow, we have developed the first spatial–temporal mathematical model of platelet aggregation and blood coagulation under flow that includes detailed descriptions of coagulation biochemistry, chemical activation and deposition of blood platelets, as well as the two-way interaction between the fluid dynamics and the growing platelet mass. We present this model and use it to explain what underlies the threshold behaviour of the coagulation system's production of thrombin and to show how wall shear rate and near-wall enhanced platelet concentrations affect the development of growing thrombi. By accounting for the porous nature of the thrombus, we also demonstrate how advective and diffusive transport to and within the thrombus affects its growth at different stages and spatial locations. PMID:20439306

  8. N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Mediated Quorum Sensing with Special Reference to Use of Quorum Quenching Bacteria in Membrane Biofouling Control

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Diby

    2014-01-01

    Membrane biofouling remains a severe problem to be addressed in wastewater treatment systems affecting reactor performance and economy. The finding that many wastewater bacteria rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing to synchronize their activities essential for biofilm formations; the quenching bacterial quorum sensing suggests a promising approach for control of membrane biofouling. A variety of quorum quenching compounds of both synthetic and natural origin have been identified and found effective in inhibition of membrane biofouling with much less environmental impact than traditional antimicrobials. Work over the past few years has demonstrated that enzymatic quorum quenching mechanisms are widely conserved in several prokaryotic organisms and can be utilized as a potent tool for inhibition of membrane biofouling. Such naturally occurring bacterial quorum quenching mechanisms also play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions and have been used to develop sustainable nonantibiotic antifouling strategies. Advances in membrane fabrication and bacteria entrapment techniques have allowed the implication of such quorum quenching bacteria for better design of membrane bioreactor with improved antibiofouling efficacies. In view of this, the present paper is designed to review and discuss the recent developments in control of membrane biofouling with special emphasis on quorum quenching bacteria that are applied in membrane bioreactors. PMID:25147787

  9. N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing with special reference to use of quorum quenching bacteria in membrane biofouling control.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2014-01-01

    Membrane biofouling remains a severe problem to be addressed in wastewater treatment systems affecting reactor performance and economy. The finding that many wastewater bacteria rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing to synchronize their activities essential for biofilm formations; the quenching bacterial quorum sensing suggests a promising approach for control of membrane biofouling. A variety of quorum quenching compounds of both synthetic and natural origin have been identified and found effective in inhibition of membrane biofouling with much less environmental impact than traditional antimicrobials. Work over the past few years has demonstrated that enzymatic quorum quenching mechanisms are widely conserved in several prokaryotic organisms and can be utilized as a potent tool for inhibition of membrane biofouling. Such naturally occurring bacterial quorum quenching mechanisms also play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions and have been used to develop sustainable nonantibiotic antifouling strategies. Advances in membrane fabrication and bacteria entrapment techniques have allowed the implication of such quorum quenching bacteria for better design of membrane bioreactor with improved antibiofouling efficacies. In view of this, the present paper is designed to review and discuss the recent developments in control of membrane biofouling with special emphasis on quorum quenching bacteria that are applied in membrane bioreactors.

  10. Nanoparticle coagulation in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nunomura, Shota; Kondo, Michio; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Watanabe, Yukio

    2008-08-15

    The kinetics of nanoparticle coagulation has been studied in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas. The coagulation occurs when the mutual collision frequency among nanoparticles exceeds their charging and decharging/neutralization frequency. Interestingly, the coagulation is suppressed while a fraction (several percent) of nanoparticles are negatively charged in a plasma, in which stochastic charging plays an important role. A model is developed to predict a phase diagram of the coagulation and its suppression.

  11. Coagulation dynamics of a blood sample by multiple scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, Magalie; Peltié, Philippe; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Cosnier, Marie-Line; Cubizolles, Myriam; Nougier, Christophe; Négrier, Claude; Pouteau, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    We report a new technique to measure coagulation dynamics on whole-blood samples. The method relies on the analysis of the speckle figure resulting from a whole-blood sample mixed with coagulation reagent and introduced in a thin chamber illuminated with a coherent light. A dynamic study of the speckle reveals a typical behavior due to coagulation. We compare our measured coagulation times to a reference method obtained in a medical laboratory.

  12. Isolation, purification, and characterization of staphylocoagulase, a blood coagulating protein from Staphylococcus sp. MBBJP S43.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaz, Moonmee; Manna, Prasenjit; Das, Dhrubajyoti; Dutta, Niren; Kalita, Jatin; Unni, Balagopalan; Deka Boruah, Hari Prasanna

    2017-09-01

    Staphylocoagulase, a protein produced by S. aureus, play major role in blood coagulation and investigations are in advance to discover more staphylocoagulase producing species. The present study demonstrates the identification of a coagulase producing bacteria and isolation, purification and characterization of the protein. The bacteria was identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic investigation, classified the bacteria as Staphylococcus sp. MBBJP S43 with Genbank accession number KX907247. Tube test and Chromozym TH assay were used to study enzyme activity and comparison was made with five standard coagulase positive strains. The SEM images of the fibrin threads provide evidence of coagulation. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 37°C and pH of 6.5-7.5. Glucose and lactose as a carbon source and ammonium chloride as nitrogen source greatly influenced the bacterial growth. Staphylocoagulase has been purified to homogeneity (766 fold) by 80% (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, DEAE anion exchange chromatography, and HPLC using C18 column. SDS PAGE revealed the molecular weight of the protein to be approximately 66kD and FTIR spectra of the purified protein demonstrated the presence of α helical structure. Present study revealed that the Staphylococcus sp. MBBJP S43 strain is a potential staphylocoagulase producing bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of hypothermia, hyperthermia, and hemodilution on coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kmiecik, S A; Liu, J L; Vaadia, T S; Nichols, J D; Kohtz, R J; Mills, N J; Petterson, C M; Stammers, A H

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature change on the coagulation time of blood at two different hematocrit levels by using various coagulation-monitoring devices. The devices used in this study were the Bayer Rapid Point Coag Analyzers, Hemochron Jr. Signature, Hemochron Response, Medtronic ACT II, and Haemoscope Thrombelastograph. One unit of human bank blood was used in this study. The hematocrit level was adjusted to 40% and 20%. A control bath and experimental bath were set up. Control blood was maintained at 37 degrees C and tested every 45 +/- 15 min throughout the experimental period of 6 h to demonstrate the stability of the model. The experimental blood was tested at temperature points of 37, 32, 27, 32, 37, 42, and 37 degrees C. Activated clotting time (ACT) tended to increase when the temperature was initially decreased from 37 to 27 degrees C, which reached a statistically significant level when measured by the Hemochron Response at both the 20% (147 +/- 10.7 to 159.3 +/- 11.0, p < .0332) and 40% hematocrit level (130 +/- 14.9 to 152.1 +/- 19.7, p < .0148). ACT was decreased significantly (p < .05) when the temperature was increased to 42 degrees C as measured by all machines except the Hemochron Jr. Signature at the 20% hematocrit level. ACT was significantly higher (p < .05) at a 20% hematocrit level as compared to that at a 40% hematocrit level on all devices for the majority of temperature points. These data suggested that hypothermia only increased ACT when measured by a macrosample device requiring a milliliter sample (Hemochron Response). However, hemodilution induced anticoagulatory effects and hyperthermia caused an acceleration in coagulation by all devices utilized in this study.

  14. Pure eccentric exercise does not activate blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Hilberg, Thomas; Gläser, Doreen; Prasa, Dagmar; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Gabriel, Holger H W

    2005-08-01

    Eccentric exercise can cause skeletal muscle damage with ultrastructural disruption, inflammation and increased proteolytic enzyme activity. It may be possible that these changes are able to trigger blood coagulation in vivo. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in blood coagulation via the measurement of aPTT, the thrombin potential (total [TTP] and endogenous [ETP], both intrinsic [in] and extrinsic [ex]) and the thrombin generation (prothrombinfragment 1 + 2 [F1 + 2] and thrombin-antithrombin complex [TAT]) after pure eccentric exercise. Seventeen healthy non-smokers (28 +/- 6 years, VO2-peak 59 +/- 7 ml/min/kg) underwent pure eccentric down jumps (9 x 28 isolated down jumps in 90 min, drop from a height of 55 cm), a cycle exercise (90% of the individual anaerobic threshold for 60-90 min) and a control experiment on different days. Blood samples were drawn after a 30-min rest, immediately, and 2 h after exercise. After the cycle exercise, a clear shortening by 12% (P<0.001) in aPTT and an increase in TTPin (13%; P<0.05) and TAT (33%; P<0.05) in comparison to the control experiment were seen, while after eccentric exercise only minimal changes in aPTT and thrombin potential (TTPin, ETPin) and no thrombin generation (F1 + 2 and TAT) were found. In contrast to concentric dynamic exercise, e.g. cycle ergometry, only insignificant changes in thrombin potential and no thrombin generation could be observed after skeletal muscle damage induced by pure eccentric exercise. It can be concluded that the mechanical impact associated with eccentric exercise does not activate blood coagulation.

  15. The role of sponge-bacteria interactions: the sponge Aplysilla rosea challenged by its associated bacterium Streptomyces ACT-52A in a controlled aquarium system.

    PubMed

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Tanner, Jason E; Barnett, Stephen J; Franco, Christopher M M; Zhang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Sponge-associated bacteria play a critical role in sponge biology, metabolism and ecology, but how they interact with their host sponges and the role of these interactions are poorly understood. This study investigated the role of the interaction between the sponge Aplysilla rosea and its associated actinobacterium, Streptomyces ACT-52A, in modifying sponge microbial diversity, metabolite profile and bioactivity. A recently developed experimental approach that exposes sponges to bacteria of interest in a controlled aquarium system was improved by including the capture and analysis of secreted metabolites by the addition of an absorbent resin in the seawater. In a series of controlled aquaria, A. rosea was exposed to Streptomyces ACT-52A at 10(6) cfu/ml and monitored for up to 360 h. Shifts in microbial communities associated with the sponges occurred within 24 to 48 h after bacterial exposure and continued until 360 h, as revealed by TRFLP. The metabolite profiles of sponge tissues also changed substantially as the microbial community shifted. Control sponges (without added bacteria) and Streptomyces ACT-52A-exposed sponges released different metabolites into the seawater that was captured by the resin. The antibacterial activity of compounds collected from the seawater increased at 96 and 360 h of exposure for the treated sponges compared to the control group due to new compounds being produced and released. Increased antibacterial activity of metabolites from treated sponge tissue was observed only at 360 h, whereas that of control sponge tissue remained unchanged. The results demonstrate that the interaction between sponges and their associated bacteria plays an important role in regulating secondary metabolite production.

  16. Relation of thromboelastography parameters to conventional coagulation tests used to evaluate the hypercoagulable state of aged fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Guan, Zhao; Xu, Qinzhu; Zhao, Lei; Song, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fractures are common among aged people, and rapid assessment of the coagulation status is important. The thromboelastography (TEG) test can give a series of coagulation parameters and has been widely used in clinics. In this research, we looked at fracture patients over 60 and compared their TEG results with those of healthy controls. Since there is a paucity of studies comparing TEG assessments with conventional coagulation tests, we aim to clarify the relationship between TEG values and the values given by conventional coagulation tests.Forty fracture patients (27 femur and 13 humerus) over 60 years old were included in the study. The change in their coagulation status was evaluated by TEG before surgery within 4 hours after the fracture. Changes in TEG parameters were analyzed compared with controls. Conventional coagulation test results for the patients, including activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen, and platelets, were also acquired, and correlation analysis was done with TEG parameters, measuring similar aspects of the coagulation cascade. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of TEG parameters for detecting raised fibrinogen levels were also analyzed.The K (time to 20 mm clot amplitude) and R (reaction time) values of aged fracture patients were lower than controls. The values for angle, maximal amplitude (MA), and coagulation index (CI) were raised compared with controls, indicating a hypercoagulable state. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between fibrinogen and MA/angle, between platelets and MA, and between APTT and R as well. There was significant negative correlation between fibrinogen and K. In addition, K values have better sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated fibrinogen concentration than angle and MA values.Aged fracture patients tend to be in a hypercoagulable state, and this could be effectively reflected by a TEG test

  17. Relation of thromboelastography parameters to conventional coagulation tests used to evaluate the hypercoagulable state of aged fracture patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Guan, Zhao; Xu, Qinzhu; Zhao, Lei; Song, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fractures are common among aged people, and rapid assessment of the coagulation status is important. The thromboelastography (TEG) test can give a series of coagulation parameters and has been widely used in clinics. In this research, we looked at fracture patients over 60 and compared their TEG results with those of healthy controls. Since there is a paucity of studies comparing TEG assessments with conventional coagulation tests, we aim to clarify the relationship between TEG values and the values given by conventional coagulation tests. Forty fracture patients (27 femur and 13 humerus) over 60 years old were included in the study. The change in their coagulation status was evaluated by TEG before surgery within 4 hours after the fracture. Changes in TEG parameters were analyzed compared with controls. Conventional coagulation test results for the patients, including activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen, and platelets, were also acquired, and correlation analysis was done with TEG parameters, measuring similar aspects of the coagulation cascade. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of TEG parameters for detecting raised fibrinogen levels were also analyzed. The K (time to 20 mm clot amplitude) and R (reaction time) values of aged fracture patients were lower than controls. The values for angle, maximal amplitude (MA), and coagulation index (CI) were raised compared with controls, indicating a hypercoagulable state. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between fibrinogen and MA/angle, between platelets and MA, and between APTT and R as well. There was significant negative correlation between fibrinogen and K. In addition, K values have better sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated fibrinogen concentration than angle and MA values. Aged fracture patients tend to be in a hypercoagulable state, and this could be effectively reflected by

  18. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of rice seed-associated bacteria and their role in pathogenicity and biological control.

    PubMed

    Cottyn, B; Debode, J; Regalado, E; Mew, T W; Swings, J

    2009-09-01

    To study the phenotypic and genetic diversity of culturable bacteria associated with rice seed and to asses the antagonistic and pathogenic potential of the isolated bacteria. Seed of rice cultivar PSBRc14 was collected from farmers' fields of irrigated lowland in southern Luzon, Philippines. Isolations of distinct colonies yielded 498 isolates. Classification of the isolates according to similarities in cellular characteristics, whole-cell fatty acid composition, and colony appearance differentiated 101 morphotype groups. Predominant bacteria were Coryneform spp., Pantoea spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Other bacteria regularly present were Actinomycetes spp., Bacillus pumilus, B. subtilis, Burkholderia glumae, Enterobacter cloacae, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Staphylococcus spp. and Xanthomonas spp. The genetic diversity among isolates was assessed by BOX-PCR fingerprinting of genomic DNA and represented 284 fingerprint types (FPTs). Most FPTs (78%) were not shared among samples, while eight FPTs occurred frequently in the samples. Seven of these FPTs also occurred frequently in a previous collection made from rainfed lowlands of Iloilo island, Philippines. Sixteen per cent of the isolates inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of the rice pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia grisea, whereas 4% were pathogens identified as Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli and Acidovorax avenae ssp. avenae. This study reveals a broad morphological and genetic diversity of bacteria present on seed of a single rice cultivar. This line of work contributes to a better understanding of the microbial diversity present on rice seed and stresses its importance as a carrier of antagonists and pathogens.

  19. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  20. Disseminated intravascular coagulation with Fusobacterium necrophorum septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, M. N.; Drysdale, H. C.; Price, P. A.; Buck, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    A 23 year old woman died within six hours of admission from acute disseminated intravascular coagulation. Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram negative anaerobic organism, was isolated as a single pathogen from the blood cultures. This association has not previously been reported. PMID:3174529

  1. Milestones and perspectives in coagulation and hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Franchini, Massimo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2009-02-01

    Hemostasis is traditionally defined as the physiologic process whereby bleeding is antagonized and possibly stopped to minimize blood loss. The first medical description of the clinical and inherited features of hemostasis can be dated back more than 1000 years, when Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Andalusi al-Zahrawi' medical treatise provided some initial insights into this puzzling process. Since then, continuous and revolutionary scientific developments have contributed to decoding several aspects of this intricate but essential physiologic phenomenon, providing a reliable model to explain the leading mechanisms involved. Although the point at which bleeding stops is commonly referred to as "coagulation," blood coagulation is actually only one part of a two-part hemostatic process that develops through sequential steps referred to as primary and secondary hemostasis. Throughout its activation and development, the coagulation cascade is strictly regulated by a series of natural inhibitors, which prevent unnecessary and excessive clotting. The aim of this article is to provide a concise overview of the major discoveries and past and current perspectives in coagulation and hemostasis.

  2. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices §...

  3. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  4. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop an economical method of producing low-ash and low-sulfur coals using the selective coagulation process. The work is subdivided into three tasks: (1) Project Planning, (2) Establish the fundamental mechanism of the selective coagulation process and determine the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur, and (3) Conduct bench-scale process development testwork to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from the dispersed mineral matter. The effect of pH on the energy of particle/bubble detachment has been measured with a single point surface force apparatus (Task 2.1); bench-scale coagulation experiments, coupled with contact angle and zeta potential measurements, are being used to determine hydrophobic interaction parameters for a Pittsburgh No. 8 coal sample (Task 2.2); and a population balance model of the hydrophobic coagulation process is under development (Task 2.3). A sample of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal has been received and is currently being characterized (Tasks 3.1 3.2), and the mixer required for Task 3.3 was designed and constructed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Point of Care Assessment of Coagulation.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Clare E; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of hemostasis can be difficult to fully elucidate but can severely affect patient outcome. The optimal therapy for coagulopathies is also not always clear. Point of care (POC) testing in veterinary medicine can assist in the diagnosis of hemostatic disorders and also direct treatment. Advantages of POC testing include rapid turnaround times, ease of use, and proximity to the patient. Disadvantages include differences in analytic performance compared with reference laboratory devices, the potential for operator error, and limited test options per device. Conventional coagulation tests such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and activated clotting time can be measured by POC devices and can accurately diagnose hypocoagulability, but they cannot detect hypercoagulability or disorders of fibrinolysis. Viscoelastic POC coagulation testing more accurately evaluates in vivo coagulation, and can detect hypocoagulability, hypercoagulability, and alterations in fibrinolysis. POC platelet function testing methodologies can detect platelet adhesion abnormalities including von Willebrand disease, and can be used to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs. It is unlikely that a single test would be ideal for assessing the complete coagulation status of all patients; therefore, the ideal combination of tests for a specific patient needs to be determined based on an understanding of the underlying disease, and protocols must be standardized to minimize interoperator and interinstitutional variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A survey of coagulation laboratory practices and satisfaction ratings of member laboratories of the Thailand National External Quality Assessment Scheme for blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Chuntarut, A; Tientadakul, P; Wongkrajang, P

    2016-06-01

    The Thailand National External Quality Assessment Scheme (NEQAS) for blood coagulation was established in 2005. The objective of this study was to collect data of coagulation laboratory practices and satisfaction of NEQAS member. Two hundred seventy-six questionnaires were sent to laboratories that are members of NEQAS to obtain data relating to coagulation laboratory practice and satisfaction in 2014. Data from this survey were compared with data from the survey conducted in 2005 to evaluate levels of improvement. Of 276 questionnaires sent, 212 (76.8%) were returned. Improvements were characterized by the number of laboratories that (i) decreased use of 3.8% sodium citrate as anticoagulant; (ii) implemented use of at least two control levels for internal quality control; and (iii) implemented reporting of reference values with results, as well as establishing their own reference range and using geometric mean as the denominator for international normalized ratio calculation. For overall satisfaction, 179 of 206 (86.9%) participant laboratories reported being satisfied or very satisfied. Improvements in coagulation laboratory practices in Thailand were observed in every step of the total testing process. However, additional improvements are still needed, such as determination and use of a local reference range. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Control of Sulfide Production in High Salinity Bakken Shale Oil Reservoirs by Halophilic Bacteria Reducing Nitrate to Nitrite.

    PubMed

    An, Biwen A; Shen, Yin; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities in shale oil fields are still poorly known. We obtained samples of injection, produced and facility waters from a Bakken shale oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada with a resident temperature of 60°C. The injection water had a lower salinity (0.7 Meq of NaCl) than produced or facility waters (0.6-3.6 Meq of NaCl). Salinities of the latter decreased with time, likely due to injection of low salinity water, which had 15-30 mM sulfate. Batch cultures of field samples showed sulfate-reducing and nitrate-reducing bacteria activities at different salinities (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 M NaCl). Notably, at high salinity nitrite accumulated, which was not observed at low salinity, indicating potential for nitrate-mediated souring control at high salinity. Continuous culture chemostats were established in media with volatile fatty acids (a mixture of acetate, propionate and butyrate) or lactate as electron donor and nitrate or sulfate as electron acceptor at 0.5 to 2.5 M NaCl. Microbial community analyses of these cultures indicated high proportions of Halanaerobium, Desulfovermiculus, Halomonas, and Marinobacter in cultures at 2.5 M NaCl, whereas Desulfovibrio, Geoalkalibacter, and Dethiosulfatibacter were dominant at 0.5 M NaCl. Use of bioreactors to study the effect of nitrate injection on sulfate reduction showed that accumulation of nitrite inhibited SRB activity at 2.5 M but not at 0.5 M NaCl. High proportions of Halanaerobium and Desulfovermiculus were found at 2.5 M NaCl in the absence of nitrate, whereas high proportions of Halomonas and no SRB were found in the presence of nitrate. A diverse microbial community dominated by the SRB Desulfovibrio was observed at 0.5 M NaCl both in the presence and absence of nitrate. Our results suggest that nitrate injection can prevent souring provided that the salinity is maintained at a high level. Thus, reinjection of high salinity produced water amended with nitrate maybe be a cost effective method

  8. Control of Sulfide Production in High Salinity Bakken Shale Oil Reservoirs by Halophilic Bacteria Reducing Nitrate to Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    An, Biwen A.; Shen, Yin; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities in shale oil fields are still poorly known. We obtained samples of injection, produced and facility waters from a Bakken shale oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada with a resident temperature of 60°C. The injection water had a lower salinity (0.7 Meq of NaCl) than produced or facility waters (0.6–3.6 Meq of NaCl). Salinities of the latter decreased with time, likely due to injection of low salinity water, which had 15–30 mM sulfate. Batch cultures of field samples showed sulfate-reducing and nitrate-reducing bacteria activities at different salinities (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 M NaCl). Notably, at high salinity nitrite accumulated, which was not observed at low salinity, indicating potential for nitrate-mediated souring control at high salinity. Continuous culture chemostats were established in media with volatile fatty acids (a mixture of acetate, propionate and butyrate) or lactate as electron donor and nitrate or sulfate as electron acceptor at 0.5 to 2.5 M NaCl. Microbial community analyses of these cultures indicated high proportions of Halanaerobium, Desulfovermiculus, Halomonas, and Marinobacter in cultures at 2.5 M NaCl, whereas Desulfovibrio, Geoalkalibacter, and Dethiosulfatibacter were dominant at 0.5 M NaCl. Use of bioreactors to study the effect of nitrate injection on sulfate reduction showed that accumulation of nitrite inhibited SRB activity at 2.5 M but not at 0.5 M NaCl. High proportions of Halanaerobium and Desulfovermiculus were found at 2.5 M NaCl in the absence of nitrate, whereas high proportions of Halomonas and no SRB were found in the presence of nitrate. A diverse microbial community dominated by the SRB Desulfovibrio was observed at 0.5 M NaCl both in the presence and absence of nitrate. Our results suggest that nitrate injection can prevent souring provided that the salinity is maintained at a high level. Thus, reinjection of high salinity produced water amended with nitrate maybe be a cost effective

  9. Different Recovery Profiles of Coagulation Factors, Thrombin Generation, and Coagulation Function After Hemorrhagic Shock in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-06

    Different recovery profiles of coagulation factors, thrombin generation, and coagulation function after hemorrhagic shock in pigs Wenjun Z. Martini ...Defense. Address for reprints: Wenjun Z. Martini , PhD, The US Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3698 Chambers Pass, Ft. Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martini W. Z., Cortez D. S., Dubick M. A., Blackbourne L. H., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  10. Improving primary treatment of urban wastewater with lime-induced coagulation.

    PubMed

    Marani, Dario; Ramadori, Roberto; Braguglia, Camilla Maria

    2004-01-01

    The enhancement of primary treatment efficiency through the coagulation process may yield several advantages, including lower aeration energy in the subsequent biological unit and higher recovery of biogas from sludge digestion. In this work sewage coagulation with lime was studied at pilot plant level, using degritted sewage from the city of Rome. The work aimed at optimising the operating conditions (coagulant dosage or treatment pH, and mixing conditions in the coagulation and flocculation tanks), in order to maximise the efficiency of suspended Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal and to minimise sludge production. Lime dosage optimisation resulted in an optimal treatment pH of 9. Lime addition up to pH 9 may increase COD removal rate in the primary treatment from typical 30-35% of plain sedimentation up to 55-70%. Within the velocity gradients experimented in this work (314-795 s(-1) for the coagulation tank and 13-46 s(-1) for the flocculation tank), mixing conditions did not significantly affect the lime-enhanced process, which seems to be controlled by slow lime dissolution. Sludge produced in the lime-enhanced process settled and compacted easily, inducing an average 36% decrease in sludge volume with respect to plain settling. However excess sludge was produced, which was not accounted for by the amount of suspended solids removed. This is probably due to incomplete dissolution of lime, which may be partially incorporated in the sludge.

  11. Effects of haemodilution on the optical properties of blood during coagulation studied by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Liu, Y.; Wei, H.; Yang, X.; Wu, G.; Guo, Z.; Yang, H.; He, Y.; Xie, S.

    2016-11-01

    We report an investigation of the effects of blood dilution with hypertonic (7.5 %) and normal (0.9 %) saline on its optical properties during coagulation in vitro using optical coherence tomography. The light penetration depth and attenuation coefficient are obtained from the dependences of reflectance on the depth. Normal whole blood has served as the control group. The average coagulation time is equal to 420 +/- 16, 418 +/- 16 and 358 +/- 14 {\\text{s}} with blood volume replacement of 2 %, 11 %, and 20 % by 0.9 % normal saline, respectively. With 2 %, 11% and 20% blood volume replacement with 7.5 % hypertonic saline, the average coagulation time is 422 +/- 17, 1160 +/- 45 and 1730 +/- 69 {\\text{s}}, respectively. For normal whole blood, the average coagulation time amounts to 425 +/- 19 {\\text{s}}. it is shown that dilution with normal saline has a procoagulant effect when it replaces 20 % of blood volume, and hypertonic saline has an anticoagulant effect if it replaces 11 % or more of blood volume. It is concluded that optical coherence tomography is a potential technique to quantify and monitor the liquid - gel transition during the coagulation process of blood diluted by normal and hypertonic saline.

  12. Cultivable microbiota of Lithobates catesbeianus and advances in the selection of lactic acid bacteria as biological control agents in raniculture.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Gabriela Montel; Pasteris, Sergio E; Ale, Cesar E; Otero, María C; Bühler, Marta I; Nader-Macías, María E Fátima

    2012-12-01

    The cultivable microbiota of skin and cloaca of captive Lithobates catesbeianus includes microorganisms generally accepted as beneficial and potentially pathogenic bacteria. In order to select a group of potentially probiotic bacteria, 136 isolates were evaluated for their surface properties and production of antagonistic metabolites. Then, 11 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, L. garvieae and Enterococcus gallinarum. Studies of compatibility indicate that all the strains could be included in a multi-strain probiotic, with the exception of Ent. gallinarum CRL 1826 which inhibited LAB species through a bacteriocin-like metabolite. These results contribute to the design of a probiotic product to improve the sanitary status of bullfrogs in intensive culture systems, to avoid the use of antibiotics and thus to reduce production costs. It could also be an alternative to prevent infectious diseases during the ex situ breeding of amphibian species under threat of extinction.

  13. Novel Ion-Exchange Coagulants Remove More Low Molecular Weight Organics than Traditional Coagulants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huazhang; Wang, Lei; Hanigan, David; Westerhoff, Paul; Ni, Jinren

    2016-04-05

    Low molecular weight (MW) charged organic matter is poorly removed by conventional coagulants but contributes to disinfection byproduct formation during chlorination of drinking waters. We hypothesized that CIEX, a new Al-based hybrid coagulant with ion-exchange functional groups, would be new mechanistic approach to remove low MW organic matter during coagulation and would perform better than polyaluminum chloride (PACl) or metal-salt based coagulants. We measured coagulation performance using dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a high hardness surface water. CIEX achieved excellent turbidity removal and removed 20% to 46% more DOC than FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, or PACl, depending on dose. The improved DOC removal was attributable to better removal of low MW organic matter (<2 kDa). We further studied removal mechanisms in a model water containing a low MW organic acid (salicylic acid (SA)). CIEX achieved high removal of organic acids (>90% of SA) independent of pH, whereas removal by metal salts was lower (<15%) and was strongly pH dependent. CIEX ion-exchange capability is facilitated by its covalently bound quaternary ammonium group, which conventional coagulants lack. Plus, unlike other cationic polymers that react with chloramines to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), CIEX has a low molar yield (9.3 × 10(-7) mol NDMA per mol CIEX-N).

  14. Dynamic analysis of coagulation of low turbidity water sources using Al- and Fe-based coagulants.

    PubMed

    Ebie, K; Kawaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, D

    2006-01-01

    The direct filtration system is widely used in the treatment of source waters with low and stable turbidity. We have previously indicated the importance of optimizing agitation strength GR and time TR in rapid mixing tanks in order to decrease filter head loss and treated water turbidity in direct filtration. In the present study, we employ a batch-type coagulation experimental apparatus that incorporates a high-sensitivity particle counter, where the particulate concentrations are measured continuously after injection of coagulant, in order to clarify the fundamental coagulation and microfloc formation dynamics. Specifically, it is shown that, after injection of the coagulant, coagulation and microfloc formation occur through distinct periods: an agglomeration preparation period, followed by an agglomeration progression period, and then finally an agglomeration stabilization period, and that optimization of the GR value is the most important consideration, although both the coagulant concentration and GR influence the time at which agglomeration begins in the preparatory period, the time at which agglomeration stabilizes after the progression period, and the concentration of initial particles with diameters of 1-3 microm at completion of agglomeration.

  15. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  16. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. Materials and methods: A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Mean % differences were determined and differences between and baseline and 1, 2 and 4h samples were compared with reference change value (RCV). Results: A significantly higher % activity of AT was observed at 1 h and 4 h after meal vs. baseline specimen [113 (104–117) and 111 (107–120) vs. 109 (102–118), respectively; P = 0.029 and P = 0.016]. APTT at 2 h was found significantly lower than baseline samples [32.0 (29.9–34.8) vs. 34.1 (32.2–35.2), respectively; P = 0.041]. The results of both Fbg and PS tests were not influenced by a light meal. Furthermore, no coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV. Conclusion: A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake. PMID:25351352

  17. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Mean % differences were determined and differences between and baseline and 1, 2 and 4h samples were compared with reference change value (RCV). A significantly higher % activity of AT was observed at 1 h and 4 h after meal vs. baseline specimen [113 (104-117) and 111 (107-120) vs. 109 (102-118), respectively; P = 0.029 and P = 0.016]. APTT at 2 h was found significantly lower than baseline samples [32.0 (29.9-34.8) vs. 34.1 (32.2-35.2), respectively; P = 0.041]. The results of both Fbg and PS tests were not influenced by a light meal. Furthermore, no coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV. A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake.

  18. Optical Thromboelastography to evaluate whole blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Tripathi, Markandey M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood viscoelasticity during clotting provides a direct metric of haemostatic conditions. Therefore, technologies that quantify blood viscoelasticity at the point-of-care are invaluable for diagnosing coagulopathies. We present a new approach, Optical Thromboelastography (OTEG) that measures the viscoelastic properties of coagulating blood by evaluating temporal laser speckle fluctuations, reflected from a few blood drops. During coagulation, platelet-fibrin clot formation restricts the mean square displacements (MSD) of scatterers and decelerates speckle fluctuations. Cross-correlation analysis of speckle frames provides the speckle intensity temporal autocorrelation, g2(t), from which MSD is deduced and the viscoelastic modulus of blood is estimated. Our results demonstrate a close correspondence between blood viscoelasticity evaluated by OTEG and mechanical rheometry. Spatio-temporal speckle analyses yield 2-dimensional maps of clot viscoelasticity, enabling the identification of micro-clot formation at distinct rates in normal and coagulopathic specimens. These findings confirm the unique capability of OTEG for the rapid evaluation of patients’ coagulation status and highlight the potential for point-of-care use. Spatial maps of blood viscoelasticity index, G, during clotting obtained from a normal patient (top row) and a hypo-coagulable patient with low levels of clotting factors (bottom row) at 0, 1, 14, and 30 minutes after kaolin activation. Micro-clots of significant G values appear at early times (~1 min) and continue to progress to form a large blood clot over 30 min in the normal patient. In contrast, in the hypo-coagulable sample, micro-clots of comparable G are only visible at 14 min and the extent and overall clot strength is considerably reduced compared to the normal patient even at 30 min. Scale bars are 100 μm long. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity and spatial resolution of OTEG for detecting incipient micro

  19. Characterization of recombinant Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (rTbgTCTP) and its interaction with Glossina midgut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bossard, Géraldine; Bartoli, Manon; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Holzmuller, Philippe; Ollivier, Bernard; Geiger, Anne

    2017-06-06

    In humans, sleeping sickness (i.e. Human African Trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg) in West and Central Africa, and T. b. rhodesiense in East Africa. We previously showed in vitro that Tbg is able to excrete/secrete a large number of proteins, including Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP). Moreover, the tctp gene was described previously to be expressed in Tbg-infected flies. Aside from its involvement in diverse cellular processes, we have investigated a possible alternative role within the interactions occurring between the trypanosome parasite, its tsetse fly vector, and the associated midgut bacteria. In this context, the Tbg tctp gene was synthesized and cloned into the baculovirus vector pAcGHLT-A, and the corresponding protein was produced using the baculovirus Spodoptera frugicola (strain 9) / insect cell system. The purified recombinant protein rTbgTCTP was incubated together with bacteria isolated from the gut of tsetse flies, and was shown to bind to 24 out of the 39 tested bacteria strains belonging to several genera. Furthermore, it was shown to affect the growth of the majority of these bacteria, especially when cultivated under microaerobiosis and anaerobiosis. Finally, we discuss the potential for TCTP to modulate the fly microbiome composition toward favoring trypanosome survival.

  20. Unidentified coagulation disorders in post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Chen, Yue-Shih; Remmert, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 6,966 patients who had undergone tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy to evaluate the incidence and clinical features of previously unidentified coagulation disorders in patients who experienced postoperative hemorrhage (n = 201). We found that post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage secondary to unidentified coagulation disorders is extremely rare. However, normal coagulation values and an insignificant history do not rule out coagulation disorders. If diffuse, persistent, and bilateral bleeding is not related to arterial hypertension, dissection technique, or local infection, a rapid and detailed analysis of coagulation factors should be considered.

  1. Coagulation and metastasis: what does the experimental literature tell us?

    PubMed

    Gil-Bernabé, Ana M; Lucotti, Serena; Muschel, Ruth J

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of coagulation greatly limits cancer metastasis in many experimental models. Cancer cells trigger coagulation, through expression of tissue factor or P-selectin ligands that have correlated with worse prognosis in human clinical studies. Cancer cells also affect coagulation through expression of thrombin and release of microparticles that augment coagulation. In the cancer-bearing host, coagulation facilitates tumour progression through release of platelet granule contents, inhibition of Natural Killer cells and recruitment of macrophages. We are revisiting this literature in the light of recent studies in which treatment of clinical cohorts with anticoagulant drugs led to diminished metastasis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Excessive Fibrinolysis (DIC XFL) Syndrome in Prostate Cancer: A Rare Complicated Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Azhar Bin Amir; Choo, Yew Maw; Saleem, Fahad; Verma, Ashutosh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) develops in patient with prostate cancer, which is manifested by systemic, intracranial, intracavitary or intracutaneous bleeding indicating uncompensated or excessive fibrinolysis (XFL). This case report is a description of a 61-year-old male with metastatic prostate cancer that progressed to manifest DIC. The condition is rare in clinical practice, and even rarer when is coupled with XFL. Treatment was mainly replenishing coagulation factors, platelets and controlling the disease progression with aggressive hormonal therapy. The patient progressed to coagulopathy further with fibrinolysis, hence leading to mortality. This case study discusses the pathophysiology of this complication and various methods to monitor the disease progression are discussed. PMID:28274032

  3. Effect of soybean aging on the quality of soymilk, firmness of tofu and optimum coagulant concentration.

    PubMed

    Kamizake, N K K; Silva, L C P; Prudencio, S H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of soybean aging (cultivars Coodetec 214 and BRS 267) on the physicochemical properties of soymilk and tofu. Two aging conditions were adopted: accelerated aging (84% relative humidity and 30 °C, up to 9 months) and natural aging (ambient temperature and relative humidity, up to 18 months) and a control condition (47% relative humidity, -20 °C). Tofu was coagulated with MgSO4. Optimum coagulant concentration (OCC) decreased with increasing coagulation temperature and soybean aging time. OCC showed positive correlation with total solids, protein, ash, Ca, Mg and P contents of soymilk. The products showed, in general, reduced color parameters (L(∗) and h°), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, Ca, Mg, P and total solids (except in the tofu) and firmness (tofu) with increasing aging time. Tofu yields decreased with accelerated aging time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enzymatic lipid oxidation by eosinophils propagates coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Uderhardt, Stefan; Ackermann, Jochen A.; Fillep, Tobias; Hammond, Victoria J.; Willeit, Johann; Stark, Konstantin; Rossaint, Jan; Schubert, Irene; Mielenz, Dirk; Dietel, Barbara; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Ay, Cihan; Thaler, Johannes; Heim, Christian; Collins, Peter W.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Mackman, Nigel; Voehringer, David; Nadler, Jerry L.; Lee, James J.; Massberg, Steffen; Rauh, Manfred; O’Donnell, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation is essential for physiological hemostasis but simultaneously contributes to thrombotic disease. However, molecular and cellular events controlling initiation and propagation of coagulation are still incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate an unexpected role of eosinophils during plasmatic coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Using a large-scale epidemiological approach, we identified eosinophil cationic protein as an independent and predictive risk factor for thrombotic events in humans. Concurrent experiments showed that eosinophils contributed to intravascular thrombosis by exhibiting a strong endogenous thrombin-generation capacity that relied on the enzymatic generation and active provision of a procoagulant phospholipid surface enriched in 12/15-lipoxygenase–derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phosphatidylethanolamines. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of eosinophils and enzymatic lipid oxidation as regulatory elements that facilitate both hemostasis and thrombosis in response to vascular injury, thus identifying promising new targets for the treatment of thrombotic disease. PMID:28566277

  5. Enzymatic lipid oxidation by eosinophils propagates coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombotic disease.

    PubMed

    Uderhardt, Stefan; Ackermann, Jochen A; Fillep, Tobias; Hammond, Victoria J; Willeit, Johann; Santer, Peter; Mayr, Manuel; Biburger, Markus; Miller, Meike; Zellner, Katie R; Stark, Konstantin; Zarbock, Alexander; Rossaint, Jan; Schubert, Irene; Mielenz, Dirk; Dietel, Barbara; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Ay, Cihan; Gremmel, Thomas; Thaler, Johannes; Heim, Christian; Herrmann, Martin; Collins, Peter W; Schabbauer, Gernot; Mackman, Nigel; Voehringer, David; Nadler, Jerry L; Lee, James J; Massberg, Steffen; Rauh, Manfred; Kiechl, Stefan; Schett, Georg; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Krönke, Gerhard

    2017-07-03

    Blood coagulation is essential for physiological hemostasis but simultaneously contributes to thrombotic disease. However, molecular and cellular events controlling initiation and propagation of coagulation are still incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate an unexpected role of eosinophils during plasmatic coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Using a large-scale epidemiological approach, we identified eosinophil cationic protein as an independent and predictive risk factor for thrombotic events in humans. Concurrent experiments showed that eosinophils contributed to intravascular thrombosis by exhibiting a strong endogenous thrombin-generation capacity that relied on the enzymatic generation and active provision of a procoagulant phospholipid surface enriched in 12/15-lipoxygenase-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-phosphatidylethanolamines. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of eosinophils and enzymatic lipid oxidation as regulatory elements that facilitate both hemostasis and thrombosis in response to vascular injury, thus identifying promising new targets for the treatment of thrombotic disease. © 2017 Uderhardt et al.

  6. The impact of major surgery on blood coagulation factors and thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Horne, McDonald K; Merryman, Paula K; Cullinane, Ann M; Nghiem, Khanh; Alexander, H Richard

    2007-09-01

    We studied the blood coagulation system of 14 patients with metastatic malignancies before and after they had undergone major surgery. In addition to measuring a battery of coagulation factors, we assessed the function of the system with assays of whole blood thrombin generation. With the exceptions of factor VIII (fVIII), which increased, and fibrinogen and fIX, which did not change, the activities of all the pro- and anticoagulant proteins were significantly lower postoperatively. However, the thrombin generating capacity of the system was relatively preserved. Although the integral of thrombin activity over time was lower after surgery, the mean peak thrombin concentration was unchanged and the time to clot formation was shortened. Similar changes could be reproduced by lowering the concentrations of pro- and anticoagulant factors together in control blood samples. Therefore, simultaneous reductions in pro- and anticoagulant proteins postoperatively worked to maintain the functional integrity of the blood coagulation system. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  7. Effects of saline or albumin resuscitation on standard coagulation tests.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Presneill, Jeff; French, Craig; Cole, Louise; Story, David; Uchino, Shigehiko; Naka, Toshio; Finfer, Simon; Cooper, D James; Myburgh, John

    2009-12-01

    To explore whether fluid resuscitation with normal saline or 4% albumin is associated with differential changes in routine clinical coagulation tests. Substudy from a large double-blind randomised controlled trial, the SAFE (Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation) study. Three general intensive care units. Cohort of 687 critically ill patients. We randomly allocated patients to receive either 4% human albumin or normal saline for fluid resuscitation, and collected demographic and haematological data. Albumin was administered to 338 patients and saline to 349. At baseline, the two groups had similar mean activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of 37.2 s (albumin) v 39.1 s (saline); mean international normalised ratio (INR) of 1.38 v 1.34, and mean platelet count of 244 x 10(9)/L v 249 x 10(9)/L. After randomisation, during the first day of treatment, the APTT in the albumin group was prolonged by a mean of 2.7 s, but shortened slightly by a mean of -0.9 s in the saline group. The INR did not change in either group, while the platelet count decreased transiently in both groups. Using multivariate analysis of covariance to account for baseline coagulation status, albumin fluid resuscitation (P = 0.01) and a greater overall volume of resuscitation (P = 0.03) were independently associated with prolongation of APTT during the first day. Administration of albumin or of larger fluid volumes is associated with a prolongation of APTT. In ICU patients, the choice and amount of resuscitation fluid may affect a routinely used coagulation test.

  8. Neprilysin Inhibits Coagulation through Proteolytic Inactivation of Fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Burrell, Matthew; Henderson, Simon J.; Ravnefjord, Anna; Schweikart, Fritz; Fowler, Susan B.; Witt, Susanne; Hansson, Kenny M.; Webster, Carl I.

    2016-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) is an endogenous protease that degrades a wide range of peptides including amyloid beta (Aβ), the main pathological component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have engineered NEP as a potential therapeutic for AD but found in pre-clinical safety testing that this variant increased prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of wild type NEP and the engineered variant on coagulation and define the mechanism by which this effect is mediated. PT and APTT were measured in cynomolgus monkeys and rats dosed with a human serum albumin fusion with an engineered variant of NEP (HSA-NEPv) as well as in control plasma spiked with wild type or variant enzyme. The coagulation factor targeted by NEP was determined using in vitro prothrombinase, calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) and fibrin formation assays as well as N-terminal sequencing of fibrinogen treated with the enzyme. We demonstrate that HSA-NEP wild type and HSA-NEPv unexpectedly impaired coagulation, increasing PT and APTT in plasma samples and abolishing fibrin formation from fibrinogen. This effect was mediated through cleavage of the N-termini of the Aα- and Bβ-chains of fibrinogen thereby significantly impairing initiation of fibrin formation by thrombin. Fibrinogen has therefore been identified for the first time as a substrate for NEP wild type suggesting that the enzyme may have a role in regulating fibrin formation. Reductions in NEP levels observed in AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy may contribute to neurovascular degeneration observed in these conditions. PMID:27437944

  9. Update on anti-coagulation in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common clinically relevant arrhythmia, affects 2.2 million individuals in the USA and 4.5 million in Europe, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacotherapy aimed at controlling both heart rate and rhythm is employed to relieve AF symptoms, though debate continues about which approach is preferable. AF prevalence rises with age from 0.4% to 1% in the general population to 11% in those aged >70 years. AF is associated with a pro-thrombotic state and other comorbidities; age, hypertension, heart failure and diabetes mellitus all play a key role in AF pathogenesis. Anti-coagulation is essential for stroke prevention in patients with AF and is recommended for patients with one or more risk factors for stroke. Used within the recommended therapeutic range, warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists decrease the incidence of stroke and mortality in AF patients. Warfarin remains under-used, however, because of the perceived high risk of haemorrhage, narrow therapeutic window and need for regular monitoring. Several novel anti-coagulants show promise in AF-related stroke prevention. In particular, the novel, oral, direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate, recently licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada has shown improved efficacy and safety compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in AF, and has the potential to replace warfarin in this indication. The increasing number of new therapeutic options, including improved anti-arrhythmic agents, novel anti-coagulants and more accessible ablation techniques, are likely to deliver better care for AF patients in the near future. PMID:21816811

  10. Magnetic Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  11. Quorum sensing in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miller, M B; Bassler, B L

    2001-01-01

    Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The detection of a minimal threshold stimulatory concentration of an autoinducer leads to an alteration in gene expression. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria use quorum sensing communication circuits to regulate a diverse array of physiological activities. These processes include symbiosis, virulence, competence, conjugation, antibiotic production, motility, sporulation, and biofilm formation. In general, Gram-negative bacteria use acylated homoserine lactones as autoinducers, and Gram-positive bacteria use processed oligo-peptides to communicate. Recent advances in the field indicate that cell-cell communication via autoinducers occurs both within and between bacterial species. Furthermore, there is mounting data suggesting that bacterial autoinducers elicit specific responses from host organisms. Although the nature of the chemical signals, the signal relay mechanisms, and the target genes controlled by bacterial quorum sensing systems differ, in every case the ability to communicate with one another allows bacteria to coordinate the gene expression, and therefore the behavior, of the entire community. Presumably, this process bestows upon bacteria some of the qualities of higher organisms. The evolution of quorum sensing systems in bacteria could, therefore, have been one of the early steps in the development of multicellularity.

  12. MF/UF performance with and without coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, C.; Taylor, J.S.; Reiss, C.R.

    1999-07-01

    Although size-exclusion membrane processes produce superior water quality relative to conventional surface water treatment, fouling can significantly limit the use of these membrane processes. Coagulation can reduce organic, particulate and biological fouling, and was investigated as a pretreatment process to microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane processes. Varying coagulants, coagulant pH and dose and variation of conventional coagulation pretreatment processes including coagulation-sedimentation-filtration (CSF), coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and in-line coagulation (ILC) for varying dose and pH were investigated. The Hillsborough River, a highly organic productive subtropical surface water in Tampa, Florida and the Maumee River, a moderately productive northern US surface water were used as water sources for this study.

  13. Evaluation of the contribution of isolation precautions in prevention and control of multi-resistant bacteria in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Eveillard, M; Eb, F; Tramier, B; Schmit, J L; Lescure, F X; Biendo, M; Canarelli, B; Daoudi, F; Laurans, G; Rousseau, F; Thomas, D

    2001-02-01

    From February 1999 to January 2000, a control programme to prevent the spread multi-resistant bacteria (MRB) was implemented in a French teaching hospital. This programme focused on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), and was based on the application of barrier precautions (washing hands with antiseptic soaps, wearing disposable gloves and gowns, identifying MRB carriers). No changes in antibiotic policy occurred during the year. Our aim was to conduct an evaluation of this programme by measuring incidence rates. Concurrently, the effect of barrier precautions was estimated in an indirect way, by documenting the availability of barrier precautions in MRB carriers' rooms and by analysing the monthly correlation between the supply of such material and the theoretical cumulated length of MRB carriers' isolation in six randomized wards. All MRB isolated in hospitalized patients were recorded, and differentiated between acquisition in our hospital or from elsewhere. For the analysis of trends, the year was divided in three periods of four months. Over the year, the global MRB incidence was 1.26 per 1000 patient-days (PD) [95% confidence interval (95%CI)=1.16-1.36]. The MRSA incidence was 0.89 per 1000 PD (95%CI=0.81- 0.97) and the ESBL incidence was 0.38 per 1000 PD (95% CI=0.33-0.43). The MRB incidence decreased significantly in all types of specialties except for surgical wards. The incidence decreased by 17.9% for MRSA, 54.9% for ESBL and 34.8% for both MRB. Concurrently, the proportion of strains acquired in our hospital decreased for MRSA (P for trend > or = 0.05) and ESBL (P for trend > or = 0.01), whereas the incidence of imported strains increased slightly. The proportion of multiresistant strains in S. aureus (36.8%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (37.0%) remained similar throughout the year. Thus, the decrease of the incidence concerned both resistant and susceptible strains

  14. Runoff delay exerts a strong control on the field-scale removal of manure-borne fecal bacteria with runoff

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The microbial safety of surface waters is an ongoing issue which is threatened by the transport of manure-borne bacteria to water sources used for irrigation or recreation. Predictive modeling has become an effective tool to forecast the microbial quality of water during precipitation events, howeve...

  15. Runoff delay exerts a strong control on the field-scale removal of manure-borne fecal bacteria with runoff

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The microbial safety of surface waters is an ongoing issue which is threatened by the transport of manure-borne bacteria to water sources used for irrigation or recreation. Predictive modeling has become an effective tool to forecast the microbial quality of water duringprecipitation events, however...

  16. Control of foodborne pathogens and soft-rot bacteria on bell pepper by three strains of bacterial antagonists

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forty-two representative strains of native bacteria associated with fresh peeled baby carrots were isolated and characterized. Two of them identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens AG3A (Pf AG3A) and Bacillus YD1 were evaluated in conjunction with another known antagonist, P. fluorescens 2-79 (Pf 2-79)...

  17. Isolation of endophytic endospore-forming bacteria from Theobroma cacao as potential biological control agents of cacao dieseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endospore-forming bacterial endophytes were isolated from Theobroma cacao to access the present and diversity of endospore-forming bacteria in cacao. Cacao leaves, pods, branches, and flower cushions were removed from cacao trees escaping disease on INIAP’s Tropical Research Station in Pichilingue, ...

  18. Novel pod for chlorine dioxide generation and delivery to control aerobic bacteria on the inner surface of floor drains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Floor drains in poultry processing and further processing plants are a harborage site for bacteria both free swimming and in biofilms. This population can include Listeria monocytogenes which has been shown to have potential for airborne spreading from mishandled open drains. Chlorine dioxide (ClO...

  19. Multidrug-resistant bacteria infection control: study of compliance with isolation precautions in a Paris university hospital.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Trecan, G M; Delamare, N; Tcherny-Lessenot, S; Lamory, J; Baudin, F; de Prittwitz, M; Salmon-Ceron, D

    2001-02-01

    Isolation practices in a university hospital were analyzed for 137 patients with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Isolation was ordered in writing by physicians for 40% and instituted by nurses for 60%; 74% were isolated. Compliance depended on physician ordering in writing (odds ratio, 36.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.8-274.9). Nurses complied best with hand washing.

  20. Coagulation Activation in Children with Sickle Cell Disease Is Associated with Cerebral Small Vessel Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Colombatti, Raffaella; De Bon, Emiliano; Bertomoro, Antonella; Casonato, Alessandra; Pontara, Elena; Omenetto, Elisabetta; Saggiorato, Graziella; Steffan, Agostino; Damian, Tamara; Cella, Giuseppe; Teso, Simone; Manara, Renzo; Rampazzo, Patrizia; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Basso, Giuseppe; Sartori, Maria Teresa; Sainati, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombotic complications in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) arise since infancy, but the role of the coagulation system in children has been poorly explored. To determine its role in the development of clinical complications in childhood we measured coagulation and endothelial parameters in children with SCD at steady state. Methods Markers of thrombin generation, fibrin dissolution and endothelial activation were evaluated in 38 children with SS-Sβ°, 6 with SC disease and 50 age and blood group matched controls. Coagulation variables were correlated with markers of hemolysis and inflammation, with the presence of cerebral and lung vasculopathy and with the frequency of clinical complications. Results SS-Sβ° patients presented higher levels of factor VIII, von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and collagen binding activity, tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA:Ag), D-dimer, p-selectin, prothrombin fragment1+2 (F1+2) and lower ADAMTS-13:activity/VWF:Ag (p<0.05) compared to controls and SC patients. In SS-Sβ° patients coagulation variables correlated positively with markers of inflammation, hemolysis, and negatively with HbF (p<0.05). Patients with cerebral silent infarcts showed significant decrease in t-PA:Ag and ADAMTS-13 Antigen and a tendency toward higher D-dimer, F1+2, TAT compared to patients without them. D-dimer was associated with a six fold increased risk of cerebral silent infarcts. No correlation was found between coagulation activation and large vessel vasculopathy or other clinical events except for decreased t-PA:Ag in patients with tricuspid Rigurgitant Velocity >2.5m/sec. Conclusions SS-Sβ° disease is associated with extensive activation of the coagulation system at steady state since young age. ADAMTS-13 and t-PA:Ag are involved in the development of cerebral silent infarcts. PMID:24205317

  1. Is ingestion of milk-associated bacteria by premature infants fed raw human milk controlled by routine bacteriologic screening?

    PubMed

    Law, B J; Urias, B A; Lertzman, J; Robson, D; Romance, L

    1989-07-01

    Expressed human milk is often used to feed premature infants. Raw milk contains bacteria which may be a source of infection. Milk banks have developed screening programs which combine periodic quantitative milk cultures with arbitrary rules specifying limits of bacterial concentration. It is unknown whether such programs succeed in preventing infants from being fed milk containing bacteria. At the Health Sciences Centre (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada), milk is screened once weekly. When a woman's milk is found to have excess bacteria, it is discarded only if she is an unrelated donor (as opposed to an infant's mother). To assess the effectiveness of this screening program, we determined the frequency at which infants fed raw human milk were exposed to milk-associated bacteria and compared the bacterial contents of donor and maternal milk. From February 1986 to April 1987, all human milk fed to 98 premature infants during the first 2 weeks of feeding (n = 10,128 feeds) was cultured quantitatively. Among study infants, 100% were exposed at least once to coagulase-negative staphylococci, 41% were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, and 64% were exposed to gram-negative bacilli. The proportions of feeds containing bacteria and the quantities (log10 CFU [mean +/- standard deviation]) ingested per positive feed were: 39% and 5.9 +/- 0.5 for coagulase-negative staphylococci; 2.4% and 5.1 +/- 1.0 for S. aureus; and 5.2% and 4.8 +/- 1.1 for gram-negative bacilli. There were no adverse events attributable to ingestion of milk-associated bacteria. Milk coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were multiply antibiotic susceptible, whereas infant isolates were antibiotic resistant. Donor milk was significantly less likely than maternal milk to contain coagulase-negative staphylococcal species in any quantity (40 versus 93% of samples, respectively [P < 0.001]) or in concentrations exceeding 10(8) CFU/liter (3 versus 27% of samples, respectively [P < 0.0001]). There was no

  2. Is ingestion of milk-associated bacteria by premature infants fed raw human milk controlled by routine bacteriologic screening?

    PubMed Central

    Law, B J; Urias, B A; Lertzman, J; Robson, D; Romance, L

    1989-01-01

    Expressed human milk is often used to feed premature infants. Raw milk contains bacteria which may be a source of infection. Milk banks have developed screening programs which combine periodic quantitative milk cultures with arbitrary rules specifying limits of bacterial concentration. It is unknown whether such programs succeed in preventing infants from being fed milk containing bacteria. At the Health Sciences Centre (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada), milk is screened once weekly. When a woman's milk is found to have excess bacteria, it is discarded only if she is an unrelated donor (as opposed to an infant's mother). To assess the effectiveness of this screening program, we determined the frequency at which infants fed raw human milk were exposed to milk-associated bacteria and compared the bacterial contents of donor and maternal milk. From February 1986 to April 1987, all human milk fed to 98 premature infants during the first 2 weeks of feeding (n = 10,128 feeds) was cultured quantitatively. Among study infants, 100% were exposed at least once to coagulase-negative staphylococci, 41% were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, and 64% were exposed to gram-negative bacilli. The proportions of feeds containing bacteria and the quantities (log10 CFU [mean +/- standard deviation]) ingested per positive feed were: 39% and 5.9 +/- 0.5 for coagulase-negative staphylococci; 2.4% and 5.1 +/- 1.0 for S. aureus; and 5.2% and 4.8 +/- 1.1 for gram-negative bacilli. There were no adverse events attributable to ingestion of milk-associated bacteria. Milk coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were multiply antibiotic susceptible, whereas infant isolates were antibiotic resistant. Donor milk was significantly less likely than maternal milk to contain coagulase-negative staphylococcal species in any quantity (40 versus 93% of samples, respectively [P < 0.001]) or in concentrations exceeding 10(8) CFU/liter (3 versus 27% of samples, respectively [P < 0.0001]). There was no

  3. What Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding. Clotting factors are proteins needed for normal blood clotting. With fewer platelets and clotting factors in the ... DIC, it helps to understand the body's normal blood clotting process. Your body has a system to control ...

  4. Differential activity of autochthonous bacteria in controlling drought stress in native Lavandula and Salvia plants species under drought conditions in natural arid soil.

    PubMed

    Armada, Elisabeth; Roldán, Antonio; Azcon, Rosario

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was studied in Lavandula dentata and Salvia officinalis growing in a natural arid Mediterranean soil under drought conditions. These bacteria identified as Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Enterobacter sp. (E), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and Bacillus sp. (Bsp). Each bacteria has different potential to meliorate water limitation and alleviating drought stress in these two plant species. B. thuringiensis promoted growth and drought avoidance in Lavandula by increasing K content, by depressing stomatal conductance, and it controlled shoot proline accumulation. This bacterial effect on increasing drought tolerance was related to the decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) that resulted sensitive indexes of lower cellular oxidative damage involved in the adaptative drought response in B. thuringiensis-inoculated Lavandula plants. In contrast, in Salvia, having intrinsic lower shoot/root ratio, higher stomatal conductance and lower APX and GR activities than Lavandula, the bacterial effects on nutritional, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic systems were lower. The benefit of bacteria depended on intrinsic stress tolerance of plant involved. Lavadula demonstrated a greater benefit than Salvia to control drought stress when inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The bacterial drought tolerance assessed as survival, proline, and indolacetic acid production showed the potential of this bacteria to help plants to grow under drought conditions. B. thuringiensis may be used for Lavandula plant establishment in arid environments. Particular characteristic of the plant species as low shoot/root ratio and high stomatal conductance are important factors controlling the bacterial effectiveness improving nutritional, physiological, and metabolic plant activities.

  5. Assessing quality of life in individuals with hereditary blood coagulation disorders.

    PubMed

    Solovieva, S; Santavirta, N; Santavirta, S; Konttinen, Y T

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the SF-36 questionnaire among the patients with hereditary blood coagulation disorders, to compare their quality of life (QoL) to that of healthy controls, and to identify the dimensions of life the patients consider most important. Results showed that the SF-36 questionnaire had good internal consistency reliability and construct and known group validity in individuals with hereditary blood coagulation disorders. Leisure activities/hobbies, availability of work/ study, followed by relationships with other people, own health and relationships with family/relatives appeared most frequently across the patients' and controls' priority ranks. The areas affected most by the disease were financial security, own health and relationships with family/relatives. A comparison of standardized scale scores suggests that blood coagulation disorders are diseases with a predominantly physical impact. Patients with blood coagulation disorders had health-related quality of life that was lower in most domains compared to healthy controls. However, when a wider concept of QoL was applied no differences between the patients' and controls' perceived QoL could be noted.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radio Frequency Coagulation for Vascular Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming

    Purpose. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Coagulation employs the RF heating effect of MRI scanning to coagulate biomaterials for repair of vascular defects. Coagulation of a protein biomaterial by MR-induced RF heating is a novel means to effect repair of defects such as aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Our novel method is to coagulate a thermosetting material (such as egg white, which can be used for investigating heat coagulation behavior and MR relaxation properties) delivered endovascularly by catheter and coagulated by RF-induced heating of an intracatheter resonant wire antenna in the scanner. Methods. Experiments were performed on a Siemens 1.5 T MRI scanner and a Bruker 14T NMR spectrometer. Egg white was brought to equilibrium at seven temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 37 °C) in sequence. Measurement of the water spin-lattice relaxation time Ti, spin-spin relaxation time T2, spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame T1p, or full width at half maximum of the MT spectrum were performed at each temperature. Relaxation parameters of raw egg white and egg white after coagulation at 70 °C were measured in the scanner at 20 °C to determine optimum inversion time, echo time and offset frequency for good image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated protein. Finally, coagulation of egg white within a glass aneurysm phantom by RF heating in the scanner was performed to demonstrate the MR coagulation methodology and the ability to achieve image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated biomaterial. Results. Water T2, T1p and MT gave the most definitive indication of the change from uncoagulated at low temperature to fully coagulated at 60 °C, while water T1 showed only the expected gradual increase with temperature, and no response to coagulation. MT weighted imaging is expected to be the optimum method to establish the coagulation condition of the biomaterial.

  7. Treatment of copper wastewater using optimal current electrochemical-coagulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungtae; Cui, Fenghao; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Moonil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an automatic current controlling electrochemical-coagulation (EC) process was developed by testing laboratory-scale and pilot-scale reactors for removing copper (Cu) from printed circuit board (PCB) industrial wastewater with an economic use of energy. During tests of the laboratory-scale reactor, the influences of electrode material, electrode gap, current density, hydraulic retention time (HRT), wastewater pH and conductivity on removal performance were explored. The relational expression between conductivity and current density that optimizes Cu removal based on conductivity changes was established and applied to the optimal current EC process. During tests of the pilot-scale reactor, Cu removal from PCB industrial wastewater was investigated by applying an automatic current controlling system for the EC process. More than 90% of the Cu was removed when applying optimal current control for the EC process in both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments, which demonstrated significant energy savings.

  8. Application of Fe(II)/peroxymonosulfate for improving ultrafiltration membrane performance in surface water treatment: Comparison with coagulation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Liang, Heng; Ding, An; Zhu, Xuewu; Tang, Xiaobin; Gan, Zhendong; Xing, Jiajian; Wu, Daoji; Li, Guibai

    2017-11-01

    Coagulation and ozonation have been widely used as pretreatments for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in drinking water treatment. While beneficial, coagulation or ozonation alone is unable to both efficiently control membrane fouling and product water quality in many cases. Thus, in this study an emerging alternative of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate (Fe(II)/PMS), which can act as both an oxidant and a coagulant was employed prior to UF for treatment of natural surface water, and compared with conventional coagulation and ozonation. The results showed that the Fe(II)/PMS-UF system exhibited the best performance for dissolved organic carbon removal, likely due to the dual functions of coagulation and oxidation in the single process. The fluorescent and UV-absorbing organic components were more susceptible to ozonation than Fe(II)/PMS treatment. Fe(II)/PMS and ozonation pretreatments significantly increased the removal efficiency of atrazine, p-chloronitrobenzene and sulfamethazine by 12-76% and 50-94%, respectively, whereas coagulation exerted a minor influence. The Fe(II)/PMS pretreatment also showed the best performance for the reduction of both reversible and irreversible membrane fouling, and the performance was hardly affected by membrane pore size and surface hydrophobicity. In addition, the characterization of hydraulic irreversible organic foulants confirmed its effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential advantages of applying Fe(II)/PMS as a pretreatment for UF to simultaneously control membrane fouling and improve the permeate quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The coagulation characteristics of humic acid by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and chitosan coagulant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wu, Chung-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This study compared the characteristics of humic acid (HA) removal by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and coagulant mixtures of chitosan with aluminium sulphate (alum) or polyaluminium chloride (PACl). In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies at various coagulant concentrations, pH values, turbidities, and hardness levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants to identify the major factors affecting HA coagulation. The coagulation efficiency of acid- and water-soluble chitosan for 15 mg/l of HA was 74.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The optimal coagulation range of water-soluble chitosan (9-20 mg/l) was broader than that of acid-soluble chitosan (4-8 mg/l). Notably, acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum coagulant mixtures exhibited a higher coagulation efficiency for HA than for PACl or alum alone. Furthermore, these coagulant mixtures yielded an acceptable floc settling velocity and savings in both installation and operational expenses. Based on these results, we confidently assert that coagulant mixtures with a 1:1 mass ratio of acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum provide a substantially more cost-effective alternative to using chitosan alone for removing HA from water.

  10. Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

    1988-01-01

    The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images PMID:2849380

  11. Casting uniform ceramics with direct coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Graule, T.J.; Baader, F.H.; Gauckler, L.J.

    1995-06-01

    Today complex-shaped ceramic parts are mass fabricated by many different methods, two of which are slip casting and injection molding. The selection of the appropriate technique is governed by the geometric shape, the number of pieces to be manufactured, and the chemistry of the ceramic. Both slip casting and injection molding introduce imperfections in the green part, which lead to inhomogeneous microstructures in the sintered parts. A new fabrication method, direct coagulation casting (DCC), may be suitable for the mass production of complex ceramic parts with high strength and reliability. In DCC, an aqueous suspension is coagulated by a change in pH or an increase in ionic strength after casting, producing a rigid green body. The use of DCC can avoid most of the limitations of conventional shaping techniques, and it can be applied to a large variety of ceramic powders, sols, and polymers, alone or in combination.

  12. Coagulation of dust particles in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Horanyi, M.; Goertz, C.K. Iowa Univ., Iowa City )

    1990-09-01

    The electrostatic charge of small dust grains in a plasma in which the temperature varies in time is discussed, pointing out that secondary electron emission might introduce charge separation. If the sign of the charge on small grains is opposite to that on big ones, enhanced coagulation can occur which will affect the size distribution of grains in a plasma. Two scenarios where this process might be relevant are considered: a hot plasma environment with temperature fluctuations and a cold plasma environment with transient heating events. The importance of the enhanced coagulation is uncertain, because the plasma parameters in grain-producing environments such as a molecular cloud or a protoplanetary disk are not known. It is possible, however, that this process is the most efficient mechanism for the growth of grains in the size range of 0.1-500 microns. 9 refs.

  13. Coagulation of dust particles in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horanyi, M.; Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The electrostatic charge of small dust grains in a plasma in which the temperature varies in time is discussed, pointing out that secondary electron emission might introduce charge separation. If the sign of the charge on small grains is opposite to that on big ones, enhanced coagulation can occur which will affect the size distribution of grains in a plasma. Two scenarios where this process might be relevant are considered: a hot plasma environment with temperature fluctuations and a cold plasma environment with transient heating events. The importance of the enhanced coagulation is uncertain, because the plasma parameters in grain-producing environments such as a molecular cloud or a protoplanetary disk are not known. It is possible, however, that this process is the most efficient mechanism for the growth of grains in the size range of 0.1-500 microns.

  14. Poly(γ-glutamic acid), coagulation? Anticoagulation?

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Tao; Chi, Bo; Xu, Hong; Mao, Chun; Feng, Shuaihui

    2016-11-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) powder was usually used as hemostatic agent because of its excellent physical properties of water-absorption and water-locking. However, if γ-PGA absorbs enough water, how about its blood compatibility? Here, the other side of the coin was investigated. The anticoagulant properties of γ-PGA were characterized by in vitro coagulation tests, hemolytic assay, platelet adhesion, and platelet activation. Moreover, cytotoxicity experiments of γ-PGA were also carried out by MTT assay. Results indicated that the sufficient water-absorbed γ-PGA has good anticoagulant property and non-cytotoxicity. It means γ-PGA has good anticoagulant property, non-cytotoxicity. If γ-PGA has absorbed enough water, it can be used as an anticoagulation biomaterial. With double effects (coagulation and anticoagulation), the γ-PGA with desirable bioproperties can be readily tailored to cater to various biomedical applications.