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Sample records for bacterial infections commonly

  1. Common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Trent, J T; Federman, D; Kirsner, R S

    2001-08-01

    Skin infections account for a significant portion of dermatologic disease, often resulting in or as a consequence of a disruption in the skin's integrity. This article covers the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the more common bacterial infections. The infections presented herein include impetigo, ecthyma, folliculitis, carbuncles/furuncles, cellulitis, toxic shock syndrome, and ecthyma gangrenosum. Once a diagnosis is made, treatment is based on the culture and antibiotic sensitivities of the offending organisms.

  2. Common bacterial urinary tract infections in women.

    PubMed

    Cimino, J E

    1976-09-01

    Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as to how long patients with bacteriuria or urinary tract infections should be monitored and certainly there is no agreement on how long recurrent episodes should be treated beyond ten days to two weeks. The most important points to remember are: 1. Culture the urine both at the time of therapy and during follow-up. The patient should be examined periodically for the presence of bacteruria. If bacteria cannot be eradicated, at least the physician is aware of the organism most likely causing the patient's symptoms. 2. Do not subject the patient with frequent recurrent (chronic) and complicated infections to continual antibacterial therapy, but rather, manage the acute episodes. 3. Use prophylaxis, particularly single bed-time doses for dysuria and frequency symptoms. 4. Screen for bacteriuria during pregnancy. 5. Avoid the use of catheters except where absolutely necessary. 6. Avoid systemic prophylaxis of infection in patients with catheters; rather, use closed-system drainage with antibacteri-irrigation. It is to be hoped within the next few years, studies now underway will allow specific recommendations regarding the management of asymptomatic bacteruria, the duration of therapy for recurrent infections, the prevention and treatment of L-form bacterial infections, and indications for urologic procedures.

  3. Bacterial skin infections: management of common streptococcal and stapylococcal lesions.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, J A; Parish, L C

    1982-10-01

    Skin infection occurs in any age-group, sex, and race but is particularly common in children. It is usually minor, but may indicate underlying systemic disease or may lead to systemic infection. Streptococci and staphylococci are common causes. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci account for the majority of streptococcal infections in man. Infection most often involves the lower extremities and produces spreading erythema and necrosis but little purulence. Staphylococcal infections most commonly involve the face, the hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts being the initial sites. Lesions appear as bullae and pustules with a narrow rim of erythema. Intense cellulitis surrounding the lesions usually points to a virulent, penicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus. Treatment of both types of infection consists of cleansing with antibacterial agents, removal of crusts, application of warm compresses, and use of topical or systemic antibiotics, depending on the severity of the infection and the type of pyoderma involved.

  4. Approach to common bacterial infections: community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying

    2013-04-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) occurs more often in early childhood than at almost any other age. Many microorganisms are associated with pneumonia, but individual pathogens are difficult to identify, which poses problems in antibiotic management. This article reviews the common as well as new, emerging pathogens, as well as the guidelines for management of pediatric CAP. Current guidelines for pediatric CAP continue to recommend the use of high-dose amoxicillin for bacterial CAP and azithromycin for suspected atypical CAP (usually caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae) in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Development of a panel of recombinase polymerase amplification assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection pathogens.

    PubMed

    Raja, B; Goux, H J; Marapadaga, A; Rajagopalan, S; Kourentzi, K; Willson, R C

    2017-08-01

    To develop and evaluate the performance of a panel of isothermal real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens. The panel included RPAs for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. All five RPAs required reaction times of under 12 min to reach their lower limit of detection of 100 genomes per reaction or less, and did not cross-react with high concentrations of nontarget bacterial genomic DNA. In a 50-sample retrospective clinical study, the five-RPA assay panel was found to have a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 78-100%) and a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI, 75-96%) for UTI detection. The analytical and clinical validity of RPA for the rapid and sensitive detection of common UTI pathogens was established. Rapid identification of the causative pathogens of UTIs can be valuable in preventing serious complications by helping avoid the empirical treatment necessitated by traditional urine culture's 48-72-h turnaround time. The routine and widespread use of RPA to supplement or replace culture-based methods could profoundly impact UTI management and the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-05-13

    Bacterial vaginosis, candidal, trichomonal and Gonococcal vaginal infections are a major health problems associated with gynecologic complications and increase in replication, shedding and transmission of HIV and other STIs in women of reproductive age. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of common vaginal infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age, attending Felegehiwot referral Hospital. A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from May to November, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was used. Demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data were collected by physicians. Two vaginal swab specimens were collected from each participant. Wet mount and Gram staining were carried out to identify motile T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells. All vaginal specimens were cultured for aerobic bacterial isolates using standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique as per the standard by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square and fisher's exact test as appropriate. A total of 409 women in reproductive age (15 - 49 years) participated in the study. The median age of the women was 28 years. Overall, 63 (15.4 %) of women had vaginal infections. The proportion of vaginal infection was higher in non-pregnant (17.3 %) than pregnant women (13.3 %) (P = 0.002). The most common identified vaginal infections were candidiasis (8.3 %) and bacterial vaginosis (2.8 %) followed by trichomoniasis (2.1 %). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae and group B Streptococcus colonization was 4 (1 %) and 6 (1.2 %), respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was higher in non-pregnant (5.6 %) than pregnant women (0.5 %) (P = 0.002). Religion, age, living in rural area and having lower abdominal pain were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis and

  8. Modeling Intraocular Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Astley, Roger A.; Coburn, Phillip S.; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Callegan, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further the development of anti-inflammatory treatment strategies, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of antibiotics. Experimental models allow independent control of many parameters of infection and facilitate systematic examination of infection outcomes. While no single animal model perfectly reproduces the human pathology of bacterial endophthalmitis, investigators have successfully used these models to understand the infectious process and the host response, and have provided new information regarding therapeutic options for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. This review highlights experimental animal models of endophthalmitis and correlates this information with the clinical setting. The goal is to identify knowledge gaps that may be addressed in future experimental and clinical studies focused on improvements in the therapeutic preservation of vision during and after this disease. PMID:27154427

  9. Nanoparticle Approaches against Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide success of antibiotics, the treatment of bacterial infection still faces significant challenges, particularly the emergence of antibiotic resistance. As a result, nanoparticle drug delivery platforms including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and various inorganic nanoparticles have been increasingly exploited to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. This review focuses on areas where nanoparticle approaches hold significant potential to advance the treatment of bacterial infection. These areas include targeted antibiotic delivery, environmentally responsive antibiotic delivery, combinatorial antibiotic delivery, nanoparticle-enabled antibacterial vaccination, and nanoparticle-based bacterial detection. In each area we highlight the innovative antimicrobial nanoparticle platforms and review their progress made against bacterial infections. PMID:25044325

  10. Antibacterial activity of Artemisia asiatica essential oil against some common respiratory infection causing bacterial strains and its mechanism of action in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiehui; Qian, Chao; Xu, Hongjie; Huang, Yanjie

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica together with investigating the antibacterial effects it exerts on several common respiratory infection causing bacteria including Haemophilus influenzae. Its mechanism of action was studied using various state-of-the-art assays like scanning electron microscopy, DNA, RNA and protein leakage assays, growth curve assays etc. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of A. asiatica by supercritical CO 2 fluid extraction technology. Chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against 6 bacteria by the paper disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) values of the essential oil were estimated by agar dilution method. The antibacterial mechanism was evaluated by growth curve, the integrity of cell membrane and scanning electronmicroscope (SEM). Gas chromatographic analysis of the A. asiatica essential oil led to the identification of 16 chemical constituents accounting for 97.2% of the total oil composition. The major components were found to be Piperitone, (z)-davanone, p-cymene and 1, 8-cineole. The essential oil showed maximum growth inhibition against Haemophilus influenzae with a zone of inhibition of 24.5 mm and MIC/MBC values of 1.9/4.5 mg/mL respectively. Bacteria treated with the essential oil led to a rapid decrease in the number of viable cells. On adding the essential oil of A. asiatica to the bacterial culture, the constituents of the bacterial cell got released into the medium and this cell constituent release increased with increasing doses of the essential oil. SEM showed that the bacterial cells treated with the essential oil showed damaged cell wall, deformed cell morphology and shrunken cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A time series analysis of the relationship of ambient temperature and common bacterial enteric infections in two Canadian provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Manon; Charron, Dominique F.; Holt, John D.; Allen, O. Brian; Maarouf, Abdel R.

    2006-07-01

    The incidence of enteric infections in the Canadian population varies seasonally, and may be expected to be change in response to global climate changes. To better understand any potential impact of warmer temperature on enteric infections in Canada, we investigated the relationship between ambient temperature and weekly reports of confirmed cases of three pathogens in Canada: Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter, between 1992 and 2000 in two Canadian provinces. We used generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs) to estimate the effect of seasonal adjustments on the estimated models. We found a strong non-linear association between ambient temperature and the occurrence of all three enteric pathogens in Alberta, Canada, and of Campylobacter in Newfoundland-Labrador. Threshold models were used to quantify the relationship of disease and temperature with thresholds chosen from 0 to -10°C depending on the pathogen modeled. For Alberta, the log relative risk of Salmonella weekly case counts increased by 1.2%, Campylobacter weekly case counts increased by 2.2%, and E. coli weekly case counts increased by 6.0% for every degree increase in weekly mean temperature. For Newfoundland-Labrador the log relative risk increased by 4.5% for Campylobacter for every degree increase in weekly mean temperature.

  12. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    MedlinePlus

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  13. Bacterial Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

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  14. Empiric Antibiotic Therapy of Nosocomial Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are commonly used by physicians to treat various infections. The source of infection and causative organisms are not always apparent during the initial evaluation of the patient, and antibiotics are often given empirically to patients with suspected sepsis. Fear of attempting cephalosporins and carbapenems in penicillin-allergic septic patients may result in significant decrease in the spectrum of antimicrobial coverage. Empiric antibiotic therapy should sufficiently cover all the suspected pathogens, guided by the bacteriologic susceptibilities of the medical center. It is important to understand the major pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents for proper use and to minimize the development of resistance. In several septic patients, negative cultures do not exclude active infection and positive cultures may not represent the actual infection. This article will review the important differences in the spectrum of commonly used antibiotics for nosocomial bacterial infections with a particular emphasis on culture-negative sepsis and colonization.

  15. Macrophage Autophagy and Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bah, Aïcha; Vergne, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a well-conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that plays key roles in bacterial infections. One of the most studied is probably xenophagy, the selective capture and degradation of intracellular bacteria by lysosomes. However, the impact of autophagy goes beyond xenophagy and involves intensive cross-talks with other host defense mechanisms. In addition, autophagy machinery can have non-canonical functions such as LC3-associated phagocytosis. In this review, we intend to summarize the current knowledge on the many functions of autophagy proteins in cell defenses with a focus on bacteria–macrophage interaction. We also present the strategies developed by pathogens to evade or to exploit this machinery in order to establish a successful infection. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of autophagy manipulation in improving therapeutics and vaccines against bacterial pathogens. PMID:29163544

  16. Epidemiology of bacterial hand infections.

    PubMed

    Houshian, Shirzad; Seyedipour, Sedigheh; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to delineate and update the bacteriological spectrum, characterize patterns and sites of injury, evaluate laboratory tests and possible causes of complications in patients with bacterial hand infections. All hand infections operated on in the department of orthopedics at Odense University Hospital during the period 1992-2001 were reviewed retrospectively. A standard protocol was used to collect data for each patient. We also examined all laboratory reports and recorded the identity of the etiologic organism, if known, for all cases of bacterial hand infections. Four hundred and eighteen patients (296 men and 122 women) with hand infections were operated on between 1992 and 2001 in our department. The median age of the patients was 40 years (range 1-93). The average interval from primary injury to operation was 10 days (range 1-50). The etiology was laceration/puncture in 35%. The site of infection was subcutaneous in 45% followed by tendon, joint and bone in 27, 18 and 5%, respectively. The bacteria isolated from the patients showed that 184 cultures (44%) were pure Staphylococcus aureus followed by 49 cultures (11.7%) of mixed organisms. Body temperature and C-reactive protein (CRP) were normal in three quarters of all patients with hand infections in our series. However the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in 50% of the patients and was a significantly better test for infection in this study than CRP (p = 0.002). Neither the severity of infection nor the etiology of infection was related in any way to the initial temperature, CRP or ESR in this study. Complications were noted in 14.8% of all patients, and were especially related to diabetes, and mixed infection. Despite modern antibiotics, hand infections with a variety of organisms continue to be a source of morbidity and possible long-term disability. Most hand infections are the result of minor wounds that have been neglected. A complete history and physical

  17. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Denise E.; Cleary, David W.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2017-01-01

    Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012). Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. PMID:28690590

  18. Nosocomial infections and resistance pattern of common bacterial isolates in an intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria: A 4-year review.

    PubMed

    Iliyasu, Garba; Daiyab, Farouq Muhammad; Tiamiyu, Abdulwasiu Bolaji; Abubakar, Salisu; Habib, Zaiyad Garba; Sarki, Adamu Muhammad; Habib, Abdulrazaq Garba

    2016-08-01

    Infection is a major determinant of clinical outcome among patients in the intensive care unit. However, these data are lacking in most developing countries; hence, we set out to describe the profile of nosocomial infection in one of the major tertiary hospitals in northern Nigeria. Case records of patients who were admitted into the intensive care unit over a 4-year period were retrospectively reviewed. A preformed questionnaire was administered, and data on clinical and microbiological profile of patients with documented infection were obtained. Eighty-our episodes of nosocomial infections were identified in 76 patients. Road traffic accident (29/76, 38.2%) was the leading cause of admission. The most common infections were skin and soft tissue infections (30/84, 35.7%) followed by urinary tract infection (23/84, 27.4%). The most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (35/84, 41.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18/84, 21.4%), and Escherichia coli (13/84, 15.5%). High rate of resistance to cloxacillin (19/35, 54.3%) and cotrimoxazole (17/26, 65.4%) was noted among the S aureus isolates. All the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were susceptible to meropenem, whereas resistance rate to ceftriaxone was high (E coli, 55.6%; K pneumoniae, 71.4%; Proteus spp, 50%). Infection control practice and measures to curtail the emergence of antimicrobial resistance need to be improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting agr- and agr-Like Quorum Sensing Systems for Development of Common Therapeutics to Treat Multiple Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Brian; Hall, Pamela; Gresham, Hattie

    2013-01-01

    Invasive infection by the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a four gene operon, agr that encodes a quorum sensing system for the regulation of virulence. While agr has been well studied in S. aureus, the contribution of agr homologues and analogues in other Gram-positive pathogens is just beginning to be understood. Intriguingly, other significant human pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis contain agr or analogues linked to virulence. Moreover, other significant human Gram-positive pathogens use peptide based quorum sensing systems to establish or maintain infection. The potential for commonality in aspects of these signaling systems across different species raises the prospect of identifying therapeutics that could target multiple pathogens. Here, we review the status of research into these agr homologues, analogues, and other peptide based quorum sensing systems in Gram-positive pathogens as well as the potential for identifying common pathways and signaling mechanisms for therapeutic discovery. PMID:23598501

  20. Concomitant Bacterial Meningitis in Infants With Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Joanna; Cruz, Andrea T; Nigrovic, Lise E; Freedman, Stephen B; Garro, Aris C; Ishimine, Paul T; Kulik, Dina M; Uspal, Neil G; Grether-Jones, Kendra L; Miller, Aaron S; Schnadower, David; Shah, Samir S; Aronson, Paul L; Balamuth, Fran

    2017-09-01

    To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤60 days with a urinary tract infection, we performed a 23-center, retrospective study of 1737 infants with urinary tract infection. Concomitant bacterial meningitis was rare, but more common in infants 0-28 days of age [0.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4%-1.9%) compared with infants 29-60 days of age (0.2%; 95% CI: 0%-0.8%).

  1. FREEQUNCY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND THEIR RESISTANCE PATTERN AGAINST SOME COMMONLY USED ANTI BACTERIALS.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waseem; Jamshed, Fareeda; Ahmad, Wajeeha

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common health problem and Escherichia coli (E coli) are the most common organisms associated with community acquired UTI. Unfortunately these bacteria have developed extensive resistance against most of the commonly used antibacterials. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and resistance pattern of E. Coli in patients of community acquired UTI in an area in northern part of Pakistan. Urine specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed as community acquired UTI. Urine routine examination (Urine RE) was done and samples positive for UTI (Pus cells >10/High Power Field) were included in the study. These samples were inoculated on Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar plates and incubated at 37 degrees C for 36 hours. Suspected colonies were then inoculated further on EMB plates for pure cultures of E. Coli characterized by certain morphological characteristics. IMViC was applied for the confirmation of E coli. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests of E. Coli were performed with standardized commercial susceptibility discs (OXOID). Out of 50 specimens, positive for UTI by urine RE, 20 showed pure growth of E. Coli on culture (40%). The majority of the isolates (28%; n=14) were from women while only 12% (n=6) were from men. Escherichia coli showed a high rate of resistance towards Ampicillin (90%), Tetracycline (70%), Erythromycin (70%) and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (55%). Sparfloxacin showed better results (45%) than ciprofloxacin (50%). Out of 20 E. Coli isolates, two (10%) were resistant to all the antibacterials except chloramphenicol, eight isolates (40%) showed resistance to six or more than six while 14 (70%) were resistant to four or more than four drugs. Rate of resistance of E. Coli against commonly used antibacterials was quite high and majority of the strains showed multidrug resistance.

  2. Exploring bacterial infections: theoretical and experimental studies of the bacterial population dynamics and antibiotic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xinxian

    Bacterial infections are very common in human society. Thus extensive research has been conducted to reveal the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis and to evaluate the antibiotics' efficacy against bacteria. Little is known, however, about the population dynamics of bacterial populations and their interactions with the host's immune system. In this dissertation, a stochatic model is developed featuring stochastic phenotypic switching of bacterial individuals to explain the single-variant bottleneck discovered in multi strain bacterial infections. I explored early events in a bacterial infection establishment using classical experiments of Moxon and Murphy on neonatal rats. I showed that the minimal model and its simple variants do not work. I proposed modifications to the model that could explain the data quantitatively. The bacterial infections are also commonly established in physical structures, as biofilms or 3-d colonies. In contrast, most research on antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections has been conducted in well-mixed liquid cultures. I explored the efficacy of antibiotics to treat such bacterial colonies, a broadly applicable method is designed and evaluated where discrete bacterial colonies on 2-d surfaces were exposed to antibiotics. I discuss possible explanations and hypotheses for the experimental results. To verify these hypotheses, we investigated the dynamics of bacterial population as 3-d colonies. We showed that a minimal mathematical model of bacterial colony growth in 3-d was able to account for the experimentally observed presence of a diffusion-limited regime. The model further revealed highly loose packing of the cells in 3-d colonies and smaller cell sizes in colonies than plancktonic cells in corresponding liquid culture. Further experimental tests of the model predictions have revealed that the ratio of the cell size in liquid culture to that in colony cultures was consistent with the model prediction, that the dead cells

  3. Bacterial infections in alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sargenti, Konstantina; Prytz, Hanne; Nilsson, Emma; Bertilsson, Sara; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal, population-based data on the occurrence, localization, and severity of bacterial infections over time in patients with alcoholic compared with nonalcoholic cirrhosis are limited. All patients with incident cirrhosis diagnosed in 2001-2010 (area of 600,000 inhabitants) were retrospectively identified. All bacterial infections resulting in or occurring during an inpatient hospital episode during this period were registered. The etiology of cirrhosis (alcoholic vs. nonalcoholic), infection localization, and outcome as well as bacterial resistance patterns were analyzed. Patients were followed until death, transplant, or the end of 2011. In all, 633 cirrhotics (363 alcoholic, 270 nonalcoholic) experienced a total of 398 infections (2276 patient-years). Among patients diagnosed with cirrhosis each year from 2001 to 2010, increasing trends were noted in the occurrence of infection (from 13 to 27%, P<0.001) and infection-related in-hospital mortality (from 2 to 7%, P=0.05), the latter mainly in the alcoholic group. Although alcoholic etiology was related to the occurrence of more frequent infection (Kaplan-Meier, P<0.001), this relationship was not significant after adjustment for confounders in Cox regression analysis (P=0.056). Resistance to piperacilin-tazobactam and carbapenems was more common in infections occurring in alcoholic versus nonalcoholic cirrhosis (13 vs. 5%, P=0.057 and 12 vs. 2%, P=0.009). Alcoholic etiology predicted pneumonia and infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria in multivariate analysis (P<0.05 for both). In a population-based cirrhotic cohort, bacterial infections increased over time, which, in the case of alcoholic cirrhosis, was associated with pneumonia and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. However, alcoholic etiology was not related indepedently to the occurrence of bacterial infections.

  4. Liver abscess caused by periodontal bacterial infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masato; Kato, Shingo; Mawatari, Hironori; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Imajo, Kento; Fujita, Koji; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Inamori, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Tohnai, Iwai; Watanuki, Kei; Wada, Koichiro; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Liver abscess is recognized as a life-threatening disease. However, even in recent years, approximately 50% of liver abscess cases are considered to be cryptogenic. Here, we report a case of liver abscess associated with periodontal bacterial infection by Fusobacterium necrophorum, which is commonly found in the oropharyngeal flora. A 36-year-old man presented with fever and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed multiple liver abscesses. F.necrophorum was isolated from oral smears, liver aspirates and blood samples. Liver abscesses caused by periodontal bacterial infection are rare, however, the incidence is expected to increase in the future, as periodontitis is extremely common and is on the rise as one of the most common chronic infections in the world. A systemic survey including periodontitis may be required for the exact diagnosis of the source of infection. © 2011 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  5. Role of quorum sensing in bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; Maeda, Toshinari; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; Tomás, María; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; Wood, Thomas K; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is cell communication that is widely used by bacterial pathogens to coordinate the expression of several collective traits, including the production of multiple virulence factors, biofilm formation, and swarming motility once a population threshold is reached. Several lines of evidence indicate that QS enhances virulence of bacterial pathogens in animal models as well as in human infections; however, its relative importance for bacterial pathogenesis is still incomplete. In this review, we discuss the present evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments in animal models, as well as from clinical studies, that link QS systems with human infections. We focus on two major QS bacterial models, the opportunistic Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, which are also two of the main agents responsible of nosocomial and wound infections. In addition, QS communication systems in other bacterial, eukaryotic pathogens, and even immune and cancer cells are also reviewed, and finally, the new approaches proposed to combat bacterial infections by the attenuation of their QS communication systems and virulence are also discussed. PMID:26244150

  6. Campylobacters: the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Rautelin, H; Hänninen, M L

    2000-10-01

    Campylobacters have been known as important human pathogens since the late 1970s. Campylobacter jejuni and coli are the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the developed countries. During the past years an increasing incidence of campylobacteriosis has been reported in many developed countries. C. jejuni is the most common Campylobacter species while C. coli accounts for about 5-10% of the cases. Although the genome of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 strain was sequenced recently, the exact pathogenetic mechanisms are still not known. Furthermore, there are no reliable animal models available. The epidemiology of this common infection is not well understood; however, eating and handling poultry, contaminated drinking water, and contact with pet animals have been recognized as important risk factors. Most of the cases are sporadic although large water-borne outbreaks have also been reported. Discriminatory typing methods are helpful in tracing the sources and transmission routes. In addition to traditional serotyping, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, have been developed. As Campylobacter infections probably precede Guillan-Barré syndrome in many cases, a great interest has lately been focused on the possible triggering mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.

  7. Practical aspects of bacterial skin infections in children.

    PubMed

    Tunnessen, W W

    1985-07-01

    Bacterial skin infections are a common reason for children to be examined by a pediatrician. Streptococci and staphylococci are responsible for the great majority of the infections. Because of the variety of lesions produced by these bacteria, there is support for dividing impetigo into "traditional" crusted and bullous forms. Two important forms of cellulitis--facial and periorbital--have potential for serious systemic consequences. The bacterial etiology and treatment of cellulitis, animal bites, and puncture wounds of the foot require special attention for successful outcome.

  8. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ewan D S; Salisbury, Steven W; Horner, John R; Varricchio, David J

    2009-09-30

    Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue') has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  9. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  10. Emerging drugs for bacterial urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Weidner, Wolfgang; Perletti, Gianpaolo; Naber, Kurt G

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infectious diseases. Therefore, any improvement in UTI management will have a high impact on the quality of life of the individual patient and the entire healthcare system. A dramatic, clinically significant increase in the antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens over the past 5 - 10 years calls for new concepts in the treatment of UTIs. This article focuses on uncomplicated and complicated UTIs, and discusses antimicrobial resistance trends and antibacterial strategies. A literature search was undertaken concerning treatment studies in UTI from 1998 on. Emerging drugs for the treatment of UTI were mainly selected using the Investigational Drugs Database. The aim of this review is to highlight new and emerging drugs in the antibacterial treatment of uncomplicated and complicated UTIs. This article discusses current and future aspects for recommending antibacterials for the treatment of UTIs. Resistance rates of uropathogens are also significantly increasing. Emerging antimicrobial substances are not always investigated for their suitability in the treatment of UTIs. Especially, substances active against multiresistant Gram-negative pathogens will rarely be developed in the coming years.

  11. Incidence of bacterial respiratory pathogens and their susceptibility to common antibacterial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, S. M.; Lee, G. C.; Ueno, Y.; Burdette, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Although most respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses, bacterial pathogens are responsible for higher morbidity and mortality. Because virtually nothing is known about the etiology of bacterial respiratory pathogens in Saudi Arabia, this study examined the incidence of these organisms in 5426 patients over a 1-year period. Of the bacterial pathogens isolated from 904 patients, the most common organism was Hemophilus influenzae (31%), followed by pneumococci (22%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16%), and others (31%). Because the first two organisms accounted for more than 50% of isolates, their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics was also reviewed. The results are presented here. PMID:8496993

  12. [Tobacco smoke and risk of bacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Trosini-Desert, V; Germaud, P; Dautzenberg, B

    2004-06-01

    Tobacco smoke is a proven risk factor for bacterial infection. In adults without COPD, smoking is associated with a significant increase in the relative risk (RR) of pneumonia (RR=2.97; 95% CI 1.52-5.81), S pneumoniae pneumonia (RR=2.50; 95% IC 1.50-5.10), Legionella infection (RR=3.75; 95% CI 2.17-6.17). Smoking has clearly been shown to be associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis (RR=2.60; 95% CI 2,20-3,20), and also with increased incidence of post-operative infections. In young children whose parents smoke, passive exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with an increased relative risk of seasonal infections (RR=1.7; CI 95% 1.55-1.91) and recurrent otitis media (RR=1.48; 95% CI 1.08-2.04). Passive smoking also increases risk of pneumonia in adults (RR=2.5; CI 95% 1.2-5.1). Plausible explanations of the increased risk of infection in active or passive smokers include increased bacterial adherence, decrease of lung and nasal clearance, and changes in the immune response. Exposure to tobacco smoke approximately doubles the risk of infection. This increased burden of infection has significant healthcare cost implications. Each infectious episode in an individual should prompt an attempt at smoking cessation.

  13. Bacterial Co-infection in Hospitalized Children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing; Xu, Bao-Ping; Shen, Kun-Ling

    2016-10-08

    To describe the frequency and impact of bacterial co-infections in children hospitalized with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Retrospective, descriptive study. Tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China. 8612 children admitted to Beijing Childrens Hospital from June 2006 to June 2014. According to the testing results of etiology we divided the cases into pure M. pneumoniae infection group and mixed bacterial infection group. We analyzed clinical features, hospital expenses and differences between these two groups. 173 (2%) of included children had bacterial coinfection. 56.2% of bacterial pathogens were identified as Streptococcus pneumoniae. The most common bacterium causing co-infection in children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was S. pneumoniae.

  14. Incidence and Predictors of Bacterial infection in Febrile Children with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Benita J; Bycroft, Thomas P; Almossawi, Ofran; Wilkey, Olufunke B; Daniels, Justin G

    2015-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease are at increased risk of developing bacteremia and other serious bacterial infections. Fever is a common symptom in sickle cell disease and can also occur with sickle cell crises and viral infections. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and predictors of bacteremia and bacterial infection in children with sickle cell disease presenting with fever to a district hospital and sickle cell center in London. A retrospective analysis was performed on all attendances of children (aged under 16 years) with sickle cell disease presenting with a fever of 38.5 °C or higher over a 1-year period. Confirmed bacterial infection was defined as bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, osteomyelitis or other bacterial infection with positive identification of organism. Children were defined as having a suspected bacterial infection if a bacterial infection was suspected clinically, but no organism was identified. Over a 1-year period there were 88 episodes analyzed in 59 children. Bacteremia occurred in 3.4% of episodes and confirmed bacterial infection in 7.0%. Suspected bacterial infection occurred in 33.0%. One death occurred from Salmonella typhirium septicemia. C-reactive protein (CRP) level and white blood cell (WBC) count were both significantly associated with bacterial infection (p = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively.) In conclusion, bacterial infections continue to be a significant problem in children with sickle cell disease. C-reactive protein was significantly associated with bacterial infections, and could be included in clinical risk criteria for febrile children with sickle cell disease.

  15. Retrospective study of bacterial infective arthritis in 31 dogs.

    PubMed

    Clements, D N; Owen, M R; Mosley, J R; Carmichael, S; Taylor, D J; Bennett, D

    2005-04-01

    To characterise the presenting signs and pathological changes of canine bacterial infective arthritis in 31 dogs, and to document the response to different treatment regimens. Risk factors that may predispose joints to bacterial infective arthritis and influence the success of treatment were also investigated. A retrospective review of cases of bacterial infective arthritis that were presented to three university veterinary referral hospitals over a five-year period (January 1997 to January 2002) was performed. The elbow joint (38 per cent) and stifle joint (44 per cent) were most commonly affected. Radiographic changes consistent with pre-existing osteoarthritis were identified in 14 joints, which had no history of previous surgery (articular or periarticular) or penetrating wound. No significant difference (P = 0.78) was identified between the outcome of combined surgical and medical management, and medical management alone. There were trends for poorer outcomes with increased bodyweight of the dog, longer duration of lameness and a higher nucleated cell count of the affected joint fluid at presentation. The overall infection rate for articular surgical procedures at one institution was 1-3 per cent. Medical and/or surgical management were usually successful in resolving infection (94 per cent). However, they were frequently unsuccessful in restoring full joint function; this may in part have been due to the nature of the underlying joint

  16. Bacterial infection imaging with [18F]fluoropropyl-trimethoprim

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Iljung; Hou, Catherine; Weng, Chi-Chang; Li, Shihong; Lieberman, Brian P.; Zeng, Chenbo; Mankoff, David A.; Mach, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    There is often overlap in the diagnostic features of common pathologic processes such as infection, sterile inflammation, and cancer both clinically and using conventional imaging techniques. Here, we report the development of a positron emission tomography probe for live bacterial infection based on the small-molecule antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP). [18F]fluoropropyl-trimethoprim, or [18F]FPTMP, shows a greater than 100-fold increased uptake in vitro in live bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) relative to controls. In a rodent myositis model, [18F]FPTMP identified live bacterial infection without demonstrating confounding increased signal in the same animal from other etiologies including chemical inflammation (turpentine) and cancer (breast carcinoma). Additionally, the biodistribution of [18F]FPTMP in a nonhuman primate shows low background in many important tissues that may be sites of infection such as the lungs and soft tissues. These results suggest that [18F]FPTMP could be a broadly useful agent for the sensitive and specific imaging of bacterial infection with strong translational potential. PMID:28716936

  17. Connexin 26 facilitates gastrointestinal bacterial infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Charlotte; Kelsell, David P; Marchès, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli, including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), represents the most common cause of diarrhoea worldwide and is therefore a serious public health burden. Treatment for gastrointestinal pathogens is hindered by the emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance, leading to the requirement for the development of new therapies. A variety of mechanisms act in combination to mediate gastrointestinal-bacterial-associated diarrhoea development. For example, EPEC infection of enterocytes induces attaching and effacing lesion formation and the disruption of tight junctions. An alternative enteric pathogen, Shigella flexneri, manipulates the expression of Connexin 26 (Cx26), a gap junction protein. S. flexneri can open Cx26 hemichannels allowing the release of ATP, whereas HeLa cells expressing mutant gap-junction-associated Cx26 are less susceptible to cellular invasion by S. flexneri than cells expressing wild-type (WT) Cx26. We have investigated further the link between Cx26 expression and gastrointestinal infection by using EPEC and S. flexneri as in vitro models of infection. In this study, a significant reduction in EPEC adherence was observed in cells expressing mutant Cx26 compared with WT Cx26. Furthermore, a significant reduction in both cellular invasion by S. flexneri and adherence by EPEC was demonstrated in human intestinal cell lines following treatment with Cx26 short interfering RNA. These in vitro results suggest that the loss of functional Cx26 expression provides improved protection against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Thus, Cx26 represents a potential therapeutic target for gastrointestinal bacterial infection.

  18. Stopping bacterial adhesion: a novel approach to treating infections.

    PubMed

    Bavington, C; Page, C

    2005-01-01

    Adhesion and colonization are prerequisites for the establishment of bacterial pathogenesis. The prevention of adhesion is an attractive target for the development of new therapies in the prevention of infection. Bacteria have developed a multiplicity of adhesion mechanisms commonly targeting surface carbohydrate structures, but our ability to rationally design effective antiadhesives is critically affected by the limitations of our knowledge of the human 'glycome' and of the bacterial function in relation to it. The potential for the future development of carbohydrate-based antiadhesives has been demonstrated by a significant number of in vitro and in vivo studies. Such therapies will be particularly relevant for infections of mucosal surfaces where topical application or delivery is possible. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Common Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Ashley L; Holland, Aimee Chism

    2018-06-01

    The spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains a significant public health issue in the United States. Social, economic, and behavioral implications affecting the spread of STIs have been identified. The most important social factor in the United States is the stigma associated with discussing sex and STI screening. In this article, specific recommendations for women are included regarding screening, diagnosing, and treating common vaginal and cervical infections. Screening women for infections of the vagina and cervix is essential because untreated infections may result in complications that have current and long-term health consequences and impact quality of life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.

    2008-10-02

    Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterialmore » and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.« less

  1. Bacterial Infections in Children With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Receiving Ciprofloxacin Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Al Omar, Suha; Anabtawi, Nadine; Al Qasem, Wiam; Rihani, Rawad

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the incidence and type of bacterial infections associated with the use of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis as single agent in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This was a retrospective review of all patients with AML, who were treated according to the AML02 protocol between 2011 and 2015. The medical records were reviewed for any positive cultures from the initiation of the protocol until death or protocol discontinuation. Patient demographics, type of infections, type of isolated bacteria, and intensive care unit admissions were recorded. A total of 50 patients were evaluated, who were of a mean age of 8 years±5.1 (SD). We identified 77 episodes of bacterial infections in 42 (84%) patients. Among those bacterial infections, 73 episodes were with bacteremia and included 45 (62%) gram-positive bacterial infections, 24 (33%) gram-negative bacterial infections, and 4 (6%) mixed gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial infections. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Viridans streptococci were the most commonly isolated bacteria in 33% and 30% of the episodes, respectively. Seventeen (45%) patients with bacteremia required intensive care unit admission. A high rate of bacterial infection was detected in patients who received the AML02 protocol, mainly gram-positive bacterial infections. The prophylactic regimen should be reconsidered for its efficacy, and other antibacterial prophylaxis may be used.

  2. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Pourakbari, Babak; Mamishi, Setareh; Zafari, Javid; Khairkhah, Hanieh; Ashtiani, Mohammad H; Abedini, Masomeh; Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Rad, Soroush Seifi

    2010-01-01

    Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC count may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT) have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old) patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical.

  3. Bacterial infections after pediatric heart transplantation: Epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Christina A; Wehrheim, Karla; Kirklin, James K; Naftel, David; Pruitt, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Timothy M; L'Ecuyer, Thomas; Berkowitz, Katie; Mahle, William T; Scheel, Janet N

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant recipients. However, data describing the epidemiology and outcomes of these infections in children are limited. We analyzed the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database of patients transplanted between 1993 and 2014 to determine the etiologies, risk factors and outcomes of children with bacterial infections post-heart transplantation. Of 4,458 primary transplants in the database, there were 4,815 infections that required hospitalization or intravenous therapy, 2,047 (42.51%) of which were bacterial. The risk of bacterial infection was highest in the first month post-transplant, and the bloodstream was the most common site (24.82%). In the early post-transplant period (<30 days post-transplant), coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common pathogens (16.97%), followed by Enterobacter sp (11.99%) and Pseudomonas sp (11.62%). In the late post-transplant period, community-acquired pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.27%) and Haemophilus influenzae (2.82%) were also commonly identified. Patients' characteristics independently associated with acquisition of bacterial infection included younger age (p < 0.0001) and ventilator (p < 0.0001) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p = 0.03) use at time of transplant. Overall mortality post-bacterial infection was 33.78%, and previous cardiac surgery (p < 0.001) and multiple sites of infection (p = 0.004) were independent predictors of death. Bacteria were the most common causes of severe infections in pediatric heart transplant recipients and were associated with high mortality rates. The risk of acquiring a bacterial infection was highest in the first month post-transplant, and a large proportion of the infections were caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2014-11-01

    Although lactoferrin has many biological functions, the host-protective effects against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses are regarded as one of the most important. Here, we review research on the protective role of lactoferrin administration against common viral infections. Many studies have shown the in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against viral pathogens that cause common infections such as the common cold, influenza, gastroenteritis, summer cold, and herpes, where lactoferrin inhibits mainly viral attachment to the target cells. Recently, studies indicating the in vivo protective effects of lactoferrin by oral administration against common viral infections have been increasing. For instance, norovirus is an extremely important emerging human pathogen that causes a majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide that may be a target candidate for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin consumption reduced the incidence of noroviral gastroenteritis in children and a similar effect was observed in a wide range of ages in a preliminary survey. A recent in vitro study reported that lactoferrin inhibits both cellular attachment of the murine norovirus, a virus closely-related to the human norovirus, and viral replication in the cells by inducing antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-α/β. Lactoferrin administration also enhances NK cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses, which lead to protection against viral infections. In conclusion, lactoferrin consumption may protect the host from viral infections through inhibiting the attachment of a virus to the cells, replication of the virus in the cells, and enhancement of systemic immune functions. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial infections of pulp and periodontal origin.

    PubMed

    González-Moles, Miguel Angel; González, Nabila M

    2004-01-01

    The anatomical and structural characteristics of the pulp make this structure prone to altering as a result of, for instance, periodontal conditions (proximity), iatrogenic alterations, infections and involvement of vascular and nerve structures (it is surrounded by hard tissues that prevent expansion), to name just a few. Pulpitis is a process that courses with pain of varying intensity that allows us to determine the location of the lesion in clinical terms. Its evolution varies and may even progress to pulpar necrosis that in turn, produces neuritis-like pain. Diagnosis is established by means of clinical symptomatology and supported by X-rays, palpation of tissues at painful sites, application of electrical stimuli, heat, etc. Periodontitis is a bacterial infection originating in the apex. The most important form is the so-called acute apical periodontitis that arises as a result of a prior episode of pulpitis. It is characterized by acute pain located in the tooth, accompanied by the feeling of having a long-tooth. The patient refers being unable to chew on that side; there may be painful mobility of the tooth and an outflow of pus that alleviates symptoms. X-rays do not provide a lot of information, but may attest to a widening of the apical space. This pathology may disseminate to surrounding tissues, leading to conditions of considerable severity.

  6. Association between bacterial infection and radiologically confirmed pneumonia among children.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M; Araújo-Neto, César A; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2015-05-01

    The role of chest radiograph (CXR) among children with community-acquired pneumonia is controversial. We aimed to assess if there is association between a specific etiology and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Based on report of respiratory complaints and fever/difficulty breathing plus the detection of pulmonary infiltrate/pleural effusion on the CXR taken upon admission read by the pediatrician on duty, children <5-year-old hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled. On admission, clinical data and biological samples were collected to investigate 19 etiological agents (11 viruses and 8 bacteria). CXR taken upon admission was independently read by a pediatric radiologist blinded to clinical data. The study group comprised 209 cases with evaluated CXR and establishment of a probable etiology. Radiologically confirmed pneumonia, normal CXR and other radiographic diagnoses were described for 165 (79.0%), 36 (17.2%) and 8 (3.8%) patients, respectively. Viral infection was significantly more common among patients without radiologically confirmed pneumonia (68.2% vs. 47.9%; P = 0.02), particularly among those with normal CXR (66.7% vs. 47.9%; P = 0.04) when compared with patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Bacterial infection was more frequent among cases with radiologically confirmed pneumonia (52.1% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.02). Likewise, pneumococcal infection was more frequently detected among children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia in regard to children with normal CXR (24.2% vs. 8.3%; P = 0.04). Sensitivity (95% confidence interval) of radiologically confirmed pneumonia for pneumococcal infection was 93% (80-98%), and negative predictive value (95% confidence interval) of normal CXR for pneumococcal infection was 92% (77-98%). Bacterial infection, especially pneumococcal one, is associated with radiologically confirmed pneumonia.

  7. Bacteriophage therapy to combat bacterial infections in poultry.

    PubMed

    Wernicki, Andrzej; Nowaczek, Anna; Urban-Chmiel, Renata

    2017-09-16

    Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections. In the US, annual economic losses due to Salmonella infections run from $1.188 billion to over $11.588 billion, based on an estimated 1.92 million cases. Similar costs are observed in the case of other types of infections. In 2005 economic losses in the the poultry industry due to mortalities reached 1,000,000 USD.Infections caused by these pathogens, often through poultry products, are also a serious public health issue.The progressive increase in the number of multi-drug resistant bacteria and the complete ban on the use of antibiotics in livestock feed in the EU, as well as the partial ban in the US, have led to the growth of research on the use of bacteriophages to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals.The high success rate and safety of phage therapy in comparison with antibiotics are partly due to their specificity for selected bacteria and the ability to infect only one species, serotype or strain. This mechanism does not cause the destruction of commensal bacterial flora. Phages are currently being used with success in humans and animals in targeted therapies for slow-healing infections. They have also found application in the US in eliminating pathogens from the surface of foods of animal and plant origin. At a time of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the resulting

  8. Risk factors and outcome of bacterial infections in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Tony; Zimmermann, Henning W; Stallmach, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Viable and non-viable pathological bacterial translocation promote a self-perpetuating circle of dysfunctional immune activation and systemic inflammation facilitating infections and organ failure in advanced cirrhosis. Bacterial infections and sepsis are now recognized as a distinct stage in the natural progression of chronic liver disease as they accelerate organ failure and contribute to the high mortality observed in decompensated cirrhosis. The increasing knowledge of structural, immunological and hemodynamic pathophysiology in advanced cirrhosis has not yet translated into significantly improved outcomes of bacterial infections over the last decades. Therefore, early identification of patients at the highest risk for developing infections and infection-related complications is required to tailor the currently available measures of surveillance, prophylaxis and therapy to the patients in need in order to improve the detrimental outcome of bacterial infections in cirrhosis. PMID:24627590

  9. Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David A; Hooton, Thomas M; Stamm, Walter E; Humphrey, Peter A; Hultgren, Scott J

    2007-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). While UTIs are typically considered extracellular infections, it has been recently demonstrated that UPEC bind to, invade, and replicate within the murine bladder urothelium to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). These IBCs dissociate and bacteria flux out of bladder facet cells, some with filamentous morphology, and ultimately establish quiescent intracellular reservoirs that can seed recurrent infection. This IBC pathogenic cycle has not yet been investigated in humans. In this study we sought to determine whether evidence of an IBC pathway could be found in urine specimens from women with acute UTI. Methods and Findings We collected midstream, clean-catch urine specimens from 80 young healthy women with acute uncomplicated cystitis and 20 asymptomatic women with a history of UTI. Investigators were blinded to culture results and clinical history. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy for evidence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria. Evidence of IBCs was found in 14 of 80 (18%) urines from women with UTI. Filamentous bacteria were found in 33 of 80 (41%) urines from women with UTI. None of the 20 urines from the asymptomatic comparative group showed evidence of IBCs or filaments. Filamentous bacteria were present in all 14 of the urines with IBCs compared to 19 (29%) of 66 samples with no evidence of IBCs (p < 0.001). Of 65 urines from patients with E. coli infections, 14 (22%) had evidence of IBCs and 29 (45%) had filamentous bacteria, while none of the gram-positive infections had IBCs or filamentous bacteria. Conclusions The presence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria in the urines of women with acute cystitis suggests that the IBC pathogenic pathway characterized in the murine model may occur in humans. The findings

  10. Persistence of bacterial DNA in orthopedic infections.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Heidi B; Miranda, Justin A; Gogola, Gloria R; Gomez, Karen; Ambrose, Catherine G

    2018-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been proposed as a method to identify bacteria in clinical samples because it is more sensitive than culture techniques and can produce results rapidly. However, PCR can detect DNA from dead cells and thus cannot distinguish between live and dead cells in a tissue sample. Killed Staphylococcus aureus cells were implanted into the femurs and knee joints of rats to determine the length of time that DNA from dead cells is detectable in a living animal under conditions similar to common orthopedic infections. In the joint infection model studied here, the DNA from the dead planktonic bacteria was detected using PCR immediately after injection or 24 h later, but was undetectable 48 and 72 h after injection. In the biofilm implanted-device model studied, the DNA from these dead biofilm cells was detected by PCR immediately after implantation and at 24 h, but not at 48 or 72 h. Thus, our results indicate that DNA from dead cells does not persist in these animal model systems for more than 2 days, which should reduce concerns about possible false positive results using molecular DNA-based techniques for the detection of pathogens. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Sweet Tooth of Bacteria: Common Themes in Bacterial Glycoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Tytgat, Hanne L. P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans have been increasingly recognized as being superorganisms, living in close contact with a microbiota on all their mucosal surfaces. However, most studies on the human microbiota have focused on gaining comprehensive insights into the composition of the microbiota under different health conditions (e.g., enterotypes), while there is also a need for detailed knowledge of the different molecules that mediate interactions with the host. Glycoconjugates are an interesting class of molecules for detailed studies, as they form a strain-specific barcode on the surface of bacteria, mediating specific interactions with the host. Strikingly, most glycoconjugates are synthesized by similar biosynthesis mechanisms. Bacteria can produce their major glycoconjugates by using a sequential or an en bloc mechanism, with both mechanistic options coexisting in many species for different macromolecules. In this review, these common themes are conceptualized and illustrated for all major classes of known bacterial glycoconjugates, with a special focus on the rather recently emergent field of glycosylated proteins. We describe the biosynthesis and importance of glycoconjugates in both pathogenic and beneficial bacteria and in both Gram-positive and -negative organisms. The focus lies on microorganisms important for human physiology. In addition, the potential for a better knowledge of bacterial glycoconjugates in the emerging field of glycoengineering and other perspectives is discussed. PMID:25184559

  12. Uncomplicated Bacterial Communityacquired Urinary Tract Infection in Adults.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Jennifer; Schmidt, Stefanie; Lebert, Cordula; Schneidewind, Laila; Schmiemann, Guido; Wagenlehner, Florian

    2017-12-15

    Uncomplicated bacterial community-acquired urinary tract infection is among the more common infections in outpatient practice. The resistance level of pathogens has risen markedly. This S3 guideline contains recommendations based on current evidence for the rational use of anti - microbial agents and for the prevention of inappropriate use of certain classes of antibiotics and thus of the resulting drug resistance. The prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection is considered in this guideline for the first time. The guideline was updated under the aegis of the German Urological Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie). A systematic literature search (period: 2008-2015) concerning the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of uncomplicated urinary tract infections was carried out in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Embase databases. Randomized, controlled trials and systemic reviews were included. Relevant guidelines were identified in a guideline synopsis. Symptom-oriented diagnostic evaluation is highly valued. For the treatment of cystitis, fosfomycin-trometamol, nitrofurantoin, nitroxolin, pivmecillinam and trimethoprim are all equally recommended. Fluorquinolones and cephalosporins are not recommended. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis with a mild to moderate clinical course ought to be treated with oral cefpodoxime, ceftibuten, ciprofloxacin, or levofloxacin. For acute, uncomplicated cystitis, with mild to moderate symptoms, symptomatic treatment alone may be considered instead of antibiotics after discussion of the options with the patient. Mainly non-antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis against recurrent urinary tract infection. Physicians who treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections should familiarize themselves with the newly revised guideline's recommendations on the selection and dosage of antibiotic treatment so that they can responsibly evaluate and plan antibiotic treatment for their affected patients.

  13. Classification and possible bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhou, Ping; Shen, Yi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the classification and bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China. To investigate the prevalence of eczema and dermatitis in outpatients of dermatology clinics in China, examine classification and proportion of common types of dermatitis and the possible bacterial infection, and analyze the possible related factors. Outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in mainland China from July 1 to September 30, 2014, were enrolled in this cross-sectional and multicenter study. Among 9393 enrolled outpatients, 636 patients (6.7%) were excluded because of incomplete information. The leading subtypes of dermatitis were unclassified eczema (35.5%), atopic dermatitis (13.4%), irritant dermatitis (9.2%), and widespread eczema (8.7%). Total bacterial infection rate was 52.3%, with widespread eczema, stasis dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis being the leading three (65.7%, 61.8%, and 61.4%, respectively). Clinically very likely bacterial infection has a significant positive correlation with disease duration, history of allergic disease, history of flexion dermatitis, and severe itching. Atopic dermatitis has become a common subtype of dermatitis in China. Secondary bacterial infection is common in all patients with dermatitis, and more attentions should be paid on this issue in other type of dermatitis apart from atopic dermatitis. PMID:28858126

  14. Bacterial infections and hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis-prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Damian; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for hyperammonemia, which leads to hepatic encephalopathy. All of these complications make this group of patients at high risk for mortality. The role of antibiotics in liver cirrhosis is to treat and in some cases to prevent the development of infectious complications. Based on our current knowledge, antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, low ascitic fluid protein concentration combined with liver or renal failure, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis as a secondary prophylaxis, as well as after hepatic encephalopathy episodes (also as a secondary prophylaxis). In some cases, the use of non-antibiotic prophylaxis can also be considered. Current knowledge of the treatment of infections allows the choice of a preferred antibiotic for empiric therapy depending on the infection location and whether the source of the disease is nosocomial or community-acquired. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial isolates from equine infections in western Canada (1998–2003)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Chris; Greenwood, Sarah; Boison, Joe O.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Dowling, Patricia M.

    2008-01-01

    All bacterial samples of equine origin submitted to the diagnostic laboratory at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from January 1998 to December 2003 from either “in-clinic” or Field Service cases were accessed (1323 submissions). The most common bacterial isolates from specific presenting signs were identified, along with their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The most common site from which significant bacterial isolates were recovered was the respiratory tract, followed by wounds. Streptococcus zooepidemicus was the most common isolate from most infections, followed by Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial resistance was not common in the isolates and acquired antimicrobial resistance to multiple drugs was rare. The results are compared with previous published studies from other institutions and used to suggest appropriate antimicrobial treatments for equine infections in western Canada. PMID:18309745

  16. New insights into valve-related intramural and intracellular bacterial diversity in infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Stefan; Lehmann, Stefanie; Kullnick, Yvonne; Buschmann, Tilo; Blumert, Conny; Horn, Friedemann; Neuhaus, Jochen; Neujahr, Ralph; Bagaev, Erik; Hagl, Christian; Pichlmaier, Maximilian; Rodloff, Arne Christian; Gräber, Sandra; Kirsch, Katharina; Sandri, Marcus; Kumbhari, Vivek; Behzadi, Armirhossein; Behzadi, Amirali; Correia, Joao Carlos; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Aims In infective endocarditis (IE), a severe inflammatory disease of the endocardium with an unchanged incidence and mortality rate over the past decades, only 1% of the cases have been described as polymicrobial infections based on microbiological approaches. The aim of this study was to identify potential biodiversity of bacterial species from infected native and prosthetic valves. Furthermore, we compared the ultrastructural micro-environments to detect the localization and distribution patterns of pathogens in IE. Material and methods Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rDNA, which allows analysis of the entire bacterial community within a single sample, we investigated the biodiversity of infectious bacterial species from resected native and prosthetic valves in a clinical cohort of 8 IE patients. Furthermore, we investigated the ultrastructural infected valve micro-environment by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Results Biodiversity was detected in 7 of 8 resected heart valves. This comprised 13 bacterial genera and 16 species. In addition to 11 pathogens already described as being IE related, 5 bacterial species were identified as having a novel association. In contrast, valve and blood culture-based diagnosis revealed only 4 species from 3 bacterial genera and did not show any relevant antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics chosen on this basis for treatment, however, did not cover the bacterial spectra identified by our amplicon sequencing analysis in 4 of 8 cases. In addition to intramural distribution patterns of infective bacteria, intracellular localization with evidence of bacterial immune escape mechanisms was identified. Conclusion The high frequency of polymicrobial infections, pathogen diversity, and intracellular persistence of common IE-causing bacteria may provide clues to help explain the persistent and devastating mortality rate observed for IE. Improved bacterial diagnosis by 16S rDNA NGS that increases the

  17. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, and climate change, bacterial and viral infections that were once unrecognized or uncommon are being seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere. A delay in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these emerging bacterial and viral diseases. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic host responses to infection by intracellular bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rudel, Thomas; Goebel, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of bacterial pathogens with mammalian hosts leads to a variety of physiological responses of the interacting partners aimed at an adaptation to the new situation. These responses include multiple metabolic changes in the affected host cells which are most obvious when the pathogen replicates within host cells as in case of intracellular bacterial pathogens. While the pathogen tries to deprive nutrients from the host cell, the host cell in return takes various metabolic countermeasures against the nutrient theft. During this conflicting interaction, the pathogen triggers metabolic host cell responses by means of common cell envelope components and specific virulence-associated factors. These host reactions generally promote replication of the pathogen. There is growing evidence that pathogen-specific factors may interfere in different ways with the complex regulatory network that controls the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. The host cell defense answers include general metabolic reactions, like the generation of oxygen- and/or nitrogen-reactive species, and more specific measures aimed to prevent access to essential nutrients for the respective pathogen. Accurate results on metabolic host cell responses are often hampered by the use of cancer cell lines that already exhibit various de-regulated reactions in the primary carbon metabolism. Hence, there is an urgent need for cellular models that more closely reflect the in vivo infection conditions. The exact knowledge of the metabolic host cell responses may provide new interesting concepts for antibacterial therapies. PMID:23847769

  19. Persistent bacterial infections, antibiotic tolerance, and the oxidative stress response

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Sarah Schmidt; Hung, Deborah T.

    2013-01-01

    Certain bacterial pathogens are able to evade the host immune system and persist within the human host. The consequences of persistent bacterial infections potentially include increased morbidity and mortality from the infection itself as well as an increased risk of dissemination of disease. Eradication of persistent infections is difficult, often requiring prolonged or repeated courses of antibiotics. During persistent infections, a population or subpopulation of bacteria exists that is refractory to traditional antibiotics, possibly in a non-replicating or metabolically altered state. This review highlights the clinical significance of persistent infections and discusses different in vitro models used to investigate the altered physiology of bacteria during persistent infections. We specifically focus on recent work establishing increased protection against oxidative stress as a key element of the altered physiologic state across different in vitro models and pathogens. PMID:23563389

  20. Bacterial infection causes stress-induced memory dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Mélanie G; Wine, Eytan; Rodrigues, David M; Cho, Joon Ho; Whary, Mark T; Philpott, Dana J; Macqueen, Glenda; Sherman, Philip M

    2011-03-01

    The brain-gut axis is a key regulator of normal intestinal physiology; for example, psychological stress is linked to altered gut barrier function, development of food allergies and changes in behaviour. Whether intestinal events, such as enteric bacterial infections and bacterial colonisation, exert a reciprocal effect on stress-associated behaviour is not well established. To determine the effects of either acute enteric infection or absence of gut microbiota on behaviour, including anxiety and non-spatial memory formation. Behaviour was assessed following infection with the non-invasive enteric pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium in both C57BL/6 mice and germ-free Swiss-Webster mice, in the presence or absence of acute water avoidance stress. Whether daily treatment with probiotics normalised behaviour was assessed, and potential mechanisms of action evaluated. No behavioural abnormalities were observed, either at the height of infection (10 days) or following bacterial clearance (30 days), in C rodentium-infected C57BL/6 mice. When infected mice were exposed to acute stress, however, memory dysfunction was apparent after infection (10 days and 30 days). Memory dysfunction was prevented by daily treatment of infected mice with probiotics. Memory was impaired in germ-free mice, with or without exposure to stress, in contrast to conventionally reared, control Swiss-Webster mice with an intact intestinal microbiota. The intestinal microbiota influences the ability to form memory. Memory dysfunction occurs in infected mice exposed to acute stress, while in the germ-free setting memory is altered at baseline.

  1. Gram-Negative Bacterial Wound Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, it showed antibacterial activity against all A. baumannii tested strains, including MRSN and non-MRSN isolates...models showed that Ga-PPIX has significant antibacterial activity by inhibiting the metabolism of iron A. baumannii could scavenge from host’s...concentration significantly reduced bacterial viability, while 40 µg/ml killed all bacteria after 24-h incubation. The antibacterial activity of Ga-PPIX

  2. Gram-Negative Bacterial Wound Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    not statistically differ- ent from that of the control group . The levels (CFU/g) of bacteria in lung tissue correlated with the survival curves. The...median levels in the control and 2.5 mg/kg- treated groups were almost identical, at 9.04 and 9.07 log CFU/g, respectively. Figure 6B shows a decrease...Dunn’s multiple comparison test, found a statistically significant difference in bacterial burden when the control group was com- pared to animals

  3. Work package 4 report: Broodfish testing for bacterial infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, Christian; Elliott, Diane G.; Jansson, Eva; Urdaci, Maria; Midtlyng, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises current scientific information and experience obtained with various methods for testing of salmonid broodfish or spawn for bacterial kidney disease (BKD - Renibacterium salmoninarum infection) in order to prevent vertical transmission of the organism to the offspring. Assessment is also being performed for Flavobacterium psychrophilum infections causing rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) or bacterial coldwater disease (CWD), and for Piscirickettsia salmonis infection causing salmon rickettsial syndrome (SRS) in salmonid fish species. Methods for screening to document the absence of BKD in fish populations are well established. Some of them have also proven successful for testing individual fish from infected populations in order to avoid vertical transmission of the infectious agent. Several diagnostic methods for flavobacteriosis and piscirickettsiosis have also been established but none of them, as yet, has been validated for use in programmes to prevent vertical transmission of disease. Priority subjects for further research in order to improve the management and control of these vertically transmissible fish diseases are suggested.

  4. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-06-16

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose (e-nose) could fit this profile but has never been tested in this setting before. In a single-center registered trial (NTR 4601) patients admitted with AECOPD were tested with the Aeonose(®) electronic nose, and a diagnosis of viral or bacterial infection was obtained by bacterial culture on sputa and viral PCR on nose swabs. A neural network with leave-10%-out cross-validation was used to assess the e-nose data. Forty three patients were included. In the bacterial infection model, 22 positive cases were tested versus the negatives; and similarly 18 positive cases were tested in the viral infection model. The Aeonose was able to distinguish between COPD-subjects suffering from a viral infection and COPD patients without infection, showing an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74. Similarly, for bacterial infections, an AUC of 0.72 was obtained. The Aeonose e-nose yields promising results in 'smelling' the presence or absence of a viral or bacterial respiratory infection during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Validation of these results using a new and large cohort is required before introduction into clinical practice.

  5. Increased Sleep Promotes Survival during a Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The relationship between sleep and immune function is not well understood at a functional or molecular level. We therefore used a genetic approach in Drosophila to manipulate sleep and evaluated effects on the ability of flies to fight bacterial infection. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: We used a genetic approach to transiently alter neuronal excitability in the mushroom body, a region in the central brain that is known to regulate sleep. Flies with increased sleep for up to two days prior to a bacterial infection showed increased resistance to the infection and improved survival. These flies also had increased expression levels of a subset of anti-microbial peptide mRNA prior to infection, as well as increased NFκB activity during infection as indicated by in vivo luciferase reporter activity. In contrast, flies that experienced reduced sleep for up to two days prior to infection had no effect on survival or on NFκB activity during infection. However, flies with reduced sleep showed an altered defense mechanism, such that resistance to infection was increased, but at the expense of reduced tolerance. This effect was dependent on environmental condition. Conclusions: Increasing sleep enhanced activity of an NFκB transcription factor, increased resistance to infection, and strongly promoted survival. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that sleep is beneficial to the host by maintaining a robust immune system. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Increased sleep promotes survival during a bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1077-1086. PMID:24882902

  6. Role of bacterial infections in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Dominique S.

    2013-01-01

    Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including tobacco smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes, collectively account for less than half of all pancreatic cancer cases. Inflammation plays a key role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, but it is unclear what causes local inflammation, other than pancreatitis. Epidemiological data suggest that Helicobacter pylori may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and more recently, data suggest that periodontal disease, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen for periodontal disease, may also play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Individuals with periodontal disease have elevated markers of systemic inflammation, and oral bacteria can disseminate into the blood, stomach, heart and even reach the brain. These infections may contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer by acting jointly with other pancreatic cancer risk factors that impact the inflammation and immune response, such as smoking and obesity, and the ABO genetic variant, recently linked to pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies. The complex interplay between bacteria, host immune response and environmental factors has been examined closely in relation to gastric cancer, but new research suggests bacteria may be playing a role in other gastrointestinal cancers. This review will summarize the literature on epidemiological studies examining infections that have been linked to pancreatic cancer and propose mechanistic pathways that may tie infections to pancreatic cancer. PMID:23843038

  7. Role of bacterial infections in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S

    2013-10-01

    Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including tobacco smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes, collectively account for less than half of all pancreatic cancer cases. Inflammation plays a key role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, but it is unclear what causes local inflammation, other than pancreatitis. Epidemiological data suggest that Helicobacter pylori may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and more recently, data suggest that periodontal disease, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen for periodontal disease, may also play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Individuals with periodontal disease have elevated markers of systemic inflammation, and oral bacteria can disseminate into the blood, stomach, heart and even reach the brain. These infections may contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer by acting jointly with other pancreatic cancer risk factors that impact the inflammation and immune response, such as smoking and obesity, and the ABO genetic variant, recently linked to pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies. The complex interplay between bacteria, host immune response and environmental factors has been examined closely in relation to gastric cancer, but new research suggests bacteria may be playing a role in other gastrointestinal cancers. This review will summarize the literature on epidemiological studies examining infections that have been linked to pancreatic cancer and propose mechanistic pathways that may tie infections to pancreatic cancer.

  8. Using Natural Products to Treat Resistant and Persistent Bacterial Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deering, Robert W.

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to human health both worldwide and in the United States. Most concerning is the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, especially the 'ESKAPE' pathogens for which treatment options are dwindling. To complicate the problem, approvals of antibiotic drugs are extremely low and many research and development efforts in the pharmaceutical industry have ceased, leaving little certainty that critical new antibiotics are nearing the clinic. New antibiotics are needed to continue treating these evolving infections. In addition to antibiotics, approaches that aim to inhibit or prevent antimicrobial resistance could be useful. Also, studies that improve our understanding of bacterial pathophysiology could lead to new therapies for infectious disease. Natural products, especially those from the microbial world, have been invaluable as resources for new antibacterial compounds and as insights into bacterial physiology. The goal of this dissertation is to find new ways to treat resistant bacterial infections and learn more about the pathophysiology of these bacteria. Investigations of natural products to find molecules able to be used as new antibiotics or to modulate resistance and other parts of bacterial physiology are crucial aspects of the included studies. The first included study, which is reported in chapter two, details a chemical investigation of a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Purification efforts of the microbial metabolites were guided by testing against a resistance nodulation of cell division model of efflux pumps expressed in E. coli. These pumps play an important role in the resistance of MDR Gram negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Through this process, 3,4-dibromopyrrole-2,5-dione was identified as a potent inhibitor of the RND efflux pumps and showed synergistic effects against the E. coli strain with common antibiotics including fluoroquinolones, beta

  9. Nasopharyngeal polymicrobial colonization during health, viral upper respiratory infection and upper respiratory bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture. NP colonization rates of multiple otopathogens during health were significantly lower than during viral URI, and during URI they were lower than at onset of upper respiratory bacterial infection in both AOM infection-prone and non-prone children. AOM infection-prone children had higher polymicrobial colonization rates than non-prone children during health, viral URI and AOM. Polymicrobial colonization rates of AOM infection-prone children during health were equivalent to that of non-prone children during viral URI, and during viral URI were equivalent to that of non-prone during AOM infection. Spn colonization was positively associated with NTHi and Mcat colonization during health, but negatively during AOM infection. The infection-prone patients more frequently have multiple potential bacterial pathogens in the NP than the non-prone patients. Polymicrobial interaction in the NP differs during health and at onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The interplay between regulated necrosis and bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Blériot, Camille; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Necrosis has long been considered as a passive event resulting from a cell extrinsic stimulus, such as pathogen infection. Recent advances have refined this view and it is now well established that necrosis is tightly regulated at the cell level. Regulated necrosis can occur in the context of host-pathogen interactions, and can either participate in the control of infection or favor it. Here, we review the two main pathways implicated so far in bacteria-associated regulated necrosis: caspase 1-dependent pyroptosis and RIPK1/RIPK3-dependent necroptosis. We present how these pathways are modulated in the context of infection by a series of model bacterial pathogens.

  11. Atypical mitochondrial fission upon bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Stavru, Fabrizia; Palmer, Amy E.; Wang, Chunxin; Youle, Richard J.; Cossart, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed that infection by Listeria monocytogenes causes mitochondrial network fragmentation through the secreted pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO). Here, we examine factors involved in canonical fusion and fission. Strikingly, LLO-induced mitochondrial fragmentation does not require the traditional fission machinery, as Drp1 oligomers are absent from fragmented mitochondria following Listeria infection or LLO treatment, as the dynamin-like protein 1 (Drp1) receptor Mff is rapidly degraded, and as fragmentation proceeds efficiently in cells with impaired Drp1 function. LLO does not cause processing of the fusion protein optic atrophy protein 1 (Opa1), despite inducing a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a unique Drp1- and Opa1-independent fission mechanism distinct from that triggered by uncouplers or the apoptosis inducer staurosporine. We show that the ER marks LLO-induced mitochondrial fragmentation sites even in the absence of functional Drp1, demonstrating that the ER activity in regulating mitochondrial fission can be induced by exogenous agents and that the ER appears to regulate fission by a mechanism independent of the canonical mitochondrial fission machinery. PMID:24043775

  12. Novel Prevention Strategies for Bacterial Infections in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kathleen; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bacterial infections are a serious complication of cirrhosis, as they can lead to decompensation, multiple organ failure, and/or death. Preventing infections is therefore very relevant. Because gut bacterial translocation is their main pathogenic mechanism, prevention of infections is mostly based on the use of orally administered poorly absorbed antibiotics such as norfloxacin (selective intestinal decontamination). However, antibiotic prophylaxis leads to antibiotic resistance, limiting therapy and increasing morbidity and mortality. Prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhosis should therefore move away from antibiotics. Areas Covered This review focuses on various potentially novel methods to prevent infections in cirrhosis focusing on non-antibiotic strategies. The use of probiotics, nonselective intestinal decontamination with rifaximin, prokinetics and beta-blockers or fecal microbiota transplant as means of targeting altered gut microbiota, bile acids and FXR agonists are all potential alternatives to selective intestinal decontamination. Prokinetics and beta-blockers can improve intestinal motility, while bile acids and FXR agonists help by improving the intestinal barrier. Finally, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and statins are emerging therapeutic strategies that may improve immune dysfunction in cirrhosis. Expert Opinion Evidence for these strategies has been restricted to animal studies and proof-of concept studies but we expect this to change in coming years. PMID:26799197

  13. Bacterial pattern and antibiotic sensitivity in children and adolescents with infected atopic dermatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samosir, C. T.; Ruslie, R. H.; Rusli, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease which affected approximately 20% in children. Bacterial infection is common in AD patients and correlates directly with AD severity. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial skin infection in AD patients and its relation with severity of AD and also to study bacteria in the infected AD and its antibiotic sensitivity. Samples were 86 children and adolescents with an AD in Helvetia Community Health Center Medan from March 2016 until February 2017. Index of SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) was used to evaluate the severity of AD. Lesion and nonlesional skinwere swabbed to take sterile cultures. All bacteria noted and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Datawere by using Chi-Square and Mann Whitney test with 95% CI and p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Fifty-six AD patients (65.1%) were bacterial infected. There was a significant relationship between severity of AD and bacterial infection (p = 0.006). Staphylococcus aureus was the leading bacteria from all degrees of AD severity. Isolated Staphylococcus aureuswas sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate (93.3%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%), and gentamicin (90%), while sensitivity to tetracycline was low (20%).

  14. Bacterial diversity in the feces of dogs with CPV infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yun; Hao, Xiangqi; Lin, Xi; Zheng, Qingxu; Zhang, Wenyan; Zhou, Pei; Li, Shoujun

    2018-04-27

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a contagious disease in dogs that has high morbidity and mortality. In cases of infection, the pups tend to have a higher mortality and more severe clinical symptoms than the adult dogs because the dehydration is difficult for pups to bear. Following the natural infection, there is a rapid antibody response neutralizing the extracellular virus. As a result, virus titers in tissue and feces become markedly reduced. Hence, it is important to have an effective symptomatic therapy of supporting animals to survive in the early stages of CPV infection. Furthermore, the co-infection with bacteria could increase the severity of lesions and clinical signs as well. In this paper, we obtained the bacterial diversity in feces of CPV infected dogs with the enrichment of five bacteria genera (Shigella, Peptoclostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium). These microorganisms may partly result in the intestinal pathology of the infection. In summary, the discussion of the bacterial biodiversity in feces of CPV infected dogs provides further insights into the pathology of CPV disease and the targets of developing more effective treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of bacterial infection in pediatric oncology: what do we know, what can we learn?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Sarah; Nieder, Michael; Zerr, Danielle M; Fisher, Brian T; Dvorak, Christopher C; Sung, Lillian

    2012-07-15

    Bacterial sepsis continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and toxic death in children receiving intensive therapy for cancer. Empiric therapy for suspected infections and treatment of documented infections are well-established standards of care. The routine use of prophylactic strategies is much less common in pediatric oncology. This paper will review the current literature on the use and risks of antimicrobial prophylaxis as well as non-pharmacological methods for infection prevention and will address areas in need of further research. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Urinary tract infections and bacterial prostatitis in men.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Weidner, Wolfgang; Pilatz, Adrian; Naber, Kurt G

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight advances in research on urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacterial prostatitis in men in the preceding year. The antiseptic properties of the prostate secretions might be an important factor for prevention of recurrency. Risk factors for UTI in men include prostate enlargement and urological interventions, such as transrectal prostate biopsy. Preventive treatment of prostate enlargement has been demonstrated to reduce frequency of UTI. Ensuing infections after prostate biopsy, such as UTI and bacterial prostatitis, are increasing due to increasing rates of fluoroquinolone resistance. The increasing global antibiotic resistance also significantly affects management of UTI in men, and therefore calls for alternative strategies.Apart from prevention of complicating factors leading to UTI, a more thorough understanding of the pathophysiology may play a more important role in the future, to define new targets for treatment. Interesting results that might interfere with the intracellular mucosal bacterial load in the bladder wall have been found in the last years. UTI in men and bacterial prostatitis are currently underrepresented in the medical literature. Increasing antibacterial resistance calls for novel strategies in the prevention and management of UTI and bacterial prostatitis in men.

  17. Empiric Antibiotic Use and Susceptibility in Infants With Bacterial Infections: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Elana A; McCulloh, Russell J; Myers, Angela L; Aronson, Paul L; Neuman, Mark I; Bradford, Miranda C; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Balamuth, Frances; Blackstone, Mercedes M; Browning, Whitney L; Hayes, Katie; Korman, Rosalynne; Leazer, Rianna C; Nigrovic, Lise E; Marble, Richard; Roben, Emily; Williams, Derek J; Tieder, Joel S

    2017-07-20

    To assess hospital differences in empirical antibiotic use, bacterial epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility for common antibiotic regimens among young infants with urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis. We reviewed medical records from infants <90 days old presenting to 8 US children's hospitals with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. We used the Pediatric Health Information System database to identify cases and empirical antibiotic use and medical record review to determine infection, pathogen, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. We compared hospital-level differences in antimicrobial use, pathogen, infection site, and antimicrobial susceptibility. We identified 470 infants with bacterial infections: 362 (77%) with UTI alone and 108 (23%) with meningitis or bacteremia. Infection type did not differ across hospitals ( P = .85). Empirical antibiotic use varied across hospitals ( P < .01), although antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for common empirical regimens were similar. A third-generation cephalosporin would have empirically treated 90% of all ages, 89% in 7- to 28-day-olds, and 91% in 29- to 89-day-olds. The addition of ampicillin would have improved coverage in only 4 cases of bacteremia and meningitis. Ampicillin plus gentamicin would have treated 95%, 89%, and 97% in these age groups, respectively. Empirical antibiotic use differed across regionally diverse US children's hospitals in infants <90 days old with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. Antimicrobial susceptibility to common antibiotic regimens was similar across hospitals, and adding ampicillin to a third-generation cephalosporin minimally improves coverage. Our findings support incorporating empirical antibiotic recommendations into national guidelines for infants with suspected bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. PPARγ in Bacterial Infections: A Friend or Foe?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Aravind T; Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Reddy, Raju C

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ) is now recognized as an important modulator of leukocyte inflammatory responses and function. Its immunoregulatory function has been studied in a variety of contexts, including bacterial infections of the lungs and central nervous system, sepsis, and conditions such as chronic granulomatous disease. Although it is generally believed that PPAR γ activation is beneficial for the host during bacterial infections via its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, PPAR γ agonists have also been shown to dampen the host immune response and in some cases exacerbate infection by promoting leukocyte apoptosis and interfering with leukocyte migration and infiltration. In this review we discuss the role of PPAR γ and its activation during bacterial infections, with focus on the potential of PPAR γ agonists and perhaps antagonists as novel therapeutic modalities. We conclude that adjustment in the dosage and timing of PPAR γ agonist administration, based on the competence of host antimicrobial defenses and the extent of inflammatory response and tissue injury, is critical for achieving the essential balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system.

  19. PPARγ in Bacterial Infections: A Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is now recognized as an important modulator of leukocyte inflammatory responses and function. Its immunoregulatory function has been studied in a variety of contexts, including bacterial infections of the lungs and central nervous system, sepsis, and conditions such as chronic granulomatous disease. Although it is generally believed that PPARγ activation is beneficial for the host during bacterial infections via its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, PPARγ agonists have also been shown to dampen the host immune response and in some cases exacerbate infection by promoting leukocyte apoptosis and interfering with leukocyte migration and infiltration. In this review we discuss the role of PPARγ and its activation during bacterial infections, with focus on the potential of PPARγ agonists and perhaps antagonists as novel therapeutic modalities. We conclude that adjustment in the dosage and timing of PPARγ agonist administration, based on the competence of host antimicrobial defenses and the extent of inflammatory response and tissue injury, is critical for achieving the essential balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system. PMID:27774097

  20. New Bacterial Infection in the Prostate after Transrectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yumi; Lee, Gilho

    2018-04-23

    The prostate is prone to infections. Hypothetically, bacteria can be inoculated into the prostate during a transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) and progress into chronic bacterial prostatitis. Therefore, we examined new bacterial infections in biopsied prostates after TRPB and whether they affect clinical characteristics in the biopsied patients. Of men whose prostate cultures have been taken prior to TRPB, 105 men with bacteria-free benign prostate pathology underwent an additional repeated prostate culture within a year after TRPB. Twenty out of 105 men (19.05%) acquired new bacteria in their naïve prostates after TRPB. Except for one single case of Escherichia coli infection, 19 men had acquired gram-positive bacteria species. Between the culture-positive and negative groups, there were no significant differences in age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, white blood cell (WBC) counts in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), prostate volume, symptom severities in Korean version of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) questionnaire, and patient-specific risk factors for biopsy associated infectious complications. Additionally, the TRPB procedure increased the WBC counts in post-biopsy EPS ( P = 0.031, McNemar test), but did not increase the serum PSA level and symptoms of NIH-CPSI in 20 men who acquired new bacteria after TRPB. The TRPB procedure was significantly associated with acquiring new bacterial infections in the biopsied prostate, but these localized bacteria did not affect patients' serum PSA level and symptoms after biopsy.

  1. Urinary tract infection during pregnancy: current concepts on a common multifaceted problem.

    PubMed

    Kalinderi, Kallirhoe; Delkos, Dimitrios; Kalinderis, Michail; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis

    2018-02-06

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection in pregnancy, increasing the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Urinary tract infections may present as asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis or pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen associated with both symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria. If asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated, up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis, with an increased risk of multiple maternal and neonatal complications, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Urinary tract infection is a common, but preventable cause of pregnancy complications, thus urinary tests, such as urine culture or new technologies such as high-throughput DNA sequence-based analyses, should be used in order to improve antenatal screening of pregnant women.

  2. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of... antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), impetigo...

  3. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances Post-Infection Sleep and Promotes Survival during Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264

  4. Detection of bacterial infection with a fiber optic microendoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufti, Nooman; Kong, Ying; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2011-07-01

    We present the use of fiber optic microendoscopy to image bacterial infection in the skin and lungs using an animal model. The contact probe microendoscope we have constructed has a 4 μm resolution, a 750 μm field of view, and a 1 mm outer diameter. Well resolved regions of bacterial infection were imaged for subcutaneous inocula of 106 to 101 CFU and intra-tracheal inocula of 108 to 106 CFU. Results reveal a linear relationship between average fluorescence and CFU, suggesting potential for using this device for quantitative analysis. Detection limits of 104 CFU for skin samples and 107 CFU for lung tissue were determined. In addition, bacteria were also qualitatively visible in lung tissue down to 106 CFU. Confocal imaging was used to confirm the presence of bacteria in tissue samples.

  5. Bacterial and cellular RNAs at work during Listeria infection.

    PubMed

    Sesto, Nina; Koutero, Mikael; Cossart, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that can enter and invade host cells. In the course of its infection, RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms provide a fast and versatile response for both the bacterium and the host. They regulate a variety of processes, such as environment sensing and virulence in pathogenic bacteria, as well as development, cellular differentiation, metabolism and immune responses in eukaryotic cells. The aim of this article is to summarize first the RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms that play a role in the Listeria lifestyle and in its virulence, and then the host miRNA responses to Listeria infection. Finally, we discuss the potential cross-talk between bacterial RNAs and host RNA regulatory mechanisms as new mechanisms of bacterial virulence.

  6. Experimental Infection of Plants with an Herbivore-Associated Bacterial Endosymbiont Influences Herbivore Host Selection Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Horton, David R.; Munyaneza, Joseph E.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Although bacterial endosymbioses are common among phloeophagous herbivores, little is known regarding the effects of symbionts on herbivore host selection and population dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that plant selection and reproductive performance by a phloem-feeding herbivore (potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli) is mediated by infection of plants with a bacterial endosymbiont. We controlled for the effects of herbivory and endosymbiont infection by exposing potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to psyllids infected with “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” or to uninfected psyllids. We used these treatments as a basis to experimentally test plant volatile emissions, herbivore settling and oviposition preferences, and herbivore population growth. Three important findings emerged: (1) plant volatile profiles differed with respect to both herbivory and herbivory plus endosymbiont infection when compared to undamaged control plants; (2) herbivores initially settled on plants exposed to endosymbiont-infected psyllids but later defected and oviposited primarily on plants exposed only to uninfected psyllids; and (3) plant infection status had little effect on herbivore reproduction, though plant flowering was associated with a 39% reduction in herbivore density on average. Our experiments support the hypothesis that plant infection with endosymbionts alters plant volatile profiles, and infected plants initially recruited herbivores but later repelled them. Also, our findings suggest that the endosymbiont may not place negative selection pressure on its host herbivore in this system, but plant flowering phenology appears correlated with psyllid population performance. PMID:23166641

  7. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ost, Michael; Singh, Anurag; Peschel, Andreas; Mehling, Roman; Rieber, Nikolaus; Hartl, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise monocytic and granulocytic innate immune cells with the capability of suppressing T- and NK-cell responses. While the role of MDSCs has been studied in depth in malignant diseases, the understanding of their regulation and function in infectious disease conditions has just begun to evolve. Here we summarize and discuss the current view how MDSCs participate in bacterial infections and how this knowledge could be exploited for potential future therapeutics. PMID:27066459

  8. Respiratory Infections and Antibiotic Usage in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Johannes M; Grimbacher, Bodo; Workman, Sarita; Haque, Tanzina; Seneviratne, Suranjith L; Burns, Siobhan O; Reiser, Veronika; Vach, Werner; Hurst, John R; Lowe, David M

    Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer frequent respiratory tract infections despite immunoglobulin replacement and are prescribed significant quantities of antibiotics. The clinical and microbiological nature of these exacerbations, the symptomatic triggers to take antibiotics, and the response to treatment have not been previously investigated. To describe the nature, frequency, treatment, and clinical course of respiratory tract exacerbations in patients with CVID and to describe pathogens isolated during respiratory tract exacerbations. We performed a prospective diary card exercise in 69 patients with CVID recruited from a primary immunodeficiency clinic in the United Kingdom, generating 6210 days of symptom data. We collected microbiology (sputum microscopy and culture, atypical bacterial PCR, and mycobacterial culture) and virology (nasopharyngeal swab multiplex PCR) samples from symptomatic patients with CVID. There were 170 symptomatic exacerbations and 76 exacerbations treated by antibiotics. The strongest symptomatic predictors for commencing antibiotics were cough, shortness of breath, and purulent sputum. There was a median delay of 5 days from the onset of symptoms to commencing antibiotics. Episodes characterized by purulent sputum responded more quickly to antibiotics, whereas sore throat and upper respiratory tract symptoms responded less quickly. A pathogenic virus was isolated in 56% of respiratory exacerbations and a potentially pathogenic bacteria in 33%. Patients with CVID delay and avoid treatment of symptomatic respiratory exacerbations, which could result in structural lung damage. However, viruses are commonly represented and illnesses dominated by upper respiratory tract symptoms respond poorly to antibiotics, suggesting that antibiotic usage could be better targeted. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between bacterial infections and blood pressure in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that bacterial infections in pregnancy are related to maternal blood pressure. Bacterial infection was assessed using antibiotic usage as a surrogate and its association with blood pressure in pregnancy tested in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Antibiotic usage in pregnancy was self-reported in questionnaires. Blood pressure measurements at four time points in pregnancy were collected from the hospital notes of 622 women. Using all the available blood pressure readings (adjusted for weeks gestation) antibiotic usage was associated with a higher mean arterial blood pressure across pregnancy: antibiotics used 85(84, 87)mmHg vs. no antibiotics used 83 (83, 84) mmHg (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg, p=9.6×10 -3 , from 621 individuals). Further analysis revealed that antibiotic usage was associated with diastolic (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg; p=7.0×10 -3 ) more than systolic blood pressure (β=1.4(-0.9, 3.7)mmHg; p=0.2). The effect size associated with antibiotic usage appeared to rise slightly after the first trimester. Bacterial infection in pregnancy, as assessed by self-reported antibiotic usage, is associated with small rises in blood pressure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial infections in horses: a retrospective study at the University Equine Clinic of Bern.

    PubMed

    Panchaud, Y; Gerber, V; Rossano, A; Perreten, V

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial infections present a major challenge in equine medicine. Therapy should be based on bacteriological diagnosis to successfully minimize the increasing number of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The present study is a retrospective analysis of bacteriological results from purulent infections in horses admitted at the University Equine Clinic of Bern from 2004 to 2008. From 378 samples analyzed, 557 isolates were identified, of which Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and coliforms were the most common. Special attention was paid to infections with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ST398 and a non-MRSA, multidrug-resistant S. aureus clone ST1 (BERN100). Screening of newly-admitted horses showed that 2.2 % were carriers of MRSA. Consequent hygiene measures taken at the Clinic helped to overcome a MRSA outbreak and decrease the number of MRSA infections.

  11. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed.

  12. Elucidation of Bacterial Pneumonia-Causing Pathogens in Patients with Respiratory Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwa Sik; Kang, Byung Ju; Ra, Seung Won; Seo, Kwang Won; Jegal, Yangjin; Jun, Jae Bum; Jung, Jiwon; Jeong, Joseph; Jeon, Hee Jeong; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Taehoon; Ahn, Jong Joon

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial pneumonia occurring after respiratory viral infection is common. However, the predominant bacterial species causing pneumonia secondary to respiratory viral infections other than influenza remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to know whether the pathogens causing post-viral bacterial pneumonia vary according to the type of respiratory virus. Study subjects were 5,298 patients, who underwent multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses, among who visited the emergency department or outpatient clinic with respiratory symptoms at Ulsan University Hospital between April 2013 and March 2016. The patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 251 clinically significant bacteria were identified in 233 patients with post-viral bacterial pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was the most frequent bacterium in patients aged <16 years, regardless of the preceding virus type (p=0.630). In patients aged ≥16 years, the isolated bacteria varied according to the preceding virus type. The major results were as follows (p<0.001): pneumonia in patients with influenza virus (type A/B), rhinovirus, and human metapneumovirus infections was caused by similar bacteria, and the findings indicated that Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia was very common in these patients. In contrast, coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus infections were associated with pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. The pathogens causing post-viral bacterial pneumonia vary according to the type of preceding respiratory virus. This information could help in selecting empirical antibiotics in patients with post-viral pneumonia. Copyright©2017. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

  13. Elucidation of Bacterial Pneumonia-Causing Pathogens in Patients with Respiratory Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hwa Sik; Kang, Byung Ju; Ra, Seung Won; Seo, Kwang Won; Jegal, Yangjin; Jun, Jae-Bum; Jung, Jiwon; Jeong, Joseph; Jeon, Hee-Jeong; Ahn, Jae-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Background Bacterial pneumonia occurring after respiratory viral infection is common. However, the predominant bacterial species causing pneumonia secondary to respiratory viral infections other than influenza remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to know whether the pathogens causing post-viral bacterial pneumonia vary according to the type of respiratory virus. Methods Study subjects were 5,298 patients, who underwent multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses, among who visited the emergency department or outpatient clinic with respiratory symptoms at Ulsan University Hospital between April 2013 and March 2016. The patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results A total of 251 clinically significant bacteria were identified in 233 patients with post-viral bacterial pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was the most frequent bacterium in patients aged <16 years, regardless of the preceding virus type (p=0.630). In patients aged ≥16 years, the isolated bacteria varied according to the preceding virus type. The major results were as follows (p<0.001): pneumonia in patients with influenza virus (type A/B), rhinovirus, and human metapneumovirus infections was caused by similar bacteria, and the findings indicated that Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia was very common in these patients. In contrast, coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus infections were associated with pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion The pathogens causing post-viral bacterial pneumonia vary according to the type of preceding respiratory virus. This information could help in selecting empirical antibiotics in patients with post-viral pneumonia. PMID:28905531

  14. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in 34 horses.

    PubMed

    Racklyeft, D J; Love, D N

    2000-08-01

    To investigate associations between the bacteriology and aspects of history, clinical presentation, outcome and pathology of lower respiratory tract disease of 34 horses. Detailed aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological investigations were performed on clinical specimens from horses with pneumonia, lung abscessation and necrotic pneumonia with or without pleurisy in an attempt to identify those bacteria that might contribute to the initiation and progression of infection. Bacteria were cultured from 33 of the 34 horses. In ten cases, only aerobic/facultatively anaerobic isolates were cultured while aerobic/facultatively anaerobic bacteria and obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the other 23 cases. Moderate to large numbers of anaerobic bacteria were isolated only when the estimated duration of illness was at least five days. Bacteria were not cultured from 12 of the pleural fluid samples but were always cultured from pulmonary samples (either transtracheal aspirates from live horses or pulmonary lesions at necropsy). Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus was isolated in the three cases where only one bacterial species was cultured. In the other 30 cases, multiple species were isolated. These included most often and in greatest numbers, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, Pasteurellaceae, Escherichia coli, anaerobic cocci, Eubacterium fossor, Bacteroides tectum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Fusobacterium spp, and pigmented members of the genera Prevotella and Porphyromonas. Aerobic/facultatively anaerobic organisms were isolated from 97% of horses, while obligately anaerobic organisms were cultured from 68% of horses. There was no association between the isolation of any specific bacterium and the outcome of disease. However, obligately anaerobic bacteria (such as anaerobic cocci, Bacteroides tectum, P heparinolytica and Fusobacterium spp) and the facultatively anaerobic species Escherichia coli, were recovered more commonly from horses that died or were

  15. Bacterial lysate in the prevention of acute exacerbation of COPD and in respiratory recurrent infections

    PubMed Central

    Braido, F; Tarantini, F; Ghiglione, V; Melioli, G; Canonica, G W

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) represent a serious problem because they are one of the most common cause of human death by infection. The search for the treatment of those diseases has therefore a great importance. In this study we provide an overview of the currently available treatments for RTIs with particular attention to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases exacerbations and recurrent respiratory infections therapy and a description of bacterial lysate action, in particular making reference to the medical literature dealing with its clinical efficacy. Those studies are based on a very large number of clinical trials aimed to evaluate the effects of this drug in maintaining the immune system in a state of alert, and in increasing the defences against microbial infections. From this analysis it comes out that bacterial lysates have a protective effect, which induce a significant reduction of the symptoms related to respiratory infections. Those results could be very interesting also from an economic point of view, because they envisage a reduction in the number of acute exacerbations and a shorter duration of hospitalization. The use of bacterial lysate could therefore represent an important means to achieve an extension of life duration in patients affected by respiratory diseases. PMID:18229572

  16. Role of neutrophil to lymphocyte and monocyte to lymphocyte ratios in the diagnosis of bacterial infection in patients with fever.

    PubMed

    Naess, Are; Nilssen, Siri Saervold; Mo, Reidun; Eide, Geir Egil; Sjursen, Haakon

    2017-06-01

    To study the role of the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte:lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in discriminating between different patient groups hospitalized for fever due to infection and those without infection. For 299 patients admitted to hospital for fever with unknown cause, a number of characteristics including NLR and MLR were recorded. These characteristics were used in a multiple multinomial regression analysis to estimate the probability of a final diagnostic group of bacterial, viral, clinically confirmed, or no infection. Both NLR and MLR significantly predicted final diagnostic group. Being highly correlated, however, both variables could not be retained in the same model. Both variables also interacted significantly with duration of fever. Generally, higher values of NLR and MLR indicated larger probabilities for bacterial infection and low probabilities for viral infection. Patients with septicemia had significantly higher NLR compared to patients with other bacterial infections with fever for less than one week. White blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and C-reactive proteins did not differ significantly between septicemia and the other bacterial infection groups. NLR is a more useful diagnostic tool to identify patients with septicemia than other more commonly used diagnostic blood tests. NLR and MLR may be useful in the diagnosis of bacterial infection among patients hospitalized for fever.

  17. Transcriptional response of Musca domestica larvae to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Li, Xiang; Yang, Xue; Yu, Xue; Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Fengsong; Huang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    The house fly Musca domestica, a cosmopolitan dipteran insect, is a significant vector for human and animal bacterial pathogens, but little is known about its immune response to these pathogens. To address this issue, we inoculated the larvae with a mixture of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and profiled the transcriptome 6, 24, and 48 h thereafter. Many genes known to controlling innate immunity in insects were induced following infection, including genes encoding pattern recognition proteins (PGRPs), various components of the Toll and IMD signaling pathways and of the proPO-activating and redox systems, and multiple antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, we also uncovered a large set of novel immune response genes including two broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides (muscin and domesticin), which might have evolved to adapt to house-fly's unique ecological environments. Finally, genes mediating oxidative phosphorylation were repressed at 48 h post-infection, suggesting disruption of energy homeostasis and mitochondrial function at the late stages of infection. Collectively, our data reveal dynamic changes in gene expression following bacterial infection in the house fly, paving the way for future in-depth analysis of M. domestica's immune system.

  18. Bacterial Infections in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingling; Wu, Tianzhou; Li, Jiang; Li, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a newly recognized clinical syndrome characterized by preexisting chronic liver disease or cirrhosis with organ failure and high 28-day mortality (50-90%). Bacterial infections (BIs) play pivotal roles in the development and progression of ACLF either as a main precipitating event or a specific complication. The main organisms isolated as triggering ACLF are Gram-positive bacteria, followed by Gram-negative bacteria. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections are prevalent infections that trigger and complicate ACLF. Despite appropriate antibiotic treatment, BIs account for poor ACLF outcomes and lead to a worse clinical course and higher intensive care unit admission and short-term mortality. Early diagnosis and novel nonantibiotic methods are highly important for managing BIs. Thus, this review focuses on the epidemiology, prognosis, and diagnosis of and management strategies for BIs in ACLF patients as well as the relationship between BIs and ACLF. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. [Clinical efficacy of flomoxef in neonatal bacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Sakata, H; Hirano, Y; Maruyama, S

    1993-03-01

    One hundred and seventy one neonates were treated with flomoxef (FMOX) and the clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated. The ages of the patients ranged from 0 to 28 days, and their body weights from 450 to 4300 g. Dose levels were 12.4 to 24.9 mg/kg every 8 or 12 hours for 1 to 10 days. Fifty two patients who responded to the FMOX treatment included 5 neonates with sepsis, 17 with suspected sepsis, 9 with urinary tract infections, 12 with pneumonia, 8 with intrauterine infections, and 1 with omphalitis. The other neonates could not be retrospectively diagnosed as bacterial infections. Of 52 patients, clinical results were excellent in 15, good in 34, fair in 1, and poor in 2. And the FMOX treatment was effective in 13 out of 14 patients in which causative bacteria were identified. The drug was well tolerated, but 6 neonates out of 33 over 5 days old had diarrhea. From these results, empiric treatment with FMOX against neonatal bacterial infection was as clinically useful as that of combination with ampicillin and gentamicin or cefotaxime and ampicillin in our neonatal intensive care unit. But, as this study did not include neonate with meningitis, efficacy to meningitis was not evaluated.

  20. Role of Honey in Topical and Systemic Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Barkaat

    2018-01-01

    The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections. The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections. In addition, contemporary testing methods for evaluating peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey were also critically appraised. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Pub Med, reference lists and databases were used to review the literature. Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is not the most appropriate and sensitive assay as it only detects non-peroxide activity when present at a higher level. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive techniques that may be capable of detecting and evaluating different important components in honey as

  1. Classification and possible bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China: A cross-sectional and multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhou, Ping; Shen, Yi-Wei

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the classification and bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China.To investigate the prevalence of eczema and dermatitis in outpatients of dermatology clinics in China, examine classification and proportion of common types of dermatitis and the possible bacterial infection, and analyze the possible related factors.Outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in mainland China from July 1 to September 30, 2014, were enrolled in this cross-sectional and multicenter study. Among 9393 enrolled outpatients, 636 patients (6.7%) were excluded because of incomplete information.The leading subtypes of dermatitis were unclassified eczema (35.5%), atopic dermatitis (13.4%), irritant dermatitis (9.2%), and widespread eczema (8.7%). Total bacterial infection rate was 52.3%, with widespread eczema, stasis dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis being the leading three (65.7%, 61.8%, and 61.4%, respectively). Clinically very likely bacterial infection has a significant positive correlation with disease duration, history of allergic disease, history of flexion dermatitis, and severe itching.Atopic dermatitis has become a common subtype of dermatitis in China. Secondary bacterial infection is common in all patients with dermatitis, and more attentions should be paid on this issue in other type of dermatitis apart from atopic dermatitis.

  2. Cranberry juice-- a well-characterized folk-remedy against bacterial urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a North-American folk remedy for treating and preventing infection. Research has identified an anti-adhesive mechanism of cranberry-proanthocyanidins that inhibit docking of bacteria on tissues "in vitro". This efficacy mechanism can be traced in the patient's urine following oral intake of cranberry juice. The efficacy of cranberry juice and extracts as a prophylactic agent against recurrent urinary infections is well documented in women. The anti-adhesion effect of cranberry-proanthocyandins can also be applied for treatment of other common diseases of bacterial pathogenesis, e.g. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and dental caries/periodontal disease.

  3. Rapid Detection of Urinary Tract Infections via Bacterial Nuclease Activity.

    PubMed

    Flenker, Katie S; Burghardt, Elliot L; Dutta, Nirmal; Burns, William J; Grover, Julia M; Kenkel, Elizabeth J; Weaver, Tyler M; Mills, James; Kim, Hyeon; Huang, Lingyan; Owczarzy, Richard; Musselman, Catherine A; Behlke, Mark A; Ford, Bradley; McNamara, James O

    2017-06-07

    Rapid and accurate bacterial detection methods are needed for clinical diagnostic, water, and food testing applications. The wide diversity of bacterial nucleases provides a rich source of enzymes that could be exploited as signal amplifying biomarkers to enable rapid, selective detection of bacterial species. With the exception of the use of micrococcal nuclease activity to detect Staphylococcus aureus, rapid methods that detect bacterial pathogens via their nuclease activities have not been developed. Here, we identify endonuclease I as a robust biomarker for E. coli and develop a rapid ultrasensitive assay that detects its activity. Comparison of nuclease activities of wild-type and nuclease-knockout E. coli clones revealed that endonuclease I is the predominant DNase in E. coli lysates. Endonuclease I is detectable by immunoblot and activity assays in uropathogenic E. coli strains. A rapid assay that detects endonuclease I activity in patient urine with an oligonucleotide probe exhibited substantially higher sensitivity for urinary tract infections than that reported for rapid urinalysis methods. The 3 hr turnaround time is much shorter than that of culture-based methods, thereby providing a means for expedited administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. We suggest this approach could address various unmet needs for rapid detection of E. coli. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrastructure of Bacterial Cells Infected with Bacteriophage PM2, a Lipid-containing Bacterial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cota-Robles, Eugene; Espejo, Romilio Torres; Haywood, Patricia Williams

    1968-01-01

    The cytological pattern of infection of a host pseudomonad with PM2, a lipid-containing bacterial virus, was investigated by electron microscopy. Normal and infected cells frequently contain a myelin figure, which is found in the nucleoid region or at the periphery of the cell. The most striking finding in this investigation was that completed virions are found in the cell adjacent to or in association with the cytoplasmic membrane. This localization is precise; virions are not found elsewhere in infected cells. The completed virions occasionally appear to be attached to the cytoplasmic membrane. The virus contains a darkly staining core surrounded by a tripartite envelope of a thickness of approximately 70 A, which is identical to the thickness of the cytoplasmic membrane. Lysing cells appear to undergo extensive damage of the cytoplasmic membrane prior to rupture of the L layer of the cell wall. Images PMID:5742028

  5. Nanosized Selenium: A Novel Platform Technology to Prevent Bacterial Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi

    As an important category of bacterial infections, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are considered an increasing threat to the safety and health of patients worldwide. HAIs lead to extended hospital stays, contribute to increased medical costs, and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the United States, infections encountered in the hospital or a health care facility affect more than 1.7 million patients, cost 35.7 billion to 45 billion, and contribute to 88,000 deaths in hospitals annually. The most conventional and widely accepted method to fight against bacterial infections is using antibiotics. However, because of the widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics, many strains of bacteria have rapidly developed antibiotic resistance. Those new, stronger bacteria pose serious, worldwide threats to public health and welfare. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported antibiotic resistance as a global serious threat that is no longer a prediction for the future but is now reality. It has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. The most effective strategy to prevent antibiotic resistance is minimizing the use of antibiotics. In recent years, nanomaterials have been investigated as one of the potential substitutes of antibiotics. As a result of their vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume, nanomaterials will likely exert a stronger interaction with bacteria which may affect bacterial growth and propagation. A major concern of most existing antibacterial nanomaterials, like silver nanoparticles, is their potential toxicity. But selenium is a non-metallic material and a required nutrition for the human body, which is recommended by the FDA at a 53 to 60 μg daily intake. Nanosized selenium is considered to be healthier and less toxic compared with many metal-based nanomaterials due to the generation of reactive oxygen species from metals, especially heavy metals. Therefore, the objectives of

  6. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.

  7. Fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Michihito; Kurashima, Chihiro; Shimbo, Genya; Omura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Miyahara, Kazuro

    2017-06-10

    A three-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat presented for evaluation of weight loss, cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated a thickened pericardium with mild pericardial effusion and a large volume of pleural effusion characterized by exudate. Although the cat was treated with antibiotics, the clinical symptoms did not improve. The cat developed dyspnea and died on day 7. Necropsy revealed a large amount of modified transudates ascites, pleural effusion and markedly dilated pericardium. Histopathological examination revealed severe exudation of fibrin and granulation tissue in a thick layer of the epicardium. The cat was diagnosed with fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection.

  8. Autophagy as a macrophage response to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lan; Devenish, Rodney J; Prescott, Mark

    2012-09-01

    The macrophage is a key component of host defense mechanisms against pathogens. In addition to the phagocytosis of bacteria and secretion of proinflammatory mediators by macrophages, autophagy, a process involved in turnover of cellular material, is a recently identified component of the immune response to bacterial infection. Despite the bactericidal effect of autophagy, some species of intracellular bacteria are able to survive by using one or more strategies to avoid host autophagic attack. Here, we review the latest findings on the interactions between bacteria and autophagy in macrophages. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Preventing Bacterial Infections using Metal Oxides Nanocoatings on Bone Implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duceac, L. D.; Straticiuc, S.; Hanganu, E.; Stafie, L.; Calin, G.; Gavrilescu, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays bone implant removal is caused by infection that occurs around it possibly acquired after surgery or during hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to reveal some metal oxides applied as coatings on bone implant thus limiting the usual antibiotics-resistant bacteria colonization. Therefore ZnO, TiO2 and CuO were synthesized and structurally and morphologically analized in order to use them as an alternative antimicrobial agents deposited on bone implant. XRD, SEM, and FTIR characterization techniques were used to identify structure and texture of these nanoscaled metal oxides. These metal oxides nanocoatings on implant surface play a big role in preventing bacterial infection and reducing surgical complications.

  10. Coxiella burnetii: host and bacterial responses to infection.

    PubMed

    Waag, David M

    2007-10-16

    Designation as a Category B biothreat agent has propelled Coxiella burnetii from a relatively obscure, underappreciated, "niche" microorganism on the periphery of bacteriology, to one of possibly great consequence if actually used in acts of bioterrorism. Advances in the study of this microorganism proceeded slowly, primarily because of the difficulty in studying this obligate intracellular pathogen that must be manipulated under biosafety level-3 conditions. The dogged determination of past and current C. burnetii researchers and the application of modern immunological and molecular techniques have more clearly defined the host and bacterial response to infection. This review is intended to provide a basic introduction to C. burnetii and Q fever, while emphasizing immunomodulatory properties, both positive and negative, of Q fever vaccines and C. burnetii infections.

  11. Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ze-Qi; Flavin, Michael T; Flavin, John

    2014-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, especially those caused by Gram-negative pathogens, have emerged as one of the world's greatest health threats. The development of novel antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria has, however, stagnated over the last half century. This review provides an overview of recent R&D activities in the search for novel antibiotics against MDR Gram-negatives. It provides emphasis in three key areas. First, the article looks at new analogs of existing antibiotic molecules such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, and aminoglycoside as well as agents against novel bacterial targets such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and peptide deformylase. Second, it also examines alternative strategies to conventional approaches including cationic antimicrobial peptides, siderophores, efflux pump inhibitors, therapeutic antibodies, and renewed interest in abandoned treatments or those with limited indications. Third, the authors aim to provide an update on the current clinical development status for each drug candidate. The traditional analog approach is insufficient to meet the formidable challenge brought forth by MDR superbugs. With the disappointing results of the genomics approach for delivering novel targets and drug candidates, alternative strategies to permeate the bacterial cell membrane, enhance influx, disrupt efflux, and target specific pathogens via therapeutic antibodies are attractive and promising. Coupled with incentivized business models, governmental policies, and a clarified regulatory pathway, it is hoped that the antibiotic pipeline will be filled with an effective armamentarium to safeguard global health.

  12. Viral Infection Sensitizes Human Fetal Membranes to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide by MERTK Inhibition and Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Cross, Sarah N; Potter, Julie A; Aldo, Paulomi; Kwon, Ja Young; Pitruzzello, Mary; Tong, Mancy; Guller, Seth; Rothlin, Carla V; Mor, Gil; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2017-10-15

    Chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of fetal membranes (FMs), and subsequent preterm birth are associated with local infection and inflammation, particularly IL-1β production. Although bacterial infections are commonly identified, other microorganisms may play a role in the pathogenesis. Because viral pandemics, such as influenza, Ebola, and Zika, are becoming more common, and pregnant women are at increased risk for associated complications, this study evaluated the impact that viral infection had on human FM innate immune responses. This study shows that a herpes viral infection of FMs sensitizes the tissue to low levels of bacterial LPS, giving rise to an exaggerated IL-1β response. Using an ex vivo human FM explant system and an in vivo mouse model of pregnancy, we report that the mechanism by which this aggravated inflammation arises is through the inhibition of the TAM receptor, MERTK, and activation of the inflammasome. The TAM receptor ligand, growth arrest specific 6, re-establishes the normal FM response to LPS by restoring and augmenting TAM receptor and ligand expression, as well as by preventing the exacerbated IL-1β processing and secretion. These findings indicate a novel mechanism by which viruses alter normal FM immune responses to bacteria, potentially giving rise to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Skin conditions common to people with HIV infection or AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kalibala, S

    1990-04-01

    The World Health Organization clinical criteria for AIDS diagnosis in Africa include Kaposi's sarcoma, Herpes zoster, Herpes simplex, and pruritic maculopapular rash, which have a predictive value for HIV seropositivity of 71-98%. Skin conditions may be classified as: 1) generalized dermatitis, 2) bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections, and 3) skin tumors. Pruritic maculopapular rash (prurigo) is often the first outward sign of HIV infection. Soothing preparations such as calamine lotion or E45 emollient cream can be applied. Occasionally antihistamine may be necessary, e.g., 10 mg of chlorpheniramine 8 hourly. Skin lesions may become secondarily infected with bacteria; usually Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. Persistent folliculitis or carbuncles should be treated with flucloxacillin 250 mg QDS for 7 days. In HIV/AIDS fungal infections often develop secondary infection. Candidiasis (thrush) is caused by yeasts, mainly Candida albicans and a small percentage by Tolurosis glabrata. Many HIV-infected patients suffer from seborrheic dermatitis. Fungal diseases more typically present as ringworms of the scalp (Tinea capitis). Whitfield's ointment is effective for ringworm. Antifungal creams such as miconazol or clotrimazole and systemic antifungal tablets such as ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole are also effective. Gentian violet lotion twice daily and Acyclovir tablets, 200 mg 5 times daily for 5 days, may help to reduce secondary Herpes simplex infection. HIV has been associated with an increased incidence of Herpes zoster (shingles). It is often necessary to give analgesics like aspirin or paracetamol to control the pain. Gentian violet paint may help to prevent secondary infection. When shingles affects the eye, Acyclovir tablets (800 mg 5 times daily) should be given. Kaposi's sarcoma affects wider age groups, and it is disseminated and more aggressive than the endemic type. Treatment options include radiotherapy and systemic

  14. [Bacterial drug resistance and etiology of non-complicated urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Valencia, Venice; Gallegos-Nava, Selma; Arce-Salinas, C Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is associated with morbidity, mortality, and an increase in cost. Our objective was to assess bacterial resistance from cultures of patients with non-complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). We analyzed antibiotic resistance using the VITEK-II system among patients attending the internal medicine unit with non-complicated UTI. 1,479 urine cultures were performed; we excluded: 98 due to contamination, 924 had no bacterial growth, and 57 had missing data. Among the 404 samples that were positive, 240 were found among out patients and 164 among hospitalized patients. E coli were the most frequent pathogen, followed by Enterococcus, and K pneumonia, in out patients; E coli, P aeruginosa, and fungal infections (23% of cases) in hospitalized patients. Samples with E coli among out patients displayed resistance of 50% to fluoroquinolones and 55% to sulfas. Among hospitalized patients, resistance was observed in 71 and 66% respectively. Resistance to P aeruginosa was 38% for amynoglucosides and carbapenems and 100% for piperacillin; Enterococcus had 50% for fluoroquinolones. E. coli is the most common pathogen among UTI patients. We must adapt guidelines to recommend antibiotics and design a comprehensive control program to reduce the high levels of bacterial antibiotic resistance among our population.

  15. Common Orbital Infections ~ State of the Art ~ Part I

    PubMed Central

    Hamed-Azzam, Shirin; AlHashash, Islam; Briscoe, Daniel; Rose, Geoffrey E; Verity, David H.

    2018-01-01

    Infections of the orbit and periorbita are relatively frequent, and can cause significant local and systemic morbidity. Loss of vision occurs in more than 10% of patients, and systemic sequelae can include meningitis, intracranial abscess, and death. Numerous organisms infect the orbit, but the most common are bacteria. There are many methods through which orbital infections occur, with infection from the neighboring ethmoid sinuses the most likely cause for all age groups. Prompt management is essential in suspected orbital cellulitis, and involves urgent intravenous antibiotics, rehydration, and treatment of any co-existent underlying systemic disease, e.g., diabetes, renal failure. This review summarizes the common infectious processes of the orbit in both pediatric and adult groups. We review pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, and treatment for infectious orbital processes. PMID:29719647

  16. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  17. Observations of Bacterial Behavior during Infection Using the ARGOS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charest, A. J.; Algarni, S.; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2015-03-01

    This research employed the Area Recorded Generalized Optical Scattering (ARGOS) approach which allowed for the observation of bacterial changes in terms of individual particles and population dynamics in real time. This new approach allows for an aqueous environment to be manipulated while conducting time-specific measurements over an indefinite amount of time. This current study provides a more time-specific method in which the bacteria remained within the initial conditions and allows for more time precision than provided by analyzing concentrations of plaque-forming units (PFU). This study involved the bacteria (F-amp) during infection by bacteriophage (MS2). The relative total intensity allows for detailed measurements of the bacteria population over time. The bacteria characteristics were also evaluated such as the root mean square image difference (at specific wavevectors), fractal dimension and effective radius. The growth rate of the infected bacteria occurred at a rate higher than the uninfected bacteria similarly, the death rates were also higher for the infected bacteria than the uninfected bacteria. The present study indicates that bacteria may react to infection by increasing the rate of population growth.

  18. Immunoregulatory and immunostimulatory responses of bacterial lysates in respiratory infections and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Sean Christopher; Dziekiewicz, Marcin; Feleszko, Wojciech

    2015-05-01

    This review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of bacterial lysates, evidence of an induction of innate immunity, and the interaction with immunoregulators, dendritic cells, and regulatory T cells. Clinical relevance is summarized based on the observed mechanisms of action of bacterial lysates. Academic Search Complete, CENTRAL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases. Three independent researchers focused on primary and secondary end points in systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials using bacterial lysates as a verum group or within a subpopulation of larger studies. Interventional and observational studies on novel applications also were included. Preclinical studies included murine models focusing on toll-like receptors (TLRs) and regulatory T cells and on the relation with asthma and respiratory immunity. Bacterial lysates have been observed to induce synergistic TLR-2/6- and TLR-9-dependent innate immunity. It has positive outcomes in decreasing recurrent respiratory tract infections in childhood and adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This class of immunostimulants shows some evidence of mitigating infection morbidity in children and decreasing the frequency of inflammatory episodes (ie, wheezing exacerbations) in children with asthma. Preclinical studies suggest that regulatory T cells can be induced by bacterial lysates and might attenuate T-helper cell type 2 allergic responses. Although successful prevention against all common respiratory pathogens is not possible, bacterial lysates seem capable of targeting specific immunocompetent cells through pathogen recognition receptor activation. Current challenges include clarifying the duality of immunoregulatory and immunostimulatory responses in children at risk for allergy. Larger clinical trials are required to elicit efficacy in allergy prevention. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma

  19. Bacterial infections in HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Archary, Moherndran; Adler, Hugh; La Russa, Philip; Mahabeer, Prasha; Bobat, Raziya A

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial infections in HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) contribute to higher mortality and poorer outcomes. This study describes the spectrum of bacterial infections in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve, HIV-infected children admitted with SAM. Between July 2012 and February 2015, 82 children were prospectively enrolled in the King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. Specimens obtained on and during admission for microbiological evaluation, if clinically indicated, included blood, urine (obtained by catheterisation or suprapubic aspiration), induced sputum and cerebrospinal fluid. All positive bacterial cultures between admission and 30 days after enrollment were documented and characterised into samples taken either within 2 days of admission (infections on admission) or within 2-30 days of admission (hospital-acquired infections, HAIs). On admission, 67% of patients had abnormal white blood cell counts (WBCC) (>12 or <4 × 10 9 /L) and 70% had elevated CRP; 65% were classified as severely immunosuppressed according to the WHO immunological classification. 1 A pathogen was isolated on the admission blood culture in four patients (6%) and in 27% of urine specimens. HAIs were predominately Gram-negative (39/43), and 39.5% were extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive. Mortality was not significantly associated with isolation of a bacterial pathogen. Routine pre-hospital administration of antibiotics as per the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines may be responsible for the low rates of positive admission blood cultures. HAIs with drug-resistant Gram-negative organisms are an area of concern and strategies to improve the prevention of HAIs in this vulnerable population are urgently needed.

  20. Bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pediatric patients with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ayelign, Birhanu; Abebe, Betelehem; Shibeshi, Adugna; Meshesha, Sosina; Shibabaw, Tewodros; Addis, Zelalem; Gelaw, Aschalew; Dagnew, Mulat

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common pediatric problem with the potential to produce long-term morbidity. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis and prompt treatment is required. However, studies about magnitude of uropathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) are lacking in resource limited countries including Ethiopia. This study was aimed to determine bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pediatric patients with UTI. A cross- sectional study was conducted. Pathogenic bacterial isolates were identified by culture and biochemical methods following standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates for commonly used antibiotics was done using the standard disc diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar. Associations between dependent and independent variables were measured using chi-square test and within 95% confidence interval. P values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. A total of 310 pediatric patients were included in the study, and 82 (26.45%) bacterial isolates were detected. Gram- negative bacteria were predominant etiologic agents of UTI in this study. E. coli was the most frequently occurring pathogen (n=45; 54.88%) followed by S. aureus and P.aeruginosa (n=8; 9.75% for both), P. vulgaris , P.aeruginosa (n=4; 4.88%, for both) and Enterococcus species (n=3; 3.66%). All K. pneumoniae , P. mirabilis , and K. ozanae straines were 100% resistance to ampicillin, followed by P. aeruginosa (87.5%) and E. coli (69%). While all Gram- positive bacterial isolates were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Malnutrition, history of catherization and previous history of UTI were independently associated with UTI (p=0.000). There was a high prevalence of uropathogenic bacteria and drug resistance particularly to ampicillin (72%) and tetracycline (37.80%). This condition indicates that antibiotic selection should be based on knowledge of the local prevalence of bacterial

  1. Assessment of materials commonly utilized in health care: implications for bacterial survival and transmission.

    PubMed

    Lankford, Mary G; Collins, Susan; Youngberg, Larry; Rooney, Denise M; Warren, John R; Noskin, Gary A

    2006-06-01

    Contaminated environmental surfaces, equipment, and health care workers' hands have been linked to outbreaks of infection or colonization because of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSAE). Upholstery, walls, and flooring may enhance bacterial survival, providing infectious reservoirs. Investigate recovery of VRE and PSAE, determine efficacy of disinfection, and evaluate VRE transmission from surfaces. Upholstery, flooring, and wall coverings were inoculated with VRE and PSAE and assessed for recovery at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days. Inoculated surfaces were cleaned utilizing manufacturers' recommendations of natural, commercial, or hospital-approved products and methods, and samples were obtained. To assess potential for transmission, volunteers touched VRE-inoculated surfaces and imprinted palms onto contact-impression plates. Twenty-four hours following inoculation, all surfaces had recovery of VRE; 13 (92.9%) of 14 surfaces had persistent PSAE. After cleaning, VRE was recovered from 7 (50%) surfaces, PSAE from 5 (35.7%) surfaces. After inoculation followed by palmar contact, VRE was recovered from all surfaces touched. Bacteria commonly encountered in hospitals are capable of prolonged survival and may promote cross transmission. Selection of surfaces for health care environments should include product application and complexity of manufacturers' recommendations for disinfection. Recovery of organisms on surfaces and hands emphasizes importance of hand hygiene compliance prior to patient contact.

  2. Antimicrobial Nanoparticle for the Treatment of Bacterial Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya

    Liposomes are spherical lipid vesicles with bilayered membrane structure, which have been recognized as one of the most widely used carriers for delivering a myriad of pharmaceuticals. Liposomes can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents with high efficiency and protect them from undesired effects of external conditions. However, the applications of liposomes are usually limited by their instability during storage. They are inclined to fuse with one another immediately after preparation, resulting in undesired mixing, increase in size, and payload loss. To overcome this limitation, this dissertation will focus on the technology to stabilize liposomes during storage and destabilize at specific conditions in order to allow controllable therapeutic release, as well as demonstrate their application to treat one of the bacterial infection diseases, acne vulgaris. The first area of this research is stimuli-responsive liposomes development, where the liposomes are stabilized by introducing gold nanoparticles to adsorb to their surface. As a result, the liposomes are prevented from fusing with one another and undesirable payload release during storage or physiological environments. Moreover, therapeutic is controllably released depending on environment conditions, such as acidic pH and bacterial virulence factor. In case of acid-responsive liposomes, the bound gold nanoparticles can effectively prevent liposomes from fusing with one another at neutral pH value, while at acidic environment (e.g. pH<5), the gold particle stabilizers will fall off from the liposomes, thereby reinstalling the fusion activity of liposomes. The fusion activity of the stabilized liposomes is found to be 25% at pH=7, in contrast to 80% at pH=4. Another stimulus that can activate drug release from liposomes is virulence factor released from bacteria themselves, such as bacterial toxin. When nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes encounter with bacteria that secrete toxin, the toxin will insert

  3. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection.

  4. Acute bacterial skin infections in pediatric medicine: current issues in presentation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, James

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial skin and skin structure infections commonly encountered in children include impetigo, folliculitis, furunculosis, carbuncles, wound infections, abscesses, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, acute paronychia, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. If diagnosed early and treated appropriately, these infections are almost always curable, but some have the potential to cause serious complications such as septicemia, nephritis, carditis and arthritis if diagnosis is delayed and/or treatment is inadequate. During the initial evaluation, it is important to determine whether the infection is superficial or deep, and whether it is localized or spreading. Prompt treatment is essential if the infection appears to be spreading, as the sequelae can be life threatening. Once the proper diagnosis is made, the next important step is selecting the most appropriate therapy. In children presenting with mild or moderately severe bacterial skin and skin structure infections and not requiring inpatient management or urgent operative débridement, prompt provision of oral antimicrobial therapy avoids the risk of worsening infection or hospitalization. Empiric antimicrobial therapy should be directed at the most likely pathogens, (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes), although some infections (e.g. subcutaneous abscesses and cellulitis following animal or human bites) may have a polymicrobial origin. In choosing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy, one must take into account the resistance profile of the target pathogen, the agent's antibacterial profile and intrinsic activity against the target pathogen, and its pharmacokinetic properties (including absorption, elimination, and extent of tissue penetration). Other factors to consider include tolerability of the drug, convenience of the dosing regimen, and acceptability and palatability of the oral formulation administered. Any treatment plan for bacterial skin and skin structure infections should aim

  5. THE ETIOLOGY OF ACUTE UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION (COMMON COLD)

    PubMed Central

    Long, Perrin H.; Doull, James A.; Bourn, Janet M.; McComb, Emily

    1931-01-01

    Experimental upper respiratory infections similar to "common colds" were transmitted singly and in series through two and four passages in nine out of fifteen persons, by intransal inoculations with bacteria-free filtrates of nasopharyngeal washings obtained from individuals ill with natural "colds." These observations conform with those reported by previous workers and lend further support to the view that the incitant of the "common cold" is a filtrable virus. PMID:19869857

  6. Infection of endothelial cells by common human viruses.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H M

    1989-01-01

    Common human viruses were evaluated for their ability to replicate in the endothelial cells of human umbilical vein and bovine thoracic aorta in vitro. Infection occurred with most viruses. The susceptibilities of endothelial cells derived from bovine aorta, pulmonary artery, and vena cava were compared. Among the viruses studied, no differences were noted in the ability to grow in endothelial cells from these three large vessels. One virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, was evaluated for its ability to produce persistent infection of endothelial cells. Infection developed and persisted for up to 3 months. After the first week, productive infection was found in less than 1% of cells. Nevertheless, the infection markedly affected the growth and morphology of the endothelial monolayer. Infection with any of several different viruses was noted to alter endothelial cell functions, including adherence of granulocytes, production of colony-stimulating factor, and synthesis of matrix protein. In addition, herpes simplex virus type 1 induced receptors for the Fc portion of IgG and for complement component C3b. These findings indicate that common human viruses can profoundly affect the biology of the endothelium.

  7. Common Child and Adolescent Cutaneous Infestations and Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Alter, Sherman J; McDonald, Megan B; Schloemer, Julie; Simon, Ryan; Trevino, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Cutaneous infections and infestations are common among children and adolescents. Ectoparasitic infestations affect individuals across the globe. Head lice, body lice, scabies, and infestations with bed bugs are seen in individuals who reside in both resource poor areas and in developed countries. Superficial cutaneous and mucosal candida infections occur throughout the life cycle. Dermatophyte infections of keratin-containing skin and skin structures result in tinea capitis (scalp), tinea corporis (body), tinea pedis (foot), and tinea unguium (nails). Less frequent endemic fungal infections such as blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, and histoplasmosis may present with skin findings. This article will describe the epidemiology and transmission of these conditions as well as their clinical manifestations. The approach to diagnosis will be addressed as well as primary prevention and current therapies. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Bacterial biofilm as a cause of urinary tract infection--pathogens, methods of prevention and eradication].

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Kinga; Strzelczyk, Aleksandra; Różalski, Antoni; Stączek, Paweł

    2013-10-25

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the common chronic and recurrent bacterial infections. Uropathogens which are able to form biofilm constitute a major etiological factor in UTI, especially among elder patients who are subject to long-term catheterization. It is caused by the capacity of the microorganisms for efficient and permanent colonization of tissues and also adhesion to diverse polymers used for urological catheter production such as propylene, polystyrene, silicone, polyvinyl chloride or silicone coated latex. Antibiotic therapy is the most common treatment for UTI. Fluoroquinolones, nitrofurans, beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim and sulfonamides are used predominantly. However, the biofilm due to its complex structure constitutes an effective barrier to the antibiotics used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. In addition, the growing number of multidrug resistant strains limits the usage of many of the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, it seems important to search for new methods of treatment such as coating of catheters with non-pathogenic E. coli strains, the design of vaccines against fimbrial adhesive proteins of the bacterial cells or the use of bacteriophages.

  9. Differences of serum procalcitonin levels between bacterial infection and flare in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, J.; Marpaung, B.; Ginting, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Differentiate bacterial infections from flare in SLE patients is difficult to do because clinical symptoms of infection is similar to flare. SLE patients with infection require antibiotic therapy with decreased doses of immunosuppressant while in flare diseases require increased immunosuppressant. Procalcitonin (PCT), a biological marker, increased in serum patients with bacterial infections and expected to be a solution of problem. The aim of this study was to examine the function of PCT serum as marker to differentiate bacterial infection and flare in SLE patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital from January-July 2017. We examined 80 patients SLE flare (MEX-SLEDAI>5), screen PCT and culture according to focal infection. Data were statistically analyzed. 80 SLE patients divided into 2 groups: bacterial infection group (31 patients) and non-infection/flare group (49 patients). Median PCT levels of bacterial infection group was 1.66 (0.04-8.45)ng/ml while flare group was 0.12 (0.02-0.81)ng/ml. There was significant difference of serum Procalcitonin level between bacterial infection and flare group in SLE patients (p=0.001). Procalcitonin serum levels can be used as a biomarker to differentiate bacterial infections and flare in SLE patients.

  10. Animals devoid of pulmonary system as infection models in the study of lung bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    López Hernández, Yamilé; Yero, Daniel; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M.; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Biological disease models can be difficult and costly to develop and use on a routine basis. Particularly, in vivo lung infection models performed to study lung pathologies use to be laborious, demand a great time and commonly are associated with ethical issues. When infections in experimental animals are used, they need to be refined, defined, and validated for their intended purpose. Therefore, alternative and easy to handle models of experimental infections are still needed to test the virulence of bacterial lung pathogens. Because non-mammalian models have less ethical and cost constraints as a subjects for experimentation, in some cases would be appropriated to include these models as valuable tools to explore host–pathogen interactions. Numerous scientific data have been argued to the more extensive use of several kinds of alternative models, such as, the vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio), and non-vertebrate insects and nematodes (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans) in the study of diverse infectious agents that affect humans. Here, we review the use of these vertebrate and non-vertebrate models in the study of bacterial agents, which are considered the principal causes of lung injury. Curiously none of these animals have a respiratory system as in air-breathing vertebrates, where respiration takes place in lungs. Despite this fact, with the present review we sought to provide elements in favor of the use of these alternative animal models of infection to reveal the molecular signatures of host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25699030

  11. Prevention and cure of systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by modification of the bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Naseem; Redpath, Maria B; Luzio, J Paul; Taylor, Peter W

    2004-05-01

    Escherichia coli is a common cause of meningitis and sepsis in the newborn infant, and the large majority of isolates from these infections produce a polysialic acid (PSA) capsular polysaccharide, the K1 antigen, that protects the bacterial cell from immune attack. We determined whether a capsule-depolymerizing enzyme, by removing this protective barrier, could alter the outcome of systemic infection in an animal model. Bacteriophage-derived endosialidase E (endoE) selectively degrades the PSA capsule on the surface of E. coli K1 strains. Intraperitoneal administration of small quantities of recombinant endoE (20 micro g) to 3-day-old rats, colonized with a virulent strain of K1, prevented bacteremia and death from systemic infection. The enzyme had no effect on the viability of E. coli strains but sensitized strains expressing PSA to killing by the complement system. This study demonstrates the potential therapeutic efficacy of agents that cure infections by modification of the bacterial phenotype rather than by killing or inhibition of growth of the pathogen.

  12. Towards rational treatment of bacterial infections during extended space travel.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter W; Sommer, Andrei P

    2005-09-01

    In the next 15-30 years, manned space flight to Mars, our planetary neighbour, will become a reality and astronauts are likely to spend at least 2-3 years away from Earth. Time spent in such extreme environments will result in a diminution of immune status and profound changes in the human bacterial microflora. In microgravity, the efficacy of antibiotics is reduced and microbial mutation rates increase dramatically. These factors will impinge on the capacity to treat effectively the infections that will doubtless arise during such long and stressful endeavour. We highlight new rationales for the treatment of infectious disease that may be applicable to therapy in extreme environments such as deep space.

  13. Repurposing Toremifene for Treatment of Oral Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Gerits, Evelien; Defraine, Valerie; Vandamme, Katleen; De Cremer, Kaat; De Brucker, Katrijn; Thevissen, Karin; Cammue, Bruno P A; Beullens, Serge; Fauvart, Maarten; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan

    2017-03-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistance and the challenges associated with antiseptics such as chlorhexidine have necessitated a search for new antibacterial agents against oral bacterial pathogens. As a result of failing traditional approaches, drug repurposing has emerged as a novel paradigm to find new antibacterial agents. In this study, we examined the effects of the FDA-approved anticancer agent toremifene against the oral bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans We found that the drug was able to inhibit the growth of both pathogens, as well as prevent biofilm formation, at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 25 μM. Moreover, toremifene was shown to eradicate preformed biofilms at concentrations ranging from 25 to 50 μM. In addition, we found that toremifene prevents P. gingivalis and S. mutans biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. A time-kill study indicated that toremifene is bactericidal against S. mutans Macromolecular synthesis assays revealed that treatment with toremifene does not cause preferential inhibition of DNA, RNA, or protein synthesis pathways, indicating membrane-damaging activity. Biophysical studies using fluorescent probes and fluorescence microscopy further confirmed the membrane-damaging mode of action. Taken together, our results suggest that the anticancer agent toremifene is a suitable candidate for further investigation for the development of new treatment strategies for oral bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. [Bacterial culture and drug sensitivity analysis of upper urinary tract calculi complicating with infection].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Shi, Yong-kang; Huang, Xiao-bo; Ma, Kai; Xu, Qing-quan; Xiong, Lin-lin; Li, Jian-xing; Wang, Xia-feng

    2014-10-18

    To investigate the bacteriology and drug sensitivity of upper urinary tract calculi patients, and to provide information for choosing suitable antibiotics. In the study, 21 patients who suffered from lithiasis in upper urinary tract and required an emergency drainage for acute obstruction and infection were the "acute group"; 64 patients with calculi in upper urinary tract and accompanied with no infectious symptoms were the "common group". The bacteriology and drug sensitivity of the two groups were investigated. Gram-negative bacteria infected the most common of upper urinary tract calculi patients with infection, accounting for 71.4% in the acute group and 65.7% in the common group, among which Escherichia coli were the predominant ones (35.7% in the acute group and 32.9% in the common group). No difference was found between these two groups in bacterial distribution (P>0.05). Although the average drug resistance rate of Gram-negative bacteria in the acute group was higher than that in the common group, it revealed no significant difference (P>0.05). The drug resistance rate to semisynthetic penicillin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone were more than 50%, 60%, and 50%, respectively. Quinolones, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, got a 45% drug resistance. Aminoglycoside, carbapenema were sensitive to Gram-negative bacteria. Cefoperazone/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam were more effective than ceftriaxone and piperacillin, respectively. There was no significant difference between upper urinary tract calculi patients with acute infection and common infection in bacteriology and drug sensitivity. Semisynthetic penicillin, the second generation of cephalosporin and quinolone were no longer the good choices of empirical use. Antibiotics combined with β-lactamase inhibitors would be an ideal empirical therapeutic choice.

  15. Healthcare-associated viral and bacterial infections in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; Kistler, J.O.; Belibasakis, G.N.; Välimaa, H.; de Soet, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infection prevention in dentistry is an important topic that has gained more interest in recent years and guidelines for the prevention of cross-transmission are common practice in many countries. However, little is known about the real risks of cross-transmission, specifically in the dental healthcare setting. This paper evaluated the literature to determine the risk of cross-transmission and infection of viruses and bacteria that are of particular relevance in the dental practice environment. Facts from the literature on HSV, VZV, HIV, Hepatitis B, C and D viruses, Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Legionella spp. and multi-resistant bacteria are presented. There is evidence that Hepatitis B virus is a real threat for cross-infection in dentistry. Data for the transmission of, and infection with, other viruses or bacteria in dental practice are scarce. However, a number of cases are probably not acknowledged by patients, healthcare workers and authorities. Furthermore, cross-transmission in dentistry is under-reported in the literature. For the above reasons, the real risks of cross-transmission are likely to be higher. There is therefore a need for prospective longitudinal research in this area, to determine the real risks of cross-infection in dentistry. This will assist the adoption of effective hygiene procedures in dental practice. PMID:22701774

  16. Bacterial RecA Protein Promotes Adenoviral Recombination during In Vitro Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Yoon; Lee, Ji Sun; Materne, Emma C.; Rajala, Rahul; Ismail, Ashrafali M.; Seto, Donald; Dyer, David W.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenovirus infections in humans are common and sometimes lethal. Adenovirus-derived vectors are also commonly chosen for gene therapy in human clinical trials. We have shown in previous work that homologous recombination between adenoviral genomes of human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D), the largest and fastest growing HAdV species, is responsible for the rapid evolution of this species. Because adenovirus infection initiates in mucosal epithelia, particularly at the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary, and ocular surfaces, we sought to determine a possible role for mucosal microbiota in adenovirus genome diversity. By analysis of known recombination hot spots across 38 human adenovirus genomes in species D (HAdV-D), we identified nucleotide sequence motifs similar to bacterial Chi sequences, which facilitate homologous recombination in the presence of bacterial Rec enzymes. These motifs, referred to here as ChiAD, were identified immediately 5′ to the sequence encoding penton base hypervariable loop 2, which expresses the arginine-glycine-aspartate moiety critical to adenoviral cellular entry. Coinfection with two HAdV-Ds in the presence of an Escherichia coli lysate increased recombination; this was blocked in a RecA mutant strain, E. coli DH5α, or upon RecA depletion. Recombination increased in the presence of E. coli lysate despite a general reduction in viral replication. RecA colocalized with viral DNA in HAdV-D-infected cell nuclei and was shown to bind specifically to ChiAD sequences. These results indicate that adenoviruses may repurpose bacterial recombination machinery, a sharing of evolutionary mechanisms across a diverse microbiota, and unique example of viral commensalism. IMPORTANCE Adenoviruses are common human mucosal pathogens of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts and ocular surface. Here, we report finding Chi-like sequences in adenovirus recombination hot spots. Adenovirus coinfection in the

  17. Clinical significance of the infection-free interval in the management of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Chodosh, Sanford

    2005-06-01

    Rational and appropriate antibiotic use for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is a major concern, as approximately half of these patients do not have a bacterial infection. Typically, the result of antimicrobial therapy for patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB) is not eradication of the pathogen but resolution of the acute symptoms. However, the length of time before the next bacterial exacerbation can be another important variable, as the frequency of exacerbations will affect the overall health of the patient and the rate of lung deterioration over time. Clinical trials comparing antimicrobial therapies commonly measure resolution of symptoms in AECB patients as the primary end point, regardless of whether the exacerbation is documented as bacterial in nature. Ideally, the scientific approach to assessing the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for ABECB should include a measurement of acute bacterial eradication rates in patients with documented bronchial bacterial infection followed by measurement of the infection-free interval (IFI), ie, the time to the next ABECB. The use of these variables can provide a standard for comparing various antimicrobial therapies. As we learn more about how antibiotics can affect the IFI, treatment decisions should be adapted to ensure optimal management of ABECB for the long-term.

  18. Differences in Bacterial Colonization and Biofilm Formation Property of Uropathogens between the Two most Commonly used Indwelling Urinary Catheters.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit; Bhani, Deepa; Tomar, Vinay; Bachhiwal, Rekha; Yadav, Shersingh

    2016-06-01

    Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) are one of the most common cause of nosocomial infections. Many bacterial species show biofilm production, which provides survival benefit to them by providing protection from environmental stresses and causing decreased susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Two most common types of catheters used in our setup are pure silicone catheter and silicone coated latex catheter. The advantage of pure silicone catheter for long term catheterization is well established. But there is still a controversy about any advantage of the silicone catheter regarding bacterial colonization rates and their biofilm production property. The aim of our study was to compare the bacterial colonization and the biofilm formation property of the colonizing bacteria in patients with indwelling pure silicone and silicone coated latex catheters. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Urology Department of our institute. Patients who needed catheterization for more than 5 days during the period July 2015 to January 2016 and had sterile precatheterisation urine were included in the study. Patients were grouped into 2 groups of 50 patients each, Group A with the pure silicone catheter and Group B with the silicone coated latex catheter. Urine culture was done on the 6(th) day of indwelling urinary catheter drainage. If growth was detected, then that bacterium was tested for biofilm production property by tissue culture plate method. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science Version 22 (SPSS-22). After 5 days of indwelling catheterization, the pure silicone catheter had significantly less bacterial colonization than the silicone coated latex catheter (p-value=0.03) and the biofilm forming property of colonizing bacteria was also significantly less in the pure silicone catheter as compared to the silicone coated latex catheter (p-value=0.02). There were no significant differences in

  19. Diagnosis of primary antibody and complement deficiencies in young adults after a first invasive bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Sanges, S; Wallet, F; Blondiaux, N; Theis, D; Vérin, I; Vachée, A; Dessein, R; Faure, K; Viget, N; Senneville, E; Leroy, O; Maury, F; Just, N; Poissy, J; Mathieu, D; Prévotat, A; Chenivesse, C; Scherpereel, A; Smith, G; Lopez, B; Rosain, J; Frémeaux-Bacchi, V; Hachulla, E; Hatron, P-Y; Bahuaud, M; Batteux, F; Launay, D; Labalette, M; Lefèvre, G

    2017-08-01

    Screening for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) in adults is recommended after two severe bacterial infections. We aimed to evaluate if screening should be performed after the first invasive infection in young adults. Eligible patients were retrospectively identified using hospital discharge and bacteriology databases in three centres during a 3-year period. Eighteen to 40-year-old patients were included if they had experienced an invasive infection with encapsulated bacteria commonly encountered in PIDs (Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Neisseria meningitidis (NM), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), or group A Streptococcus (GAS)). They were excluded in case of general or local predisposing factors. Immunological explorations and PIDs diagnoses were retrieved from medical records. Serum complement and IgG/A/M testings were systematically proposed at the time of study to patients with previously incomplete PID screening. The study population comprised 38 patients. Thirty-six had experienced a first invasive episode and a PID was diagnosed in seven (19%): two cases of common variable immunodeficiency revealed by SP bacteraemia, one case of idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinaemia, and two cases of complement (C6 and C7) deficiency revealed by NM meningitis, one case of IgG2/IgG4 subclasses deficiency revealed by GAS bacteraemia, and one case of specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency revealed by HI meningitis. Two patients had previously experienced an invasive infection before the study period: in both cases, a complement deficiency was diagnosed after a second NM meningitis and a second NG bacteraemia, respectively. PID screening should be considered after a first unexplained invasive encapsulated-bacterial infection in young adults. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Infections of the oral mucosa II. Bacterial, mycotic and viral infections].

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A

    1999-11-01

    Non-specific infections of the oral mucosa are rare; however, they may present during HIV infection in the form of gingivo-periodontal lesions. In some of these Candida albicans may play a role in the pathogenesis. Sexually transmitted bacterial infections such as gonorrhoea and syphilis are frequently associated with HIV infection. Since penicillin resistance is frequent in gonorrhoea, the cephalosporines are mainly used for treatment. Syphilis increases the risk for transmission of HIV. Lues maligna with oral manifestations has been described. For this, penicillin G is the therapy of choice. Tuberculosis, characterized by multitherapy resistance, is associated with HIV infections world-wide; oral manifestations are rare. Oral candidiasis during HIV infection is often characterized by therapy resistance against fluconazole and a shift in species, with Candida glabrata and Candida krusei as the emerging species. The azoles are still the mainstay of therapy, particularly fluconazole. Herpes simplex (HSV) infections run an atypical course during HIV disease; resistance against acyclovir is a clinical problem. The association of HSV infection with erythema exudativum multiforme has been clearly shown. Oral hairy leukoplakia caused by Epstein Barr virus is a characteristic infection during immunosuppression. Cytomegalovirus infection is also observed in immunodeficient patients. Cases of ganciclovir resistance have been described. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV 8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. Therapeutic trials have focussed on the inhibition of HHV 8 replication. Over 100 different genotypes of human papillomaviruses are known; some can cause infections of the oral mucosa. Characteristic lesions caused by different HPV genotypes are verruca vulgaris, condyloma acuminatum and focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  1. Dissection of Host Susceptibility to Bacterial Infections and Its Toxins.

    PubMed

    Nashef, Aysar; Agbaria, Mahmoud; Shusterman, Ariel; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Wiess, Ervin; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Iraqi, Fuad A

    2017-01-01

    Infection is one of the leading causes of human mortality and morbidity. Exposure to microbial agents is obviously required. However, also non-microbial environmental and host factors play a key role in the onset, development and outcome of infectious disease, resulting in large of clinical variability between individuals in a population infected with the same microbe. Controlled and standardized investigations of the genetics of susceptibility to infectious disease are almost impossible to perform in humans whereas mouse models allow application of powerful genomic techniques to identify and validate causative genes underlying human diseases with complex etiologies. Most of current animal models used in complex traits diseases genetic mapping have limited genetic diversity. This limitation impedes the ability to create incorporated network using genetic interactions, epigenetics, environmental factors, microbiota, and other phenotypes. A novel mouse genetic reference population for high-resolution mapping and subsequently identifying genes underlying the QTL, namely the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse genetic reference population (GRP) was recently developed. In this chapter, we discuss a variety of approaches using CC mice for mapping genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL) to dissect the host response to polygenic traits, including infectious disease caused by bacterial agents and its toxins.

  2. Dietary selenium in adjuvant therapy of viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Wunderlich, Frank; Sies, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Viral and bacterial infections are often associated with deficiencies in macronutrients and micronutrients, including the essential trace element selenium. In selenium deficiency, benign strains of Coxsackie and influenza viruses can mutate to highly pathogenic strains. Dietary supplementation to provide adequate or supranutritional selenium supply has been proposed to confer health benefits for patients suffering from some viral diseases, most notably with respect to HIV and influenza A virus (IAV) infections. In addition, selenium-containing multimicronutrient supplements improved several clinical and lifestyle variables in patients coinfected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Selenium status may affect the function of cells of both adaptive and innate immunity. Supranutritional selenium promotes proliferation and favors differentiation of naive CD4-positive T lymphocytes toward T helper 1 cells, thus supporting the acute cellular immune response, whereas excessive activation of the immune system and ensuing host tissue damage are counteracted through directing macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. This review provides an up-to-date overview on selenium in infectious diseases caused by viruses (e.g., HIV, IAV, hepatitis C virus, poliovirus, West Nile virus) and bacteria (e.g., M. tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori). Data from epidemiologic studies and intervention trials, with selenium alone or in combination with other micronutrients, and animal experiments are discussed against the background of dietary selenium requirements to alter immune functions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Infection of an Insect Vector with a Bacterial Plant Pathogen Increases Its Propensity for Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Coy, Monique R.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of vector-transmitted pathogens relies on complex interactions between host, vector and pathogen. In sessile plant pathosystems, the spread of a pathogen highly depends on the movement and mobility of the vector. However, questions remain as to whether and how pathogen-induced vector manipulations may affect the spread of a plant pathogen. Here we report for the first time that infection with a bacterial plant pathogen increases the probability of vector dispersal, and that such movement of vectors is likely manipulated by a bacterial plant pathogen. We investigated how Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) affects dispersal behavior, flight capacity, and the sexual attraction of its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). CLas is the putative causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), which is a disease that threatens the viability of commercial citrus production worldwide. When D. citri developed on CLas-infected plants, short distance dispersal of male D. citri was greater compared to counterparts reared on uninfected plants. Flight by CLas-infected D. citri was initiated earlier and long flight events were more common than by uninfected psyllids, as measured by a flight mill apparatus. Additionally, CLas titers were higher among psyllids that performed long flights than psyllid that performed short flights. Finally, attractiveness of female D. citri that developed on infected plants to male conspecifics increased proportionally with increasing CLas bacterial titers measured within female psyllids. Our study indicates that the phytopathogen, CLas, may manipulate movement and mate selection behavior of their vectors, which is a possible evolved mechanism to promote their own spread. These results have global implications for both current HLB models of disease spread and control strategies. PMID:26083763

  4. Bacterial flora of commonly used soaps in three hospitals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, B A; Oduyebo, O O; Ogunsola, F T

    2007-10-01

    To obtain general information on soap use and soap bacterial flora, and to assess the risk of transmission of organisms from contaminated soap to patients. Descriptive study. Three hospitals in an urban area of Lagos, Nigeria. A teaching (761 bed) hospital, a general hospital (a 51 bed secondary healthcare facility) and a private hospital (a 30 bed private community with a surgical specialty). Bar soaps were much more commonly used than liquid soaps. Out of the thirty six bar soaps and their receptacles studied, 19 (52.8%) were found wet, nine (25%) dry, five (13.9%) very dry, and three (8.3%) in a pool of water. A total of 39% soaps and 75% of receptacles were contaminated. Thirty three percent of the dry soaps and 68.4% of the wet soaps were contaminated. None of the very dry soaps and all in a pool of water were contaminated. The bacteria isolated from soaps included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (89.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.5%), while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.8%) and Serratia marcescens (2.9%) were isolated from the receptacles. The antibiogram showed that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the soaps and their containers (sinks) were distinct from those obtained from colonised or infected wounds. The soap contamination rates correlated with the conditions in which the soaps were kept. The type of soap containers in particular, played a vital role in keeping the soap dry or wet. In all the hospitals studied, the policies on soap use, if any, were not in agreement with the recommended guidelines. The healthcare workers need to be re-educated on these guidelines.

  5. Fungal and Bacterial Infection Mitigation with Antibiotic and Antifungal Loaded Biopolymer Sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ashley Cox

    Musculoskeletal injuries are some of the most prevalent injuries in both civilian and military populations and their infections can be difficult to treat, often resulting in multiple surgeries and increased costs. In both previous and recent military operations, extremity injuries have been the most common battlefield injuries and many involve complex, open fractures. These extremity injuries are especially susceptible to multiple pathogenic, and sometimes drug resistant, bacteria and fungi. Fungal infections have recently become increasingly problematic in both military and civilian populations and have significantly higher amputation rates than those from bacterial infections. Many of these bacterial and fungal strains adhere to tissue and implanted orthopaedic hardware within wounds, forming biofilms. These problematic, often polymicrobial, infections threaten the health of the patient, but the risk also exists of spreading within hospitals to become prominent resistant infections. Local antimicrobial delivery releases high levels of antimicrobials directly to injured wound tissue, overcoming sub-bactericidal or subfungicidal antimicrobial levels present in the avascular wound zones. This research will determine the ability of modified chitosan sponges, buffered with sodium acetate or blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), to act as short term adjunctive therapies to initial surgical treatment for delivering both antibiotics and/or antifungals for early abatement of infection. The objective of this work was to evaluate both types of modified sponges for in vitro and in vivo material characteristics and device functionality. In vitro analysis demonstrated both the buffered and PEG modified chitosan sponges exhibited increased degradation and functional cytocompatibility. The chitosan/PEG sponges were able to be loaded with hydrophobic antifungals and the sponges released in vitro biologically active concentrations, alone or in combination with the antibiotic

  6. Prevention of common healthcare-associated infections in humanitarian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Richard A; Chua, Arlene C

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian medical organizations focus on vulnerable patients with increased risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and are obligated to minimize them in inpatient departments (IPDs). However, in doing so humanitarian groups face considerable obstacles. This report will focus on approaches to reducing common HAIs that the authors have found to be helpful in humanitarian settings. HAIs are common in humanitarian contexts but there are few interventions or guidelines adapted for use in poor and conflict-affected settings to improve prevention and guide surveillance. Based on existing recommendations and studies, it appears prudent that all humanitarian IPDs introduce a basic infection prevention infrastructure, assure high adherence to hand hygiene with wide accessibility to alcohol-based hand rub, and develop pragmatic surveillance based on clinically evident nosocomial infection. Although microbiology remains out of reach for most humanitarian hospitals, rapid tests offer the possibility of improving the diagnosis of HAIs in humanitarian hospitals in the decade ahead. There is a dearth of new studies that can direct efforts to prevent HAIs in IPDs in poor and conflict-affected areas and there is a need for practical, field-adapted guidelines from professional societies, and international bodies to guide infection prevention efforts in humanitarian environments.

  7. Predicting serious bacterial infection in young children with fever without apparent source.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, S E; Moons, K G; Derksen-Lubsen, G; Grobbee, D E; Moll, H A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to design a clinical rule to predict the presence of a serious bacterial infection in children with fever without apparent source. Information was collected from the records of children aged 1-36 mo who attended the paediatric emergency department because of fever without source (temperature > or = 38 degrees C and no apparent source found after evaluation by a general practitioner or history by a paediatrician). Serious bacterial infection included bacterial meningitis, sepsis, bacteraemia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacterial gastroenteritis, osteomyelitis and ethmoiditis. Using multivariate logistic regression and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC area), the diagnostic value of predictors for serious bacterial infection was judged, resulting in a risk stratification. Twenty-five percent of the 231 patients enrolled in the study (mean age 1.1 y) had a serious bacterial infection. Independent predictors from history and examination included duration of fever, poor micturition, vomiting, age, temperature < 36.7 degrees C or > or = 40 degrees C at examination, chest-wall retractions and poor peripheral circulation (ROC area: 0.75). Independent predictors from laboratory tests were white blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein and the presence of >70 white blood cells in urinalysis (ROC area: 0.83). The risk stratification for serious bacterial infection ranged from 6% to 92%. The probability of a serious bacterial infection in the individual patient with fever without source can be estimated more precisely by using a limited number of symptoms, signs and laboratory tests.

  8. Relationship among bacterial virulence, bladder dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and patterns of urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Storm, Douglas W; Patel, Ashay S; Horvath, Dennis J; Li, Birong; Koff, Stephen A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2012-07-01

    We hypothesized that virulence levels of Escherichia coli isolates causing pediatric urinary tract infections differ according to severity of infection and also among various uropathies known to contribute to pediatric urinary tract infections. We evaluated these relationships using in vitro cytokine interleukin-6 elicitation. E. coli isolates were cultured from children presenting with urinary tract infections. In vitro cytokine (interleukin-6) elicitation was quantified for each isolate and the bacteria were grouped according to type of infection and underlying uropathy (neurogenic bladder, nonneurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, primary vesicoureteral reflux, no underlying etiology). A total of 40 E. coli isolates were collected from children with a mean age of 61.5 months (range 1 to 204). Mean level of in vitro cytokine elicitation from febrile urinary tract infection producing E. coli was significantly lower than for nonfebrile strains (p = 0.01). The interleukin-6 response to E. coli in the neurogenic bladder group was also significantly higher than in the vesicoureteral reflux (p = 0.01) and no underlying etiology groups (p = 0.02). In vitro interleukin-6 elicitation, an established marker to determine bacterial virulence, correlates inversely with clinical urinary tract infection severity. Less virulent, high cytokine producing E. coli were more likely to cause cystitis and were more commonly found in patients with neurogenic bladder and nonneurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, whereas higher virulence isolates were more likely to produce febrile urinary tract infections and to affect children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and no underlying etiology. These findings suggest that bacteria of different virulence levels may be responsible for differences in severity of pediatric urinary tract infections and may vary among different underlying uropathies. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  9. Common bacterial responses in six ecosystems exposed to 10 years of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, John; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Silva, Shannon; Xie, Gary; Hengartner, N W; Evans, R David; Hungate, Bruce A; Jackson, Robert B; Megonigal, J Patrick; Schadt, Christopher W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Zak, Donald R; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2012-05-01

    Six terrestrial ecosystems in the USA were exposed to elevated atmospheric CO(2) in single or multifactorial experiments for more than a decade to assess potential impacts. We retrospectively assessed soil bacterial community responses in all six-field experiments and found ecosystem-specific and common patterns of soil bacterial community response to elevated CO(2) . Soil bacterial composition differed greatly across the six ecosystems. No common effect of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on bacterial biomass, richness and community composition across all of the ecosystems was identified, although significant responses were detected in individual ecosystems. The most striking common trend across the sites was a decrease of up to 3.5-fold in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria Group 1 bacteria in soils exposed to elevated CO(2) or other climate factors. The Acidobacteria Group 1 response observed in exploratory 16S rRNA gene clone library surveys was validated in one ecosystem by 100-fold deeper sequencing and semi-quantitative PCR assays. Collectively, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach revealed influences of elevated CO(2) on multiple ecosystems. Although few common trends across the ecosystems were detected in the small surveys, the trends may be harbingers of more substantive changes in less abundant, more sensitive taxa that can only be detected by deeper surveys. Representative bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences were deposited in GenBank with Accession No. JQ366086–JQ387568. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Three-step Channel Conformational Changes Common to DNA Packaging Motors of Bacterial Viruses T3, T4, SPP1, and Phi29

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaoying; Ji, Zhouxiang; Yan, Erfu; Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-01-01

    The DNA packaging motor of dsDNA bacterial viruses contains a head-tail connector with a channel for genome to enter during assembly and to exit during host infection. The DNA packaging motor of bacterial virus phi29 was recently reported to use the “One-way Revolution” mechanism for DNA packaging. This raises a question of how dsDNA is ejected during infection if the channel acts as a one-way inward valve. Here we report a three step conformational change of the portal channel that is common among DNA translocation motors of bacterial viruses T3, T4, SPP1, and phi29. The channels of these motors exercise three discrete steps of gating, as revealed by electrophysiological assays. It is proposed that the three step channel conformational changes occur during DNA entry process, resulting in a structural transition in preparation of DNA movement in the reverse direction during ejection. PMID:27181501

  11. Bacterial bloodstream infections and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in pediatric hematology/oncology patients after anticancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Naima A; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; El Shafie, Sittana; Janahi, Mohammed; Al-Nasser, Abdullah A; Chandra, Prem

    2014-01-01

    Bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology and oncology represent a major problem worldwide, but this has not been studied in Qatar. In this study, we investigated the burden of infection and the resistance pattern in the bacterial etiology, in the only tertiary pediatric hematology and oncology center in Qatar. All pediatric cancer patients (n=185) were evaluated retrospectively during the period 2004-2011; a total of 70 (38%) patients were diagnosed with bloodstream infections. Bacterial etiology was determined, along with their susceptibility patterns. Neutropenia, duration of neutropenia, fever, duration of fever, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated throughout the study. A total of 70 patients (38%) were diagnosed with acute leukemias, lymphomas, solid tumors, or brain tumors; those patients experienced 111 episodes of bacteremia. The most common Gram-positive (n=64 [55%]) isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=26), Staphylococcus hominis (n=9), and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=7), and the common Gram-negative (n=52 [45%]) isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=10), and Escherichia coli (n=7). There was a significant association observed between fever with positive blood culture and different types of cancer (P=0.035). The majority of bacteremia (n=68 [61.3%]) occurred in nonneutropenic episodes. Elevated values of CRP (≥5 mg/L) were detected in 82 (95.3%) episodes and were negatively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) (r=-0.18; P=0.248) among all cases. However, the infection-related fatality rate was 2.2% (n=4), with three caused by Gram-negative pathogens. Multidrug resistant organisms were implicated in 33 (28.4%) cases and caused three of the mortality cases. Multidrug resistant organisms cause mortality in pediatric cancer patients. Investigation of antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms may guide successful antimicrobial therapy and improve the surveillance and quality of pediatric

  12. Study of Bacterial Infections Among Patients Receiving Kidney Transplant in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mansury, Davood; Khaledi, Azad; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sabbagh, Mahin Ghorban; Zare, Hosna; Rokni-Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein; Vazini, Hossein

    2018-06-01

    Over the past 2 decades, significant advances have been made in the management of infections after transplant; however, transplant recipients are still at high risk of infectious complications. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance patterns in kidney transplant recipients. This cross-sectional study included 356 patients who received kidney transplants, regardless of the underlying disease, from 2013 to 2015 at the Montaserieh Transplant Hospital (Mashhad, Iran). Clinical samples collected from patients were sent to the microbiology laboratory for culture processing. Typing of bacteria was conducted, and susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline by use the of disk diffusion agar method. Data were then analyzed by SPSS software (SPSS: An IBM Company, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) using chi-square test. Among 356 kidney recipients (206 men and 150 women), 115 (32.3%) received transplants from living donors and 241 (67.7%) received transplants from deceased donors. Of 356 total patients, 112 patients (31.5%) had an infection at various times after transplant. The most common gram-negative and gram-positive isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, with prevalence rates of 66.1% and 48.6%. Most of the isolates were resistant against selected antibiotics. Because of the high prevalence of infection among transplant patients, infection prevention should receive more attention, and antibiotic susceptibility should be determined before treatment.

  13. Survival of the Fittest: How Bacterial Pathogens Utilize Bile To Enhance Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sistrunk, Jeticia R.; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; Chanin, Rachael B.; Rasko, David A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial pathogens have coevolved with humans in order to efficiently infect, replicate within, and be transmitted to new hosts to ensure survival and a continual infection cycle. For enteric pathogens, the ability to adapt to numerous host factors under the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract is critical for establishing infection. One such host factor readily encountered by enteric bacteria is bile, an innately antimicrobial detergent-like compound essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Not only have enteric pathogens evolved to resist the bactericidal conditions of bile, but these bacteria also utilize bile as a signal to enhance virulence regulation for efficient infection. This review provides a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of bile-related research with enteric pathogens. From common responses to the unique expression of specific virulence factors, each pathogen has overcome significant challenges to establish infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Utilization of bile as a signal to modulate virulence factor expression has led to important insights for our understanding of virulence mechanisms for many pathogens. Further research on enteric pathogens exposed to this in vivo signal will benefit therapeutic and vaccine development and ultimately enhance our success at combating such elite pathogens. PMID:27464994

  14. Use of the Common Marmoset to Study Burkholderia mallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Stephen B.; Mead, Daniel G.; Shaffer, Teresa L.; Estes, D. Mark; Michel, Frank; Quinn, Frederick D.; Hogan, Robert J.; Lafontaine, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted bacterium that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir. The organism causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by B. mallei typically occurs via the respiratory or percutaneous route, and the most common manifestations are life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Glanders is difficult to diagnose and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There is no vaccine to protect against B. mallei and there is concern regarding its use as a biothreat agent. Thus, experiments were performed to establish a non-human primate model of intranasal infection to study the organism and develop countermeasures. Groups of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were inoculated intranasally with B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and monitored for clinical signs of illness for up to 13 days. We discovered that 83% of marmosets inoculated with doses of 2.5 X 104 to 2.5 X 105 bacteria developed acute lethal infection within 3–4 days. Signs of disease were severe and included lethargy, inappetence, conjunctivitis, mucopurulent and hemorrhagic nasal discharges, and increased respiratory effort with abdominal lifts. Burkholderia mallei was cultured from the lungs, spleen and liver of these animals, and pathologic examination of tissues revealed lesions characteristic of glanders. Challenge experiments also revealed that 91% of animals infected with doses ranging from 25 to 2.5 X 103 bacteria exhibited mild non-specific signs of illness and were culture negative. One marmoset inoculated with 2.5 X 103 organisms developed moderate signs of disease and reached humane end-points 8 days post-infection. The liver and spleen of this animal were colonized with the agent and pathological analysis of tissues showed nasal, splenic and hepatic lesions. Taken together, these data indicate that the marmoset is a suitable model to study respiratory infection by B. mallei. PMID

  15. Use of the common marmoset to study Burkholderia mallei infection.

    PubMed

    Jelesijevic, Tomislav; Zimmerman, Shawn M; Harvey, Stephen B; Mead, Daniel G; Shaffer, Teresa L; Estes, D Mark; Michel, Frank; Quinn, Frederick D; Hogan, Robert J; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted bacterium that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir. The organism causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by B. mallei typically occurs via the respiratory or percutaneous route, and the most common manifestations are life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Glanders is difficult to diagnose and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There is no vaccine to protect against B. mallei and there is concern regarding its use as a biothreat agent. Thus, experiments were performed to establish a non-human primate model of intranasal infection to study the organism and develop countermeasures. Groups of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were inoculated intranasally with B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and monitored for clinical signs of illness for up to 13 days. We discovered that 83% of marmosets inoculated with doses of 2.5 X 10(4) to 2.5 X 10(5) bacteria developed acute lethal infection within 3-4 days. Signs of disease were severe and included lethargy, inappetence, conjunctivitis, mucopurulent and hemorrhagic nasal discharges, and increased respiratory effort with abdominal lifts. Burkholderia mallei was cultured from the lungs, spleen and liver of these animals, and pathologic examination of tissues revealed lesions characteristic of glanders. Challenge experiments also revealed that 91% of animals infected with doses ranging from 25 to 2.5 X 10(3) bacteria exhibited mild non-specific signs of illness and were culture negative. One marmoset inoculated with 2.5 X 10(3) organisms developed moderate signs of disease and reached humane end-points 8 days post-infection. The liver and spleen of this animal were colonized with the agent and pathological analysis of tissues showed nasal, splenic and hepatic lesions. Taken together, these data indicate that the marmoset is a suitable model to study respiratory infection by B. mallei.

  16. Altered Functionality of Anti-Bacterial Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Anne; Long, Ronald E.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Hafner, Julie; Rodemich-Betesh, Lucy; Wang, Mengjun; Marrero, Jorge; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Background Using comparative glycoproteomics, we have previously identified a glycoprotein that is altered in both amount and glycosylation as a function of liver cirrhosis. The altered glycoprotein is an agalactosylated (G0) immunoglobulin G molecule (IgG) that recognizes the heterophilic alpha-gal epitope. Since the alpha gal epitope is found on gut enterobacteria, it has been hypothesized that anti-gal antibodies are generated as a result of increased bacterial exposure in patients with liver disease. Methods The N-linked glycosylation of anti-gal IgG molecules from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined and the effector function of anti-bacterial antibodies from over 100 patients examined. In addition, markers of microbial exposure were determined. Results Surprisingly, the subset of agalactosylated anti-gal antibodies described here, was impaired in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis and inhibited the complement-mediated destruction of common gut bacteria. In an analysis of serum from more than 100 patients with liver disease, we have shown that those with increased levels of this modified anti-gal antibody had increased levels of markers of bacterial exposure. Conclusions Anti-gal antibodies in patients with liver cirrhosis were reduced in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis of target cells. As bacterial infection is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial products such as LPS are thought to play a major role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, this finding has many clinical implications in the etiology, prognosis and treatment of liver disease. PMID:23750224

  17. Description of Bacterial Respiratory Infections among Department of Defense Beneficiaries, Utilizing Electronic Clinical Laboratory Data, October 2008-September 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    i Description of bacterial respiratory infections among Department of Defense beneficiaries, utilizing electronic clinical laboratory...Description of Bacterial Respiratory Infections in the DOD, October 2008-September 2013 Prepared: 12 July 2014 EpiData Center Department ii...Description of Bacterial Respiratory Infections in the DOD, October 2008-September 2013 Prepared: 12 July 2014 EpiData Center Department Abstract

  18. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M; Bennett, Jonathan E; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M; Crain, Ellen F; Cruz, Andrea T; Dayan, Peter S; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D; Jaffe, David M; Levine, Deborah A; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E; Powell, Elizabeth C; Rogers, Alexander J; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns ("RNA biosignatures") in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7% boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections-including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections-and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87% (95% CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95% CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections in the test set with 94% (95% CI, 70

  19. Common bacterial isolates, clinical outcome and TB meningitis in children admitted at Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chambuso, Ramadhani Salum; Mkhoi, Mkhoi Lord; Kaambo, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is still one of the major causes of deaths, disabilities, and mental retardation in children in Morogoro region. To study the current meningitis burden, we evaluated the common bacterial isolates and clinical outcome of the disease in the region. We conducted a hospital-based prospective study on 1352 children aged between 7 days and 12 years admitted in pediatric wards at Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital for 7 months. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for laboratory microbiological examination was collected by lumbar puncture in 72 children with signs and symptoms of meningitis. Latex agglutination test was used to confirm the bacterial colonies in the culture. Chi-square test was used for relative risk with 95% confidence intervals; statistical analysis and tests were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05. Among 72 CSF samples, 23 (31.9%) were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 (8.3%) for Haemophilus influenzae, 5 (6.9%) for Group B Streptococcus, 3 (4.2%) for Escherichia coli, and 1 (1.4%) was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, 34 CSF samples showed no bacteria growth in the culture media. In addition, 39 children (54.2%) did not respond to the treatment, whereas 79.5% (n = 39) of them died, while 20.5% (n = 39) of them were referred to a tertiary hospital. Nevertheless, the incidence of meningitis infection was 5.3% (n = 1352) among the admitted children. S. pneumoniae was the major laboratory-confirmed bacterial isolate associated with meningitis in children. We report for the first time the presence of tuberculous meningitis in Morogoro region. Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli should be mandatory for any case clinically suspected for meningitis.

  20. Predictors of serious bacterial infections in pediatric burn patients with fever.

    PubMed

    Vyles, David; Sinha, Madhumita; Rosenberg, David I; Foster, Kevin N; Tran, Melissa; Drachman, David

    2014-01-01

    To determine predictors of serious bacterial infections in pediatric burn patients with fever (core temp ≥38.5°C), the authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records of pediatric (0-18 years) patients admitted to the Arizona Burn Center between 2008 and 2011 with greater than 5% TBSA and inpatient hospitalization for ≥72 hours. The study group comprised patients with a febrile episode during their inpatient stay. Serious bacterial infection (the primary outcome variable) was defined as: bacteremia, urinary tract infection, meningitis (blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid culture positive for a pathogen respectively), pneumonia, line, and wound infection. A generalized estimating equation analysis was done to predict the presence or absence of serious bacterial infection. Of 1082 pediatric burn patients hospitalized during the study period, 353 met the study eligibility criteria. A total of 108 patients (30.6%) had at least one fever episode (fever group). No difference in demographic characteristics was noted between the fever and no-fever groups; significant differences were observed for: third-degree TBSA, second-degree TBSA, total operating room visits, length of stay, Injury Severity Score, and death. A total of 47.2% of the patients had one or more episodes of fever with serious bacterial infection. In a generalized estimating equation predictive model, presence of a central line, second-, and third-degree TBSA were predictive of serious bacterial infection in burn patients with fever. In this study, individual clinical variables such as tachypnea and tachycardia were not predictive of serious bacterial infections, but the presence of a central line, and larger TBSA were significant predictors of serious bacterial infections. Younger age (P =.08) and ventilator support (P =.057) also approached significance as predictors of serious bacterial infections.

  1. Infection of orthopedic implants with emphasis on bacterial adhesion process and techniques used in studying bacterial-material interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Marta; Monteiro, Fernando J.; Ferraz, Maria P.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they are the principal causative agents of two major types of infection affecting bone: septic arthritis and osteomyelitis, which involve the inflammatory destruction of joint and bone. Bacterial adhesion is the first and most important step in implant infection. It is a complex process influenced by environmental factors, bacterial properties, material surface properties and by the presence of serum or tissue proteins. Properties of the substrate, such as chemical composition of the material, surface charge, hydrophobicity, surface roughness and the presence of specific proteins at the surface, are all thought to be important in the initial cell attachment process. The biofilm mode of growth of infecting bacteria on an implant surface protects the organisms from the host immune system and antibiotic therapy. The research for novel therapeutic strategies is incited by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This work will provide an overview of the mechanisms and factors involved in bacterial adhesion, the techniques that are currently being used studying bacterial-material interactions as well as provide insight into future directions in the field. PMID:23507884

  2. Correlation between the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio and bacterial infection in patient with human immunodeficiency virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusnadi, D.; Liwang, M. N. I.; Katu, S.; Mubin, A. H.; Halim, R.

    2018-03-01

    Parameters for starting antibiotic therapy such as CRP andleukocytosis are considered non-specific. Previous studies have shown the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio (NLCR) can serve as the basis of bacterial infection, the level of infection, and the basis of antibiotic therapy. Compared with the Procalcitonin parameter, this NLCR is rapid, an inexpensive and requires no additional sampling. To determine the correlation between The Neutrophil-LymphocyteCount Ratio to bacterial infection in HIV patients. This study was a cross-sectional observational approach to HIV subject at Wahidin Sudirohusodo and Hasanuddin University Hospital. The subjects performed routine blood, microbiology test,and blood Procalcitonin levels tests. Then performed NLCR calculations based on routine blood results. The subjects then grouped the presence or absence of bacterial infection.In 146 study subjects, there were 78 (53.4%) with bacterial infections and 68 (46.6%) without bacterial infection as controls. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher total neutrophils (84.83) compared with non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had total lymphocytes with an average of 8.51 lower than non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher NLCR values with an average of 12.80. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio can become a marker of bacterial infection in HIV patients.

  3. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivative for bacterial skin infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Folliculitis, furunculosis and acne vulgaris are very common skin disorders of the hair follicles and are associated with large grease-producing (sebaceous) glands. Although the detailed mechanisms involved these skin disorders are not fully understood, it is believed that the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are the key pathogenic factors involved. Conventional treatments targeting the pathogenic factors include a variety of topical and oral medications such as antibiotics. The wide use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, and hence there is a need for new alternatives in above bacterial skin treatment. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on an initial photosensitization of the infected area, followed by irradiation with visible light, producing singlet oxygen which is cytotoxic to bacteria. Herein we reported a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its PACT effect for the bacteria involved in these skin infections. Our results demonstrated strong bactericidal effects of this photosensitizer on both strains of the bacteria, suggesting ZnPc-(Lys)5 as a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these bacteria.

  4. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T. Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R.; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M.; Bennett, Jonathan E.; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M.; Crain, Ellen F.; Cruz, Andrea T.; Dayan, Peter S.; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D.; Jaffe, David M.; Levine, Deborah A.; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G.; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Powell, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, Alexander J.; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M.; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G.; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J. Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns (“RNA biosignatures”) in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. EXPOSURE RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. RESULTS Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7%boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections—including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections—and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87%(95%CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95%CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished

  5. Enhanced Mucosal Antibody Production and Protection against Respiratory Infections Following an Orally Administered Bacterial Extract

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Christian; Salami, Olawale; Taneja, Manisha; Gollwitzer, Eva S.; Trompette, Aurelien; Pattaroni, Céline; Yadava, Koshika; Bauer, Jacques; Marsland, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary bacterial infections following influenza infection are a pressing problem facing respiratory medicine. Although antibiotic treatment has been highly successful over recent decades, fatalities due to secondary bacterial infections remain one of the leading causes of death associated with influenza. We have assessed whether administration of a bacterial extract alone is sufficient to potentiate immune responses and protect against primary infection with influenza, and secondary infections with either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice. We show that oral administration with the bacterial extract, OM-85, leads to a maturation of dendritic cells and B-cells characterized by increases in MHC II, CD86, and CD40, and a reduction in ICOSL. Improved immune responsiveness against influenza virus reduced the threshold of susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, and thus protected the mice. The protection was associated with enhanced polyclonal B-cell activation and release of antibodies that were effective at neutralizing the virus. Taken together, these data show that oral administration of bacterial extracts provides sufficient mucosal immune stimulation to protect mice against a respiratory tract viral infection and associated sequelae. PMID:25593914

  6. The impact of rifaximin in the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mariani, M; Zuccaro, V; Patruno, S F A; Scudeller, L; Sacchi, P; Lombardi, A; Vecchia, M; Columpsi, P; Marone, P; Filice, G; Bruno, R

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial infections are a leading factor in the progression from compensated to decompensated cirrhosis, with consequent worsening of the prognosis, and concerted efforts have been made to reduce infections and improve the survival rate of these patients. We retrospectively investigated the rate of infections in hospitalized cirrhotic patients under treatment with rifaximin. We enrolled 649 patients whose clinical and personal data, prescribed therapy, microbiological findings and laboratory tests were collected from previous discharge letters and our institution database. The efficacy of rifaximin in preventing several types infection was evaluated by comparing outcomes for rifaximin-treated patients vs patients receiving no antibiotic treatment. The risk of developing selected bacterial infections was significantly lower in patients treated with rifaximin (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.20-0.40, p < 0.001). Continuous treatment with rifaximin may prevent bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.

  7. Patterns of isolation of common gram positive bacterial pathogens and their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents in Jimma Hospital.

    PubMed

    Gebreselassie, Solomon

    2002-04-01

    Gram positive bacteria are frequently emerging as antibiotic resistant pathogens, causing serious infections than ever before in the ill and debilitated patients. The pattern of isolation and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of common Gram positive cocci including Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus species and Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated between January 1997 and June 2000 in Jimma Hospital. Of the 500 specimens collected from children and adults, 116 (23.2%) consisted of one or more of the above organisms. The following strains: Staphylococcus aureus, 47 (40.5%), CoNS, 36 (31.0%), Streptococcus pneumoniae, 26 (22.4%) Streptococcus pyogenes, 5 (4.3%) and Streptococcus faecalis, 2(1.7%) were isolated from different specimens including pus, sputum, urine, stool, blood and oro/nasopharyngeal swabs of patients. The in vitro activities of 14 different antibiotics including penicillin G, ampicillin, cloxacillin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, methicillin, vancomycin and clindamycin was determined against the clinical bacterial isolates. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated by agar diffusion technique using Mueller-Hinton agar according to NCCLS recommendations. The majority of the pathogens, 59(50.9%) were recovered from upper respiratory tract infections and 17 (14.6%) from the lower respiratory tract. The resistance patterns of S. aureus, CoNS, S. pneumoniae and enterococci to penicillin was 91.5%, 94.4%, 7.7% and 100% respectively. Penicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin showed low effects (< 60%) on both S. aureus and CoNS. Multi-drug resistance was observed in all the gram-positive isolates, especially higher in staphylococcus species. All isolates of S. aureus (100%) were susceptible to vancomycin, clindamycin and gentamicin. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality due to antibiotic

  8. CNF1-like deamidase domains: common Lego bricks among cancer-promoting immunomodulatory bacterial virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mengfei; Mettouchi, Amel; Wilson, Brenda A; Lemichez, Emmanuel

    2018-05-03

    Alterations of the cellular proteome over time due to spontaneous or toxin-mediated enzymatic deamidation of glutamine (Gln) and asparagine (Asn) residues contribute to bacterial infection and might represent a source of aging-related diseases. Here, we put into perspective what is known about the mode of action of the CNF1 toxin from pathogenic E. coli, a paradigm of bacterial deamidases that activate Rho GTPases, to illustrate the importance of determining whether exposure to these factors are risk factors in the etiology age-related diseases, such as cancer. In particular, through in silico analysis of the distribution of the CNF1-like deamidase active site Gly-Cys-(Xaa)n-His sequence motif in bacterial genomes, we unveil the wide distribution of the super-family of CNF-like toxins and CNF-like deamidase domains among members of the enterobacteriacae and in association with a large variety of toxin delivery systems. We extent our discussion with recent findings concerning cellular systems that control activated Rac1 GTPase stability and provide protection against cancer. These findings point to the urgency for developing holistic approaches toward personalized medicine that include monitoring for asymptomatic carriage of pathogenic toxin-producing bacteria and that ultimately might lead to improved public health and increased lifespans.

  9. Application of image analysis in studies of quantitative disease resistance, exemplified using common bacterial blight-common bean pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weilong; Yu, Kangfu; Pauls, K Peter; Navabi, Alireza

    2012-04-01

    The effectiveness of image analysis (IA) compared with an ordinal visual scale, for quantitative measurement of disease severity, its application in quantitative genetic studies, and its effect on the estimates of genetic parameters were investigated. Studies were performed using eight backcross-derived families of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (n = 172) segregating for the molecular marker SU91, known to be associated with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans. Even though both IA and visual assessments were highly repeatable, IA was more sensitive in detecting quantitative differences between bean genotypes. The CBB phenotypic difference between the two SU91 genotypic groups was consistently more than fivefold for IA assessments but generally only two- to threefold for visual assessments. Results suggest that the visual assessment results in overestimation of the effect of QTL in genetic studies. This may have been caused by lack of additivity and uneven intervals of the visual scale. Although visual assessment of disease severity is a useful tool for general selection in breeding programs, assessments using IA may be more suitable for phenotypic evaluations in quantitative genetic studies involving CBB resistance as well as other foliar diseases.

  10. Sterilization of granulomas is common in both active and latent tuberculosis despite extensive within-host variability in bacterial killing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Philana Ling; Ford, Christopher B.; Coleman, M. Teresa; Myers, Amy J.; Gawande, Richa; Ioerger, Thomas; Sacchettini, James; Fortune, Sarah M.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2013-01-01

    Over 30% of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), yet only ~5–10% will develop clinical disease1. Despite considerable effort, we understand little about what distinguishes individuals who progress to active tuberculosis (TB) from those who remain latent for decades. The variable course of disease is recapitulated in cynomolgus macaques infected with Mtb2. Active disease in macaques is defined by clinical, microbiologic and immunologic signs and occurs in ~45% of animals, while the remaining are clinically asymptomatic2,3. Here, we use barcoded Mtb isolates and quantitative measures of culturable and cumulative bacterial burden to show that most lesions are likely founded by a single bacterium and reach similar maximum burdens. Despite common origins, the fate of individual lesions varies substantially within the same host. Strikingly, in active disease, the host sterilizes some lesions even while others progress. Our data suggest that lesional heterogeneity arises, in part, through differential killing of bacteria after the onset of adaptive immunity. Thus, individual lesions follow diverse and overlapping trajectories, suggesting critical responses occur at a lesional level to ultimately determine the clinical outcome of infection. Defining the local factors that dictate outcome will be important in developing effective interventions to prevent active TB. PMID:24336248

  11. Bacterial Infection of Fly Ovaries Reduces Egg Production and Induces Local Hemocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Stephanie M.; Schneider, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morbidity, the state of being diseased, is an important aspect of pathogenesis that has gone relatively unstudied in fruit flies. Our interest is in characterizing how bacterial pathogenesis affects various physiologies of the fly. We chose to examine the fly ovary because we found bacterial infection had a striking effect on fly reproduction. We observed decreased egg laying after bacterial infection that correlated with increased bacterial virulence. We also found that bacteria colonized the ovary in a previously undescribed manner; bacteria were found in the posterior of the ovary, adjacent to the lateral oviduct. This local infection in the ovary resulted in melanization and activation of the cellular immune response at the site of infection. PMID:17400292

  12. Bacterial Polysaccharide Co-Polymerases Share a Common Framework for Control of Polymer Length

    SciTech Connect

    Tocilj,A.; Munger, C.; Proteau, A.

    2008-01-01

    The chain length distribution of complex polysaccharides present on the bacterial surface is determined by polysaccharide co-polymerases (PCPs) anchored in the inner membrane. We report crystal structures of the periplasmic domains of three PCPs that impart substantially different chain length distributions to surface polysaccharides. Despite very low sequence similarities, they have a common protomer structure with a long central alpha-helix extending 100 Angstroms into the periplasm. The protomers self-assemble into bell-shaped oligomers of variable sizes, with a large internal cavity. Electron microscopy shows that one of the full-length PCPs has a similar organization as that observed in the crystal formore » its periplasmic domain alone. Functional studies suggest that the top of the PCP oligomers is an important region for determining polysaccharide modal length. These structures provide a detailed view of components of the bacterial polysaccharide assembly machinery.« less

  13. Infections and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  14. Bacterial Call to Arms for Warfare at the Infection Site.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Vitor; Xavier, Karina B

    2018-03-14

    Bacterial sensing is important for perceiving environmental cues and activating responses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Hertzog et al. (2018) show that group A Streptococcus can couple the ability to respond to host cues with autoinduction of a quorum sensing system, leading to killing of bacterial competitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Empirical therapeutic approach to infection by resistant gram positive (acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and health care pneumonia). Value of risk factors].

    PubMed

    González-DelCastillo, J; Núñez-Orantos, M J; Candel, F J; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic treatment inadequacy is common in these sites of infection and may have implications for the patient's prognosis. In acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, the document states that for the establishment of an adequate treatment it must be assessed the severity, the patient comorbidity and the risk factors for multidrug-resistant microorganism. The concept of health care-associated pneumonia is discussed and leads to errors in the etiologic diagnosis and therefore in the selection of antibiotic treatment. This paper discusses how to perform this approach to the possible etiology to guide empirical treatment.

  16. Comparison of Bacterial Community Composition of Primary and Persistent Endodontic Infections Using Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Zachaki, Sophia; Panopoulos, Panos; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G; Madianos, Phoebus N; Divaris, Kimon

    2015-08-01

    Elucidating the microbial ecology of endodontic infections (EIs) is a necessary step in developing effective intracanal antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacterial composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic primary and persistent infections in a Greek population using high-throughput sequencing methods. 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of 48 root canal bacterial samples was conducted, and sequencing data were analyzed using an oral microbiome-specific and a generic (Greengenes) database. Bacterial abundance and diversity were examined by EI type (primary or persistent), and statistical analysis was performed by using non-parametric and parametric tests accounting for clustered data. Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum in both infection groups. Significant, albeit weak associations of bacterial diversity were found, as measured by UniFrac distances with infection type (analyses of similarity, R = 0.087, P = .005) and symptoms (analyses of similarity, R = 0.055, P = .047). Persistent infections were significantly enriched for Proteobacteria and Tenericutes compared with primary ones; at the genus level, significant differences were noted for 14 taxa, including increased enrichment of persistent infections for Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Sphingomonas. More but less abundant phyla were identified using the Greengenes database; among those, Cyanobacteria (0.018%) and Acidobacteria (0.007%) were significantly enriched among persistent infections. Persistent infections showed higher phylogenetic diversity (PD) (asymptomatic: PD = 9.2, standard error [SE] = 1.3; symptomatic: PD = 8.2, SE = 0.7) compared with primary infections (asymptomatic: PD = 5.9, SE = 0.8; symptomatic: PD = 7.4, SE = 1.0). The present study revealed a high bacterial diversity of EI and suggests that persistent infections may have more diverse bacterial communities than primary infections. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by

  17. Genetic Factors Influence Serological Measures of Common Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rubicz, Rohina; Leach, Charles T.; Kraig, Ellen; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John; Yolken, Robert; Göring, Harald H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Antibodies against infectious pathogens provide information on past or present exposure to infectious agents. While host genetic factors are known to affect the immune response, the influence of genetic factors on antibody levels to common infectious agents is largely unknown. Here we test whether antibody levels for 13 common infections are significantly heritable. Methods IgG antibodies to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, adenovirus 36 (Ad36), hepatitis A virus, influenza A and B, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and −2, human herpesvirus-6, and varicella zoster virus were determined for 1,227 Mexican Americans. Both quantitative and dichotomous (seropositive/seronegative) traits were analyzed. Influences of genetic and shared environmental factors were estimated using variance components pedigree analysis, and sharing of underlying genetic factors among traits was investigated using bivariate analyses. Results Serological phenotypes were significantly heritable for most pathogens (h2 = 0.17–0.39), except for Ad36 and HSV-2. Shared environment was significant for several pathogens (c2 = 0.10–0.32). The underlying genetic etiology appears to be largely different for most pathogens. Conclusions Our results demonstrate, for the first time for many of these pathogens, that individual genetic differences of the human host contribute substantially to antibody levels to many common infectious agents, providing impetus for the identification of underlying genetic variants, which may be of clinical importance. PMID:21996708

  18. Bacterial urinary tract infection after solid organ transplantation in the RESITRA cohort.

    PubMed

    Vidal, E; Torre-Cisneros, J; Blanes, M; Montejo, M; Cervera, C; Aguado, J M; Len, O; Carratalá, J; Cordero, E; Bou, G; Muñoz, P; Ramos, A; Gurguí, M; Borrell, N; Fortún, J

    2012-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in renal transplant patients, but it is necessary to determine the risk factors for bacterial UTI in recipients of other solid organ transplants (SOTs), as well as changes in etiology, clinical presentation, and prognosis. In total, 4388 SOT recipients were monitored in 16 transplant centers belonging to the Spanish Network for Research on Infection in Transplantation (RESITRA). The frequency and characteristics of bacterial UTI in transplant patients were obtained prospectively from the cohort (September 2003 to February 2005). A total of 192 patients (4.4%) presented 249 episodes of bacterial UTI (0.23 episodes per 1000 transplantation days); 156 patients were kidney or kidney-pancreas transplant recipients, and 36 patients were liver, heart, and lung transplant recipients. The highest frequency was observed in renal transplants (7.3%). High frequency of cystitis versus pyelonephritis without related mortality was observed in both groups. The most frequent etiology was Escherichia coli (57.8%), with 25.7% producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). In all transplants but renal, most cases occurred in the first month after transplantation. Cases were uniformly distributed during the first 6 months after transplantation in renal recipients. Age (odds ratio [OR] per decade 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.17), female gender (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.42-2.13), and the need for immediate post-transplant dialysis (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.29-2.05) were independent variables associated with bacterial UTI in renal and kidney-pancreas recipients. The independent risk factors identified in non-renal transplants were age (OR per decade 1.79, 95% CI 1.09-3.48), female gender (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.43-2.49), and diabetes (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.001-1.040). UTI was frequent in renal transplants, but also not unusual in non-renal transplants. Because E. coli continues to be the most frequent etiology, the emergence of ESBL

  19. Serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein prediction of severe bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients with ascites.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Agustín; de-la-Hera, Antonio; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2004-05-15

    Serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is increased in a subset of non-infected ascitic cirrhotic patients, a finding previously related to bacterial passage from the gut to the circulation without overt infection. We prospectively analysed the risk factors associated with a first episode of severe bacterial infection in 84 ascitic cirrhotics, followed up for a median of 46 weeks. The cumulative probability of such infection in patients with raised and normal lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was 32.4% and 8.0% (p=0.004), respectively. Increased lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was the only factor independently associated with severe bacterial infection in a multivariate analysis (relative risk 4.49, 95% CI 1.42-14.1). Monitoring of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein could, therefore, help to target cirrhotic patients with ascites for antibiotic prophylaxis.

  20. Bacterial infection and acute lung injury in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Seidenfeld, J J; Mullins, R C; Fowler, S R; Johanson, W G

    1986-07-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a common complication of lung injury that can be an important determinant of outcome. We studied experimental lung injury produced in hamsters by injecting 20 mg/kg paraquat (PQ) intraperitoneally; control animals received saline vehicle. Three days later, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), 10(8) organisms in 0.25 ml, or saline, 0.25 ml, was inoculated intratracheally. Lung and systemic antibacterial defenses were studied at death 24 h later. Paraquat alone produced focal interstitial pneumonitis and neutrophilic alveolitis, and resulted in a 12% (3 of 26) mortality. PAO1 alone caused focal pneumonias and no deaths. Animals receiving both agents (PAO1/PQ) had extensive diffuse alveolar damage characterized by alveolar hemorrhage, edema, influx of neutrophils, and vasculitis; 50% (16 of 32) died within 96 h of PQ injection. Mean lung counts of PAO1 at death were 7.6 X 10(4) colony forming units/g in PAO1 and 2.8 X 10(7) in PAO1/PQ animals (p less than 0.05). PAO1 colony counts in liver were increased nearly 100-fold in PAO1/PQ animals (p less than 0.05). Half-time of clearance of P. aeruginosa from the blood was prolonged in PAO1 and in PAO1/PQ animals (p less than 0.05) but not in PQ animals. Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by leukocytes lavaged from the lung was not impaired in any group compared with that in control animals, but intracellular killing was impaired in PAO1 and PAO1/PQ but not in PQ animals. Paraquat injury impairs lung antibacterial defenses by uncertain mechanisms. Superinfection of PQ-injured lungs by PAO1 appears responsible for defects in intrapulmonary and systemic antibacterial defenses.

  1. Ozone disinfection of home nebulizers effectively kills common cystic fibrosis bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Towle, Dana; Baker, Vanisha; Schramm, Craig; O'Brien, Matthew; Collins, Melanie S; Feinn, Richard; Murray, Thomas S

    2018-05-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) recommends routine nebulizer disinfection for patients but compliance is challenging due to the heavy burden of home care. SoClean® is a user friendly ozone based home disinfection device currently for home respiratory equipment. The objective of this study was to determine whether SoClean® has potential as a disinfection device for families with CF by killing CF associated bacteria without altering nebulizer output. Ozone based disinfection effectively kills bacterial pathogens inoculated to home nebulizer equipment without gross changes in nebulizer function. Common bacterial pathogens associated with CF were inoculated onto the PariLC® jet nebulizer and bacterial recovery compared with or without varied ozone exposure. In separate experiments, nebulizer output was estimated after repeated ozone exposure by weighing the nebulizer. Ozone disinfection was time dependent with a 5 min infusion time and 120 min dwell time effectively killing >99.99% bacteria tested including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Over 250 h of repeat ozone exposure did not alter nebulizer output. This suggests SoClean® has potential as a user-friendly disinfection technique for home respiratory equipment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Invasive bacterial infections in a pediatric oncology unit in a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Trehan, A; Totadri, S; Gautam, V; Bansal, D; Ray, P

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens are becoming a major problem worldwide, more so in the immunocompromised hosts resulting in the urgent need of antibiotic stewardship. To analyze the organisms isolated and the drug resistance pattern in a pediatric oncology unit. Data pertaining to infections with 128 positive cultures in patients with febrile neutropenia over a period of 1-year are presented. The unit antibiotic policy is decided depending on the sensitivity of the prevailing common organisms. We isolated Gram-negative organisms in 56% cases. Escherichia coli and Klebseilla were the most frequent lactose fermenting Gram-negative Bacilli and Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter the nonfermenting Gram-negative Bacilli. Only 20-30% of the Gram-negative organisms cultured were sensitive to a 3rd/4th generation cephalosporin. The combination of a beta-lactam/inhibitor covered 2/3rd of Gram-negative organisms. About 80% of the organisms were sensitive to carbapenems. There was no colistin resistance. About 44% of our cultures grew a Gram-positive bacterial organism and included coagulase negative Staphylococcus. We had an incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus to be 30%. About 30% of the enterococci isolated in our unit were vancomycin-resistant enterococci. About 23% of patients with a positive bacterial culture died. Infections in pediatric cancer patient's account for about 15-20% of the deaths in developing countries as these patients are at a high risk for developing MDR infections. Resistance rates among Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms have increased worldwide. Every unit needs a rational antibiotic policy. Antibiotic de-escalation and judicious decrease in the duration of antibiotics needs to be practiced.

  3. New prediction model for diagnosis of bacterial infection in febrile infants younger than 90 days.

    PubMed

    Vujevic, Matea; Benzon, Benjamin; Markic, Josko

    2017-01-01

    Vujevic M, Benzon B, Markic J. New prediction model for diagnosis of bacterial infection in febrile infants younger than 90 days. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 261-268. Due to non-specific clinical presentation in febrile infants, extensive laboratory testing is often carried out to distinguish simple viral disease from serious bacterial infection (SBI). Objective of this study was to compare efficacy of different biomarkers in early diagnosis of SBI in infants < 90 days old. Also, we developed prediction models with whom it will be possible to diagnose SBI with more accuracy than with any biomarkers independently. Febrile < 90-day-old infants hospitalized in 2-year-period at Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Centre Split with suspicion of having SBI were included in this study. Retrospective cohort analysis of data acquired from medical records was performed. Out of 181 enrolled patients, SBI was confirmed in 70. Most common diagnosis was urinary tract infection (68.6%), followed by pneumonia (12.9%), sepsis (11.4%), gastroenterocolitis (5.7%) and meningitis (1.4%). Male gender was shown to be a risk factor for SBI in this population (p=0.008). White blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were confirmed as the independent predictors of SBI, with CRP as the best one. Two prediction models built by combining biomarkers and clinical variables were selected as optimal with sensitivities of 74.3% and 75.7%, and specificities of 88.3% and 86%. Evidently, CRP is a more superior biomarker in diagnostics of SBI comparing to WBC and ANC. Prediction models were shown to be better in predicting SBI than independent biomarkers. Although both showed high sensitivity and specificity, their true strength should be determined using validation cohort.

  4. Bacterial adenosine triphosphate as a measure of urinary tract infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    Procedure detects and counts bacteria present in urine samples. Method also determines bacterial levels in other aqueous body fluids including lymph fluid, plasma, blood, spinal fluid, saliva and mucous.

  5. Sensitivity and Specificity of Procalcitonin in Predicting Bacterial Infections in Patients With Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    El-sayed, Dena; Grotts, Jonathan; Golgert, William A.; Sugar, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background  It is unclear whether procalcitonin is an accurate predictor of bacterial infections in patients with renal impairment, although it is used as a biomarker for early diagnosis of sepsis. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and best predictive value of procalcitonin for predicting bacterial infection in adult patients with severe renal impairment. Methods  Retrospective study at a single-center community teaching hospital involving 473 patients, ages 18–65, with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease eGFR ≤30 ml/min per 1.73 m2, admitted between January 2009 and June 2012, with 660 independent hospital visits. A positive or negative culture (blood or identifiable focus of infection) was paired to the highest procalcitonin result performed 48 hours before or after collecting the culture. Results  The sensitivity and specificity to predict bacterial infection, using a procalcitonin level threshold of 0.5 ng/mL, was 0.80 and 0.35 respectively. When isolating for presence of bacteremia, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.89 and 0.35 respectively. An equation adjusting for optimum thresholds of procalcitonin levels for predicting bacterial infection at different levels of eGFR had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.55 and 0.80 respectively. Conclusions  Procalcitonin is not a reliably sensitive or specific predictor of bacterial infection in patients with renal impairment when using a single threshold. Perhaps two thresholds should be employed, where below the lower threshold (i.e. 0.5 ng/mL) bacterial infection is unlikely with a sensitivity of 0.80, and above the higher threshold (i.e. 3.2 ng/mL) bacterial infection is very likely with a specificity of 0.75. PMID:25734138

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin in predicting bacterial infections in patients with renal impairment.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Dena; Grotts, Jonathan; Golgert, William A; Sugar, Alan M

    2014-09-01

    It is unclear whether procalcitonin is an accurate predictor of bacterial infections in patients with renal impairment, although it is used as a biomarker for early diagnosis of sepsis. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and best predictive value of procalcitonin for predicting bacterial infection in adult patients with severe renal impairment. Retrospective study at a single-center community teaching hospital involving 473 patients, ages 18-65, with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease eGFR ≤30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), admitted between January 2009 and June 2012, with 660 independent hospital visits. A positive or negative culture (blood or identifiable focus of infection) was paired to the highest procalcitonin result performed 48 hours before or after collecting the culture. The sensitivity and specificity to predict bacterial infection, using a procalcitonin level threshold of 0.5 ng/mL, was 0.80 and 0.35 respectively. When isolating for presence of bacteremia, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.89 and 0.35 respectively. An equation adjusting for optimum thresholds of procalcitonin levels for predicting bacterial infection at different levels of eGFR had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.55 and 0.80 respectively. Procalcitonin is not a reliably sensitive or specific predictor of bacterial infection in patients with renal impairment when using a single threshold. Perhaps two thresholds should be employed, where below the lower threshold (i.e. 0.5 ng/mL) bacterial infection is unlikely with a sensitivity of 0.80, and above the higher threshold (i.e. 3.2 ng/mL) bacterial infection is very likely with a specificity of 0.75.

  7. The antimicrobial activity of honey against common equine wound bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Carnwath, R; Graham, E M; Reynolds, K; Pollock, P J

    2014-01-01

    Delayed healing associated with distal limb wounds is a particular problem in equine clinical practice. Recent studies in human beings and other species have demonstrated the beneficial wound healing properties of honey, and medical grade honey dressings are available commercially in equine practice. Equine clinicians are reported to source other non-medical grade honeys for the same purpose. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of a number of honey types against common equine wound bacterial pathogens. Twenty-nine honey products were sourced, including gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated commercial medical grade honeys, supermarket honeys, and honeys from local beekeepers. To exclude contaminated honeys from the project, all honeys were cultured aerobically for evidence of bacterial contamination. Aerobic bacteria or fungi were recovered from 18 products. The antimicrobial activity of the remaining 11 products was assessed against 10 wound bacteria, recovered from the wounds of horses, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eight products were effective against all 10 bacterial isolates at concentrations varying from <2% to 16% (v/v). Overall, the Scottish Heather Honey was the best performing product, and inhibited the growth of all 10 bacterial isolates at concentrations ranging from <2% to 6% (v/v). Although Manuka has been the most studied honey to date, other sources may have valuable antimicrobial properties. Since some honeys were found to be contaminated with aerobic bacteria or fungi, non-sterile honeys may not be suitable for wound treatment. Further assessment of gamma-irradiated honeys from the best performing honeys would be useful. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High specificity ZnO quantum dots for diagnosis and treatment in bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    Early diagnosis and effective treatment of bacterial infection has become increasingly important. Herein, we developed a fluorescent nano-probe MPA@ZnO-PEP by conjugating SiO2-stabilized ZnO quantum dot (ZnO@SiO2) with bacteria-targeting peptide PEP, which was encapsulated with MPA, a near infrared (NIR) dye. The nanoprobe MPA@ZnO-PEP showed excellent fluorescence property and could specifically distinguish bacterial infection from sterile inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. The favorable biocompatability of MPA@ZnO-PEP was verified by MTT assay. This probe was further modified with antibiotic methicillin to form the theranostic nanoparticle MPA/Met@ZnO-PEP with amplified antibacterial activity. These results promised the great potential of MPA@ZnO-PEP for efficient non-invasive early diagnosis of bacterial infections and effective bacterial-targeting therapy.

  9. Bacterial Quality of Urinary Tract Infections in Diabetic and Non Diabetics of the Population of Ma'an Province, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Asoufi, Ali; Khlaifat, Ali; Tarawneh, Amjad Al; Alsharafa, Khalid; Al-Limoun, Muhamad; Khleifat, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    The patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have malfunction in bladder which prompt urine accumulation in its pool which serves a decent situation to the microbes to be develop and cause Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). The UTI is the most infectious disease that affects both males and females. This study was designed to detect the bacterial species responsible for UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Ma'an province, Jordan. One hundred sixteen urine samples were investigated to determine UTI-causing bacteria. These samples distributed unequally between diabetic male (12) and diabetic female (25) and also non-diabetic male (13) and non-diabetic female (66). It was observed that E. coli is responsible for large proportion (44.8%) of UTI in both diabetic (15.5%) and non-diabetic (29.3%) patients. This study showed inequality in the bacterial species that were isolated from both diabetic and non-diabetic samples. However, five bacterial species including E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, C. freundii, A. baumannii and B. subtilis did not exist in all diabetic samples. Treatment of UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients with chloramphenicol (30 μg), ciprofloxacin (5 μg) and vancomycin (30 μg) resulted in more favorability than other antibiotics. At the same time cephalothin (30 μg) was not recommended. Escherichia coli was the prevailing bacterial infections among those which were isolated from patients with UTI. Certain forms of bacterial infections inclined to be extra common in diabetic patients than others and other infections may be more severe in people with diabetics than in non diabetics.

  10. The impact of bacterial and viral co‐infection in severe influenza

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Christopher C.; Webb, Steve A. R.; Kok, Jen; Dwyer, Dominic E.; van Hal, Sebastiaan J.; Foo, Hong; Ginn, Andrew N.; Kesson, Alison M.; Seppelt, Ian; Iredell, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Blyth et al. (2013) The impact of bacterial and viral co‐infection in severe influenza. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(2) 168–176. Background  Many questions remain concerning the burden, risk factors and impact of bacterial and viral co‐infection in patients with pandemic influenza admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Objectives  To examine the burden, risk factors and impact of bacterial and viral co‐infection in Australian patients with severe influenza. Patients/Methods  A cohort study conducted in 14 ICUs was performed. Patients with proven influenza A during the 2009 influenza season were eligible for inclusion. Demographics, risk factors, clinical data, microbiological data, complications and outcomes were collected. Polymerase chain reaction for additional bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens was performed on stored respiratory samples. Results  Co‐infection was identified in 23·3–26·9% of patients with severe influenza A infection: viral co‐infection, 3·2–3·4% and bacterial co‐infection, 20·5–24·7%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent bacterial co‐infection followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Patients with co‐infection were younger [mean difference in age = 8·46 years (95% CI: 0·18–16·74 years)], less likely to have significant co‐morbidities (32·0% versus 66·2%, P = 0·004) and less frequently obese [mean difference in body mass index = 6·86 (95% CI: 1·77–11·96)] compared to those without co‐infection. Conclusions  Bacterial or viral co‐infection complicated one in four patients admitted to ICU with severe influenza A infection. Despite the co‐infected patients being younger and with fewer co‐morbidities, no significant difference in outcomes was observed. It is likely that co‐infection contributed to a need for ICU admission in those without other risk factors for severe influenza disease

  11. Ceftaroline fosamil in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Lodise, Thomas P; Low, Donald E

    2012-07-30

    Ceftaroline fosamil is a cephalosporin antibacterial approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). After intravenous administration, ceftaroline fosamil is rapidly converted to its bioactive metabolite, ceftaroline. Ceftaroline has broad-spectrum in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including contemporary resistant Gram-positive phenotypes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because of its unique spectrum of activity, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) designated ceftaroline as a member of a new subclass of β-lactam antimicrobials, cephalosporins with anti-MRSA activity. The activity of ceftaroline against S. aureus extends to heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate, vancomycin-intermediate, vancomycin-resistant and daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolates. Ceftaroline has low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for all tested species of streptococci, and has potent activity against S. pneumoniae isolates with varying degrees of penicillin resistance. The activity of ceftaroline is limited against Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and against anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis. The in vitro activity of ceftaroline includes many Gram-negative pathogens, but does not extend to bacteria that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, class B metallo-β-lactamases or AmpC cephalosporinases, or to most nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Ceftaroline fosamil has been studied for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in phase III randomized, double-blind, international, multicentre noninferiority clinical trials. Two identical trials (CANVAS 1 and CANVAS 2) compared the efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil with that of

  12. Inheritance of high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas Axonopodis pv. Phaseoli in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) is an important biotic factor limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. A few interspecific bean breeding lines such as VAX 6 exhibit a high level of resistance to a wide range of Xap strains repr...

  13. Screening host proteins required for bacterial adherence after H9N2 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Li; Sun, Zhen-Hong; Xu, Yu-Lin; Wang, Shu-Juan; Wang, Hui-Ning; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Li-Ping; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Lin; Shang, Hong-Qi; Zhu, Rui-Liang; Wei, Kai

    2018-01-01

    H9N2 subtype low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) is distributed worldwide and causes great economic losses in the poultry industry, especially when complicated with other bacterial infections. Tissue damages caused by virus infection provide an opportunity for bacteria invasion, but this mechanism is not sufficient for low pathogenic strains. Moreover, although H9N2 virus infection was demonstrated to promote bacterial infection in several studies, its mechanism remained unclear. In this study, infection experiments in vivo and in vitro demonstrated that the adhesion of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to host cells significantly increased after H9N2 virus infection, and this increase was not caused by pathological damages. Subsequently, we constructed a late chicken embryo infection model and used proteomics techniques to analyze the expression of proteins associated with bacterial adhesion after H9N2 virus infection. A total of 279 significantly differential expressed proteins were detected through isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis. The results of Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins were enriched in host innate immunity; cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis; and pathogenicity-related signaling pathways. Finally, we screened out several proteins, such as TGF-β1, integrins, cortactin, E-cadherin, vinculin, and fibromodulin, which were probably associated with bacterial adhesion. The study analyzed the mechanism of secondary bacterial infection induced by H9N2 virus infection from a novel perspective, which provided theoretical and data support for investigating the synergistic infection mechanism between the H9N2 virus and bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum procalcitonin has negative predictive value for bacterial infection in active systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bador, K M; Intan, S; Hussin, S; Gafor, A H A

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have produced conflicting results regarding the diagnostic utility of procalcitonin (PCT). The aim of this study was to determine predictive values of PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP) for bacterial infection in SLE patients. This was a cross-sectional study of clinic and hospitalized SLE patients with and without bacterial infection recruited over 18 months. Bacterial infection was defined as positive culture results. SLE disease activity was measured using SLEDAI. PCT and CRP were measured by automated immunoassays. Sixty-eight patients (57 females) were studied. Ten patients (15%) had infection. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for PCT and CRP were not significantly different [0.797 (CI 0.614-0.979) versus 0.755 (CI 0.600-0.910)]. In lupus flare patients, PCT but not CRP was higher with infection (p = 0.019 versus 0.195). A PCT of <0.17 ng/ml ruled out infection with 94% negative predictive value (NPV). In remission patients, CRP but not PCT was elevated with infection (p = 0.036 versus 0.103). CRP < 0.57 mg/dl had 96% NPV. PCT may be a better marker to rule out bacterial infection in lupus flare but not in remission or general screening.

  15. Identification and expression profiles of multiple genes in Nile tilapia in response to bacterial infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with Aeromonas hydrophi...

  16. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and...

  17. Towards the identification of the common features of bacterial biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Iñigo

    2006-03-01

    Microorganisms can live and proliferate as individual cells swimming freely in the environment, or they can grow as highly organized, multicellular communities encased in a self-produced polymeric matrix in close association with surfaces and interfaces. This microbial lifestyle is referred to as biofilms. The intense search over the last few years for factors involved in biofilm development has revealed that distantly related bacterial species recurrently make use of the same elements to produce biofilms. These common elements include a group of proteins containing GGDEF/EAL domains, surface proteins homologous to Bap of Staphylococcus aureus, and some types of exopolysaccharides, such as cellulose and the poly-beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine. This review summarizes current knowledge about these three common elements and their role in biofilm development.

  18. Can procalcitonin help identify associated bacterial infection in patients with severe influenza pneumonia? A multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Cuquemelle, E; Soulis, F; Villers, D; Roche-Campo, F; Ara Somohano, C; Fartoukh, M; Kouatchet, A; Mourvillier, B; Dellamonica, J; Picard, W; Schmidt, M; Boulain, T; Brun-Buisson, C

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether procalcitonin (PCT) levels could help discriminate isolated viral from mixed (bacterial and viral) pneumonia in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the A/H1N1v2009 influenza pandemic. A retrospective observational study was performed in 23 French ICUs during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Levels of PCT at admission were compared between patients with confirmed influenzae A pneumonia associated or not associated with a bacterial co-infection. Of 103 patients with confirmed A/H1N1 infection and not having received prior antibiotics, 48 (46.6%; 95% CI 37-56%) had a documented bacterial co-infection, mostly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (54%) or Staphylococcus aureus (31%). Fifty-two patients had PCT measured on admission, including 19 (37%) having bacterial co-infection. Median (range 25-75%) values of PCT were significantly higher in patients with bacterial co-infection: 29.5 (3.9-45.3) versus 0.5 (0.12-2) μg/l (P < 0.01). For a cut-off of 0.8 μg/l or more, the sensitivity and specificity of PCT for distinguishing isolated viral from mixed pneumonia were 91 and 68%, respectively. Alveolar condensation combined with a PCT level of 0.8 μg/l or more was strongly associated with bacterial co-infection (OR 12.9, 95% CI 3.2-51.5; P < 0.001). PCT may help discriminate viral from mixed pneumonia during the influenza season. Levels of PCT less than 0.8 μg/l combined with clinical judgment suggest that bacterial infection is unlikely.

  19. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivatives in treatment of bacterial skin infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Huang, Joy H.; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an effective method for killing bacterial cells in view of the increasing problem of multiantibiotic resistance. We herein reported the PACT effect on bacteria involved in skin infections using a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-Lys). Compared with its anionic ZnPc counterpart, ZnPc-Lys showed an enhanced antibacterial efficacy in vitro and in an animal model of localized infection. Meanwhile, ZnPc-Lys was observed to significantly reduce the wound skin blood flow during wound healing, indicating an anti-inflammation activity. This study provides new insight on the mechanisms of PACT in bacterial skin infection.

  20. Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in a Cameroonian City.

    PubMed

    Nzalie, Rolf Nyah-Tuku; Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are usually treated empirically. Geographical variations in etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns are common. Knowledge of antibiotic resistance trends is important for improving evidence-based recommendations for empirical treatment of UTIs. Our aim was to determine the major bacterial etiologies of CAUTIs and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a cosmopolitan area of Cameroon for comparison with prescription practices of local physicians. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study at two main hospitals in Yaoundé, collecting a clean-catch mid-stream urine sample from 92 patients having a clinical diagnosis of UTI. The empirical antibiotherapy was noted, and identification of bacterial species was done on CLED agar; antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results. A total of 55 patients had samples positive for a UTI. Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were the most empirically prescribed antibiotics (30.9% and 23.6%, resp.); bacterial isolates showed high prevalence of resistance to both compounds. Escherichia coli (50.9%) was the most common pathogen, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.4%). Prevalence of resistance for ciprofloxacin was higher compared to newer quinolones. Conclusions. E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the predominant bacterial etiologies; the prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics was high.

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Common Bacterial, Parasitic and Viral Zoonoses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M.

    2017-01-01

    Egypt has a unique geographical location connecting the three old-world continents Africa, Asia and Europe. It is the country with the highest population density in the Middle East, Northern Africa and the Mediterranean basin. This review summarizes the prevalence, reservoirs, sources of human infection and control regimes of common bacterial, parasitic and viral zoonoses in animals and humans in Egypt. There is a gap of knowledge conerning the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal interface in different localities in Egypt. Some zoonotic agents are “exotic” for Egypt (e.g., MERS-CoV and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus), others are endemic (e.g., Brucellosis, Schistosomiasis and Avian influenza). Transboundary transmission of emerging pathogens from and to Egypt occurred via different routes, mainly importation/exportation of apparently healthy animals or migratory birds. Control of the infectious agents and multidrug resistant bacteria in the veterinary sector is on the frontline for infection control in humans. The implementation of control programs significantly decreased the prevalence of some zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, in some localities within the country. Sustainable awareness, education and training targeting groups at high risk (veterinarians, farmers, abattoir workers, nurses, etc.) are important to lessen the burden of zoonotic diseases among Egyptians. There is an urgent need for collaborative surveillance and intervention plans for the control of these diseases in Egypt. PMID:28754024

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Common Bacterial, Parasitic and Viral Zoonoses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Yosra A; El-Adawy, Hosny; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M

    2017-07-21

    Egypt has a unique geographical location connecting the three old-world continents Africa, Asia and Europe. It is the country with the highest population density in the Middle East, Northern Africa and the Mediterranean basin. This review summarizes the prevalence, reservoirs, sources of human infection and control regimes of common bacterial, parasitic and viral zoonoses in animals and humans in Egypt. There is a gap of knowledge conerning the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal interface in different localities in Egypt. Some zoonotic agents are "exotic" for Egypt (e.g., MERS-CoV and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus), others are endemic (e.g., Brucellosis, Schistosomiasis and Avian influenza). Transboundary transmission of emerging pathogens from and to Egypt occurred via different routes, mainly importation/exportation of apparently healthy animals or migratory birds. Control of the infectious agents and multidrug resistant bacteria in the veterinary sector is on the frontline for infection control in humans. The implementation of control programs significantly decreased the prevalence of some zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, in some localities within the country. Sustainable awareness, education and training targeting groups at high risk (veterinarians, farmers, abattoir workers, nurses, etc.) are important to lessen the burden of zoonotic diseases among Egyptians. There is an urgent need for collaborative surveillance and intervention plans for the control of these diseases in Egypt.

  3. Effect of probiotic supplementation on bacterial translocation in common bile duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Fatma; Salman, Tansu; Gun, Feryal; Celik, Alaaddin; Gurler, Nezahat; Dogru Abbasoglu, Semra; Olgac, Vakur; Saygili, Ayse

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of probiotics on bacterial translocation in the obstructive common bile duct with comparison to an enteral product containing arginine and glutamine. In our study, 40 Sprague-Dawley rats each weighing 250-300 g were used. Animals in Group 1 (sham) were laparatomized and fed standard chow supplemented with physiologic saline at daily doses of 2 ml through orogastric tube for 7 days. Common bile ducts of the animals in the other groups were ligated with 3/0 silk sutures. Group 2 (control group) was fed standard chow supplemented with daily doses of 2 ml physiologic saline. Group 3 (probiotic group) was fed standard chow supplemented with a probiotic solution (Acidophilus plus) containing strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus bulgaricus at a daily doses of 2 × 10(9) colony forming units (CFU). Group 4 (formula group) was fed only an enteral solution (Stresson Multi Fiber) containing glutamine, arginine and a medium-chain fatty acid at daily doses of 2 g/kg. At the end of the 7th day, all animals were relaparatomized, and to determine bacterial translocation, aerobic, and anaerobic cultures were obtained from the specimens of mesenteric lymph nodes, intestinal mucosa, and blood samples. Smear cultures prepared from caecum were examined to determine the number of CFU. Finally, for histological examination specimens were excised from terminal ileum, and oxidative damage was assessed in liver tissues. Afterwards all animals were killed. Moderately lesser degrees of bacterial translocation, and mucosal damage were seen in Groups 3, and 4 relative to Group 2 (p < 0.05). In Group 4, any difference was not seen in the number of cecal bacteria relative to baseline values, while in Group 3, significant decrease in cecal colonization was seen. Among all groups, a significant difference between levels of malondialdehyde, and glutathione was not observed. At the end of our study, we have concluded that

  4. Temperature variation, bacterial diversity and fungal infection dynamics in the amphibian skin.

    PubMed

    Longo, Ana V; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2017-09-01

    Host-associated bacterial communities on the skin act as the first line of defence against invading pathogens. Yet, for most natural systems, we lack a clear understanding of how temperature variability affects structure and composition of skin bacterial communities and, in turn, promotes or limits the colonization of opportunistic pathogens. Here, we examine how natural temperature fluctuations might be related to changes in skin bacterial diversity over time in three amphibian populations infected by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Our focal host species (Eleutherodactylus coqui) is a direct-developing frog that has suffered declines at some populations in the last 20 years, while others have not experienced any changes. We quantified skin bacterial alpha- and beta-diversity at four sampling time points, a period encompassing two seasons and ample variation in natural infections and environmental conditions. Despite the different patterns of infection across populations, we detected an overall increase in bacterial diversity through time, characterized by the replacement of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Increased frog body temperatures possibly allowed the colonization of bacteria as well as the recruitment of a subset of indicator OTUs, which could have promoted the observed changes in diversity patterns. Our results suggest that natural environmental fluctuations might be involved in creating opportunities for bacterial replacement, potentially attenuating pathogen transmission and thus contributing to host persistence in E. coqui populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. D-lactic acid measurements in the diagnosis of bacterial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S M; Eng, R H; Campos, J M; Chmel, H

    1989-01-01

    Body fluids suspected of bacterial infection were cultured and examined for the presence of D-lactic acid, a specific bacterial metabolite. We examined 206 patients and 264 specimens. D-Lactic acid was found in concentrations of greater than or equal to 0.15 mM in 11 of 11 infected and 6 of 40 noninfected ascitic fluids, 6 of 6 infected and 4 of 33 noninfected pleural fluids, 4 of 4 infected and 0 of 13 noninfected synovial fluids, and 26 of 27 infected and 2 of 130 noninfected cerebrospinal fluids. The overall sensitivity was 79.7%, and the specificity was 99.5% when the D-lactic acid concentration was at least 0.15 mM. The most important clinical utility of the D-lactic acid measurement appears to be for patients with bacterial infection in various body compartments and in patients who have already received antimicrobial therapy. An elevation in D-lactic acid may indicate the presence of bacterial infection even when cultures are negative. PMID:2715313

  6. Epidemiology and aetiology of maternal bacterial and viral infections in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Velu, Prasad Palani; Gravett, Courtney A.; Roberts, Tom K.; Wagner, Thor A.; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries has remained exceedingly high. However, information on bacterial and viral maternal infections, which are important contributors to poor pregnancy outcomes, is sparse and poorly characterised. This review aims to describe the epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial and viral maternal infections in low- and middle-income countries. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted and data on aetiology and epidemiology of maternal infections was extracted from relevant studies for analysis. Searches were conducted in parallel by two reviewers (using OVID) in the following databases: Medline (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010) and Global Health (1973 to 2010). Results Data from 158 relevant studies was used to characterise the epidemiology of the 10 most extensively reported maternal infections with the following median prevalence rates: Treponema pallidum (2.6%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.5%), Chlamydia trachomatis (5.8%), Group B Streptococcus (8.6%), bacterial vaginosis (20.9%), hepatitis B virus (4.3%), hepatitis C virus (1.4%), Cytomegalovirus (95.7% past infection), Rubella (8.9% susceptible) and Herpes simplex (20.7%). Large variations in the prevalence of these infections between countries and regions were noted. Conclusion This review confirms the suspected high prevalence of maternal bacterial and viral infections and identifies particular diseases and regions requiring urgent attention in public health policy planning, setting research priorities and donor funding towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23198117

  7. Susceptibility of metallic magnesium implants to bacterial biofilm infections.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Rohde, Manfred; Rais, Bushra; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Mueller, Peter P

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium alloys have promising mechanical and biological properties as biodegradable medical implant materials for temporary applications during bone healing or as vascular stents. Whereas conventional implants are prone to colonization by treatment resistant microbial biofilms in which bacteria are embedded in a protective matrix, magnesium alloys have been reported to act antibacterial in vitro. To permit a basic assessment of antibacterial properties of implant materials in vivo an economic but robust animal model was established. Subcutaneous magnesium implants were inoculated with bacteria in a mouse model. Contrary to the expectations, bacterial activity was enhanced and prolonged in the presence of magnesium implants. Systemic antibiotic treatments were remarkably ineffective, which is a typical property of bacterial biofilms. Biofilm formation was further supported by electron microscopic analyses that revealed highly dense bacterial populations and evidence for the presence of extracellular matrix material. Bacterial agglomerates could be detected not only on the implant surface but also at a limited distance in the peri-implant tissue. Therefore, precautions may be necessary to minimize risks of metallic magnesium-containing implants in prospective clinical applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1489-1499, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Parasitism enhances susceptibility to bacterial infection in tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gyrodactylus is a small elongate monogenetic parasite that mainly lives on the skin and gills of freshwater fish. Gyrodactylus causes mechanical injuries on fish epithelium that can lead to fish mortality under crowded conditions. Streptococcus iniae is a severe bacterial pathogen and the economic l...

  9. Sputum colour for diagnosis of a bacterial infection in patients with acute cough

    PubMed Central

    Altiner, Attila; Wilm, Stefan; Däubener, Walter; Bormann, Christiane; Pentzek, Michael; Abholz, Heinz-Harald; Scherer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objective Sputum colour plays an important role in the disease concepts for acute cough, both in the patients’ and the doctors’ view. However, it is unclear whether the sputum colour can be used for diagnosis of a bacterial infection. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 42 GP practices in Düsseldorf, Germany. Subjects Sputum samples obtained from 241 patients suffering from an episode of acute cough seeing their doctor within a routine consultation. Main outcome measures Relation of sputum colour and microbiological proof of bacterial infection defined as positive culture and at least a moderate number of leucocytes per low magnification field. Results In 28 samples (12%) a bacterial infection was proven. Yellowish or greenish colour of the sputum sample and bacterial infection showed a significant correlation (p = 0.014, Fisher's exact test). The sensitivity of yellowish or greenish sputum used as a test for a bacterial infection was 0.79 (95% CI 0.63–0.94); the specificity was 0.46 (95% CI 0.038–0.53). The positive likelihood-ratio (+LR) was 1.46 (95% CI 1.17-1.85). Conclusions The sputum colour of patients with acute cough and no underlying chronic lung disease does not imply therapeutic consequences such as prescription of antibiotics. PMID:19242860

  10. Sputum colour for diagnosis of a bacterial infection in patients with acute cough.

    PubMed

    Altiner, Attila; Wilm, Stefan; Däubener, Walter; Bormann, Christiane; Pentzek, Michael; Abholz, Heinz-Harald; Scherer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Sputum colour plays an important role in the disease concepts for acute cough, both in the patients' and the doctors' view. However, it is unclear whether the sputum colour can be used for diagnosis of a bacterial infection. Cross-sectional study. A total of 42 GP practices in Dusseldorf, Germany. Sputum samples obtained from 241 patients suffering from an episode of acute cough seeing their doctor within a routine consultation. Relation of sputum colour and microbiological proof of bacterial infection defined as positive culture and at least a moderate number of leucocytes per low magnification field. In 28 samples (12%) a bacterial infection was proven. Yellowish or greenish colour of the sputum sample and bacterial infection showed a significant correlation (p = 0.014, Fisher's exact test). The sensitivity of yellowish or greenish sputum used as a test for a bacterial infection was 0.79 (95% CI 0.63-0.94); the specificity was 0.46 (95% CI 0.038-0.53). The positive likelihood-ratio (+LR) was 1.46 (95% CI 1.17-1.85). The sputum colour of patients with acute cough and no underlying chronic lung disease does not imply therapeutic consequences such as prescription of antibiotics.

  11. Gut microbial translocation corrupts myeloid cell function to control bacterial infection during liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Hackstein, Carl-Philipp; Assmus, Lisa Mareike; Welz, Meike; Klein, Sabine; Schwandt, Timo; Schultze, Joachim; Förster, Irmgard; Gondorf, Fabian; Beyer, Marc; Kroy, Daniela; Kurts, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Kastenmüller, Wolfgang; Knolle, Percy A; Abdullah, Zeinab

    2017-03-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis suffer from increased susceptibility to life-threatening bacterial infections that cause substantial morbidity. Experimental liver fibrosis in mice induced by bile duct ligation or CCl 4 application was used to characterise the mechanisms determining failure of innate immunity to control bacterial infections. In murine liver fibrosis, translocation of gut microbiota induced tonic type I interferon (IFN) expression in the liver. Such tonic IFN expression conditioned liver myeloid cells to produce high concentrations of IFN upon intracellular infection with Listeria that activate cytosolic pattern recognition receptors. Such IFN-receptor signalling caused myeloid cell interleukin (IL)-10 production that corrupted antibacterial immunity, leading to loss of infection-control and to infection-associated mortality. In patients with liver cirrhosis, we also found a prominent liver IFN signature and myeloid cells showed increased IL-10 production after bacterial infection. Thus, myeloid cells are both source and target of IFN-induced and IL-10-mediated immune dysfunction. Antibody-mediated blockade of IFN-receptor or IL-10-receptor signalling reconstituted antibacterial immunity and prevented infection-associated mortality in mice with liver fibrosis. In severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, failure to control bacterial infection is caused by augmented IFN and IL-10 expression that incapacitates antibacterial immunity of myeloid cells. Targeted interference with the immune regulatory host factors IL-10 and IFN reconstitutes antibacterial immunity and may be used as therapeutic strategy to control bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. A common bacterial metabolite elicits prion-based bypass of glucose repression

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David M; Dietrich, David; Clardy, Jon; Jarosz, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Robust preference for fermentative glucose metabolism has motivated domestication of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This program can be circumvented by a protein-based genetic element, the [GAR+] prion, permitting simultaneous metabolism of glucose and other carbon sources. Diverse bacteria can elicit yeast cells to acquire [GAR+], although the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we identify the common bacterial metabolite lactic acid as a strong [GAR+] inducer. Transient exposure to lactic acid caused yeast cells to heritably circumvent glucose repression. This trait had the defining genetic properties of [GAR+], and did not require utilization of lactic acid as a carbon source. Lactic acid also induced [GAR+]-like epigenetic states in fungi that diverged from S. cerevisiae ~200 million years ago, and in which glucose repression evolved independently. To our knowledge, this is the first study to uncover a bacterial metabolite with the capacity to potently induce a prion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17978.001 PMID:27906649

  13. Preponderance of bacterial isolates in urine of HIV-positive malaria-infected pregnant women with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ako-Nai, Kwashie Ajibade; Ebhodaghe, Blessing Itohan; Osho, Patrick; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Adeyemi, Folasade Mubiat; Kassim, Olakunle O

    2014-12-15

    This study examined HIV and malaria co-infection as a risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnancy. The study group included 74 pregnant women, 20 to 42 years of age, who attended the antenatal clinic at the Specialist Hospital at Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Forty-four of the pregnant women were either HIV seropositive with malaria infection (HIV+Mal+) or HIV seropositive without malaria (HIV+Mal-). The remaining thirty pregnant women served as controls and included women HIV seronegative but with malaria (HIV-Mal+) and women HIV seronegative without malaria. UTI was indicated by a bacterial colony count of greater than 10⁵/mL of urine, using cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient medium (CLED) as the primary isolation medium. Bacterial isolates were characterized using convectional bacteriological methods, and antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the disk diffusion method. A total of 246 bacterial isolates were recovered from the cultures, with a mean of 3.53 isolates per subject. Women who were HIV+Mal+ had the most diverse group of bacterial isolates and the highest frequency of UTIs. The bacterial isolates from the HIV+Mal+ women also showed the highest degree of antibiotic resistance. While pregnancy and HIV infection may each represent a risk factor for UTI, HIV and malaria co-infection may increase its frequency in pregnancy. The higher frequency of multiple antibiotic resistance observed among the isolates, particularly isolates from HIV+Mal+ subjects, poses a serious public health concern as these strains may aggravate the prognosis of both UTI and HIV infection.

  14. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Vornhagen, Jay; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Merillat, Sean; Whidbey, Christopher; Ngo, Lisa Y.; Adams Waldorf, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth. PMID:27353757

  15. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Vornhagen, Jay; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Merillat, Sean; Whidbey, Christopher; Ngo, Lisa Y; Adams Waldorf, K M; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2016-06-28

    Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth. GBS are a family of bacteria that frequently colonize the vagina of pregnant women. In some cases, GBS ascend from the vagina into the uterine space, leading to fetal injury and preterm birth. Unfortunately, little is known about the mechanisms underlying ascending GBS infection. In this study, we show that a GBS virulence factor, HylB, shows higher activity in strains isolated from cases of preterm birth than those isolates from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. We discovered that GBS rely on HylB to avoid immune detection in uterine tissue, but not placental tissue, which leads to increased rates of fetal injury

  16. Bacterial bloodstream infections in the allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant patient: new considerations for a persistent nemesis.

    PubMed

    Dandoy, C E; Ardura, M I; Papanicolaou, G A; Auletta, J J

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI) cause significant transplant-related morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). This manuscript reviews the risk factors for and the bacterial pathogens causing BSIs in allo-HCT recipients in the contemporary transplant period. In addition, it offers insight into emerging resistant pathogens and reviews clinical management considerations to treat and strategies to prevent BSIs in allo-HCT patients.

  17. Associations of the vaginal microbiota with HIV infection, bacterial vaginosis, and demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Chehoud, Christel; Stieh, Daniel J; Bailey, Aubrey G; Laughlin, Alice L; Allen, Shannon A; McCotter, Kerrie L; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Hope, Thomas J; Bushman, Frederic D

    2017-04-24

    We sought to investigate the effects of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiota and associations with treatment and demographic factors. We thus compared vaginal microbiome samples from HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women collected at two Chicago area hospitals. We studied vaginal microbiome samples from 178 women analyzed longitudinally (n = 324 samples) and collected extensive data on clinical status and demographic factors. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the bacterial lineages present, then UniFrac, Shannon diversity, and other measures to compare community structure with sample metadata. Differences in microbiota measures were modest in the comparison of HIV+ and HIV- samples, in contrast to several previous studies, consistent with effective antiretroviral therapy. Proportions of healthy Lactobacillus species were not higher in HIV- patients overall, but were significantly higher when analyzed within each hospital in isolation. Rates of bacterial vaginosis were higher among African-American women and HIV+ women. Bacterial vaginosis was associated with higher frequency of HIV+. Unexpectedly, African-American women were more likely to switch bacterial vaginosis status between sampling times; switching was not associated with HIV+ status. The influence of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiome was modest for this cohort of well suppressed urban American women, consistent with effective antiretroviral therapy. HIV+ was found to be associated with bacterial vaginosis. Although bacterial vaginosis has previously been associated with HIV transmission, most of the women studied here became HIV+ many years before our test for bacterial vaginosis, thus implicating additional mechanisms linking HIV infection and bacterial vaginosis.

  18. Microfluidic system for the identification of bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Lind, Anders; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbi; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata; Goossens, Herman

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and pose a significant healthcare burden. The growing trend in antibiotic resistance makes it mandatory to develop diagnostic kits which allow not only the determination of a pathogen but also the antibiotic resistances. We have developed a microfluidic cartridge which takes a direct urine sample, extracts the DNA, performs an amplification using batch-PCR and flows the sample over a microarray which is printed into a microchannel for fluorescence detection. The cartridge is injection-molded out of COP and contains a set of two-component injection-molded rotary valves to switch between input and to isolate the PCR chamber during thermocycling. The hybridization probes were spotted directly onto a functionalized section of the outlet microchannel. We have been able to successfully perform PCR of E.coli in urine in this chip and perform a fluorescence detection of PCR products. An upgraded design of the cartridge contains the buffers and reagents in blisters stored on the chip.

  19. Bacterial Coaggregation Among the Most Commonly Isolated Bacteria From Contact Lens Cases.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ananya; Stapleton, Fiona; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-01-01

    To examine the coaggregation and cohesion between the commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases. Four or five strains each of commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, were grown, washed, mixed in equal proportions, and allowed to coaggregate for 24 hours. Lactose (0.06 M), sucrose (0.06 M), and pronase (2 mg/mL; 2 hours, 37°C) were used to inhibit coaggregation. Oral bacterial isolates of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus sanguinis were used as a positive control for coaggregation. Cohesion was performed with the ocular bacteria that demonstrated the highest level of coaggregation. Production of growth-inhibitory substances was measured by growing strains together on agar plates. The oral bacterial pair showed >80% coaggregation. Coaggregation occurred between ocular strains of S. aureus (2/5) or S. epidermidis (2/5) with P. aeruginosa strains (3/5); 42% to 62%. There was only slight coaggregation between staphylococci and S. marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus coaggregated with S. epidermidis. Lactose or sucrose treatment of S. aureus but pronase treatment of P. aeruginosa reversed the coaggregation. There was no cohesion between the ocular isolates. P. aeruginosa was able to stop growth of S. aureus but not vice versa. This study demonstrated for the first time that ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus could coaggregate, probably through lectin-carbohydrate interactions. However, this may not be related to biofilm formation in contact lens cases, as there was no evidence that the coaggregation was associated with cohesion between the strains.

  20. Bacterial infections of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to gamete collecting weirs in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Loch, T P; Scribner, K; Tempelman, R; Whelan, G; Faisal, M

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe the prevalence of bacterial infections in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to spawn in two tributaries within the Lake Michigan watershed. Ten bacterial genera, including Renibacterium, Aeromonas, Carnobacterium, Serratia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Hafnia, Salmonella, Shewanella and Morganella, were detected in the kidneys of Chinook salmon (n = 480) using culture, serological and molecular analyses. Among these, Aeromonas salmonicida was detected at a prevalence of ∼15%. Analyses revealed significant interactions between location/time of collection and gender for these infections, whereby overall infection prevalence increased greatly later in the spawning run and was significantly higher in females. Renibacterium salmoninarum was detected in fish kidneys at an overall prevalence of >25%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that R. salmoninarum prevalence differed significantly by location/time of collection and gender, with a higher likelihood of infection later in the spawning season and in females vs. males. Chi-square analyses quantifying non-independence of infection by multiple pathogens revealed a significant association between R. salmoninarum and motile aeromonad infections. Additionally, greater numbers of fish were found to be co-infected by multiple bacterial species than would be expected by chance alone. The findings of this study suggest a potential synergism between bacteria infecting spawning Chinook salmon. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Bovine pasteurellosis and other bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee

    2010-03-01

    Despite technological, biologic, and pharmacologic advances the bacterial component of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex continues to have a major adverse effect on the health and wellbeing of stocker and feeder cattle. Overlooked in this disappointing assessment is evaluation of the effects that working with younger, lighter-weight cattle have on managing the bacterial component of the BRD complex. Most problems associated with BRD come from cattle taken from and comingled with cattle operations that have inconsistent or nonexistent cattle health management. This article reviews the biologic, clinical, and management aspects of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis, primarily as related to current production management considerations of stocker and feeder cattle. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of bacterial cross infection associated with inspiration through flow-based spirometers.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Massimo; Strafella, Elisabetta; Croce, Nicola; Staffolani, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Valentino, Matteo; Santarelli, Lory

    2011-02-01

    Bacterial contamination of spirometers has been documented in water-sealed devices, mouthpieces, and connection tubes. Little information is available about bacterial contamination of flow-based apparatuses such as turbine-type spirometers and pneumotachographs. Inspiration through contaminated equipment is a potential source of cross infection. To investigate bacteria mobilization (ie, bacteria detachment and aerosolization from the instrument) during routine spirometric testing, 2 types of flow-based spirometers were used. Bacteria mobilization during artificial inspiration through in-line filters or cardboard mouthpieces was evaluated. Nine hundred workers undergoing periodic spirometric testing were enrolled at the occupational physician office in 30 sessions of 30 subjects each. The participants were asked to perform a forced vital capacity test in a turbine-type spirometer and in an unheated pneumotachograph fitted with disposable in-line filters or cardboard mouthpieces. To evaluate bacterial mobilization, an artificial inspiration was performed and bacterial growth determined. The bacterial growth analysis was assessed after the first and the thirtieth spirometric tests of each session without disinfecting the instruments between tests. In addition, instrument bacterial contamination was evaluated. No significant bacterial mobilization and instrument contamination were found in spirometric tests executed with in-line filters. Conversely, a significant bacterial mobilization and instrument contamination were observed in tests performed with cardboard mouthpieces. Differences between the 2 spirometers were not significant. In-line filters may effectively reduce the risk of bacterial cross infection. Inspiration through flow-based spirometers fitted with disposable cardboard mouthpieces is completely safe when combined with spirometer disinfection/sterilization between subjects. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and

  3. Bacterial sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected patients in the United States: estimates from the Medical Monitoring Project.

    PubMed

    Flagg, Elaine W; Weinstock, Hillard S; Frazier, Emma L; Valverde, Eduardo E; Heffelfinger, James D; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial sexually transmitted infections may facilitate HIV transmission. Bacterial sexually transmitted infection testing is recommended for sexually active HIV-infected patients annually and more frequently for those at elevated sexual risk. We estimated percentages of HIV-infected patients in the United States receiving at least one syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia test, and repeat (≥2 tests, ≥3 months apart) tests for any of these sexually transmitted infections from mid-2008 through mid-2010. The Medical Monitoring Project collects behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States using nationally representative sampling. Sexual activity included self-reported oral, vaginal, or anal sex in the past 12 months. Participants reporting more than 1 sexual partner or illicit drug use before/during sex in the past year were classified as having elevated sexual risk. Among participants with only 1 sex partner and no drug use before/during sex, those reporting consistent condom use were classified as low risk; those reporting sex without a condom (or for whom this was unknown) were classified as at elevated sexual risk only if they considered their sex partner to be a casual partner, or if their partner was HIV-negative or partner HIV status was unknown. Bacterial sexually transmitted infection testing was ascertained through medical record abstraction. Among sexually active patients, 55% were tested at least once in 12 months for syphilis, whereas 23% and 24% received at least one gonorrhea and chlamydia test, respectively. Syphilis testing did not vary by sex/sexual orientation. Receipt of at least 3 CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell counts and/or HIV viral load tests in 12 months was associated with syphilis testing in men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex with women only, and women. Chlamydia testing was significantly higher in sexually active women (30%) compared with men who have sex with women only

  4. [Microbiological diagnosis of bacterial infection associated with delivery and postpartum].

    PubMed

    Padilla-Ortega, Belén; Delgado-Palacio, Susana; García-Garrote, Fernando; Rodríguez-Gómez, Juan Miguel; Romero-Hernández, Beatriz

    2016-05-01

    The newborn may acquire infections during delivery due to maternal colonization of the birth canal, by microorganisms such as Streptococcus agalactiae that caused early neonatal infection, or acquisition through the placenta, amniotic fluid or birth products. After birth, the newborn that needs hospitalization can develop nosocomial infections during their care and exceptionally through lactation by infectious mastitis or incorrect handling of human milk, which does not require to stop breastfeeding in most cases. It is important and necessary to perform microbiological diagnosis for the correct treatment of perinatal infections, especially relevant in preterm infants with low or very low weight with high mortality rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Interferon in resistance to bacterial and protozoan infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Gould, Cheryl L.; Kierszenbaum, Felipe; Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of genetic differences in mouse strains on the modulation of protozoan infections by interferon (IFN) were investigated. In one set of experiments, three different strains of mice were injected with T. cruzi, and their sera were assayed at five time intervals for IFN titer. A greater quantity of IFN was produced by mouse strains that were susceptible to T. cruzi infection than by the more resistant strain. In another set of experiments, spleen cell cultures from inbred strains of mice were challenged with an antigen made from T.b. rhodesiense. The cells from mice resistant to infection, produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma than did cells from the susceptible mice. In a third set of experiments, it was found that mice injected with T.b. rhodesiense before being infected with a diabetogenic virus (EMC-D) were resistant to the effects of the virus and did not produce virus-specific antibody.

  6. Validating and updating a prediction rule for serious bacterial infection in patients with fever without source.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, S E; Derksen-Lubsen, G; Grobbee, D E; Donders, A R T; Moons, K G M; Moll, H A

    2007-01-01

    To externally validate and update a previously developed rule for predicting the presence of serious bacterial infections in children with fever without apparent source. Patients, 1-36 mo, presenting with fever without source, were prospectively enrolled. Serious bacterial infection included bacterial meningitis, sepsis, bacteraemia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacterial gastroenteritis, osteomyelitis/ethmoiditis. The generalizability of the original rule was determined. Subsequently, the prediction rule was updated using all available data of the patients with fever without source (1996-1998 and 2000-2001, n = 381) using multivariable logistic regression. the generalizability of the rule appeared insufficient in the new patients (n = 150). In the updated rule, independent predictors from history and examination were duration of fever, vomiting, ill clinical appearance, chest-wall retractions and poor peripheral circulation (ROC area (95%CI): 0.69 (0.63-0.75)). Additional independent predictors from laboratory were serum white blood cell count and C-reactive protein, and in urinalysis > or = 70 white bloods (ROC area (95%CI): 0.83 (0.78-0.88). A previously developed prediction rule for predicting the presence of serious bacterial infection in children with fever without apparent source was updated. Its clinical score can be used as a first screening tool. Additional laboratory testing may specify the individual risk estimate (range: 4-54%) further.

  7. Bacterial Infections Change Natural History of Cirrhosis Irrespective of Liver Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Elena; Garcovich, Matteo; Borzio, Mauro; Leandro, Gioacchino; Majumdar, Avik; Tsami, Aikaterini; Arvaniti, Vasiliki; Roccarina, Davide; Pinzani, Massimo; Burroughs, Andrew K; O'Beirne, James; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the prognostic significance of infections in relation to current prognostic scores and explored if infection could be considered per se a distinct clinical stage in the natural history of cirrhosis. We included consecutive patients with cirrhosis admitted to a tertiary referral liver unit for at least 48 h over a 2-year period. Diagnosis of infection was based on positive cultures or strict established criteria. We used competing risk analysis and propensity score matching for data analysis. 501 patients (63% male, 48% alcoholic liver disease, median Model of End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)=17) underwent 781 admissions over the study period. Portal hypertensive bleeding and complicated ascites were the commonest reasons of admission. The incidence of proven bacterial infection was 25.6% (60% community acquired and 40% nosocomial). Survival rates at 3, 6, 12, and 30 months were 83%, 77%, 71%, and 62% in patients without diagnosis of infection, vs. 50%, 46%, 41%, and 34% in patients with diagnosis of infection. Overall survival was independently associated with MELD score (hazards ratio (HR) 1.099), intensive care (ITU) stay (HR 1.967) and bacterial infection (HR 2.226). Bacterial infection was an independent predictor of survival even when patients who died within the first 30 days were excluded from the analysis in Cox regression (HR 2.013) and competing risk Cox models in all patients (HR 1.46) and propensity risk score-matched infected and non-infected patients (HR 1.67). Infection most likely represents a distinct prognostic stage of cirrhosis, which affects survival irrespective of disease severity, even after recovery from the infective episode.

  8. Bypassing bacterial infection in phage display by sequencing DNA released from phage particles.

    PubMed

    Villequey, Camille; Kong, Xu-Dong; Heinis, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Phage display relies on a bacterial infection step in which the phage particles are replicated to perform multiple affinity selection rounds and to enable the identification of isolated clones by DNA sequencing. While this process is efficient for wild-type phage, the bacterial infection rate of phage with mutant or chemically modified coat proteins can be low. For example, a phage mutant with a disulfide-free p3 coat protein, used for the selection of bicyclic peptides, has a more than 100-fold reduced infection rate compared to the wild-type. A potential strategy for bypassing the bacterial infection step is to directly sequence DNA extracted from phage particles after a single round of phage panning using high-throughput sequencing. In this work, we have quantified the fraction of phage clones that can be identified by directly sequencing DNA from phage particles. The results show that the DNA of essentially all of the phage particles can be 'decoded', and that the sequence coverage for mutants equals that of amplified DNA extracted from cells infected with wild-type phage. This procedure is particularly attractive for selections with phage that have a compromised infection capacity, and it may allow phage display to be performed with particles that are not infective at all. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Development of a Hybrid Tracer for SPECT and Optical Imaging of Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Welling, Mick M; Bunschoten, Anton; Kuil, Joeri; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Beekman, Freek J; Buckle, Tessa; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2015-05-20

    In trauma and orthopedic surgery, infection of implants has a major impact on the outcome for patients. Infections may develop either during the initial implantation or during the lifetime of an implant. Both infections, as well as aseptic loosening of the implant, are reasons for revision of the implants. Therefore, discrimination between aseptic-mechanical-loosening and septic-bacterial-loosening of implants is critical during selection of a patient-tailored treatment policy. Specific detection and visualization of infections is a challenge because it is difficult to discriminate infections from inflammation. An imaging tracer that facilitates bacterial identification in a pre- and intraoperative setting may aid the workup for patients suspicious of bacterial infections. In this study we evaluated an antimicrobial peptide conjugated to a hybrid label, which contains both a radioisotope and a fluorescent dye. After synthesis of DTPA-Cy5-UBI29-41 and-when necessary-radiolabeling with (111)In (yield 96.3 ± 2.7%), in vitro binding to various bacterial strains was evaluated using radioactivity counting and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Intramuscular bacterial infections (S. aureus or K. pneumoniae) were also visualized in vivo using a combined nuclear and fluorescence imaging system. The indium-111 was chosen as label as it has a well-defined coordination chemistry, and in pilot studies labeling DTPA-Cy5-UBI29-41 with technetium-99m, we encountered damage to the Cy5 dye after the reduction with SnCl2. As a reference, we used the validated tracer (99m)Tc-UBI29-41. Fast renal excretion of (111)In-DTPA-Cy5-UBI29-41 was observed. Target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were highest at 2 h post injection: radioactivity counting yielded T/NT ratios of 2.82 ± 0.32 for S. aureus and 2.37 ± 0.05 for K. pneumoniae. Comparable T/NT ratios with fluorescence imaging of 2.38 ± 0.09 for S. aureus and 3.55 ± 0.31 for K. pneumoniae were calculated. Ex vivo confocal microscopy of

  10. Organelle targeting during bacterial infection: insights from Listeria.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Alice; Stavru, Fabrizia; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular bacterium responsible for severe foodborne infections, is now recognized as a multifaceted model in infection biology. Comprehensive studies of the molecular and cellular basis of the infection have unraveled how the bacterium crosses the intestinal and feto-placental barriers, invades several cell types in which it multiplies and moves, and spreads from cell to cell. Interestingly, although Listeria does not actively invade host cell organelles, it can interfere with their function. We discuss the effect of Listeria on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mechanisms leading to the fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and its consequences, and review the strategies used by Listeria to subvert nuclear functions, more precisely to control host gene expression at the chromatin level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Systemic bacterial infection and immune defense phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Sarah; Jacobson, Eliana; Chambers, Moria C; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2015-05-13

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the premier model organisms for studying the function and evolution of immune defense. Many aspects of innate immunity are conserved between insects and mammals, and since Drosophila can readily be genetically and experimentally manipulated, they are powerful for studying immune system function and the physiological consequences of disease. The procedure demonstrated here allows infection of flies by introduction of bacteria directly into the body cavity, bypassing epithelial barriers and more passive forms of defense and allowing focus on systemic infection. The procedure includes protocols for the measuring rates of host mortality, systemic pathogen load, and degree of induction of the host immune system. This infection procedure is inexpensive, robust and quantitatively repeatable, and can be used in studies of functional genetics, evolutionary life history, and physiology.

  12. [Aortic reconstruction with graft materials resistant to bacterial infections].

    PubMed

    Hassen-Khodja, Réda; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Jean-Baptiste, Élixène

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic graft infection is a rare but extremely serious complication of aortic reconstruction procedures, with morbidity-mortality rates as high as 60 %. Some of the proteins (albumin, gelatin, collagen) used to coat polyester graft materials can establish ionic bonds with antibiotics or can capture antiseptics such as triclosan or ionic silver in their matrices. These active substances are then released from the graft, at varying rates, during the coating degradation that takes place during the weeks following polyester graft implantation in living tissues. Rifampin-bonded prostheses have proved effective against S. aureus and S. epidermidis in several canine models of synthetic aortic graft infection. Rifampin-bonded grafts have also been used successfully in patients with synthetic aortic graft infection by low-virulence bacteria. However, their effectiveness may be limited by the diverse and changing ecology of synthetic aortic graft infections, with an increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and polymicrobial infections. These include species that are naturally, or are likely to become, resistant to rifampin. We evaluated silver-ion-bonded prostheses in this setting but observed a disappointingly high mid-term rate of recurrent infections. Over the past few years we have been involved in the development of polyester vascular prostheses functionalized with a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin polymeric matrix that can capture and elute several therapeutic agents. The results are promising, as these prostheses enable the sustained release of various antibiotics in amounts several times their minimum inhibitory concentrations. This provides a unique opportunity to functionalize materials for aortic graft reconstruction, based on epidemiological data or individual bacteriological findings.

  13. Risk factors for lower urinary tract infection and bacterial stent colonization in patients with a double J ureteral stent.

    PubMed

    Akay, Ali Ferruh; Aflay, Uğur; Gedik, Abdullah; Sahin, Hayrettin; Bircan, Mehmet Kamuran

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the potential risk factors for lower urinary tract infection and bacterial stent colonization in patients with double-J stents. A total of 195 double-J stents from 190 patients (95 men and 95 women, mean age 40.22 years) were examined. In all patients, prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was administered at the time of stenting. The stents and urine samples were removed aseptically and the proximal and distal tip segments of the stents were obtained. Three culture specimens were obtained from each stent segment and urine sample. Chi-square tests, odds ratio, and relative risk were used for the statistical analysis. Bacterial colonies were found in 24% (47 of 190) of the urine samples, 31% (61 of 195) of the proximal stent segments, and 34% (67 of 195) of the distal stent segments. Of the pathogens identified, Escherichia coli (34 of 47) was the most common. Diabetes mellitus (P < 0.01), chronic renal failure (P < 0.001), and pregnancy (P < 0.01) were found to be risk factors for lower urinary tract infection in patients with stents. An increased stent colonization rate was associated with implantation time, age, and female sex, but these were not statistically significant for lower urinary tract infection Diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of lower urinary tract infection. Therefore, patients in these categories should be monitored carefully for infectious complications.

  14. Bacterial Landscape of Bloodstream Infections in Neutropenic Patients via High Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmati, Peter; Kalin, Mats; Öhrmalm, Lars; Giske, Christian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication in patients with hematological malignancies and therapy-induced neutropenia. Administration of broad spectrum antibiotics has substantially decreased the mortality rate in febrile neutropenia, but bacterial infection is documented in only one-third or fewer of the cases. BSI is typically diagnosed by blood culture; however, this method can detect only culturable pathogens. Methods In the present study, a total of 130 blood samples from hematological patients receiving dose-intensive antitumoural treatment were subjected to 16S rRNA PCR and 62 of them were cultured. PCR positive samples were processed to high throughput sequencing by amplifying the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene to obtain a full spectrum of bacteria present in BSI. Results Five phyla and 30 genera were identified with sequencing compared to 2 phyla and 4 genera with culture. The largest proportion of bacteria detected by sequencing belonged to Proteobacteria (55.2%), Firmicutes (33.4%) and Actinobacteria (8.6%), while Fusobacteria (0.4%) and Bacteroidetes (0.1%) were also detected. Ninety-eight percent of the bacteria identified by sequencing were opportunistic human pathogens and 65% belonged to the normal human microbiota. Conclusions The present study indicates that BSIs in neutropenic hosts contain a much broader diversity of bacteria, likely with host origin, than previously realized. The elevated ratio of Proteobacteria in BSI corroborates the results found in other systemic inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease or mucosal infections. This knowledge may become of value for tailoring antimicrobial drug administration. PMID:26270467

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides and Their Therapeutic Potential for Bacterial Skin Infections and Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Pfalzgraff, Anja; Brandenburg, Klaus; Weindl, Günther

    2018-01-01

    Alarming data about increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics are reported, while at the same time the development of new antibiotics is stagnating. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are mainly caused by the so called ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) which belong to the most recalcitrant bacteria and are resistant to almost all common antibiotics. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are the most frequent pathogens isolated from chronic wounds and increasing resistance to topical antibiotics has become a major issue. Therefore, new treatment options are urgently needed. In recent years, research focused on the development of synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with lower toxicity and improved activity compared to their endogenous counterparts. AMPs appear to be promising therapeutic options for the treatment of SSTIs and wounds as they show a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, low resistance rates and display pivotal immunomodulatory as well as wound healing promoting activities such as induction of cell migration and proliferation and angiogenesis. In this review, we evaluate the potential of AMPs for the treatment of bacterial SSTIs and wounds and provide an overview of the mechanisms of actions of AMPs that contribute to combat skin infections and to improve wound healing. Bacteria growing in biofilms are more resistant to conventional antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts due to limited biofilm penetration and distinct metabolic and physiological functions, and often result in chronification of infections and wounds. Thus, we further discuss the feasibility of AMPs as anti-biofilm agents. Finally, we highlight perspectives for future therapies and which issues remain to bring AMPs successfully to the market. PMID:29643807

  16. How to use: bacterial cultures in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bushra; Bush, Andrew; Davies, Jane C

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis. Certain bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are associated with a worse clinical outcome than others, but can be completely eradicated if identified and treated early. The diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections can be challenging in the non-expectorating patient, in whom upper airway samples, such as cough swabs, are a surrogate for lower airway sampling. However, the results of these often do not fit with the clinical picture, presenting a management dilemma. Frequently, clinicians are faced with a negative culture result in a progressively symptomatic patient and vice versa. When judging the clinical significance of a positive upper airway culture result in an asymptomatic patient, it is important to consider the prognostic significance of the organism cultured. Given that the reported sensitivity of upper airway swabs (which includes throat swabs) is variable, ranging from 35.7% to 71% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 50% to 86% for Staphylococcus aureus and 11% to 92% for Haemophilus influenza, upper airway samples may fail to identify lower airway infections. Therefore, in symptomatic children, a repeatedly negative upper airway swab should not be considered as reassuring, and alternative sampling methods, such as induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage, should be considered. Here we use some examples of common scenarios to illustrate how best to use bacterial cultures to aid management decisions in cystic fibrosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Environmental safety review of methoprene and bacterially-derived pesticides commonly used for sustained mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Sharon P

    2017-05-01

    Some pesticides are applied directly to aquatic systems to reduce numbers of mosquito larvae (larvicides) and thereby reduce transmission of pathogens that mosquitoes vector to humans and wildlife. Sustained, environmentally-safe control of larval mosquitoes is particularly needed for highly productive waters (e.g., catchment basins, water treatment facilities, septic systems), but also for other habitats to maintain control and reduce inspection costs. Common biorational pesticides include the insect juvenile hormone mimic methoprene and pesticides derived from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Saccharopolyspora spinosa (spinosad). Health agencies, the public and environmental groups have especially debated the use of methoprene because some studies have shown toxic effects on non-target organisms. However, many studies have demonstrated its apparent environmental safety. This review critically evaluates studies pertinent to the environmental safety of using methoprene to control mosquito larvae, and provides concise assessments of the bacterial larvicides that provide sustained control of mosquitoes. The review first outlines the ecological and health effects of mosquitoes, and distinguishes between laboratory toxicity and environmental effects. The article then interprets non-target toxicity findings in light of measured environmental concentrations of methoprene (as used in mosquito control) and field studies of its non-target effects. The final section evaluates information on newer formulations of bacterially-derived pesticides for sustained mosquito control. Results show that realized environmental concentrations of methoprene were usually 2-5µg/kg (range 2-45µg/kg) and that its motility is limited. These levels were not toxic to the vast majority of vertebrates and invertebrates tested in laboratories, except for a few species of zooplankton, larval stages of some other crustaceans, and small Diptera. Studies

  18. Human ecology and behavior and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, K K

    1994-01-01

    The three direct determinants of the rate of spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are sexual behaviors, the mean duration of infectiousness, and the mean efficiency of sexual transmission of each STD. Underlying ecological and behavioral factors that operate through one or more of these direct determinants lie on a continuum, ranging from those most proximate back to those more remote (in time or mechanism) from the direct determinants. Most remote and least modifiable are the historical stages of economic development that even today conspicuously influence patterns of sexual behavior. Next are the distribution and changing patterns of climate, hygiene, and population density; the global population explosion and stages of the demographic transition; and ongoing changes in human physiology (e.g., menarche at younger age) and culture (e.g., later marriage). More proximate on the continuum are war, migration, and travel; and current policies for economic development and social welfare. Most recent or modifiable are technologic and commercial product development (e.g., oral contraceptives); circumcision, condom, spermicide, and contraception practices; patterns of illicit drug use that influence sexual behaviors; and the accessibility, quality, and use of STD health care. These underlying factors help explain why the curable bacterial STDs are epidemic in developing countries and why the United States is the only industrialized country that has failed to control bacterial STDs during the AIDS era. Images PMID:8146138

  19. Statin Treatment and Mortality in Bacterial Infections – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Bergman, Peter; Andersson, Jan; Lindh, Jonatan D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported improved survival in severe bacterial infections among statin treated patients. In addition, statins have been ascribed beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of statin-treatment on mortality in patients with bacterial infections, by means of a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies investigating the association between statin use and mortality in patients with bacterial disease were identified in a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis was performed to calculate the overall odds ratio of mortality in statin users. The literature search identified 947 citations from which 40 relevant studies were extracted. In all, 15 studies comprising 113 910 patients were included in the final analysis. Statin use was associated with a significantly (p<0.0001) reduced mortality in patients suffering from bacterial infections (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.42–0.66). However, all studies included were of observational design and funnel plot analyses indicated influence by a possible publication bias (Egger's bias test p<0.05). When a precision estimate test was used to adjust for publication bias the effect of statin treatment was no longer significant, with an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.58–1.07). Conclusion/Significance According to the meta-analysis of observational studies presented here, patients on statin therapy seem to have a better outcome in bacterial infections. However, the association did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for apparent publication bias. Thus, there is a great need for randomised controlled trials investigating the possible beneficial effect of statins in bacterial infections. PMID:20502712

  20. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Dane; Pavlović, Miloš D

    2015-06-01

    Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country's everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM), vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH) test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. In 36 (6%) patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11%) women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19%) women had BV, 19 (4%) vaginitis, and 72 (14%) candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21%) had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30%) women--in 83 (54%) of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal infections.

  1. Influenza A virus and secondary bacterial infection in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection alone causes significant disease characterized by respiratory distress and poor growth in pigs. Endemic strains of IAV in North America pigs consist of the subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. These circulating strains contain the triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) c...

  2. Procalcitonin Identifies Cell Injury, Not Bacterial Infection, in Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Rule, Jody A; Hynan, Linda S; Attar, Nahid; Sanders, Corron; Korzun, William J; Lee, William M

    2015-01-01

    Because acute liver failure (ALF) patients share many clinical features with severe sepsis and septic shock, identifying bacterial infection clinically in ALF patients is challenging. Procalcitonin (PCT) has proven to be a useful marker in detecting bacterial infection. We sought to determine whether PCT discriminated between presence and absence of infection in patients with ALF. Retrospective analysis of data and samples of 115 ALF patients from the United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group randomly selected from 1863 patients were classified for disease severity and ALF etiology. Twenty uninfected chronic liver disease (CLD) subjects served as controls. Procalcitonin concentrations in most samples were elevated, with median values for all ALF groups near or above a 2.0 ng/mL cut-off that generally indicates severe sepsis. While PCT concentrations increased somewhat with apparent liver injury severity, there were no differences in PCT levels between the pre-defined severity groups-non-SIRS and SIRS groups with no documented infections and Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock groups with documented infections, (p = 0.169). PCT values from CLD patients differed from all ALF groups (median CLD PCT value 0.104 ng/mL, (p ≤0.001)). Subjects with acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity, many without evidence of infection, demonstrated median PCT >2.0 ng/mL, regardless of SIRS features, while some culture positive subjects had PCT values <2.0 ng/mL. While PCT appears to be a robust assay for detecting bacterial infection in the general population, there was poor discrimination between ALF patients with or without bacterial infection presumably because of the massive inflammation observed. Severe hepatocyte necrosis with inflammation results in elevated PCT levels, rendering this biomarker unreliable in the ALF setting.

  3. Bacterial adherence in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection: a review.

    PubMed

    Reid, G; Sobel, J D

    1987-01-01

    Bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium is recognized as an important mechanism in the initiation and pathogenesis of urinary tract infections (UTI). The uropathogens originate predominantly in the intestinal tract and initially colonize the periurethral region and ascend into the bladder, resulting in symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria. Thereafter, depending on host factors and bacterial virulence factors, the organisms may further ascend and give rise to pyelonephritis. Uropathogens are selected by the presence of virulence characteristics that enable them to resist the normally efficient host defense mechanisms. Considerable progress has been made in identifying bacterial adhesins and in demonstrating bacterial receptor sites on uroepithelial surfaces. Recent studies have identified natural anti-adherence mechanisms in humans as well as possible increased susceptibility to UTI when these mechanisms are defective and when receptor density on uroepithelial cells is altered. Knowledge of bacterial adherence mechanisms may permit alternative methods of prevention and management of urinary infection, including the use of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics, vaccine development, nonimmune inhibition of bacterial adhesins and receptor sites, and the use of autochthonous flora, such as lactobacilli, to exclude uropathogens from colonizing the urinary tract.

  4. Effect of Enteral Nutrition and Synbiotics on Bacterial Infection Rates After Pylorus-preserving Pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rayes, Nada; Seehofer, Daniel; Theruvath, Tom; Mogl, Martina; Langrehr, Jan M.; Nüssler, Natascha C.; Bengmark, Stig; Neuhaus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Patients undergoing pancreas resection carry several risk factors for nosocomial bacterial infections. Pre- and probiotics (synbiotics) are potentially useful for prevention of these infections. Summary Background Data: First trials in patients following major abdominal surgery including liver transplantation using one Lactobacillus (LAB) and one fiber showed significant reduction of infection rates and reduced length of antibiotic therapy compared with a control group. The present study was designed to analyze whether a combination of different LAB and fibers would further improve outcome. Methods: A prospective randomized monocentric double-blind trial was undertaken in 80 patients following pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). All patients received enteral nutrition immediately postoperatively. One group (A) received a composition of 4 LAB and 4 fibers, and another group (B) received placebo (fibers only) starting the day before surgery and continuing for 8 days. Thirty-day infection rate, length of hospital stay, duration of antibiotic therapy, noninfectious complications, and side effects were recorded. Results: The incidence of postoperative bacterial infections was significantly lower with LAB and fibers (12.5%) than with fibers only (40%). In addition, the duration of antibiotic therapy was significantly shorter in the latter group. Fibers and LAB were well tolerated. Conclusion: Early enteral nutrition supplemented with a mixture of LAB and fibers reduces bacterial infection rates and antibiotic therapy following PPPD. PMID:17592288

  5. Aminomethyl Spectinomycins as Novel Therapeutics for Drug Resistant Respiratory Tract and Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhura, Dora B.; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M.; Singh, Aman P.; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B.; Belland, Robert J.; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W.; Böttger, Erik C.; Lee, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A novel series of N-benzyl substituted 3'-(R)- 3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed based on a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome binding 3'-(S) isomers of the leads demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target. In addition to improved antibacterial potency, compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series, compound 1, exhibited excellent chemical stability, which was superior to spectinomycin and had no significant interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo. Compound 1 was active in vitro against a panel of penicillin, macrolide, and cephalosporin resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates and cured mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins possess suitable properties for further development as novel antibacterial agents to treat drug resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  6. Prevalence of asymptomatic infections in sexually transmitted diseases attendees diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Kalaivani, S

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developing and developed countries. STD in women causes both acute morbidity and complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, low-birth weight, and prematurity. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic females attending STD outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in South India. A retrospective analysis of data collected from clinical records of 3000 female patients of age 18 to 49 over a period of 12 months (July 2014 to June 2015) was carried out at the Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College. Complete epidemiological, clinical, and investigational data were recorded and analyzed for the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic patients. About 48.37% (228/470) of bacterial vaginosis patients were asymptomatic. Nearly 45.38% (116/235) of vaginal candidiasis patients were asymptomatic and 30.35% (26/87) of trichomoniasis patients were asymptomatic. The above infections were common in the age group 25-35. Holistic screening protocol was incorporated for all female patients attending STD clinic even if asymptomatic and should be treated accordingly to prevent the acquisition of other serious sexually transmitted infections.

  7. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of this guidance is to...

  8. Hemojuvelin regulates the innate immune response to peritoneal bacterial infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Shen, Yuanyuan; Tao, Yunlong; Wei, Jiayu; Wang, Hao; An, Peng; Zhang, Zhuzhen; Gao, Hong; Zhou, Tianhua; Wang, Fudi; Min, Junxia

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis and iron imbalance are associated with susceptibility to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we performed in vivo bacterial infection screening using several mouse models of hemochromatosis, including Hfe ( Hfe -/- ), hemojuvelin ( Hjv -/- ), and macrophage-specific ferroportin-1 ( Fpn1 fl/fl ; LysM-Cre + ) knockout mice. We found that Hjv -/- mice, but not Hfe -/- or Fpn1 fl/fl ; LysM-Cre + mice, are highly susceptible to peritoneal infection by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, phagocytic cells in the peritoneum of Hjv -/- mice have reduced bacterial clearance, IFN-γ secretion, and nitric oxide production; in contrast, both cell migration and phagocytosis are normal. Expressing Hjv in RAW264.7 cells increased the level of phosphorylated Stat1 and nitric oxide production. Moreover, macrophage-specific Hjv knockout mice are susceptible to bacterial infection. Finally, we found that Hjv facilitates the secretion of IFN-γ via the IL-12/Jak2/Stat4 signaling pathway. Together, these findings reveal a novel protective role of Hjv in the early stages of antimicrobial defense.

  9. Procalcitonin and albumin as prognostic biomarkers in elderly patients with a risk of bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Higashikawa, Toshihiro; Okuro, Masashi; Ishigami, Keiichirou; Mae, Kunihiro; Sangen, Ryusho; Mizuno, Takurou; Usuda, Daisuke; Saito, Atushi; Kasamaki, Yuji; Fukuda, Akihiro; Saito, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Shigeto; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2018-01-01

    Aim This study was performed to investigate serum procalcitonin (PCT) and albumin (Alb) as prognostic biomarkers in elderly patients at risk of bacterial infection. Methods Serum PCT was measured in 270 hospitalized patients (mean age, 77.4 years) with suspected bacterial infection. The PCT-negative (<0.5 ng/mL) and PCT-positive (≥0.5 ng/mL) groups comprised 155 and 115 patients, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed with various clinical laboratory test values as independent variables and PCT positivity/negativity as the dependent variable. Results C-reactive protein (CRP) was the only independent variable significantly associated with PCT positivity/negativity. In the survival analysis, the 30-day in-hospital death rate was significantly higher in the PCT-positive than -negative group. Within the Alb-positive group (>2.5 g/dL), no significant difference in survival was observed between the PCT-positive and -negative groups. However, within the Alb-negative group (≤2.5 g/dL), the survival rate was significantly lower in the PCT-positive than -negative group. PCT was strongly associated with CRP and Alb, and having both PCT positivity and Alb negativity was a prognostic factor for elderly people at risk of bacterial infection. Conclusions Combined measurement of PCT with Alb is expected to be a valuable tool to assess prognosis in elderly people at risk of bacterial infection.

  10. Etiologic Diagnosis of Lower Respiratory Tract Bacterial Infections Using Sputum Samples and Quantitative Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peichao; Cheng, Xiaoxing; Wang, Guoqing; Qian, Minping; Gao, Huafang; Han, Bei; Chen, Yusheng; Hu, Yinghui; Geng, Rong; Hu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jingping; Wan, Huanying; Yu, Qin; Wei, Liping; Li, Jiashu; Tian, Guizhen; Wang, Qiuyue; Hu, Ke; Wang, Siqin; Wang, Ruiqin; Du, Juan; He, Bei; Ma, Jianjun; Zhong, Xiaoning; Mu, Lan; Cai, Shaoxi; Zhu, Xiangdong; Xing, Wanli; Yu, Jun; Deng, Minghua; Gao, Zhancheng

    2012-01-01

    Etiologic diagnoses of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) have been relying primarily on bacterial cultures that often fail to return useful results in time. Although DNA-based assays are more sensitive than bacterial cultures in detecting pathogens, the molecular results are often inconsistent and challenged by doubts on false positives, such as those due to system- and environment-derived contaminations. Here we report a nationwide cohort study on 2986 suspected LRTI patients across P. R. China. We compared the performance of a DNA-based assay qLAMP (quantitative Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification) with that of standard bacterial cultures in detecting a panel of eight common respiratory bacterial pathogens from sputum samples. Our qLAMP assay detects the panel of pathogens in 1047(69.28%) patients from 1533 qualified patients at the end. We found that the bacterial titer quantified based on qLAMP is a predictor of probability that the bacterium in the sample can be detected in culture assay. The relatedness of the two assays fits a logistic regression curve. We used a piecewise linear function to define breakpoints where latent pathogen abruptly change its competitive relationship with others in the panel. These breakpoints, where pathogens start to propagate abnormally, are used as cutoffs to eliminate the influence of contaminations from normal flora. With help of the cutoffs derived from statistical analysis, we are able to identify causative pathogens in 750 (48.92%) patients from qualified patients. In conclusion, qLAMP is a reliable method in quantifying bacterial titer. Despite the fact that there are always latent bacteria contaminated in sputum samples, we can identify causative pathogens based on cutoffs derived from statistical analysis of competitive relationship. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00567827 PMID:22719933

  11. Antibiotic use and bacterial complications following upper respiratory tract infections: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Cars, Thomas; Eriksson, Irene; Granath, Anna; Wettermark, Björn; Hellman, Jenny; Norman, Christer; Ternhag, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if use of antibiotics was associated with bacterial complications following upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Design Ecological time-trend analysis and a prospective cohort study. Setting Primary, outpatient specialist and inpatient care in Stockholm County, Sweden. All analyses were based on administrative healthcare data on consultations, diagnoses and dispensed antibiotics from January 2006 to January 2016. Main outcome measures Ecological time-trend analysis: 10-year trend analyses of the incidence of URTIs, bacterial infections/complications and respiratory antibiotic use. Prospective cohort study: Incidence of bacterial complications following URTIs in antibiotic-exposed and non-exposed patients. Results The utilisation of respiratory tract antibiotics decreased by 22% from 2006 to 2015, but no increased trend for mastoiditis (p=0.0933), peritonsillar abscess (p=0.0544), invasive group A streptococcal disease (p=0.3991), orbital abscess (p=0.9637), extradural and subdural abscesses (p=0.4790) and pansinusitis (p=0.3971) was observed. For meningitis and acute ethmoidal sinusitis, a decrease in the numbers of infections from 2006 to 2015 was observed (p=0.0038 and p=0.0003, respectively), and for retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, an increase was observed (p=0.0214). Bacterial complications following URTIs were uncommon in both antibiotic-exposed (less than 1.5 per 10 000 episodes) and non-exposed patients (less than 1.3 per 10 000 episodes) with the exception of peritonsillar abscess after tonsillitis (risk per 10 000 tonsillitis episodes: 32.4 and 41.1 in patients with no antibiotic treatment and patients treated with antibiotics, respectively). Conclusions Bacterial complications following URTIs are rare, and antibiotics may lack protective effect in preventing bacterial complications. Analyses of routinely collected administrative healthcare data can provide valuable information on the number of URTIs

  12. Differences in bacterial composition between men's and women's restrooms and other common areas within a public building.

    PubMed

    Dobbler, Priscila Caroline Thiago; Laureano, Álvaro Macedo; Sarzi, Deise Schroder; Cañón, Ehidy Rocio Peña; Metz, Geferson Fernando; de Freitas, Anderson Santos; Takagaki, Beatriz Midori; D Oliveira, Cristiane Barbosa; Pylro, Victor Satler; Copetti, André Carlos; Victoria, Filipe; Redmile-Gordon, Marc; Morais, Daniel Kumazawa; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig

    2018-04-01

    Humans distribute a wide range of microorganisms around building interiors, and some of these are potentially pathogenic. Recent research established that humans are the main drivers of the indoor microbiome and up to now significant literature has been produced about this topic. Here we analyzed differences in bacterial composition between men's and women's restrooms and other common areas within the same public building. Bacterial DNA samples were collected from restrooms and halls of a three-floor building from the Federal University of Pampa, RS, Brazil. The bacterial community was characterized by amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and sequencing. Throughout all samples, the most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Beta diversity metrics showed that the structure of the bacterial communities were different among the areas and floors tested, however, only 6-9% of the variation in bacterial communities was explained by the area and floors sampled. A few microorganisms showed significantly differential abundance between men's and women's restrooms, but in general, the bacterial communities from both places were very similar. Finally, significant differences among the microbial community profile from different floors were reported, suggesting that the type of use and occupant demographic within the building may directly influence bacterial dispersion and establishment.

  13. Bacterial adherence to periurethral epithelial cells in girls prone to urinary-tract infections.

    PubMed

    Källenius, G; Winberg, J

    1978-09-09

    Bacterial adherence to epithelial cells from the periurethral region of 48 healthy girls aged over 2 years and of 76 girls with repeated urinary-tract infections was investigated. The infection-prone girls had a significantly higher mean number of adhering bacteria than the healthy controls ( P less than 0.01). This difference was valid irrespective of whether or not the infection-prone girls had urinary-tract infections at the time of investigation. Furthermore, statistically significantly higher numbers of a pyelonephritic strain of Escherichia coli (075:H-:K-non-typable) were found to adhere to washed periurethral cells from infection-prone girls than to cells from healthy controls. These characteristics of the periurethral epithelial cells may facilitate the primary periurethral colonisation which precedes infection of the urinary tract.

  14. Procalcitonin as a Biomarker of Bacterial Infection in Sickle Cell Vaso-Occlusive Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dilip Kumar; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Thomas, Ancil George; Patel, Siris; Purohit, Prasanta

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients with vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) have signs of inflammation and it is often difficult to diagnose a bacterial infection in them. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of serum procalcitonin (PCT) as a biomarker of bacterial infection in acute sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis. Hundred homozygous SCA patients were studied at Sickle Cell Clinic and Molecular Biology Laboratory, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla, Odisha, India. All the patients were divided into three categories namely category-A (VOC/ACS with SIRS but without evidence of bacterial infection - 66 patients), category-B (VOC/ACS with SIRS and either proven or suspected bacterial infection - 24 patients) and category-C (SCA patients in steady state without VOC/ACS or SIRS - 10 patients). Complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP) estimation and PCT measurement were done in all the patients. There was no significant difference in TLC and CRP values between category-A and B. In category-A, the PCT level was <0.5 ng/mL in 83.3% and 0.5–2 ng/mL in 16.7% of cases. In category-B, all the patients had PCT value >0.5 ng/mL with 87.5% of patients having >2 ng/mL. In category-C, PCT value was <0.5 ng/mL. PCT had a high sensitivity (100%) and negative predictive value (100%) for bacterial infection at a cutoff value of 0.5 ng/mL; whereas the specificity is excellent at a cut-off value of 2 ng/mL. SCA patients with VOC/ACS and SIRS having a PCT level of <0.5 ng/mL have a low probability of bacterial infection whereas PCT value of >2 ng/mL is indicative of bacterial infection necessitating early antimicrobial therapy. PMID:24678395

  15. Biomarkers and bacterial pneumonia risk in patients with treated HIV infection: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bjerk, Sonja M; Baker, Jason V; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M; Pett, Sarah L; Stephan, Christoph; Kunisaki, Ken M

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist. We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients who developed bacterial pneumonia (cases) and patients without bacterial pneumonia (controls) were matched 1∶1 on clinical center, smoking status, age, and baseline cART use. Baseline levels of Club Cell Secretory Protein 16 (CC16), Surfactant Protein D (SP-D), C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and d-dimer were compared between cases and controls. Cases (n = 72) and controls (n = 72) were 25.7% female, 51.4% black, 65.3% current smokers, 9.7% diabetic, 36.1% co-infected with Hepatitis B/C, and 75.0% were on cART at baseline. Median (IQR) age was 45 (41, 51) years with CD4+ count of 553 (436, 690) cells/mm(3). Baseline CC16 and SP-D were similar between cases and controls, but hsCRP was significantly higher in cases than controls (2.94 µg/mL in cases vs. 1.93 µg/mL in controls; p = 0.02). IL-6 and d-dimer levels were also higher in cases compared to controls, though differences were not statistically significant (p-value 0.06 and 0.10, respectively). In patients with cART-treated HIV infection, higher levels of systemic inflammatory markers were associated with increased bacterial pneumonia risk, while two pulmonary-specific inflammatory biomarkers, CC16 and SP-D, were not associated with bacterial pneumonia risk.

  16. Biomarkers and Bacterial Pneumonia Risk in Patients with Treated HIV Infection: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Kunisaki, Ken M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist. Methods We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients who developed bacterial pneumonia (cases) and patients without bacterial pneumonia (controls) were matched 1∶1 on clinical center, smoking status, age, and baseline cART use. Baseline levels of Club Cell Secretory Protein 16 (CC16), Surfactant Protein D (SP-D), C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and d-dimer were compared between cases and controls. Results Cases (n = 72) and controls (n = 72) were 25.7% female, 51.4% black, 65.3% current smokers, 9.7% diabetic, 36.1% co-infected with Hepatitis B/C, and 75.0% were on cART at baseline. Median (IQR) age was 45 (41, 51) years with CD4+ count of 553 (436, 690) cells/mm3. Baseline CC16 and SP-D were similar between cases and controls, but hsCRP was significantly higher in cases than controls (2.94 µg/mL in cases vs. 1.93 µg/mL in controls; p = 0.02). IL-6 and d-dimer levels were also higher in cases compared to controls, though differences were not statistically significant (p-value 0.06 and 0.10, respectively). Conclusions In patients with cART-treated HIV infection, higher levels of systemic inflammatory markers were associated with increased bacterial pneumonia risk, while two pulmonary-specific inflammatory biomarkers, CC16 and SP-D, were not associated with bacterial pneumonia risk. PMID:23457535

  17. Rice Bran Amendment Suppresses Potato Common Scab by Increasing Antagonistic Bacterial Community Levels in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Yatsuka; Mori, Kiyofumi; Shirao, Tsukasa; Iida, Toshiya; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-07-01

    Potato common scab (PCS), caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. Cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil pH and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. Traditionally, local farmers in southwest Japan have amended soils with rice bran (RB) to suppress PCS. However, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by RB has not been elucidated. The present study showed that RB amendment reduced PCS by repressing the pathogenic Streptomyces population in young tubers. Amplicon sequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that RB amendment dramatically changed bacterial composition and led to an increase in the relative abundance of gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., and this was negatively correlated with PCS disease severity. Most actinomycete isolates derived from the RB-amended soil showed antagonistic activity against pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and S. turgidiscabies on R2A medium. Some of the Streptomyces isolates suppressed PCS when they were inoculated onto potato plants in a field experiment. These results suggest that RB amendment increases the levels of antagonistic bacteria against PCS pathogens in the potato rhizosphere.

  18. [Surveillance of healthcare associated infections, bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption in high-complexity hospitals in Colombia, 2011].

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Andrea Patricia; Barrero, Liliana Isabel; Rivera, Sandra Milena; Ovalle, María Victoria; Valera, Danik

    2014-04-01

    Preventing healthcare associated infections, especially for resistant microorganisms, is a priority. In Colombia, the surveillance of such events was started through a national pilot study. To describe the epidemiology of device-associated infections, bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption patterns in institutions with intensive care units (ICU), 2011. Descriptive observational study in 10 health institutions from three Colombian provinces: Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, and Bogotá. Surveillance protocols were designed and implemented by trained health professionals in each hospital. A web tool was designed for data reporting and analysis. Infection rates, device-use percentages and antibiotics defined daily dose (DDD) were calculated. Bacterial resistance phenotypes and profiles were reported and analyzed using Whonet 5.6. The most common event was bloodstream infection (rate > 4.8/1000 catheter-days) followed by ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-related urinary tract infection, showing a wide variability among institutions. A high consumption of meropenem in the ICU (DDD 22.5/100 beds-day) was observed, as well as a high carbapenem resistance (> 11.6%) and a high frequency of third generation cephalosporins resistance (> 25.6%) in Enterobacteriaceae in ICUs and hospitalization wards. The percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was higher in hospitalization wards (34.3%). This is the first experience in measuring these events in Colombia. It is necessary to implement a national surveillance system aimed at guiding governmental and institutional actions oriented to infection prevention and control, to resistance management and to the promotion of antibiotics rational use, along with a follow-up and monitoring process.

  19. Lack of Accuracy of Body Temperature for Detecting Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Episodes.

    PubMed

    De, Sukanya; Williams, Gabrielle J; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Macaskill, Petra; McCaskill, Mary; Isaacs, David; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-09-01

    Body temperature is a time-honored marker of serious bacterial infection, but there are few studies of its test performance. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of temperature measured on presentation to medical care for detecting serious bacterial infection. Febrile children 0-5 years of age presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary care pediatric hospital were sampled consecutively. The accuracy of the axillary temperature measured at presentation was evaluated using logistic regression models to generate receiver operating characteristic curves. Reference standard tests for serious bacterial infection were standard microbiologic/radiologic tests and clinical follow-up. Age, clinicians' impression of appearance of the child (well versus unwell) and duration of illness were assessed as possible effect modifiers. Of 15,781 illness episodes 1120 (7.1%) had serious bacterial infection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for temperature was 0.60 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.58-0.62]. A threshold of ≥ 38°C had a sensitivity of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.64-0.70), specificity of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.44-0.46), positive likelihood ratio of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.7 (95% CI: 0.7-0.8). Age and illness duration had a small but significant effect on the accuracy of temperature increasing its "rule-in" potential. Measured temperature at presentation to hospital is not an accurate marker of serious bacterial infection in febrile children. Younger age and longer duration of illness increase the rule-in potential of temperature but without substantial overall change in its test accuracy.

  20. Autophagy and bacterial infection: an evolving arms race.

    PubMed

    Choy, Augustine; Roy, Craig R

    2013-09-01

    Autophagy is an important membrane transport pathway that is conserved among eukaryotic cells. Although first described as an intracellular catabolic pathway used to break down self-components, autophagy has been found to play an important role in the elimination of intracellular pathogens. A variety of host mechanisms exist for recognizing and targeting intracellular bacteria to autophagosomes. Several intracellular bacteria have evolved ways to manipulate, inhibit, or avoid autophagy in order to survive in the cell. Thus, the autophagy pathway can be viewed as an evolutionarily conserved host response to infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilizing melatonin to combat bacterial infections and septic injury

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Deng, Chao; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dongjin; Fan, Chongxi; Li, Tian; Di, Shouyin; Gong, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin, also known as N‐acetyl‐5‐methoxytryptamine, is a ubiquitously acting molecule that is produced by the pineal gland and other organs of animals, including humans. As melatonin and its metabolites are potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers, they are protective against a variety of disorders. Moreover, multiple molecular targets of melatonin have been identified, and its actions are both receptor‐mediated and receptor‐independent. Recent studies have shown that melatonin may be useful in fighting against sepsis and septic injury due to its antioxidative and anti‐inflammatory actions; the results generally indicate a promising therapeutic application for melatonin in the treatment of sepsis. To provide a comprehensive understanding regarding the protective effects of melatonin against septic injury, in the present review we have evaluated the published literature in which melatonin has been used to treat experimental and clinical sepsis. Firstly, we present the evidence from studies that have used melatonin to resist bacterial pathogens. Secondly, we illustrate the protective effect of melatonin against septic injury and discuss the possible mechanisms. Finally, the potential directions for future melatonin research against sepsis are summarized. PMID:28213968

  2. Epidemiological investigation of the relationship between common lower genital tract infections and high-risk human papillomavirus infections among women in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhao, Gengli

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of lower genital tract infections in China has been increasing in recent years. The link between high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remains unclear. Methods From March to October 2014, gynecological examinations and questionnaires were conducted on 1218 married women. Cervical secretions and vaginal swab specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), yeast, clue cells and HR-HPV. Results Laboratory results were available for 1195 of 1218 married women. HR-HPV was detected in 7.0% of participants. Forty-seven percent of women had lower genital tract infections (LGTIs). UU was the most common infection (35.5%), followed by bacterial vaginosis (BV) (10.5%), yeast infection (3.7%), CT (2.2%), and Trichomonas vaginalis (1.7%). BV was associated with an increased risk of HR- HPV (P < 0.0001; odds ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.7–5.4]). There was a strong correlation between abnormal cervical cytology and HR-HPV infection (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The prevalence of LGTIs in Beijing is at a high level. It is clinically important to screen for the simultaneous presence of pathogens that cause co-infections with HR-HPV. PMID:28531212

  3. Emerging Bacterial Infection: Identification and Clinical Significance of Kocuria Species

    PubMed Central

    Palange, Padmavali; Vaish, Ritu; Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Kale, Vinod; Kandi, Maheshwar Reddy; Bhoomagiri, Mohan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been reports of gram-positive cocci which are morphologically similar to both Staphylococci and the Micrococci. These bacteria have been identified as Kocuria species with the help of automated identification system and other molecular methods including 16S rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) evaluation. Kocuria belongs to the family Micrococcaceae which also includes Staphylococcus species and Micrococcus species. Isolation and clinical significance of these bacteria from human specimens warrant great caution as it does not necessarily confirm infection due to their ubiquitous presence, and as a normal flora of skin and mucous membranes in human and animals. Most clinical microbiology laboratories ignore such bacteria as laboratory and specimen contaminants. With increasing reports of infections associated with these bacteria, it is now important for clinical microbiologists to identify and enumerate the virulence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of such bacteria and assist clinicians in improving the patient care and management. We review the occurrence and clinical significance of Kocuria species. PMID:27630804

  4. Periodontal bacterial invasion and infection: contribution to atherosclerotic pathology.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Leticia; Herrera, David; Kozarov, Emil; Roldán, Silvia; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this review was to perform a systematic evaluation of the literature reporting current scientific evidence for periodontal bacteria as contributors to atherosclerosis. Literature from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies concerning periodontal bacteria and atherosclerosis were reviewed. Gathered data were categorized into seven "proofs" of evidence that periodontal bacteria: 1) disseminate from the oral cavity and reach systemic vascular tissues; 2) can be found in the affected tissues; 3) live within the affected site; 4) invade affected cell types in vitro; 5) induce atherosclerosis in animal models of disease; 6) non-invasive mutants of periodontal bacteria cause significantly reduced pathology in vitro and in vivo; and 7) periodontal isolates from human atheromas can cause disease in animal models of infection. Substantial evidence for proofs 1 to 6 was found. However, proof 7 has not yet been fulfilled. Despite the lack of evidence that periodontal bacteria obtained from human atheromas can cause atherosclerosis in animal models of infection, attainment of proofs 1 to 6 provides support that periodontal pathogens can contribute to atherosclerosis. © 2013 European Federation of Periodontology and American Academy of Periodontology.

  5. Concurrent Drought Stress and Vascular Pathogen Infection Induce Common and Distinct Transcriptomic Responses in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Ranjita; Gupta, Aarti; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum); the second largest legume grown worldwide is prone to drought and various pathogen infections. These drought and pathogen stresses often occur concurrently in the field conditions. However, the molecular events in response to that are largely unknown. The present study examines the transcriptome dynamics in chickpea plants exposed to a combination of water-deficit stress and Ralstonia solanacearum infection. R. solanacearum is a potential wilt disease causing pathogen in chickpea. Drought stressed chickpea plants were infected with this pathogen and the plants were allowed to experience progressive drought with 2 and 4 days of R. solanacearum infection called short duration stress (SD stresses) and long duration stress (LD stresses), respectively. Our study showed that R. solanacearum multiplication decreased under SD-combined stress compared to SD-pathogen but there was no significant change in LD-combined stress compared to LD-pathogen. The microarray analysis during these conditions showed that 821 and 1039 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were unique to SD- and LD-combined stresses, respectively, when compared with individual stress conditions. Three and fifteen genes were common among all the SD-stress treatments and LD-stress treatments, respectively. Genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, alkaloid biosynthesis, defense related proteins, and osmo-protectants were up-regulated during combined stress. The expression of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis were specifically up-regulated in SD-combined, LD-combined, and LD-pathogen stress. A close transcriptomic association of LD-pathogen stress with SD-combined stress was observed in this study which indicates that R. solanacearum infection also exerts drought stress along with pathogen stress thus mimics combined stress effect. Furthermore the expression profiling of candidate genes using real-time quantitative PCR validated the microarray data. The

  6. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Schlee, Martin; Roth, Susanne; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Barchet, Winfried; Böttcher, Jan; Hain, Torsten; Geiger, Sergej; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Fritz, Jörg H; Civril, Filiz; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Kurts, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Hartmann, Gunther; Chakraborty, Trinad; Knolle, Percy A

    2012-01-01

    Immunity against infection with Listeria monocytogenes is not achieved from innate immune stimulation by contact with killed but requires viable Listeria gaining access to the cytosol of infected cells. It has remained ill-defined how such immune sensing of live Listeria occurs. Here, we report that efficient cytosolic immune sensing requires access of nucleic acids derived from live Listeria to the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Listeria released nucleic acids and that such secreted bacterial RNA/DNA was recognized by the cytosolic sensors RIG-I, MDA5 and STING thereby triggering interferon β production. Secreted Listeria nucleic acids also caused RIG-I-dependent IL-1β-production and inflammasome activation. The signalling molecule CARD9 contributed to IL-1β production in response to secreted nucleic acids. In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria. PMID:23064150

  7. M13 Virus based detection of Bacterial Infections in Living Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    We report a first method for using M13 bacteriophage as a multifunctional scaffold for optically imaging bacterial infections in vivo. We demonstrate that M13 virus conjugated with hundreds of dye molecules (M13-Dye) can target and distinguish pathogenic infections of F-pili expressing and F-negative strains of E. coli. Further, in order to tune this M13-Dye complex suitable for targeting other strains of bacteria, we have used a 1-step reaction for creating an anti-bacterial antibody-M13-Dye probe. As an example, we show anti-S.aureus-M13-Dye able to target and image infections of S. aureus in living hosts, with a 3.7x increase in fluorescence over background. PMID:23576418

  8. M13 virus based detection of bacterial infections in living hosts.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M

    2014-08-01

    We report a first method for using M13 bacteriophage as a multifunctional scaffold for optically imaging bacterial infections in vivo. We demonstrate that M13 virus conjugated with hundreds of dye molecules (M13-Dye) can target and distinguish pathogenic infections of F-pili expressing and F-negative strains of E. coli. Further, in order to tune this M13-Dye complex suitable for targeting other strains of bacteria, we have used a 1-step reaction for creating an anti-bacterial antibody-M13-Dye probe. As an example, we show anti-S. aureus-M13-Dye able to target and image infections of S. aureus in living hosts, with a 3.7× increase in fluorescence over background. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cytokine patterns in paediatric patients presenting serious gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Martínez, Monika; Rodríguez-Cruz, Leonor; Cortés-Bejar, Consuelo Del Carmen; Valencia-Chavarría, Fernando; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; González-Torres, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In the adaptive immune response, the types of cytokines produced define whether there is a cellular (T1) or a humoral (T2) response. Specifically, in the T1 response, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF-β) are produced, whereas in the T2 response, IL-4, IL-5, IL- 6, IL-10 and IL-13 are primarily produced. Cytokines are primarily involved in the regulation of immune system cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytokine patterns (Type 1/Type 2) and TNF-α expression levels in children with severe gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to identify the cytokines and the infectious agents. The results obtained demonstrated that, in general, children with bacterial infections experienced an increase in IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations and a decrease in TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-6 concentrations when compared to healthy children. Specifically, type 1 cytokines and an increased TNF-α concentration were found in children with gastrointestinal infections. However, patients with respiratory infections showed increased concentrations of both T2 (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and T1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) components. Thus, it was concluded that children with gastrointestinal infections exclusively developed a T1 response, whereas children with respiratory infections developed a T1/T2 response to fight the infection. PMID:26155128

  10. Donor-to-host transmission of bacterial and fungal infections in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, I; Gavaldà, J; Monforte, V; Len, O; Román, A; Bravo, C; Ferrer, A; Tenorio, L; Román, F; Maestre, J; Molina, I; Morell, F; Pahissa, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and etiology of bacterial and fungal infection or contamination in lung allograft donors and to assess donor-to-host transmission of these infections. Recipients who survived more than 24 h and their respective donors were evaluated. The overall incidence of donor infection was 52% (103 out of 197 donors). Types of donor infection included isolated contamination of preservation fluids (n = 30, 29.1%), graft colonization (n = 65, 63.1%) and bacteremia (n = 8, 7.8%). Donor-to-host transmission of bacterial or fungal infection occurred in 15 lung allograft recipients, 7.6% of lung transplants performed. Among these cases, 2 were due to donor bacteremia and 13 to colonization of the graft. Twenty-five percent of donors with bacteremia and 14.1% of colonized grafts were responsible for transmitting infection. Excluding the five cases without an effective prophylactic regimen, prophylaxis failure occurred in 11 out of 197 procedures (5.58%). Donor-to-host transmission of infection is a frequent event after lung transplantation. Fatal consequences can be avoided with an appropriate prophylactic antibiotic regimen that must be modified according to the microorganisms isolated from cultures of samples obtained from donors, grafts, preservation fluids and recipients.

  11. Single-dose oritavancin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Corey, G Ralph; Kabler, Heidi; Mehra, Purvi; Gupta, Sandeep; Overcash, J Scott; Porwal, Ashwin; Giordano, Philip; Lucasti, Christopher; Perez, Antonio; Good, Samantha; Jiang, Hai; Moeck, Greg; O'Riordan, William

    2014-06-05

    Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria. Its concentration-dependent activity and prolonged half-life allow for single-dose treatment. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial in which adults with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections received either a single intravenous dose of 1200 mg of oritavancin or a regimen of intravenous vancomycin twice daily for 7 to 10 days. Three efficacy end points were tested for noninferiority. The primary composite end point was defined as cessation of spreading or reduction in lesion size, absence of fever, and no need for administration of a rescue antibiotic 48 to 72 hours after administration of oritavancin. Secondary end points were clinical cure 7 to 14 days after the end of treatment, as determined by a study investigator, and a reduction in lesion size of 20% or more 48 to 72 hours after administration of oritavancin. The modified intention-to-treat population comprised 475 patients who received oritavancin and 479 patients who received vancomycin. All three efficacy end points met the prespecified noninferiority margin of 10 percentage points for oritavancin versus vancomycin: primary end point, 82.3% versus 78.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference, -1.6 to 8.4 percentage points); investigator-assessed clinical cure, 79.6% versus 80.0% (95% CI for the difference, -5.5 to 4.7 percentage points); and proportion of patients with a reduction in lesion area of 20% or more, 86.9% versus 82.9% (95% CI for the difference, -0.5 to 8.6 percentage points). Efficacy outcomes measured according to type of pathogen, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, were similar in the two treatment groups. The overall frequency of adverse events was also similar, although nausea was more common among those treated with oritavancin. A single dose of oritavancin was noninferior to twice-daily vancomycin administered for 7 to 10 days for the treatment

  12. Ischaemia-modified albumin: a marker of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Ferdinando A; Domenicali, Marco; Baldassarre, Maurizio; Bartoletti, Michele; Naldi, Marina; Laggetta, Maristella; Bertucci, Carlo; Colecchia, Antonio; Viale, Pierluigi; Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Patients with cirrhosis present structural changes of human serum albumin (HSA) affecting non-oncotic functions. Ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), which reflects the capacity to bind cobalt, has been associated to patient mortality during acute-on-chronic liver failure. This study aimed to assess whether circulating IMA is elevated in advanced cirrhosis and its relationship with severity of cirrhosis and specific complications. A total of 127 cirrhotic patients hospitalized for an acute complication of the disease and 44 healthy controls were enrolled. Plasma IMA and IMA to albumin ratio (IMAr) were measured with a cobalt-binding assay. HSA isoforms carrying post-transcriptional molecular changes were assessed with HPLC-ESI-MS. The effect of endotoxemia on IMA was evaluated in rats with CCl4 -cirrhosis. IMA/IMAr is significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls, but no correlations were found with prognostic scores. IMA did not correlate with the altered HSA isoforms. Ascites, renal impairment and hepatic encephalopathy did not influence IMA/IMAr levels. In contrast, IMA/IMAr is significantly higher in infected than non-infected patients. ROC curves showed that IMA/IMAr had similar discriminating performances for bacterial infection as C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, CRP and IMA were independently associated with bacterial infection. Consistently, endotoxin injection significantly increased IMA in cirrhotic, but not in healthy rats. IMA is elevated in patients with advanced cirrhosis. The IMA level does not correlate with disease severity scores, but it is specifically associated to bacterial infection, showing a discriminating performance similar to CRP. Further investigations to assess IMA as a novel diagnostic test for bacterial infection are advocated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Predictive model for serious bacterial infections among infants younger than 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Bachur, R G; Harper, M B

    2001-08-01

    To develop a data-derived model for predicting serious bacterial infection (SBI) among febrile infants <3 months old. All infants /=38.0 degrees C seen in an urban emergency department (ED) were retrospectively identified. SBI was defined as a positive culture of urine, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid. Tree-structured analysis via recursive partitioning was used to develop the model. SBI or No-SBI was the dichotomous outcome variable, and age, temperature, urinalysis (UA), white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute neutrophil count, and cerebrospinal fluid WBC were entered as potential predictors. The model was tested by V-fold cross-validation. Of 5279 febrile infants studied, SBI was diagnosed in 373 patients (7%): 316 urinary tract infections (UTIs), 17 meningitis, and 59 bacteremia (8 with meningitis, 11 with UTIs). The model sequentially used 4 clinical parameters to define high-risk patients: positive UA, WBC count >/=20 000/mm(3) or /=39.6 degrees C, and age <13 days. The sensitivity of the model for SBI is 82% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78%-86%) and the negative predictive value is 98.3% (95% CI: 97.8%-98.7%). The negative predictive value for bacteremia or meningitis is 99.6% (95% CI: 99.4%-99.8%). The relative risk between high- and low-risk groups is 12.1 (95% CI: 9.3-15.6). Sixty-six SBI patients (18%) were misclassified into the lower risk group: 51 UTIs, 14 with bacteremia, and 1 with meningitis. Decision-tree analysis using common clinical variables can reasonably predict febrile infants at high-risk for SBI. Sequential use of UA, WBC count, temperature, and age can identify infants who are at high risk of SBI with a relative risk of 12.1 compared with lower-risk infants.

  14. Bacterial infection profiles in lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The chemotherapy used to treat lung cancer causes febrile neutropenia in 10 to 40% of patients. Although most episodes are of undetermined origin, an infectious etiology can be suspected in 30% of cases. In view of the scarcity of data on lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia, we performed a retrospective study of the microbiological characteristics of cases recorded in three medical centers in the Picardy region of northern France. Methods We analyzed the medical records of lung cancer patients with neutropenia (neutrophil count < 500/mm3) and fever (temperature > 38.3°C). Results The study included 87 lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (mean age: 64.2). Two thirds of the patients had metastases and half had poor performance status. Thirty-three of the 87 cases were microbiologically documented. Gram-negative bacteria (mainly enterobacteriaceae from the urinary and digestive tracts) were identified in 59% of these cases. Staphylococcus species (mainly S. aureus) accounted for a high proportion of the identified Gram-positive bacteria. Bacteremia accounted for 60% of the microbiologically documented cases of fever. 23% of the blood cultures were positive. 14% of the infections were probably hospital-acquired and 14% were caused by multidrug-resistant strains. The overall mortality rate at day 30 was 33% and the infection-related mortality rate was 16.1%. Treatment with antibiotics was successful in 82.8% of cases. In a multivariate analysis, predictive factors for treatment failure were age >60 and thrombocytopenia < 20000/mm3. Conclusion Gram-negative species were the most frequently identified bacteria in lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Despite the success of antibiotic treatment and a low-risk neutropenic patient group, mortality is high in this particular population. PMID:21707992

  15. Bacterial infection profiles in lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Pluquet, Emilie; Lescure, Francois Xavier; Bentayeb, Houcine; Lecuyer, Emmanuelle; Boutemy, Marie; Dumont, Patrick; Jounieaux, Vincent; Schmit, Jean Luc; Dayen, Charles; Douadi, Youcef

    2011-06-27

    The chemotherapy used to treat lung cancer causes febrile neutropenia in 10 to 40% of patients. Although most episodes are of undetermined origin, an infectious etiology can be suspected in 30% of cases. In view of the scarcity of data on lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia, we performed a retrospective study of the microbiological characteristics of cases recorded in three medical centers in the Picardy region of northern France. We analyzed the medical records of lung cancer patients with neutropenia (neutrophil count < 500/mm(3)) and fever (temperature > 38.3°C). The study included 87 lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (mean age: 64.2). Two thirds of the patients had metastases and half had poor performance status. Thirty-three of the 87 cases were microbiologically documented. Gram-negative bacteria (mainly enterobacteriaceae from the urinary and digestive tracts) were identified in 59% of these cases. Staphylococcus species (mainly S. aureus) accounted for a high proportion of the identified Gram-positive bacteria. Bacteremia accounted for 60% of the microbiologically documented cases of fever. 23% of the blood cultures were positive. 14% of the infections were probably hospital-acquired and 14% were caused by multidrug-resistant strains. The overall mortality rate at day 30 was 33% and the infection-related mortality rate was 16.1%. Treatment with antibiotics was successful in 82.8% of cases. In a multivariate analysis, predictive factors for treatment failure were age >60 and thrombocytopenia < 20000/mm(3). Gram-negative species were the most frequently identified bacteria in lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Despite the success of antibiotic treatment and a low-risk neutropenic patient group, mortality is high in this particular population.

  16. Coxiella Burnetii: Host and Bacterial Responses to Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-16

    are more at risk for eveloping chronic Q fever [44,45]. Endocarditis , primarily f the aortic and mitral valves [46], is the most common man- festation...cardiac valve abnormal- ties, as many as one-third develop endocarditis [48]. Approximately 10% of people recovering from acute Q ever have fatigue...usceptible to developing Q fever endocarditis and chronic atigue syndrome. For example, patients harboring the HLA RB1*11 allele were more likely to

  17. Bacterial communications in implant infections: a target for an intelligence war.

    PubMed

    Costerton, J W; Montanaro, L; Arciola, C R

    2007-09-01

    The status of population density is communicated among bacteria by specific secreted molecules, called pheromones or autoinducers, and the control mechanism is called "quorum-sensing". Quorum-sensing systems regulate the expression of a panel of genes, allowing bacteria to adapt to modified environmental conditions at a high density of population. The two known different quorum systems are described as the LuxR-LuxI system in gram-negative bacteria, which uses an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal, and the agr system in gram-positive bacteria, which uses a peptide-tiolactone as signal and the RNAIII as effector molecules. Both in gram-negative and in gram-positive bacteria, quorum-sensing systems regulate the expression of adhesion mechanisms (biofilm and adhesins) and virulence factors (toxins and exoenzymes) depending on population cell density. In gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, analogs of signaling molecules such as furanone analogs, are effective in attenuating bacterial virulence and controlling bacterial infections. In grampositive Staphylococcus aureus, the quorum-sensing RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP), tested in vitro and in animal infection models, has been proved to inhibit virulence and prevent infections. Attenuation of bacterial virulence by quorum-sensing inhibitors, rather than by bactericidal or bacteriostatic drugs, is a highly attractive concept because these antibacterial agents are less likely to induce the development of bacterial resistance.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus leukocidin ED contributes to systemic infection by targeting neutrophils and promoting bacterial growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Francis; Benson, Meredith A.; Chen, John; Novick, Richard P.; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Bloodstream infection with Staphylococcus aureus is common and can be fatal. However, virulence factors that contribute to lethality in S. aureus bloodstream infection are poorly defined. We discovered that LukED, a commonly overlooked leukotoxin, is critical for S. aureus bloodstream infection in mice. We also determined that LukED promotes S. aureus replication in vivo by directly killing phagocytes recruited to sites of hematogenously-seeded tissue. Furthermore, we established that murine neutrophils are the primary target of LukED, as the greater virulence of wild type S. aureus compared to a lukED mutant was abrogated by depleting neutrophils. The in vivo toxicity of LukED toward murine phagocytes is unique among S. aureus leukotoxins, implying its crucial role in pathogenesis. Moreover, the tropism of LukED for murine phagocytes highlights the utility of murine models to study LukED pathobiology, including development and testing of strategies to inhibit toxin activity and control bacterial infection. PMID:22142035

  19. Endophytic bacterial community of grapevine leaves influenced by sampling date and phytoplasma infection process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endophytic bacteria benefit host plant directly or indirectly, e.g. by biocontrol of the pathogens. Up to now, their interactions with the host and with other microorganisms are poorly understood. Consequently, a crucial step for improving the knowledge of those relationships is to determine if pathogens or plant growing season influence endophytic bacterial diversity and dynamic. Results Four healthy, four phytoplasma diseased and four recovered (symptomatic plants that spontaneously regain a healthy condition) grapevine plants were sampled monthly from June to October 2010 in a vineyard in north-western Italy. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from sterilized leaves and the endophytic bacterial community dynamic and diversity were analyzed by taxon specific real-time PCR, Length-Heterogeneity PCR and genus-specific PCR. These analyses revealed that both sampling date and phytoplasma infection influenced the endophytic bacterial composition. Interestingly, in June, when the plants are symptomless and the pathogen is undetectable (i) the endophytic bacterial community associated with diseased grapevines was different from those in the other sampling dates, when the phytoplasmas are detectable inside samples; (ii) the microbial community associated with recovered plants differs from that living inside healthy and diseased plants. Interestingly, LH-PCR database identified bacteria previously reported as biocontrol agents in the examined grapevines. Of these, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Pantoea dynamic was influenced by the phytoplasma infection process and seasonality. Conclusion Results indicated that endophytic bacterial community composition in grapevine is correlated to both phytoplasma infection and sampling date. For the first time, data underlined that, in diseased plants, the pathogen infection process can decrease the impact of seasonality on community dynamic. Moreover, based on experimental evidences, it was reasonable to hypothesize that

  20. Endophytic bacterial community of grapevine leaves influenced by sampling date and phytoplasma infection process.

    PubMed

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero A

    2014-07-21

    Endophytic bacteria benefit host plant directly or indirectly, e.g. by biocontrol of the pathogens. Up to now, their interactions with the host and with other microorganisms are poorly understood. Consequently, a crucial step for improving the knowledge of those relationships is to determine if pathogens or plant growing season influence endophytic bacterial diversity and dynamic. Four healthy, four phytoplasma diseased and four recovered (symptomatic plants that spontaneously regain a healthy condition) grapevine plants were sampled monthly from June to October 2010 in a vineyard in north-western Italy. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from sterilized leaves and the endophytic bacterial community dynamic and diversity were analyzed by taxon specific real-time PCR, Length-Heterogeneity PCR and genus-specific PCR. These analyses revealed that both sampling date and phytoplasma infection influenced the endophytic bacterial composition. Interestingly, in June, when the plants are symptomless and the pathogen is undetectable (i) the endophytic bacterial community associated with diseased grapevines was different from those in the other sampling dates, when the phytoplasmas are detectable inside samples; (ii) the microbial community associated with recovered plants differs from that living inside healthy and diseased plants. Interestingly, LH-PCR database identified bacteria previously reported as biocontrol agents in the examined grapevines. Of these, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Pantoea dynamic was influenced by the phytoplasma infection process and seasonality. Results indicated that endophytic bacterial community composition in grapevine is correlated to both phytoplasma infection and sampling date. For the first time, data underlined that, in diseased plants, the pathogen infection process can decrease the impact of seasonality on community dynamic. Moreover, based on experimental evidences, it was reasonable to hypothesize that after recovery the restructured

  1. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Bitew, Adane; Abebaw, Yeshiwork; Bekele, Delayehu; Mihret, Amete

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul's Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent's procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day ( p = 0.001) and frequency of vaginal bathing ( p = 0.045). Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.

  2. New Paenibacillus larvae bacterial isolates from honey bee colonies infected with American foulbrood disease in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Kabeil, Sanaa Soliman; Hafez, Elsayed Elsayed

    2014-03-04

    The American foulbrood disease is widely distributed all over the world and causes a serious problem for the honeybee industry. Different infected larvae were collected from different apiaries, ground in phosphate saline buffer (PSB) and bacterial isolation was carried out on nutrient agar medium. Different colonies were observed and were characterized biologically. Two bacterial isolates (SH11 and SH33) were subjected to molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene and the sequence analysis revealed that the two isolates are Paenibacillus larvae with identity not exceeding 83%. The DNA sequence alignment between the other P. larvae bacterial strains and the two identified bacterial isolates showed that all the examined bacterial strains have the same ancestor, i.e. they have the same origin. The SH33 isolate was closely related to the P. larvae isolated from Germany, whereas the isolate SH11 was close to the P. larvae isolated from India. The phylogenetic tree constructed for 20 different Bacillus sp. and the two isolates SH11 and SH33 demonstrated that the two isolates are Bacillus sp. and they are new isolates. The bacterial isolates will be subjected to more tests for more confirmations.

  3. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abebaw, Yeshiwork; Bekele, Delayehu; Mihret, Amete

    2017-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul's Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent's procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. Results The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day (p = 0.001) and frequency of vaginal bathing (p = 0.045). Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined. PMID:28831285

  4. Differential decomposition of bacterial and viral fecal indicators in common human pollution types.

    PubMed

    Wanjugi, Pauline; Sivaganesan, Mano; Korajkic, Asja; Kelty, Catherine A; McMinn, Brian; Ulrich, Robert; Harwood, Valerie J; Shanks, Orin C

    2016-11-15

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota. Ambient water mixed with each fecal pollution type was placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ in a submersible aquatic mesocosm. Genetic and cultivated fecal indicators including fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, E. coli, and Bacteroidales), coliphage (somatic and F+), Bacteroides fragilis phage (GB-124), and human-associated genetic indicators (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2) were measured in each sample. Simple linear regression assessing treatment trends in each pollution type over time showed significant decay (p ≤ 0.05) in most treatments for feces and sewage (27/28 and 32/40, respectively), compared to septage (6/26). A two-way analysis of variance of log 10 reduction values for sewage and feces experiments indicated that treatments differentially impact survival of cultivated bacteria, cultivated phage, and genetic indicators. Findings suggest that sunlight is critical for phage decay, and indigenous microbiota play a lesser role. For bacterial cultivated and genetic indicators, the influence of indigenous microbiota varied by pollution type. This study offers new insights on the decomposition of common human fecal pollution types in a subtropical marine environment with important implications for water quality management applications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Detection of bacterial infection by a technetium-99m-labeled peptidoglycan aptamer.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; de Sousa Lacerda, Camila Maria; Dos Santos, Sara Roberta; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine clinicians are still waiting for the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of distinguishing between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers have several properties that make them suitable for molecular imaging. In the present study, a peptidoglycan aptamer (Antibac1) was labeled with 99m Tc and evaluated by biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging in infection-bearing mice. Labeling with 99m Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and in the molar excess of cysteine. The biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies with the 99m Tc-Antibac1 were carried out in two different experimental infection models: Bacterial-infected mice (S. aureus) and fungal-infected mice (C. albicans). A 99m Tc radiolabeled library, consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences, was used as a control for both models. Radiolabeling yields were superior to 90% and 99m Tc-Antibac1 was highly stable in presence of saline, plasma, and cysteine up to 6h. Scintigraphic images of S. aureus infected mice at 1.5 and 3.0h after 99m Tc-Antibac1 injection showed target to non-target ratios of 4.7±0.9 and 4.6±0.1, respectively. These values were statistically higher than those achieved for the 99m Tc-library at the same time frames (1.6±0.4 and 1.7±0.4, respectively). Noteworthy, 99m Tc-Antibac1 and 99m Tc-library showed similar low target to non-target ratios in the fungal-infected model: 2.0±0.3 and 2.0±0.6for 99m Tc-Antibac1 and 2.1±0.3 and 1.9 ± 0.6 for 99m Tc-library, at the same times. These findings suggest that the 99m Tc-Antibac1 is a feasible imaging probe to identify a bacterial infection focus. In addition, this radiolabeled aptamer seems to be suitable in distinguishing between bacterial and fungal infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial infection as assessed by in vivo gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Heithoff, Douglas M.; Conner, Christopher P.; Hanna, Philip C.; Julio, Steven M.; Hentschel, Ute; Mahan, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    In vivo expression technology (IVET) has been used to identify >100 Salmonella typhimurium genes that are specifically expressed during infection of BALB/c mice and/or murine cultured macrophages. Induction of these genes is shown to be required for survival in the animal under conditions of the IVET selection. One class of in vivo induced (ivi) genes, iviVI-A and iviVI-B, constitute an operon that resides in a region of the Salmonella genome with low G+C content and presumably has been acquired by horizontal transfer. These ivi genes encode predicted proteins that are similar to adhesins and invasins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens (Escherichia coli [tia], Plasmodium falciparum [PfEMP1]) and have coopted the PhoPQ regulatory circuitry of Salmonella virulence genes. Examination of the in vivo induction profile indicates (i) many ivi genes encode regulatory functions (e.g., phoPQ and pmrAB) that serve to enhance the sensitivity and amplitude of virulence gene expression (e.g., spvB); (ii) the biochemical function of many metabolic genes may not represent their sole contribution to virulence; (iii) the host ecology can be inferred from the biochemical functions of ivi genes; and (iv) nutrient limitation plays a dual signaling role in pathogenesis: to induce metabolic functions that complement host nutritional deficiencies and to induce virulence functions required for immediate survival and spread to subsequent host sites. PMID:9023360

  7. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance. PMID:24025239

  8. Macrophage origin limits functional plasticity in helminth-bacterial co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Sharon M.; Duncan, Sheelagh; Hewitson, James P.; Barr, Tom A.; Jackson-Jones, Lucy H.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo. The nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages efficiently upregulated bacterial induced effector molecules (e.g. MHC-II, NOS2) similarly to newly recruited monocyte-derived macrophages. Nonetheless, recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages to Salmonella infection occurred with equal magnitude in co-infected animals and caused displacement of the nematode-expanded, tissue resident-derived macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. Global gene expression analysis revealed that although nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages made an anti-bacterial response, this was muted as compared to newly recruited F4/80low macrophages. However, the F4/80high macrophages adopted unique functional characteristics that included enhanced neutrophil-stimulating chemokine production. Thus, our data provide important evidence that plastic adaptation of MΦ activation does occur in vivo, but that cellular plasticity is outweighed by functional capabilities specific to the tissue origin of the cell. PMID:28334040

  9. Bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  10. Piperacillin/tazobactam: a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in moderate to severe bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Young, M; Plosker, G L

    2001-01-01

    successfully treated patient than ceftriaxone or cefotaxime, but a slightly higher cost-effectiveness ratio than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. All cost-effectiveness analyses were based on decision-analytical models. Piperacillin/tazobactam is likely to reduce overall treatment costs of moderate to severe bacterial infections by increasing initial treatment success, thereby reducing the length of hospital stay and the use of additional antibacterials. Piperacillin/tazobactam has shown clinical and economic advantages over standard antibacterial regimens in the treatment of intra-abdominal infections, LRTIs, febrile episodes in patients with neutropenia, and skin and soft tissue infections, although more complete published data are needed to confirm these results. Present data regarding clinical efficacy, bacterial resistance and costs would support the use of piperacillin/tazobactam as an empirical first-line option in moderate to severe bacterial infections.

  11. Leucine-rich Repeats of Bacterial Surface Proteins Serve as Common Pattern Recognition Motifs of Human Scavenger Receptor gp340*

    PubMed Central

    Loimaranta, Vuokko; Hytönen, Jukka; Pulliainen, Arto T.; Sharma, Ashu; Tenovuo, Jorma; Strömberg, Nicklas; Finne, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Scavenger receptors are innate immune molecules recognizing and inducing the clearance of non-host as well as modified host molecules. To recognize a wide pattern of invading microbes, many scavenger receptors bind to common pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as lipopolysaccharides and lipoteichoic acids. Similarly, the gp340/DMBT1 protein, a member of the human scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein family, displays a wide ligand repertoire. The peptide motif VEVLXXXXW derived from its scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains is involved in some of these interactions, but most of the recognition mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used mass spectrometry sequencing, gene inactivation, and recombinant proteins to identify Streptococcus pyogenes protein Spy0843 as a recognition receptor of gp340. Antibodies against Spy0843 are shown to protect against S. pyogenes infection, but no function or host receptor have been identified for the protein. Spy0843 belongs to the leucine-rich repeat (Lrr) family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins. Experiments with truncated forms of the recombinant proteins confirmed that the Lrr region is needed in the binding of Spy0843 to gp340. The same motif of two other Lrr proteins, LrrG from the Gram-positive S. agalactiae and BspA from the Gram-negative Tannerella forsythia, also mediated binding to gp340. Moreover, inhibition of Spy0843 binding occurred with peptides containing the VEVLXXXXW motif, but also peptides devoid of the XXXXW motif inhibited binding of Lrr proteins. These results thus suggest that the conserved Lrr motif in bacterial proteins serves as a novel pattern recognition motif for unique core peptides of human scavenger receptor gp340. PMID:19465482

  12. In Patients With Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis, Prednisolone Increases Susceptibility to Infection and Infection-Related Mortality, and Is Associated With High Circulating Levels of Bacterial DNA.

    PubMed

    Vergis, Nikhil; Atkinson, Stephen R; Knapp, Suzanne; Maurice, James; Allison, Michael; Austin, Andrew; Forrest, Ewan H; Masson, Steven; McCune, Anne; Patch, David; Richardson, Paul; Gleeson, Dermot; Ryder, Stephen D; Wright, Mark; Thursz, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    Infections are common in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), but little information is available on how to predict their development or their effects on patients. Prednisolone is advocated for treatment of SAH, but can increase susceptibility to infection. We compared the effects of infection on clinical outcomes of patients treated with and without prednisolone, and identified risk factors for development of infection in SAH. We analyzed data from 1092 patients enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with prednisolone (40 mg daily) or pentoxifylline (400 mg 3 times each day) in patients with SAH. The 2 × 2 factorial design led to 547 patients receiving prednisolone; 546 were treated with pentoxifylline. The trial was conducted in the United Kingdom from January 2011 through February 2014. Data on development of infection were collected at evaluations performed at screening, baseline, weekly during admission, on discharge, and after 90 days. Patients were diagnosed with infection based on published clinical and microbiologic criteria. Risk factors for development of infection and effects on 90-day mortality were evaluated separately in patients treated with prednisolone (n = 547) and patients not treated with prednisolone (n = 545) using logistic regression. Pretreatment blood levels of bacterial DNA (bDNA) were measured in 731 patients. Of the 1092 patients in the study, 135 had an infection at baseline, 251 developed infections during treatment, and 89 patients developed an infection after treatment. There was no association between pentoxifylline therapy and the risk of serious infection (P = .084), infection during treatment (P = .20), or infection after treatment (P = .27). Infections classified as serious were more frequent in patients treated with prednisolone (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.92; P = .002). There was no association between prednisolone therapy

  13. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori bacterial infections using a voltammetric biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ly, Suw Young; Yoo, Hai-Soo; Choa, Sung Hoon

    2011-10-01

    The voltammetric assay of Helicobacter pylori DNA was investigated using a bismuth-immobilized carbon nanotube electrode (BCNE). The analytical cyclic voltammetry (CV) peak potential was obtained at a 0.4V reduction scan, where the diagnostic optimum square-wave (SW) stripping working range was achieved at 0.72-7.92 μg/mL H. pylori DNA (11 points). A relative standard deviation of 1.68% (RSD, n=5) was obtained with 3.2 mg/mL H. pylori DNA using a 240 s accumulation time. Under optimum conditions, detection limit was 0.06 μg/mL. The developed sensors can be used for clinical application in the 15th doubted human gastric tissues, since the patient's peak current increased a hundred times more than the negative healthy tissue did. The sensing time obtained was only two minutes, and the process was simpler compared to common PCR amplification and electrophoresis photometric detection systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  15. Polysaccharides as Bacterial Antiadhesive Agents and "Smart" Constituents for Improved Drug Delivery Systems Against Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Menchicchi, Bianca; Hensel, Andreas; Goycoolea, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    The standard eradication treatment of the hostile Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) stomach infection is facing increasing alarming antibiotic resistance worldwide and calls for alternative strategies to the use of antibiotics. One new perspective in this direction is cytoprotective compounds for targeted prevention of the adhesion of the bacteria to the stomach host cell and to inhibit the bacterial cell-cell communication via quorum sensing by specific inhibitors. Bacterial adhesion of H. pylori to the host cells is mainly mediated by carbohydrate-protein interactions. Therefore, the use of polyvalent carbohydrates, (e.g. plant-derived polysaccharides), as potential antiadhesive compounds, seems to be a promising tool to prevent the initial docking of the bacterium to the stomach cells. Polysaccharides are common constituents of daily food, either as starch or as dietary fiber and often also function as excipients for galenic drug-delivery formulations. In addition, polysaccharides with defined pharmacodynamics action against bacterial outer membrane proteins can have potential as therapeutic tools in the treatment of bacterial infections. Some polysaccharides are known to possess antibacterial properties against gram-positive bacteria, others to inhibit bacterial colonization by blocking specific carbohydrate receptors involved in host-bacteria interaction. This mode of action is advocated as alternative antiadhesion therapy. Ongoing research is also seeking for polysaccharide-based nanoformulations with potential for local drug delivery at the stomach as novel H. pylori therapies. These approaches pose challenges concerned with the stability of the nanomaterials in the harsh conditions of the gastric environment and their capacity to adhere to the stomach mucosa. In a global scenario, geographical diversity and social habits, namely lifestyle and dietary factors, influence the prevalence of the H. pylori-associated diseases and their severity. In this context

  16. Hindlimb suspension and SPE-like radiation impairs clearance of bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghong; Holmes, Veronica; Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Sanzari, Jenine K; Kennedy, Ann R; Weissman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    A major risk of extended space travel is the combined effects of weightlessness and radiation exposure on the immune system. In this study, we used the hindlimb suspension model of microgravity that includes the other space stressors, situational and confinement stress and alterations in food intake, and solar particle event (SPE)-like radiation to measure the combined effects on the ability to control bacterial infections. A massive increase in morbidity and decrease in the ability to control bacterial growth was observed using 2 different types of bacteria delivered by systemic and pulmonary routes in 3 different strains of mice. These data suggest that an astronaut exposed to a strong SPE during extended space travel is at increased risk for the development of infections that could potentially be severe and interfere with mission success and astronaut health.

  17. CRISPR interference can prevent natural transformation and virulence acquisition during in vivo bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Bikard, David; Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Mucida, Daniel; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2012-08-16

    Pathogenic bacterial strains emerge largely due to transfer of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria, a process known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci of bacteria and archaea encode a sequence-specific defense mechanism against bacteriophages and constitute a programmable barrier to HGT. However, the impact of CRISPRs on the emergence of virulence is unknown. We programmed the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae with CRISPR sequences that target capsule genes, an essential pneumococcal virulence factor, and show that CRISPR interference can prevent transformation of nonencapsulated, avirulent pneumococci into capsulated, virulent strains during infection in mice. Further, at low frequencies bacteria can lose CRISPR function, acquire capsule genes, and mount a successful infection. These results demonstrate that CRISPR interference can prevent the emergence of virulence in vivo and that strong selective pressure for virulence or antibiotic resistance can lead to CRISPR loss in bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hindlimb Suspension and SPE-Like Radiation Impairs Clearance of Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghong; Holmes, Veronica; Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    A major risk of extended space travel is the combined effects of weightlessness and radiation exposure on the immune system. In this study, we used the hindlimb suspension model of microgravity that includes the other space stressors, situational and confinement stress and alterations in food intake, and solar particle event (SPE)-like radiation to measure the combined effects on the ability to control bacterial infections. A massive increase in morbidity and decrease in the ability to control bacterial growth was observed using 2 different types of bacteria delivered by systemic and pulmonary routes in 3 different strains of mice. These data suggest that an astronaut exposed to a strong SPE during extended space travel is at increased risk for the development of infections that could potentially be severe and interfere with mission success and astronaut health. PMID:24454913

  19. Rapid and direct detection of Invivo kinetics of pathogenic bacterial infection from mouse blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Lee, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrates the first use of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to trace the Invivo infection kinetics of the well known deadly pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss albino mice. The growth curve of the bacteria from the point of injection (200μL of bacterial suspension (10(8)cfu/mL)) into the mouse blood till mortality (death) was periodically analyzed using the plate counting method and MALDI-MS. Bacterial counts of 10(3)cfu/mL were observed in the log phase of the growth curve in the blood and 10(2)cfu/mL were observed in the urine samples. Death occurred in the log phase of the growth curve, where the bacterial counts showed steady increase. In other cases, the bacteria counts started decreasing after 48h and by 96h the bacteria got totally eliminated from the mouse and these mice survived. Direct MALDI-MS was not feasible for tracking the bacteria in the infected blood. However, ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate was successful in enabling bacterial detection amidst the strong blood peaks. But, in the case of the urine analysis, it was observed that direct MALDI-MS was adequate to enable detection. The results obtained prove the efficacy of MALDI-MS for analyzing pathogenic bacteria in clinical samples. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Drosophila Embryos as Model Systems for Monitoring Bacterial Infection in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Iwan R.; Waterfield, Nicholas; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Wood, Will

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila embryos are well studied developmental microcosms that have been used extensively as models for early development and more recently wound repair. Here we extend this work by looking at embryos as model systems for following bacterial infection in real time. We examine the behaviour of injected pathogenic (Photorhabdus asymbiotica) and non-pathogenic (Escherichia coli) bacteria and their interaction with embryonic hemocytes using time-lapse confocal microscopy. We find that embryonic hemocytes both recognise and phagocytose injected wild type, non-pathogenic E. coli in a Dscam independent manner, proving that embryonic hemocytes are phagocytically competent. In contrast, injection of bacterial cells of the insect pathogen Photorhabdus leads to a rapid ‘freezing’ phenotype of the hemocytes associated with significant rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. This freezing phenotype can be phenocopied by either injection of the purified insecticidal toxin Makes Caterpillars Floppy 1 (Mcf1) or by recombinant E. coli expressing the mcf1 gene. Mcf1 mediated hemocyte freezing is shibire dependent, suggesting that endocytosis is required for Mcf1 toxicity and can be modulated by dominant negative or constitutively active Rac expression, suggesting early and unexpected effects of Mcf1 on the actin cytoskeleton. Together these data show how Drosophila embryos can be used to track bacterial infection in real time and how mutant analysis can be used to genetically dissect the effects of specific bacterial virulence factors. PMID:19609447

  1. Disruption of bacterial balance in the gut of Portunus trituberculatus induced by Vibrio alginolyticus infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Mengjie; Pei, Feng; Mu, Changkao; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Chunlin

    2018-04-01

    Gut microbiota impacts the health of crustaceans. Vibrio alginolyticus is a main causative pathogen that induces the vibriosis in farmed swimming crabs, Portunus trituberculatus. However, it remains unknown whether gut bacteria perform functions during the progression of vibriosis. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to investigate temporal alteration of gut bacterial community in swimming crabs in response to 72-h V. alginolyticus challenge. Our results show that V. alginolyticus infection resulted in dynamic changes of bacterial community composition in swimming crabs. Such changes were highlighted by the overwhelming overabundance of Vibrio and a signifi cant fluctuation in the gut bacteria including the bacteria with high relative abundance and especially those with low relative abundance. These findings reveal that crab vibriosis gradually develops with the infection time of V. alginolyticus and tightly relates to the dysbiosis of gut bacterial community structure. This work contributes to our appreciation of the importance of the balance of gut bacterial community structure in maintaining the health of crustaceans.

  2. Role of the Inflammasome, IL-1β, and IL-18 in Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manoranjan; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; del Barrio, Laura; Re, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    The inflammasome is an important innate immune pathway that regulates at least two host responses protective against infections: (1) secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and (2) induction of pyroptosis, a form of cell death. Inflammasomes, of which different types have been identified, are multiprotein complexes containing pattern recognition receptors belonging to the Nod-like receptor family or the PYHIN family and the protease caspase-1. The molecular aspects involved in the activation of different inflammasomes by various pathogens are being rapidly elucidated, and their role during infections is being characterized. Production of IL-1β and IL-18 and induction of pyroptosis of the infected cell have been shown to be protective against many infectious agents. Here, we review the recent literature concerning inflammasome activation in the context of bacterial infections and identify important questions to be answered in the future. PMID:22125454

  3. Bacterial infection in deep paraspinal muscles in a parturient following epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Wei; Chen, Wei-Ting; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Lee, She-Chin; Chang, Yi; Wen, Yeong-Ray

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of paraspinal muscle infection shortly after epidural analgesia for labor pain in a nulliparous parturient who was subjected to emergent Cesarean section because of fetal distress. Epidural morphine was administered for 3 days for postoperative pain control. She began to have constant lower back pain on postpartum Day 4. Magnetic resonance image study revealed a broad area of subcutaneous edema with a continuum along the catheter trajectory deep to the paraspinal muscles. An injection-related bacterial infection was suspected; the patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics and was soon cured uncomplicatedly. Epidural analgesia is effective to control labor pain and, in general, it is safe. However, the sequelae of complicated infection may be underestimated. We herein report a case complicated by iatrogenic infection, discuss the causes, and give suggestions for prevention. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Annual Surveillance Summary: Bacterial Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. The views expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect... account for low incidence rates. Data Source: NMCPHC HL7-formatted CHCS microbiology and M2 databases. Prepared by the EpiData Center Department, Navy...and Marine Corps Public Health Center, on 24 March 2017. Bacterial Infections in the MHS, 2015 Prepared March 2017 EpiData Center Department

  5. Bacterial Respiratory Infections in the Department of Defense (DOD): Fiscal Years (FY) 2013 - 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    States (US).2,3 This analysis utilized Health Level 7 formatted (HL7) Composite Health Care System (CHCS) microbiology and chemistry data to...analysis utilized Health Level 7 (HL7) formatted Composite Health Care System (CHCS) microbiology and chemistry data to identify URIs and LRIs. Seasonal...Due to seasonality of influenza and bacterial infections, data were analyzed by FY (01 October – 30 September). Microbiology and chemistry

  6. Pathological-Condition-Driven Construction of Supramolecular Nanoassemblies for Bacterial Infection Detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Li; Ma, Huai-Lei; Qi, Guo-Bin; Zhang, Di; Yu, Faquan; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-13

    A pyropheophorbide-α-based building block (Ppa-PLGVRG-Van) can be used to construct self-aggregated superstructures in vivo for highly specific and sensitive diagnosis of bacterial infection by noninvasive photoacoustic tomography. This in vivo supramolecular chemistry approach opens a new avenue for efficient, rapid, and early-stage disease diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Inflammatory Monocyte Recruitment Is Regulated by Interleukin-23 during Systemic Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Indramohan, Mohanalaxmi; Sieve, Amy N.; Break, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that causes meningitis and septicemia in immunocompromised individuals and spontaneous abortion in pregnant women. The innate immune response against L. monocytogenes is primarily mediated by neutrophils and monocytes. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is an important proinflammatory cytokine well known for its role in neutrophil recruitment in various infectious and autoimmune diseases. We have previously shown that IL-23 is required for host resistance against L. monocytogenes and for neutrophil recruitment to the liver, but not the spleen, during infection. Despite efficient neutrophil recruitment to the spleen, IL-23p19 knockout (KO) mice have an increased bacterial burden in this organ, suggesting that IL-23 may regulate the recruitment/function of another cell type to the spleen. In this study, we show that specific depletion of neutrophils abrogated the differences in bacterial burdens in the livers but not the spleens of C57BL/6 (B6) and IL-23p19 KO mice. Interestingly, L. monocytogenes-infected IL-23p19 KO mice had fewer monocytes in the spleen than B6 mice, as well as a reduction in the monocyte-recruiting chemokines CCL2 and CCL7. Additionally, the overall concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO•), as well as the percentages and total numbers of monocytes producing TNF-α and NO•, were reduced in IL-23p19 KO mice compared to levels in B6 mice, leading to increased bacterial burdens in the spleens of L. monocytogenes-infected IL-23p19 KO mice. Collectively, our data establish that IL-23 is required for the optimal recruitment of TNF-α- and NO•-producing inflammatory monocytes, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which this proinflammatory cytokine provides protection against bacterial infection. PMID:22966045

  8. Androstenediol and dehydroepiandrosterone protect mice against lethal bacterial infections and lipopolysaccharide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nathan, D; Padgett, D A; Loria, R M

    1999-05-01

    The protective effects of the hormones androstenediol (androstene-3beta, 17beta,-diol; AED) and dehydroepiandrosterone (5-androsten-3beta-ol-17-one; DHEA) on the pathophysiology of two lethal bacterial infections and endotoxin shock were examined. The infections included a gram-positive organism (Enterococcus faecalis) and a gram-negative organism (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Both hormones protected mice from the lethal bacterial infections and from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Treatment of animals lethally infected with P. aeruginosa with DHEA resulted in a 43% protection whereas treatment with AED gave a 67% protection. Both hormones also protected completely animals infected with an LD50 dose of E. faecalis. Similarly, the 88% mortality rate seen in LPS challenge was reduced to 17% and 8.5%, by treatment with DHEA and AED, respectively. The protective influences of both steroids were shown not to be directly antibacterial, but primarily an indirect antitoxin reaction. DHEA appears to mediate its protective effect by a mechanism that blocks the toxin-induced production of pathophysiological levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1. AED usually had greater protective effects than DHEA; however, the AED effect was independent of TNF-alpha suppression, both in vivo and in vitro. The data suggest that both DHEA and AED may have a role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of antibacterial immune resistance.

  9. The Rab-binding Profiles of Bacterial Virulence Factors during Infection.

    PubMed

    So, Ernest C; Schroeder, Gunnar N; Carson, Danielle; Mattheis, Corinna; Mousnier, Aurélie; Broncel, Malgorzata; Tate, Edward W; Frankel, Gad

    2016-03-11

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease, uses its type IV secretion system to translocate over 300 effector proteins into host cells. These effectors subvert host cell signaling pathways to ensure bacterial proliferation. Despite their importance for pathogenesis, the roles of most of the effectors are yet to be characterized. Key to understanding the function of effectors is the identification of host proteins they bind during infection. We previously developed a novel tandem-affinity purification (TAP) approach using hexahistidine and BirA-specific biotinylation tags for isolating translocated effector complexes from infected cells whose composition were subsequently deciphered by mass spectrometry. Here we further advanced the workflow for the TAP approach and determined the infection-dependent interactomes of the effectors SidM and LidA, which were previously reported to promiscuously bind multiple Rab GTPases in vitro. In this study we defined a stringent subset of Rab GTPases targeted by SidM and LidA during infection, comprising of Rab1A, 1B, 6, and 10; in addition, LidA targets Rab14 and 18. Taken together, this study illustrates the power of this approach to profile the intracellular interactomes of bacterial effectors during infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Serum amyloid A is a retinol binding protein that transports retinol during bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Derebe, Mehabaw G; Zlatkov, Clare M; Gattu, Sureka; Ruhn, Kelly A; Vaishnava, Shipra; Diehl, Gretchen E; MacMillan, John B; Williams, Noelle S; Hooper, Lora V

    2014-01-01

    Retinol plays a vital role in the immune response to infection, yet proteins that mediate retinol transport during infection have not been identified. Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are strongly induced in the liver by systemic infection and in the intestine by bacterial colonization, but their exact functions remain unclear. Here we show that mouse and human SAAs are retinol binding proteins. Mouse and human SAAs bound retinol with nanomolar affinity, were associated with retinol in vivo, and limited the bacterial burden in tissues after acute infection. We determined the crystal structure of mouse SAA3 at a resolution of 2 Å, finding that it forms a tetramer with a hydrophobic binding pocket that can accommodate retinol. Our results thus identify SAAs as a family of microbe-inducible retinol binding proteins, reveal a unique protein architecture involved in retinol binding, and suggest how retinol is circulated during infection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03206.001 PMID:25073702

  11. The Rab-binding Profiles of Bacterial Virulence Factors during Infection*

    PubMed Central

    So, Ernest C.; Schroeder, Gunnar N.; Carson, Danielle; Mattheis, Corinna; Mousnier, Aurélie; Broncel, Malgorzata; Tate, Edward W.; Frankel, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease, uses its type IV secretion system to translocate over 300 effector proteins into host cells. These effectors subvert host cell signaling pathways to ensure bacterial proliferation. Despite their importance for pathogenesis, the roles of most of the effectors are yet to be characterized. Key to understanding the function of effectors is the identification of host proteins they bind during infection. We previously developed a novel tandem-affinity purification (TAP) approach using hexahistidine and BirA-specific biotinylation tags for isolating translocated effector complexes from infected cells whose composition were subsequently deciphered by mass spectrometry. Here we further advanced the workflow for the TAP approach and determined the infection-dependent interactomes of the effectors SidM and LidA, which were previously reported to promiscuously bind multiple Rab GTPases in vitro. In this study we defined a stringent subset of Rab GTPases targeted by SidM and LidA during infection, comprising of Rab1A, 1B, 6, and 10; in addition, LidA targets Rab14 and 18. Taken together, this study illustrates the power of this approach to profile the intracellular interactomes of bacterial effectors during infection. PMID:26755725

  12. Interleukin-27 is a novel candidate diagnostic biomarker for bacterial infection in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hector R; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Hall, Mark; Allen, Geoffrey L; Thomas, Neal J; Freishtat, Robert J; Anas, Nick; Meyer, Keith; Checchia, Paul A; Lin, Richard; Bigham, Michael T; Sen, Anita; Nowak, Jeffrey; Quasney, Michael; Henricksen, Jared W; Chopra, Arun; Banschbach, Sharon; Beckman, Eileen; Harmon, Kelli; Lahni, Patrick; Shanley, Thomas P

    2012-10-29

    Differentiating between sterile inflammation and bacterial infection in critically ill patients with fever and other signs of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) remains a clinical challenge. The objective of our study was to mine an existing genome-wide expression database for the discovery of candidate diagnostic biomarkers to predict the presence of bacterial infection in critically ill children. Genome-wide expression data were compared between patients with SIRS having negative bacterial cultures (n = 21) and patients with sepsis having positive bacterial cultures (n = 60). Differentially expressed genes were subjected to a leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) procedure to predict SIRS or sepsis classes. Serum concentrations of interleukin-27 (IL-27) and procalcitonin (PCT) were compared between 101 patients with SIRS and 130 patients with sepsis. All data represent the first 24 hours of meeting criteria for either SIRS or sepsis. Two hundred twenty one gene probes were differentially regulated between patients with SIRS and patients with sepsis. The LOOCV procedure correctly predicted 86% of the SIRS and sepsis classes, and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) had the highest predictive strength. Computer-assisted image analyses of gene-expression mosaics were able to predict infection with a specificity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 94%. Because EBI3 is a subunit of the heterodimeric cytokine, IL-27, we tested the ability of serum IL-27 protein concentrations to predict infection. At a cut-point value of ≥5 ng/ml, serum IL-27 protein concentrations predicted infection with a specificity and a positive predictive value of >90%, and the overall performance of IL-27 was generally better than that of PCT. A decision tree combining IL-27 and PCT improved overall predictive capacity compared with that of either biomarker alone. Genome-wide expression analysis has provided the foundation for the identification of IL-27 as a novel

  13. Interleukin-27 is a novel candidate diagnostic biomarker for bacterial infection in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Differentiating between sterile inflammation and bacterial infection in critically ill patients with fever and other signs of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) remains a clinical challenge. The objective of our study was to mine an existing genome-wide expression database for the discovery of candidate diagnostic biomarkers to predict the presence of bacterial infection in critically ill children. Methods Genome-wide expression data were compared between patients with SIRS having negative bacterial cultures (n = 21) and patients with sepsis having positive bacterial cultures (n = 60). Differentially expressed genes were subjected to a leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) procedure to predict SIRS or sepsis classes. Serum concentrations of interleukin-27 (IL-27) and procalcitonin (PCT) were compared between 101 patients with SIRS and 130 patients with sepsis. All data represent the first 24 hours of meeting criteria for either SIRS or sepsis. Results Two hundred twenty one gene probes were differentially regulated between patients with SIRS and patients with sepsis. The LOOCV procedure correctly predicted 86% of the SIRS and sepsis classes, and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) had the highest predictive strength. Computer-assisted image analyses of gene-expression mosaics were able to predict infection with a specificity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 94%. Because EBI3 is a subunit of the heterodimeric cytokine, IL-27, we tested the ability of serum IL-27 protein concentrations to predict infection. At a cut-point value of ≥5 ng/ml, serum IL-27 protein concentrations predicted infection with a specificity and a positive predictive value of >90%, and the overall performance of IL-27 was generally better than that of PCT. A decision tree combining IL-27 and PCT improved overall predictive capacity compared with that of either biomarker alone. Conclusions Genome-wide expression analysis has provided the foundation

  14. Detecting bacterial lung infections: in vivo evaluation of in vitro volatile fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangjiang; Bean, Heather D; Wargo, Matthew J; Leclair, Laurie W; Hill, Jane E

    2013-03-01

    The identification of bacteria by their volatilomes is of interest to many scientists and clinicians as it holds the promise of diagnosing infections in situ, particularly lung infections via breath analysis. While there are many studies reporting various bacterial volatile biomarkers or fingerprints using in vitro experiments, it has proven difficult to translate these data to in vivo breath analyses. Therefore, we aimed to create secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) pathogen fingerprints directly from the breath of mice with lung infections. In this study we demonstrated that SESI-MS is capable of differentiating infected versus uninfected mice, P. aeruginosa-infected versus S. aureus-infected mice, as well as distinguish between infections caused by P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 versus FRD1, with statistical significance (p < 0.05). In addition, we compared in vitro and in vivo volatiles and observed that only 25-34% of peaks are shared between the in vitro and in vivo SESI-MS fingerprints. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first breath volatiles measured for P. aeruginosa PAO1, FRD1, and S. aureus RN450, and the first comparison of in vivo and in vitro volatile profiles from the same strains using the murine infection model.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal species in symptomatic and asymptomatic endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Vickerman, M M; Brossard, K A; Funk, D B; Jesionowski, A M; Gill, S R

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA was used to examine polymicrobial communities within infected root canals of 20 symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic patients. Nucleotide sequences from approximately 750 clones amplified from each patient group with universal bacterial primers were matched to the Ribosomal Database Project II database. Phylotypes from 37 genera representing Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria were identified. Results were compared to those obtained with species-specific primers designed to detect Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Peptostreptococcus micros, Enterococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Tannerella forsythensis and Treponema denticola. Since members of the domain Archaea have been implicated in the severity of periodontal disease, and a recent report confirms that archaea are present in endodontic infections, 16S archaeal primers were also used to detect which patients carried these prokaryotes, to determine if their presence correlated with severity of the clinical symptoms. A Methanobrevibacter oralis-like species was detected in one asymptomatic and one symptomatic patient. DNA from root canals of these two patients was further analysed using species-specific primers to determine bacterial cohabitants. Trep. denticola was detected in the asymptomatic but not the symptomatic patient. Conversely, Porph. endodontalis was found in the symptomatic but not the asymptomatic patient. All other species except enterococci were detected with the species-specific primers in both patients. These results confirm the presence of archaea in root canals and provide additional insights into the polymicrobial communities in endodontic infections associated with clinical symptoms.

  16. The Effects of Vaccination and Immunity on Bacterial Infection Dynamics In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Coward, Chris; Restif, Olivier; Dybowski, Richard; Grant, Andrew J.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are a significant global health issue, and development of vaccines against these bacteria requires an improved understanding of how vaccination affects the growth and spread of the bacteria within the host. We have combined in vivo tracking of molecularly tagged bacterial subpopulations with mathematical modelling to gain a novel insight into how different classes of vaccines and branches of the immune response protect against secondary Salmonella enterica infections of the mouse. We have found that a live Salmonella vaccine significantly reduced bacteraemia during a secondary challenge and restrained inter-organ spread of the bacteria in the systemic organs. Further, fitting mechanistic models to the data indicated that live vaccine immunisation enhanced both the bacterial killing in the very early stages of the infection and bacteriostatic control over the first day post-challenge. T-cell immunity induced by this vaccine is not necessary for the enhanced bacteriostasis but is required for subsequent bactericidal clearance of Salmonella in the blood and tissues. Conversely, a non-living vaccine while able to enhance initial blood clearance and killing of virulent secondary challenge bacteria, was unable to alter the subsequent bacterial growth rate in the systemic organs, did not prevent the resurgence of extensive bacteraemia and failed to control the spread of the bacteria in the body. PMID:25233077

  17. Norfloxacin and metronidazole topical formulations for effective treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Kamal; Malipeddi, Venkata Ramana; Madan, Jyotsna; Gupta, Gaurav; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Awasthi, Rajendra; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; De Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Our various previous findings have shown the suitability of norfloxacin in the treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds in alone as well as in combination with Curcuma longa in various topical (ointments, gels, and creams) and transdermal drug delivery systems. Aims and methods Keeping these facts in consideration, we have made an another attempt to prepare semisolid formulations containing 1% w/w of norfloxacin and metronidazole with different bases like Carbopol, polyethylene glycol, and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose for effective treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds. The prepared formulations were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, in vitro drug release, antimicrobial activity, and burn wound healing properties. Results The prepared formulations were compared with Silver Sulfadiazine cream 1%, USP. Antimicrobial activity of norfloxacin semisolid formulations was found to be equally effective against both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in comparison to a marketed formulation of Silver Sulfadiazine 1% cream, USP. Based on the burn wound healing property, the prepared norfloxacin semisolid formulation was found to be in good agreement with marketed Silver Sulfadiazine 1% cream, USP. Conclusions These findings suggest formulations containing norfloxacin and metronidazole may also prove as an effective alternative for existing remedies in the treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds. PMID:28386462

  18. Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) IL-12p40: identification, expression, and effect on bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Bao-Cun; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2014-08-01

    IL-12p40, also called IL-12β, is a subunit of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. In teleost, IL-12p40 homologues have been identified in several species, however, the biological function of fish IL-12p40 is essentially unknown. In this work, we reported the identification and analysis of an IL-12p40, OfIL-12p40, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). OfIL-12p40 is composed of 361 amino acids and possesses a conserved IL-12p40 domain and a WSxWS signature motif characteristic of known IL-12p40. Constitutive expression of OfIL-12p40 occurred in multiple tissues and was highest in kidney. Experimental infection with bacterial pathogen upregulated the expression of OfIL-12p40 in kidney and spleen in a time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant OfIL-12p40 (rOfIL-12p40) stimulated the respiratory burst activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in a dose-dependent manner. rOfIL-12p40 also enhanced the resistance of rock bream against bacterial infection and upregulated the expression of innate immune genes in kidney. Taken together, these results indicate that OfIL-12p40 possesses cytokine-like property and plays a role in immune defense against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intravenous drug addicts: a high risk group for infection with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis viruses, cytomegalo virus and bacterial infections in Alexandria Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Ghazzawi, E; Drew, L; Hamdy, L; El-Sherbini, E; Sadek, S el-D; Saleh, E

    1995-01-01

    In this work the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and CMV were studied among two groups of population; IVDA (intravenous drug addicts) (100) and control group (40). Syphilis and other bacterial infections which may be encountered among IVDA were also investigated. It was found that all serum samples (of both groups) were negative for anti-HIV. Regarding HBV markers, the prevalence of HBc antibodies was significantly higher among IVDA (62%) than the control group (27.5%). Also HBsAg was detected in 16% of IVDA while it was 75% among the control group. Prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly higher among IVDA (63%) than the control group (27.5%). The prevalence of co-infection with HBV and HCV was significantly higher in IVDA (40%) than the control group (15%). Sharing of needles and duration of drug use were positively associated with the presence of both HBV markers and anti-HCV. CMV seroprevalence was high in both groups. Antibodies to Syphilis were found in sera of 3 IVDA and one control using MHA-TP test. Although HIV infection has not yet been sufficiently introduced among IVDA in Alexandria but potentials for its spread among addicts are high as supported by observation that other infections with similar mode of transmission are common among addicts.

  20. Ocular surface infections in northeastern state of malaysia: a 10-year review of bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Zaidah A; Harun, Azian; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Noor, Siti S Md; Deris, Zakuan Z; Ismail, Nabilah; Hassan, Asma S; Ahmad, Fadzhilah; Yaakub, Azhany

    2013-09-01

    Ocular surface infections that include infections of conjunctiva, adnexa, and cornea have the potential risk of causing blindness within a given population. Empirical antibiotic therapy is usually initiated based on epidemiological data of common causative agents. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the bacterial agents and their susceptibility patterns of isolates from ocular surface specimens in our hospital. This is a retrospective analysis and records of bacterial isolates from ocular surface specimens in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2001 to December 2010 were examined. Specimens were processed according to standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Only single, nonrepetitive isolates were included in the analysis. A total of 1,267 isolates were obtained during the study period, which comprised Staphylococcus aureus (n = 299, 23.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 194, 15.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 108, 8.5%), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 100, 7.9%), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (n = 84, 6.6%), and Enterobacter spp. (n = 81, 6.4%). Fungi contributed to 4.4% of the total isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that gram-positive bacteria were generally resistant to gentamicin (19%-57%), whereas gram-negative bacteria were resistant to chloramphenicol (27%-58%). Based on the above results, knowledge of the initial Gram stain findings is imperative before the commencement of empirical antibiotic therapy. Therefore, a simple Gram staining for all eye specimens is highly recommended.

  1. Dry reagent dipstick test combined with 23S rRNA PCR for molecular diagnosis of bacterial infection in arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kalogianni, Despina P; Goura, Sophia; Aletras, Alexios J; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Chanos, Michalis G; Christofidou, Myrto; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Ioannou, Penelope C; Panagiotopoulos, Elias

    2007-02-15

    Periprosthetic joint infections present a challenging problem in orthopaedics. Conventional methods for detection of arthroplasty infections rely on bacterial culture of synovial fluid aspirates. During recent years, however, molecular tests that are based on DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by electrophoretic analysis of the products, have been introduced. We report a simple and inexpensive assay that allows visual detection and confirmation of the PCR-amplified sequences by hybridization within minutes. The assay is performed in a dry reagent dipstick format (strip) and does not require special instrumentation. Universal primers are used for PCR of the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The biotinylated amplification product is hybridized with dA-tailed probes that are specific for six pathogens commonly involved in periprosthetic joint infections. The mixture is applied to the strip, which is then immersed in the appropriate buffer. The buffer migrates along the strip by capillary action and rehydrates gold nanoparticles with oligo(dT) strands attached to their surface. The nanoparticles bind to the target DNA through hybridization, and the hybrids are captured by immobilized streptavidin at the test zone of the strip, producing a characteristic red line. Unbound nanoparticles are captured by immobilized oligo(dT) strands at the control zone of the strip, generating a second line. The dipstick test was applied to the detection of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faesium, and Haemophilus influenza. Twelve samples of synovial fluids from patients were analyzed for the detection and identification of the infection caused by the six pathogens. The results were compared with bacterial cultures.

  2. Diagnostic test accuracy of a 2-transcript host RNA signature for discriminating bacterial vs viral infection in febrile children

    PubMed Central

    Shailes, Hannah; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Hoggart, Clive J; Cebey-Lopez, Miriam; Carter, Michael J; Janes, Victoria A; Gormley, Stuart; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Barendregt, Anouk M; Salas, Antonio; Kanegaye, John; Pollard, Andrew J; Faust, Saul N; Patel, Sanjay; Kuijpers, Taco; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Burns, Jane C; Coin, Lachlan JM; Levin, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Importance As clinical features do not reliably distinguish bacterial from viral infection, many children worldwide receive unnecessary antibiotic treatment whilst bacterial infection is missed in others. Objective To identify a blood RNA expression signature that distinguishes bacterial from viral infection in febrile children. Design Febrile children presenting to participating hospitals in UK, Spain, Netherlands and USA between 2009-2013 were prospectively recruited, comprising a discovery group and validation group. Each group was classified after microbiological investigation into definite bacterial, definite viral infection or indeterminate infection. RNA expression signatures distinguishing definite bacterial from viral infection were identified in the discovery group and diagnostic performance assessed in the validation group. Additional validation was undertaken in separate studies of children with meningococcal disease (n=24) inflammatory diseases (n=48), and on published gene expression datasets. Exposures A 2-transcript RNA expression signature distinguishing bacterial infection from viral infection was evaluated against clinical and microbiological diagnosis. Main Outcomes Definite Bacterial and viral infection was confirmed by culture or molecular detection of the pathogens. Performance of the RNA signature was evaluated in the definite bacterial and viral group, and the indeterminate group. Results The discovery cohort of 240 children (median age 19 months, 62% males) included 52 with definite bacterial infection of whom 36 (69%) required intensive care; and 92 with definite viral infection of whom 32 (35%) required intensive care. 96 children had indeterminate infection. Bioinformatic analysis of RNA expression data identified a 38-transcript signature distinguishing bacterial from viral infection. A smaller (2-transcript) signature (FAM89A and IFI44L) was identified by removing highly correlated transcripts. When this 2-transcript signature was

  3. Synthesis of [18F]-labelled Maltose Derivatives as PET Tracers for Imaging Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Namavari, Mohammad; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Hoehne, Aileen; Jouannot, Erwan; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop novel positron emission tomography (PET) agents for visualization and therapy monitoring of bacterial infections. Procedures It is known that maltose and maltodextrins are energy sources for bacteria. Hence, 18F-labelled maltose derivatives could be a valuable tool for imaging bacterial infections. We have developed methods to synthesize 4-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-glucopyranoside (6-[18F]fluoromaltose) and 4-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-D-glucopyranoside (1-[18F]fluoromaltose) as bacterial infection PET imaging agents. 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was prepared from precursor 1,2,3-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2′,3′,-di-O-acetyl-4′,6′-benzylidene-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-deoxy-6-nosyl-D-glucopranoside (5). The synthesis involved the radio-fluorination of 5 followed by acidic and basic hydrolysis to give 6-[18F]fluoromaltose. In an analogous procedure, 1-[18F]fluoromaltose was synthesized from 2,3, 6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2′,3′,4′,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-deoxy-1-O-triflyl-D-glucopranoside (9). Stability of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human and mouse serum at 37 °C was determined. Escherichia coli uptake of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was examined. Results A reliable synthesis of 1- and 6-[18F]fluoromaltose has been accomplished with 4–6 and 5–8 % radiochemical yields, respectively (decay-corrected with 95 % radiochemical purity). 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was sufficiently stable over the time span needed for PET studies (~96 % intact compound after 1-h and ~65 % after 2-h incubation in serum). Bacterial uptake experiments indicated that E. coli transports 6-[18F]fluoromaltose. Competition assays showed that the uptake of 6-[18F]fluoromaltose was completely blocked by co-incubation with 1 mM of the natural substrate maltose. Conclusion We have successfully synthesized 1- and 6-[18F]fluoromaltose via direct fluorination of appropriate protected maltose precursors. Bacterial uptake

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies NBS-LRR-Encoding Genes Related with Anthracnose and Common Bacterial Blight in the Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Zhu, Jifeng; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes represent the largest and most important disease resistance genes in plants. The genome sequence of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) provides valuable data for determining the genomic organization of NBS-LRR genes. However, data on the NBS-LRR genes in the common bean are limited. In total, 178 NBS-LRR-type genes and 145 partial genes (with or without a NBS) located on 11 common bean chromosomes were identified from genome sequences database. Furthermore, 30 NBS-LRR genes were classified into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR (TNL) types, and 148 NBS-LRR genes were classified into coiled-coil (CC)-NBS-LRR (CNL) types. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree supported the division of these PvNBS genes into two obvious groups, TNL types and CNL types. We also built expression profiles of NBS genes in response to anthracnose and common bacterial blight using qRT-PCR. Finally, we detected nine disease resistance loci for anthracnose (ANT) and seven for common bacterial blight (CBB) using the developed NBS-SSR markers. Among these loci, NSSR24, NSSR73, and NSSR265 may be located at new regions for ANT resistance, while NSSR65 and NSSR260 may be located at new regions for CBB resistance. Furthermore, we validated NSSR24, NSSR65, NSSR73, NSSR260, and NSSR265 using a new natural population. Our results provide useful information regarding the function of the NBS-LRR proteins and will accelerate the functional genomics and evolutionary studies of NBS-LRR genes in food legumes. NBS-SSR markers represent a wide-reaching resource for molecular breeding in the common bean and other food legumes. Collectively, our results should be of broad interest to bean scientists and breeders. PMID:28848595

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies NBS-LRR-Encoding Genes Related with Anthracnose and Common Bacterial Blight in the Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Zhu, Jifeng; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes represent the largest and most important disease resistance genes in plants. The genome sequence of the common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) provides valuable data for determining the genomic organization of NBS-LRR genes. However, data on the NBS-LRR genes in the common bean are limited. In total, 178 NBS-LRR-type genes and 145 partial genes (with or without a NBS) located on 11 common bean chromosomes were identified from genome sequences database. Furthermore, 30 NBS-LRR genes were classified into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR (TNL) types, and 148 NBS-LRR genes were classified into coiled-coil (CC)-NBS-LRR (CNL) types. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree supported the division of these PvNBS genes into two obvious groups, TNL types and CNL types. We also built expression profiles of NBS genes in response to anthracnose and common bacterial blight using qRT-PCR. Finally, we detected nine disease resistance loci for anthracnose (ANT) and seven for common bacterial blight (CBB) using the developed NBS-SSR markers. Among these loci, NSSR24, NSSR73, and NSSR265 may be located at new regions for ANT resistance, while NSSR65 and NSSR260 may be located at new regions for CBB resistance. Furthermore, we validated NSSR24, NSSR65, NSSR73, NSSR260, and NSSR265 using a new natural population. Our results provide useful information regarding the function of the NBS-LRR proteins and will accelerate the functional genomics and evolutionary studies of NBS-LRR genes in food legumes. NBS-SSR markers represent a wide-reaching resource for molecular breeding in the common bean and other food legumes. Collectively, our results should be of broad interest to bean scientists and breeders.

  6. Surface charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shijie; Qiao, Shenglin; Li, Lili; Qi, Guobin; Lin, Yaoxin; Qiao, Zengying; Wang, Hao; Shao, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Urinary tract infections are typical bacterial infections which result in a number of economic burdens. With increasing antibiotic resistance, it is urgent that new approaches are explored that can eliminate pathogenic bacteria without inducing drug resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising tactic. It is a gentle in situ photochemical reaction in which a photosensitizer (PS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under laser irradiation. In this work, we have demonstrated Chlorin e6 (Ce6) encapsulated charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for efficiently targeting and killing pathogenic bacteria in a weakly acidic urinary tract infection environment. Owing to the surface charge conversion of NPs in an acidic environment, the NPs exhibited enhanced recognition for Gram-positive (ex. S. aureus) and Gram-negative (ex. E. coli) bacteria due to the charge interaction. Also, those NPs showed significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity. The MIC value of NPs to E. coli is 17.91 μg ml-1, compared with the free Ce6 value of 29.85 μg ml-1. Finally, a mouse acute cystitis model was used to assess the photodynamic therapy effects in urinary tract infections. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in bacterial cells between NPs and free Ce6 occurred in urine after photodynamic therapy treatment. And the plated counting results revealed a remarkable bacterial cells drop (P < 0.05) in the sacrificed bladder tissue. Above all, this nanotechnology strategy opens a new door for the treatment of urinary tract infections with minimal side effects.

  7. Simvastatin attenuates stroke-induced splenic atrophy and lung susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Rong; Zhu, Xiaolei; Liu, Lin; Nanda, Anil; Granger, D Neil; Li, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Statins are widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, but their effects on stroke-induced immunodeppression and post-stroke infections are elusive. We investigated effects of simvastatin treatment on stroke-induced splenic atrophy and lung susceptibility to bacterial infection in acute experimental stroke in mice. Methods Ischemic stroke was induced by transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. In some experiments, splenectomies were performed 2 weeks prior to MCAO. Animals were randomly assigned to sham and MCAO groups treated subcutaneously with vehicle or simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day). Brain infarction, neurological function, brain interferon-γ expression, splenic atrophy and apoptosis, and lung infection were examined. Results Simvastatin reduced stroke-induced spleen atrophy and splenic apoptosis via increased mitochrondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and decreased pro-apoptotic Bax translocation from cytosol into mitochondria. Splenectomy reduced brain interferon-γ (3d) and infarct size (5d) after stroke and these effects were reversed by adoptive transfer of splenocytes. Simvastatin inhibited brain interferon-γ (3d) and reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits (5d) after stroke, and these protective effects were observed not only in naïve stroke mice but also in splenectomied stroke mice adoptively transferred with splenocytes. Simvastatin also decreased the stroke-associated lung susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial infection. Conclusions Results provide the first direct experimental evidence that simvastatin ameliorates stroke-induced peripheral immunodepression by attenuating spleen atrophy and lung bacterial infection. These findings contribute to a better understanding of beneficial effects of statins in the treatment of stroke. PMID:23391769

  8. INFECTION RETARDANT COATINGS IMPACT ON BACTERIAL PRESENCE IN PENILE PROSTHESIS SURGERY: A MULTICENTER STUDY.

    PubMed

    Jani, Kavina; Smith, Christopher; Delk, John R; Carson, Culley C; Donatucci, Craig F; Cleves, Mario A; Wilson, Steven K; Henry, Gerard D

    2018-06-09

    To investigate patients for positive culture rates with or without IRC PPs and to examine changes in culture positive isolates found in patients presenting overt clinical infection. Cultures were obtained from PPs immediately upon surgical exposure of the pump. 236 patients were broken down into 2 groups, with each further divided into 2 groups. The non-infected group included 208 patients: 133 with uncoated PPs and 75 with IRC implants. The infected group included 28 patients: 16 with uncoated PP and 12 with IRC IPP. Additionally, sensitivity to the combination of tetracycline and rifampin were evaluated on all cultures. In the non-infected group, culture positive isolates were found in 85 patients with uncoated PP's and in 32 patients with IRC implants [p-value = 0.0003]. Cultures positive for Staphylococcus genus were found in 75 uncoated PP patients, while 20 patients with IRC implants had an isolate of this genus. In the infected group, culture positive isolates were found in 7 patients with uncoated PP and 6 patients with IRC IPPs [p-value = 1.000]. Positive cultures for Staphylococcus genus were found in 6 patients with uncoated PP, while 3 patients with IRC IPP had an isolate of this genus. All bacterial isolates were sensitive to the combination of tetracycline and rifampin. Positive bacterial cultures have been shown to be present on clinically uninfected IPPs at time of revision surgery. Culture isolates grown from patients with IRC IPPs reveal a non-traditional bacterial profile: fewer cultured isolates of Staphylococcus genus. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Surface charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Qiao, Shenglin; Li, Lili; Qi, Guobin; Lin, Yaoxin; Qiao, Zengying; Wang, Hao; Shao, Chen

    2015-12-11

    Urinary tract infections are typical bacterial infections which result in a number of economic burdens. With increasing antibiotic resistance, it is urgent that new approaches are explored that can eliminate pathogenic bacteria without inducing drug resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising tactic. It is a gentle in situ photochemical reaction in which a photosensitizer (PS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under laser irradiation. In this work, we have demonstrated Chlorin e6 (Ce6) encapsulated charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for efficiently targeting and killing pathogenic bacteria in a weakly acidic urinary tract infection environment. Owing to the surface charge conversion of NPs in an acidic environment, the NPs exhibited enhanced recognition for Gram-positive (ex. S. aureus) and Gram-negative (ex. E. coli) bacteria due to the charge interaction. Also, those NPs showed significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity. The MIC value of NPs to E. coli is 17.91 μg ml(-1), compared with the free Ce6 value of 29.85 μg ml(-1). Finally, a mouse acute cystitis model was used to assess the photodynamic therapy effects in urinary tract infections. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in bacterial cells between NPs and free Ce6 occurred in urine after photodynamic therapy treatment. And the plated counting results revealed a remarkable bacterial cells drop (P < 0.05) in the sacrificed bladder tissue. Above all, this nanotechnology strategy opens a new door for the treatment of urinary tract infections with minimal side effects.

  10. Modeling economic implications of alternative treatment strategies for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Revankar, Nikhil; Ward, Alexandra J; Pelligra, Christopher G; Kongnakorn, Thitima; Fan, Weihong; LaPensee, Kenneth T

    2014-10-01

    The economic implications from the US Medicare perspective of adopting alternative treatment strategies for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) are substantial. The objective of this study is to describe a modeling framework that explores the impact of decisions related to both the location of care and switching to different antibiotics at discharge. A discrete event simulation (DES) was developed to model the treatment pathway of each patient through various locations (emergency department [ED], inpatient, and outpatient) and the treatments prescribed (empiric antibiotic, switching to a different antibiotic at discharge, or a second antibiotic). Costs are reported in 2012 USD. The mean number of days on antibiotic in a cohort assigned to a full course of vancomycin was 11.2 days, with 64% of the treatment course being administered in the outpatient setting. Mean total costs per patient were $8671, with inpatient care accounting for 58% of the costs accrued. The majority of outpatient costs were associated with parenteral administration rather than drug acquisition or monitoring. Scenarios modifying the treatment pathway to increase the proportion of patients receiving the first dose in the ED, and then managing them in the outpatient setting or prescribing an oral antibiotic at discharge to avoid the cost associated with administering parenteral therapy, therefore have a major impact and lower the typical cost per patient by 11-20%. Since vancomycin is commonly used as empiric therapy in clinical practice, based on these analyses, a shift in treatment practice could result in substantial savings from the Medicare perspective. The choice of antibiotic and location of care influence the costs and resource use associated with the management of ABSSSIs. The DES framework presented here can provide insight into the potential economic implications of decisions that modify the treatment pathway.

  11. Lower urinary tract infection and bacterial colonization in patient with double J ureteral stent.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R; Singh, D R; Sharma, S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the bacteriology of urinary tract infection associated with indwelling DJ stent. A total of 60 patients were included and 14 lost during follow up. Study period was for 6 months carried out in the department of surgery, Kathmandu Medical College. Prophylactic antibiotic was given at the time of intervention. Mid stream urine samples for routine and culture were sent before intervention. Urine samples during DJ removal and DJ tip cultures were also sent. All patients were "stented" during the various open and endourolgical procedures. Patients were clinically followed for a period till the DJ was removed. Statistical Package for Scientific Study (SPSS) 11, Chi square Test was used for statistical analysis. A total of 46 cases were included. Mean age in years was 35.70 (10-78 years). Male were 22 and female 24. Eleven patients (23.91%) had stent placed less than 30 days and 35 patients (76.08%) had it for equal or more than 30 days. DJ indwelling time was in between 12-86 days. Bacterial colonies were found in 28.3% (13 of 46) of the urine samples and 30.4% (14 of 46) from the tip of the DJ stent segment. Of the pathogens identified, E. coli was found to be the most common. An increased stent colonization rate was associated with implantation time, female sex. On urine culture 70.21% had no growth, 14.89% E. coli, 4.25% Klebsiella, Actinobacter, 2.12% E. coli/kleb, multiple org, psuedomonas. Ten patients (21.7%) had positive urine culture before stent insertion. Thirteen patients (28.3%) were shown to have positive urine culture on stent removal. Fourteen patients (30.4%) had positive DJ stent culture. Positive urine culture and positive DJ tip cultures had strong correlation. Longer duration of placement of stent showed stent colonization. The commonest pathogen was E. coli.

  12. Molecular signatures in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to insect attack and bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Barah, Pankaj; Winge, Per; Kusnierczyk, Anna; Tran, Diem Hong; Bones, Atle M

    2013-01-01

    Under the threat of global climatic change and food shortages, it is essential to take the initiative to obtain a comprehensive understanding of common and specific defence mechanisms existing in plant systems for protection against different types of biotic invaders. We have implemented an integrated approach to analyse the overall transcriptomic reprogramming and systems-level defence responses in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana henceforth) during insect Brevicoryne brassicae (B. brassicae henceforth) and bacterial Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (P. syringae henceforth) attacks. The main aim of this study was to identify the attacker-specific and general defence response signatures in A. thaliana when attacked by phloem-feeding aphids or pathogenic bacteria. The obtained annotated networks of differentially expressed transcripts indicated that members of transcription factor families, such as WRKY, MYB, ERF, BHLH and bZIP, could be crucial for stress-specific defence regulation in Arabidopsis during aphid and P. syringae attack. The defence response pathways, signalling pathways and metabolic processes associated with aphid attack and P. syringae infection partially overlapped. Components of several important biosynthesis and signalling pathways, such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and glucosinolates, were differentially affected during the two the treatments. Several stress-regulated transcription factors were known to be associated with stress-inducible microRNAs. The differentially regulated gene sets included many signature transcription factors, and our co-expression analysis showed that they were also strongly co-expressed during 69 other biotic stress experiments. Defence responses and functional networks that were unique and specific to aphid or P. syringae stresses were identified. Furthermore, our analysis revealed a probable link between biotic stress and microRNAs in Arabidopsis and

  13. An Insight into Antibiotic Resistance to Bacterial Infection in Chronic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mayank; Varghese, Joy; Michael, Tom; Kedarishetty, Chandan Kumar; G, Balajee; Swaminathan, Subramanian; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2017-12-01

    End stage liver disease leads to immune dysfunction which predisposes to infection. There has been a rise in antibiotic resistant infections in these patients. There is scanty data f from India or idea regarding the same. The present study was undertaken to determine the type of infection acquired and the prevalence of antibiotic resistant infections in cirrhotic patients at a tertiary referral center in South India. In this retrospective study, all consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2013 with a microbiologically-documented infection were enrolled. Details of previous admission and antibiotics if received were noted. In culture positive infections, the source of infection (ascites, skin, respiratory tract: sputum/endotracheal tube aspirate, pleural fluid; urine and blood) and microorganisms isolated and their antibiotic susceptibility was noted. A total of 92 patients had 240 culture positive samples in the study period. Majority were Klebseilla followed by Escherichia coli and Enterococcus in nosocomial and health care associated infections. However, Enteroccocus was followed by E. coli and Klebsiella in community acquired infections. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern was analyzed for the major causative organisms such as E. coli , Klebsiella and Enterococcus . Most common resistant strains were extended spectrum beta lactamase producing enterobacteriacae (ESBL) followed by carbapenemase producing Klebsiella and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Noscomial infection is the most common type, with Klebsiella and E. coli and there is significant rise in ESBL producing organism.

  14. Characterization of Bacterial Communities and Asaia Infection with Field-Collected and Laboratory-Reared Aedes albopictus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-18

    Characterization of bacterial communities and Asaia infection within field-collected and 1 laboratory-reared Aedes albopictus 2 3 4 Elizabeth S...Running Head: Bacterial communities within Ae. albopictus 10 11 #Address correspondence to Elizabeth S. Andrews, elizabeth.s.andrews11.ctr@mail.mil 12...189 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED Abstract 19 The bacterial communities within

  15. Suggested guidelines for using systemic antimicrobials in bacterial skin infections: part 1—diagnosis based on clinical presentation, cytology and culture

    PubMed Central

    Beco, L.; Guaguère, E.; Méndez, C. Lorente; Noli, C.; Nuttall, T.; Vroom, M.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic antimicrobials are critically important in veterinary healthcare, and resistance is a major concern. Antimicrobial stewardship will be important in maintaining clinical efficacy by reducing the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Bacterial skin infections are one of the most common reasons for using systemic antimicrobials in dogs and cats. Appropriate management of these infections is, therefore, crucial in any policy for responsible antimicrobial use. The goals of therapy are to confirm that an infection is present, identify the causative bacteria, select the most appropriate antimicrobial, ensure that the infection is treated correctly, and to identify and manage any underlying conditions. This is the first of two articles that will provide evidence-led guidelines to help practitioners address these issues. This article covers diagnosis, including descriptions of the different clinical presentations of surface, superficial and deep bacterial skin infections, how to perform and interpret cytology, and how to best use bacterial culture and sensitivity testing. Part 2 will discuss therapy, including choice of drug and treatment regimens. PMID:23292951

  16. Spectrum of systemic bacterial infections during febrile neutropenia in pediatric oncology patients in tertiary care pediatric center.

    PubMed

    Siddaiahgari, Sirisharani; Manikyam, A; Kumar, K Anand; Rauthan, A; Ayyar, R

    2014-01-01

    Outcome of pediatric cancers has significantly improved with modern chemotherapy and good supportive care. However, febrile neutropenia remains one of the important limiting factors in these patients especially with the emergence of resistant organisms. Choosing appropriate antimicrobials is possible only if we understand the local microbial spectrum and their sensitivity pattern. To study the likely etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among systemic infections in children with cancer. This is a prospective study. The study was conducted at a tertiary care center for pediatrics, in which culture samples representing blood stream infections and others like urinary tract infections sent from the Oncology services of the Hospital during the year of 2013 were analyzed. The microbiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of these isolates were studied. There were 89 isolates that represented blood and urinary tract infections in neutropenic patients with cancer.Out of 89 positive cultures 76 were gram negative isolates. The most common gram negative bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli 33 (37%), followed by Pseudomonas 21 (23.5%). Acinetobacter grew in 2 patients (2.2%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL's), carbepenem resistant and pan-resistant organisms seen in 28 (31.4%), 5 (5.6%) and 2 cases (2.3%) respectively. Over all Gram-positive organisms were 13/89 (12.3%). Staphylococcus was the most common Gram-positive organism and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus seen in 5 each. Gram-negative organism is a common isolate in cancer children with febrile neutropenia, which is resistant to first-line antibiotic cefepime. Meropenem is most sensitive antibiotic and ESBL's are sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam.

  17. Combinations of bacterial species associated with symptomatic endodontic infections in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Qi, Z; Cao, H; Jiang, H; Zhao, J; Tang, Z

    2016-01-01

    To use microarrays to detect 11 selected bacteria in infected root canals, revealing bacterial combinations that are associated with clinical symptoms and signs of primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population. DNA was extracted from 90 samples collected from the root canals of teeth with primary endodontic infections in a Chinese population, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were hybridized to microarrays containing specific oligonucleotide probes targeting 11 species, and the arrays were screened with a confocal laser scanner. Pearson's chi-squared test and cluster analysis were performed to investigate the associations between the bacterial combinations and clinical symptoms and signs using SAS 8.02. Seventy-seven samples (86%) yielded at least one of the 11 target species. Parvimonas micra (56%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (51%), Tannerella forsythia (48%), Prevotella intermedia (44%) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (37%) were the most prevalent taxa and were often concomitant. The following positive associations were found between the bacterial combinations and clinical features: P. endodontalis and T. forsythia with abscess; P. gingivalis and P. micra with sinus tract; P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis or P. micra and P. endodontalis with abscess and sinus tract; and the combination of P. endodontalis, P. micra, T. forsythia and P. gingivalis with sinus tract (P < 0.05). Various combinations of P. micra, P. endodontalis, T. forsythia and P. gingivalis may contribute to abscesses or sinus tracts of endodontic origin with bacterial synergism in a Chinese population. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. UGT-29 protein expression and localization during bacterial infection in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Rui-Rui; Lee, Song-Hua; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is routinely used as an animal model to delineate complex molecular mechanisms involved in the host response to pathogen infection. Following up on an earlier study on host-pathogen interaction, we constructed a ugt-29::GFP transcriptional fusion transgenic worm strain to examine UGT-29 protein expression and localization upon bacterial infection. UGT-29 orthologs can be found in higher organisms including humans and is proposed as a member of the UDP-Glucoronosyl Transferase family of proteins which are involved in phase II detoxification of compounds detrimental to the host organism. Under uninfected conditions, UGT-29::GFP fusion protein was highly expressed in the C. elegans anterior pharynx and intestine, two major organs involved in detoxification. We further evaluated the localization of the enzyme in worms infected with the bacterial pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The infected ugt-29::GFP transgenic strain exhibited increased fluorescence in the pharynx and intestine with pronounced fluorescence also extending to body wall muscle. This transcriptional fusion GFP transgenic worm is a convenient and direct tool to provide information on UGT detoxification enzyme gene expression and could be a useful tool for a number of diverse applications.

  19. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many are helpful. Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells, and give the body ... vitamins. Bacteria are also used in making healthy foods like yogurt and cheese. But infectious bacteria can ...

  20. THE MODIFYING EFFECTS OF CERTAIN SUBSTANCES OF BACTERIAL ORIGIN ON THE COURSE OF INFECTION WITH PNEUMONIA VIRUS OF MICE (PVM)

    PubMed Central

    Horsfall, Frank L.; McCarty, Maclyn

    1947-01-01

    Evidence is presented which indicates that certain polysaccharide preparations derived from various bacterial species, as well as similar materials not of bacterial origin, are capable of lessening the severity of infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) and inhibiting multiplication of the virus in mouse lungs infected with this agent. It seems probable that modification with respect to the virus is mediated by a substance which may be polysaccharide in nature. PMID:19871640

  1. Lipid biomarkers in ooids from different locations and ages: evidence for a common bacterial flora.

    PubMed

    Summons, R E; Bird, L R; Gillespie, A L; Pruss, S B; Roberts, M; Sessions, A L

    2013-09-01

    Ooids are one of the common constituents of ancient carbonate rocks, yet the role that microbial communities may or may not play in their formation remains unresolved. To search for evidence of microbial activity in modern and Holocene ooids, samples collected from intertidal waters, beaches and outcrops in the Bahamas and in Shark Bay in Western Australia were examined for their contents of lipid biomarkers. Modern samples from Cat and Andros islands in the Bahamas and from Carbla Beach in Hamelin Pool, Western Australia, showed abundant and notably similar distributions of hydrocarbons, fatty acids (FAs) and alcohols. A large fraction of these lipids were bound into the carbonate matrix and only released on acid dissolution, which suggests that these lipids were being incorporated continuously during ooid growth. The distributions of hydrocarbons, and their disparate carbon isotopic signatures, were consistent with mixed input from cyanobacteria together with small and variable amounts of vascular plant leaf wax [C27 -C35 ; δ(13) C -25 to -32‰Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB)]. The FAs comprised a complex mixture of C12 -C18 normal and branched short-chain compounds with the predominant straight-chain components attributable to bacteria and/or cyanobacteria. Branched FA, especially 10-MeC16 and 10-MeC17 , together with the prevalence of elemental sulfur in the extracts, indicate an origin from sulfate-reducing bacteria. The iso- and anteiso-FA were quite variable in their (13) C contents suggesting that they come from organisms with diverse physiologies. Hydrogen isotopic compositions provide further insight into this issue. FAs in each sample show disparate δD values consistent with inputs from autotrophs and heterotrophs. The most enigmatic lipid assemblage is an homologous series of long-chain (C24 -C32 ) FA with pronounced even carbon number preference. Typically, such long-chain FA are thought to come from land plant leaf wax, but in this case, their (13

  2. Suppression in lung defense responses after bacterial infection in rats pretreated with different welding fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Antonini, James M.; Taylor, Michael D.; Millecchia, Lyndell

    2004-11-01

    Epidemiology suggests that inhalation of welding fumes increases the susceptibility to lung infection. The effects of chemically distinct welding fumes on lung defense responses after bacterial infection were compared. Fume was collected during gas metal arc (GMA) or flux-covered manual metal arc (MMA) welding using two consumable electrodes: stainless steel (SS) or mild steel (MS). The fumes were separated into water-soluble and -insoluble fractions. The GMA-SS and GMA-MS fumes were found to be relatively insoluble, whereas the MMA-SS was highly water soluble, with the soluble fraction comprised of 87% Cr and 11% Mn. On day 0, male Sprague-Dawley rats weremore » intratracheally instilled with saline (vehicle control) or the different welding fumes (0.1 or 2 mg/rat). At day 3, the rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10{sup 3} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, left lungs were removed, homogenized, cultured overnight, and colony-forming units were counted to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on right lungs to recover phagocytes and BAL fluid to measure the production of nitric oxide (NO) and immunomodulatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10. In contrast to the GMA-SS, GMA-MS, and saline groups, pretreatment with the highly water soluble MMA-SS fume caused significant body weight loss, extensive lung damage, and a dramatic reduction in pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes after infection. NO concentrations in BAL fluid and lung immunostaining of inducible NO synthase were dramatically increased in rats pretreated with MMA-SS before and after infection. MMA-SS treatment caused a significant decrease in IL-2 and significant increases in TNF-{alpha}, IL-6, and IL-10 after infection. In conclusion, pretreatment with MMA-SS increased production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) after infection, which are

  3. Suppression in lung defense responses after bacterial infection in rats pretreated with different welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Taylor, Michael D; Millecchia, Lyndell; Bebout, Alicia R; Roberts, Jenny R

    2004-11-01

    Epidemiology suggests that inhalation of welding fumes increases the susceptibility to lung infection. The effects of chemically distinct welding fumes on lung defense responses after bacterial infection were compared. Fume was collected during gas metal arc (GMA) or flux-covered manual metal arc (MMA) welding using two consumable electrodes: stainless steel (SS) or mild steel (MS). The fumes were separated into water-soluble and -insoluble fractions. The GMA-SS and GMA-MS fumes were found to be relatively insoluble, whereas the MMA-SS was highly water soluble, with the soluble fraction comprised of 87% Cr and 11% Mn. On day 0, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with saline (vehicle control) or the different welding fumes (0.1 or 2 mg/rat). At day 3, the rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10(3) Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, left lungs were removed, homogenized, cultured overnight, and colony-forming units were counted to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on right lungs to recover phagocytes and BAL fluid to measure the production of nitric oxide (NO) and immunomodulatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10. In contrast to the GMA-SS, GMA-MS, and saline groups, pretreatment with the highly water soluble MMA-SS fume caused significant body weight loss, extensive lung damage, and a dramatic reduction in pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes after infection. NO concentrations in BAL fluid and lung immunostaining of inducible NO synthase were dramatically increased in rats pretreated with MMA-SS before and after infection. MMA-SS treatment caused a significant decrease in IL-2 and significant increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 after infection. In conclusion, pretreatment with MMA-SS increased production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) after infection, which are likely responsible for

  4. Presepsin teardown - pitfalls of biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of bacterial infection in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Maria; Tornai, Tamas; Vitalis, Zsuzsanna; Tornai, Istvan; Tornai, David; Dinya, Tamas; Sumegi, Andrea; Antal-Szalmas, Peter

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of presepsin in cirrhosis-associated bacterial infections. METHODS Two hundred and sixteen patients with cirrhosis were enrolled. At admission, the presence of bacterial infections and level of plasma presepsin, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were evaluated. Patients were followed for three months to assess the possible association between presepsin level and short-term mortality. RESULTS Present 34.7 of patients had bacterial infection. Presepsin levels were significantly higher in patients with infection than without (median, 1002 pg/mL vs 477 pg/mL, P < 0.001), increasing with the severity of infection [organ failure (OF): Yes vs No, 2358 pg/mL vs 710 pg/mL, P < 0.001]. Diagnostic accuracy of presepsin for severe infections was similar to PCT and superior to CRP (AUC-ROC: 0.85, 0.85 and 0.66, respectively, P = NS for presepsin vs PCT and P < 0.01 for presepsin vs CRP). At the optimal cut-off value of presepsin > 1206 pg/mL sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were as follows: 87.5%, 74.5%, 61.8% and 92.7%. The accuracy of presepsin, however, decreased in advanced stage of the disease or in the presence of renal failure, most probably because of the significantly elevated presepsin levels in non-infected patients. 28-d mortality rate was higher among patients with > 1277 pg/mL compared to those with ≤ 1277 pg/mL (46.9% vs 11.6%, P < 0.001). In a binary logistic regression analysis, however, only PCT (OR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.09-3.01, P = 0.022) but neither presepsin nor CRP were independent risk factor for 28-d mortality after adjusting with MELD score and leukocyte count. CONCLUSION Presepsin is a valuable new biomarker for defining severe infections in cirrhosis, proving same efficacy as PCT. However, it is not a useful marker of short-term mortality. PMID:27895404

  5. Interactome of E. piscicida and grouper liver proteins reveals strategies of bacterial infection and host immune response.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Peng, Bo

    2017-01-03

    The occurrence of infectious diseases is related to heterogeneous protein interactions between a host and a microbe. Therefore, elucidating the host-pathogen interplay is essential. We previously revealed the protein interactome between Edwardsiella piscicida and fish gill cells, and the present study identified the protein interactome between E. piscicida and E. drummondhayi liver cells. E. drummondhayi liver cells and bacterial pull-down approaches were used to identify E. piscicida outer membrane proteins that bind to liver cells and fish liver cell proteins that interact with bacterial cells, respectively. Eight bacterial proteins and 11 fish proteins were characterized. Heterogeneous protein-protein interactions between these bacterial cells and fish liver cells were investigated through far-Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation. A network was constructed based on 42 heterogeneous protein-protein interactions between seven bacterial proteins and 10 fish proteins. A comparison of the new interactome with the previously reported interactome showed that four bacterial proteins overlapped, whereas all of the identified fish proteins were new, suggesting a difference between bacterial tricks for evading host immunity and the host strategy for combating bacterial infection. Furthermore, these bacterial proteins were found to regulate the expression of host innate immune-related proteins. These findings indicate that the interactome contributes to bacterial infection and host immunity.

  6. Potential strategies for the eradication of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Huwaitat, Rawan; McCloskey, Alice P; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding. Silver and silver nanoparticles, fusogenic liposomes and nanotubes are potential strategies for extending the activity of licensed, Gram-positive selective, antibiotics to Gram-negatives. This may serve as a strategy to fill the current void in pharmaceutical development in the short term. This review outlines the most promising strategies that could be implemented to solve the threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  7. Osteomyelitis in a Paleozoic reptile: ancient evidence for bacterial infection and its evolutionary significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisz, Robert R.; Scott, Diane M.; Pynn, Bruce R.; Modesto, Sean P.

    2011-06-01

    We report on dental and mandibular pathology in Labidosaurus hamatus, a 275 million-year-old terrestrial reptile from North America and associate it with bacterial infection in an organism that is characterized by reduced tooth replacement. Analysis of the surface and internal mandibular structure using mechanical and CT-scanning techniques permits the reconstruction of events that led to the pathology and the possible death of the individual. The infection probably occurred as a result of prolonged exposure of the dental pulp cavity to oral bacteria, and this exposure was caused by injury to the tooth in an animal that is characterized by reduced tooth replacement cycles. In these early reptiles, the reduction in tooth replacement is an evolutionary innovation associated with strong implantation and increased oral processing. The dental abscess observed in L. hamatus, the oldest known infection in a terrestrial vertebrate, provides clear evidence of the ancient association between terrestrial vertebrates and their oral bacteria.

  8. Diagnostic markers of serious bacterial infections in febrile infants younger than 90 days old.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Adi; Ben Tov, Amir; Reif, Shimon

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess correlations between demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics and the risk of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile <90-day-old infants. Medical records of all infants younger than 90 days old hospitalized at Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital (2006-2008) for evaluation of fever were retrospectively reviewed. Data on clinical, laboratory and demographic characteristics were retrieved and evaluated. Forty-eight of the 401 study infants (12%) had SBI: most of them had urinary tract infection (43 infants; 90% of all SBI), three infants had bacteremia, one had bacterial pneumonia and one had bacterial meningitis. Significant independent clinical predictors for the diagnosis of SBI included duration of fever, absence of rhinitis and the absence of lung and skin manifestations. Significant independent laboratory predictors were absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelets, blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the CRP area under the curve (0.819) was significantly superior to ANC and leukocyte count. Of the clinical and laboratory variables selected for evaluation, qualitative CRP was the strongest independent predictor for diagnosing SBI and a significantly better diagnostic marker than clinical characteristics, ANC and white blood cell count. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Clinical characteristics of children with fever and transient neutropenia who experience serious bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Bonadio, W A; Stremski, E; Shallow, K

    1989-09-01

    A review of consecutive previously healthy children with fever and newly discovered neutropenia without underlying malignancy, evaluated during a three-year period, was performed. A total of 68 episodes occurred in 68 patients; blood culture was performed on each. Of 17 patients who appeared compromised (ill, irritable, toxic) on presentation, five (30%) had either bacteremia or bacterial meningitis. All five patients had clinical evidence of a fulminant disease process on examination. By contrast, all 51 patients who appeared to be well on presentation were culture-negative. Fever and new-onset neutropenia in children is a heterogeneous disorder with several outcomes. Any child with fever and newly discovered neutropenia who appears ill should be presumed to be at high risk for systemic bacterial infection and receive hospitalization for parenteral antibiotic therapy. By contrast, the previously healthy child older than two months of age with fever and new-onset neutropenia who appears to be well, and whose clinical evaluation does not indicate a serious underlying disease process, is at low risk for accompanying systemic bacterial infection; hospitalization with empiric antibiotic therapy pending culture results is not warranted for the majority of such children. Close outpatient monitoring with serial evaluation of the peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count to document bone marrow recovery is recommended for such cases.

  10. Piperine metabolically regulates peritoneal resident macrophages to potentiate their functions against bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mei-Yun; Zha, Qing-Bing; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Hou, Xiao-Feng; Shi, Zi-Jian; Lin, Qiu-Ru; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Pepper, a daily-used seasoning for promoting appetite, is widely used in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal diseases. Piperine is the major alkaloid in pepper and possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism for linking metabolic and medicinal activities of piperine remains unknown. Here we report that piperine robustly boosts mTORC1 activity by recruiting more system L1 amino acid transporter (SLC7A5/SLC3A2) to the cell membrane, thus promoting amino acid metabolism. Piperine-induced increase of mTORC1 activity in resident peritoneal macrophages (pMΦs) is correlated with enhanced production of IL-6 and TNF-α upon LPS stimulation. Such an enhancement of cytokine production could be abrogated by inhibitors of the mTOR signaling pathway, indicating mTOR's action in this process. Moreover, piperine treatment protected resident pMΦs from bacterium-induced apoptosis and disappearance, and increased their bacterial phagocytic ability. Consequently, piperine administration conferred mice resistance against bacterial infection and even sepsis. Our data highlight that piperine has the capacity to metabolically reprogram peritoneal resident macrophages to fortify their innate functions against bacterial infection. PMID:26439699

  11. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Inhibits Innate Immune Responses and Clearance of an Intracellular Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Break, Timothy J.; Jun, Sujung; Indramohan, Mohanalaxmi; Carr, Karen D.; Sieve, Amy N.; Dory, Ladislav; Berg, Rance E.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) play important roles during immune responses to bacterial pathogens. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) regulates extracellular concentrations of ROS/RNS and contributes to tissue protection during inflammatory insults. The participation of ecSOD in immune responses seems therefore intuitive, yet is poorly understood. In the present study, we utilized mice with varying levels of ecSOD activity to investigate the involvement of this enzyme in immune responses against Listeria monocytogenes. Surprisingly, our data demonstrate that, despite enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the liver, ecSOD activity negatively impacted host survival and bacterial clearance. Increased ecSOD activity was accompanied by decreased co-localization of neutrophils with bacteria, as well as increased neutrophil apoptosis, which reduced overall and neutrophil-specific TNF-α production. Liver leukocytes from mice lacking ecSOD produced equivalent nitric oxide (NO·) when compared to mice expressing ecSOD. However, during infection, there were higher levels of peroxynitrite (NO3·−) in livers from mice lacking ecSOD compared to mice expressing ecSOD. Neutrophil depletion studies revealed that high levels of ecSOD activity resulted in neutrophils with limited protective capacity, whereas neutrophils from mice lacking ecSOD provided superior protection compared to neutrophils from wild-type mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ecSOD activity reduces innate immune responses during bacterial infection and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22393157

  12. Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide reductases: from the last universal common ancestor to modern bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Bäumler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical gradient that ensues from the enzymatic activity of cytochromes such as nitrate reductase, nitric oxide reductase, and quinol oxidase contributes to the bioenergetics of the bacterial cell. Reduction of nitrogen oxides by bacterial pathogens can, however, be uncoupled from proton translocation and biosynthesis of ATP or NH4+, but still linked to quinol and NADH oxidation. Ancestral nitric oxide reductases, as well as cytochrome coxidases and quinol bo oxidases evolved from the former, are capable of binding and detoxifying nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. The NO-metabolizing activity associated with these cytochromes can be a sizable source of antinitrosative defense in bacteria during their associations with host cells. Nitrosylation of terminal cytochromes arrests respiration, reprograms bacterial metabolism, stimulates antioxidant defenses and alters antibiotic cytotoxicity. Collectively, the bioenergetics and regulation of redox homeostasis that accompanies the utilization of nitrogen oxides and detoxification of nitric oxide by cytochromes of the electron transport chain increases fitness of many Gram-positive and –negative pathogens during their associations with invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:26426528

  13. Real-time monitoring of bacterial infection in vivo: development of bioluminescent staphylococcal foreign-body and deep-thigh-wound mouse infection models.

    PubMed

    Kuklin, Nelly A; Pancari, Gregory D; Tobery, Timothy W; Cope, Leslie; Jackson, Jesse; Gill, Charles; Overbye, Karen; Francis, Kevin P; Yu, Jun; Montgomery, Donna; Anderson, Annaliesa S; McClements, William; Jansen, Kathrin U

    2003-09-01

    Staphylococcal infections associated with catheter and prosthetic implants are difficult to eradicate and often lead to chronic infections. Development of novel antibacterial therapies requires simple, reliable, and relevant models for infection. Using bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus, we have adapted the existing foreign-body and deep-wound mouse models of staphylococcal infection to allow real-time monitoring of the bacterial colonization of catheters or tissues. This approach also enables kinetic measurements of bacterial growth and clearance in each infected animal. Persistence of infection was observed throughout the course of the study until termination of the experiment at day 16 in a deep-wound model and day 21 in the foreign-body model, providing sufficient time to test the effects of antibacterial compounds. The usefulness of both animal models was assessed by using linezolid as a test compound and comparing bioluminescent measurements to bacterial counts. In the foreign-body model, a three-dose antibiotic regimen (2, 5, and 24 h after infection) resulted in a decrease in both luminescence and bacterial counts recovered from the implant compared to those of the mock-treated infected mice. In addition, linezolid treatment prevented the formation of subcutaneous abscesses, although it did not completely resolve the infection. In the thigh model, the same treatment regimen resulted in complete resolution of the luminescent signal, which correlated with clearance of the bacteria from the thighs.

  14. Massive Infection of Seabird Ticks with Bacterial Species Related to Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D.; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Seabird ticks are known reservoirs of bacterial pathogens of medical importance; however, ticks parasitizing tropical seabirds have received less attention than their counterparts from temperate and subpolar regions. Recently, Rickettsia africae was described to infect seabird ticks of the western Indian Ocean and New Caledonia, constituting the only available data on bacterial pathogens associated with tropical seabird tick species. Here, we combined a pyrosequencing-based approach with a classical molecular analysis targeting bacteria of potential medical importance in order to describe the bacterial community in two tropical seabird ticks, Amblyomma loculosum and Carios (Ornithodoros) capensis. We also investigated the patterns of prevalence and host specificity within the biogeographical context of the western Indian Ocean islands. The bacterial community of the two tick species was characterized by a strong dominance of Coxiella and Rickettsia. Our data support a strict Coxiella-host tick specificity, a pattern resembling the one found for Rickettsia spp. in the same two seabird tick species. Both the high prevalence and stringent host tick specificity suggest that these bacteria may be tick symbionts with probable vertical transmission. Detailed studies of the pathogenicity of these bacteria will now be required to determine whether horizontal transmission can occur and to clarify their status as potential human pathogens. More generally, our results show that the combination of next generation sequencing with targeted detection/genotyping approaches proves to be efficient in poorly investigated fields where research can be considered to be starting from scratch. PMID:24657860

  15. Powerful colloidal silver nanoparticles for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Tam Le, Thi; Quy Nguyen, Van; Hoang Tran, Huy; Dang, Duc Anh; Tran, Quang Huy; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2012-12-01

    In this work we have demonstrated a powerful disinfectant ability of colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections. The silver NPs colloid was synthesized by a UV-enhanced chemical precipitation. Two gastrointestinal bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888-O157:k-:H7) and Vibrio cholerae (O1) were used to verify the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared silver NPs colloid by means of surface disinfection assay in agar plates and turbidity assay in liquid media. Transmission electron microscopy was also employed to analyze the ultrastructural changes of bacterial cells caused by silver NPs. Noticeably, our silver NPs colloid displayed a highly effective bactericidal effect against two tested gastrointestinal bacterial strains at a silver concentration as low as ˜3 mg l-1. More importantly, the silver NPs colloid showed an enhancement of antibacterial activity and long-lasting disinfectant effect as compared to conventional chloramin B (5%) disinfection agent. These advantages of the as-prepared colloidal silver NPs make them very promising for environmental treatments contaminated with gastrointestinal bacteria and other infectious pathogens. Moreover, the powerful disinfectant activity of silver-containing materials can also help in controlling and preventing further outbreak of diseases.

  16. The significance of bacterial engulfment in Gram-stained sputum in patients with respiratory infections

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masafumi; Saraya, Takeshi; Yonetani, Shota; Araki, Koji; Takizawa, Hajime

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In general, physicians believe that the presence of bacterial engulfment in white blood cells (WBCs) on Gram-stained sputum is a hallmark of lower respiratory infection. However, no studies have described the significance or diagnostic accuracy of engulfment in lower respiratory tract infections. We prospectively studied sputum samples by Gram staining (Favor method) for their quality and engulfment score in WBCs obtained from patients with respiratory symptoms at inpatient and outpatient settings at Kyorin University Hospital between December 2012 and April 2015. A total of 163 patients were enrolled. The patients were classified into an infection (n = 93) or non-infection (n = 70) group based on clinical or radiological findings prior to the evaluation of sputum samples. The proportion of engulfment-positive cases was equal in the infection and non-infection groups (49.5% vs 35.7%, P = 0.11). In the infection group, the engulfment score (%) for Streptococcus pneumoniae was significantly lower (median 3%, interquartile range [IQR]: 2% to 5%, P = 0.005) than that of the non-S. pneumoniae bacteria (H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA))(median 22.5%, IQR: 17% to 35.5%). The engulfment score of S. pneumoniae in the WBC was low in the infection group, and no cases were recognized in the non-infection group. Using a cut-off value of 3%, the diagnostic accuracy for infection was as follows: sensitivity: 50%, specificity: 65.7%, and area under the curve (AUC): 0.579 (95% CI 0.464 to 0.694). For the non-S. pneumoniae bacteria (H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and MSSA), the engulfment score was significantly higher in the infection group (median 22.5%, IQR 17 to 35.5%) than in the non-infection group (median 6.0%, IQR: 3 to 13%, P = 0.011), and the diagnostic accuracy for infection was as follows: sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 85.7%, and AUC: 0.902 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.00) when the threshold for

  17. HIF1α-dependent glycolysis promotes macrophage functional activities in protecting against bacterial and fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Yu; Li, Yan; Yu, Qing; Jin, Xi; Wang, Xiao; Jia, Anna; Hu, Ying; Han, Linian; Wang, Jian; Yang, Hui; Yan, Dapeng; Bi, Yujing; Liu, Guangwei

    2018-02-26

    Macrophages are important innate immune defense system cells in the fight against bacterial and fungal pathogenic infections. They exhibit significant plasticity, particularly with their ability to undergo functional differentiation. Additionally, HIF1α is critically involved in the functional differentiation of macrophages during inflammation. However, the role of macrophage HIF1α in protecting against different pathogenic infections remains unclear. In this study, we investigated and compared the roles of HIF1α in different macrophage functional effects of bacterial and fungal infections in vitro and in vivo. We found that bacterial and fungal infections produced similar effects on macrophage functional differentiation. HIF1α deficiency inhibited pro-inflammatory macrophage functional activities when cells were stimulated with LPS or curdlan in vitro or when mice were infected with L. monocytogenes or C. albicans in vivo, thus decreasing pro-inflammatory TNFα and IL-6 secretion associated with pathogenic microorganism survival. Alteration of glycolytic pathway activation was required for the functional differentiation of pro-inflammatory macrophages in protecting against bacterial and fungal infections. Thus, the HIF1α-dependent glycolytic pathway is essential for pro-inflammatory macrophage functional differentiation in protecting against bacterial and fungal infections.

  18. Eradication of common pathogens at days 2, 3 and 4 of moxifloxacin therapy in patients with acute bacterial sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Horacio; Rojas, Ramon; Johnson, Peter; Gower, Richard; Benson, Alice; Herrington, Janet; Perroncel, Renee; Pertel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common infection in clinical practice. Data on time to bacteriologic eradication after antimicrobial therapy are lacking for most agents, but are necessary in order to optimize therapy. This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study to determine the time to bacteriologic eradication in ABS patients (maxillary sinusitis) treated with moxifloxacin. Methods Adult patients with radiologically and clinically confirmed ABS received once-daily moxifloxacin 400 mg for 10 days. Middle meatus secretion sampling was performed using nasal endoscopy pre-therapy, and repeated on 3 consecutive days during treatment. Target enrollment was 30 bacteriologically evaluable patients (pre-therapy culture positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis and evaluable cultures for at least Day 2 and Day 3 during therapy visits), including at least 10 each with S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae. Results Of 192 patients enrolled, 42 were bacteriologically evaluable, with 48 pathogens isolated. Moxifloxacin was started on Day 1. Baseline bacteria were eradicated in 35/42 (83.3%) patients by day 2, 42/42 (100%) patients by day 3, and 41/42 (97.6%) patients by day 4. In terms of individual pathogens, 12/18 S. pneumoniae, 22/23 H. influenzae and 7/7 M. catarrhalis were eradicated by day 2 (total 41/48; 85.4%), and 18/18 S. pneumoniae and 23/23 H. influenzae were eradicated by day 3. On Day 4, S. pneumoniae was isolated from a patient who had negative cultures on Days 2 and 3. Thus, the Day 4 eradication rate was 47/48 (97.9%). Clinical success was achieved in 36/38 (94.7%) patients at the test of cure visit. Conclusion In patients with ABS (maxillary sinusitis), moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily for 10 days resulted in eradication of baseline bacteria in 83.3% of patients by Day 2, 100% by Day 3 and 97.6% by Day 4. PMID:16646958

  19. [Autochthonous acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis)].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Vicente, Diego; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2008-07-01

    Rapid diagnosis of acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis) is highly important for the clinical management of the patient and helps to establish early therapy that may solve life-threatening situations, to avoid unnecessary empirical treatments, to reduce hospital stay, and to facilitate appropriate interventions in the context of public health. Molecular techniques, especially real-time polymerase chain reaction, have become the fastest and most sensitive diagnostic procedures for autochthonous viral meningitis and encephalitis, and their role is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and control of most frequent acute bacterial meningitides. Automatic and closed systems may encourage the widespread and systematic use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of these neurological syndromes in most laboratories.

  20. The utility of biomarkers in differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized children: difference of the diagnostic performance between acute pneumonia and bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Takayuki; Nanishi, Etsuro; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nishio, Hisanori; Kusuhara, Koichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of several biomarkers in differentiating bacterial community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (CA-LRTI) from non-bacterial CA-LRTI in children and the difference of their diagnostic performance between pneumonia and bronchitis. A retrospective cohort study composed of 108 pediatric patients hospitalized for CA-LRTI was performed during 2010-2013. Based on the findings of chest X-ray and sputum samples, patients were divided into 4 categories, group of bacterial pneumonia or bronchitis, and non-bacterial (viral or etiology-unknown) pneumonia or bronchitis. Peripheral white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were compared among the 4 groups. Finally, 54 patients were the subject of this study. In the patients with pneumonia, serum CRP and PCT levels were significantly elevated in the group of bacterial pneumonia (CRP: p = 0.02, PCT: p = 0.0008). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PCT for distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonia was the largest, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCT were best among 4 markers. On the other hand, in the patients with bronchitis, neutrophil count was significantly decreased in non-bacterial bronchitis whereas no significant differences of WBC count, CRP level or PCT level were seen. In conclusion, PCT was the most useful marker to differentiate bacterial pneumonia whereas neutrophil count contributed most to the discrimination of bacterial bronchitis. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers may be different between pneumonia and bronchitis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Multicenter Observational Study to Evaluate Epidemiology and Resistance Patterns of Common Intensive Care Unit-infections.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Ramesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu V; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Chawla, Rajesh; Amin, Pravin; Gopal, Palepu; Chaudhry, Dhruva; Zirpe, Kapil; Abraham, Babu

    2018-01-01

    There is limited data regarding the microbiology of Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-acquired infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) from India. To explore the microbiology and resistance patterns of ICU-acquired infections and evaluate their outcomes. This was a multicenter observational study, conducted by Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (MOSER study) between August 2011 and October 2012. Patients in the ICU ≥48 h with any ICU-acquired infection within 14 days of index ICU stay were included. Patient demographics, relevant clinical, and microbiological details were collected. Follow-up until hospital discharge or death was done, and 6-month survival data were collected. Of the 381 patients included in the study, 346 patients had 1 ICU infection and 35 had more than one ICU infection. Among patients with single infections, 223 had VAP with Acinetobacter being the most common isolate. CAUTI was seen in 42 patients with Klebsiella as the most common organism. CRBSI was seen in 81 patients and Klebsiella was the most common causative organism. Multidrug resistance was noted in 87.5% of Acinetobacter, 75.5% of Klebsiella , 61.9% of Escherichia coli , and 58.9% of Pseudomonas isolates, respectively. Staphylococcus constituted only 2.4% of isolates. Mortality rates were 26%, 11.9%, and 34.6% in VAP, CAUTI, and CRBSI, respectively. VAP is the most common infection followed by CRBSI and CAUTI. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are the most common organisms. Staphylococcus aureus is uncommon in the Indian setting.

  2. Multicenter Observational Study to Evaluate Epidemiology and Resistance Patterns of Common Intensive Care Unit-infections

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Ramesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Chawla, Rajesh; Amin, Pravin; Gopal, Palepu; Chaudhry, Dhruva; Zirpe, Kapil; Abraham, Babu

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is limited data regarding the microbiology of Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-acquired infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) from India. Objectives: To explore the microbiology and resistance patterns of ICU-acquired infections and evaluate their outcomes. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter observational study, conducted by Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (MOSER study) between August 2011 and October 2012. Patients in the ICU ≥48 h with any ICU-acquired infection within 14 days of index ICU stay were included. Patient demographics, relevant clinical, and microbiological details were collected. Follow-up until hospital discharge or death was done, and 6-month survival data were collected. Results: Of the 381 patients included in the study, 346 patients had 1 ICU infection and 35 had more than one ICU infection. Among patients with single infections, 223 had VAP with Acinetobacter being the most common isolate. CAUTI was seen in 42 patients with Klebsiella as the most common organism. CRBSI was seen in 81 patients and Klebsiella was the most common causative organism. Multidrug resistance was noted in 87.5% of Acinetobacter, 75.5% of Klebsiella, 61.9% of Escherichia coli, and 58.9% of Pseudomonas isolates, respectively. Staphylococcus constituted only 2.4% of isolates. Mortality rates were 26%, 11.9%, and 34.6% in VAP, CAUTI, and CRBSI, respectively. Conclusion: VAP is the most common infection followed by CRBSI and CAUTI. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are the most common organisms. Staphylococcus aureus is uncommon in the Indian setting. PMID:29422728

  3. Bacterial biofilms on implanted suture material are a cause of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Kathju, Sandeep; Nistico, Laura; Tower, Irene; Lasko, Leslie-Ann; Stoodley, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) has been estimated to occur in up to 5% of all procedures, accounting for up to 0.5% of all hospital costs. Bacterial biofilms residing on implanted foreign bodies have been implicated as contributing or causative factors in a wide variety of infectious scenarios, but little consideration has been given to the potential for implanted, submerged suture material to act as a host for biofilm and thus serve as a nidus of infection. We report a series of 15 patients who underwent open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (with musculofascial closure with permanent, multifilament sutures) who developed longstanding and refractory SSIs in the abdominal wall. Explanted suture material at subsequent exploration was examined for biofilm with confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). All 15 patients at re-exploration were found to have gross evidence of a "slimy" matrix or dense reactive granulation tissue localized to the implanted sutures. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed abundant biofilm present on all sutures examined; FISH was able to identify the presence of specific pathogens in the biofilm. Complete removal of the foreign bodies (and attendant biofilms) resulted in all cases in cure of the SSI. Bacterial biofilms on implanted suture material can manifest as persistent surgical site infections that require complete removal of the underlying foreign body substrata for resolution.

  4. Immunomodulating effects of antibiotics used in the prophylaxis of bacterial infections in advanced cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zapater, Pedro; González-Navajas, José Manuel; Such, José; Francés, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    The use of norfloxacin either as primary or secondary prophylaxis of bacterial infections in advanced cirrhosis has improved patient’s survival. This may be explained not only due to a significant decrease in the number of infections, but also because of a direct immunomodulatory effect. Selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin reduces translocation of either viable bacteria or bacteria-driven products from the intestinal lumen. In addition, norfloxacin directly modulates the systemic inflammatory response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine profile secreted by neutrophils from these patients shows a close, significant, and inverse correlation with serum norfloxacin levels. Similar effects have been described with other quinolones in different clinical conditions. Although the underlying mechanisms are not well defined for most of the antibiotics, the pathways triggered for norfloxacin to induce such immunomodulatory effects involve the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and NF-κB and the up-regulation of heme-oxygenase 1 and IL-10 expression. The knowledge of these immunomodulatory effects, additional to their bactericidal role, improves our comprehension of the interaction between antibiotics and the cellular host response and offer new possibilities for the development of new therapeutic strategies to manage and prevent bacterial infections in cirrhosis. PMID:26556982

  5. Presepsin (Scd14) as a Marker of Serious Bacterial Infections in Chemotherapy Induced Severe Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Olad, Elham; Sedighi, Iraj; Mehrvar, Azim; Tashvighi, Maryam; Fallahazad, Vahid; Hedayatiasl, Amirabbas; Esfahani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Timely detection of serious bacterial infections or prediction of sepsis and death is of paramount importance in neutropenic patients especially in oncology settings. The aim of this study was to determine a rapid and secure predictor of sepsis in severe neutropenic cancer children. Methods: In addition to blood culture, we have evaluated serum soluble CD14 on this role and measured it in 39 neutropenic episodes in Mahak pediatric oncology center from September 2012 to January 2013. Fifteen episodes had positive bacterial cultures and 18 had fever. The mean sCD14 values were compared in the presence or absence of fever, positive blood culture and other clinical conditions. Also, mean levels compared in different white cell counts and different four combination settings of fever and blood culture. Findings: It was statistically higher in febrile episodes, in the presence of oral mucositis, indwelling catheter infection, otitis media, and post toxic epidermal necrolysis sepsis and in instances of death within 15 days. Leukocyte count did not affect sCD14 level and in combinations of fever and blood culture, mean sCD14 values were ranked as follow: febrile culture negatives, febrile culture positives, afebrile culture positives and afebrile culture negatives. Conclusion: Although sCD14 was not sensitive in detection of bacteremia, in the absence of clinically detectable source of infection, it was significantly higher in culture positives. PMID:26019777

  6. Bacterial infective arthritis of the coxofemoral joint in dogs with hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Benzioni, H; Shahar, R; Yudelevitch, S; Milgram, J

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe seven cases of unilateral bacterial infective coxarthritis from a total of 19 cases of bacterial infective arthritis (BIA), presenting over a two year period. We recorded the history, clinical signs, diagnostic process, treatment and clinical outcome in these cases. The data were obtained from medical records, review of the radiographs, and telephone follow-up with the owners. All of the dogs in this study had severe chronic osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia, which caused periodic hind limb lameness. They were all admitted with severe acute hind-limb lameness. Pelvic radiographs were performed under general anaesthesia shortly after presentation, followed immediately by arthrocentesis of the affected joint. The synovial fluid was evaluated microscopically by direct smear and a sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. An attempt was not made to drain or lavage the affected joint during the course of treatment. The initial choice of antibiotics was empiric and subsequently modified, as required, based on the sensitivity results. Four of the dogs showed a rapid return to weight-bearing after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, and all of the patients returned to their pre-BIA level of function. Neither recurrent infections nor any adverse sequela requiring further intervention were reported by the owners on telephone follow-up.

  7. The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin schedules apoptosis of pathogen-engaged neutrophils during bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Florian; Ivin, Masa; Kratochvill, Franz; Gratz, Nina; Villunger, Andreas; Sixt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Protective responses against pathogens require a rapid mobilization of resting neutrophils and the timely removal of activated ones. Neutrophils are exceptionally short-lived leukocytes, yet it remains unclear whether the lifespan of pathogen-engaged neutrophils is regulated differently from that in the circulating steady-state pool. Here, we have found that under homeostatic conditions, the mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP) regulates apoptosis and the numbers of activated infiltrating murine neutrophils but not neutrophil cellularity. Activated TTP-deficient neutrophils exhibited decreased apoptosis and enhanced accumulation at the infection site. In the context of myeloid-specific deletion of Ttp, the potentiation of neutrophil deployment protected mice against lethal soft tissue infection with Streptococcus pyogenes and prevented bacterial dissemination. Neutrophil transcriptome analysis revealed that decreased apoptosis of TTP-deficient neutrophils was specifically associated with elevated expression of myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1) but not other antiapoptotic B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family members. Higher Mcl1 expression resulted from stabilization of Mcl1 mRNA in the absence of TTP. The low apoptosis rate of infiltrating TTP-deficient neutrophils was comparable to that of transgenic Mcl1-overexpressing neutrophils. Our study demonstrates that posttranscriptional gene regulation by TTP schedules the termination of the antimicrobial engagement of neutrophils. The balancing role of TTP comes at the cost of an increased risk of bacterial infections. PMID:28504646

  8. [Original strategy for prevention of recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder: Bacterial interference, state of the art].

    PubMed

    Falcou, L; Davido, B; Even, A; Bouchand, F; Salomon, J; Sotto, A; Denys, P; Dinh, A

    2018-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication in patients with neurogenic bladder. The long-term use of antibiotic drugs induces an increase in antimicrobial resistance and adverse drug reactions. Bacterial interference is a new concept to prevent recurrent UTI which consists in a bladder colonization with low virulence bacteria. We performed a literature review on this emerging therapy. Literature review of bacterial interference to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection in neurological population. Seven prospectives study including 3 randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled trial were analyzed. The neurological population was spinal cord injured in most cases. The bladder colonization was performed with 2 non-pathogen strains of Escherichia coli: HU 2117 and 83972. At 1 month, 38 to 83% of patients were colonized. Mean duration of colonization was 48.5 days to 12.3 months. All studies showed that colonization might reduce the number of urinary tract infections and is safe with absence of serious side effects. Bacterial interference is a promising alternative therapy for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections in neurogenic patients. This therapy should have developments for a daily use practice and for a long-term efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Urine cytokine and chemokine levels predict urinary tract infection severity independent of uropathogen, urine bacterial burden, host genetics, and host age.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Mody, Lona; Mobley, Harry L T

    2018-06-11

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections worldwide. Diagnosing UTIs in older adults poses a significant challenge as asymptomatic colonization is common. Identification of a non-invasive profile that predicts likelihood of progressing from urine colonization to severe disease would provide a significant advantage in clinical practice. We monitored colonization susceptibility, disease severity, and immune response to two uropathogens in two mouse strains across three age groups to identify predictors of infection outcome. Proteus mirabilis caused more severe disease than Escherichia coli, regardless of mouse strain or age, and was associated with differences in IL-1β, IFN-β, CXCL5 (LIX), CCL5 (RANTES), and CCL2 (MCP-1). In comparing the response to infection across age groups, mature adult mice were better able to control colonization and prevent progression to kidney colonization and bacteremia than young or aged mice, regardless of mouse strain or bacterial species, and this was associated with differences in IL-23, CXCL1, and CCL5. A bimodal distribution was noted for urine colonization, which was strongly associated with bladder CFUs and the magnitude of the immune response but independent of age or disease severity. To determine the value of urine cytokine and chemokine levels for predicting severe disease, all infection datasets were combined and subjected to a series of logistic regressions. A multivariate model incorporating IL-1β, CXCL1, and CCL2 had strong predictive value for identifying mice that did not develop kidney colonization or bacteremia, regardless of mouse genetic background, age, infecting bacterial species, or urine bacterial burden. In conclusion, urine cytokine profiles could potentially serve as a non-invasive decision-support tool in clinical practice and contribute to antimicrobial stewardship. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Molecularly specific detection of bacterial lipoteichoic acid for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection of the bone.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Julie E; Thompson, John M; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Tkaczyk, Christine; Sellman, Bret R; Minola, Andrea; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Miller, Lloyd S; Thorek, Daniel Lj

    2018-01-01

    Discriminating sterile inflammation from infection, especially in cases of aseptic loosening versus an actual prosthetic joint infection, is challenging and has significant treatment implications. Our goal was to evaluate a novel human monoclonal antibody (mAb) probe directed against the Gram-positive bacterial surface molecule lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Specificity and affinity were assessed in vitro. We then radiolabeled the anti-LTA mAb and evaluated its effectiveness as a diagnostic imaging tool for detecting infection via immunoPET imaging in an in vivo mouse model of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In vitro and ex vivo binding of the anti-LTA mAb to pathogenic bacteria was measured with Octet, ELISA, and flow cytometry. The in vivo PJI mouse model was assessed using traditional imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 18 F]FDG and [ 18 F]NaF as well as X-ray computed tomography (CT), before being evaluated with the zirconium-89-labeled antibody specific for LTA ([ 89 Zr]SAC55). The anti-LTA mAb exhibited specific binding in vitro to LTA-expressing bacteria. Results from imaging showed that our model could reliably simulate infection at the surgical site by bioluminescent imaging, conventional PET tracer imaging, and bone morphological changes by CT. One day following injection of both the radiolabeled anti-LTA and isotype control antibodies, the anti-LTA antibody demonstrated significantly greater ( P  < 0.05) uptake at S . aureus -infected prosthesis sites over either the same antibody at sterile prosthesis sites or of control non-specific antibody at infected prosthesis sites. Taken together, the radiolabeled anti-LTA mAb, [ 89 Zr]SAC55, may serve as a valuable diagnostic molecular imaging probe to help distinguish between sterile inflammation and infection in the setting of PJI. Future studies are needed to determine whether these findings will translate to human PJI.

  11. Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus infection. Commonly asked questions.

    PubMed

    Hills, S

    1996-12-01

    Ross River virus infection and Barmah Forest virus infection are two commonly reported arboviral diseases in Australia. Ross River virus has long been recognised as a cause of epidemic polyarthritis and polyarticular disease. Clinical disease as a result of Barmah Forest virus infection has only been identified since 1988 and Australia is the only country in which this virus has been detected. Severe and prolonged symptoms can occur as a result of infection with either virus and may result in significant distress to the patient. This article reviews some of the issues that patients raise in relation to both Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus disease including the source of infection, the duration of symptoms and measures to prevent infection.

  12. Tracking bacterial infection of macrophages using a novel red-emission pH sensor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuguang; Tian, Yanqing; Zhang, Weiwen; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K-Y; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-10-01

    The relationship between bacteria and host phagocytic cells is key to the induction of immunity. To visualize and monitor bacterial infection, we developed a novel bacterial membrane permeable pH sensor for the noninvasive monitoring of bacterial entry into murine macrophages. The pH sensor was constructed using 2-dicyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF) as an electron-withdrawing group and aniline as an electron-donating group. A piperazine moiety was used as the pH-sensitive group. Because of the strong electron-donating and -withdrawing units conjugated in the sensing moiety M, the fluorophore emitted in the red spectral window, away from the autofluorescence regions of the bacteria. Following the engulfment of sensor-labeled bacteria by macrophages and their subsequent merger with host lysosomes, the resulting low-pH environment enhances the fluorescence intensity of the pH sensors inside the bacteria. Time-lapse analysis of the fluorescent intensity suggested significant heterogeneity of bacterial uptake among macrophages. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene expression within single macrophage cells suggested that the 16 S rRNA of the bacteria was still intact 120 min after they had been engulfed by macrophages. A toxicity assay showed that the pH sensor has no cytotoxicity towards either E. coli or murine macrophages. The sensor shows good repeatability, a long lifetime, and a fast response to pH changes, and can be used for a variety of bacteria.

  13. Evaluation of reticulated gelatin-hibiscus-propolis against intestinal commensal species commonly associated with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Olier, Maïwenn; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Eutamene, Hélène; Theodorou, Vassilia

    2017-05-01

    Reticulated gelatin (RG), hibiscus and propolis (RGHP) is a medical device that can reduce the bacterial adherence to epithelial cultured cells and invasion by enteropathogens, thus gathering relevant properties to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed at evaluating in Wistar rats the efficacy of RGHP, RG and vehicle against intestinal commensals commonly involved in UTIs. Animals received orally (with supplemental Na 2 CO 3 ): RGHP 1540 mg/day/rat; RG 500 mg/day/rat or vehicle. RGHP significantly reduced fecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. levels without affecting other targeted Enterobacteriaceae. The antagonistic property of RGHP was confirmed in streptomycin-pretreated rats highly colonized with a human commensal E. coli strain with uropathogenic potential. RGHP may decrease the risk of UTIs by reducing colonization by opportunistic uropathogens.

  14. The effects of Zebra Chip disease development and bacterial titer on biochemical properties in relation to the time of infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato tuber biochemical responses to ‘Candidatus’ Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso), the causal agent of Zebra chip disease, were evaluated both within infected tubers and across different infection dates. Tuber biochemistry also was related to symptom severity and bacterial titer. Symptom severity w...

  15. Identification and transcriptional profile of multiple genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post bacterial infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with Aeromonas hydrophi...

  16. Impact of commonly used agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soils.

    PubMed

    Ampofo, J A; Tetteh, W; Bello, M

    2009-09-01

    The effects of three selected agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soil have been studied. The selected agrochemicals are Cerox (an insecticide), Ceresate and Paraquat (both herbicides). The effect on bacterial population was studied by looking at the total heterotrophic bacteria presence and the effect of the agrochemicals on some selected soil microbes. The soil type used was loamy with pH of 6.0-7.0. The soil was placed in opaque pots and bambara bean (Vigna subterranean) seeds cultivated in them. The agrochemicals were applied two weeks after germination of seeds at concentrations based on manufacturer's recommendation. Plant growth was assessed by weekly measurement of plant height, foliage appearance and number of nodules formed after one month. The results indicated that the diversity index (Di) among the bacteria populations in untreated soil and that of Cerox-treated soils were high with mean diversity index above 0.95. Mean Di for Ceresate-treated soil was 0.88, and that for Paraquattreated soil was 0.85 indicating low bacterial populations in these treatment-type soils. The study also showed that application of the agrochemicals caused reduction in the number of total heterotrophic bacteria population sizes in the soil. Ceresate caused 82.50% reduction in bacteria number from a mean of 40 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) of soil sample to 70 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Paraquat-treated soil showed 92.86% reduction, from a mean of 56 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) to 40 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Application of Cerox to the soil did not have any remarkable reduction in bacterial population number. Total viable cell count studies using Congo red yeast-extract mannitol agar indicated reduction in the number of Rhizobium spp. after application of the agrochemicals. Mean number of Rhizobium population numbers per gram of soil was 180 × 10(4) for the untreated soil. Cerox-treated soil recorded mean number of 138 × 10(4) rhizobial cfu g(-1) of soil, a 23.33% reduction. Ceresate- and

  17. Cold temperature preference in bacterially infected Drosophila melanogaster improves survival but is remarkably suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Fedorka, Kenneth M; Kutch, Ian C; Collins, Louisa; Musto, Edward

    Altering one's temperature preference (e.g. behavioral fever or behavioral chill) is a common immune defense among ectotherms that is likely to be evolutionarily conserved. However, the temperature chosen by an infected host may not be optimal for pathogen defense, causing preference to be inefficient. Here we examined the efficiency of temperature preference in Drosophila melanogaster infected with an LD 50 of the gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To this end, we estimated the host's uninfected and infected temperature preferences as well as their optimal survival temperature. We found that flies decreased their preference from 26.3°C to 25.2°C when infected, and this preference was stable over 48h. Furthermore, the decrease in temperature preference was associated with an increased chance of surviving the infection. Nevertheless, the infected temperature preference did not coincide with the optimum temperature for infection survival, which lies at or below 21.4°C. These data suggest that the behavioral response to P. aeruginosa infection is considerably inefficient, and the mechanisms that may account for this pattern are discussed. Future studies of infected temperature preferences should document its efficiency, as this understudied aspect of behavioral immunity can provide important insight into preference evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial Infections and Osteoclastogenesis Regulators in Men and Women with Cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Likus, Wirginia; Siemianowicz, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Wiaderkiewicz, Jan; Kostrząb-Zdebel, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Dziubdziela, Włodzimierz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard; Łos, Marek J

    2016-06-01

    One of the most distinct features of middle ear cholesteatoma is bone destruction. Aetiology of cholesteatoma is thought to be multifactorial. Endotoxins produced by bacteria are thought to initiate the inflammation process in the middle ear leading to cholesteatoma. There are physiological differences in bone metabolism between men and women. The aim of our study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of the contents of two key components of the OPG/RANK/RANKL triad-RANKL and OPG in cholesteatoma, to analyse if there are any differences between the sexes and to evaluate the bacteria species isolated from cholesteatoma just before surgical treatment and to evaluate their plausible influence on the expression of OPG and RANKL in cholesteatoma. Twenty-one adult patients with acquired cholesteatoma who underwent surgery were analysed. There were no statistically significant differences in the expression of both regulators of osteoclastogenesis between the sexes. In 38.1 % patients cholesteatoma was not infected, whereas in 61.9 % patients various bacterial infections or mycosis were found. The most frequently isolated species was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.29 % infections) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9.52 % infections). There were no statistically significant differences in expression of both OPG and RANKL between uninfected and infected cholesteatomas.

  19. The bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa is not killed if it fails to infect: implications for coevolution.

    PubMed

    King, Kayla C; Auld, Stuart K J R; Wilson, Philip J; James, Janna; Little, Tom J

    2013-02-01

    Strong selection on parasites, as well as on hosts, is crucial for fueling coevolutionary dynamics. Selection will be especially strong if parasites that encounter resistant hosts are destroyed and diluted from the local environment. We tested whether spores of the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa were passed through the gut (the route of infection) of their host, Daphnia magna, and whether passaged spores remained viable for a "second chance" at infecting a new host. In particular, we tested if this viability (estimated via infectivity) depended on host genotype, whether or not the genotype was susceptible, and on initial parasite dose. Our results show that Pasteuria spores generally remain viable after passage through both susceptible and resistant Daphnia. Furthermore, these spores remained infectious even after being frozen for several weeks. If parasites can get a second chance at infecting hosts in the wild, selection for infection success in the first instance will be reduced. This could also weaken reciprocal selection on hosts and slow the coevolutionary process.

  20. The bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa is not killed if it fails to infect: implications for coevolution

    PubMed Central

    King, Kayla C; Auld, Stuart K J R; Wilson, Philip J; James, Janna; Little, Tom J

    2013-01-01

    Strong selection on parasites, as well as on hosts, is crucial for fueling coevolutionary dynamics. Selection will be especially strong if parasites that encounter resistant hosts are destroyed and diluted from the local environment. We tested whether spores of the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa were passed through the gut (the route of infection) of their host, Daphnia magna, and whether passaged spores remained viable for a “second chance” at infecting a new host. In particular, we tested if this viability (estimated via infectivity) depended on host genotype, whether or not the genotype was susceptible, and on initial parasite dose. Our results show that Pasteuria spores generally remain viable after passage through both susceptible and resistant Daphnia. Furthermore, these spores remained infectious even after being frozen for several weeks. If parasites can get a second chance at infecting hosts in the wild, selection for infection success in the first instance will be reduced. This could also weaken reciprocal selection on hosts and slow the coevolutionary process. PMID:23467806

  1. The application of biofilm science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Costerton, William; Veeh, Richard; Shirtliff, Mark; Pasmore, Mark; Post, Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth

    2003-01-01

    Unequivocal direct observations have established that the bacteria that cause device-related and other chronic infections grow in matrix-enclosed biofilms. The diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that have served us so well in the partial eradication of acute epidemic bacterial diseases have not yielded accurate data or favorable outcomes when applied to these biofilm diseases. We discuss the potential benefits of the application of the new methods and concepts developed by biofilm science and engineering to the clinical management of infectious diseases. PMID:14617746

  2. Increased Systemic Cytokine/Chemokine Expression in Asthmatic and Non-asthmatic Patients with Bacterial, Viral or Mixed Lung Infection.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, M J; Valero, N; Mosquera, J; Duran, A; Arocha, F; Chacín, B; Espina, L M; Gotera, J; Bermudez, J; Mavarez, A; Alvarez-Mon, M

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed to determine the profiles of serum cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (MCP-1: monocyte chemoattract protein-1 and RANTES: regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) in individuals with an asthmatic versus a non-asthmatic background with bacterial, viral or mixed acute respiratory infection. Asthmatic (n = 14) and non-asthmatic (n = 29) patients with acute viral, bacterial or mixed (bacterial and viruses) respiratory infection were studied. Patients were also analysed as individuals with pneumonia or bronchitis. Healthy individuals with similar age and sex (n = 10) were used as controls. Cytokine/chemokine content in serum was determined by ELISA. Increased cytokine/chemokine concentration in asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients was observed. However, higher concentrations of chemokines (MCP-1 and RANTES) in asthmatic patients infected by viruses, bacteria or bacteria and viruses (mixed) than in non-asthmatic patients were observed. In general, viral and mixed infections were better cytokine/chemokine inducers than bacterial infection. Cytokine/chemokine expression was similarly increased in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients with pneumonia or bronchitis, except that RANTES remained at normal levels in bronchitis. Circulating cytokine profiles induced by acute viral, bacterial or mixed lung infection were not related to asthmatic background, except for chemokines that were increased in asthmatic status. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  3. The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, Julia J; Lin, Huaiying; Gao, Xiang; Toh, Evelyn; Fortney, Kate R; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Janowicz, Diane M; Katz, Barry P; Nelson, David E; Dong, Qunfeng; Spinola, Stanley M

    2015-09-15

    The influence of the skin microbiota on host susceptibility to infectious agents is largely unexplored. The skin harbors diverse bacterial species that may promote or antagonize the growth of an invading pathogen. We developed a human infection model for Haemophilus ducreyi in which human volunteers are inoculated on the upper arm. After inoculation, papules form and either spontaneously resolve or progress to pustules. To examine the role of the skin microbiota in the outcome of H. ducreyi infection, we analyzed the microbiomes of four dose-matched pairs of "resolvers" and "pustule formers" whose inoculation sites were swabbed at multiple time points. Bacteria present on the skin were identified by amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between the preinfection microbiomes of infected sites showed that sites from the same volunteer clustered together and that pustule formers segregated from resolvers (P = 0.001, permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA]), suggesting that the preinfection microbiomes were associated with outcome. NMDS using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of the endpoint samples showed that the pustule sites clustered together and were significantly different than the resolved sites (P = 0.001, PERMANOVA), suggesting that the microbiomes at the endpoint differed between the two groups. In addition to H. ducreyi, pustule-forming sites had a greater abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paracoccus, and Staphylococcus species, whereas resolved sites had higher levels of Actinobacteria and Propionibacterium species. These results suggest that at baseline, resolvers and pustule formers have distinct skin bacterial communities which change in response to infection and the resultant immune response. Human skin is home to a diverse community of microorganisms, collectively known as the skin microbiome. Some resident

  4. Point source outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni infection--are they more common than we think and what might cause them?

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, I. A.; O'Brien, S. J.; Adak, G. K.; Tam, C. C.; Frost, J. A.; Bolton, F. J.; Tompkins, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being the commonest bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in England and Wales, outbreaks of campylobacter infection are rarely reported. However, data from the Campylobacter Sentinel Surveillance Scheme suggested that outbreaks might be more common than was previously suspected, since a high proportion of cases reported other illness in the home or in the community at the same time as their illness. To identify factors that might lead to these apparent outbreaks, the exposures of cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection reporting other illness, either in the home or the community, were compared with those for cases not reporting other illness using case-case methodology. Illness in the home was associated with consuming organic meats in the winter, having contact with a pet suffering from diarrhoea or visiting a farm in the 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms. Illness in the community was associated with the consumption of foods in restaurants or drinking unpasteurized milk. Prevention of campylobacter infection requires that better methods of outbreak detection and investigation are developed, which in turn should lead to a better understanding of risk factors. PMID:12825720

  5. SIV Infection-mediated Changes in Gastrointestinal Bacterial Microbiome and Virome are Associated With Immunodeficiency and Prevented by Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Scott A.; Desai, Chandni; Zhao, Guoyan; Droit, Lindsay; Monaco, Cynthia L.; Schroeder, Andrew C.; Nkolola, Joseph P.; Norman, Megan E.; Miller, Andrew D.; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY AIDS caused by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation and, in cross sectional studies, changes in the enteric virome. Here we performed a longitudinal study of a vaccine cohort to define the natural history of changes in the fecal metagenome in SIV-infected monkeys. Matched rhesus macaques were either uninfected or intrarectally challenged with SIV, with a subset receiving the Ad26 vaccine, an adenovirus vector expressing the viral Env/Gag/Pol antigens. Progression of SIV infection to AIDS was associated with increased detection of potentially pathogenic viruses and bacterial enteropathogens. Specifically, adenoviruses were associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal disease and AIDS-related mortality. Viral and bacterial enteropathogens were largely absent from animals protected by the vaccine. These data suggest that the SIV-associated gastrointestinal disease is associated with the presence of both viral and bacterial enteropathogens and protection against SIV infection by vaccination prevents enteropathogen emergence. PMID:26962943

  6. Micronutrients decrease incidence of common infections in type 2 diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinghua; Jing, Hongjiang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Rongxin; Zhang, Yuehong; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qing; Yu, Xiaoming; Xue, Changyong

    2011-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out to investigate the effects of micronutrients supplementation on immunity and the incidence of common infections in type 2 diabetic outpatients. A total of 196 type 2 diabetic outpatients were randomized to receive tablets of micronutrients (n=97) or placebo (n=99) for 6 months. Individualized dietary energy intake and daily physical activity were recommended. Anthropometric measurements, blood biochemical variables and the incidence of common infections were measured at baseline and at 6 months. Data on diet, exercise and infection (upper respiratory tract infection, skin infection, urinary and genital tract infections, other infections) were recorded 1 month before the study and every month during the study. Blood concentrations of total protein, iron (Fe), folic acid and hemoglobin increased and unsaturated iron-binding capacity(UIBC) levels were decreased in the micronutrients supplementation group compared to the placebo group at 6 months. Moreover, at 6 months, compared to the placebo group, the blood concentrations of IgE, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, WBC, lymphocyte counts, basophilic leukocyte increased and CD8+ count decreased in the supplementation group, and the levels of IgA, IgM, IgG and complements C3 and C4 did not differ. The incidence of upper respiratory infection, whitlow, dermapostasis, vaginitis, urinary tract infection, gingivitis and dental ulcer were lower and body temperature and duration of fever greatly improved in the supplementation than the placebo group. These data indicated that supplementation of micronutrients might increase immune function and reduce the incidence of common infections in type 2 diabetic outpatients.

  7. Bacterial effectors target the common signaling partner BAK1 to disrupt multiple MAMP receptor-signaling complexes and impede plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Shan, Libo; He, Ping; Li, Jianming; Heese, Antje; Peck, Scott C; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Martin, Gregory B; Sheen, Jen

    2008-07-17

    Successful pathogens have evolved strategies to interfere with host immune systems. For example, the ubiquitous plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects two sequence-distinct effectors, AvrPto and AvrPtoB, to intercept convergent innate immune responses stimulated by multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). However, the direct host targets and precise molecular mechanisms of bacterial effectors remain largely obscure. We show that AvrPto and AvrPtoB bind the Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase BAK1, a shared signaling partner of both the flagellin receptor FLS2 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1. This targeting interferes with ligand-dependent association of FLS2 with BAK1 during infection. It also impedes BAK1-dependent host immune responses to diverse other MAMPs and brassinosteroid signaling. Significantly, the structural basis of AvrPto-BAK1 interaction appears to be distinct from AvrPto-Pto association required for effector-triggered immunity. These findings uncover a unique strategy of bacterial pathogenesis where virulence effectors block signal transmission through a key common component of multiple MAMP-receptor complexes.

  8. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Kureljušić, Branislav; Nedorost, Nora; Matula, Bettina; Schießl, Wolfgang; Stixenberger, Daniela; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2)) and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b.), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h.), and Pasteurella multocida (P. m.)) co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.

  9. Synergistic antimicrobial therapy using nanoparticles and antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Akash; Saleh, Neveen M.; Das, Riddha; Landis, Ryan F.; Bigdeli, Arafeh; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Rosa Campos, Alexandre; Pomeroy, Kenneth; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2017-06-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria pose a serious global burden of mortality, causing thousands of deaths each year. Antibiotic treatment of resistant infections further contributes to the rapidly increasing number of antibiotic-resistant species and strains. Synthetic macromolecules such as nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit broad-spectrum activity against MDR species, however lack of specificity towards bacteria relative to their mammalian hosts limits their widespread therapeutic application. Here, we demonstrate synergistic antimicrobial therapy using hydrophobically functionalized NPs and fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treatment of MDR bacterial strains. An 8-16-fold decrease in antibiotic dosage is achieved in presence of engineered NPs to combat MDR strains. This strategy demonstrates the potential of using NPs to ‘revive’ antibiotics that have been rendered ineffective due to the development of resistance by pathogenic bacteria.

  10. [Strategy for choosing antibiotics for treating bacterial infections associated with chronic tick-borne encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Malenko, G V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Ivannikova, T A

    1996-01-01

    The capacity of wide-spectrum antibiotics kefzol and ristomycin to activate the persisting tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and cause an exacerbation of chronic process was investigated in Syrian hamsters in whom a prolonged (77 to 270 days) persistent TBE infection was induced by three TBE strains: Vasilchenko, V-383, and 205. The degree of antibiotic-induced activation was assessed using the criteria characterizing the reproduction and peculiarities of persisting TBE virus, immunodepression, and morphologic changes in the central nervous system. Effects of kefzol and ristomycin were compared with those of 8 antibiotics studied previously. Ristomycin, levomycetin (chloramphycin), penicillin, ampicillin (ampital), and levoridan were referred to drugs devoid of evident provoking effect. Kefzol (cefamezin), florimycin (viomycin), and kanamycin (kanamytrex) were characterized as weak activators and streptomycin and tetracycline as potent activators of the persisting TBE virus. These data may be used when selecting alternative agents for therapy of secondary bacterial infections concomitant with TBE.

  11. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are common members of bacterial communities in Altamira Cave (Spain).

    PubMed

    Portillo, M Carmen; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2009-01-15

    The conservation of paleolithic paintings such as those in Altamira Cave (Spain) is a primary objective. Recent molecular studies have shown the existence of unknown microbial communities in this cave including anaerobic microorganisms on cave walls. Herein, we analyzed an anaerobic microbial group, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), from Altamira Cave with potential negative effects on painting conservation. In the present work, the communities of bacteria and SRB were studied through PCR-DGGE analysis. Data suggest that SRB communities represent a significant, highly diverse bacterial group in Altamira Cave. These findings represent a first report on this physiological group on caves with paleolithic paintings and their potential biodegradation consequences. Expanding our knowledge on microbial communities in Altamira Cave is a priority to design appropriate conservation strategies.

  12. [Application of sumamed in treatment of bacterial vaginal infections during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Nikolov, A; Shopova, E; Nashar, S; Dimitrov, A

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of Sumamed in cases of endogenous bacterial vaginal infections during third trimester of pregnancy. 34 women in last trimester of pregnancy with Streptococcus group B, Streptococcus group A, alpha hemolytic Streptococci, S. aureus infections and intermediate state of vaginal ecosystem (Nugent score 4-6) were treated with Sumamed (Azithromycin, 500 mg. p.o. for 3 days). Patients were separated in two groups. First group included 19 women with symptomatic and microbiologically proven recurrent vaginal infection during last 6 months. Second group included 15 symptom free pregnant women, in whom, pathogenic bacteria were found on vaginal swab and culture. Culture revealed 2 cases of Streptococcus group A infection in the second study group. Streptococcus group B was isolated in 19 patients--11 group 1 and 8--group 2. S. aureus was found in 6 patients from group 1 and 3 patients from group 2. Alpha hemolytic streptococci were cultured in 4 cases--2 from group 1 and 2 from group 2. Isolated microorganisms showed in vitro sensibility toward Sumamed. After treatment completion, control swab and culture was performed in 26 cases (14 group 1 and 12 group 2 patients). In group 1 in 12 (85,7%) patients no pathological microorganisms were cultured, Nugent scores were between 0-3 and no subjective symptoms were reported. 2 (14,3%) patients had Candida infection. In the second group 10 patients (83,5%) had normal vaginal microbiology, 2(16,5%) remained with intermediate vaginal microflora state. No newborn infections and cases of endometritis were found in both study groups. Sumamed is an efficacious treatment in cases of streptococcal and staphylococcal vaginal infections during pregnancy. Application of Sumamed results in alleviation of clinical symptoms and in sanitation of birth canal.

  13. Photodynamic therapy can induce non-specific protective immunity against a bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masamitsu; Mroz, Pawel; Dai, Tianhong; Kinoshita, Manabu; Morimoto, Yuji; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer is known to induce an immune response against the tumor, in addition to its well-known direct cell-killing and vascular destructive effects. PDT is becoming increasingly used as a therapy for localized infections. However there has not to date been a convincing report of an immune response being generated against a microbial pathogen after PDT in an animal model. We have studied PDT as a therapy for bacterial arthritis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection in the mouse knee. We had previously found that PDT of an infection caused by injection of MRSA (5X107 CFU) into the mouse knee followed 3 days later by 1 μg of Photofrin and 635- nm diode laser illumination with a range of fluences within 5 minutes, gave a biphasic dose response. The greatest reduction of MRSA CFU was seen with a fluence of 20 J/cm2, whereas lower antibacterial efficacy was observed with fluences that were either lower or higher. We then tested the hypothesis that the host immune response mediated by neutrophils was responsible for most of the beneficial antibacterial effect. We used bioluminescence imaging of luciferase expressing bacteria to follow the progress of the infection in real time. We found similar results using intra-articular methylene blue and red light, and more importantly, that carrying out PDT of the noninfected joint and subsequently injecting bacteria after PDT led to a significant protection from infection. Taken together with substantial data from studies using blocking antibodies we believe that the pre-conditioning PDT regimen recruits and stimulates neutrophils into the infected joint which can then destroy bacteria that are subsequently injected and prevent infection.

  14. Selective Infection of Antigen-Specific B Lymphocytes by Salmonella Mediates Bacterial Survival and Systemic Spreading of Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Jelle; Martinoli, Chiara; Zagato, Elena; Janssen, Hans; Jorritsma, Tineke; Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E.; Rescigno, Maria; Neefjes, Jacques; van Ham, S. Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacterial pathogen Salmonella causes worldwide disease. A major route of intestinal entry involves M cells, providing access to B cell-rich Peyer’s Patches. Primary human B cells phagocytose Salmonella typhimurium upon recognition by the specific surface Ig receptor (BCR). As it is unclear how Salmonella disseminates systemically, we studied whether Salmonella can use B cells as a transport device for spreading. Methodology/Principal Findings Human primary B cells or Ramos cell line were incubated with GFP-expressing Salmonella. Intracellular survival and escape was studied in vitro by live cell imaging, flow cytometry and flow imaging. HEL-specific B cells were transferred into C57BL/6 mice and HEL-expressing Salmonella spreading in vivo was analyzed investigating mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and blood. After phagocytosis by B cells, Salmonella survives intracellularly in a non-replicative state which is actively maintained by the B cell. Salmonella is later excreted followed by reproductive infection of other cell types. Salmonella-specific B cells thus act both as a survival niche and a reservoir for reinfection. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific B cells before oral infection of mice showed that these B cells mediate in vivo systemic spreading of Salmonella to spleen and blood. Conclusions/Significance This is a first example of a pathogenic bacterium that abuses the antigen-specific cells of the adaptive immune system for systemic spreading for dissemination of infection. PMID:23209805

  15. The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Rensburg, Julia J.; Lin, Huaiying; Gao, Xiang; Toh, Evelyn; Fortney, Kate R.; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Janowicz, Diane M.; Katz, Barry P.; Nelson, David E.; Dong, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of the skin microbiota on host susceptibility to infectious agents is largely unexplored. The skin harbors diverse bacterial species that may promote or antagonize the growth of an invading pathogen. We developed a human infection model for Haemophilus ducreyi in which human volunteers are inoculated on the upper arm. After inoculation, papules form and either spontaneously resolve or progress to pustules. To examine the role of the skin microbiota in the outcome of H. ducreyi infection, we analyzed the microbiomes of four dose-matched pairs of “resolvers” and “pustule formers” whose inoculation sites were swabbed at multiple time points. Bacteria present on the skin were identified by amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between the preinfection microbiomes of infected sites showed that sites from the same volunteer clustered together and that pustule formers segregated from resolvers (P = 0.001, permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA]), suggesting that the preinfection microbiomes were associated with outcome. NMDS using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of the endpoint samples showed that the pustule sites clustered together and were significantly different than the resolved sites (P = 0.001, PERMANOVA), suggesting that the microbiomes at the endpoint differed between the two groups. In addition to H. ducreyi, pustule-forming sites had a greater abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paracoccus, and Staphylococcus species, whereas resolved sites had higher levels of Actinobacteria and Propionibacterium species. These results suggest that at baseline, resolvers and pustule formers have distinct skin bacterial communities which change in response to infection and the resultant immune response. PMID:26374122

  16. Chromium in stainless steel welding fume suppresses lung defense responses against bacterial infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Roberts, Jenny R

    2007-04-01

    Pulmonary infections have been reported to be increased in welders. Previous animal studies have indicated that manual metal arc, stainless steel welding fume (MMA-SS) increased susceptibility to lung infections. MMA-SS is composed of a complex of metals (e.g., iron, chromium, nickel). The objective was to determine which metal component of MMA-SS welding fume alters lung defense responses. At Day 0, rats were intratracheally instilled one time with saline or MMA-SS at a concentration of 2 mg/rat. Additional rats were treated with the metal constituents, Fe(2)O(3), NiO, or Cr(2)Na(2)O(7) alone or in combination, at concentrations that are present in the dose used for MMA-SS treatment. At Day 3, rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10(3) Listeria monocytogenes. At Days 6, 8 and 10, homogenized left lungs were cultured, and colony-forming units were counted after an overnight incubation to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. At Day 3 (prior to infection) and at Days 6, 8 and 10, right lungs were lavaged to recover cells and fluid from the airspaces to measure lung injury, inflammation, and cytokine secretion. The production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes recovered from the lungs was measured. Exposure to MMA-SS, soluble Cr, or the mixture of all three metals before infection significantly increased bacterial lung burden and tissue damage when compared to control. Animals treated with NiO or Fe(2)O(3) did not differ from control. Animals pre-treated with soluble Cr had alterations in inflammation and in the production of different cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-2, and IL-12) involved in lung immune responses. This study indicates that soluble Cr present in MMA-SS is likely the primary component responsible for the suppression of lung defense responses associated with stainless steel welding fumes.

  17. Analysis of apolipoprotein genes and their involvement in disease response of channel catfish after bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yujia; Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Tao; Li, Yun; Liu, Shikai; Zeng, Qifan; Wang, Xiaozhu; Jin, Yulin; Tian, Changxu; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-02-01

    Apolipoproteins are protein component of plasma lipoproteins. They exert crucial roles in lipoprotein metabolism and serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers in mammals. In teleosts, apolipoproteins are also involved in diverse processes including embryonic and ontogenic development, liver and digestive system organogenesis, and innate immunity. In this study, we identified a set of 19 apolipoprotein genes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Phylogenetic analysis and syntenic analysis were conducted to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships. The expression signatures of apolipoproteins in channel catfish were determined in healthy tissues and after infections with two major bacterial pathogens, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare. In healthy channel catfish, most apolipoprotein genes exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns in channel catfish. After ESC and columnaris infections, 5 and 7 apolipoprotein genes were differentially expressed respectively, which presented a pathogen-specific and time-dependent pattern of regulation. After ESC infection, three exchangeable apolipoproteins (apoA-IB, apoC-I, and apoE-B) were suppressed in catfish intestine, while two nonexchangeable apolipoproteins (apoB-A and apoB-B) were slightly up-regulated. After columnaris infection, apoB-B, apoD-B, and apoE-A were significantly down-regulated in catfish gill, while apoF, apoL-IV, apoO-like, and apo-14 kDa showed significantly up-regulation. Taken together, these results suggested that apolipoprotein genes may play significant roles in innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens in channel catfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Urine flow cytometry can rule out urinary tract infection, but cannot identify bacterial morphologies correctly.

    PubMed

    Geerts, N; Jansz, A R; Boonen, K J M; Wijn, R P W F; Koldewijn, E L; Boer, A K; Scharnhorst, V

    2015-08-25

    The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) by urine culture is a time-consuming and costly procedure. Usage of a screening method, to identify negative samples, would therefore affect time-to-diagnosis and laboratory cost positively. Urine flow cytometers are able to identify particles in urine. Together with the introduction of a cut-off value, which determines if a urine sample is subsequently cultured or not, the number of cultures can be reduced, while maintaining a low level of false negatives and a high negative predictive value. Recently, Sysmex developed additional software for their urine flow cytometers. Besides measuring the number of bacteria present in urine, information is given on bacterial morphology, which may guide the physician in the choice of antibiotic. In this study, we evaluated this software update. The UF1000i classifies bacteria into two categories: 'rods' and 'cocci/mixed'. Compared to the actual morphology of the bacterial pathogen found, the 'rods' category scores reasonably well with 91% chance of classifying rod-shaped bacteria correctly. The 'cocci/mixed' category underperforms, with only 29% of spherical-shaped bacteria (cocci) classified as such. In its current version, the bacterial morphology software does not classify bacteria, according to their morphology, well enough to be of clinical use in this study population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppression of bacterial infection in rice by treatment with a sulfated peptide.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tong; Chern, Mawsheng; Liu, Furong; Ronald, Pamela C

    2016-12-01

    The rice XA21 receptor kinase confers robust resistance to bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). A tyrosine-sulfated peptide from Xoo, called RaxX, triggers XA21-mediated immune responses, including the production of ethylene and reactive oxygen species and the induction of defence gene expression. It has not been tested previously whether these responses confer effective resistance to Xoo. Here, we describe a newly established post-inoculation treatment assay that facilitates investigations into the effect of the sulfated RaxX peptide in planta. In this assay, rice plants were inoculated with a virulent strain of Xoo and then treated with the RaxX peptide 2 days after inoculation. We found that post-inoculation treatment of XA21 plants with the sulfated RaxX peptide suppresses the development of Xoo infection in XA21 rice plants. The treated plants display restricted lesion development and reduced bacterial growth. Our findings demonstrate that exogenous application of sulfated RaxX activates XA21-mediated immunity in planta, and provides a potential strategy for the control of bacterial disease in the field. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differential bacterial load on components of total knee prosthesis in patients with prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Holinka, Johannes; Pilz, Magdalena; Hirschl, Alexander M; Graninger, Wolfgang; Windhager, Reinhard; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate and quantify the bacterial adherence on different components of total knee prosthesis with the sonication culture method. Explanted components of all patients with presumptive prosthetic or implant infection were treated by sonication separately in sterile containers to dislodge the adherent bacteria from the surfaces and cultured. The bacterial load of the different knee components (femur, tibia, PE-inlay and patella) was evaluated by counting of colony-forming units (CFU) dislodged from the components surfaces using the sonication culture method. Overall, 27 patients had positive sonication cultures of explanted total knee prostheses. Microorganisms were detected from 88 of 100 explanted components. Twenty femoral components were culture positive and 7 negative, 23 tibial components as well as 23 polyethylene (PE) platforms had positive microorganism detection from the surface. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhered to the highest number of components whereas Staphylococcus aureus yielded the highest load of CFU in the sonication cultures. Although not significant, PE-inlays and tibial components were most often affected. The highest CFU count was detected in polyethylene components. The sonication culture method is a reliable method to detect bacteria from the components. Additionally, the results demonstrate that bacterial adherence is not affecting a single component of knee prosthesis only. Thus, in septic revision surgery partial prosthetic exchange or exchange of single polyethylene components alone may be not sufficient.

  1. The effect of Chaetoceros calcitrans extract on hematology common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected by Aeromonas salmonicida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftuch; Wulan, N. D. A.; Suprastyani, H.; Wijayanto, E.; Noercholis, M.; Prihanto, A. A.; Kurniawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of C. calcitrans extract in carp (C. carpio) is expected to inhibit the growth of A. salmonicida. A. salmonicida-infected common carp (C. carpio) were treated with the extract of C. calcitrans. Hematology, erythrocyte, leukocyte, hematocrit and hemoglobin test analysis was observed. The result indicated that the extract can be used to treat the infected fish. The best dose was treatment of D with 45.3 ppm.

  2. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Sobota, A E

    1984-05-01

    Cranberry juice has been widely used for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and is reputed to give symptomatic relief from these infections. Attempts to account for the potential benefit derived from the juice have focused on urine acidification and bacteriostasis. In this investigation it is demonstrated that cranberry juice is a potent inhibitor of bacterial adherence. A total of 77 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli were tested. Cranberry juice inhibited adherence by 75 per cent or more in over 60 per cent of the clinical isolates. Cranberry cocktail was also given to mice in the place of their normal water supply for a period of 14 days. Urine collected from these mice inhibited adherence of E. coli to uroepithelial cells by approximately 80 per cent. Antiadherence activity could also be detected in human urine. Fifteen of 22 subjects showed significant antiadherence activity in the urine 1 to 3 hours after drinking 15 ounces of cranberry cocktail. It is concluded that the reported benefits derived from the use of cranberry juice may be related to its ability to inhibit bacterial adherence.

  3. Adequate Th2-Type Response Associates with Restricted Bacterial Growth in Latent Mycobacterial Infection of Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hammarén, Milka Marjut; Luukinen, Bruno Vincent; Pesu, Marko; Rämet, Mika; Parikka, Mataleena

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a major health problem worldwide. Currently it is not known what kind of immune responses lead to successful control and clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This gap in knowledge is reflected by the inability to develop sufficient diagnostic and therapeutic tools to fight tuberculosis. We have used the Mycobacterium marinum infection model in the adult zebrafish and taken advantage of heterogeneity of zebrafish population to dissect the characteristics of adaptive immune responses, some of which are associated with well-controlled latency or bacterial clearance while others with progressive infection. Differences in T cell responses between subpopulations were measured at the transcriptional level. It was discovered that a high total T cell level was usually associated with lower bacterial loads alongside with a T helper 2 (Th2)-type gene expression signature. At late time points, spontaneous reactivation with apparent symptoms was characterized by a low Th2/Th1 marker ratio and a substantial induction of foxp3 reflecting the level of regulatory T cells. Characteristic gata3/tbx21 has potential as a biomarker for the status of mycobacterial disease. PMID:24968056

  4. Emerging treatment options for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: focus on intravenous delafloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Elda; Carnelutti, Alessia; Vena, Antonio; Bassetti, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    The increase in hospitalization due to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by resistant pathogens supports the need for new treatment options. Antimicrobial options for ABSSSI that provide broad-spectrum coverage, including gram-negative pathogens and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are limited. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone available as intravenous and oral formulations and is characterized by an increased efficacy in acidic environments and activity on bacterial biofilm. Delafloxacin displays enhanced in vitro activity against MRSA, and enterococci, while maintaining efficacy against gram-negative pathogens and anaerobes. Delafloxacin has been studied for the treatment of ABSSSI and respiratory infections. Phase III studies have demonstrated noninferiority of delafloxacin compared to vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and the combination of vancomycin plus aztreonam in the treatment of ABSSSI. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics, the wide spectrum of action, and the potential for sequential therapy, delafloxacin represents a promising option in the empirical and targeted treatment of ABSSSI, both in hospital- and in community-based care. PMID:29670380

  5. Emerging treatment options for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: focus on intravenous delafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Righi, Elda; Carnelutti, Alessia; Vena, Antonio; Bassetti, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    The increase in hospitalization due to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by resistant pathogens supports the need for new treatment options. Antimicrobial options for ABSSSI that provide broad-spectrum coverage, including gram-negative pathogens and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are limited. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone available as intravenous and oral formulations and is characterized by an increased efficacy in acidic environments and activity on bacterial biofilm. Delafloxacin displays enhanced in vitro activity against MRSA, and enterococci, while maintaining efficacy against gram-negative pathogens and anaerobes. Delafloxacin has been studied for the treatment of ABSSSI and respiratory infections. Phase III studies have demonstrated noninferiority of delafloxacin compared to vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and the combination of vancomycin plus aztreonam in the treatment of ABSSSI. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics, the wide spectrum of action, and the potential for sequential therapy, delafloxacin represents a promising option in the empirical and targeted treatment of ABSSSI, both in hospital- and in community-based care.

  6. Hyperglycemia Impairs Neutrophil-Mediated Bacterial Clearance in Mice Infected with the Lyme Disease Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Javid, Ashkan; Zlotnikov, Nataliya; Pětrošová, Helena; Tang, Tian Tian; Zhang, Yang; Bansal, Anil K; Ebady, Rhodaba; Parikh, Maitry; Ahmed, Mijhgan; Sun, Chunxiang; Newbigging, Susan; Kim, Yae Ram; Santana Sosa, Marianna; Glogauer, Michael; Moriarty, Tara J

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-insufficient type 1 diabetes is associated with attenuated bactericidal function of neutrophils, which are key mediators of innate immune responses to microbes as well as pathological inflammatory processes. Neutrophils are central to immune responses to the Lyme pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. The effect of hyperglycemia on host susceptibility to and outcomes of B. burgdorferi infection has not been examined. The present study investigated the impact of sustained obesity-independent hyperglycemia in mice on bacterial clearance, inflammatory pathology and neutrophil responses to B. burgdorferi. Hyperglycemia was associated with reduced arthritis incidence but more widespread tissue colonization and reduced clearance of bacterial DNA in multiple tissues including brain, heart, liver, lung and knee joint. B. burgdorferi uptake and killing were impaired in neutrophils isolated from hyperglycemic mice. Thus, attenuated neutrophil function in insulin-insufficient hyperglycemia was associated with reduced B. burgdorferi clearance in target organs. These data suggest that investigating the effects of comorbid conditions such as diabetes on outcomes of B. burgdorferi infections in humans may be warranted.

  7. Synergistic antibacterial effect of silver and ebselen against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lili; Lu, Jun; Wang, Jun; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lanlan; Gao, Yu; Rottenberg, Martin E; Holmgren, Arne

    2017-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria account for a majority of fatal infections, and development of new antibiotic principles and drugs is therefore of outstanding importance. Here, we report that five most clinically difficult-to-treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria are highly sensitive to a synergistic combination of silver and ebselen. In contrast, silver has no synergistic toxicity with ebselen on mammalian cells. The silver and ebselen combination causes a rapid depletion of glutathione and inhibition of the thioredoxin system in bacteria. Silver ions were identified as strong inhibitors of Escherichia coli thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, which are required for ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis and defense against oxidative stress. The bactericidal efficacy of silver and ebselen was further verified in the treatment of mild and acute MDR E. coli peritonitis in mice. These results demonstrate that thiol-dependent redox systems in bacteria can be targeted in the design of new antibacterial drugs. The silver and ebselen combination offers a proof of concept in targeting essential bacterial systems and might be developed for novel efficient treatments against MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. The Effects of Simulated Weightlessness on Susceptibility to Viral and Bacterial Infections Using a Murine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Certain immunological responses may be compromised as a result of changes in environmental conditions, such as the physiological adaptation to and from the weightlessness which occurs during space flight and recovery. A murine antiorthostatic model was developed to simulate weightlessness. Using this model, the proposed study will determine if differences in susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections exist among mice suspended in an antiorthostatic orientation to simulate weightlessness, mice suspended in an orthostatic orientation to provide a stressful situation without the condition of weightlessness simulation, and non-suspended control mice. Inbred mouse strains which are resistant to the diabetogenic effects of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D) and the lethal effects of Salmonella typhimurium will be evaluated. Glucose tolerance tests will be performed on all EMC-D-infected and non-infected control groups. The incidence of EMC-D-induced diabetes and the percentage survival of S. typhimurium-infected animals will be determined in each group. An additional study will determine the effects of simulated weightlessness on murine responses to exogenous interferon.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien C M; Leibovici, Leonard

    2012-01-18

    Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are neutropenic following chemotherapy for malignancy. Trials have shown the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of bacterial infections but not in reducing mortality rates. Our systematic review from 2006 also showed a reduction in mortality. This updated review aimed to evaluate whether there is still a benefit of reduction in mortality when compared to placebo or no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Cancer Network Register of Trials (2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), abstracts of conference proceedings and the references of identified studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing different types of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo or no intervention, or another antibiotic, to prevent bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients. Two authors independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted data from the included trials. Analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1 software. One-hundred and nine trials (involving 13,579 patients) that were conducted between the years 1973 to 2010 met the inclusion criteria. When compared with placebo or no intervention, antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of death from all causes (46 trials, 5635 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79) and the risk of infection-related death (43 trials, 5777 participants; RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77). The estimated number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death was 34 (all-cause mortality) and 48 (infection-related mortality).Prophylaxis also significantly reduced the occurrence of fever (54 trials, 6658 participants; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87), clinically documented infection (48 trials, 5758 participants; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.76), microbiologically documented infection

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien CM; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are neutropenic following chemotherapy for malignancy. Trials have shown the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of bacterial infections but not in reducing mortality rates. Our systematic review from 2006 also showed a reduction in mortality. Objectives This updated review aimed to evaluate whether there is still a benefit of reduction in mortality when compared to placebo or no intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Cancer Network Register of Trials (2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), abstracts of conference proceedings and the references of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing different types of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo or no intervention, or another antibiotic, to prevent bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted data from the included trials. Analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1 software. Main results One-hundred and nine trials (involving 13,579 patients) that were conducted between the years 1973 to 2010 met the inclusion criteria. When compared with placebo or no intervention, antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of death from all causes (46 trials, 5635 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79) and the risk of infection-related death (43 trials, 5777 participants; RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77). The estimated number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death was 34 (all-cause mortality) and 48 (infection-related mortality). Prophylaxis also significantly reduced the occurrence of fever (54 trials, 6658 participants; RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87), clinically documented infection

  11. Development of a Model to Predict the Primary Infection Date of Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) on Hot Pepper.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kang, Wee-Soo; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    A population model of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on hot pepper was developed to predict the primary disease infection date. The model estimated the pathogen population on the surface and within the leaf of the host based on the wetness period and temperature. For successful infection, at least 5,000 cells/ml of the bacterial population were required. Also, wind and rain were necessary according to regression analyses of the monitored data. Bacterial spot on the model is initiated when the pathogen population exceeds 10(15) cells/g within the leaf. The developed model was validated using 94 assessed samples from 2000 to 2007 obtained from monitored fields. Based on the validation study, the predicted initial infection dates varied based on the year rather than the location. Differences in initial infection dates between the model predictions and the monitored data in the field were minimal. For example, predicted infection dates for 7 locations were within the same month as the actual infection dates, 11 locations were within 1 month of the actual infection, and only 3 locations were more than 2 months apart from the actual infection. The predicted infection dates were mapped from 2009 to 2012; 2011 was the most severe year. Although the model was not sensitive enough to predict disease severity of less than 0.1% in the field, our model predicted bacterial spot severity of 1% or more. Therefore, this model can be applied in the field to determine when bacterial spot control is required.

  12. Development of a Model to Predict the Primary Infection Date of Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) on Hot Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kang, Wee-Soo; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    A population model of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on hot pepper was developed to predict the primary disease infection date. The model estimated the pathogen population on the surface and within the leaf of the host based on the wetness period and temperature. For successful infection, at least 5,000 cells/ml of the bacterial population were required. Also, wind and rain were necessary according to regression analyses of the monitored data. Bacterial spot on the model is initiated when the pathogen population exceeds 1015 cells/g within the leaf. The developed model was validated using 94 assessed samples from 2000 to 2007 obtained from monitored fields. Based on the validation study, the predicted initial infection dates varied based on the year rather than the location. Differences in initial infection dates between the model predictions and the monitored data in the field were minimal. For example, predicted infection dates for 7 locations were within the same month as the actual infection dates, 11 locations were within 1 month of the actual infection, and only 3 locations were more than 2 months apart from the actual infection. The predicted infection dates were mapped from 2009 to 2012; 2011 was the most severe year. Although the model was not sensitive enough to predict disease severity of less than 0.1% in the field, our model predicted bacterial spot severity of 1% or more. Therefore, this model can be applied in the field to determine when bacterial spot control is required. PMID:25288995

  13. Infections in Patients with a Total Artificial Heart Are Common but Rarely Fatal.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Luis F; Shah, Keyur B; Cooke, Richard H; Tang, Daniel G; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Cooper, Howard A; Aronow, Wilbert S

    Patients who received a total artificial heart (TAH) at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were identified from the VCU Mechanical Circulatory Support Clinical Database. Retrospective data extraction from the medical records was performed from the time of TAH implantation until heart transplantation or death. Infections were classified as confirmed or suspected. Twenty-seven men and five women, mean age 49.5 years (range 24-68 years) received a TAH. The mean duration of TAH support was 225 days (range 1-1,334 days). Of the 32 patients, 4 (12.5%) died and 28 (87.5 %) underwent heart transplantation. Causes of death were pneumonia (n = 1), TAH malfunction (n = 1), refractory cardiogenic shock (n = 1), and respiratory failure (n = 1). Seventy documented and 13 suspected infections developed in 25 patients (78%). The most common sources of infection were urinary tract (n = 26), respiratory tract (n = 18), and bloodstream (n = 11). There were five pump infections and two driveline infections. The number of infections per patient ranged from 0 to 10. Sixteen different pathogens were identified; the most common were: Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 15), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (n = 10), Enterococcus species (n = 9), and Enterobacter species (n = 8). Mortality directly attributable to infection was infrequent.

  14. Metagenomic study of bacterial microbiota in persistent endodontic infections using Next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sanhueza, G; Bello-Toledo, H; González-Rocha, G; Gonçalves, A T; Valenzuela, V; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2018-05-22

    To determine the bacterial microbiota in root canals associated with persistent apical periodontitis and their relationship with the clinical characteristics of patients using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Bacterial samples from root canals associated with teeth having persistent apical periodontitis were taken from 24 patients undergoing root canal retreatment. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and V3-V4 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified. The amplification was deep sequenced by Illumina technology to establish the metagenetic relationships among the bacterial species identified. The composition and diversity of microbial communities in the root canal and their relationships with clinical features were analysed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used to analyse differences between patient characteristics and microbial data. A total of 86 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified and Good's nonparametric coverage estimator method indicated that 99.9 ± 0.00001% diversity was recovered per sample. The largest number of bacteria belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria. According to the medical history from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification System, ASA II-III had higher richness estimates and distinct phylogenetic relationships compared to ASA I individuals (P < 0.05). Periapical index (PAI) score 5 was associated with increased microbiota diversity in comparison to PAI score 4, and this index was reduced in symptomatic patients. Based on the findings of this study, it is possible to suggest a close relationship between several clinical features and greater microbiota diversity with persistent endodontic infections. This work provides a better understanding on how microbial communities interact with their host and vice versa. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bacterial colonisation of suture material after routine neurosurgical procedures: relevance for wound infection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bujung; Winkel, Andreas; Ertl, Philipp; Stumpp, Sascha Nico; Schwabe, Kerstin; Stiesch, Meike; Krauss, Joachim K

    2018-03-01

    Wound healing impairment is a serious problem in surgical disciplines which may be associated with chronic morbidity, increased cost and patient discomfort. Here we aimed to investigate the relevance of bacterial colonisation on suture material using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect and taxonomically classify bacterial DNA in patients with and without wound healing problems after routine neurosurgical procedures. Repeat surgery was performed in 25 patients with wound healing impairment and in 38 patients with well-healed wounds. To determine the presence of bacteria, a 16S rDNA-based PCR detection method was applied. Fragments of 500 bp were amplified using universal primers which target hypervariable regions within the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Amplicons were separated from each other by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, and finally classified using Sanger sequencing. PCR/SSCP detected DNA of various bacteria species on suture material in 10/38 patients with well-healed wounds and in 12/25 patients with wound healing impairment including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Escherichia coli. Microbiological cultures showed bacterial growth in almost all patients with wound healing impairment and positive results in PCR/SSCP (10/12), while this was the case in only one patient with a well-healed wound (1/10). Colonisation of suture material with bacteria occurs in a relevant portion of patients with and without wound healing impairment after routine neurosurgical procedures. Suture material may provide a nidus for bacteria and subsequent biofilm formation. Most likely, however, such colonisation of sutures is not a general primer for subsequent wound infection.

  16. ELMO1 Regulates Autophagy Induction and Bacterial Clearance During Enteric Infection.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Arup; Tindle, Courtney; Pranadinata, Rama F; Reed, Sharon; Eckmann, Lars; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Ernst, Peter B; Das, Soumita

    2017-12-19

    Macrophages are specialized phagocytic cells involved in clearing invading pathogens. Previously we reported that engulfment and cell motility protein 1 (ELMO1) in macrophages mediates bacterial internalization and intestinal inflammation. Here we studied the role of ELMO1 in the fate of internalized targets. ELMO1 is present in the intracellular vesicles and enhances accumulation of the protein LC3B following engulfment of Salmonella or treatment with autophagy-inducing rapamycin. The protein ATG5 and the kinase ULK1 are involved in classical autophagy, while LC3-associated phagocytosis is ULK1 independent. ATG5 but not ULK1 cooperated with ELMO1 in LC3 accumulation after infection, suggesting the ELMO1 preferentially regulated LC3-associated phagocytosis. Because LC3-associated phagocytosis delivers cargo for degradation, the contribution of ELMO1 to the lysosome degradation pathways was evaluated by studying pH and cathepsin B activity. ELMO1-depleted macrophages showed a time-dependent increase in pH and a decrease in cathepsin B activity associated with bacterial survival. Together, ELMO1 regulates LC3B accumulation and antimicrobial responses involved in the clearance of enteric pathogens. This paper investigated how innate immune pathways involving ELMO1 work in a coordinated fashion to eliminate bacterial threats. ELMO1 is present in the phagosome and enhances bacterial clearance by differential regulation of lysosomal acidification and enzymatic activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Detection of Mixed Infection from Bacterial Whole Genome Sequence Data Allows Assessment of Its Role in Clostridium difficile Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, David W.; Cule, Madeleine L.; Griffiths, David; Crook, Derrick W.; Peto, Tim E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequencing offers the prospect of rapid and high precision investigation of infectious disease outbreaks. Close genetic relationships between microorganisms isolated from different infected cases suggest transmission is a strong possibility, whereas transmission between cases with genetically distinct bacterial isolates can be excluded. However, undetected mixed infections—infection with ≥2 unrelated strains of the same species where only one is sequenced—potentially impairs exclusion of transmission with certainty, and may therefore limit the utility of this technique. We investigated the problem by developing a computationally efficient method for detecting mixed infection without the need for resource-intensive independent sequencing of multiple bacterial colonies. Given the relatively low density of single nucleotide polymorphisms within bacterial sequence data, direct reconstruction of mixed infection haplotypes from current short-read sequence data is not consistently possible. We therefore use a two-step maximum likelihood-based approach, assuming each sample contains up to two infecting strains. We jointly estimate the proportion of the infection arising from the dominant and minor strains, and the sequence divergence between these strains. In cases where mixed infection is confirmed, the dominant and minor haplotypes are then matched to a database of previously sequenced local isolates. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm with in silico and in vitro mixed infection experiments, and apply it to transmission of an important healthcare-associated pathogen, Clostridium difficile. Using hospital ward movement data in a previously described stochastic transmission model, 15 pairs of cases enriched for likely transmission events associated with mixed infection were selected. Our method identified four previously undetected mixed infections, and a previously undetected transmission event, but no direct transmission between

  18. Flow Cytometry Study of Lymphocyte Subsets in Malnourished and Well-Nourished Children with Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Nájera, Oralia; González, Cristina; Toledo, Guadalupe; López, Laura; Ortiz, Rocío

    2004-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is the primary cause of immune deficiency in children across the world. It has been related to changes in peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the proportion of peripheral-lymphocyte subsets in well-nourished non-bacterium-infected (WN), well-nourished bacterium-infected (WNI), and malnourished bacterium-infected (MNI) children by flow cytometry. A prospectively monitored cohort of 15 MNI, 12 WNI, and 17 WN children was studied. All the children were 3 years old or younger and had only bacterial infections. Results showed a significant decrease in the proportion of T CD3+ (P < 0.05 for relative and P < 0.03 for absolute values), CD4+ (P < 0.01 for relative and absolute values), and CD8+ (P < 0.05 for relative values) lymphocyte subsets in WNI children compared to the results seen with WN children. Additionally, B lymphocytes in MNI children showed significant lower values (CD20+ P < 0.02 for relative and P < 0.05 for absolute values) in relation to the results seen with WNI children. These results suggest that the decreased proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets observed in WNI children were associated with infection diseases and that the incapacity to increase the proportion of B lymphocyte was associated with malnutrition. This low proportion of B lymphocytes may be associated with the mechanisms involved in the immunodeficiency of malnourished children. PMID:15138185

  19. Complete genome sequences of two novel bipartite begomoviruses infecting common bean in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Chang-Sidorchuk, Lidia; González-Alvarez, Heidy; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2017-05-01

    The common bean is a host for a large number of begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) in the New World. Based on the current taxonomic criteria established for the genus Begomovirus, two new members of this genus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Cuba are herein reported. The cloned bipartite genomes, composed of DNA-A and DNA-B, showed the typical organization of the New World begomoviruses. We propose the names common bean severe mosaic virus and common bean mottle virus for the new begomovirus species.

  20. STUDIES ON THE TUBERCULIN REACTION AND ON SPECIFIC HYPERSENSITIVENESS IN BACTERIAL INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Zinsser, Hans

    1921-01-01

    The work reported in the preceding sections justifies, we think, a number of definite conclusions. In addition to this, some of the experiments indicate a line of thought which may lead to considerable alteration in our conceptions, both of phenomena of bacterial hypersensitiveness and of infection. 1. In guinea pigs two fundamentally different types of intradermal reactions may be observed. One of these is the immediate, transitory reaction which develops in animals sensitized against proteins (horse serum, etc.) and may be regarded as one of the manifestations of general protein hypersensitiveness, or anaphylaxis; the other is the tuberculin type of skin reaction which develops more slowly, leads to a more profound injury of the tissues and is independent of anaphylaxis as ordinarily conceived. 2. The tuberculin type of hypersensitiveness (as well as probably the typhoidin, mallein, abortin reactions, etc.) does not develop at all in guinea pigs sensitized with proteins, like horse serum, etc. While this form of hypersensitiveness may eventually be induced with materials not bacterial in origin, it has been observed up to date only as a reaction of bacterial infection. 3. Methods of treatment with protein material from bacterial cultures which sensitize guinea pigs to anaphylactic reactions with the bacterial extracts, do not sensitize them to the tuberculin type of reaction. Such sensitization is easily accomplished only by infecting the animals with living organisms. No reliable method of sensitizing guinea pigs to such reactions with dead bacterial material has as yet been worked out, though a few hopeful experiments have been obtained with massive injections of large amounts of the acid-precipitable substances (nucleoproteins?) from bacterial extracts. 4. In animals made hypersensitive to the tuberculin type of reaction by infection with living bacteria, the reaction may be elicited by intradermal injections of bacterial extracts from which all coagulable

  1. Predictors of Early Readmission in Patients With Cirrhosis After the Resolution of Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Morando, Filippo; Carretta, Giovanni; Tonon, Marta; Vettore, Elia; Rosi, Silvia; Stanco, Marialuisa; Pilutti, Chiara; Romano, Antonietta; Brocca, Alessandra; Sticca, Antonietta; Donato, Daniele; Angeli, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    In patients with cirrhosis, infections represent a frequent trigger for complications, increasing frequency of hospitalizations and mortality rate. This study aimed to identify predictors of early readmission (30 days) and of mid-term mortality (6 months) in patients with liver cirrhosis discharged after a hospitalization for bacterial and/or fungal infection. A total of 199 patients with cirrhosis discharged after an admission for a bacterial and/or fungal infection were included in the study and followed up for a least 6 months. During follow-up, 69 patients (35%) were readmitted within 30 days from discharge. C-reactive protein (CRP) value at discharge (odds ratio (OR)=1.91; P=0.022), diagnosis of acute-on-chronic liver failure during the hospital stay (OR=2.48; P=0.008), and the hospitalization in the last 30 days previous to the admission/inclusion in the study (OR=1.50; P=0.042) were found to be independent predictors of readmission. During the 6-month follow-up, 47 patients (23%) died. Age (hazard ratio (HR)=1.05; P=0.001), model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (HR=1.13; P<0.001), CRP (HR=1.85; P=0.001), refractory ascites (HR=2.22; P=0.007), and diabetes (HR=2.41; P=0.010) were found to be independent predictors of 6-month mortality. Patients with a CRP >10 mg/l at discharge had a significantly higher probability of being readmitted within 30 days (44% vs. 24%; P=0.007) and a significantly lower probability of 6-month survival (62% vs. 88%; P<0.001) than those with a CRP ≤10 mg/l. CRP showed to be a strong predictor of early hospital readmission and 6-month mortality in patients with cirrhosis after hospitalization for bacterial and/or fungal infection. CRP values could be used both in the stewardship of antibiotic treatment and to identify fragile patients who deserve a strict surveillance program.

  2. Bacterial epidemiology of osteoarticular infections in a referent center: 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Titécat, M; Senneville, E; Wallet, F; Dezèque, H; Migaud, H; Courcol, R-J; Loïez, C

    2013-10-01

    Management of osteoarticular infections combines surgical treatment with antibiotic therapy. For some teams the immediate postoperative regimen requires at least partly wide-spectrum probabilistic treatment while waiting for the microbiological results. This protocol exposes the patient to the selection of resistant bacteria and the hospital unit to a modification of its bacterial ecology. The objective of this study was to retrospectively describe the microbial epidemiology of the Traumatology and Orthopaedics Department of the Lille University Hospital over 10 years (2002-2011). The bacterial species isolated in culture of osteoarticular samples were listed, after removing any duplicates. The antibiotics retained for follow-up were those used in treatment of these infections as well as those recognized as markers of resistance. For Gram-positive species, the antibiotics considered were methicillin, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, and linezolid; for the Gram-negative species, cefotaxime, cefepime, imipenem, and fluoroquinolones were considered. Of the 5006 strains isolated between 2002 and 2011, Gram-positive cocci accounted for more than 71%; Staphylococcus aureus 27%, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) 54%. Contrary to S. aureus, resistance to methicillin, fluoroquinolones, and teicoplanin significantly increased in CoNS, reaching 44%, 34%, and 22%, respectively, of the strains in 2011. The proportion of streptococcal and enterococcal infections remained stable, a mean 7.4% and 5.3%, respectively, per year. Enterobacteria (12.5% of the isolates) were producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in 7.8% of the cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was involved in 3.6% of the infections, and 12% of the strains remained resistant to ceftazidime. Propionibacterium acnes accounted for 5.8% of the bacteria isolated and showed few antibiotic resistance problems. Stability in the distribution and the susceptibility of different bacterial species was noted

  3. Barriers of vaccinations against serious bacterial infections among Australian Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Tashani, Mohamed; Alfelali, Mohammad; Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Fatema, Fayeza Nusrat; Barasheed, Osamah; Alqahtani, Amani Salem; Tekin, Hatice; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination against serious bacterial infections is recommended for Hajj pilgrims. Although the uptake of mandatory vaccines among Hajj pilgrims is acceptable, the uptake of other recommended vaccines remains suboptimal. In this study, we have explored the barriers to vaccination against serious bacterial infections among Australian Hajj pilgrims. Travellers aged 18 years and older planning to attend Hajj in the years 2014 and 2015 were surveyed at the immunization clinic of the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to explore pilgrims' vaccination histories for their previous visits to Mecca, the reasons for non-receipt of vaccination, and to assess knowledge about the transmission of infections. A total of 300 participants aged 18-76 (median 41) years completed the survey. Most (233 [77.7%]) were born outside Australia. Overall, 113 (37.7%) had performed pilgrimage in the past; 19 (16.8%) of them reported receiving pneumococcal vaccine and 16 (14.1%) diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) vaccine. Lack of awareness about the availability of the vaccines was the main reason for non-receipt of pneumococcal and DTP vaccines (respectively 41.1% and 44.7%). Most pilgrims (266 [88.7%]) believed that travel vaccines are necessary before embarking on a journey; however, some expressed concerns about adverse reactions (156 [52.0%]), cost (114 [38.0%]), and permissibility of the vaccine according to their religion (6 [2.0%]). Respectively, 187 (62.3%), 145 (48.3%) and 86 (28.7%) respondents did not correctly know how meningococcal and pneumococcal diseases and pertussis transmit. Nevertheless, most (256 [85.3%]) indicated that they trust their family doctor for medical information and most (203 [67.7%]) preferred to receive the medical information in English. The uptake of recommended vaccines against serious bacterial infections among Australian Hajj pilgrims is low. Lack of awareness about the availability of

  4. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in a teaching hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyepong, Nicholas; Govinden, Usha; Owusu-Ofori, Alex; Essack, Sabiha Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system. Patient information was retrieved from the hospital data. Of the 200 isolates, consisting of K. pneumoniae , A. baumannii , P. aeruginosa , Enterobacter spp. , E. coli , Yersinia spp. , Proteus mirabilis , Pasteurella spp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Salmomella enterica , Vibrio spp. , Citrobacter koseri , Pantoea spp. , Serratia spp. , Providencia rettgeri Burkholderia cepacia , Aeromonas spp. , Cadecea lapagei and Sphingomonas paucimobilis , 101 (50.5%) and 99 (49.5%) recovered from male and female patients respectively The largest proportion of patients were from age-group ≥60 years (24.5%) followed by < 10 years (24.0%) and least 10-19 years (9.5%) with a mean patient age of 35.95 ± 27.11 (0.2-91) years. The decreasing order of specimen source was urine 97 (48.5%), wound swabs 47 (23.5%), sputum 22 (11.0%) bronchial lavage, nasal and pleural swabs 1 (0.50%). Urinary tract infection was diagnosed in 34.5% of patients, sepsis in 14.5%, wound infections (surgical and chronic wounds) in 11.0%, pulmonary tuberculosis in 9.0% and appendicitis, bacteremia and cystitis in 0.50%. The isolates showed high resistance to ampicillin (94.4%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (84.5%), cefuroxime (79.0%) and cefotaxime (71.3%) but low resistance to ertapenem (1.5%), meropenem (3%) and amikacin (11%). The average multi-drug resistance was 89.5%, and ranged from 53.8% in Enterobacter spp. to 100.0% in

  5. Common Duckweed (Lemna minor) Is a Versatile High-Throughput Infection Model For the Burkholderia cepacia Complex and Other Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Euan L. S.; Dennis, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have emerged in recent decades as problematic pulmonary pathogens of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with severe infections progressing to acute necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis. This study presents evidence that Lemna minor (Common duckweed) is useful as a plant model for the Bcc infectious process, and has potential as a model system for bacterial pathogenesis in general. To investigate the relationship between Bcc virulence in duckweed and Galleria mellonella (Greater wax moth) larvae, a previously established Bcc infection model, a duckweed survival assay was developed and used to determine LD50 values. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.81) was found between the strains’ virulence ranks in the two infection models, suggesting conserved pathways in these vastly different hosts. To broaden the application of the duckweed model, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and five isogenic mutants with previously established LD50 values in the larval model were tested against duckweed, and a strong correlation (R2 = 0.93) was found between their raw LD50 values. Potential virulence factors in B. cenocepacia K56-2 were identified using a high-throughput screen against single duckweed plants. In addition to the previously characterized antifungal compound (AFC) cluster genes, several uncharacterized genes were discovered including a novel lysR regulator, a histidine biosynthesis gene hisG, and a gene located near the gene encoding the recently characterized virulence factor SuhBBc. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of this model in therapeutic applications, duckweed was rescued from Bcc infection by treating with bacteriophage at 6-h intervals. It was observed that phage application became ineffective at a timepoint that coincided with a sharp increase in bacterial invasion of plant tissue. These results indicate that common duckweed can serve as an effective infection model for the investigation of bacterial virulence

  6. Common duckweed (Lemna minor) is a versatile high-throughput infection model for the Burkholderia cepacia complex and other pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Euan L S; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have emerged in recent decades as problematic pulmonary pathogens of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with severe infections progressing to acute necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis. This study presents evidence that Lemna minor (Common duckweed) is useful as a plant model for the Bcc infectious process, and has potential as a model system for bacterial pathogenesis in general. To investigate the relationship between Bcc virulence in duckweed and Galleria mellonella (Greater wax moth) larvae, a previously established Bcc infection model, a duckweed survival assay was developed and used to determine LD50 values. A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.81) was found between the strains' virulence ranks in the two infection models, suggesting conserved pathways in these vastly different hosts. To broaden the application of the duckweed model, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and five isogenic mutants with previously established LD50 values in the larval model were tested against duckweed, and a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.93) was found between their raw LD50 values. Potential virulence factors in B. cenocepacia K56-2 were identified using a high-throughput screen against single duckweed plants. In addition to the previously characterized antifungal compound (AFC) cluster genes, several uncharacterized genes were discovered including a novel lysR regulator, a histidine biosynthesis gene hisG, and a gene located near the gene encoding the recently characterized virulence factor SuhB(Bc). Finally, to demonstrate the utility of this model in therapeutic applications, duckweed was rescued from Bcc infection by treating with bacteriophage at 6-h intervals. It was observed that phage application became ineffective at a timepoint that coincided with a sharp increase in bacterial invasion of plant tissue. These results indicate that common duckweed can serve as an effective infection model for the investigation of bacterial

  7. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Urban Community of Meerut City, India

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Devanand; Saxena, Ramchandra Sahai

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the common infections in the Indian community. Distribution and susceptibility of UTI-causing pathogens change according to time and place. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens in the Indian community as well as to determine the effect of gender and age on the etiology of bacterial uropathogens. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from 288 patients of the age ranging from 15 to ≥48 years. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on all isolated bacteria by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of each antibiotic was calculated. The UTI prevalence was 53.82% in patients; however, the prevalence was significantly higher in females than in males (females: 73.57%; males: 35.14%; P = 0.000). Females within the age group of 26–36 years and elderly males of ≥48 years showed higher prevalence of UTI. Gram negative bacteria (90.32%) were found in high prevalence than Gram positive (9.68%). Escherichia coli (42.58%) was the most prevalent gram negative isolate. Nitrofurantoin (78.71%) was found the most resistant drug among all uropathogens. Tested carbapenems were found the most susceptible drug against isolated uropathogens which showed 92.26% and 84.52% susceptibility, respectively. PMID:24288649

  8. A type III effector antagonizes death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Kennedy, Catherine L; Kelly, Michelle; Robinson, Keith S; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Mansell, Ashley; Riedmaier, Patrice; Oates, Clare V L; Zaid, Ali; Mühlen, Sabrina; Crepin, Valerie F; Marches, Olivier; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Nachbur, Ueli; Infusini, Giuseppe; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2013-09-12

    Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonize the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) Escherichia coli use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonization and interfere with antimicrobial host responses. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death-domain-containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death-receptor-induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-acetylglucosamine transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg 117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing pathogens antagonize death-receptor-induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response.

  9. A type III effector antagonises death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Kennedy, Catherine L; Kelly, Michelle; Robinson, Keith S; Wong, Tania; Mansell, Ashley; Riedmaier, Patrice; Oates, Clare VL; Zaid, Ali; Mühlen, Sabrina; Crepin, Valerie F; Marches, Olivier; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A; O’Reilly, Lorraine A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Nachbur, Ueli; Infusini, Giuseppe; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection by enteric bacterial pathogens depends on the ability of the bacteria to colonise the gut, replicate in host tissues and disseminate to other hosts. Pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC), utilise a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection that promote colonisation and interfere with antimicrobial host responses 1-3. Here we report that the T3SS effector NleB1 from EPEC binds to host cell death domain containing proteins and thereby inhibits death receptor signalling. Protein interaction studies identified FADD, TRADD and RIPK1 as binding partners of NleB1. NleB1 expressed ectopically or injected by the bacterial T3SS prevented Fas ligand or TNF-induced formation of the canonical death inducing signalling complex (DISC) and proteolytic activation of caspase-8, an essential step in death receptor induced apoptosis. This inhibition depended on the N-GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB1, which specifically modified Arg117 in the death domain of FADD. The importance of the death receptor apoptotic pathway to host defence was demonstrated using mice deficient in the FAS signalling pathway, which showed delayed clearance of the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium and reversion to virulence of an nleB mutant. The activity of NleB suggests that EPEC and other attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens antagonise death receptor induced apoptosis of infected cells, thereby blocking a major antimicrobial host response. PMID:24025841

  10. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a Common Cause of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Community▿

    PubMed Central

    Böcher, Sidsel; Tønning, Birgitte; Skov, Robert L.; Prag, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a rare cause of severe infections such as native valve endocarditis, often causes superficial skin infections similar to Staphylococcus aureus infections. We initiated a study to optimize the identification methods in the routine laboratory, followed by a population-based epidemiologic analysis of patients infected with S. lugdunensis in Viborg County, Denmark. Recognition of a characteristic Eikenella corrodens-like odor on Columbia sheep blood agar combined with colony pleomorphism and prominent β-hemolysis after 2 days of incubation, confirmed by API-ID-32 Staph, led to an 11-fold increase in the detection of S. lugdunensis. By these methods we found 491 S. lugdunensis infections in 4 years, corresponding to an incidence of 53 per 100,000 per year, an increase from 5 infections per 100,000 inhabitants in the preceding years. Seventy-five percent of the cases were found in general practice; these were dominated by skin abscesses (36%), wound infections (25%), and paronychias (13%). Fifty-six percent of the infections occurred below the waist, and toes were the most frequently infected site (21%). Only 3% of the patients suffered from severe invasive infections. The median age was 52 years, and the male/female ratio was 0.69. Our study shows that S. lugdunensis is a common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI) and is probably underrated by many laboratories. S. lugdunensis should be accepted as a significant pathogen in SSTI and should be looked for in all routine bacteriological examinations, and clinicians should be acquainted with the name and the pathology of the bacterium. PMID:19244465

  11. Duration of fever and markers of serious bacterial infection in young febrile children.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Amanda; Attia, Magdy W

    2007-02-01

    Despite the drastic change in the evaluation of the febrile young child due to the decreased incidence of serious bacterial infections (SBI) effected by Haemophilus influenza type B and pneumococcal vaccine, there remains a small role for blood work in the evaluation of these patients. Bacterial markers including white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been studied and are widely used as predictors of SBI in febrile children. It has been suggested that CRP values should be interpreted cautiously