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Sample records for bacterial prostatitis cbp

  1. Preventive effect of ginsenoid on chronic bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Ha, U-Syn; Sohn, Dong Wan; Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Hyun Woo; Han, Chang Hee; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Empirical antibiotic therapy is the preferred primary treatment modality for chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). However, this method of treatment has a low success rate and long-term therapy may result in complications and the appearance of resistant strains. Therefore a new alternative method for the prevention of CBP is necessary. There are several reports that ginsenoid has a preventive effect on urinary tract infection (UTI). To evaluate the preventive effect of ginsenoid on CBP compared to conventional antibiotics, we carried out an experiment in a rat model of the disease. Four groups of adult male Wistar rats were treated with the following medications: (1) control (no medication), (2) ciprofloxacin, (3) ginsenoid, and (4) ciprofloxacin/ginsenoid. All medications were given for 4 weeks, and then we created a CBP model in the animals by injecting an Escherichia coli Z17 (O2:K1;H(-)) suspension into the prostatic urethra. After 4 weeks, results of microbiological cultures of prostate and urine samples, as well as histological findings of the prostate in each group were analyzed. The microbiological cultures of the prostate samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Histopathological examination showed a significantly decreased rate of infiltration of inflammatory cells into prostatic tissue and decreased interstitial fibrosis in the ginsenoid group compared with the control group. Inhibition of prostate infection was greater in the group receiving both ginsenoid and antibiotic than in the single-medication groups. Although the findings of this study suggest a preventive effect of ginsenoid, preventive methods for CBP are still controversial.

  2. Does finasteride have a preventive effect on chronic bacterial prostatitis? Pilot study using an animal model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong Bum; Ha, U-Syn; Yim, Seung Hyuk; Lee, Hyun Rim; Sohn, Dong Wan; Han, Chang Hee; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the preventive effect of finasteride on chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, ciprofloxacin, finasteride, and ciprofloxacin/finasteride. All drug pretreatments were conducted for 4 weeks, and then experimental CBP was induced by instillation of a bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli Z17 O2:K1;H-). After 4 weeks, results of microbiological cultures of prostate and urine samples as well as histological findings of the prostate in each group were analyzed. Finasteride significantly reduced bacterial infection and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration in prostatic tissue compared with the control group. The group given both finasteride and antibiotic showed a greater inhibition of bacterial infection in the tissue than those given either finasteride or antibiotic alone. Our experiments suggest the possibility that finasteride has a preventive effect on development of CBP, although there is as yet no consensus on the mechanism of this effect. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Prostatic calculi influence the antimicrobial efficacy in men with chronic bacterial prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei-Ping; Li, Yong-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Gen; Jiang, Hai; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of culture-specific antibiotic therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) patients with or without prostatic calculi. This study included 101 patients (21–62 years old) who met the consensus criteria for CBP (National Institutes of Health category II). According to the results of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), all patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, CBP with prostatic calculi, n=39; Group 2, CBP without prostatic calculi, n=62. All patients received optimal antimicrobial therapy for 4 weeks and followed up for a minimum of 3 months (range: 3–8 months). In addition to expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) and urine culture, all patients were asked to complete the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the subjective global assessment (SGA). The microbiological eradication rate at the end of treatment were 32/39 (82.1%) and 54/62 (87.1%), while the rates for continued eradication at the end of study were 17/39 (43.6%) and 45/62 (72.6%) in Group 1 and Group 2 (P<0.01), respectively. We observed a decrease in the total NIH-CPSI score median values from 24 to 19 in Group 1 and from 24 to 11 in Group 2. The pain subscore (P<0.01), urinary sunscore (P<0.05) and quality of life (QoL; P<0.05) as well as the total NIH-CPSI score (P<0.01) were significantly improved after antimicrobial treatment in Group 2 compared to Group 1. Response, defined as a decrease of the NIH-CPSI total score by at least 50%, was seen in Group 1 versus Group 2 in 38.5% and 58.1% (P<0.01), respectively. Our results showed that prostatic calculi influence the antimicrobial efficacy in men with CBP. There was a noticeable decrease in the cure rate of CBP patients with prostatic calculi due to relapse after antimicrobial therapy. PMID:22796735

  4. Prostatic calculi influence the antimicrobial efficacy in men with chronic bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Ping; Li, Yong-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Gen; Jiang, Hai; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Ping

    2012-09-01

    We studied the efficacy of culture-specific antibiotic therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) patients with or without prostatic calculi. This study included 101 patients (21-62 years old) who met the consensus criteria for CBP (National Institutes of Health category II). According to the results of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), all patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, CBP with prostatic calculi, n=39; Group 2, CBP without prostatic calculi, n=62. All patients received optimal antimicrobial therapy for 4 weeks and followed up for a minimum of 3 months (range: 3-8 months). In addition to expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) and urine culture, all patients were asked to complete the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the subjective global assessment (SGA). The microbiological eradication rate at the end of treatment were 32/39 (82.1%) and 54/62 (87.1%), while the rates for continued eradication at the end of study were 17/39 (43.6%) and 45/62 (72.6%) in Group 1 and Group 2 (P<0.01), respectively. We observed a decrease in the total NIH-CPSI score median values from 24 to 19 in Group 1 and from 24 to 11 in Group 2. The pain subscore (P<0.01), urinary sunscore (P<0.05) and quality of life (QoL; P<0.05) as well as the total NIH-CPSI score (P<0.01) were significantly improved after antimicrobial treatment in Group 2 compared to Group 1. Response, defined as a decrease of the NIH-CPSI total score by at least 50%, was seen in Group 1 versus Group 2 in 38.5% and 58.1% (P<0.01), respectively. Our results showed that prostatic calculi influence the antimicrobial efficacy in men with CBP. There was a noticeable decrease in the cure rate of CBP patients with prostatic calculi due to relapse after antimicrobial therapy.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of garlic and synergistic effect between garlic and ciprofloxacin in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Dong Wan; Han, Chang Hee; Jung, Yun Seok; Kim, Sung In; Kim, Sae Woong; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2009-09-01

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), which is characterised by recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and persistence of pathogenic bacteria and evidence of inflammation in the prostatic secretions, is one of the most common causes of relapsing UTI in men. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic as well as the synergistic effect of garlic with ciprofloxacin on the treatment of CBP in an animal model. An experimental CBP model was induced in 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by instillation of 0.2 mL of bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli Z17, O2:K1:H-) containing 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units/mL into the prostatic urethra. Microbiologically and histologically proven CBP was demonstrated in 68.3% (41/60) of the rats after 4 weeks of bacterial instillation. The 41 rats demonstrating CBP were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control; garlic; ciprofloxacin; and garlic plus ciprofloxacin. After 3 weeks of treatment, microbiological cultures of the urine and prostate samples as well as histological findings of the prostate were analysed. Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in all three experimental groups compared with the control group. The garlic group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group. The garlic plus ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group. These results suggest that garlic may have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects as well as a synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin. We therefore suggest that the combination of garlic and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating CBP with a higher success rate.

  6. Mounting resistance of uropathogens to antimicrobial agents: A retrospective study in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis relapse.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Pierris, Nikolaos

    2017-07-01

    Despite recent progress in the management of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), many cases relapse. Increased drug resistance patterns of responsible bacteria have been proposed as the most probable causative factor. Driven by the limited number of previous studies addressing this topic, we aimed to study whether antibiotic resistance increases in patients with CBP when relapse occurs. A secondary aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of responsible bacteria from patients with CBP. The study material consisted of bacterial isolates from urine and/or prostatic secretions obtained from patients with CBP. Bacterial identification was performed by using the Vitek 2 Compact system and susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion and/or the Vitek 2 system. Interpretation of susceptibility results was based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 253 samples from patients diagnosed with CBP for the first time (group A) and 137 samples from relapsing patients with a history of CBP and previous antibiotic treatment (group B) were analyzed. A significant reduction in bacterial resistance to the less used antibiotics (TMP-SMX, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, penicillins, and macrolides) was noted. An increase in resistance to quinolones of many bacteria that cause CBP was also noted with the increase in resistance of enterococcus strains being alarming. Comparison of the resistance profile of CBP-responsible bacteria between samples from first-time-diagnosed patients and samples from relapsing patients revealed notable differences that could be attributed to previous antibiotic treatment.

  7. Mental status in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Banyra, Oleg; Ivanenko, Olha; Nikitin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronic prostatitis is a widespread urological disease with a lengthy course and a propensity to frequent recurrences. Adequate response to anti–inflammatory therapy is lacking in a high percentage of patients, which causes them to seek medical advice from different doctors. Thus, the physicians are challenged to look for other reasons causing the pathological symptoms. Material and methods We have reviewed the patients with treatment–resistant chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) from the perspective of psychosomatic medicine. For the evaluation of primary mental status and treatment control we used standard approved questionnaires. All 337 CBP patients initially underwent therapy aimed at pathogen eradication. If psychopathological symptoms were evident and dominated over urological ones, the patients were referred to psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Results The frequency of concomitant psychosomatic disorders (PSD) in patients with CBP was 28.2% and neurotic disorders – 26.4%. Adequate multimodal anti–inflammatory therapy followed by a few sessions of psychotherapy decreased the manifestations of PSD in 30.5%, neurotic disorders in 51.7%, and premature ejaculation in 60.5% of patients with CBP. The addition of pharmacotherapy to psychotherapy is effective in treatment–resistant cases. However, after multimodal treatment, 31.5% of pts. with PSD and 13.5% of pts. with neurotic disorders still remain treatment–resistant and required in–depth long–term psychiatric care. Conclusions A significant portion of CBP patients were diagnosed with neurotic, psychosomatic, and/or depressive disorders. Antibacterial and anti–inflammatory therapy, when followed by appropriate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, significantly decrease the manifestations of mental disorders in CBP patients. PMID:24579003

  8. [Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells suppress E coli-induced bacterial prostatitis in rats].

    PubMed

    Han, Guang-wei; Liu, Cheng-cheng; Gao, Wen-hong; Cui, Dong; Yi, Shan-hong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on E coliinduced prostatitis in rats. BMSCs were isolated, cultured and amplified by the attached choice method. Fifty SD rats were randomized into five groups of equal number: normal control, acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) , chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), ABP + BMSCs, and CBP + BMSCs, and the animals in the latter four groups were injected with E. coli into both sides of the prostate under ultrasound guidance for 1 - 14 days to induce ABP and for 4 - 12 weeks to induce CBP. The control rats were injected with the same amount of PBS. Two weeks after injection of BMSCs into the prostates, pathomorphological changes in the prostate were observed under the light microscope and the mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β and TNF-α determined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively, followed by statistical analysis with SPSS 18.0. Histopathological evaluation showed typical pathological inflammatory changes in the prostates of the rats in the ABP and CBP groups, including glandular structural changes, interstitial edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibrous hyperplasia, which were all remarkably relieved after treated with BMSCs. The mRNA and protein levels of IL-β ([0.829 ± 0.121] and [271.75 ± 90.59] pg/ml) and TNF-α ([0.913 ± 0. 094] and [105.78 ± 19. 05] pg/ml) in the ABP and those of IL-1β ([0. 975 ± 0. 114] and [265. 31 ± 71. 34] pg/ml) and TNF-α ([0. 886 ± 0. 084] and [107. 45 ± 26. 11 ] pg/ml) in the CBP groups were significantly higher than those in the control rats ([0. 342 ± 0.087] and [45.76 17. 99] pg/ml, P <0. 05); ([0.247 ± 0.054] and ([19.42 ± 7. 75] pg/ml, P <0. 01) as well as than those in the ABP + BMSCs ([0. 433 ± 0. 072] and [51. 34 ± 22. 13] pg/ml, P < 0. 05 ) ; ( [0. 313 ± 0. 076] and [28. 38 ± 8. 78] pg/ml, P < 0. 01) and the CBP + BMSCs group ([0.396 ± 0.064] and [56.37 ± 21.22] pg/ml, P <0.05); ([0.417 ± 0.068] and [29.21 ± 10.22] pg

  9. Effect of levofloxacin treatment on semen hyperviscosity in chronic bacterial prostatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Vicari, L O; Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, B O; Mazzarino, M C; Vicari, E

    2016-05-01

    Changes in seminal fluid viscosity (SFV), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytokines and seminal leucocyte concentration related to microbiological outcome in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) were studied. One hundred and ten infertile patients with CBP (positive sperm culture ≥10(5) colony-forming units [CFU] ml(-1), pathogens or Chlamydia in expressed prostatic secretions) were treated with levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 14 consecutive days per month for 3 months. In case of bacterial prostatitis, two conditions were examined: responders, eradication of 0 to <10(3) CFU ml(-1) (n = 78) and poor responders, >10(3) to <10(5) CFU ml(-1) (n = 32). Compared with poor responders, responders showed a significant increase of sperm progressive motility and a significant decrease in seminal leucocyte count, SFV, liquefaction time, ROS production (in all fractions and conditions), seminal tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6. None of these variables showed significant differences compared with a control group of 37 fertile men. On the other hand, the poor responders showed significant changes in these variables compared with matched pretreatment values. In patients with CBP, antibiotic therapy alone leads to eradication in ≈71%, with improvement of sperm progressive motility, SFV and the framework of prooxidative factors. However, in the remaining ≈29% with poor antibiotic responsiveness, a deterioration of all variables is observed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Diana K; Dielubanza, Elodi; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-08-27

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and can occur either with an active infection (chronic bacterial prostatitis [CBP]) or with only pain and no evidence of bacterial causation (chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CPPS]). Bacterial prostatitis is characterised by recurrent urinary tract infections or infection in the prostate with the same bacterial strain, which often results from urinary tract instrumentation. However, the cause and natural history of CPPS are unknown and not associated with active infection. We conducted a systematic overview and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for chronic bacterial prostatitis? What are the effects of treatments for chronic pelvic pain syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 131 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 67 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 51 studies and the further review of 16 full publications. Of the 16 full articles evaluated, three systematic reviews and one RCT were included at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 14 PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 12 interventions based on information relating to the effectiveness and safety of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, allopurinol, alpha-blockers, local injections of antimicrobial drugs, mepartricin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral antimicrobial drugs, pentosan polysulfate, quercetin, sitz baths, transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).

  11. Bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  12. [Chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical and microbiological study of 332 cases].

    PubMed

    Heras-Cañas, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Soto, Blanca; Serrano-García, María Luisa; Vázquez-Alonso, Fernando; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    2016-08-19

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is characterized by long-lasting symptoms, frequently associated with psychosomatic disorders. The objective of the study was to study PCB in our environment clinically and microbiologically. Between January 2013 and December 2014 761 patients with suspected CBP were studied. Of these patients 332 (43.6%) underwent a complete microbiological study and the major clinical signs and symptoms were collected. Eighteen point four percent of patients were diagnosed microbiologically with CBP, Enterococcus faecalis being the main aetiologic agent (37.7%), followed by Escherichia coli (22.2%). Ninety-six point seven percent of the CBP had positive semen cultures, while only 22.9% had positive urine post-semen cultures. Data of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of semen were 96.7%, 95.9%, 84.3% and 99.3%, respectively and urine post-semen 22.9%, 99.3%, 87.5% and 85.1%, respectively. Testicular perineum pain (44.3%), ejaculatory discomfort (27.9%) and haemospermia (26.2%) were highlighted as the patients' main clinical manifestations. Fractionated culture for the microbiological diagnosis of CBP could be simplified by the culture of urine pre-semen and semen, without the need for the culture of urine post-semen. The main aetiologic agent of CBP in our media was Enterococcus faecalis, followed by Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a consensus guideline.

    PubMed

    Rees, Jon; Abrahams, Mark; Doble, Andrew; Cooper, Alison

    2015-10-01

    To improve awareness and recognition of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) among non-specialists and patients. To provide guidance to healthcare professionals treating patients with CBP and CP/CPPS, in both non-specialist and specialist settings. To promote efficient referral of care between non-specialists and specialists and the involvement of the multidisciplinary team (MDT). The guideline population were men with CBP or CP/CPPS (persistent or recurrent symptoms and no other urogenital pathology for ≥3 of the previous 6 months). Consensus recommendations for the guidelines were based on a search to identify literature on the diagnosis and management of CBP and CP/CPPS (published between 1999 and February 2014). A Delphi panel process was used where high-quality, published evidence was lacking. CBP and CP/CPPS can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The four main symptom domains are urogenital pain, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS - voiding or storage symptoms), psychological issues and sexual dysfunction. Patients should be managed according to their individual symptom pattern. Options for first-line treatment include antibiotics, α-adrenergic antagonists (if voiding LUTS are present) and simple analgesics. Repeated use of antibiotics, such as quinolones, should be avoided if there is no obvious symptomatic benefit from infection control or cultures do not support an infectious cause. Early use of treatments targeting neuropathic pain and/or referral to specialist services should be considered for patients who do not respond to initial measures. An MDT approach (urologists, pain specialists, nurse specialists, specialist physiotherapists, general practitioners, cognitive behavioural therapists/psychologists, and sexual health specialists) is recommended. Patients should be fully informed about the possible underlying causes and treatment options, including an explanation of

  14. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Videčnik Zorman, Jerneja; Matičič, Mojca; Jeverica, Samo; Smrkolj, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Prostate inflammation is a common syndrome, especially in men under 50. It usually presents with voiding symptoms and pain in the genitourinary area, and sometimes as sexual dysfunction. Based on clinical and laboratory characteristics, prostatitis is classified as acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Bacterial prostatitis is most often caused by infection with uropathogens, mainly Gram-negative bacilli, but Gram-positive and atypical microorganisms have also been identified as causative organisms of chronic prostatitis. According to reports by several authors, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis are some of the most common pathogens, making chronic prostatitis a sexually transmitted disease. Diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis in particular can be challenging.

  16. Bacterial Prostatitis: Bacterial Virulence, Clinical Outcomes, and New Directions.

    PubMed

    Krieger, John N; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2016-02-01

    Four prostatitis syndromes are recognized clinically: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic prostatitis. Because Escherichia coli represents the most common cause of bacterial prostatitis, we investigated the importance of bacterial virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli strains causing prostatitis and the potential association of these characteristics with clinical outcomes. A structured literature review revealed that we have limited understanding of the virulence-associated characteristics of E. coli causing acute prostatitis. Therefore, we completed a comprehensive microbiological and molecular investigation of a unique strain collection isolated from healthy young men. We also considered new data from an animal model system suggesting certain E. coli might prove important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Our human data suggest that E. coli needs multiple pathogenicity-associated traits to overcome anatomic and immune responses in healthy young men without urological risk factors. The phylogenetic background and accumulation of an exceptional repertoire of extraintestinal pathogenic virulence-associated genes indicate that these E. coli strains belong to a highly virulent subset of uropathogenic variants. In contrast, antibiotic resistance confers little added advantage to E. coli strains in these healthy outpatients. Our animal model data also suggest that certain pathogenic E. coli may be important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome through mechanisms that are dependent on the host genetic background and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

  17. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Enzo; La Vignera, Sandro; Castiglione, Roberto; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; Calogero, Aldo E

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV) or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE). A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months) and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 10(9) FU per day) or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6%) complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = "6Tx/6-": treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26); Group B = "12Tx": 12 months of treatment (n = 22); Group C = "6-/6Tx": no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23); Group D = "12-": no treatment (n = 24). The patients of Groups A = "6Tx/6-" and B = "12Tx" had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively). In contrast, group "12-": patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%). The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups "6Tx/6-" (15.5%) and "6-/6Tx" (13.6%) was lower than that found in the patients of group "12-" (45.8%). Finally, no patient of groups "6Tx/6-" and "6-/6Tx" had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group "12-" patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS.

  18. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Coker, Timothy J; Dierfeldt, Daniel M

    2016-01-15

    Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis, and malaise. Although the true incidence is unknown, acute bacterial prostatitis is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all cases of prostatitis. Most acute bacterial prostatitis infections are community acquired, but some occur after transurethral manipulation procedures, such as urethral catheterization and cystoscopy, or after transrectal prostate biopsy. The physical examination should include abdominal, genital, and digital rectal examination to assess for a tender, enlarged, or boggy prostate. Diagnosis is predominantly made based on history and physical examination, but may be aided by urinalysis. Urine cultures should be obtained in all patients who are suspected of having acute bacterial prostatitis to determine the responsible bacteria and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Additional laboratory studies can be obtained based on risk factors and severity of illness. Radiography is typically unnecessary. Most patients can be treated as outpatients with oral antibiotics and supportive measures. Hospitalization and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics should be considered in patients who are systemically ill, unable to voluntarily urinate, unable to tolerate oral intake, or have risk factors for antibiotic resistance. Typical antibiotic regimens include ceftriaxone and doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. The risk of nosocomial bacterial prostatitis can be reduced by using antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, before transrectal prostate biopsy.

  19. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Enzo; Vignera, La Sandro; Castiglione, Roberto; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; Calogero, Aldo E

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV) or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE). A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months) and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 109 CFU per day) or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6%) complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = “6Tx/6-”: treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26); Group B = “12Tx”: 12 months of treatment (n = 22); Group C = “6-/6Tx”: no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23); Group D = “12-”: no treatment (n = 24). The patients of Groups A = “6Tx/6-” and B = “12Tx” had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively). In contrast, group “12-”: patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%). The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups “6Tx/6-” (15.5%) and “6-/6Tx” (13.6%) was lower than that found in the patients of group “12-” (45.8%). Finally, no patient of groups “6Tx/6-” and “6-/6Tx” had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group “12-” patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS. PMID:24969056

  20. New Bacterial Infection in the Prostate after Transrectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yumi; Lee, Gilho

    2018-04-23

    The prostate is prone to infections. Hypothetically, bacteria can be inoculated into the prostate during a transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) and progress into chronic bacterial prostatitis. Therefore, we examined new bacterial infections in biopsied prostates after TRPB and whether they affect clinical characteristics in the biopsied patients. Of men whose prostate cultures have been taken prior to TRPB, 105 men with bacteria-free benign prostate pathology underwent an additional repeated prostate culture within a year after TRPB. Twenty out of 105 men (19.05%) acquired new bacteria in their naïve prostates after TRPB. Except for one single case of Escherichia coli infection, 19 men had acquired gram-positive bacteria species. Between the culture-positive and negative groups, there were no significant differences in age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, white blood cell (WBC) counts in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), prostate volume, symptom severities in Korean version of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) questionnaire, and patient-specific risk factors for biopsy associated infectious complications. Additionally, the TRPB procedure increased the WBC counts in post-biopsy EPS ( P = 0.031, McNemar test), but did not increase the serum PSA level and symptoms of NIH-CPSI in 20 men who acquired new bacteria after TRPB. The TRPB procedure was significantly associated with acquiring new bacterial infections in the biopsied prostate, but these localized bacteria did not affect patients' serum PSA level and symptoms after biopsy.

  1. Urinary tract infections and bacterial prostatitis in men.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Weidner, Wolfgang; Pilatz, Adrian; Naber, Kurt G

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight advances in research on urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacterial prostatitis in men in the preceding year. The antiseptic properties of the prostate secretions might be an important factor for prevention of recurrency. Risk factors for UTI in men include prostate enlargement and urological interventions, such as transrectal prostate biopsy. Preventive treatment of prostate enlargement has been demonstrated to reduce frequency of UTI. Ensuing infections after prostate biopsy, such as UTI and bacterial prostatitis, are increasing due to increasing rates of fluoroquinolone resistance. The increasing global antibiotic resistance also significantly affects management of UTI in men, and therefore calls for alternative strategies.Apart from prevention of complicating factors leading to UTI, a more thorough understanding of the pathophysiology may play a more important role in the future, to define new targets for treatment. Interesting results that might interfere with the intracellular mucosal bacterial load in the bladder wall have been found in the last years. UTI in men and bacterial prostatitis are currently underrepresented in the medical literature. Increasing antibacterial resistance calls for novel strategies in the prevention and management of UTI and bacterial prostatitis in men.

  2. [Bacterial prostatitis and prostatic fibrosis: modern view on the treatment and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, A V; Pushkar, D Yu; Khodyreva, L A; Dudareva, A A

    2016-08-01

    Treatments of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CP) remain difficult problem. Bacterial prostatitis is a disease entity diagnosed clinically and by evidence of inflammation and infection localized to the prostate. Risk factors for UTI in men include urological interventions, such as transrectal prostate biopsy. Ensuing infections after prostate biopsy, such as UTI and bacterial prostatitis, are increasing due to increasing rates of fluoroquinolone resistance. The increasing global antibiotic resistance also significantly affects management of UTI in men, and therefore calls for alternative strategies. Prostatic inflammation has been suggested to contribute to the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) by inducing fibrosis. Several studies have shown that prostatic fibrosis is strongly associated with impaired urethral function and LUTS severity. Fibrosis resulting from excessive deposition of collagen is traditionally recognized as a progressive irreversible condition and an end stage of inflammatory diseases; however, there is compelling evidence in both animal and human studies to support that the development of fibrosis could potentially be a reversible process. Prostate inflammation may induce fibrotic changes in periurethral prostatic tissues, promote urethral stiffness and LUTS. Patients experiencing CP and prostate-related LUTS could benefit from anti-inflammatory therapies, especially used in combination with the currently prescribed enzyme treatment with Longidase. Treatment results showed that longidase is highly effective in bacterial and abacterial CP. Longidase addition to standard therapeutic methods significantly reduced the disease symptoms and regression of inflammatory-proliferative alterations in the prostate.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis versus common uropathogens as a cause of chronic bacterial prostatitis: Is there any difference? Results of a prospective parallel-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Francesca; Nesi, Gabriella; Magri, Vittorio; Verze, Paolo; Perletti, Gianpaolo; Gontero, Paolo; Mirone, Vincenzo; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The role of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is well known. What is unclear is whether there are any differences in the course or clinical outcome of the disease when the cause is CT or other uropathogens. Materials and Methods A series of 311 patients affected by CBP due to CT (cohort A) was compared with a group of 524 patients affected by CBP caused by common uropathogen bacteria (cohort B). All participants completed the following questionnaires: National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function-15 erectile function domain (IIEF-15-EFD), Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey. All patients were followed with clinical and microbiological evaluations. Results After a mean follow-up time of 42.3 months, the number of symptomatic episodes was significantly higher in patients in cohort A than in cohort B (4.1±1.1 vs. 2.8±0.8, p<0.001), and the mean time to first symptomatic recurrence was shorter in cohort A than in cohort B (3.3±2.3 months vs. 5.7±1.9 months, p<0.001). Moreover, scores on the SF-36 tool were significantly lower in cohort A (96.5±1.0 vs. 99.7±1.9, p<0.001) at the first symptomatic recurrence. Cohort A also showed significantly lower scores on the IIEF-15-EFD and PEDT questionnaires at the end of the follow-up period (26.8±2.9 vs. 27.3±3.3, p=0.02 and 11.5±2.3 vs. 4.5±2.8, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Patients affected by CBP due to CT infection have a higher number of symptomatic recurrences with a more severe impact on quality of life. PMID:29124247

  4. Chronic bacterial prostatitis in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Jörg; Bartel, Peter; Pannek, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major problem affecting spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and may stem from chronic bacterial prostatitis. We have therefore investigated the presence of chronic bacterial prostatitis and its role in the development of recurrent symptomatic UTI in SCI men. This study is a prospective cross-sectional investigation of bacterial prostatitis in SCI men in a single SCI rehabilitation center. In 50 men with chronic SCI presenting for a routine urologic examination, urine samples before and after prostate massage were taken for microbiologic investigation and white blood cell counting. Furthermore, patient characteristics, bladder diary details, and the annual rate of symptomatic UTI were collected retrospectively. No participant reported current symptoms of UTI or prostatitis. In most men (39/50, 78 %), the microbiologic analysis of the post-massage urine sample revealed growth of pathogenic bacteria. The majority of these men (32/39, 82 %) also presented with mostly (27/39, 69 %) the same pathogenic bacteria in the pre-massage sample. There was no significant (p = 0.48) difference in the number of symptomatic UTI in men with a positive post-massage culture compared with those with a negative culture. No significant (p = 0.67) difference in the frequency distribution of positive versus negative post-massage cultures was detected between men with recurrent and sporadic UTI. Most SCI men are affected by asymptomatic bacterial prostatitis; however, bacterial prostatitis does not play a major role in the development of recurrent UTI. The indication for antibiotic treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in asymptomatic SCI men with recurrent UTI is questionable.

  5. Serenoa repens associated with selenium and lycopene extract and bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract are able to improve the efficacy of levofloxacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tommaso; Tiscione, Daniele; Gallelli, Luca; Verze, Paolo; Palmieri, Alessandro; Mirone, Vincenzo; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Malossini, Gianni

    2016-10-05

    To date, the management of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is not satisfactory, especially in terms of symptoms relief. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and the safety of a combination of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene extract + bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract associated with levofloxacin in patients with CBP. All patients with clinical and instrumental diagnosis of CBP, admitted to a single Urological Institution from March to June 2015 were enrolled in this phase III study. All enrolled patients were randomized into two groups: Group A received levofloxacin 500 mg o.d. for 14 days associated with lycopene and methylsulfonylmethane; Group B received levofloxacin (500 mg o.d. for 14 days) only. Clinical and microbiological analyses were carried out at the time of admission (T0) and during the followups at 1 month (T1) and 6 months (T2) from the end of the treatment. NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI), International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) and Quality of Well-Being (QoL) questionnaires were used. The main outcome measures were the rate of microbiological cure and the improvement in questionnaire results from baseline at the end of the follow-ups period. Forty patients were enrolled in Group A and 39 in Group B. During the follow-up (T1), we recorded a significant changes in terms of NIH-CPSI and IPSS in Group A (mean difference: 17.6 ± 2.65; 12.2 ± 2.33; p < 0.01; p < 0.05, respectively) and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: -9 ± 1.82; -8.33 ± 1.71; p < 0.05; p < 0.05, respectively). No differences were reported in terms of microbiological findings between the two groups. At the second follow-up visit (T2), questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.001). One patient in Group A (2.5%) and 7 patients (17.9%) in Group B showed a symptomatic and microbiological recurrence (p = 0.02). The combination of serenoa repens

  6. Acute bacterial prostatitis with osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Nargund, V H; Stewart, P A Hamilton

    1995-01-01

    This short case presentation concerns the simultaneous occurrence of acute bacterial prostatitis and osteomyelitis due to staphylococcal bacteraemia hitherto unrecorded in the literature. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7629772

  7. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: efficacy of short-lasting antibiotic therapy with prulifloxacin (Unidrox®) in association with saw palmetto extract, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin (Lactorepens®).

    PubMed

    Busetto, Gian Maria; Giovannone, Riccardo; Ferro, Matteo; Tricarico, Stefano; Del Giudice, Francesco; Matei, Deliu Victor; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Gentile, Vincenzo; De Berardinis, Ettore

    2014-07-19

    Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is a common condition accounting responsible for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases; chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) classified as type II, are less common but is a condition that significantly hampers the quality of life, (QoL) because not only is it a physical condition but also a psychological distress. Commonly patients are treated with antibiotics alone, and in particular fluoroquinolones are suggested by the European Urology guidelines. This approach, although recommended, may not be enough. Thus, a multimodal approach to the prolonged antibiotic therapy may be helpful. 210 patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were positive to Meares-Stamey test and symptoms duration was > 3 months. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long lasting therapy with a fluoroquinolone in association with a nutraceutical supplement (prulifloxacin 600 mg for 21 days and an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Lactobacillus Sporogens 200 mg, Arbutin 100 mg for 30 days). Patients were randomized in two groups (A and B) receiving respectively antibiotic alone and an association of antibiotic plus supplement. Biological recurrence at 2 months in Group A was observed in 21 patients (27.6%) and in Group B in 6 patients (7.8%). Uropathogens found at the first follow-up were for the majority Gram - (E. coli and Enterobacter spp.). A statistically significant difference was found at the time of the follow-up between Group A and B in the NIH-CPSI questionnaire score, symptoms evidence and serum PSA. Broad band, short-lasting antibiotic therapy in association with a nutritional supplement (serenoa repens, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin) show better control and recurrence rate on patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitits in comparison with antibiotic treatment alone. NCT02130713. Date of trial Registration: 30/04/2014.

  8. [Combination therapy of chronic bacterial prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the possible etiological factors in the development of chronic bacterial prostatitis. The authors presented a comparative long-term analysis of morbidity from non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Russia. Against the background of general decline in STIs incidence, a significant percentage of them is made up by urogenital trichomoniasis. The findings substantiated the advantages of combination therapy (ornidazole and ofloxacin) for bacterial urinary tract infections.

  9. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: efficacy of short-lasting antibiotic therapy with prulifloxacin (Unidrox®) in association with saw palmetto extract, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin (Lactorepens®)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is a common condition accounting responsible for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases; chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) classified as type II, are less common but is a condition that significantly hampers the quality of life, (QoL) because not only is it a physical condition but also a psychological distress. Commonly patients are treated with antibiotics alone, and in particular fluoroquinolones are suggested by the European Urology guidelines. This approach, although recommended, may not be enough. Thus, a multimodal approach to the prolonged antibiotic therapy may be helpful. Methods 210 patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were positive to Meares-Stamey test and symptoms duration was > 3 months. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long lasting therapy with a fluoroquinolone in association with a nutraceutical supplement (prulifloxacin 600 mg for 21 days and an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Lactobacillus Sporogens 200 mg, Arbutin 100 mg for 30 days). Patients were randomized in two groups (A and B) receiving respectively antibiotic alone and an association of antibiotic plus supplement. Results Biological recurrence at 2 months in Group A was observed in 21 patients (27.6%) and in Group B in 6 patients (7.8%). Uropathogens found at the first follow-up were for the majority Gram – (E. coli and Enterobacter spp.). A statistically significant difference was found at the time of the follow-up between Group A and B in the NIH-CPSI questionnaire score, symptoms evidence and serum PSA. Conclusions Broad band, short-lasting antibiotic therapy in association with a nutritional supplement (serenoa repens, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin) show better control and recurrence rate on patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitits in comparison with antibiotic treatment alone. Trial registration NCT02130713 Date of trial

  10. Acute bacterial prostatitis and abscess formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Sup; Choe, Hyun-Sop; Kim, Hee Youn; Kim, Sun Wook; Bae, Sang Rak; Yoon, Byung Il; Lee, Seung-Ju

    2016-07-07

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for abscess formation in acute bacterial prostatitis, and to compare treatment outcomes between abscess group and non-abscess group. This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study. All patients suspected of having an acute prostatic infection underwent computed tomography or transrectal ultrasonography to discriminate acute prostatic abscesses from acute prostatitis without abscess formation. A total of 31 prostate abscesses were reviewed among 142 patients with acute prostatitis. Univariate analysis revealed that symptom duration, diabetes mellitus and voiding disturbance were predisposing factors for abscess formation in acute prostatitis. However, diabetes mellitus was not related to prostate abscess in multivariate analysis. Patients with abscesses <20 mm in size did not undergo surgery and were cured without any complications. In contrast, patients with abscesses >20 mm who underwent transurethral resection had a shorter duration of antibiotic treatment than did those who did not have surgery. Regardless of surgical treatment, both the length of hospital stay and antibiotic treatment were longer in patients with prostatic abscesses than they were in those without abscesses. However, the incidence of septic shock was not different between the two groups. A wide spectrum of microorganisms was responsible for prostate abscesses. In contrast, Escherichia coli was the predominant organism responsible for acute prostatitis without abscess. Imaging studies should be considered when patients with acute prostatitis have delayed treatment and signs of voiding disturbance. Early diagnosis is beneficial because prostatic abscesses require prolonged treatment protocols, or even require surgical drainage. Surgical drainage procedures such as transurethral resection of the prostate were not necessary in all patients with prostate abscesses. However, surgical intervention may have potential merits that reduce the

  11. A human prostatic bacterial isolate alters the prostatic microenvironment and accelerates prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Simons, Brian W; Durham, Nicholas M; Bruno, Tullia C; Grosso, Joseph F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Ross, Ashley E; Hurley, Paula J; Berman, David M; Drake, Charles G; Thumbikat, Praveen; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammation is associated with several diseases of the prostate including benign enlargement and cancer, but a causal relationship has not been established. Our objective was to characterize the prostate inflammatory microenvironment after infection with a human prostate-derived bacterial strain and to determine the effect of inflammation on prostate cancer progression. To this end, we mimicked typical human prostate infection with retrograde urethral instillation of CP1, a human prostatic isolate of Escherichia coli. CP1 bacteria were tropic for the accessory sex glands and induced acute inflammation in the prostate and seminal vesicles, with chronic inflammation lasting at least 1 year. Compared to controls, infection induced both acute and chronic inflammation with epithelial hyperplasia, stromal hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltrates. In areas of inflammation, epithelial proliferation and hyperplasia often persist, despite decreased expression of androgen receptor (AR). Inflammatory cells in the prostates of CP1-infected mice were characterized at 8 weeks post-infection by flow cytometry, which showed an increase in macrophages and lymphocytes, particularly Th17 cells. Inflammation was additionally assessed in the context of carcinogenesis. Multiplex cytokine profiles of inflamed prostates showed that distinct inflammatory cytokines were expressed during prostate inflammation and cancer, with a subset of cytokines synergistically increased during concurrent inflammation and cancer. Furthermore, CP1 infection in the Hi-Myc mouse model of prostate cancer accelerated the development of invasive prostate adenocarcinoma, with 70% more mice developing cancer by 4.5 months of age. This study provides direct evidence that prostate inflammation accelerates prostate cancer progression and gives insight into the microenvironment changes induced by inflammation that may accelerate tumour initiation or progression. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great

  12. Cefoxitin-based antibiotic therapy for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae prostatitis: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Demonchy, Elisa; Courjon, Johan; Ughetto, Estelle; Durand, Matthieu; Risso, Karine; Garraffo, Rodolphe; Roger, Pierre-Marie

    2018-06-01

    The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) infections requires re-assessment of therapeutic choices. Here we report the efficacy of cefoxitin-based antibiotic therapy for ESBL-E prostatitis. A prospective study including patients with ESBL-E prostatitis resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones from January 2014 to March 2016 was conducted. Cefoxitin was administered by continuous infusion for 3 weeks in the case of acute bacterial prostatitis or 6 weeks in the case of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), with intravenous fosfomycin for the first 5 days. Urological investigations were performed to diagnose underlying urinary tract pathology. Clinical and microbiological efficacy were evaluated 3 months (M3) and 6 months (M6) after the end of therapy. A total of 23 patients were included in the study. The median patient age was 74 years (range 48-88 years). Of the 23 infections, 14 (61%) were CBP and 12 (52%) were healthcare-associated infections. The bacteria involved were Escherichia coli in 11 cases, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 10 cases and Klebsiella oxytoca in 2 cases. Clinical cure was observed in 19/23 patients (83%) at M3 and in 17/22 patients (77%) at M6. Urocultures were sterile in 13/23 patients (57%) at M3 and in 9/19 patients (47%) and M6. Urinary colonisation was observed in 6/19 patients (32%) with clinical cure at M3 and 5/14 patients (36%) with clinical cure at M6. No resistance to cefoxitin was detected. Surgical treatment was required for 7/23 patients (30%). In conclusion, cefoxitin-based antibiotic therapy is suitable for difficult-to-treat ESBL-E infections such as prostatitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of unusual pathogens in prostatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skerk, Visnja; Krhen, Ivan; Schonwald, Slavko; Cajic, Vjeran; Markovinovic, Leo; Roglic, Srdan; Zekan, Sime; Andracevic, Arjana Tambic; Kruzic, Vladimira

    2004-09-01

    A total of 1442 patients with symptoms of chronic prostatitis were examined over a 4-year period at the Outpatient Department for Urogenital Infections, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr. Fran Mihaljevic", Zagreb, Croatia. An infectious aetiology was determined in 1070 (74.2%) patients. In 561 of 1070 (52.4%) patients the inflammatory finding (>10 WBC/hpf) was found in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) or voided bladder urine (VB(3)). Normal, <10 WBCs/hpf was found in 362 of 536 (67.5%) patients with symptoms of chronic prostatitis in whom Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in EPS or VB(3), in 51 of 151 (33.8%) patients with isolated Trichomonas vaginalis and in 40 of 72 (55.6%) patients with isolated Ureaplasma urealyticum. Escherichia coli was the causative pathogen in 95, Enterococcus in 68, Proteus mirabilis in 37, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 16, Streptococcus agalactiae in 19, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 3 patients with chronic prostatitis. Other patients had a mixed infection. In patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) caused by E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, E. or S. agalactiae, an inflammatory finding was regularly found in EPS or VB(3).

  14. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies showed that CBP KIX mutation affects the stability of CBP:c-Myb complex.

    PubMed

    Odoux, Anne; Jindal, Darren; Tamas, Tamara C; Lim, Benjamin W H; Pollard, Drake; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    The coactivators CBP (CREBBP) and its paralog p300 (EP300), two conserved multi-domain proteins in eukaryotic organisms, regulate gene expression in part by binding DNA-binding transcription factors. It was previously reported that the CBP/p300 KIX domain mutant (Y650A, A654Q, and Y658A) altered both c-Myb-dependent gene activation and repression, and that mice with these three point mutations had reduced numbers of platelets, B cells, T cells, and red blood cells. Here, our transient transfection assays demonstrated that mouse embryonic fibroblast cells containing the same mutations in the KIX domain and without a wild-type allele of either CBP or p300, showed decreased c-Myb-mediated transcription. Dr. Wright's group solved a 3-D structure of the mouse CBP:c-Myb complex using NMR. To take advantage of the experimental structure and function data and improved theoretical calculation methods, we performed MD simulations of CBP KIX, CBP KIX with the mutations, and c-Myb, as well as binding energy analysis for both the wild-type and mutant complexes. The binding between CBP and c-Myb is mainly mediated by a shallow hydrophobic groove in the center where the side-chain of Leu302 of c-Myb plays an essential role and two salt bridges at the two ends. We found that the KIX mutations slightly decreased stability of the CBP:c-Myb complex as demonstrated by higher binding energy calculated using either MM/PBSA or MM/GBSA methods. More specifically, the KIX mutations affected the two salt bridges between CBP and c-Myb (CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306; CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294). Our studies also revealed differing dynamics of the hydrogen bonds between CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306 and between CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294 caused by the CBP KIX mutations. In the wild-type CBP:c-Myb complex, both of the hydrogen bonds stayed relatively stable. In contrast, in the mutant CBP:c-Myb complex, hydrogen bonds between R646 and E306 showed an increasing trend followed by a decreasing trend, and hydrogen

  15. Prevalence of Corynebacterial 16S rRNA Sequences in Patients with Bacterial and “Nonbacterial” Prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Michael A.; Shoskes, Daniel; Shahed, Asha; Pace, Norman R.

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of chronic prostatitis syndromes in men is controversial, particularly when positive cultures for established uropathogens are lacking. Although identification of bacteria in prostatic fluid has relied on cultivation and microscopy, most microorganisms in the environment, including some human pathogens, are resistant to cultivation. We report here on an rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic approach to the identification of bacteria in prostate fluid from prostatitis patients. Positive bacterial signals were seen for 65% of patients with chronic prostatitis overall. Seven of 11 patients with bacterial signals but none of 6 patients without bacterial signals were cured with antibiotic-based therapy. Results indicate the occurrence in the prostate fluid of a wide spectrum of bacterial species representing several genera. Most rRNA genes were closely related to those of species belonging to the genera Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, and Escherichia. Unexpectedly, a wide diversity of Corynebacterium species was found in high proportion compared to the proportions of other bacterial species found. A subset of these 16S rRNA sequences represent those of undescribed species on the basis of their positions in phylogenetic trees. These uncharacterized organisms were not detected in control samples, suggesting that the organisms have a role in the disease or are the consequence of the disease. These studies show that microorganisms associated with prostatitis generally occur as complex microbial communities that differ between patients. The results also indicate that microbial communities distinct from those associated with prostatitis may occur at low levels in normal prostatic fluid. PMID:10325338

  16. Concentrations of gatifloxacin in plasma and urine and penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid, ejaculate, and sperm cells after single oral administrations of 400 milligrams to volunteers.

    PubMed

    Naber, C K; Steghafner, M; Kinzig-Schippers, M; Sauber, C; Sörgel, F; Stahlberg, H J; Naber, K G

    2001-01-01

    Gatifloxacin (GTX), a new fluoroquinolone with extended antibacterial activity, is an interesting candidate for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Besides the antibacterial spectrum, the concentrations in the target tissues and fluids are crucial for the treatment of CBP. Thus, it was of interest to investigate its penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid. GTX concentrations in plasma, urine, ejaculate, prostatic and seminal fluid, and sperm cells were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method after oral intake of a single 400-mg dose in 10 male Caucasian volunteers in the fasting state. Simultaneous application of the renal contrast agent iohexol was used to estimate the maximal possible contamination of ejaculate and prostatic and seminal fluid by urine. GTX was well tolerated. The means (standard deviations) for the following parameters were as indicated: time to maximum concentration of drug in serum, 1.66 (0. 91) h; maximum concentration of drug in serum, 2.90 (0.39) microg/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, 25.65 microg. h/ml; and half life, 7.2 (0.90) h. Within 12 h about 50% of the drug was excreted unchanged into the urine. The mean renal clearance was 169 ml/min. The gatifloxacin concentrations in ejaculate, seminal fluid, and prostatic fluid were in the range of the corresponding plasma concentrations which were 1.92 (0.27) microg/ml at approximately the same time point (4 h after drug intake). The concentrations in sperm cells (0.195, 0.076, and 0.011 microg/ml) could be determined in three subjects. The good penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid, the good tolerance, and the previously reported broad antibacterial spectrum suggest that GTX may be a good alternative for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm this assumption.

  17. Acute bacterial prostatitis after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: epidemiological, bacteria and treatment patterns from a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Campeggi, Alexandre; Ouzaid, Idir; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Lesprit, Philippe; Hoznek, Andras; Vordos, Dimitri; Abbou, Claude-Clément; Salomon, Laurent; de la Taille, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence, and clinical and bacterial features of iatrogenic prostatitis within 1 month after transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy for detection of prostate cancer. From January 2006 to December 2009, 3000 patients underwent a 21-core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy at Henri Mondor Hospital (Créteil, France) and were prospectively followed. All patients had a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial prophylaxis for 7 days. The primary study end-point was to evaluate the incidence of iatrogenic acute prostatitis within 1 month after the biopsy. The secondary end-point was to analyze the clinical and the bacterial features of the prostatitis. Overall, 20 patients of the entire study population (0.67%) had an acute bacterial prostatitis within 2.90 ± 1.77 days (range 1-7 days) after the transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The groups of patients with (n = 20) and without (n = 2980) infection were similar in terms of age, prostate-specific antigen level and prostate volume. Escherichia coli was the only isolated bacteria. The subsequent tests for antibiotic susceptibility showed a 95% resistance for fluroquinolone and amoxicillin. Resistance to amoxiclav, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, third generation cephalosporin and amikacin was 70%, 70%, 25% and 5% respectively. No resistance to imipenem was reported. They were all admitted for treatment without the need of intensive care unit referral. Complete recovery was achieved after 21.4 ± 7 days of antibiotic treatment. A fluroquinolone-based regimen still represents an appropriate prophylaxis protocol to minimize the risk of acute prostatitis secondary to prostate biopsy. Patients should be provided the appropriate care soon after the onset of the symptoms. An intravenous third generation cephalosporin or imipenem-based therapy seem to provide satisfying results. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies and prostatic tissue distribution of fosfomycin tromethamine in bacterial prostatitis or normal rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Shang, X; Zhu, J; Ma, B; Zhang, Q

    2018-05-02

    In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of fosfomycin tromethamine (FT) in a bacterial prostatitis (BP) rat model. The BP model was induced by Escherichia coli and was demonstrated after 7 days microbiologically and histologically. Then, 25 BP rats selected were randomly divided into five treatment groups: model group, positive group, FT-3 day group, FT-7 day group and FT-14 day group. Ventral lobes of prostate from all animals were removed, and the serum samples were collected at the end of the experiments. Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in FT-treatment groups compared with the model group, indicating that FT against prostatic infection induced by E. coli showed good antibacterial effects. Moreover, plasma pharmacokinetics and prostatic distribution of fosfomycin were studied and compared in BP and normal rats. The concentrations of fosfomycin in samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were no differences in plasma pharmacokinetic parameters between two groups. But significantly higher penetration of fosfomycin into prostatic tissues was found in BP rats. We therefore suggested that FT had a good therapeutic effect on BP and it might be used in curing masculine reproductive system diseases. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Discovery of a selective catalytic p300/CBP inhibitor that targets lineage-specific tumours

    SciTech Connect

    Lasko, Loren M.; Jakob, Clarissa G.; Edalji, Rohinton P.

    The dynamic and reversible acetylation of proteins, catalysed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), is a major epigenetic regulatory mechanism of gene transcription1 and is associated with multiple diseases. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently approved to treat certain cancers, but progress on the development of drug-like histone actyltransferase inhibitors has lagged behind2. The histone acetyltransferase paralogues p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) are key transcriptional co-activators that are essential for a multitude of cellular processes, and have also been implicated in human pathological conditions (including cancer3). Current inhibitors of the p300 and CBP histone acetyltransferase domains, including natural products4,more » bi-substrate analogues5 and the widely used small molecule C6466,7, lack potency or selectivity. Here, we describe A-485, a potent, selective and drug-like catalytic inhibitor of p300 and CBP. We present a high resolution (1.95 Å) co-crystal structure of a small molecule bound to the catalytic active site of p300 and demonstrate that A-485 competes with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). A-485 selectively inhibited proliferation in lineage-specific tumour types, including several haematological malignancies and androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer. A-485 inhibited the androgen receptor transcriptional program in both androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and inhibited tumour growth in a castration-resistant xenograft model. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using small molecule inhibitors to selectively target the catalytic activity of histone acetyltransferases, which may provide effective treatments for transcriptional activator-driven malignancies and diseases.« less

  20. Safety and efficacy of levofloxacin 750 mg for 2 weeks or 3 weeks compared with levofloxacin 500 mg for 4 weeks in treating chronic bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Margaret; Peterson, Janet; Fisher, Alan C; Qin, Zhihai; Nicholson, Susan C; Kahn, James B

    2010-06-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of levofloxacin 750 mg QD for 2 weeks or levofloxacin 750 mg QD for 3 weeks to levofloxacin 500 mg QD for 4 weeks in treating chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). This was a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, noninferiority study. The primary efficacy end point was investigator assessment of clinical success in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population at post-therapy. National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) scores were utilized to evaluate subject-reported responses post-therapy. A total of 241 subjects were enrolled. At post-therapy (test of cure [TOC]), clinical success rates for levofloxacin-treated subjects (750 mg QD for 3 weeks [64.9%, 48/74]) were noninferior to 500 mg QD for 4 weeks (69.3%, 52/75: 95% CI, -19.5%, 10.6%). Success rates with levofloxacin 750 mg QD for 2 weeks (63.0%, 46/73) were not noninferior to therapy with levofloxacin 500 mg QD for 4 weeks (95% CI, -21.5%, 8.9%) at TOC. At 3 and 6 months post-therapy, clinical success rates were clinically higher for the 500-mg, 4-week treatment group, and statistical analysis demonstrated both groups were not noninferior to standard therapy with levofloxacin 500 mg (95% CI, -32.5%, -0.6% for both 750-mg groups at 6 months). NIH-CPSI scores showed similar trends. Overall, adverse event (AE) rates were similar for the three treatment groups; however, discontinuation of therapy due to AEs was higher with the 750-mg dose (p = 0.02, and p = 0.13 for 750 mg, 2 weeks and 750 mg, 3 weeks versus 500 mg for 4 weeks, respectively). The main limitation of this study was that no bacterial cultures were required. Higher doses for shorter durations were determined to be no worse than standard therapy with levofloxacin 500 mg for a longer duration at the TOC visit. However, at the 6-month follow-up visit, the levofloxacin 750-mg dose administered for either 2 weeks or 3 weeks was inferior to the standard therapy, suggesting that a longer

  1. Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP): Training and Release of CBP Toolbox Software, Version 1.0 - 13480

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.

    2013-07-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the Office of Tank Waste Management within the Office of Environmental Management of U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that improve understanding and predictions of the long-term hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program are intended to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance upmore » to or longer than 100 years for operating facilities and longer than 1,000 years for waste management purposes. CBP software tools were made available to selected DOE Office of Environmental Management and field site users for training and evaluation based on a set of important degradation scenarios, including sulfate ingress/attack and carbonation of cementitious materials. The tools were presented at two-day training workshops held at U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Savannah River, and Hanford included LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA, STADIUM{sup R}, and a CBP-developed GoldSim Dashboard interface. Collectively, these components form the CBP Software Toolbox. The new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency leaching test methods based on the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) were also presented. The CBP Dashboard uses a custom Dynamic-link library developed by CBP to couple to the LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA and STADIUM{sup R} codes to simulate reactive transport and degradation in cementitious materials for selected performance assessment scenarios. The first day of the workshop introduced participants to the software components via presentation materials, and the second day included hands-on tutorial exercises

  2. Concentrations of Gatifloxacin in Plasma and Urine and Penetration into Prostatic and Seminal Fluid, Ejaculate, and Sperm Cells after Single Oral Administrations of 400 Milligrams to Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Christoph K.; Steghafner, Michaela; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sauber, Christian; Sörgel, Fritz; Stahlberg, Hans-Jürgen; Naber, Kurt G.

    2001-01-01

    Gatifloxacin (GTX), a new fluoroquinolone with extended antibacterial activity, is an interesting candidate for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Besides the antibacterial spectrum, the concentrations in the target tissues and fluids are crucial for the treatment of CBP. Thus, it was of interest to investigate its penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid. GTX concentrations in plasma, urine, ejaculate, prostatic and seminal fluid, and sperm cells were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method after oral intake of a single 400-mg dose in 10 male Caucasian volunteers in the fasting state. Simultaneous application of the renal contrast agent iohexol was used to estimate the maximal possible contamination of ejaculate and prostatic and seminal fluid by urine. GTX was well tolerated. The means (standard deviations) for the following parameters were as indicated: time to maximum concentration of drug in serum, 1.66 (0.91) h; maximum concentration of drug in serum, 2.90 (0.39) μg/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, 25.65 μg · h/ml; and half life, 7.2 (0.90) h. Within 12 h about 50% of the drug was excreted unchanged into the urine. The mean renal clearance was 169 ml/min. The gatifloxacin concentrations in ejaculate, seminal fluid, and prostatic fluid were in the range of the corresponding plasma concentrations which were 1.92 (0.27) μg/ml at approximately the same time point (4 h after drug intake). The concentrations in sperm cells (0.195, 0.076, and 0.011 μg/ml) could be determined in three subjects. The good penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid, the good tolerance, and the previously reported broad antibacterial spectrum suggest that GTX may be a good alternative for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm this assumption. PMID:11120980

  3. CBP70, a glycosylated nuclear lectin.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, C; Felin, M; Doyennette-Moyne, M A; Sève, A P

    1997-09-01

    Some years ago, a lectin designated CBP70 that recognized glucose (Glc) but had a stronger affinity for N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), was first isolated from HL60 cell nuclei. Recently, a cytoplasmic form of this lectin was described, and one 82 kDa nuclear ligand was characterized for the nuclear CBP70. In the present study, the use of Pronase digestion and the trifluoromethanesulphonic acid (TFMS) procedure strongly suggest that the nuclear and the cytoplasmic CBP70 have a same 23 kDa polypeptide backbone and, consequently, could be the same protein. In order to know the protein better and to obtain the best recombinant possible in the future, the post-translational modification of the nuclear and cytoplasmic CBP70 was analyzed in terms of glycosylation. Severals lines of evidence indicate that both forms of CBP70 are N- and O-glycosylated. Surprisingly, this glycosylation pattern differs between the two forms, as revealed by beta-elimination, hydrazinolysis, peptide-N-glycosydase F (PNGase F), and TFMS reactions. The two preparations were analyzed by affinity chromatography on immobilized lectins [Ricinus communis-l agglutinin (RCA-I), Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA), Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)] and by lectin-blotting analysis Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus), succinylated-WGA, and Psathyrella velutina agglutinin (PVA)]. Both forms of CBP70 have the following sugar moities: terminal beta Gal residues, Gal beta 1-3 GalNAc, Man alpha 1-3 Man, sialic acid alpha 2-6 linked to Gal or GalNAc; and sialic acid alpha 2-3 linked to Gal. However, only nuclear CBP70 have terminal GlcNAc and alpha-L-fucose residues. All these data are consistent with the fact that different glycosylation pattern found for each form of CBP70 might act as a complementary signal for cellular targeting.

  4. High Frequency of Chronic Bacterial and Non-Inflammatory Prostatitis in Infertile Patients with Prostatitis Syndrome Plus Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Enzo; La Vignera, Sandro; Arcoria, Domenico; Condorelli, Rosita; Vicari, Lucia O.; Castiglione, Roberto; Mangiameli, Andrea; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although prostatitis syndrome (PS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common disorders, information on the prevalence of IBS in infertile patients with PS is relatively scanty. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of PS and IBS and to evaluate the prevalence of the various diagnostic categories of prostatitis. Methodology/Principal Findings This study enrolled 152 patients with PS, diagnosed by the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) in an andrological setting, and 204 patients with IBS, diagnosed according to the Rome III diagnostic criteria in a gastroenterological setting. The patients with PS were asked to fulfill the Rome III questionnaire for IBS, whereas patients with IBS were asked to complete the NIH-CPSI. The simultaneous presence of PS and IBS was observed in 30.2% and 31.8% of the patients screened by andrologists and gastroenterologists, respectively. Altogether, 111 patients had PS plus IBS (31.2%). They had a total NIH-CPSI and pain subscale scores significantly higher than patients with PS alone. Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PS plus IBS were similar to those reported by patients with IBS alone and significantly greater in patients with PS alone. Patients with PS plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II) and lower of non-inflammatory prostatitis (category IIIB), compared to patients with PS alone. The frequency of inflammatory prostatitis (category IIIA) resulted similar. Conclusions/Significance Prostatitis syndromes and IBS are frequently associated in patients with PS- or IBS-related symptoms. These patients have an increased prevalence of chronic bacterial and non-inflammatory prostatitis. PMID:21494624

  5. Characterisation of the bacterial community in expressed prostatic secretions from patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and infertile men: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dong-Sheng; Long, Wen-Min; Shen, Jian; Zhao, Li-Ping; Pang, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    The expressed prostatic secretions (EPSs) of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), infertile men and normal men were subjected to microbiological study. EPSs were collected from the subjects, which included 26 normal men, 11 infertile patients and 51 CP/CPPS patients. DNA was extracted from each specimen, and the V3 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal bacterial primers. The results showed that the EPS 16S rRNA gene-positive rate in the CP/CPPS and infertile patients was much higher than in the normal men, but without any difference among the three patient groups. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to characterize the EPS bacterial community structure of the prostate fluid from patients with CP/CPPS or infertility issues. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) analyses of PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the EPS bacterial community structure differed among the three groups. Three bands were identified as the key factors responsible for the discrepancy between CP/CPPS patients and infertile patients (P<0.05). Two bands were identified as priority factors in the discrepancy of category IIIA and category IIIB prostatitis patients (P<0.05). According to this research, the ecological balance of the prostate and low urethra tract, when considered as a microenvironment, might play an important role in the maintenance of a healthy male reproductive tract. PMID:22635162

  6. Chronic bacterial seminal vesiculitis as a potential disease entity in men with chronic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hwan; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Choo, Gwoan-Youb; Chung, Yeun-Goo; Seong, Do-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ho; Choe, Won-Sik; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Hyun, In Young; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate bacterial infection in the seminal vesicles by bacteriological examination and radionuclide imaging in men with chronic prostatitis. The study included 50 patients with chronic prostatitis who showed hot uptake in seminal vesicles on Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging and eight patients who did not show hot uptake. The evaluation included the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and four-glass test. In all participants, transperineal aspiration of seminal vesicle fluid under the guidance of transrectal ultrasonography and bacteriological examination was carried out. Of the 50 patients who showed hot uptake in the seminal vesicles on the isotope study, microorganisms were isolated from the seminal vesicle fluid in 17 patients (positive predictive value, 34%). The most common causative organisms were Escherichia coli in 13 patients (26%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in two patients (4%), Enterococcus faecalis in one patient (2%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in one patient (2%). No microorganisms were isolated in the eight patients who did not show hot uptake in the seminal vesicles (negative predictive value, 100%). However, there were no significant differences in National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index total scores and subscores between the study groups. Chronic bacterial seminal vesiculitis might simultaneously affect a considerable portion of patients with chronic prostatitis, although the clinical implication of the disease remains to be further investigated. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Insight into the tumor suppressor function of CBP through the viral oncoprotein tax.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, K; Nyborg, J K

    2000-01-01

    CREB binding protein (CBP) is a cellular coactivator protein that regulates essentially all known pathways of gene expression. The transcriptional coactivator properties of CBP are utilized by at least 25 different transcription factors representing nearly all known classes of DNA binding proteins. Once bound to their target genes, these transcription factors are believed to tether CBP to the promoter, leading to activated transcription. CBP functions to stimulate transcription through direct recruitment of the general transcription machinery as well as acetylation of both histone and transcription factor substrates. Recent observations indicate that a critical dosage of CBP is required for normal development and tumor suppression, and that perturbations in CBP concentrations may disrupt cellular homeostasis. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that CBP deregulation plays a direct role in hematopoietic malignancies. However, the molecular events linking CBP deregulation and malignant transformation are unclear. Further insight into the function of CBP, and its role as a tumor suppressor, can be gained through recent studies of the human T-cell leukemia virus, type I (HTLV-I) Tax oncoprotein. Tax is known to utilize CBP to stimulate transcription from the viral promoter. However, recent data suggest that as a consequence of the Tax-CBP interaction, many cellular transcription factor pathways may be deregulated. Tax disruption of CBP function may play a key role in transformation of the HTLV-I-infected cell. Thus, Tax derailment of CBP may lend important information about the tumor suppressor properties of CBP and serve as a model for the role of CBP in hematopoietic malignancies.

  8. CBP TOOLBOX VERSION 2.0: CODE INTEGRATION ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Flach, G.; BROWN, K.

    2013-06-01

    This report describes enhancements made to code integration aspects of the Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) Toolbox as a result of development work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in collaboration with Vanderbilt University (VU) in the first half of fiscal year 2013. Code integration refers to the interfacing to standalone CBP partner codes, used to analyze the performance of cementitious materials, with the CBP Software Toolbox. The most significant enhancements are: 1) Improved graphical display of model results. 2) Improved error analysis and reporting. 3) Increase in the default maximum model mesh size from 301 to 501 nodes.more » 4) The ability to set the LeachXS/Orchestra simulation times through the GoldSim interface. These code interface enhancements have been included in a new release (Version 2.0) of the CBP Toolbox.« less

  9. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of spontaneous acute prostatitis and transrectal prostate biopsy-related acute prostatitis: Is transrectal prostate biopsy-related acute prostatitis a distinct acute prostatitis category?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kang, Seok Ho; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical and microbiological characteristics between acute bacterial prostatitis and transrectal biopsy-related acute prostatitis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 135 patients hospitalized for acute prostatitis in three urological centers between 2004 and 2013. Acute bacterial prostatitis was diagnosed according to typical symptoms, findings of physical examination, and laboratory test results. Clinical variables, laboratory test results, and anti-microbial susceptibility results were reviewed. Patients were classified into the spontaneous acute prostatitis group (S-ABP) or biopsy-related acute prostatitis (Bx-ABP) for comparison of their clinical, laboratory, and microbiological findings. The mean age of all patients was 61.7 ± 12.9 years. Compared with S-ABP patients, Bx-ABP patients were significantly older, had larger prostate volumes, higher PSA values, higher peak fever temperatures, and higher incidence of septicemia and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Overall, of the 135 patients, 57.8% had positive bacterial urine and/or blood cultures. Bx-ABP patients had a higher incidence of bacterial (urine and/or blood) positive cultures compared to S-ABP patients (66.7% versus 55.6%). Escherichia coli was the predominant organism in both groups, but it was more common in Bx-ABP (88.9%) than in S-ABP (66.7%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase -producing bacteria accounted for 64.7% of culture-positive patients in the Bx-ABP group compared to 13.3% in the S-ABP group. Bx-ABP patients showed a higher incidence of septicemia and antibiotic-resistant bacteria than S-ABP patients. These results have important implications for the management and antimicrobial treatment of Bx-ABP, which may well deserve to be considered a distinct prostatitis category. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the cellulosomal scaffolding protein CbpC from Clostridium cellulovorans 743B.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Daichi; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Reiji; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Miyake, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    Clostridium cellulovorans 743B, an anaerobic and mesophilic bacterium, produces an extracellular enzyme complex called the cellulosome on the cell surface. Recently, we have reported the whole genome sequence of C. cellulovorans, which revealed that a total of 4 cellulosomal scaffolding proteins: CbpA, HbpA, CbpB, and CbpC were encoded in the C. cellulovorans genome. In particular, cbpC encoded a 429-residue polypeptide that includes a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), an S-layer homology module, and a cohesin. CbpC was also detected in the culture supernatant of C. cellulovorans. Genomic DNA coding for CbpC was subcloned into a pET-22b+ vector in order to express and produce the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Measurement of CbpC adsorption to crystalline cellulose indicated a dissociation constant of 0.60 μM, which is a similar to that of CBM from CbpA. We also subcloned the region encoding xylanase B (XynB) with the dockerin from C. cellulovorans and analyzed the interaction between XynB and CbpC by GST pull-down assay. It was observed that GST-CbpC assembles with XynB to form a minimal cellulosome. The activity of XynB against rice straw tended to be increased in the presence of CbpC. These results showed a synergistic effect on rice straw as a representative cellulosic biomass through the formation of a minimal cellulosome containing XynB bound to CbpC. Thus, our findings provide a foundation for the development of cellulosic biomass saccharification using a minimal cellulosome. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 163 - Agency Information Collection Activities: CBP Regulations Pertaining to Customs Brokers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... broker exam would complete CBP Form 3124E, ``Application for Customs Broker License Exam''; or to apply... U.S.C. 1641. CBP Forms 3124 and 3124E may be found at http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/toolbox/forms/ . Further information about the customs broker exam and how to apply for it may be found at http://www.cbp...

  12. 75 FR 24392 - Further Consolidation of CBP Drawback Centers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    .... Comment: A commenter expressed concern about the proper staffing levels at the San Francisco Drawback... workload. CBP will continually monitor drawback specialist staffing levels so that each of the CBP Drawback... solicited public input, and did not receive any comments challenging that finding. We certify, therefore...

  13. Careful assessment key in managing prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Gujadhur, Rahul; Aning, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Prostatitis is a common condition estimated to affect up to 30% of men in their lifetime, it is most prevalent in men aged between 35 and 50. Prostatitis is subclassified into: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Acute bacterial prostatitis presents with acute onset pelvic pain which may or may not be related to voiding, lower urinary tract symptoms, sometimes haematuria or haematospermia and systemic symptoms such as fever and rigors. A documented history of recurrent urinary tract infections is the key feature of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Duration of symptoms > 3 months defines chronicity. The key symptom of chronic pelvic pain syndrome is pain. Patients may describe pain during or after ejaculation as their predominant symptom. Clinical assessment includes a thorough history and examination. A digital rectal examination should be performed after a midstream urine (MSU) sample has been collected for urine dipstick, microscopy and culture. The prostate should be checked for nodules. In acute bacterial prostatitis the MSU is the only laboratory investigation required. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome may be multifactorial and part of a more generalised pain disorder. Pelvic floor muscle abnormalities, altered neuroendocrine pathways, chemically induced inflammation, bacterial infection, autoimmune processes, dysfunctional voiding as well intraprostatic ductal reflux mechanisms have all been identified in men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

  14. The excitation mechanism of btp2 Ir(acac) in CBP host.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Bo, Zhang; Fu-Xiang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Whether bis(2-(2'-benzo[4,5-α]thienyl)pyridinato-N,C3')iridium(acetylacetonate) (btp 2 Ir(acac)) emission comes from carrier trapping and/or energy transfer, when doped in the 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP) host in organic light-emitting devices, is not clear; therefore, the btp 2 Ir(acac) emission in CBP hosts was studied. In the red-doped device, both N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1.1'-bipheny1-4-4'-diamine (NPB) and (1,1'-biphenyl-4'-oxy)bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinolinato)-aluminum (BAlq) emission appeared, which illustrated that CBP excitons cannot be formed at two emissive layer (EML) interfaces in the device. In the co-doped devices, NPB and BAlq emissions disappear and 1,4-bis[2-(3-N-ethylcarbazoryl)vinyl]benzene (BCzVB) emission appears, illustrating the formation of CBP excitons at two EML interfaces in these devices. The reason for this difference was analyzed and it was found that holes in the NPB layer could be made directly into the CBP host in the EML interface of the red-doped device. In contrast, holes were injected into CBP host via the btp 2 Ir(acac)/BCzVB dopants in the co-doped devices, which facilitated hole injection from the NPB layer to the EML, leading to the formation of CBP excitons at two EML interfaces in the co-doped devices. Therefore, btp 2 Ir(acac) emission was caused by carrier trapping in the red-doped device, while, in the co-doped devices, it resulted from both carrier trapping and energy transfer from the CBP. Furthermore, it was revealed that the carrier trapping mechanism is less efficient than the energy transfer mechanism for btp 2 Ir(acac) excitation in co-doped devices. In summary, our results clarified the excitation mechanism of btp 2 Ir(acac) in the CBP host. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. CBP501 suppresses macrophage induced cancer stem cell like features and metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Naoki; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Saito, Naoya; Sato, Takuji; Sakakibara, Keiichi; Kufe, Donald W.; VonHoff, Daniel D.; Kawabe, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    CBP501 is an anti-cancer drug candidate which has been shown to increase cis-diamminedichloro-platinum (II) (CDDP) uptake into cancer cell through calmodulin (CaM) inhibition. However, the effects of CBP501 on the cells in the tumor microenvironment have not been addressed. Here, we investigated new aspects of the potential anti-tumor mechanism of action of CBP501 by examining its effects on the macrophages. Macrophages contribute to cancer-related inflammation and sequential production of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α which cause various biological processes that promote tumor initiation, growth and metastasis (1). These processes include the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) formation, which are well-known, key events for metastasis. The present work demonstrates that CBP501 suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α by macrophages. CBP501 also suppressed formation of the tumor spheroids by culturing with conditioned medium from the LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Moreover, CBP501 suppressed expression of ABCG2, a marker for CSCs, by inhibiting the interaction between cancer cells expressing VCAM-1 and macrophages expressing VLA-4. Consistently with these results, CBP501 in vivo suppressed metastases of a tumor cell line, 4T1, one which is insensitive to combination treatment of CBP501 and CDDP in vitro. Taken together, these results offer potential new, unanticipated advantages of CBP501 treatment in anti-tumor therapy through a mechanism that entails the suppression of interactions between macrophages and cancer cells with suppression of sequential CSC-like cell formation in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:28969049

  16. Solution properties of the archaeal CRISPR DNA repeat-binding homeodomain protein Cbp2

    PubMed Central

    Kenchappa, Chandra S.; Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Garrett, Roger A.; Poulsen, Flemming M.

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) form the basis of diverse adaptive immune systems directed primarily against invading genetic elements of archaea and bacteria. Cbp1 of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophilic order Sulfolobales, carrying three imperfect repeats, binds specifically to CRISPR DNA repeats and has been implicated in facilitating production of long transcripts from CRISPR loci. Here, a second related class of CRISPR DNA repeat-binding protein, denoted Cbp2, is characterized that contains two imperfect repeats and is found amongst members of the crenarchaeal thermoneutrophilic order Desulfurococcales. DNA repeat-binding properties of the Hyperthermus butylicus protein Cbp2Hb were characterized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The two repeats generate helix-turn-helix structures separated by a basic linker that is implicated in facilitating high affinity DNA binding of Cbp2 by tethering the two domains. Structural studies on mutant proteins provide support for Cys7 and Cys28 enhancing high thermal stability of Cbp2Hb through disulphide bridge formation. Consistent with their proposed CRISPR transcriptional regulatory role, Cbp2Hb and, by inference, other Cbp1 and Cbp2 proteins are closely related in structure to homeodomain proteins with linked helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains, in particular the paired domain Pax and Myb family proteins that are involved in eukaryal transcriptional regulation. PMID:23325851

  17. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material propertiesmore » via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL

  18. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  19. 19 CFR 24.3a - CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency....3a CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 17332, Mar. 26, 2012. (a) Due date of CBP bills. CBP bills for supplemental duties, taxes...

  20. 19 CFR 24.3a - CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 6621, 6622). The current rate of interest will appear on the CBP bill and may be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency....3a CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety. (a) Due date of CBP...

  1. 19 CFR 133.15 - Term of CBP trade name recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Term of CBP trade name recordation. 133.15 Section... OF THE TREASURY TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES, AND COPYRIGHTS Recordation of Trade Names § 133.15 Term of CBP trade name recordation. Protection for a recorded trade name shall remain in force as long as the...

  2. Roles of Raft-Anchored Adaptor Cbp/PAG1 in Spatial Regulation of c-Src Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Oneyama, Chitose; Suzuki, Takashi; Okada, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase c-Src is upregulated in numerous human cancers, implying a role for c-Src in cancer progression. Previously, we have shown that sequestration of activated c-Src into lipid rafts via a transmembrane adaptor, Cbp/PAG1, efficiently suppresses c-Src-induced cell transformation in Csk-deficient cells, suggesting that the transforming activity of c-Src is spatially regulated via Cbp in lipid rafts. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of the Cbp-mediated regulation of c-Src, a combined analysis was performed that included mathematical modeling and in vitro experiments in a c-Src- or Cbp-inducible system. c-Src activity was first determined as a function of c-Src or Cbp levels, using focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as a crucial c-Src substrate. Based on these experimental data, two mathematical models were constructed, the sequestration model and the ternary model. The computational analysis showed that both models supported our proposal that raft localization of Cbp is crucial for the suppression of c-Src function, but the ternary model, which includes a ternary complex consisting of Cbp, c-Src, and FAK, also predicted that c-Src function is dependent on the lipid-raft volume. Experimental analysis revealed that c-Src activity is elevated when lipid rafts are disrupted and the ternary complex forms in non-raft membranes, indicating that the ternary model accurately represents the system. Moreover, the ternary model predicted that, if Cbp enhances the interaction between c-Src and FAK, Cbp could promote c-Src function when lipid rafts are disrupted. These findings underscore the crucial role of lipid rafts in the Cbp-mediated negative regulation of c-Src-transforming activity, and explain the positive role of Cbp in c-Src regulation under particular conditions where lipid rafts are perturbed. PMID:24675741

  3. 19 CFR 133.15 - Term of CBP trade name recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Term of CBP trade name recordation. 133.15 Section 133.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES, AND COPYRIGHTS Recordation of Trade Names § 133.15 Term of CBP trade name recordation. Protection for a...

  4. Generation of a Selective Small Molecule Inhibitor of the CBP/p300 Bromodomain for Leukemia Therapy.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Sarah; Fedorov, Oleg; Thanasopoulou, Angeliki; Leonards, Katharina; Jones, Katherine; Meier, Julia; Olzscha, Heidi; Monteiro, Octovia; Martin, Sarah; Philpott, Martin; Tumber, Anthony; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Yapp, Clarence; Wells, Christopher; Che, Ka Hing; Bannister, Andrew; Robson, Samuel; Kumar, Umesh; Parr, Nigel; Lee, Kevin; Lugo, Dave; Jeffrey, Philip; Taylor, Simon; Vecellio, Matteo L; Bountra, Chas; Brennan, Paul E; O'Mahony, Alison; Velichko, Sharlene; Müller, Susanne; Hay, Duncan; Daniels, Danette L; Urh, Marjeta; La Thangue, Nicholas B; Kouzarides, Tony; Prinjha, Rab; Schwaller, Jürg; Knapp, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    The histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 are involved in recurrent leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations and are key regulators of cell growth. Therefore, efforts to generate inhibitors of CBP/p300 are of clinical value. We developed a specific and potent acetyl-lysine competitive protein-protein interaction inhibitor, I-CBP112, that targets the CBP/p300 bromodomains. Exposure of human and mouse leukemic cell lines to I-CBP112 resulted in substantially impaired colony formation and induced cellular differentiation without significant cytotoxicity. I-CBP112 significantly reduced the leukemia-initiating potential of MLL-AF9(+) acute myeloid leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, I-CBP112 increased the cytotoxic activity of BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 as well as doxorubicin. Collectively, we report the development and preclinical evaluation of a novel, potent inhibitor targeting CBP/p300 bromodomains that impairs aberrant self-renewal of leukemic cells. The synergistic effects of I-CBP112 and current standard therapy (doxorubicin) as well as emerging treatment strategies (BET inhibition) provide new opportunities for combinatorial treatment of leukemia and potentially other cancers. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Generation of a selective small molecule inhibitor of the CBP/p300 bromodomain for leukemia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine; Meier, Julia; Olzscha, Heidi; Monteiro, Octovia; Martin, Sarah; Philpott, Martin; Tumber, Anthony; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Yapp, Clarence; Wells, Christopher; Che, Ka Hing; Bannister, Andrew; Robson, Samuel; Kumar, Umesh; Parr, Nigel; Lee, Kevin; Lugo, Dave; Jeffrey, Philip; Taylor, Simon; Vecellio, Matteo L.; Bountra, Chas; Brennan, Paul E.; O’Mahony, Alison; Velichko, Sharlene; Müller, Susanne; Hay, Duncan; Daniels, Danette L.; Urh, Marjeta; La Thangue, Nicholas B.; Kouzarides, Tony; Prinjha, Rab; Schwaller, Jürg; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 are involved in recurrent leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations and are key regulators of cell growth. Therefore, efforts to generate inhibitors of CBP/p300 are of clinical value. We developed a specific and potent acetyl-lysine competitive protein-protein interaction inhibitor, I-CBP112, that targets the CBP/p300 bromodomains. Exposure of human and mouse leukemic cell lines to I-CBP112 resulted in substantially impaired colony formation and induced cellular differentiation without significant cytotoxicity. I-CBP112 significantly reduced the leukemia-initiating potential of MLL-AF9+ AML cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, I-CBP112 increased the cytotoxic activity of BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 as well as doxorubicin. Collectively we report the development and preclinical evaluation of a novel, potent inhibitor targeting CBP/p300 bromodomains that impairs aberrant self-renewal of leukemic cells. The synergistic effects of I-CBP112 and current standard therapy (doxorubicin) as well as emerging treatment strategies (BET inhibition) provide new opportunities for combinatorial treatment of leukemia and potentially other cancers. PMID:26552700

  6. The coactivator CBP stimulates human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I Tax transactivation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kashanchi, F; Duvall, J F; Kwok, R P; Lundblad, J R; Goodman, R H; Brady, J N

    1998-12-18

    Tax interacts with the cellular cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and facilitates the binding of the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP), forming a multimeric complex on the cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-like sites in the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I) promoter. The trimeric complex is believed to recruit additional regulatory proteins to the HTLV-I long terminal repeat, but there has been no direct evidence that CBP is required for Tax-mediated transactivation. We present evidence that Tax and CBP activate transcription from the HTLV-I 21 base pair repeats on naked DNA templates. Transcriptional activation of the HTLV-I sequences required both Tax and CBP and could be mediated by either the N-terminal activation domain of CBP or the full-length protein. Fluorescence polarization binding assays indicated that CBP does not markedly enhance the affinity of Tax for the trimeric complex. Transcription analyses suggest that CBP activates Tax-dependent transcription by promoting transcriptional initiation and reinitiation. The ability of CBP to activate the HTLV-I promoter does not involve the stabilization of Tax binding, but rather depends upon gene activation properties of the co-activator that function in the context of a naked DNA template.

  7. 75 FR 76021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). This form is filled out upon arrival of any person by water..., and 251.4. A copy of CBP Form I- 418 can be found at http://forms.cbp.gov/pdf/CBP_Form_I418.pdf...

  8. Cbp80 is needed for the expression of piRNA components and piRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Martino; Hernandez, Greco; Beuchle, Dirk; Berger, Fabienne; Peischl, Stephan; Bruggmann, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Cap binding protein 80 (Cbp80) is the larger subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex (nCBC), which is known to play important roles in nuclear mRNA processing, export, stability and quality control events. Reducing Cbp80 mRNA levels in the female germline revealed that Cbp80 is also involved in defending the germline against transposable elements. Combining such knockdown experiments with large scale sequencing of small RNAs further showed that Cbp80 is involved in the initial biogenesis of piRNAs as well as in the secondary biogenesis pathway, the ping-pong amplification cycle. We further found that Cbp80 knockdown not only led to the upregulation of transposons, but also to delocalization of Piwi, Aub and Ago3, key factors in the piRNA biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, compared to controls, levels of Piwi and Aub were also reduced upon knock down of Cbp80. On the other hand, with the same treatment we could not detect significant changes in levels or subcellular distribution (nuage localization) of piRNA precursor transcripts. This shows that Cbp80 plays an important role in the production and localization of the protein components of the piRNA pathway and it seems to be less important for the production and export of the piRNA precursor transcripts. PMID:28746365

  9. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... prescribed by the Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection (CBP), for use by masters...

  10. Comprehensive overview of prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan Ullah; Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Jana, Ruby; Wazir, Junaid; Khongorzul, Puregmaa; Waqar, Muhammad; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Prostatitis is a common urinary tract syndrome that many doctors find problematic to treat effectively. It is the third most commonly found urinary tract disease in men after prostate cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatitis may account for 25% of all office visits made to the urological clinics complaining about the genital and urinary systems all over the world. In the present study, we classified prostatitis and comprehensively elaborated the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (category I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II), chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (category III), and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV). In addition, we also tried to get some insights about other types of prostatitis-like fungal, viral and gonococcal prostatitis. The aim of this review is to present the detail current perspective of prostatitis in a single review. To the best of our knowledge currently, there is not a single comprehensive review, which can completely elaborate this important topic in an effective way. Furthermore, this review will provide a solid platform to conduct future studies on different aspects such as risk factors, mechanism of pathogenesis, proper diagnosis, and rational treatment plans for fungal, viral, and gonococcal prostatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. 19 CFR 24.3a - CBP bills; interest assessment on bills; delinquency; notice to principal and surety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false CBP bills; interest assessment on bills... PROCEDURE § 24.3a CBP bills; interest assessment on bills; delinquency; notice to principal and surety. (a) Due date of CBP bills. CBP bills for supplemental duties, taxes and fees(increased or additional...

  12. 19 CFR 24.3a - CBP bills; interest assessment on bills; delinquency; notice to principal and surety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false CBP bills; interest assessment on bills... PROCEDURE § 24.3a CBP bills; interest assessment on bills; delinquency; notice to principal and surety. (a) Due date of CBP bills. CBP bills for supplemental duties, taxes and fees(increased or additional...

  13. The Transcriptional Regulator CBP Has Defined Spatial Associations within Interphase Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Kirk J; Stephens, David A; Adams, Niall M; Islam, Suhail A; Freemont, Paul S; Hendzel, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that nuclear macromolecules and macromolecular complexes are compartmentalized through binding interactions into an apparent three-dimensionally ordered structure. This ordering, however, does not appear to be deterministic to the extent that chromatin and nonchromatin structures maintain a strict 3-D arrangement. Rather, spatial ordering within the cell nucleus appears to conform to stochastic rather than deterministic spatial relationships. The stochastic nature of organization becomes particularly problematic when any attempt is made to describe the spatial relationship between proteins involved in the regulation of the genome. The CREB–binding protein (CBP) is one such transcriptional regulator that, when visualised by confocal microscopy, reveals a highly punctate staining pattern comprising several hundred individual foci distributed within the nuclear volume. Markers for euchromatic sequences have similar patterns. Surprisingly, in most cases, the predicted one-to-one relationship between transcription factor and chromatin sequence is not observed. Consequently, to understand whether spatial relationships that are not coincident are nonrandom and potentially biologically important, it is necessary to develop statistical approaches. In this study, we report on the development of such an approach and apply it to understanding the role of CBP in mediating chromatin modification and transcriptional regulation. We have used nearest-neighbor distance measurements and probability analyses to study the spatial relationship between CBP and other nuclear subcompartments enriched in transcription factors, chromatin, and splicing factors. Our results demonstrate that CBP has an order of spatial association with other nuclear subcompartments. We observe closer associations between CBP and RNA polymerase II–enriched foci and SC35 speckles than nascent RNA or specific acetylated histones. Furthermore, we find that CBP has a

  14. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... 235.1(e) and Section 235 of Immigration and Nationality Act. CBP Form I-68 is accessible at http://forms.cbp.gov/pdf/CBP_Form_I68.pdf Current Actions: This submission is being made to extend the...

  15. Effects of Estrogen Receptor β Stimulation in a Rat Model of Non-Bacterial Prostatic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Shinsuke; Mori, Kenichi; Wang, Zhou; Liu, Teresa; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Sato, Fuminori; DeFranco, Donald B.; Yoshimura, Naoki; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence showing that chronic non-bacterial prostatic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). It has also been reported that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) could have an immunoprotective role in prostatic tissue. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ERβ-activation on not only prostatic inflammation, but also bladder overactive conditions in a rat model with nonbacterial prostatic inflammation. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks, n = 15) were divided into three groups: sham-saline group (n = 5), formalin-vehicle group (n = 5), and formalin-treatment group (n = 5). The sham-saline group had sham operation and 50 μl normal saline injected into each ventral lobe of the prostate. The formalin-vehicle group had 50 μl 5% formalin injection into bilateral ventral lobes of the prostate. The formalin-treatment group was treated with 3α-Adiol (a selective ERβ agonist precursor) at a dose of 3 mg/kg daily from 2 days before induction of prostatic inflammation, whereas formalin-vehicle rats received vehicle (olive oil). In each group, conscious cystometry was performed on day 28 after intraprostatic formalin injection or sham treatment. After cystometry, the bladder and prostate were harvested for evaluation of mRNA expression and histological analysis. RESULTS In cystometric investigation, the mean number of non-voiding contractions was significantly greater and voiding intervals were significantly shorter in formalin-vehicle rats than those in sham-saline rats (P < 0.05). In RT-qPCR analysis, mRNA expression of NGF, P2X2, and TRPA1 receptors was significantly increased in the bladder mucosa, and mRNA expression of TNF-α, iNOS and COX2 in the ventral lobes of prostate was significantly increased in formalin-vehicle rats compared with sham-saline rats (P < 0.05). In addition, relative mRNA expression ratio of ERβ to ERα (ERβ/ERα) in the

  16. 19 CFR 24.3a - CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety. 24.3a Section 24.3a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION....3a CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety. (a) Due date of CBP...

  17. CBP Toolbox Version 3.0 “Beta Testing” Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, III, F. G.

    2016-07-29

    One function of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to assess available models of cement degradation and to assemble suitable models into a “Toolbox” that would be made available to members of the partnership, as well as the DOE Complex. To this end, SRNL and Vanderbilt University collaborated to develop an interface using the GoldSim software to the STADIUM @ code developed by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. and LeachXS/ORCHESTRA developed by Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). Release of Version 3.0 of the CBP Toolbox is planned in the near future. As a part of this release, an increased levelmore » of quality assurance for the partner codes and the GoldSim interface has been developed. This report documents results from evaluation testing of the ability of CBP Toolbox 3.0 to perform simulations of concrete degradation applicable to performance assessment of waste disposal facilities. Simulations of the behavior of Savannah River Saltstone Vault 2 and Vault 1/4 concrete subject to sulfate attack and carbonation over a 500- to 1000-year time period were run using a new and upgraded version of the STADIUM @ code and the version of LeachXS/ORCHESTRA released in Version 2.0 of the CBP Toolbox. Running both codes allowed comparison of results from two models which take very different approaches to simulating cement degradation. In addition, simulations of chloride attack on the two concretes were made using the STADIUM @ code. The evaluation sought to demonstrate that: 1) the codes are capable of running extended realistic simulations in a reasonable amount of time; 2) the codes produce “reasonable” results; the code developers have provided validation test results as part of their code QA documentation; and 3) the two codes produce results that are consistent with one another. Results of the evaluation testing showed that the three criteria listed above were met by the CBP partner codes. Therefore, it is concluded that the codes can be used

  18. Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP): Using the CBP Software Toolbox to Simulate Sulfate Attack and Carbonation of Concrete Structures - 13481

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.

    2013-07-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Tank Waste Management. The CBP project has developed a set of integrated modeling tools and leaching test methods to help improve understanding and prediction of the long-term hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious materials used in nuclear applications. State-of-the-art modeling tools, including LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA and STADIUM{sup R}, were selected for their demonstrated abilities to simulate reactive transport and degradation in cementitious materials. The new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency leaching test methods based on the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF), nowmore » adopted as part of the SW-846 RCRA methods, have been used to help make the link between modeling and experiment. Although each of the CBP tools has demonstrated utility as a standalone product, coupling the models over relevant spatial and temporal solution domains can provide more accurate predictions of cementitious materials behavior over relevant periods of performance. The LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA and STADIUM{sup R} models were first linked to the GoldSim Monte Carlo simulator to better and more easily characterize model uncertainties and as a means to coupling the models allowing linking to broader performance assessment evaluations that use CBP results for a source term. Two important degradation scenarios were selected for initial demonstration: sulfate ingress / attack and carbonation of cementitious materials. When sufficient sulfate is present in the pore solution external to a concrete barrier, sulfate can diffuse into the concrete, react with the concrete solid phases, and cause cracking that significantly changes the transport and structural properties of the concrete. The penetration of gaseous carbon dioxide within partially saturated concrete usually initiates a series of

  19. A new MIF4G domain-containing protein, CTIF, directs nuclear cap-binding protein CBP80/20-dependent translation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choi, Kobong; Kim, Jaedong; Kim, Bong-Woo; Ko, Young-Gyu; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2009-01-01

    During or right after mRNA export via the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in mammalian cells, mRNAs undergo translation mediated by nuclear cap-binding proteins 80 and 20 (CBP80/20). After CBP80/20-dependent translation, CBP80/20 is replaced by cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E, which directs steady-state translation. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), one of the best-characterized mRNA surveillance mechanisms, has been shown to occur on CBP80/20-bound mRNAs. However, despite the tight link between CBP80/20-dependent translation and NMD, the underlying molecular mechanism and cellular factors that mediate CBP80/20-dependent translation remain obscure. Here, we identify a new MIF4G domain-containing protein, CTIF (CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor). CTIF interacts directly with CBP80 and is part of the CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation complex. Depletion of endogenous CTIF from an in vitro translation system selectively blocks the translation of CBP80-bound mRNAs, while addition of purified CTIF restores it. Accordingly, down-regulation of endogenous CTIF abrogates NMD. Confocal microscopy shows that CTIF is localized to the perinuclear region. Our observations demonstrate the existence of CBP80/20-dependent translation and support the idea that CBP80/20-dependent translation is mechanistically different from steady-state translation through identification of a specific cellular protein, CTIF. PMID:19648179

  20. Autoimmune regulator is acetylated by transcription coactivator CBP/p300

    SciTech Connect

    Saare, Mario, E-mail: mario.saare@ut.ee; Rebane, Ana; SIAF, Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, University of Zuerich, Davos

    2012-08-15

    The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is a regulator of transcription in the thymic medulla, where it controls the expression of a large set of peripheral-tissue specific genes. AIRE interacts with the transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase CBP and synergistically cooperates with it in transcriptional activation. Here, we aimed to study a possible role of AIRE acetylation in the modulation of its activity. We found that AIRE is acetylated in tissue culture cells and this acetylation is enhanced by overexpression of CBP and the CBP paralog p300. The acetylated lysines were located within nuclear localization signal and SAND domain. AIRE with mutations thatmore » mimicked acetylated K243 and K253 in the SAND domain had reduced transactivation activity and accumulated into fewer and larger nuclear bodies, whereas mutations that mimicked the unacetylated lysines were functionally similar to wild-type AIRE. Analogously to CBP, p300 localized to AIRE-containing nuclear bodies, however, the overexpression of p300 did not enhance the transcriptional activation of AIRE-regulated genes. Further studies showed that overexpression of p300 stabilized the AIRE protein. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that AIRE, with mutations mimicking K243/K253 acetylation in SAND, was able to activate gene expression, although the affected genes were different and the activation level was lower from those regulated by wild-type AIRE. Our results suggest that the AIRE acetylation can influence the selection of AIRE activated genes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE is acetylated by the acetyltransferases p300 and CBP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation occurs between CARD and SAND domains and within the SAND domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases the size of AIRE nuclear dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases AIRE protein stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE acetylation mimic regulates a different set of

  1. Mo-CBP3, an Antifungal Chitin-Binding Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds, Is a Member of the 2S Albumin Family

    PubMed Central

    Freire, José E. C.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.; Moreno, Frederico B. M. B.; Batista, Adelina B.; Lobo, Marina D. P.; Pereira, Mirella L.; Lima, João P. M. S.; Almeida, Ricardo V. M.; Sousa, Antônio J. S.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C. O.; Oliveira, José T. A.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.

    2015-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4) were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3) and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4) with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin. PMID:25789746

  2. A Module for Graphical Display of Model Results with the CBP Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2015-04-21

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to add enhanced graphical capabilities to display model results in the Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) Toolbox. Because Version 2.0 of the CBP Toolbox has just been released, the graphing enhancements described in this report have not yet been integrated into a new version of the Toolbox. Instead they have been tested using a standalone GoldSim model and, while they are substantially complete, may undergo further refinement before full implementation. Nevertheless, this report is issued to document the FY14 development efforts which will provide amore » basis for further development of the CBP Toolbox.« less

  3. Brain size regulations by cbp haploinsufficiency evaluated by in-vivo MRI based volumetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ateca-Cabarga, Juan C.; Cosa, Alejandro; Pallarés, Vicente; López-Atalaya, José P.; Barco, Ángel; Canals, Santiago; Moratal, David

    2015-11-01

    The Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RSTS) is a congenital disease that affects brain development causing severe cognitive deficits. In most cases the disease is associated with dominant mutations in the gene encoding the CREB binding protein (CBP). In this work, we present the first quantitative analysis of brain abnormalities in a mouse model of RSTS using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two novel self-developed automated algorithms for image volumetric analysis. Our results quantitatively confirm key syndromic features observed in RSTS patients, such as reductions in brain size (-16.31%, p < 0.05), white matter volume (-16.00%, p < 0.05), and corpus callosum (-12.40%, p < 0.05). Furthermore, they provide new insight into the developmental origin of the disease. By comparing brain tissues in a region by region basis between cbp+/- and cbp+/+ littermates, we found that cbp haploinsufficiency is specifically associated with significant reductions in prosencephalic tissue, such us in the olfactory bulb and neocortex, whereas regions evolved from the embryonic rhombencephalon were spared. Despite the large volume reductions, the proportion between gray-, white-matter and cerebrospinal fluid were conserved, suggesting a role of CBP in brain size regulation. The commonalities with holoprosencephaly and arhinencephaly conditions suggest the inclusion of RSTS in the family of neuronal migration disorders.

  4. Evaluation of the protective effect of pentoxifylline on carrageenan-induced chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajighorbani, Mahboobeh; Ahmadi-Hamedani, Mahmood; Shahab, Elaheh; Hayati, Farzad; Kafshdoozan, Khatereh; Keramati, Keivan; Amini, Amin Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) is the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress (OS) was shown to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CNP induced by carrageenan in rats. Male adult Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into control, CNP and three treatment groups (n = 6) including CNP + cernilton and CNP + PTX groups. CNP was induced by single intraprostatic injection of 1% carrageenan (100 µl). Rats in treatment groups received orally cernilton 100 mg/kg and PTX at 50 and 100 mg/kg 1 week after CNP induction for 21 days. Prostatic index (PI), prostatic specific antigen (PSA), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum lipid peroxidation (MDA), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and histopathological changes were compared between groups. There were significant increase of PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α and MDA in CNP group at 29 day. In treatment groups, significant reduction in PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α, MDA and creatinine was observed especially in rats treated with dose of 50 mg/kg of PTX. In CNP group, histopathological changes of the prostate such as leucocyte infiltration, large involutions and projection into the lumen and reducing the volume of the lumen were observed as well. Whereas PTX, especially at dose of 50 mg/kg, could improve the above-mentioned changes remarkably in CNP treated rats. For the first time, our findings indicated that PTX improved CNP induced by carrageenan in rats.

  5. 19 CFR 10.592 - CBP processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Post-Importation Duty Refund Claims § 10.592 CBP processing procedures...

  6. 19 CFR 10.871 - CBP processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false CBP processing procedures. 10.871 Section 10.871 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade...

  7. 19 CFR 10.871 - CBP processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false CBP processing procedures. 10.871 Section 10.871 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade...

  8. 19 CFR 10.871 - CBP processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false CBP processing procedures. 10.871 Section 10.871 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade...

  9. 19 CFR 10.871 - CBP processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false CBP processing procedures. 10.871 Section 10.871 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Oman Free Trade...

  10. Microbiological Characteristics of Acute Prostatitis After Transrectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jun-Ho; Choe, Hyun-Sop; Lee, Dong-Sup; Lee, Seung-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to identify microbiological characteristics in patients with acute prostatitis after transrectal prostate biopsy to provide guidance in the review of prevention and treatment protocols. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of medical records was performed in 1,814 cases who underwent prostate biopsy at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and St. Vincent's Hospital over a 5 year period from 2006 to 2011. Cases in which acute prostatitis occurred within 7 days after the biopsy were investigated. Before starting treatment with antibiotics, sample collections were done for culture of urine and blood. Culture and drug susceptibility was identified by use of a method established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results A total of 1,814 biopsy procedures were performed in 1,541 patients. For 1,246 patients, the procedure was the first biopsy, whereas for 295 patients it was a repeat biopsy. Twenty-one patients (1.36%) were identified as having acute bacterial prostatitis after the biopsy. Fifteen patients (1.2%) had acute prostatitis after the first biopsy, and 6 patients (2.03%) experienced acute prostatitis after a repeat biopsy. Even though the incidence of acute bacterial prostatitis was higher after repeat biopsy than that after the first biopsy, there was no statistically significant intergroup difference in terms of incidence (χ2=1.223, p=0.269). When the collected urine and blood samples were cultured, Escherichia coli was found in samples from 15 patients (71.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae in 3 patients (14.3%), Enterobacter intermedius in 1 patient (4.8%), E. aerogenes in 1 patient (4.8%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 1 patient (4.8%). A fluoroquinolone-resistant strain was confirmed in 5 cases (23.8%) in total. Three cases of E. coli and 1 case of Klebsiella had extended-spectrum β-lactamase activity. Conclusions Empirical treatment of acute prostatitis should be done with consideration of geographical prevalence and drug

  11. 76 FR 9806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ..., owners, or agents of vessels in complying with Sections 231 and 251 of the Immigration and Nationality... can be found at http://forms.cbp.gov/pdf/CBP_Form_I418.pdf . Current Actions: This submission is being...

  12. Computer-Assisted Quantitative Assessment of Prostatic Calcifications in Patients with Chronic Prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Boltri, Matteo; Magri, Vittorio; Montanari, Emanuele; Perletti, Gianpaolo; Trinchieri, Alberto

    2018-04-26

    The aim of this study was the development of quantitative assessment of prostatic calcifications at prostatic ultrasound examination by the use of an image analyzer. A group of 82 patients was evaluated by medical history, physical, and transrectal ultrasound examination. Patients had a urethral swab, a 4-specimen study and culture of the seminal fluid. Patients were classified according to National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases/National Institutes of Health. Subjective symptoms were scored by Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI) questionnaire. Ultrasound images were analyzed by the digital processing software Image J to quantitatively assess the presence of calcifications. Computer-assessed calcified areas were significantly higher in chronic bacterial prostatitis (n = 18; group II; 6.76 ± 8.09%) than in the chronic pelvic pain syndrome group IIIa (n = 26; 2.07 ± 1.01%) and IIIb (n = 38; 2.31 ± 2.18%). The area of calcification of the prostate was significantly related to the CPSI score for domains of micturition (r = 0.278, p = 0.023), Prostatic Specific Antigen values (r = 0341, p = 0.005), postvoiding residual urine (r = 0.262, p = 0.032), total prostate volume (r = 0.592, p = 0.000), and adenoma volume (r = 0.593; p = 0.000). The presence of calcifications is more frequently observed in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis and is related to urinary symptoms. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... use by masters, owners, or agents of vessels in complying with Sections 231 and 251 of the Immigration... I-418 can be found at http://forms.cbp.gov/pdf/CBP_Form_I418.pdf . Current Actions: This submission...

  14. Valproic acid exposure decreases Cbp/p300 protein expression and histone acetyltransferase activity in P19 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lamparter, Christina L.

    The teratogenicity of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is well established and its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) is proposed as an initiating factor. Recently, VPA-mediated HDAC inhibition was demonstrated to involve transcriptional downregulation of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which was proposed to compensate for the increased acetylation resulting from HDAC inhibition. Cbp and p300 are HATs required for embryonic development and deficiencies in either are associated with congenital malformations and embryolethality. The objective of the present study was to characterize Cbp/p300 following VPA exposure in P19 cells. Consistent with previous studies, exposure to 5 mM VPA over 24 hmore » induced a moderate decrease in Cbp/p300 mRNA, which preceded a strong decrease in total cellular protein mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Nuclear Cbp/p300 protein was also decreased following VPA exposure, although to a lesser extent. Total cellular and nuclear p300 HAT activity was reduced proportionately to p300 protein levels, however while total cellular HAT activity also decreased, nuclear HAT activity was unaffected. Using the Cbp/p300 HAT inhibitor C646, we demonstrated that HAT inhibition similarly affected many of the same endpoints as VPA, including increased reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 cleavage, the latter of which could be attenuated by pre-treatment with the antioxidant catalase. C646 exposure also decreased NF-κB/p65 protein, which was not due to reduced mRNA and was not attenuated with catalase pre-treatment. This study provides support for an adaptive HAT response following VPA exposure and suggests that reduced Cbp/p300 HAT activity could contribute to VPA-mediated alterations. - Highlights: • VPA exposure in vitro downregulates Cbp/p300 mRNA and induces protein degradation. • Cbp/p300 histone acetyltransferase activity is similarly reduced with VPA exposure. • Inhibition of Cbp/p300 acetyltransferase

  15. Recurrent Prostate Infection: What Are the Treatment Options?

    MedlinePlus

    ... recurring prostate infection, also known as chronic bacterial prostatitis, is typically treated with antibiotics. This type of ... Erik P. Castle, M.D. Pontari M. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. https://www.uptodate.com/ ...

  16. 78 FR 5133 - Technical Corrections Regarding the Methods of Collection of Certain User Fees by CBP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...] Technical Corrections Regarding the Methods of Collection of Certain User Fees by CBP AGENCY: U.S. Customs... electronic payments through the DTOPS. While CBP's preferred method of receiving user fee prepayment requests...

  17. Translation initiation on mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 requires interaction between CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3g.

    PubMed

    Choe, Junho; Oh, Nara; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ye Kyung; Song, Ok-Kyu; Locker, Nicolas; Chi, Sung-Gil; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2012-05-25

    In the cytoplasm of mammalian cells, either cap-binding proteins 80 and 20 (CBP80/20) or eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E can direct the initiation of translation. Although the recruitment of ribosomes to mRNAs during eIF4E-dependent translation (ET) is well characterized, the molecular mechanism for CBP80/20-dependent translation (CT) remains obscure. Here, we show that CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor (CTIF), which has been shown to be preferentially involved in CT but not ET, specifically interacts with eIF3g, a component of the eIF3 complex involved in ribosome recruitment. By interacting with eIF3g, CTIF serves as an adaptor protein to bridge the CBP80/20 and the eIF3 complex, leading to efficient ribosome recruitment during CT. Accordingly, down-regulation of CTIF using a small interfering RNA causes a redistribution of CBP80 from polysome fractions to subpolysome fractions, without significant consequence to eIF4E distribution. In addition, down-regulation of eIF3g inhibits the efficiency of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, which is tightly coupled to CT but not to ET. Moreover, the artificial tethering of CTIF to an intercistronic region of dicistronic mRNA results in translation of the downstream cistron in an eIF3-dependent manner. These findings support the idea that CT mechanistically differs from ET.

  18. Prostate specific antigen enhances the innate defence of prostatic epithelium against Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Townes, Claire L; Ali, Ased; Gross, Naomi; Pal, Deepali; Williamson, Stuart; Heer, Rakesh; Robson, Craig N; Pickard, Robert S; Hall, Judith

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether the increase in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) typically seen during male urinary tract infection (UTI) is incidental or reflects an innate defence mechanism of the prostate. The protective roles of the whey-acid-motif-4-disulphide core (WFDC) proteins, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and WFDC2, in the prostate were also examined. UTI recurrence was assessed retrospectively in men following initial UTI by patient interview. PSA, SLPI, and WFDC2 gene expression were assessed using biopsy samples. LNCaP and DU145 in vitro prostate cell models were utilized to assess the effects of an Escherichia coli challenge on PSA and WFDC gene expression, and bacterial invasion of the prostate epithelium. The effects of PSA on WFDC antimicrobial properties were studied using recombinant peptides and time-kill assays. Men presenting with PSA >4 ng/ml at initial UTI were less likely to have recurrent (r) UTI than those with PSA <4 ng/ml [2/15 (13%) vs. 7/10 (70%), P < 0.01]. Genes encoding PSA, SLPI and WFDC2, were expressed in prostatic epithelium, and the PSA and SLPI proteins co-localized in vivo. Challenging LNCaP (PSA-positive) cells with E. coli increased PSA, SLPI, and WFDC2 gene expression (P < 0.05), and PSA synthesis (P < 0.05), and reduced bacterial invasion. Pre-incubation of DU145 (PSA-negative) cells with PSA also decreased bacterial invasion. In vitro incubation of recombinant SLPI and WFDC2 with PSA resulted in peptide proteolysis and increased E. coli killing. Increased PSA during UTI appears protective against rUTI and in vitro is linked to proteolysis of WFDC proteins supporting enhanced prostate innate defences. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Design and synthesis of a biaryl series as inhibitors for the bromodomains of CBP/P300.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kwong Wah; Romero, F Anthony; Tsui, Vickie; Beresini, Maureen H; de Leon Boenig, Gladys; Bronner, Sarah M; Chen, Kevin; Chen, Zhongguo; Choo, Edna F; Crawford, Terry D; Cyr, Patrick; Kaufman, Susan; Li, Yingjie; Liao, Jiangpeng; Liu, Wenfeng; Ly, Justin; Murray, Jeremy; Shen, Weichao; Wai, John; Wang, Fei; Zhu, Caicai; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Magnuson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    A novel, potent, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of the bromodomain of CBP, compound 35 (GNE-207), has been identified through SAR investigations focused on optimizing al bicyclic heteroarene to replace the aniline present in the published GNE-272 series. Compound 35 has excellent CBP potency (CBP IC 50  = 1 nM, MYC EC 50  = 18 nM), a selectively index of >2500-fold against BRD4(1), and exhibits a good pharmacokinetic profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paenibacillus larvae Chitin-Degrading Protein PlCBP49 Is a Key Virulence Factor in American Foulbrood of Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Poppinga, Lena; Fünfhaus, Anne; Hertlein, Gillian; Hedtke, Kati; Jakubowska, Agata; Genersch, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of the globally occurring epizootic American Foulbrood (AFB) of honey bees, causes intestinal infections in honey bee larvae which develop into systemic infections inevitably leading to larval death. Massive brood mortality might eventually lead to collapse of the entire colony. Molecular mechanisms of host-microbe interactions in this system and of differences in virulence between P. larvae genotypes are poorly understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium is a key step in pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Here, we present the isolation and identification of PlCBP49, a modular, chitin-degrading protein of P. larvae and demonstrate that this enzyme is crucial for the degradation of the larval peritrophic matrix during infection. PlCBP49 contains a module belonging to the auxiliary activity 10 (AA10, formerly CBM33) family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) which are able to degrade recalcitrant polysaccharides. Using chitin-affinity purified PlCBP49, we provide evidence that PlCBP49 degrades chitin via a metal ion-dependent, oxidative mechanism, as already described for members of the AA10 family. Using P. larvae mutants lacking PlCBP49 expression, we analyzed in vivo biological functions of PlCBP49. In the absence of PlCBP49 expression, peritrophic matrix degradation was markedly reduced and P. larvae virulence was nearly abolished. This indicated that PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor for the species P. larvae. The identification of the functional role of PlCBP49 in AFB pathogenesis broadens our understanding of this important family of chitin-binding and -degrading proteins, especially in those bacteria that can also act as entomopathogens. PMID:25080221

  1. [Transrectal magnetotherapy of the prostate from Intramag device in prophylaxis of postoperative complications of transurethral resection of prostatic adenoma].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, A I; Snegirev, I V; Neĭmark, B A

    2006-01-01

    The authors analyse preoperative preparation of 91 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Two groups of patients received conventional preparation (group 1) and magnetotherapy (group 2) before TUR of the prostate. The examination covered immune system, bacteriological indices of urine and prostatic tissue. Infection of the urinary tract is a main risk factor of complications after TUR. Conventional preoperative preparation fails to correct immunity, to change bacterial urine flora, to improve hemodynamics in the prostate. Transrectal magnetotherapy with running magnetic field eliminates deficiency of T- and B-cell immunity, raises functional activity of B-lymphocytes and phagocytic ability of neutrophils, reduces endogenic intoxication, tissue edema, bacterial contamination, number of thrombohemorrhagic complications. This leads to a decrease in the number of postoperative complications.

  2. Does a previous prostate biopsy-related acute bacterial prostatitis affect the results of radical prostatectomy?

    PubMed

    Türk, Hakan; Ün, Sitki; Arslan, Erkan; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2018-01-01

    To The standard technique for obtaining a histologic diagnosis of prostatic carcinomas is transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Acute prostatitis which might develop after prostate biopsy can cause periprostatic inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we performed a retrospective review of our database to determine whether ABP history might affect the outcome of RP. 441 RP patients who were operated in our clinic from 2002 to 2014 were included in our study group. All patients' demographic values, PSA levels, biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimen pathology results and their perioperative/postoperative complications were evaluated. There were 41 patients in patients with acute prostatitis following biopsy and 397 patients that did not develop acute prostatitis. Mean blood loss, transfusion rate and operation period were found to be significantly higher in ABP patients. Hospitalization period and reoperation rates were similar in both groups. However, post-op complications were significantly higher in ABP group. Even though it does not affect oncological outcomes, we would like to warn the surgeons for potential complaints during surgery in ABP patients. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of human papillomavirus type 18 P105 promoter by the co-activator CBP.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Hernández, Armando; Cuevas-Bennett, Christian; Garrido, Efraín

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical cancer, with HPV-16 and 18 being the representative types of the higher risk group. The expression of the viral genes with transforming activity (E6 and E7) is controlled by the upstream regulatory region (URR), a segment of the viral genome that contains elements recognized by several transcription factors. We have analyzed the participation of the cellular co-activator CBP on the transcriptional regulation of the HPV-18 URR. We generated mutants and 5' end deletion constructs derived from the HPV-18 URR and evaluated their transcriptional activity performing transient co-transfection assays on C-33A cells with a plasmid that over-expresses the co-activator CBP. We also performed quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to analyze the participation of the co-activator CBP on the HPV-18 P105 promoter. Our results demonstrate that in C-33A cells CBP acts as a strong activator of the HPV-18 P105 promoter by a mechanism that depends on the integrity of the SP1-binding site, directly correlating with the acetylation of the histone H3 that is involved in nucleosomal stability. We propose a mechanism of regulation of the HPV-18 P105 promoter by the cellular co-activator CBP, recruited by the transcription factor SP1. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. 78 FR 19726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... information collection requirement concerning the Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775). This... concerning the following information collection: Title: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement. OMB Number...

  5. 77 FR 18143 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... reflect relationships among members of the public who are traveling together as a family. By expanding the... CFR Part 148 [USCBP-2012-0008] RIN 1515-AD76 Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family... members of a family traveling together upon arrival in the United States. Specifically, CBP is proposing...

  6. Endocrine Disruption and Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    decades in men . Briefly we use rodent stroma to create a niche in which human stem cells are directed to become human prostatic epithelia. Task 1 sought to...we used our model system to study human prostate development and maturation over 8-12 weeks, comparable to the process that takes decades in men ...was 100%. The early onset of prostatitis, is comparable to the onset of non-bacterial early-onset prostatitis in younger men , and implicates the EDC

  7. Combined Effect of Cameo2 and CBP on the Cellular Uptake of Lutein in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiao-Long; Chai, Chun-Li; Pan, Cai-Xia; Tang, Hui; Chen, Yan-Hong; Dai, Fang-Yin; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Formation of yellow-red color cocoons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, occurs as the result of the selective delivery of carotenoids from the midgut to the silk gland via the hemolymph. This process of pigment transport is thought to be mediated by specific cellular carotenoids carrier proteins. Previous studies indicated that two proteins, Cameo2 and CBP, are associated with the selective transport of lutein from the midgut into the silk gland in Bombyx mori. However, the exact roles of Cameo2 and CBP during the uptake and transport of carotenoids are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the respective contributions of these two proteins to lutein and β-carotene transport in Bombyx mori as well as commercial cell-line. We found that tissues, expressed both Cameo2 and CBP, accumulate lutein. Cells, co-expressed Cameo2 and CBP, absorb 2 fold more lutein (P<0.01) than any other transfected cells, and the rate of cellular uptake of lutein was concentration-dependent and reached saturation. From immunofluorescence staining, confocal microscopy observation and western blot analysis, Cameo2 was localized at the membrane and CBP was expressed in the cytosol. What’s more, bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis showed that these two proteins directly interacted at cellular level. Therefore, Cameo2 and CBP are necessarily expressed in midguts and silk glands for lutein uptake in Bombyx mori. Cameo2 and CBP, as the membrane protein and the cytosol protein, respectively, have the combined effect to facilitate the cellular uptake of lutein. PMID:24475153

  8. Ku80 cooperates with CBP to promote COX-2 expression and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Xuan, Yang; Jia, Yunlu; Hu, Wenxian; Yu, Wendan; Dai, Meng; Li, Zhenglin; Yi, Canhui; Zhao, Shilei; Li, Mei; Du, Sha; Cheng, Wei; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Chen, Yiming; Wu, Taihua; Meng, Songshu; Yuan, Yuhui; Liu, Quentin; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shusen; Deng, Wuguo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Using streptavidin-agarose pulldown and proteomics assay, we identified and validated Ku80, a dimer of Ku participating in the repair of broken DNA double strands, as a new binding protein of the COX-2 gene promoter. Overexpression of Ku80 up-regulated COX-2 promoter activation and COX-2 expression in lung cancer cells. Silencing of Ku80 by siRNA down-regulated COX-2 expression and inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Ku80 knockdown suppressed phosphorylation of ERK, resulting in an inactivation of the MAPK pathway. Moreover, CBP, a transcription co-activator, interacted with and acetylated Ku80 to co-regulate the activation of COX-2 promoter. Overexpression of CBP increased Ku80 acetylation, thereby promoting COX-2 expression and cell growth. Suppression of CBP by a CBP-specific inhibitor or siRNA inhibited COX-2 expression as well as tumor cell growth. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis of lung adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between levels of Ku80 and COX-2 and clinicopathologic variables. Overexpression of Ku80 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancers. We conclude that Ku80 promotes COX-2 expression and tumor growth and is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. PMID:25797267

  9. Epidemiology of prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

  10. R&D progress in SRF surface preparation with centrifugal barrel polishing (cbp) for both Nb and Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari

    Centrifugal Barrel polishing (CBP) is becoming a common R&D tool for SRF cavity preparation around the world. During the CBP process a cylindrically symmetric SRF cavity is filled with relatively cheap and environmentally friendly abrasive and sealed. The cavity is then spun around a cylindrically symmetric axis at high speeds uniformly conditioning the inner surface. This uniformity is especially relevant for SRF application because many times a single manufacturing defects limits cavity?s performance well below it?s theoretical limit. In addition CBP has created surfaces with roughness?s on the order of 10?s of nm which create a unique surface for wetmore » chemistry or thin film deposition. CBP is now being utilized at Jefferson Laboratory, Fermi Laboratory and Cornell University in the US, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Germany, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy, and Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology in India. In this talk we will present current CBP research from each lab including equipment, baseline recipes, cavity removal rates and subsequent cryogenic cavity tests on niobium as well as copper cavities where available.« less

  11. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... information collection requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- [[Page 61509... Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border...

  12. Disruption of β-catenin/CBP signaling inhibits human airway epithelial-mesenchymal transition and repair.

    PubMed

    Moheimani, Fatemeh; Roth, Hollis M; Cross, Jennifer; Reid, Andrew T; Shaheen, Furquan; Warner, Stephanie M; Hirota, Jeremy A; Kicic, Anthony; Hallstrand, Teal S; Kahn, Michael; Stick, Stephen M; Hansbro, Philip M; Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Knight, Darryl A

    2015-11-01

    The epithelium of asthmatics is characterized by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the basal cell markers ck-5 and p63 that is indicative of a relatively undifferentiated repairing epithelium. This phenotype correlates with increased proliferation, compromised wound healing and an enhanced capacity to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor β-catenin plays a vital role in epithelial cell differentiation and regeneration, depending on the co-factor recruited. Transcriptional programs driven by the β-catenin/CBP axis are critical for maintaining an undifferentiated and proliferative state, whereas the β-catenin/p300 axis is associated with cell differentiation. We hypothesized that disrupting the β-catenin/CBP signaling axis would promote epithelial differentiation and inhibit EMT. We treated monolayer cultures of human airway epithelial cells with TGFβ1 in the presence or absence of the selective small molecule ICG-001 to inhibit β-catenin/CBP signaling. We used western blots to assess expression of an EMT signature, CBP, p300, β-catenin, fibronectin and ITGβ1 and scratch wound assays to assess epithelial cell migration. Snai-1 and -2 expressions were determined using q-PCR. Exposure to TGFβ1 induced EMT, characterized by reduced E-cadherin expression with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and EDA-fibronectin. Either co-treatment or therapeutic administration of ICG-001 completely inhibited TGFβ1-induced EMT. ICG-001 also reduced the expression of ck-5 and -19 independent of TGFβ1. Exposure to ICG-001 significantly inhibited epithelial cell proliferation and migration, coincident with a down regulation of ITGβ1 and fibronectin expression. These data support our hypothesis that modulating the β-catenin/CBP signaling axis plays a key role in epithelial plasticity and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ChIP-seq reveals broad roles of SARD1 and CBP60g in regulating plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tongjun; Zhang, Yaxi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Ding, Yuli; Zhang, Yuelin

    2015-12-18

    Recognition of pathogens by host plants leads to rapid transcriptional reprogramming and activation of defence responses. The expression of many defence regulators is induced in this process, but the mechanisms of how they are controlled transcriptionally are largely unknown. Here we use chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to show that the transcription factors SARD1 and CBP60g bind to the promoter regions of a large number of genes encoding key regulators of plant immunity. Among them are positive regulators of systemic immunity and signalling components for effector-triggered immunity and PAMP-triggered immunity, which is consistent with the critical roles of SARD1 and CBP60g in these processes. In addition, SARD1 and CBP60g target a number of genes encoding negative regulators of plant immunity, suggesting that they are also involved in negative feedback regulation of defence responses. Based on these findings we propose that SARD1 and CBP60g function as master regulators of plant immune responses.

  14. 19 CFR 133.15 - Term of CBP trade name recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CBP trade name recordation. Protection for a recorded trade name shall remain in force as long as the... shall be regarded as evidence of disuse. [T.D. 72-266, 37 FR 20678, Oct. 3, 1972, as amended by T.D. 91...

  15. 19 CFR 133.15 - Term of CBP trade name recordation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CBP trade name recordation. Protection for a recorded trade name shall remain in force as long as the... shall be regarded as evidence of disuse. [T.D. 72-266, 37 FR 20678, Oct. 3, 1972, as amended by T.D. 91...

  16. The plant-specific transcription factors CBP60g and SARD1 are targeted by a Verticillium secretory protein VdSCP41 to modulate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jun; Wang, Kailun; Sun, Lifan; Xing, Haiying; Wang, Sheng; Li, Lin; Chen, She

    2018-01-01

    The vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects the roots of plants to cause Verticillium wilt. The molecular mechanisms underlying V. dahliae virulence and host resistance remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a secretory protein, VdSCP41, functions as an intracellular effector that promotes V. dahliae virulence. The Arabidopsis master immune regulators CBP60g and SARD1 and cotton GhCBP60b are targeted by VdSCP41. VdSCP41 binds the C-terminal portion of CBP60g to inhibit its transcription factor activity. Further analyses reveal a transcription activation domain within CBP60g that is required for VdSCP41 targeting. Mutations in both CBP60g and SARD1 compromise Arabidopsis resistance against V. dahliae and partially impair VdSCP41-mediated virulence. Moreover, virus-induced silencing of GhCBP60b compromises cotton resistance to V. dahliae. This work uncovers a virulence strategy in which the V. dahliae secretory protein VdSCP41 directly targets plant transcription factors to inhibit immunity, and reveals CBP60g, SARD1 and GhCBP60b as crucial components governing V. dahliae resistance. PMID:29757140

  17. 78 FR 20345 - Modification and Expansion of CBP Centers of Excellence and Expertise Test To Include Six...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... CBP Centers of Excellence and Expertise Test To Include Six Additional Centers AGENCY: U.S. Customs... announces U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (CBP's) plan to modify and expand its test for the Centers of... the test program, identifies the purpose of the test and the regulations that will be affected...

  18. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of a choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, Neil G., E-mail: neison@chem.gla.ac.uk; Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Timothy J.

    2006-07-01

    The choline-binding protein CbpI from S. pneumoniae has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 3.5 Å resolution. The choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a 23.4 kDa protein with no known function. The protein has been successfully purified initially using Ni–NTA chromatography and to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose ion-exchange resin as an affinity column. CbpI was crystallized using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.31, c = 80.29 Å, α = β = γmore » = 90°. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 55.7% (V{sub M} = 2.77 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}) and shows a diffraction limit of 3.5 Å.« less

  19. Histone posttranslational modifications and cell fate determination: lens induction requires the lysine acetyltransferases CBP and p300

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Louise; Harrison, Wilbur; Huang, Jie; Xie, Qing; Xiao, Ningna; Sun, Jian; Kong, Lingkun; Lachke, Salil A.; Kuracha, Murali R.; Govindarajan, Venkatesh; Brindle, Paul K.; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Beebe, David C.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Cvekl, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Lens induction is a classical embryologic model to study cell fate determination. It has been proposed earlier that specific changes in core histone modifications accompany the process of cell fate specification and determination. The lysine acetyltransferases CBP and p300 function as principal enzymes that modify core histones to facilitate specific gene expression. Herein, we performed conditional inactivation of both CBP and p300 in the ectodermal cells that give rise to the lens placode. Inactivation of both CBP and p300 resulted in the dramatic discontinuation of all aspects of lens specification and organogenesis, resulting in aphakia. The CBP/p300−/− ectodermal cells are viable and not prone to apoptosis. These cells showed reduced expression of Six3 and Sox2, while expression of Pax6 was not upregulated, indicating discontinuation of lens induction. Consequently, expression of αB- and αA-crystallins was not initiated. Mutant ectoderm exhibited markedly reduced levels of histone H3 K18 and K27 acetylation, subtly increased H3 K27me3 and unaltered overall levels of H3 K9ac and H3 K4me3. Our data demonstrate that CBP and p300 are required to establish lens cell-type identity during lens induction, and suggest that posttranslational histone modifications are integral to normal cell fate determination in the mammalian lens. PMID:24038357

  20. Determination of osteogenic or adipogenic lineages in muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) by a collagen-binding peptide (CBP) derived from bone sialoprotein (BSP)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jue Yeon; Lee, Seung Jin

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CBP sequence is identified from BSP and has collagen binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CBP directly activates the MAPK signaling, especially ERK1/2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CBP increase osteoblastic differentiation by the activation of Runx2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CBP decrease adipogenic differentiation by the inhibition of PPAR{gamma}. -- Abstract: Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized, tissue-specific, non-collagenous protein that is normally expressed only in mineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, cementum, and calcified cartilage, and at sites of new mineral formation. The binding of BSP to collagen is thought to be important for initiating bone mineralization and bone cell adhesion to the mineralized matrix. Severalmore » recent studies have isolated stem cells from muscle tissue, but their functional properties are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of a synthetic collagen-binding peptide (CBP) on the differentiation efficiency of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs). The CBP sequence (NGVFKYRPRYYLYKHAYFYPHLKRFPVQ) corresponds to residues 35-62 of bone sialoprotein (BSP), which are located within the collagen-binding domain in BSP. Interestingly, this synthetic CBP inhibited adipogenic differentiation but increased osteogenic differentiation in MDSCs. The CBP also induced expression of osteoblastic marker proteins, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin; prevented adipogenic differentiation in MDSCs; and down-regulated adipose-specific mRNAs, such as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}. The CBP increased Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 protein phosphorylation, which is important in lineage determination. These observations suggest that this CBP determines the osteogenic or adipogenic lineage in MDSCs by activating ERK1/2. Taken

  1. The Oncoprotein Tax Binds the SRC-1-Interacting Domain of CBP/p300 To Mediate Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Scoggin, Kirsten E. S.; Ulloa, Aida; Nyborg, Jennifer K.

    2001-01-01

    Oncogenesis associated with human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) infection is directly linked to the virally encoded transcription factor Tax. To activate HTLV-1 transcription Tax interacts with the cellular protein CREB and the pleiotropic coactivators CBP and p300. While extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms of Tax transcription function and coactivator utilization are not fully understood. Previous studies have focused on Tax binding to the KIX domain of CBP, as this was believed to be the key step in recruiting the coactivator to the HTLV-1 promoter. In this study, we identify a carboxy-terminal region of CBP (and p300) that strongly interacts with Tax and mediates Tax transcription function. Through deletion mutagenesis, we identify amino acids 2003 to 2212 of CBP, which we call carboxy-terminal region 2 (CR2), as the minimal region for Tax interaction. Interestingly, this domain corresponds to the steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1)-interacting domain of CBP. We show that a double point mutant targeted to one of the putative α-helical motifs in this domain significantly compromises the interaction with Tax. We also characterize the region of Tax responsible for interaction with CR2 and show that the previously identified transactivation domain of Tax (amino acids 312 to 319) participates in CR2 binding. This region of Tax corresponds to a consensus amphipathic helix, and single point mutations targeted to amino acids on the face of this helix abolish interaction with CR2 and dramatically reduce Tax transcription function. Finally, we demonstrate that Tax and SRC-1 bind to CR2 in a mutually exclusive fashion. Together, these studies identify a novel Tax-interacting site on CBP/p300 and extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism of Tax transactivation. PMID:11463834

  2. 19 CFR 171.12 - Petitions acted on at CBP Headquarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petitions acted on at CBP Headquarters. 171.12 Section 171.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Branch, will forward the matter to the Department with a recommendation. ...

  3. 19 CFR 171.12 - Petitions acted on at CBP Headquarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petitions acted on at CBP Headquarters. 171.12 Section 171.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Branch, will forward the matter to the Department with a recommendation. ...

  4. 19 CFR 171.12 - Petitions acted on at CBP Headquarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions acted on at CBP Headquarters. 171.12 Section 171.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Branch, will forward the matter to the Department with a recommendation. ...

  5. Screening of a library of T7 phage-displayed peptides identifies alphaC helix in 14-3-3 protein as a CBP501-binding site.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuki; Shindo, Yosuke; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Takakusagi, Kaori; Tsukuda, Senko; Kusayanagi, Tomoe; Sato, Hitoshi; Kawabe, Takumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2011-12-01

    CBP501 is a chemically modified peptide composed of twelve unnatural d-amino acids, which inhibits Chk kinase and abrogates G2 arrest induced by DNA-damaging agents. Here we identified an alphaC helix in 14-3-3 protein as a CBP501-binding site using T7 phage display technology. An affinity selection of T7 phage-displayed peptide using biotinylated CBP501 identified a 14-mer peptide NSDCIISRKIEQKE. This peptide sequence showed similarity to a portion of the alphaC helix of human 14-3-3ε, suggesting that CBP501 may bind to this region. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA demonstrated that CBP501 interacts with 14-3-3ε specifically at the screen-guided region. An avidin-agarose bead pull-down assay showed that CBP501 also binds to other 14-3-3 isoforms in Jurkat cells. Among the other known Chk kinase inhibitors tested, CBP501 showed the strongest affinity for 14-3-3ε. Thus, we conclude that in addition to the direct inhibition of Chk kinase activity, CBP501 directly binds to cellular 14-3-3 proteins through alphaC helix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HDAC inhibition modulates hippocampus-dependent long-term memory for object location in a CBP-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Haettig, Jakob; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Multani, Monica L.; Figueroa, Dario X.; McQuown, Susan C.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription of genes required for long-term memory not only involves transcription factors, but also enzymatic protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. Chromatin-modifying enzymes, such as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB (cyclic-AMP response element binding) binding protein (CBP), are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation required for long-term memory. Several studies have shown that CBP and histone acetylation are necessary for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Importantly, every genetically modified Cbp mutant mouse exhibits long-term memory impairments in object recognition. However, the role of the hippocampus in object recognition is controversial. To better understand how chromatin-modifying enzymes modulate long-term memory for object recognition, we first examined the role of the hippocampus in retrieval of long-term memory for object recognition or object location. Muscimol inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus prior to retrieval had no effect on long-term memory for object recognition, but completely blocked long-term memory for object location. This was consistent with experiments showing that muscimol inactivation of the hippocampus had no effect on long-term memory for the object itself, supporting the idea that the hippocampus encodes spatial information about an object (such as location or context), whereas cortical areas (such as the perirhinal or insular cortex) encode information about the object itself. Using location-dependent object recognition tasks that engage the hippocampus, we demonstrate that CBP is essential for the modulation of long-term memory via HDAC inhibition. Together, these results indicate that HDAC inhibition modulates memory in the hippocampus via CBP and that different brain regions utilize different chromatin-modifying enzymes to regulate learning and memory. PMID:21224411

  7. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities in Assessing the Degradation of Cementitious Barriers - 13487

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.; Burns, H.H.; Langton, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up tomore » 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in K{sub d}/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored

  8. Graminex Pollen: Phenolic Pattern, Colorimetric Analysis and Protective Effects in Immortalized Prostate Cells (PC3) and Rat Prostate Challenged with LPS.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marcello; Macchione, Nicola; Ferrante, Claudio; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Recinella, Lucia; Carradori, Simone; Zengin, Gokhan; Cesa, Stefania; Leporini, Lidia; Leone, Sheila; Brunetti, Luigi; Menghini, Luigi; Orlando, Giustino

    2018-05-11

    Prostatitis, a general term describing prostate inflammation, is a common disease that could be sustained by bacterial or non-bacterial infectious agents. The efficacy of herbal extracts with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects for blunting the burden of inflammation and oxidative stress, with possible improvements in clinical symptoms, is under investigation. Pollen extracts have been previously reported as promising agents in managing clinical symptoms related to prostatitis. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the protective effects of Graminex pollen (Graminex TM , Deshler, OH, USA), a commercially available product based on standardized pollen extracts, in rat prostate specimens, ex vivo. In this context, we studied the putative mechanism of action of pollen on multiple inflammatory pathways, including the reduction of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), and malondialdehyde (MDA), whose activities were significantly increased by inflammatory stimuli. We characterized by means of chromatographic and colorimetric studies the composition of Graminex pollen to better correlate the activity of pollen on immortalized prostate cells (PC3), and in rat prostate specimens challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that Graminex pollen was able to reduce radical oxygen species (ROS) production by PC3 cells and MDA, NFκB mRNA, and PGE₂ levels, in rat prostate specimens. According to our experimental evidence, Graminex pollen appears to be a promising natural product for the management of the inflammatory components in the prostate.

  9. [Prostate histopathology of NIH category IV prostatitis detected by sextant prostate needle biopsy from the patients with high prostatic specific antigen].

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tatsuya; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Madarame, Jun; Kimura, Takahiro; Onodera, Shouichi

    2003-08-01

    Asymptomatic prostatitis is classified as category IV in NIH classification of prostatitis syndrome (1999). No report concerning this category has been present. We investigated this category histopathologically and clinically, in order to clarify the histopathological distribution and its correlation to the clinical features, in this study. Among 785 patients who were suspected prostate cancer because of their high prostatic specific antigen (PSA) values and to have a sextant prostate needle biopsy was performed between January, 1996 and December, 2000, 88 patients (11.2%) were diagnosed as NIH category IV prostatitis (asymptomatic prostatitis). We observed all pathological specimens stained with Hematoxylin-Eosine, and classified them into subtypes according to the classification criteria for prostatitis defined by True et al. (1999). We also investigated the relationship between histopathological distribution and clinical features such as PSA values, PSA density, the incidence of pyuria or bacteriuria. In the histopathological study, grade distributions were 12.5% (11/88) in mild, 71.6% (63/88) in moderate, and 15.9% (14/88) in severe. Location distributions were 2.3% (2/88) in glandular, 68.2% (60/88) in periglandular, and 29.5% (26/88) in stromal. No relationship between these subtypes and clinical features was recognized statistically. However, 7 patients (7.95%) were diagnosed as prostate cancers, later. Pyuria was found in 29.1% (23/79). Bacteriuria was present in 14.3% (11/77). Isolated bacteria were 4 strains of Enterococcus faccalis, 2 strains of each of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, and one strain of each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Gram positive rod, and Candida sp. No relationship between these subtypes and bacterial species was recognized. These results indicated that the incidence of NIII category IV prostatits

  10. HTLV-I Tax transrepresses the human c-Myb promoter independently of its interaction with CBP or p300.

    PubMed

    Nicot, C; Mahieux, R; Opavsky, R; Cereseto, A; Wolff, L; Brady, J N; Franchini, G

    2000-04-20

    The c-Myb proto-oncogene is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic lineages, and highly expressed in several leukemia types. The Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type I (HTLV-I) is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL). A previous report suggested that Tax, the viral transactivator, is able to suppress the transactivation potential of c-Myb protein by competing for recruitment of CBP. We tested whether such a competition could affect transcription from the c-Myb promoter in Tax expressing T-cells. Using several c-Myb promoter reporter constructs carrying mutations in various regions, we demonstrate that Tax suppression of c-Myb transactivation results in transrepression of the c-Myb promoter through the Myb responsive elements in Jurkat T-cells. The ability of Tax mutants M22, M47 and V89A to interact with the full-length CBP and p300 proteins in vitro, and their ability to repress the c-Myb promoter, was then evaluated. Although both M47 and M22 bind to CBP and p300 to a similar extent, only M47 was able to repress the c-Myb promoter, suggesting that competition for CBP/p300 binding was not the mechanism underlying Tax's effect. This concept was further supported by the fact that the Tax mutant V89A transrepresses the c-Myb promoter efficiently in spite of an impaired binding to CBP and p300. Therefore, Tax-mediated repression of the c-Myb promoter appears to be independent from a direct competition between c-Myb and Tax for recruitment of CBP/p300. Interestingly, a decreased transcription from the endogenous c-Myb promoter was observed in several HTLV-I transformed T-cell lines. Finally, the ability of Tax to directly repress the endogenous c-Myb promoter was demonstrated in a Jurkat cell line stably transfected with a tax gene driven by a cadmium-inducible promoter.

  11. Determination of osteogenic or adipogenic lineages in muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) by a collagen-binding peptide (CBP) derived from bone sialoprotein (BSP).

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jue Yeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2012-03-09

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized, tissue-specific, non-collagenous protein that is normally expressed only in mineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, cementum, and calcified cartilage, and at sites of new mineral formation. The binding of BSP to collagen is thought to be important for initiating bone mineralization and bone cell adhesion to the mineralized matrix. Several recent studies have isolated stem cells from muscle tissue, but their functional properties are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of a synthetic collagen-binding peptide (CBP) on the differentiation efficiency of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs). The CBP sequence (NGVFKYRPRYYLYKHAYFYPHLKRFPVQ) corresponds to residues 35-62 of bone sialoprotein (BSP), which are located within the collagen-binding domain in BSP. Interestingly, this synthetic CBP inhibited adipogenic differentiation but increased osteogenic differentiation in MDSCs. The CBP also induced expression of osteoblastic marker proteins, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin; prevented adipogenic differentiation in MDSCs; and down-regulated adipose-specific mRNAs, such as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The CBP increased Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 protein phosphorylation, which is important in lineage determination. These observations suggest that this CBP determines the osteogenic or adipogenic lineage in MDSCs by activating ERK1/2. Taken together, a novel CBP could be a useful candidate for regenerating bone and treating osteoporosis, which result from an imbalance in osteogenesis and adipogenesis differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transgenic Mice Expressing a Truncated Form of CREB-Binding Protein (CBP) Exhibit Deficits in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marcelo A.; Kaplan, Michael P.; Park, Alice; Blanchard, Edward J.; Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Lombardi, Thomas L.; Abel, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Deletions, translocations, or point mutations in the CREB-binding protein (CBP) gene have been associated with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome; a human developmental disorder characterized by retarded growth and reduced mental function. To examine the role of CBP in memory, transgenic mice were generated in which the CaMKII[alpha] promoter drives…

  13. A Transcription Factor-Binding Domain of the Coactivator CBP Is Essential for Long-Term Memory and the Expression of Specific Target Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.; Attner, Michelle A.

    2006-01-01

    Transcriptional activation is a key process required for long-term memory formation. Recently, the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) was shown to be critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. As a coactivator with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, CBP interacts with…

  14. Spinal CPEB-mtROS-CBP signaling pathway contributes to perineural HIV gp120 with ddC-related neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takafumi; Yi, Hyun; Liu, Shue; Huang, Wan; Kanda, Hirotsugu; Lubarsky, David A; Hao, Shuanglin

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), have been known to develop neuropathic pain. While there has been a major shift away from some neurotoxic NRTIs in current antiretroviral therapy, a large number of HIV patients alive today have previously received them, and many have developed painful peripheral neuropathy. The exact mechanisms by which HIV with NRTIs contribute to the development of neuropathic pain are not known. Previous studies suggest that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), are involved in the neuroimmunological diseases including inflammatory/neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated the role of CPEB, mitochondrial ROS (mtROS), or CBP in neuropathic pain induced by HIV envelope protein gp120 combined with antiretroviral drug. The application of recombinant gp120 into the sciatic nerve plus systemic ddC (one of NRTIs) induced mechanical allodynia. Knockdown of CPEB or CBP using intrathecal antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) reduced mechanical allodynia. Intrathecal mitochondrial superoxide scavenger mito-tempol (Mito-T) increased mechanical withdrawal threshold. Knockdown of CPEB using intrathecal AS-ODN, reduced the up-regulated mitochondrial superoxide in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with gp120 combined with ddC. Intrathecal Mito-T lowered the increased expression of CBP in the spinal dorsal horn. Immunostaining studies showed that neuronal CPEB positive cells were co-localized with MitoSox positive profiles, and that MitoSox positive profiles were co-localized with neuronal CBP. Our studies suggest that neuronal CPEB-mtROS-CBP pathway in the spinal dorsal horn, plays an important role in the gp120/ddC-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Modular Architecture and Unique Teichoic Acid Recognition Features of Choline-Binding Protein L (CbpL) Contributing to Pneumococcal Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, Javier; Saleh, Malek; Alcorlo, Martín; Gómez-Mejía, Alejandro; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Treviño, Miguel A.; Voß, Franziska; Abdullah, Mohammed R.; Galán-Bartual, Sergio; Seinen, Jolien; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.; Gago, Federico; Bruix, Marta; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2016-12-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is decorated with a special class of surface-proteins known as choline-binding proteins (CBPs) attached to phosphorylcholine (PCho) moieties from cell-wall teichoic acids. By a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR, molecular dynamics techniques and in vivo virulence and phagocytosis studies, we provide structural information of choline-binding protein L (CbpL) and demonstrate its impact on pneumococcal pathogenesis and immune evasion. CbpL is a very elongated three-module protein composed of (i) an Excalibur Ca2+-binding domain -reported in this work for the very first time-, (ii) an unprecedented anchorage module showing alternate disposition of canonical and non-canonical choline-binding sites that allows vine-like binding of fully-PCho-substituted teichoic acids (with two choline moieties per unit), and (iii) a Ltp_Lipoprotein domain. Our structural and infection assays indicate an important role of the whole multimodular protein allowing both to locate CbpL at specific places on the cell wall and to interact with host components in order to facilitate pneumococcal lung infection and transmigration from nasopharynx to the lungs and blood. CbpL implication in both resistance against killing by phagocytes and pneumococcal pathogenesis further postulate this surface-protein as relevant among the pathogenic arsenal of the pneumococcus.

  16. Modular Architecture and Unique Teichoic Acid Recognition Features of Choline-Binding Protein L (CbpL) Contributing to Pneumococcal Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, Javier; Saleh, Malek; Alcorlo, Martín; Gómez-Mejía, Alejandro; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Treviño, Miguel A.; Voß, Franziska; Abdullah, Mohammed R.; Galán-Bartual, Sergio; Seinen, Jolien; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.; Gago, Federico; Bruix, Marta; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is decorated with a special class of surface-proteins known as choline-binding proteins (CBPs) attached to phosphorylcholine (PCho) moieties from cell-wall teichoic acids. By a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR, molecular dynamics techniques and in vivo virulence and phagocytosis studies, we provide structural information of choline-binding protein L (CbpL) and demonstrate its impact on pneumococcal pathogenesis and immune evasion. CbpL is a very elongated three-module protein composed of (i) an Excalibur Ca2+-binding domain -reported in this work for the very first time-, (ii) an unprecedented anchorage module showing alternate disposition of canonical and non-canonical choline-binding sites that allows vine-like binding of fully-PCho-substituted teichoic acids (with two choline moieties per unit), and (iii) a Ltp_Lipoprotein domain. Our structural and infection assays indicate an important role of the whole multimodular protein allowing both to locate CbpL at specific places on the cell wall and to interact with host components in order to facilitate pneumococcal lung infection and transmigration from nasopharynx to the lungs and blood. CbpL implication in both resistance against killing by phagocytes and pneumococcal pathogenesis further postulate this surface-protein as relevant among the pathogenic arsenal of the pneumococcus. PMID:27917891

  17. Detailed Surface Analysis Of Incremental Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) Of Single-Crystal Niobium Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari D.; Tian, Hui; Trofimova, Olga

    2011-07-01

    We performed Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) on single crystal niobium samples/coupons housed in a stainless steel sample holder following the polishing recipe developed at Fermi Lab (FNAL) in 2011 \\cite{C. A. Cooper 2011}. Post CBP, the sample coupons were analyzed for surface roughness, crystal composition and structure, and particle contamination. Following the initial analysis each coupon was high pressure rinsed (HRP) and analyzed for the effectiveness of contamination removal. We were able to obtain the mirror like surface finish after the final stage of tumbling, although some defects and embedded particles remained. In addition, standard HPR appears to have littlemore » effect on removing embedded particles which remain after each tumbling step, although final polishing media removal was partially affected by standard/extended HPR.« less

  18. [Pathogens in expressed prostatic secretion and their correlation with serum prostate specific antigen: analysis of 320 cases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Jia-Ming; Wu, Kai; Chen, Juan; Shi, Jian-Feng

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the pathogenic infection and its drug resistance in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) and its correlation with serum PSA, and provide some evidence for the systematic and normalized diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis. Three EPS swabs were collected from each of the 320 prostatis patients following measurement of the serum PSA level, 1 for bacterial culture and identification, 1 for detection of Mycoplasma and drug sensitivity, and the other for examination of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen by colloidal gold immunoblot. Totally 244 strains were isolated from the 320 EPS samples, including 188 bacterial strains (dominated by Staphylococcus and sensitive to vancomycin or linezolid) and 44 Mycoplasma and Chlamydia strains (mainly Ureaplasma urealyticum and susceptible to josamycin or doxycycline). The serum PSA level was significantly higher in the pathogen-positive than in the pathogen-negative group ([6.98 +/- 0.56] microg/L vs [2.32 +/- 0.12] microg/L, P < 0.05). Prostatitis may lead to the elevation of the serum PSA level and the pathogens involved vary in their resistance to different antibacterial spectrums. Therefore, appropriate and individualized antibiotic therapy should be selected according to etiological diagnosis and the results of drug sensitivity test.

  19. Trithorax monomethylates histone H3K4 and interacts directly with CBP to promote H3K27 acetylation and antagonize Polycomb silencing

    PubMed Central

    Tie, Feng; Banerjee, Rakhee; Saiakhova, Alina R.; Howard, Benny; Monteith, Kelsey E.; Scacheri, Peter C.; Cosgrove, Michael S.; Harte, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Trithorax (TRX) antagonizes epigenetic silencing by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, stimulates enhancer-dependent transcription, and establishes a ‘cellular memory’ of active transcription of PcG-regulated genes. The mechanisms underlying these TRX functions remain largely unknown, but are presumed to involve its histone H3K4 methyltransferase activity. We report that the SET domains of TRX and TRX-related (TRR) have robust histone H3K4 monomethyltransferase activity in vitro and that Tyr3701 of TRX and Tyr2404 of TRR prevent them from being trimethyltransferases. The trxZ11 missense mutation (G3601S), which abolishes H3K4 methyltransferase activity in vitro, reduces the H3K4me1 but not the H3K4me3 level in vivo. trxZ11 also suppresses the impaired silencing phenotypes of the Pc3 mutant, suggesting that H3K4me1 is involved in antagonizing Polycomb silencing. Polycomb silencing is also antagonized by TRX-dependent H3K27 acetylation by CREB-binding protein (CBP). We show that perturbation of Polycomb silencing by TRX overexpression requires CBP. We also show that TRX and TRR are each physically associated with CBP in vivo, that TRX binds directly to the CBP KIX domain, and that the chromatin binding patterns of TRX and TRR are highly correlated with CBP and H3K4me1 genome-wide. In vitro acetylation of H3K27 by CBP is enhanced on K4me1-containing H3 substrates, and independently altering the H3K4me1 level in vivo, via the H3K4 demethylase LSD1, produces concordant changes in H3K27ac. These data indicate that the catalytic activities of TRX and CBP are physically coupled and suggest that both activities play roles in antagonizing Polycomb silencing, stimulating enhancer activity and cellular memory. PMID:24550119

  20. Prostate Angiogenesis in Development and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Letitia; Gipp, Jerry; Carr, Jason; Loftus, Christopher; Benck, Molly; Lee, Sanghee; Mehta, Vatsal; Vezina, Chad; Bushman, Wade

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostatic inflammation is an important factor in development and progression of BPH/LUTS. This study was performed to characterize the normal development and vascular anatomy of the mouse prostate and then examine, for the first time, the effects of prostatic inflammation on the prostate vasculature. METHODS Adult mice were perfused with India ink to visualize the prostatic vascular anatomy. Immunostaining was performed on the E16.5 UGS and the P5, P20 and adult prostate to characterize vascular development. Uropathogenic E. coli 1677 was instilled transurethrally into adult male mice to induce prostate inflammation. RT-PCR and BrdU labeling was performed to assay anigogenic factor expression and endothelial proliferation, respectively. RESULTS An artery on the ventral surface of the bladder trifurcates near the bladder neck to supply the prostate lobes and seminal vesicle. Development of the prostatic vascular system is associated with endothelial proliferation and robust expression of pro-angiogenic factors Pecam1, Tie1, Tek, Angpt1, Angpt2, Fgf2, Vegfa, Vegfc, Figf. Bacterial-induced prostatic inflammation induced endothelial cell proliferation and increased vascular density but surprisingly decreased pro-angiogenic factor expression. CONCLUSIONS The striking decrease in pro-angiogenic factor mRNA expression associated with endothelial proliferation and increased vascular density during inflammation suggests that endothelial response to injury is not a recapitulation of normal development and may be initiated and regulated by different regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24293357

  1. CREB-binding protein (CBP) regulates β-adrenoceptor (β-AR)−mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y Y; Moujalled, D; Doerflinger, M; Gangoda, L; Weston, R; Rahimi, A; de Alboran, I; Herold, M; Bouillet, P; Xu, Q; Gao, X; Du, X-J; Puthalakath, H

    2013-01-01

    Catecholamines regulate the β-adrenoceptor/cyclic AMP-regulated protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway. Deregulation of this pathway can cause apoptotic cell death and is implicated in a range of human diseases, such as neuronal loss during aging, cardiomyopathy and septic shock. The molecular mechanism of this process is, however, only poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the β-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA pathway triggers apoptosis through the transcriptional induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bim in tissues such as the thymus and the heart. In these cell types, the catecholamine-mediated apoptosis is abrogated by loss of Bim. Induction of Bim is driven by the transcriptional co-activator CBP (CREB-binding protein) together with the proto-oncogene c-Myc. Association of CBP with c-Myc leads to altered histone acetylation and methylation pattern at the Bim promoter site. Our findings have implications for understanding pathophysiology associated with a deregulated neuroendocrine system and for developing novel therapeutic strategies for these diseases. PMID:23579242

  2. The hydrophobic repeated domain of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose-binding protein (CbpA) has specific interactions with endoglucanases.

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, M; Hashida, S; Goldstein, M A; Doi, R H

    1993-01-01

    We overexpressed one of the hydrophobic repeated domains (HBDs) (110 amino acid residues) of the cellulose-binding protein (CbpA) from Clostridium cellulovorans by making a hybrid protein with the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein (MalE). The HBD was purified to homogeneity, and interactions between the HBD and endoglucanases were analyzed by a novel interaction Western blotting (immunoblotting) method. The HBD had specific interactions with endoglucanases (EngB and EngD) from C. cellulovorans. These results indicated that the HBD was an endoglucanase binding site of CbpA. Images PMID:8226657

  3. Photoluminescence studies on holmium (III) and praseodymium (III) doped calcium borophosphate (CBP) phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Prasad, V.; Damodaraiah, S.; Devara, S. N.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2018-05-01

    Using solid state reaction method, Ho3+ and Pr3+ doped calcium borophosphate (CBP) phosphors were prepared. These phosphors were characterized using XRD, SEM, FT-IR, 31P solid state NMR, photoluminescence (PL) and decay profiles. Structural details were discussed from XRD and FT-IR spectra. From 31P NMR spectra of these phosphors, mono-phosphate complexes Q0-(PO43-) were observed. Photoluminescence spectra were measured for both Ho3+ and Pr3+ doped calcium borophosphate phosphors and the spectra were studied for different concentrations. Decay curves were obtained for the excited level, 5F4+5S2 of Ho3+ and 1D2 level of Pr3+ in these calcium borophosphate phosphors and lifetimes were measured. CIE color chromaticity diagrams are drawn for these two rare earth ions in calcium borophosphate phosphors. Results show that Ho3+ and Pr3+ doped CBP phosphors might be served as green and red luminescence materials.

  4. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  5. Chronic Prostatic Infection and Inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a Rat Prostate Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  6. Loss of p300 and CBP disrupts histone acetylation at the mouse Sry promoter and causes XY gonadal sex reversal

    PubMed Central

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Siggers, Pam; Xipolita, Marilena; Brindle, Paul; Lutz, Beat; Wells, Sara; Greenfield, Andy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract CREB-binding protein (CBP, CREBBP, KAT3A) and its closely related paralogue p300 (EP300, KAT3B), together termed p300/CBP, are histone/lysine acetyl-transferases that control gene expression by modifying chromatin-associated proteins. Here, we report roles for both of these chromatin-modifying enzymes in mouse sex determination, the process by which the embryonic gonad develops into a testis or an ovary. By targeting gene ablation to embryonic gonadal somatic cells using an inducible Cre line, we show that gonads lacking either gene exhibit major abnormalities of XY gonad development at 14.5 dpc, including partial sex reversal. Embryos lacking three out of four functional copies of p300/Cbp exhibit complete XY gonadal sex reversal and have greatly reduced expression of the key testis-determining genes Sry and Sox9. An analysis of histone acetylation at the Sry promoter in mutant gonads at 11.5 dpc shows a reduction in levels of the positive histone mark H3K27Ac. Our data suggest a role for CBP/p300 in testis determination mediated by control of histone acetylation at the Sry locus and reveal a novel element in the epigenetic control of Sry and mammalian sex determination. They also suggest possible novel causes of human disorders of sex development (DSD). PMID:29145650

  7. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF HTLV-1 TAX INTERACTION WITH THE KIX DOMAIN OF CBP/p300

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Julita A.; Nyborg, Jennifer K.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The viral oncoprotein Tax mediates transcriptional activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Both Tax and the cellular transcription factor CREB bind to viral cyclic AMP response elements (vCREs) located in the viral promoter. Tax and serine 133 phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) bound to the HTLV-1 promoter facilitate viral transcription via the recruitment of the large cellular coactivators CBP/p300. While the interaction between the phosphorylated kinase inducible domain (pKID) of pCREB and the KIX domain of CBP/p300 has been well-characterized, the molecular interactions between KIX, full-length Tax, and pCREB have not been examined. In this study we biochemically characterized the interaction between Tax and KIX in a physiologically relevant complex containing pCREB and vCRE DNA. Our data show that Tax and pCREB simultaneously and independently bind two distinct surfaces on the KIX domain: Tax binds KIX at the previously-characterized mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) protein interaction surface while pCREB binds KIX at the pKID-KIX interface. These results provide evidence for a model in which Tax and pCREB bind distinct surfaces of KIX for effective CBP/p300 recruitment to the HTLV-1 promoter. We also show that MLL competes with Tax for KIX binding, suggesting a novel mechanism of Tax oncogenesis in which normal MLL function is disrupted by Tax. PMID:17707401

  8. HTLV-1 Tax Oncoprotein Inhibits the Estrogen-Induced-ER α-Mediated BRCA1 Expression by Interaction with CBP/p300 Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Shukrun, Meital; Jabareen, Azhar; Abou-Kandil, Ammar; Chamias, Rachel; Aboud, Mordechai; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    BRCA1 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor, whose expression is activated by the estrogen (E2)-liganded ERα receptor and regulated by certain recruited transcriptional co-activators. Interference with BRCA1 expression and/or functions leads to high risk of breast or/and ovarian cancer. Another multifunctional protein, HTLV-1Tax oncoprotein, is widely regarded as crucial for developing adult T-cell leukemia and other clinical disorders. Tax profile reveals that it can antagonize BRCA1 expression and/or functionality. Therefore, we hypothesize that Tax expression in breast cells can sensitize them to malignant transformation by environmental carcinogens. Here we examined Tax effect on BRCA1 expression by testing its influence on E2-induced expression of BRCA1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter (BRCA1-Luc). We found that E2 strongly stimulated this reporter expression by liganding to ERα, which consequently associated with BRCA1 promoter, while ERα concomitantly recruited CBP/p300 to this complex for co-operative enhancement of BRCA1 expression. Introducing Tax into these cells strongly blocked this E2-ERα-mediated activation of BRCA1 expression. We noted, also, that Tax exerted this inhibition by binding to CBP/p300 without releasing them from their complex with ERα. Chip assay revealed that the binding of Tax to the CBP/p300-ERα complex, prevented its link to AP1 site. Interestingly, we noted that elevating the intracellular pool of CBP or p300 to excessive levels dramatically reduced the Tax-mediated inhibition of BRCA1 expression. Exploring the mechanism of this reduction revealed that the excessive co-factors were sufficient to bind separately the free Tax molecules, thus lowering their amount in the CBP/p300-ERα complex and relieving, thereby, the inhibition of BRCA1 expression. PMID:24586743

  9. Exploration of material removal rate of srf elliptical cavities as a function of media type and cavity shape on niobium and copper using centrifugal barrel polishing (cbp)

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Li, Yongming

    Centrifugal barrel polishing (cbp) for SRF application is becoming more wide spread as the technique for cavity surface preparation. CBP is now being used in some form at SRF laboratories around the world including in the US, Europe and Asia. Before the process can become as mature as wet chemistry like eletro-polishing (EP) and buffered chemical polishing (BCP) there are many questions which remain unanswered. One of these topics includes the uniformity of removal as a function of cavity shape and material type. In this presentation we show CBP removal rates for various media types on 1.3 GHz TESLA andmore » 1.5 GHz CEBAF large/fine grain niobium cavities, and 1.3GHz low surface field copper cavity. The data will also include calculated RF frequency shift modeling non-uniform removal as a function of cavity position and comparing them with CBP results.« less

  10. Roles of ER, SRC-1, and CBP Phosphorylation in Estrogen Receptor-Regulated Gene Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    J. S. Sutcliff, P. Fang, R. J. Galjaard, Y. H. Jiang, C. S. localization of three repair genes: the xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene Benton, J. M...receptor-mediated scription efficiency, a central DNA-binding domain, which me- transcription; SRC-1, p300/CBP, and RAC3/ACTR/AIB1 pos - diates receptor

  11. Domain wise docking analyses of the modular chitin binding protein CBP50 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar konkukian S4.

    PubMed

    Sehar, Ujala; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Hussain, Khadim; Nawaz, Salman; Nadeem, Shahid; Siddique, Muhammad Hussnain; Nadeem, Habibullah; Gull, Munazza; Ahmad, Niaz; Sohail, Iqra; Gill, Saba Shahid; Majeed, Summera

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in silico characterization of the chitin binding protein CBP50 from B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian S4 through homology modeling and molecular docking. The CBP50 has shown a modular structure containing an N-terminal CBM33 domain, two consecutive fibronectin-III (Fn-III) like domains and a C-terminal CBM5 domain. The protein presented a unique modular structure which could not be modeled using ordinary procedures. So, domain wise modeling using MODELLER and docking analyses using Autodock Vina were performed. The best conformation for each domain was selected using standard procedure. It was revealed that four amino acid residues Glu-71, Ser-74, Glu-76 and Gln-90 from N-terminal domain are involved in protein-substrate interaction. Similarly, amino acid residues Trp-20, Asn-21, Ser-23 and Val-30 of Fn-III like domains and Glu-15, Ala-17, Ser-18 and Leu-35 of C-terminal domain were involved in substrate binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of these proposed amino acid residues in future will elucidate the key amino acids involved in chitin binding activity of CBP50 protein.

  12. Initial test of MITA/DIMM with an operational CBP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Kevin; Hanna, Randall; Brown, Andrea; Brown, David; Moyer, Steven; Hixson, Jonathan G.

    2018-05-01

    The MITA (Motion Imagery Task Analyzer) project was conceived by CBP OA (Customs and Border Protection - Office of Acquisition) and executed by JHU/APL (Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory) and CERDEC NVESD MSD (Communications and Electronics Research Development Engineering Command Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate Modeling and Simulation Division). The intent was to develop an efficient methodology whereby imaging system performance could be quickly and objectively characterized in a field setting. The initial design, development, and testing spanned a period of approximately 18 months with the initial project coming to a conclusion after testing of the MITA system in June 2017 with a fielded CBP system. The NVESD contribution to MITA was thermally heated target resolution boards deployed to support a range close to the sensor and, when possible, at range with the targets of interest. JHU/APL developed a laser DIMM (Differential Image Motion Monitor) system designed to measure the optical turbulence present along the line of sight of the imaging system during the time of image collection. The imagery collected of the target board was processed to calculate the in situ system resolution. This in situ imaging system resolution and the time-correlated turbulence measured by the DIMM system were used in NV-IPM (Night Vision Integrated Performance Model) to calculate the theoretical imaging system performance. Overall, this proves the MITA concept feasible. However, MITA is still in the initial phases of development and requires further verification and validation to ensure accuracy and reliability of both the instrument and the imaging system performance predictions.

  13. 75 FR 52446 - CBP Dec. 10-29; Technical Corrections to Customs and Border Protection Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... that the importing and general public are aware of CBP programs, requirements, and procedures regarding... Stat. 2597. Therefore, in order to reflect the inclusion of clerical error, mistake of fact, or other... certification of origin import requirements under the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (CFTA), contains...

  14. An Exposed KID-Like Domain in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Tax Is Responsible for the Recruitment of Coactivators CBP/p300

    PubMed Central

    Harrod, Robert; Tang, Yong; Nicot, Christophe; Lu, Hsieng S.; Vassilev, Alex; Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Giam, Chou-Zen

    1998-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) transcriptional activation is mediated by the viral transactivator, Tax, and three 21-bp repeats (Tax response element [TxRE]) located in the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). Each TxRE contains a core cyclic AMP response element (CRE) flanked by 5′ G-rich and 3′ C-rich sequences. The TxRE binds CREB (CRE-binding protein) and Tax to form a ternary complex and confers Tax-dependent transactivation. Recent data indicate that Tax functions as a specific link to connect CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300 in a phosphorylation-independent manner to CREB/ATF-1 assembled on the viral 21-bp repeats. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down performed with Tax deletion mutants and peptide competition have localized the site in Tax critical for binding CBP/p300 to a highly protease-sensitive region around amino acid residues 81 to 95 (81QRTSKTLKVLTPPIT95) which lies between the domains previously proposed to be important for CREB binding and Tax subunit dimerization. Amino acid residues around the trypsin- and chymotrypsin-sensitive sites (88KVL90) of Tax bear resemblance to those in the kinase-inducible domain of CREB (129SRRPSYRKILNE140) surrounding Ser-133, which undergoes signal-induced phosphorylation to recruit CBP/p300. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in this domain (R82A, K85A, K88A, and V89A) resulted in proteins which failed to transactivate from the HTLV-1 LTR in vivo. These mutants (K85A, K88A, and V89A) bind CREB with similar affinities as wild-type Tax, yet interaction with CBP/p300 is abrogated in various biochemical assays, indicating that the recruitment of CBP/p300 is crucial for Tax transactivation. A Tax mutant, M47, defective in the COOH-terminal transactivation domain, continued to interact with CBP/p300, suggesting that interactions with additional cellular factors are required for proper Tax function. PMID:9710589

  15. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... information collection requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing...

  16. Chronic Infection of the Prostate by Chlamydia muridarum Is Accompanied by Local Inflammation and Pelvic Pain Development.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Leonardo R; Breser, Maria L; Godoy, Gloria J; Salazar, Florencia C; Mackern-Oberti, Juan P; Cuffini, Cecilia; Motrich, Ruben D; Rivero, Virginia E

    2017-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research is mainly focused on women, neglecting the study of male genital tract infections. We, therefore, investigated Chlamydia infection in the rodent male genital tract. Male NOD and C57BL/6 mice were inoculated in the meatus urethra with C. muridarum. Bacterial DNA, leukocyte infiltration of male genital tract tissues, pelvic pain, and Chlamydia-specific immune responses were analyzed at different time points. The inoculation of C. muridarum in the meatus urethra of male mice resulted in an ascending and widely disseminated infection of the male genital tract. C. muridarum remained longer and with the highest bacterial burdens in the prostate, thus showing a special tropism for this organ. Infection caused leukocyte infiltration, mainly composed by neutrophils, and also induced early pelvic pain development that rapidly dropped and resolved as the infection became chronic. Bacterial load and leukocyte infiltration was observed in all prostate lobes, although dorsolateral prostate was the most affected lobe. Interestingly, immune responses induced by both mice strains were characterized by the production of high levels of IL-10 during early stages of the infection, with highest and sustained levels observed in NOD mice, which showed to be less efficient in clearing the infection. Chronic infection of the prostate accompanied by local inflammation and pelvic pain development described herein have important implications for the improvement of the diagnosis and for the design of new efficient therapies. Prostate 77:517-529, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The histone acetyltransferases CBP and Chameau integrate developmental and DNA replication programs in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Kristopher H.; Dixon, Michael; Calvi, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    DNA replication origin activity changes during development. Chromatin modifications are known to influence the genomic location of origins and the time during S phase that they initiate replication in different cells. However, how chromatin regulates origins in concert with cell differentiation remains poorly understood. Here, we use developmental gene amplification in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells as a model to investigate how chromatin modifiers regulate origins in a developmental context. We find that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Chameau (Chm) binds to amplicon origins and is partially required for their function. Depletion of Chm had relatively mild effects on origins during gene amplification and genomic replication compared with previous knockdown of its ortholog HBO1 in human cells, which has severe effects on origin function. We show that another HAT, CBP (Nejire), also binds amplicon origins and is partially required for amplification. Knockdown of Chm and CBP together had a more severe effect on nucleosome acetylation and amplicon origin activity than knockdown of either HAT alone, suggesting that these HATs collaborate in origin regulation. In addition to their local function at the origin, we show that Chm and CBP also globally regulate the developmental transition of follicle cells into the amplification stages of oogenesis. Our results reveal a complexity of origin epigenetic regulation by multiple HATs during development and suggest that chromatin modifiers are a nexus that integrates differentiation and DNA replication programs. PMID:22951641

  18. HDAC Inhibition Modulates Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory for Object Location in a CBP-Dependent Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haettig, Jakob; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Multani, Monica L.; Figueroa, Dario X.; McQuown, Susan C.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription of genes required for long-term memory not only involves transcription factors, but also enzymatic protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. Chromatin-modifying enzymes, such as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB (cyclic-AMP response element binding) binding protein (CBP), are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation…

  19. P300/CBP acts as a coactivator to cartilage homeoprotein-1 (Cart1), paired-like homeoprotein, through acetylation of the conserved lysine residue adjacent to the homeodomain.

    PubMed

    Iioka, Takashi; Furukawa, Keizo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tsukazaki, Tomoo

    2003-08-01

    The paired-like homeoprotein, Cart1, is involved in skeletal development. We describe here that the general coactivator p300/CBP controls the transcription activity of Cart1 through acetylation of a lysine residue that is highly conserved in other homeoproteins. Acetylation of this residue increases the interaction between p300/CBP and Cart1 and enhances its transcriptional activation. Cart1 encodes a paired-like homeoprotein expressed selectively in chondrocyte lineage during embryonic development. Although its target gene remains unknown, gene disruption studies have revealed that Cart1 plays an important role for craniofacial bone formation as well as limb development by cooperating with another homeoprotein, Alx4. In this report, we study the functional involvement of p300/CBP, coactivators with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, in the transcriptional control of Cart1. To study the transcription activity of Cart1, a reporter construct containing a putative Cart1 binding site was transiently transfected with the expression vectors of each protein. The interaction between p300/CBP and Cart1 was investigated by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and immunoprecipitation assays. In vitro acetylation assay was performed with the recombinant p300-HAT domain and Cart1 in the presence of acetyl-CoA. p300 and CBP stimulate Cart1-dependent transcription activity, and this transactivation is inhibited by E1A and Tax, oncoproteins that suppress the activity of p300/CBP. Cart1 binds to p300 in vivo and in vitro, and this requires the homeodomain of Cart 1 and N-terminal 139 amino acids of p300. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that Cart1 recruits overexpressed and endogenous p300 to a Cart1-specific subnuclear compartment. Cart1 is acetylated in vivo and sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, histone deacetylase inhibitors, markedly enhance the transcription activity of Cart1. Deletion and mutagenesis analysis identifies the 131st

  20. Contribution of Streptococcus mutans Strains with Collagen-Binding Proteins in the Presence of Serum to the Pathogenesis of Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Otsugu, Masatoshi; Nomura, Ryota; Matayoshi, Saaya; Teramoto, Noboru; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2017-12-01

    Streptococcus mutans , a major pathogen of dental caries, is considered one of the causative agents of infective endocarditis (IE). Recently, bacterial DNA encoding 120-kDa cell surface collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) has frequently been detected from S. mutans -positive IE patients. In addition, some of the CBP-positive S. mutans strains lacked a 190-kDa protein antigen (PA), whose absence strengthened the adhesion to and invasion of endothelial cells. The interaction between pathogenic bacteria and serum or plasma is considered an important virulence factor in developing systemic diseases; thus, we decided to analyze the pathogenesis of IE induced by S. mutans strains with different patterns of CBP and PA expression by focusing on the interaction with serum or plasma. CBP-positive (CBP + )/PA-negative (PA - ) strains showed prominent aggregation in the presence of human serum or plasma, which was significantly greater than that with CBP + /PA-positive (PA + ) and CBP-negative (CBP - )/PA+ strains. Aggregation of CBP + /PA - strains was also observed in the presence of a high concentration of type IV collagen, a major extracellular matrix protein in serum. In addition, aggregation of CBP + /PA - strains was drastically reduced when serum complement was inactivated. Furthermore, an ex vivo adherence model and an in vivo rat model of IE showed that extirpated heart valves infected with CBP + /PA - strains displayed prominent bacterial mass formation, which was not observed following infection with CBP + /PA + and CBP - /PA + strains. These results suggest that CBP + /PA - S. mutans strains utilize serum to contribute to their pathogenicity in IE. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. LncRNA-HIT Functions as an Epigenetic Regulator of Chondrogenesis through Its Recruitment of p100/CBP Complexes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Hanqian L; Quinn, Jeffrey J; Yang, Yul W; Thornburg, Chelsea K; Chang, Howard Y; Stadler, H Scott

    2015-12-01

    Gene expression profiling in E 11 mouse embryos identified high expression of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), LNCRNA-HIT in the undifferentiated limb mesenchyme, gut, and developing genital tubercle. In the limb mesenchyme, LncRNA-HIT was found to be retained in the nucleus, forming a complex with p100 and CBP. Analysis of the genome-wide distribution of LncRNA-HIT-p100/CBP complexes by ChIRP-seq revealed LncRNA-HIT associated peaks at multiple loci in the murine genome. Ontological analysis of the genes contacted by LncRNA-HIT-p100/CBP complexes indicate a primary role for these loci in chondrogenic differentiation. Functional analysis using siRNA-mediated reductions in LncRNA-HIT or p100 transcripts revealed a significant decrease in expression of many of the LncRNA-HIT-associated loci. LncRNA-HIT siRNA treatments also impacted the ability of the limb mesenchyme to form cartilage, reducing mesenchymal cell condensation and the formation of cartilage nodules. Mechanistically the LncRNA-HIT siRNA treatments impacted pro-chondrogenic gene expression by reducing H3K27ac or p100 activity, confirming that LncRNA-HIT is essential for chondrogenic differentiation in the limb mesenchyme. Taken together, these findings reveal a fundamental epigenetic mechanism functioning during early limb development, using LncRNA-HIT and its associated proteins to promote the expression of multiple genes whose products are necessary for the formation of cartilage.

  2. LncRNA-HIT Functions as an Epigenetic Regulator of Chondrogenesis through Its Recruitment of p100/CBP Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Hanqian L.; Quinn, Jeffrey J.; Yang, Yul W.; Thornburg, Chelsea K.; Chang, Howard Y.; Stadler, H. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression profiling in E 11 mouse embryos identified high expression of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), LNCRNA-HIT in the undifferentiated limb mesenchyme, gut, and developing genital tubercle. In the limb mesenchyme, LncRNA-HIT was found to be retained in the nucleus, forming a complex with p100 and CBP. Analysis of the genome-wide distribution of LncRNA-HIT-p100/CBP complexes by ChIRP-seq revealed LncRNA-HIT associated peaks at multiple loci in the murine genome. Ontological analysis of the genes contacted by LncRNA-HIT-p100/CBP complexes indicate a primary role for these loci in chondrogenic differentiation. Functional analysis using siRNA-mediated reductions in LncRNA-HIT or p100 transcripts revealed a significant decrease in expression of many of the LncRNA-HIT-associated loci. LncRNA-HIT siRNA treatments also impacted the ability of the limb mesenchyme to form cartilage, reducing mesenchymal cell condensation and the formation of cartilage nodules. Mechanistically the LncRNA-HIT siRNA treatments impacted pro-chondrogenic gene expression by reducing H3K27ac or p100 activity, confirming that LncRNA-HIT is essential for chondrogenic differentiation in the limb mesenchyme. Taken together, these findings reveal a fundamental epigenetic mechanism functioning during early limb development, using LncRNA-HIT and its associated proteins to promote the expression of multiple genes whose products are necessary for the formation of cartilage. PMID:26633036

  3. Contribution of Streptococcus mutans Strains with Collagen-Binding Proteins in the Presence of Serum to the Pathogenesis of Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Otsugu, Masatoshi; Matayoshi, Saaya; Teramoto, Noboru; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, is considered one of the causative agents of infective endocarditis (IE). Recently, bacterial DNA encoding 120-kDa cell surface collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) has frequently been detected from S. mutans-positive IE patients. In addition, some of the CBP-positive S. mutans strains lacked a 190-kDa protein antigen (PA), whose absence strengthened the adhesion to and invasion of endothelial cells. The interaction between pathogenic bacteria and serum or plasma is considered an important virulence factor in developing systemic diseases; thus, we decided to analyze the pathogenesis of IE induced by S. mutans strains with different patterns of CBP and PA expression by focusing on the interaction with serum or plasma. CBP-positive (CBP+)/PA-negative (PA−) strains showed prominent aggregation in the presence of human serum or plasma, which was significantly greater than that with CBP+/PA-positive (PA+) and CBP-negative (CBP−)/PA+ strains. Aggregation of CBP+/PA− strains was also observed in the presence of a high concentration of type IV collagen, a major extracellular matrix protein in serum. In addition, aggregation of CBP+/PA− strains was drastically reduced when serum complement was inactivated. Furthermore, an ex vivo adherence model and an in vivo rat model of IE showed that extirpated heart valves infected with CBP+/PA− strains displayed prominent bacterial mass formation, which was not observed following infection with CBP+/PA+ and CBP−/PA+ strains. These results suggest that CBP+/PA− S. mutans strains utilize serum to contribute to their pathogenicity in IE. PMID:28947650

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Prostatic abscess: a clinical case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carroll, David E; Marr, Ian; Huang, G Khai Lin; Holt, Deborah C; Tong, Steven Y C; Boutlis, Craig S

    2017-07-21

    Prostatic abscess is a rare complication of acute bacterial prostatitis and is most commonly caused by Enterobacteriaceae. We report on a case of prostatic abscess caused by Staphylococcus aureus and conduct a review of the literature. We present a case of S. aureus prostatic abscess that was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotic and surgical therapy. The isolate was non–multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and was genotyped as clonal complex 5, an emerging regional clone that is trimethoprim resistant and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive. This current case report is the first to describe the use of clindamycin step-down therapy. A literature review identified a further 39 cases of S. aureus prostatic abscesses, of which 26 were methicillin resistant. S. aureus is an uncommon cause of prostatic abscess. Optimal management includes both antibiotic therapy and surgical drainage. Our use of clindamycin as step-down therapy was guided by its excellent prostatic penetration.

  5. A Preliminary Analysis of Calcifying Particles in the Serum and Prostates of Patients with Prostatic Inflammation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Carlson, Grant; Kajander, E. Olavi; Warmflash, David; Taylor, Karen; Ayala, Gustavo; Shoskes, Daniel; Everett, Meg; Feedback, Dan; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2006-01-01

    Chronic diseases of the prostate such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) & chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) have associated findings of chronic inflammation, despite a lack of causal relationship. Numerous attempts to define an infectious agent responsible for the clinical findings have been inconsistent. The possibility of an infectious agent, that has not been uncovered with routine culturing methods, forms the basis for this study. Serum from 940 healthy Finnish men were compared with serum from 40 Crohn's, 40 path dx prostatitis, & 40 with path dx carcinoma, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), to detect antigens specific to Nanobacteria(NB) utilizing monoclonal antibodies (Ab) 5/3 and 8D10. This ELISA has not been validated for detecting NB-associated with clinical prostatic disease, yet cross-reactivity with other bacterial species is low. Immunohistochemistry was performed on de-paraffinized prostatic tissue slides, de-calcified with EDTA and stained with the DAKO Catalyzed Signal Amplification kit, employing 8D10 as the primary (target/antigen-detecting) Ab. The mean (plus or minus SD) & median concentrations of NB antigen (U/50 L) were 379.59 (plus or minus 219.28) & 640.00 for patients with prostatitis (BPH) vs 3.31 (plus or minus 3.55) & 2.94 for prostate adenocarcinoma, 1.88 (plus or minus 2.94) & 0.80 for Crohn's disease, & 7.43 (plus or minus 25.57) & 0.00 for patients with no clinical prostatic disease. Unpaired t-tests revealed statistically significant differences between the prostatitis (BPH) sera & each of the other groups with p less than 0.005, but no differences between the other groups themselves. Preliminary studies with immunohistochemistry & 3-D confocal microscopy reveal 16/24 tissue sections + for NB Ag in BPH vs. only 2/22 tissue sections with prostate cancer. The preliminary findings of this serum screening study suggest that NB antigen may be commonly found in the serum of patients with the pathological diagnosis

  6. [Recognition and thoughts for diagnosis and treatment of chronic prostatitis in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine].

    PubMed

    Song, Shu-qi; Zhang, Ya-qiang

    2009-12-01

    The etiology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic criteria of chronic prostatitis were reviewed in this article. Based on clinical practice, the authors systematically discussed the thoughts and methods for the treatment of chronic prostatitis by integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Meanwhile, advice on disputed problems in clinical study of prostatits were given, such as curative effect estimation value of the number of leukocytes in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) and bacterial culture in EPS, the opportunity and treatment course of antibiotics, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index, classification of syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), TCM symptom score, and clinical study period.

  7. Bacteriological Profile of Isolates From Urine Samples in Patients of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and or Prostatitis Showing Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prem Prakash; Prakash, Ved; Singh, Kashmir; Mog, H; Agarwal, Sumit

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Prostatitis is increasing considerably worldwide. The Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) due to bacterial aetiology are one of the common factors for the complications among the patients. To determine the bacterial agents and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern from the urine samples of patients of BPH or Prostatitis showing symptoms of LUTS. The cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital of Northern India from June 2014 to May 2015. A total of 105 urine specimens from patients of BPH and/ or Prostatitis were cultured by a semi-quantitative method. The isolated bacteria were identified by colony morphology, Gram's staining, motility and biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity was done according to the CLSI 2007 guidelines by disc diffusion method. Data was analysed by SPSS and Microsoft office 2007. Proportions and percentages were used as statistical measures. The urine cultures from patients with BPH and or chronic Prostatitis, showed n=66/105 (62.85%) culture positivity. Out of 66 isolates the frequency was in following order Escherichia coli 21/66 (31.81%), Klebsiella spp 19/66 (28.78%), Staphylococcus aureus 11/66 (16.66%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.60%), Proteus spp, Enterococcus spp, Acinetobacter spp and Citrobacter spp. The most susceptible 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd line antibiotics for Gram negative isolates were ampicillin, amikacin and tigecycline respectively. Amongst the Gram positive isolates, the susceptible 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd line antibiotics were cefoxitin, vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. Multidrug resistance was seen in Escherichia coli (n=6), Klebsiella spp (n=7), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=4) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=3). Based on the above findings we can say that accurate aetiology of the LUTS among the patients of BPH and/or Prostatitis is warranted to initiate the therapeutic management. Based on our

  8. Acupuncture for chronic prostatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tianzhong; Cheng, Ying; Jin, Yuhao; Xu, Na; Guo, Taipin

    2018-04-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a prevalent genitourinary condition. Considering its safety profile, acupuncture can be an option treating CP symptoms. The aim of this review is to undertake a systematic review to estimate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture on CP. We will search all randomized controlled trials for CP in August 2018 in the databases of MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, Springer, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan fang, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), PsycInfo, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and other available resources. Languages are limited as English and Chinese. Search terms used are will "acupuncture," and "chronic prostatitis," "non-bacterial prostatitis," "abacterial prostatitis." And duplicates will be screened. The primary outcomes consisted of improvement rate and pain relief evaluated by The National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) index. Secondary outcomes include the recurrence rate and side effects, such as pneumothorax, discomforts, and infection. This study will demonstrate an evidence-based review of acupuncture for chronic prostatitis. The study will provide clear evidence to assess the effectiveness and side effects of acupuncture for chronic prostatitis. There is no requirement of ethical approval and it will be in print or disseminated by electronic copies. CRD42018088834.

  9. 78 FR 15962 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection-DHS/CBP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... recognized by Customs and Border Protection, through a mutual recognition arrangement or comparable... been recognized by CBP, through a mutual recognition arrangement or comparable arrangement, as being... or through Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRA) or memoranda of understanding relating to...

  10. [Ultrasound physiotherapy treatment of prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Talberg, P I; Andryukhin, M I; Mazina, S E; Nikolaev, A L

    2016-12-01

    Develop a method of treatment of prostatitis based on the use of a standard antibiotic, immunomodulatory therapy, and transrectal ultrasound physiotherapy. The dynamics of the accumulation of the antibiotic was investigated in male rats. Sonication was performed immediately before the administration of the antibiotic and its accumulation in the process at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 min after dosing. The clinical study included 138 patients with chronic prostatitis. Patients of the experimental group, in addition to standard therapy, 10 sessions of transrectal ultrasound physical therapy was performed. The efficacy of treatment was assessed after 14 and 28 days after initiation. and its discussion. Experiments on laboratory animals have shown that the highest concentration and the residence time of antibiotic in the prostate tissue is noted ultrasonic treatment in the period of maximum blood concentration of the test drug. The data obtained allow to determine that the ultrasonic treatment must be performed considering the pharmacokinetics of the antibiotic. In conducting clinical trials on day 14 of treatment and clinical manifestations of prostatitis bacterial microflora in prostatic secretions were no patients in both groups. In 15% of patients of the experimental group the number of leukocytes decreased to the normal range. After 28 days the amount of leukocytes was normal in 51% of patients in the control and 85% in the experimental group. In animal experiments defined the optimal time interval separating the moment of injection of the antibiotic from the beginning of sonication. Clinical studies have shown that the transrectal ultrasound exposure during the period of maximum concentration of the antibiotic in the blood, improves patient outcomes by 33.8%.

  11. Boric acid inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Wade T; Eckhert, Curtis D

    2004-12-08

    The role of boron in biology includes coordinated regulation of gene expression in mixed bacterial populations and the growth and proliferation of higher plants and lower animals. Here we report that boric acid, the dominant form of boron in plasma, inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines, DU-145 and LNCaP, in a dose-dependent manner. Non-tumorigenic prostate cell lines, PWR-1E and RWPE-1, and the cancer line PC-3 were also inhibited, but required concentrations higher than observed human blood levels. Studies using DU-145 cells showed that boric acid induced a cell death-independent proliferative inhibition, with little effect on cell cycle stage distribution and mitochondrial function.

  12. Arginine methylation of translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) inhibits its binding to long noncoding RNA, abrogating TLS-mediated repression of CBP/p300 activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Yoneda, Ryoma; Ueda, Naomi; Kurokawa, Riki

    2018-05-21

    Translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) is an RNA-binding protein and a transcription-regulatory sensor of DNA damage. TLS binds promoter-associated noncoding RNA (pncRNA) and inhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of CREB-binding protein (CBP)/E1A-binding protein P300 (p300) on the cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene. Although post-translational modifications of TLS, such as arginine methylation, are known to regulate TLS's nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and assembly in stress granules, its interactions with RNAs remain poorly characterized. Herein, using various biochemical assays, we confirmed the earlier observations that TLS is methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) in vitro. The arginine methylation of TLS disrupted binding to pncRNA and also prevented binding of TLS to and inhibition of CBP/p300. This result indicated that arginine methylation of TLS abrogates both binding to pncRNA and TLS-mediated inhibition of CBP/p300 HAT activities. We also report that an arginine residue within the Arg-Gly-Gly domain of TLS, Arg-476, serves as the major determinant for binding to pncRNA. Either methylation or mutation of Arg-476 of TLS significantly decreased pncRNA binding and thereby prevented a pncRNA-induced allosteric alteration in TLS that is required for its interaction with CBP/p300. Moreover, unlike wildtype TLS, an R476A TLS mutant did not inhibit CCND1 promoter activity in luciferase reporter assays. Taken together, we propose the hypothesis that arginine methylation of TLS regulates both TLS-nucleic acid and TLS-protein interactions and thereby participates in transcriptional regulation. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Detection of sexually transmitted pathogens in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Papeš, Dino; Pasini, Miram; Jerončić, Ana; Vargović, Martina; Kotarski, Viktor; Markotić, Alemka; Škerk, Višnja

    2017-05-01

    In <10% of patients with prostatitis syndrome, a causative uropathogenic organism can be detected. It has been shown that certain organisms that cause sexually transmitted infections can also cause chronic bacterial prostatitis, which can be hard to diagnose and treat appropriately because prostatic samples obtained by prostatic massage are not routinely tested to detect them. We conducted a clinical study to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia, mycoplasma, and trichomonas infection in 254 patients that were previously diagnosed and treated for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome due to negative urethral swab, urine, and prostate samples. Urethral swabs and standard Meares-Stamey four-glass tests were done. Detailed microbiological analysis was conducted to detect the above organisms. Thirty-five (13.8%) patients had positive expressed prostatic secretions/VB3 samples, of which 22 (10.1%) were sexually transmitted organisms that were not detected on previous tests.

  14. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    PubMed

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P < 0.01) compared with PC and prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P < 0.05). Men (33%) with BPH had PSA antibodies by ELISA and Western blot. These discoveries may find clinical application in differential diagnosis among prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Long-term effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome due to non bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Moayednia, Amir; Haghdani, Saeid; Khosrawi, Saeid; Yousefi, Elham; Vahdatpour, Babak

    2014-04-01

    There is limited evidence about the chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) treatment by shockwave therapy, and the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracorporeal shockwave therapy on CPPS due to non bacterial prostatitis in a long-term period. In a follow-up survey, 40 patients with CPPS (that were randomly distributed into the treatment or sham groups were evaluated at 16, 20, and 24 weeks. In the treatment group, patients were treated by extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) once a week for 4 weeks by a protocol of 3000 impulses, 0.25 mJ/m(2) and 3 Hz of frequency. 0.05 mJ/m(2) were added in each week. In the sham group, the same protocol was applied, but with the probe being turned off. The follow-up assessments were done by visual analog scale for pain and National Institutes of Health-developed Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Data were compared using independent t-test or analysis of variences. Three patients did not complete the study protocol, 37 patients were evlauated (19 patients in treatment and 18 patients in the sham group). At week 24, the mean of pain score, urinary score, quality-of-life and NIH-CPSI score between two groups were not statistically different. Although, ESWT therapy as a safe and effective therapy in CPPS in short-term follow-up has been established, its long-term efficacy was not supported by this study.

  16. [Brd3 promotes IL-6 production via enhancing acetylase CBP recruitment and histone 3 acetylation within IL6 promoter].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenhui; Sun, Donghao; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Objective To investigate the role of bromodomain containing 3 (Brd3) in LPS-triggered interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in macrophages and the underlying mechanism. Methods CRISPR-Cas9 technology was used to screen an RAW264.7 cell line with Brd3 knockout (Brd3 -/- ). The Brd3 -/- cells were used as an experimental group, and the parential cells expressing wide-type Brd3 as a control group. The IL-6 level in cell culture supernatant was detected by ELISA after 100 ng/mL LPS challenging. Effect of Brd3 knockout on the expression and activation of signal pathways involved in IL-6 expression, including the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined by Western blot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to evaluate the recruitment of acetylase CREB-binding protein (CBP) to IL6 gene promoter and the acetylation level of histone 3 within IL6 gene promoter. Results LPS treatment significantly downregulated Brd3 expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages. LPS-induced production of IL-6 was significantly inhibited in Brd3 -/- macrophages. The expressions and activation of signal molecules within NF-κB and MAPK pathways were barely affected. Brd3 knockout significantly decreased the recruitment of acetylase CBP to IL6 gene promoter, and the acetylation level of histone3 within IL6 gene promoter was also repressed. Conclusion Brd3 promotes LPS-triggered IL-6 production via promoting the recruitment of CBP to IL6 promoter and enhancing the acetylation level of histone 3 within IL6 promoter.

  17. Synergistic interaction of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis on prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hung, S-C; Lai, S-W; Tsai, P-Y; Chen, P-C; Wu, H-C; Lin, W-H; Sung, F-C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian men than in Western men. This study investigated whether prostate cancer is associated with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other medical conditions in the low-incidence population. Methods: From the claims data obtained from the universal National Health Insurance of Taiwan, we identified 1184 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2008. Controls comprised 4736 men randomly selected from a cancer-free population. Both groups were 50 years of age or above. Medical histories between the two groups were compared. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prostatitis and BPH had stronger association with prostate cancer than the other medical conditions tested. Compared with men without prostatitis and BPH, a higher odds ratio (OR) for prostate cancer was associated with BPH (26.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8–33.0) than with prostatitis (10.5, 95% CI=3.36–32.7). Men with both conditions had an OR of 49.2 (95% CI=34.7–69.9). Conclusion: Men with prostate cancer have strong association with prostatitis and/or BPH. Prostatitis interacts with BPH, resulting in higher estimated relative risk of prostate cancer in men suffering from both conditions. PMID:23612451

  18. 19 CFR 10.552 - Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States. 10.552 Section 10.552 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Government of Singapore containing a brief statement of the matter at issue and the cooperation requested...

  19. 19 CFR 10.552 - Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States. 10.552 Section 10.552 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Government of Singapore containing a brief statement of the matter at issue and the cooperation requested...

  20. 19 CFR 10.552 - Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States. 10.552 Section 10.552 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Government of Singapore containing a brief statement of the matter at issue and the cooperation requested...

  1. 19 CFR 10.552 - Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States. 10.552 Section 10.552 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Government of Singapore containing a brief statement of the matter at issue and the cooperation requested...

  2. 19 CFR 10.552 - Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States. 10.552 Section 10.552 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Government of Singapore containing a brief statement of the matter at issue and the cooperation requested...

  3. 77 FR 44642 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection-DHS/CBP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection-DHS/CBP-009 Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of...

  4. FDA-approved drugs that protect mammalian neurons from glucose toxicity slow aging dependent on cbp and protect against proteotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lublin, Alex; Isoda, Fumiko; Patel, Harshil; Yen, Kelvin; Nguyen, Linda; Hajje, Daher; Schwartz, Marc; Mobbs, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Screening a library of drugs with known safety profiles in humans yielded 30 drugs that reliably protected mammalian neurons against glucose toxicity. Subsequent screening demonstrated that 6 of these 30 drugs increase lifespan in C. elegans: caffeine, ciclopirox olamine, tannic acid, acetaminophen, bacitracin, and baicalein. Every drug significantly reduced the age-dependent acceleration of mortality rate. These protective effects were blocked by RNAi inhibition of cbp-1 in adults only, which also blocks protective effects of dietary restriction. Only 2 drugs, caffeine and tannic acid, exhibited a similar dependency on DAF-16. Caffeine, tannic acid, and bacitracin also reduced pathology in a transgenic model of proteotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease. These results further support a key role for glucose toxicity in driving age-related pathologies and for CBP-1 in protection against age-related pathologies. These results also provide novel lead compounds with known safety profiles in human for treatment of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetic complications.

  5. Structure-Based Identification of Inhibitory Fragments Targeting the p300/CBP-Associated Factor Bromodomain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The P300/CBP-associated factor plays a central role in retroviral infection and cancer development, and the C-terminal bromodomain provides an opportunity for selective targeting. Here, we report several new classes of acetyl-lysine mimetic ligands ranging from mM to low micromolar affinity that were identified using fragment screening approaches. The binding modes of the most attractive fragments were determined using high resolution crystal structures providing chemical starting points and structural models for the development of potent and selective PCAF inhibitors. PMID:26731131

  6. The acetylation of transcription factor HBP1 by p300/CBP enhances p16INK4A expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weibin; Pan, Kewu; Chen, Yifan; Huang, Chunyin; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    HBP1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor with many important biological roles. It activates or represses the expression of some specific genes during cell growth and differentiation. Previous studies have exhibited that HBP1 binds to p16INK4A promoter and activates p16INK4A expression. We found that trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of HDAC (histone deacetylase), induces p16INK4A expression in an HBP1-dependent manner. This result was drawn from a transactivation experiment by measuring relative luciferase activities of p16INK4A promoter with HBP1-binding site in comparison with that of the wild-type p16INK4A promoter by transient cotransfection with HBP1 into HEK293T cells and 2BS cells. HBP1 acetylation after TSA treatment was confirmed by immunoprecipitation assay. Our data showed that HBP1 interacted with histone acetyltransferase p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) and also recruited p300/CBP to p16INK4A promoter. HBP1 was acetylated by p300/CBP in two regions: repression domain (K297/305/307) and P domain (K171/419). Acetylation of Repression domain was not required for HBP1 transactivation on p16INK4A. However, luciferase assay and western blotting results indicate that acetylation of P domain, especially K419 acetylation is essential for HBP1 transactivation on p16INK4A. As assayed by SA-beta-gal staining, the acetylation of HBP1 at K419 enhanced HBP1-induced premature senescence in 2BS cells. In addition, HDAC4 repressed HBP1-induced premature senescence through permanently deacetylating HBP1. We conclude that our data suggest that HBP1 acetylation at K419 plays an important role in HBP1-induced p16INK4A expression. PMID:21967847

  7. 76 FR 67755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection DHS/CBP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection DHS/CBP-003 Credit/Debit Card... Security/U.S Customs and Border Protection--003 Credit/Debit Card Data System of Records.'' This system... any credit and debit card transactions with it has with individuals. Additionally, the Department of...

  8. Hypoxic adaptation engages the CBP/CREST-induced coactivator complex of Creb-HIF-1α in transactivating murine neuroblastic glucose transporter

    PubMed Central

    Thamotharan, Shanthie; Raychaudhuri, Nupur; Tomi, Masatoshi; Shin, Bo-Chul

    2013-01-01

    We have shown in vitro a hypoxia-induced time-dependent increase in facilitative glucose transporter isoform 3 (GLUT3) expression in N2A murine neuroblasts. This increase in GLUT3 expression is partially reliant on a transcriptional increase noted in actinomycin D and cycloheximide pretreatment experiments. Transient transfection assays in N2A neuroblasts using murine glut3-luciferase reporter constructs mapped the hypoxia-induced enhancer activities to −857- to −573-bp and −203- to −177-bp regions. Hypoxia-exposed N2A nuclear extracts demonstrated an increase in HIF-1α and p-Creb binding to HRE (−828 to −824 bp) and AP-1 (−187 to −180 bp) cis-elements, respectively, in electromobility shift and supershift assays, which was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, the interaction of CBP with Creb and HIF-1α and CREST with CBP in hypoxia was detected by coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, small interference (si)RNA targeting Creb in these cells decreased endogenous Creb concentrations that reduced by twofold hypoxia-induced glut3 gene transcription. Thus, in N2A neuroblasts, phosphorylated HIF-1α and Creb mediated the hypoxia-induced increase in glut3 transcription. Coactivation by the Ca++-dependent CREST and CBP proteins may enhance cross-talk between p-Creb-AP-1 and HIF-1α/HRE of the glut3 gene. Collectively, these processes can facilitate an adaptive response to hypoxic energy depletion targeted at enhancing glucose transport and minimizing injury while fueling the proliferative potential of neuroblasts. PMID:23321477

  9. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of the Unbound Levofloxacin Concentrations in Rat Plasma and Prostate Tissue Measured by Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Felipe K.; Weber, Benjamin; Derendorf, Hartmut; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone used in the treatment of both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Currently, the treatment of bacterial prostatitis is still difficult, especially due to the poor distribution of many antimicrobials into the prostate, thus preventing the drug to reach effective interstitial concentrations at the infection site. Newer fluoroquinolones show a greater penetration into the prostate. In the present study, we compared the unbound levofloxacin prostate concentrations measured by microdialysis to those in plasma after a 7-mg/kg intravenous bolus dose to Wistar rats. Plasma and dialysate samples were analyzed using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Both noncompartmental analysis (NCA) and population-based compartmental modeling (NONMEM 6) were performed. Unbound prostate tissue concentrations represented 78% of unbound plasma levels over a period of 12 h by comparing the extent of exposure (unbound AUC0–∞) of 6.4 and 4.8 h·μg/ml in plasma and tissue, respectively. A three-compartment model with simultaneous passive diffusion and saturable distribution kinetics from the prostate to the central compartment gave the best results in terms of curve fitting, precision of parameter estimates, and model stability. The following parameter values were estimated by the population model: V1 (0.38 liter; where V1 represents the volume of the central compartment), CL (0.22 liter/h), k12 (2.27 h−1), k21 (1.44 h−1), k13 (0.69 h−1), Vmax (7.19 μg/h), kM (0.35 μg/ml), V3/fuprostate (0.05 liter; where fuprostate represents the fraction unbound in the prostate), and k31 (3.67 h−1). The interindividual variability values for V1, CL, Vmax, and kM were 21, 37, 42, and 76%, respectively. Our results suggest that levofloxacin is likely to be substrate for efflux transporters in the prostate. PMID:24217697

  10. Echoguided drug infiltration in chronic prostatitis: results of a multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Guercini, Federico; Pajoncini, Cinzia; Bard, Robert; Fiorentino, Francesco; Bini, Vittorio; Costantini, Elisabetta; Porena, Massimo

    2005-06-01

    In chronic prostatitis there are many causes that may provoke a therapeutical failure of a systemic antibiotic treatment. At the moment a consensus has not been reached on the efficacy of the many therapeutical options that are available with not one of these approaches being efficacious in all patients. In our view the main causes of treatment failure are the well-known hurdle to antibiotic diffusion inside the glandular parenchyma associated with the so-called intraprostatic bacterial biofilms and the possible presence of local auto-immune reactions. Given this background, we tested ultrasound guided intraprostate infiltration of a cocktail of antibiotics and betamethasone, for a therapeutical options. 320 patients, referred to us because of symptoms indicative of chronic prostatitis, were enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria were the severity of the symptoms and the failure of repeated cycles of antibiotics in the previous 12 months. At the initial consultation patients completed the NIH Prostatitis Symptoms Index (NIH-CPSI). All underwent: a) digital rectal examination (DRE), b) transrectal prostatic ultrasound scan (TRUS), c) uroflowmetry, d) cultures of first voiding and after prostatic massage urine and cultures of sperm for saprophytic and pathogen germs, yeasts and protozoa, e) DNA amplification with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on urine and sperm, for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis), Gonococcus, HPV and HCV Patients on the basis of laboratory results received a cocktail of antibiotics associated with betamethasone. The cocktail was administered as prostate infiltration. Administration was repeated after 7 and 14 days. Final assessment of the efficacy of therapy included not only the NIH-CPSI scores but also the patient's subjective judgement expressed as a "percentage overall improvement". The percentage judgements were arbitrarily divided into 4 classes: 0-30% no improvement (Class I); 30

  11. 78 FR 3015 - Privacy Act of 1974; U.S. Customs and Border Protection; DHS/CBP-004-Intellectual Property Rights...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... (PII) about intellectual property rights holders, their agents, or their licensees in IPRR, IPRS, and..., intellectual property rights owners or their agents must pay a fee when they apply for the recordation with CBP of their trademark, trade name, or copyright. Through IPRR's web-based interface, the user will be...

  12. Ethanol production by Escherichia coli from Arundo donax biomass under SSF, SHF or CBP process configurations and in situ production of a multifunctional glucanase and xylanase.

    PubMed

    Loaces, Inés; Schein, Sima; Noya, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Diluted acid or liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated Arundo donax biomass was converted into ethanol under separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Escherichia coli as the fermentative organism. Up to 0.26gL -1 h -1 and 25.0gL -1 of ethanol were obtained with diluted acid pretreated biomass under SSF compared to 0.17gL -1 h -1 and 24gL -1 under SHF. LHW pretreated biomass elicited 25% lower yields on average. Saccharification was carried out with Cellic CTec2 cocktail. Alternatively, under a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) where the ethanologenic bacteria was complemented with a novel multifunctional glucanase and xylanase, ethanol concentration was 7.6gL -1 and 7.2gL -1 after 96h for dilute acid or LHW pretreated biomass, respectively, without any prior saccharification step. According to these results, a bacterial fermentative host combined with in situ enzyme expression can improve ethanol production from A. donax biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Prostatitis Overview Prostatitis is swelling and inflammation of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized gland situated directly below the bladder in ... produces fluid (semen) that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostatitis often causes painful or difficult urination. Other symptoms ...

  14. Antibody Responses to Prostate-Associated Antigens in Patients with Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maricque, Brett B.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of tumor immunotherapy has been the identification of appropriate antigenic targets. Serum-based screening approaches have led to the discovery of hundreds of tumor-associated antigens recognized by IgG. Our efforts to identify immunologically recognized proteins in prostate cancer have yielded a multitude of antigens, however prioritizing these antigens as targets for evaluation in immunotherapies has been challenging. In this report, we set out to determine whether the evaluation of multiple antigenic targets would allow the identification of a subset of antigens that are common immunologic targets in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Using a phage immunoblot approach, we evaluated IgG responses in patients with prostate cancer (n=126), patients with chronic prostatitis (n=45), and men without prostate disease (n=53). Results We found that patients with prostate cancer or prostatitis have IgG specific for multiple common antigens. A subset of 23 proteins was identified to which IgG were detected in 38% of patients with prostate cancer and 33% patients with prostatitis versus 6% of controls (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Responses to multiple members were not higher in patients with advanced disease, suggesting antibody immune responses occur early in the natural history of cancer progression. Conclusions These findings suggest an association between inflammatory conditions of the prostate and prostate cancer, and suggest that IgG responses to a panel of commonly recognized prostate antigens could be potentially used in the identification of patients at risk for prostate cancer or as a tool to identify immune responses elicited to prostate tissue. PMID:20632317

  15. Diagnosis and follow-up of chronic bacterial prostatitis with recurrent urinary tract infection detected by 67Ga scintigraphy and SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Baek, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jin Soo; Hyun, In Young

    2013-11-01

    Half of male populations will have symptoms and signs of prostatitis in their lifetime. There is controversy concerning diagnosis of prostatitis with (67)Ga scintigraphy because the focal midline pelvic uptake is usually considered to be physiologic uptake in colon. The authors describe (67)Ga scintigraphy and SPECT/CT findings of a 58-year-old man with right flank pain and fever. The examination demonstrated abnormal uptake of Ga within the prostate and right kidney upper pole, suggesting prostatitis and acute pyelonephritis (APN) contemporary. After completion of antibiotic treatment, follow-up scintigraphy and SPECT/CT showed complete resolution of APN, but uptake remained within the prostate.

  16. The microbiome in prostate inflammation and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Porter, Corey M; Shrestha, Eva; Peiffer, Lauren B; Sfanos, Karen S

    2018-05-23

    The human microbiome may influence prostate cancer initiation and/or progression through both direct and indirect interactions. To date, the majority of studies have focused on direct interactions including the influence of prostate infections on prostate cancer risk and, more recently, on the composition of the urinary microbiome in relation to prostate cancer. Less well understood are indirect interactions of the microbiome with prostate cancer, such as the influence of the gastrointestinal or oral microbiota on pro- or anti-carcinogenic xenobiotic metabolism, and treatment response. We review the literature to date on direct and indirect interactions of the microbiome with prostate inflammation and prostate cancer. Emerging studies indicate that the microbiome can influence prostate inflammation in relation to benign prostate conditions such as prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as in prostate cancer. We provide evidence that the human microbiome present at multiple anatomic sites (urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, etc.) may play an important role in prostate health and disease. In health, the microbiome encourages homeostasis and helps educate the immune system. In dysbiosis, a systemic inflammatory state may be induced, predisposing remote anatomical sites to disease, including cancer. The microbiome's ability to affect systemic hormone levels may also be important, particularly in a disease such as prostate cancer that is dually affected by estrogen and androgen levels. Due to the complexity of the potential interconnectedness between prostate cancer and the microbiome, it is vital to further explore and understand the relationships that are involved.

  17. Sequence variants of Toll-like receptor 4 and susceptibility to prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ching; Giovannucci, Edward; Lazarus, Ross; Kraft, Peter; Ketkar, Shamika; Hunter, David J

    2005-12-15

    Chronic inflammation has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for prostate cancer. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) presents the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which interacts with ligand-binding protein and CD14 (LPS receptor) and activates expression of inflammatory genes through nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. A previous case-control study found a modest association of a polymorphism in the TLR4 gene [11381G/C, GG versus GC/CC: odds ratio (OR), 1.26] with risk of prostate cancer. We assessed if sequence variants of TLR4 were associated with the risk of prostate cancer. In a nested case-control design within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we identified 700 participants with prostate cancer diagnosed after they had provided a blood specimen in 1993 and before January 2000. Controls were 700 age-matched men without prostate cancer who had had a prostate-specific antigen test after providing a blood specimen. We genotyped 16 common (>5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) discovered in a resequencing study spanning TLR4 to test for association between sequence variation in TLR4 and prostate cancer. Homozygosity for the variant alleles of eight SNPs was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of prostate cancer (TLR4_1893, TLR4_2032, TLR4_2437, TLR4_7764, TLR4_11912, TLR4_16649, TLR4_17050, and TLR4_17923), but the TLR4_15844 polymorphism corresponding to 11381G/C was not associated with prostate cancer (GG versus CG/CC: OR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.29). Six common haplotypes (cumulative frequency, 81%) were observed; the global test for association between haplotypes and prostate cancer was statistically significant (chi(2) = 14.8 on 6 degrees of freedom; P = 0.02). Two common haplotypes were statistically significantly associated with altered risk of prostate cancer. Inherited polymorphisms of the innate immune gene TLR4 are associated with risk of prostate cancer.

  18. The Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the prostate and basics about prostate cancer Treatments for prostate ...

  19. CBP and Extracellular Matrix-Induced Apoptosis in p53(-) HMECs: A Model of Early Mammary Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    LAMA3A promoter activity. Early and late passage HMEC-E6 and passage-matched HMEC- LXSN controls were transiently transfected with a CAT reporter...CBP protein expression resulted in decreased LAMA3A promoter activity. LAMA3A- CAT reporter activity was compared in early passage HMEC-LXSN and HMEC...AF279435 was amplified with PCR primers, sense 5-AAG CTT AAG TTT TCC CAT CCG CAA C-3 and antisense 5-TCT AGA GCT GAC CGC CTC ACT GC-3. The PCR

  20. Prostate-specific antigen velocity is not better than total prostate-specific antigen in predicting prostate biopsy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gorday, William; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; de Koning, Lawrence; Naugler, Christopher T

    2015-12-01

    1.) Identify whether prostate-specific antigen velocity improves the ability to predict prostate biopsy diagnosis. 2.) Test whether there is an increase in the predictive capability of models when Gleason 7 prostate cancers are separated into a 3+4 and a 4+3 group. Calgary Laboratory Services' Clinical Laboratory Information System was searched for prostate biopsies reported between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Total prostate-specific antigen tests were recorded for each patient from January 1, 2007 to the most recent test before their recorded prostate biopsy. The data set was divided into the following three groups for comparison; benign, all prostate cancer and Gleason 7-10. The Gleason grade 7-10 group was further divided into 4+3 and 3+4 Gleason 7 prostate cancers. Prostate-specific antigen velocity was calculated using four different methods found in the literature. Receiver operator curves were used to assess operational characteristics of the tests. 4622 men between the ages of 40-89 with a prostate biopsy were included for analysis. Combining prostate-specific antigen velocity with total prostate-specific antigen (AUC=0.570-0.712) resulted in small non-statistically significant changes to the area under the curve compared to the area under the curve of total prostate-specific antigen alone (AUC=0.572-0.699). There were marked increases in the area under curves when 3+4 and 4+3 Gleason 7 cancers were separated. Prostate-specific antigen velocity does not add predictive value for prostate biopsy diagnosis. The clinical significance of the prostate specific antigen test can be improved by separating Gleason 7 prostate cancers into a 3+4 and 4+3 group. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of prostate cancer. But, it can increase your prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test result. Symptoms With early prostate ... 2009 Best Practice Statement. www.auanet.org/guidelines/prostate-specific-antigen-(2009-amended-2013) . Accessed October 9, 2017. Moyer ...

  2. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, B A; Kryvenko, O N; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, D A; Gupta, N S; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I-III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR=3.56; 95% CI=1.15-10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P=0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P=0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.40-6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.09-3.35). In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was modified by histological prostatic inflammation, PSA velocity, and

  3. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rybicki, BA; Kryvenko, ON; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, DA; Gupta, NS; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. METHODS Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I–III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). RESULTS Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27–0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 1.15–10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P = 0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P = 0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.40–6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.09–3.35). CONCLUSIONS In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was

  4. Rapid increase in multidrug-resistant enteric bacilli blood stream infection after prostate biopsy - A 10-year population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aly, Markus; Dyrdak, Robert; Nordström, Tobias; Jalal, Shah; Weibull, Caroline E; Giske, Christian G; Grönberg, Henrik

    2015-06-15

    Bloodstream infection following a transrectal prostate biopsy is a well-known and feared complication. Previous studies have shown an increase in multi-resistant bacterial infections as a consequence of higher usage of antibiotics in investigated populations. Our aim was to analyze bacterial resistance patterns in positive blood cultures, after prostate biopsies in Stockholm, Sweden, where the use of antibiotics has been low and decreasing during the last 10 years. From the three pathology laboratories in Stockholm, reports of prostate examinations were retrieved (n = 56,076) from 2003 to 2012. By linking men to the National Patient Register all but prostate core biopsies were excluded (n = 12,024). Prostate biopsies in men younger than 30 years of age were excluded (n = 5) leaving 44,047 biopsies for analysis. From laboratory information systems data regarding blood cultures were retrieved. Proportions of blood cultures within 30 days by year were calculated. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs. In total, 44,047 prostate biopsies were performed in 32,916 men over 10 years. On 620 occasions a blood culture was drawn within 30 days of the biopsy; 266 of these were positive. The proportions with positive blood cultures in 2003 and 2012 were 0.38 and 1.14%, respectively. The proportion of multidrug-resistant bacteria increased significantly during the study. In the crude and the adjusted analysis, the year of biopsy and Charlson Comorbidity Index were associated with the risk of having a positive blood culture. Multidrug-resistant enteric bacilli are becoming a problem in Sweden, despite low antimicrobial use. Men need to be informed about the increasing risks of infectious complications of transrectal prostate biopsy. One out of 50 men undergoing a prostate biopsy will develop symptoms suggestive of a bloodstream infection after the biopsy and one in 100 men will have a positive blood culture. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals

  5. PSMA-Specific Theranostic Nanoplex for Combination of TRAIL Gene and 5-FC Prodrug Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihang; Penet, Marie-France; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Banerjee, Sangeeta R.; Pomper, Martin G.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality and there is a critical unmet need for effective treatments. We have developed a theranostic nanoplex platform for combined imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Our prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted nanoplex is designed to deliver plasmid DNA encoding tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), together with bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) as a prodrug enzyme. Nanoplex specificity was tested using two variants of human PC3 prostate cancer cells in culture and in tumor xenografts, one with high PSMA expression and the other with negligible expression levels. The expression of EGFP-TRAIL was demonstrated by fluorescence optical imaging and real-time PCR. Noninvasive 19F MR spectroscopy detected the conversion of the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by bCD. The combination strategy of TRAIL gene and 5-FC/bCD therapy showed significant inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer cells and tumors. These data demonstrate that the PSMA-specific theranostic nanoplex can deliver gene therapy and prodrug enzyme therapy concurrently for precision medicine in metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26706476

  6. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a review of evaluation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Polackwich, A S; Shoskes, D A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), also known as NIH Category III Prostatitis is a highly prevalent syndrome with significant impact on quality of life. As a heterogeneous syndrome, there exists no 'one size fits all' therapy with level 1 evidence to guide therapy. This often leads to a nihilistic approach to patients and clinical outcomes are poor. In this review, we examine the evidence for CP/CPPS therapies and discuss our technique of clinical phenotyping combined with multimodal therapy. Review of Medline articles with terms 'non-bacterial prostatitis', 'abacterial prostatitis' and 'chronic pelvic pain syndrome'. Many individual therapies have been evaluated in the treatment of CP/CPPS; antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications (including bioflavonoids), neuromodulators, alpha blockers, pelvic floor physical therapy and cognitive behavior therapy. Each of these has been found to have varying success in alleviating symptoms. UPOINT is a system of clinical phenotyping for CP/CPPS patients that has 6 defined domains, which guide multimodal therapy. It has been validated to correlate with symptom burden and therapy guided by UPOINT leads to significant symptom improvement in 75-84% of patients based on three independent studies. CP/CPPS is a heterogeneous condition and, much like with prostate cancer, optimal therapy can only be achieved by classifying patients into clinically meaningful phenotypic groups (much like TNM) and letting the phenotype drive therapy.

  7. Longitudinal Association between Prostatitis and Development of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Jacobson, Debra J.; McGree, Michaela E.; Girman, Cynthia J.; Lieber, Michael M.; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether physician-diagnosed prostatitis was associated with later development of development of BPH-associated events in a longitudinal, population-based sample of 2447 men residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota. METHODS Medical records were reviewed for physician diagnosis of prostatitis and subsequent diagnoses of BPH, enlarged prostate, prostatism, and acute urinary retention. Records were also reviewed for medical or surgical treatments for BPH. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the associations between physician-diagnosed prostatitis and later development of development of BPH-associated events. RESULTS Physician-diagnosed prostatitis was associated with a 2.4-fold increased odds of receiving a later diagnosis of prostatism, enlarged prostate, or BPH (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.48, 4.01). Prostatitis was also associated with a 70% increased odds of requiring later treatment for BPH (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.22), and a non-significant increased odds of acute urinary retention (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.99). CONCLUSIONS Physician-diagnosed prostatitis was associated with an increased risk of later onset of several BPH-associated events. Physician-diagnosed prostatitis may therefore be an early marker or a risk factor for development of later prostatic or urologic problems. PMID:18342190

  8. [Correlation of IL-8 and IL-6 in prostatic fluid with serum prostate-specific antigen level in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia complicated by prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Ren, Xingfei; Wu, Chunlei; Yu, Qinnan; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huiqing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 in the prostatic fluid with serum levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) complicated by prostatitis. A series of 211 patients undergoing surgery of BPH were divided into BPH group (n=75) and BPH with prostatitis group (n=136) according to the white blood cell count in the prostatic fluid. The clinical and laboratory findings were compared between the two groups, and stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the association of IL-8 and IL-6 with serum PSA level. No significant differences were found in age, BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipids, IPSS score, PSA-Ratio, or prostate volume between the two groups (P<0.05). The patients with prostatitis had significantly increased serum PSA and prostate fluid IL-8 and IL-6 levels compared with those without prostatitis (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that IL-8 and IL-6 levels and white blood cell count in the prostatic fluid were all positively correlated with serum PSA level. Prostatitis is an important risk factor for elevated serum PSA level in patients with BPH, and both IL-8 and IL-6 levels in the prostatic fluid are correlated with serum PSA level.

  9. Understanding Prostate Changes

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate changes and symptoms that are not cancer. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment for prostatitis, enlarged prostate (BPH), prostate cancer. Talk with doctor about prostate cancer screening tests (DRE, PSA), biopsy, and Gleason score.

  10. Association between asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV and prostatic calcification in patients with obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Paul F; Seklehner, Stephan; Brustmann, Herman; Riedl, Claus R; Lusuardi, Lukas

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of prostatic calcification and prostatitis NIH category IV in patients with obstructive BPH. Ninety-six patients with obstructive BPH who had undergone transurethral electroresection of the prostate gland were evaluated. In accordance with a preoperative transrectal ultrasound examination, patients were divided into one group with prostatic calcification (N.=31) and one without (N.=65). Prostatitis NIH category IV was classified according to the grading system by Irani. Correlations between the incidence of prostatic calcification, histological prostatitis, PSA, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, CRP, IPSS, IIEF-25, and NIC-CPSI were analyzed. A stone analysis of prostatic calcification was performed using X-ray powder diffraction. Sixty-nine (71.9%) patients had NIH category IV prostatitis, accounting for 83.9% of those with prostatic calcification versus 66.1% of those without (P<0.04). Significant correlations were found between prostatic calcification and the severity of inflammation (P<0.02) as well as the NIH-CPSI subdomain of urinary symptoms (P<0.02). The only predictor for prostatic calcifications were elevated levels of uric acid. Such patients were 1.4times more likely of having calcifications in the prostate gland (OR=1.4, P<0.047). Stone analysis revealed the following: apatite in 41.7%, whewellite in 29.2%, weddellite and brushite in 8.7% each, whitlockite, apatite/whewellite and organic substances in 4.2%. On ultrasound examination, one third of patients who were treated with TURP for obstructive BPH had prostatic calcification. These were significantly more common in patients with NIH category IV prostatitis.

  11. Comparison of prostate cancer gene 3 score, prostate health index and percentage free prostate-specific antigen for differentiating histological inflammation from prostate cancer and other non-neoplastic alterations of the prostate at initial biopsy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Bollito, Enrico; Manfredi, Matteo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Sottile, Antonino; Randone, Donato Franco; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    To determine if prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score, Prostate Health Index (PHI), and percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) may be used to differentiate prostatitis from prostate cancer (PCa), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) in patients with elevated PSA and negative digital rectal examination (DRE). in the present prospective study, 274 patients, undergoing PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA assessments before initial biopsy, were enrolled. Three multivariate logistic regression models were used to test PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA as risk factors for prostatitis vs. PCa, vs. BPH, and vs. HG-PIN. All the analyses were performed for the whole patient cohort and for the 'gray zone' of PSA (4-10 ng/ml) cohort (188 individuals). The determinants for prostatitis vs. PCa were PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA (Odds Ratio [OR]=0.97, 0.96 and 0.94, respectively). Unit increase of PHI was the only risk factor for prostatitis vs. BPH (OR=1.06), and unit increase of PCA3 score for HG-PIN vs. prostatitis (OR=0.98). In the 'gray zone' PSA cohort, the determinants for prostatitis vs. PCa were PCA3 score, PHI and %fPSA (OR=0.96, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively), PCA3 score and PHI for prostatitis vs. BPH (OR=0.96 and 1.08, respectively), and PCA3 score for prostatitis vs. HG-PIN (OR=0.97). The clinical benefit of using PCA3 score and PHI to estimate prostatitis vs. PCa was comparable; even %fPSA had good diagnostic performance, being a faster and cheaper marker. PHI was the only determinant for prostatitis vs. BPH, while PCA3 score for prostatitis vs. HG-PIN. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Recent advances in prostate development and links to prostatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Ginny L.

    2013-01-01

    The prostate is a branched ductal-acinar gland that is part of the male reproductive tract. Prostate development depends upon the integration of steroid hormone signals, paracrine interactions between the stromal and epithelial tissue layers, and the actions of cell autonomous factors. Several genes and signalling pathways are known to be required for one or more steps of prostate development including epithelial budding, duct elongation, branching morphogenesis, and/or cellular differentiation. Recent progress in the field of prostate development has included the application of genome-wide technologies including serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), expression profiling microarrays, and other large scale approaches to identify new genes and pathways that are essential for prostate development. The aggregation of experimental results into online databases by organized multi-lab projects including the Genitourinary Developmental Molecular Atlas Project (GUDMAP) has also accelerated the understanding of molecular pathways that function during prostate development and identified links between prostate anatomy and molecular signaling. Rapid progress has also recently been made in understanding the nature and role of candidate stem cells in the developing and adult prostate. This has included the identification of putative prostate stem cell markers, lineage tracing, and organ reconstitution studies. However, several issues regarding their origin, precise nature, and possible role(s) in disease remain unresolved. Nevertheless, several links between prostatic developmental mechanisms and the pathogenesis of prostatic diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer have led to recent progress on targeting developmental pathways as therapeutic strategies for these diseases. PMID:23335485

  13. Selective inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/CBP signaling ameliorates hepatitis C virus-induced liver fibrosis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Yuko; Osawa, Yosuke; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Yamane, Daisuke; Hara, Mitsuko; Munekata, Keisuke; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kojima, Soichi; Kimura, Kiminori; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-03-23

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of serious liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis. There are no anti-fibrotic drugs with efficacy against liver cirrhosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a β-catenin/CBP (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) inhibitor on liver fibrosis. The anti-fibrotic activity of PRI-724, a selective inhibitor of β-catenin/CBP, was assessed in HCV GT1b transgenic mice at 18 months after HCV genome expression. PRI-724 was injected intraperitoneally or subcutaneously in these mice for 6 weeks. PRI-724 reduced liver fibrosis, which was indicated by silver stain, Sirius Red staining, and hepatic hydroxyproline levels, in HCV mice while attenuating αSMA induction. PRI-724 led to increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 mRNA in the liver, along with elevated levels of intrahepatic neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes. The induced intrahepatic neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes were identified as the source of MMP-8. In conclusion, PRI-724 ameliorated HCV-induced liver fibrosis in mice. We hypothesize that inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation and induction of fibrolytic cells expressing MMP-8 contribute to the anti-fibrotic effects of PRI-724. PRI-724 is a drug candidate which possesses anti-fibrotic effect.

  14. Does Core Length Taken per cc of Prostate Volume in Prostate Biopsy Affect the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed

    Deliktas, Hasan; Sahin, Hayrettin; Cetinkaya, Mehmet; Dere, Yelda; Erdogan, Omer; Baldemir, Ercan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimal core length to be taken per cc of prostate volume for an effective prostate biopsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on the records of 379 patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy with 12 to 16 cores under transrectal ultrasound guidance between September 2012 and April 2015. For each patient, the core length per cc of the prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were calculated, and these values were compared between the patients with and without prostate cancer. A total of 348 patients were included in the study. Cancer was determined in 26.4% of patients. The mean core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume were determined to be 3.40 ± 0.15 mm/cc (0.26%; range, 0.08-0.63 cc) in patients with cancer and 2.75 ± 0.08 mm/cc (0.20%; range, 0.04-0.66 cc) in patients without cancer (P = .000 and P = .000), respectively. Core length taken per cc of prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc was found to be related to an increase in the rates of prostate cancer diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.78). The rate of cancer determination for core length taken per cc of prostate of < 3.31 mm/cc was 19.9% and of > 3.31 mm/cc, 41.1%. Core length taken per cc of prostate and the percentage of sampled prostate volume are important morphometric parameters in the determination of prostate cancer. The results of study suggest a core length per cc of the prostate of > 3.31 mm/cc as a cutoff value for quality assurance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Astrocyte-to-neuron communication through integrin-engaged Thy-1/CBP/Csk/Src complex triggers neurite retraction via the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, H; Calderon, C; Burgos-Bravo, F; Kobler, O; Zuschratter, W; Ramirez, O; Härtel, S; Schneider, P; Quest, A F G; Herrera-Molina, R; Leyton, L

    2017-02-01

    Two key proteins for cellular communication between astrocytes and neurons are αvβ3 integrin and the receptor Thy-1. Binding of these molecules in the same (cis) or on adjacent (trans) cellular membranes induces Thy-1 clustering, triggering actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Molecular events that could explain how the Thy-1-αvβ3 integrin interaction signals have only been studied separately in different cell types, and the detailed transcellular communication and signal transduction pathways involved in neuronal cytoskeleton remodeling remain unresolved. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, single-molecule tracking, and high-resolution nanoscopy, we provide evidence that upon binding to αvβ3 integrin, Thy-1 mobility decreased while Thy-1 nanocluster size increased. This occurred concomitantly with inactivation and exclusion of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src from the Thy-1/C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-binding protein (CBP)/Csk complex. The Src inactivation decreased the p190Rho GTPase activating protein phosphorylation, promoting RhoA activation, cofilin, and myosin light chain II phosphorylation and, consequently, neurite shortening. Finally, silencing the adaptor CBP demonstrated that this protein was a key transducer in the Thy-1 signaling cascade. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the Thy-1-CBP-Csk-Src-RhoA-ROCK axis transmitted signals from astrocytic integrin-engaged Thy-1 (trans) to the neuronal actin cytoskeleton. Importantly, the β3 integrin in neurons (cis) was not found to be crucial for neurite shortening. This is the first study to detail the signaling pathway triggered by αvβ3, the endogenous Thy-1 ligand, highlighting the role of membrane-bound integrins as trans acting ligands in astrocyte-neuron communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of urinary prostate protein glycosylation profiling in prostatitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vermassen, Tijl; Van Praet, Charles; Poelaert, Filip; Lumen, Nicolaas; Decaestecker, Karel; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Belle, Simon; Rottey, Sylvie; Delanghe, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Although prostatitis is a common male urinary tract infection, clinical diagnosis of prostatitis is difficult. The developmental mechanism of prostatitis is not yet unraveled which led to the elaboration of various biomarkers. As changes in asparagine-linked-(N-)-glycosylation were observed between healthy volunteers (HV), patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer patients, a difference could exist in biochemical parameters and urinary N-glycosylation between HV and prostatitis patients. We therefore investigated if prostatic protein glycosylation could improve the diagnosis of prostatitis. Differences in serum and urine biochemical markers and in total urine N-glycosylation profile of prostatic proteins were determined between HV (N=66) and prostatitis patients (N=36). Additionally, diagnostic accuracy of significant biochemical markers and changes in N-glycosylation was assessed. Urinary white blood cell (WBC) count enabled discrimination of HV from prostatitis patients (P<0.001). Urinary bacteria count allowed for discriminating prostatitis patients from HV (P<0.001). Total amount of biantennary structures (urinary 2A/MA marker) was significantly lower in prostatitis patients compared to HV (P<0.001). Combining the urinary 2A/MA marker and urinary WBC count resulted in an AUC of 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(0.70-0.89) which was significantly better than urinary WBC count (AUC=0.70, 95% CI=[0.59-0.82], P=0.042) as isolated test. We have demonstrated the diagnostic value of urinary N-glycosylation profiling, which shows great potential as biomarker for prostatitis. Further research is required to unravel the developmental course of prostatic inflammation.

  17. The allosteric communication pathways in KIX domain of CBP.

    PubMed

    Palazzesi, Ferruccio; Barducci, Alessandro; Tollinger, Martin; Parrinello, Michele

    2013-08-27

    Allosteric regulation plays an important role in a myriad of biomacromolecular processes. Specifically, in a protein, the process of allostery refers to the transmission of a local perturbation, such as ligand binding, to a distant site. Decades after the discovery of this phenomenon, models built on static images of proteins are being reconsidered with the knowledge that protein dynamics plays an important role in its function. Molecular dynamics simulations are a valuable tool for studying complex biomolecular systems, providing an atomistic description of their structure and dynamics. Unfortunately, their predictive power has been limited by the complexity of the biomolecule free-energy surface and by the length of the allosteric timescale (in the order of milliseconds). In this work, we are able to probe the origins of the allosteric changes that transcription factor mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) causes to the interactions of KIX domain of CREB-binding protein (CBP) with phosphorylated kinase inducible domain (pKID), by combing all-atom molecular dynamics with enhanced sampling methods recently developed in our group. We discuss our results in relation to previous NMR studies. We also develop a general simulations protocol to study allosteric phenomena and many other biological processes that occur in the micro/milliseconds timescale.

  18. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... CT scan to plan and then place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds ...

  19. Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Yasmin; Schoenherr, Diane; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity wasmore » assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing gammaH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2mug/mL], Trinovin [10mug/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 mug/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10mug/mL) and Prostate Rx (6mug/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.« less

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of urinary prostate protein glycosylation profiling in prostatitis diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Vermassen, Tijl; Van Praet, Charles; Poelaert, Filip; Lumen, Nicolaas; Decaestecker, Karel; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Belle, Simon; Rottey, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although prostatitis is a common male urinary tract infection, clinical diagnosis of prostatitis is difficult. The developmental mechanism of prostatitis is not yet unraveled which led to the elaboration of various biomarkers. As changes in asparagine-linked-(N-)-glycosylation were observed between healthy volunteers (HV), patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer patients, a difference could exist in biochemical parameters and urinary N-glycosylation between HV and prostatitis patients. We therefore investigated if prostatic protein glycosylation could improve the diagnosis of prostatitis. Materials and methods Differences in serum and urine biochemical markers and in total urine N-glycosylation profile of prostatic proteins were determined between HV (N = 66) and prostatitis patients (N = 36). Additionally, diagnostic accuracy of significant biochemical markers and changes in N-glycosylation was assessed. Results Urinary white blood cell (WBC) count enabled discrimination of HV from prostatitis patients (P < 0.001). Urinary bacteria count allowed for discriminating prostatitis patients from HV (P < 0.001). Total amount of biantennary structures (urinary 2A/MA marker) was significantly lower in prostatitis patients compared to HV (P < 0.001). Combining the urinary 2A/MA marker and urinary WBC count resulted in an AUC of 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.70–0.89) which was significantly better than urinary WBC count (AUC = 0.70, 95% CI = [0.59–0.82], P = 0.042) as isolated test. Conclusions We have demonstrated the diagnostic value of urinary N-glycosylation profiling, which shows great potential as biomarker for prostatitis. Further research is required to unravel the developmental course of prostatic inflammation. PMID:26526330

  1. Prostate cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...

  2. Detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications using advanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dou, Shewei; Bai, Yan; Shandil, Ankit; Ding, Degang; Shi, Dapeng; Haacke, E Mark; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications have a high incidence in elderly men. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic capabilities of susceptibility-weighted imaging in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications. A total number of 156 men, including 34 with prostate cancer and 122 with benign prostate were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging were performed on all the patients. One hundred and twelve prostatic calcifications were detected in 87 patients. The sensitivities and specificities of the conventional magnetic resonance imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, and susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications were calculated. McNemar's Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in sensitivities and specificities between the techniques. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic cancer were greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic calcifications were comparable to that of computed tomography and greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). Given the high incidence of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) abnormality in prostate cancer, we conclude that susceptibility-weighted imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and computed tomography in detecting prostate cancer. Furthermore, susceptibility-weighted imaging can identify prostatic calcifications similar to computed tomography, and it is much better than conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging.

  3. Malakoplakia of the Prostate as a Mimicker of Prostate Cancer on Prostate Health Index and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Fusion Prostate Biopsy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Heah, Nathaniel H; Tan, Teck Wei; Tan, Yung Khan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Isolated malakoplakia of the prostate is a rare inflammatory condition that has been clinically mistaken for prostatic malignancies. The development of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) classifications, and Prostate Health Index (PHI) has led to more accurate diagnosis of clinically significant disease and stratification of patients that may be at risk of prostate cancer. Case Presentation: We present a case of a 75-year-old male who was on follow-up with our hospital for elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA). He was admitted for an episode of urosepsis, which was treated with antibiotics and subsequently underwent further workup and was found to have a raised PHI, as well as a high PI-RADS classification and was later found to have malakoplakia based on histology of prostate tissue obtained during targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided fusion prostate biopsy. Conclusion: To our understanding, this is the first case where a prostate lesion has been labeled as a PI-RADS 5 lesion, with elevated PHI that has subsequently been proven histologically to be malakoplakia. An important possible confounder is the interval between the MRI and the episode of urosepsis and it is well known that urosepsis can affect the PSA and MRI result. We present this case to highlight the potential for a false diagnosis of prostate cancer, in spite of laboratory and radiological findings.

  4. Prostatitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ... information/urologic-diseases/prostate-problems/prostatitis-inflammation-prostate . Updated July 2014. Accessed September 27, 2017. Review Date ...

  5. Detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications using advanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Shewei; Bai, Yan; Shandil, Ankit; Ding, Degang; Shi, Dapeng; Haacke, E Mark; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications have a high incidence in elderly men. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic capabilities of susceptibility-weighted imaging in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications. A total number of 156 men, including 34 with prostate cancer and 122 with benign prostate were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging were performed on all the patients. One hundred and twelve prostatic calcifications were detected in 87 patients. The sensitivities and specificities of the conventional magnetic resonance imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, and susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications were calculated. McNemar's Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in sensitivities and specificities between the techniques. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic cancer were greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic calcifications were comparable to that of computed tomography and greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). Given the high incidence of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) abnormality in prostate cancer, we conclude that susceptibility-weighted imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and computed tomography in detecting prostate cancer. Furthermore, susceptibility-weighted imaging can identify prostatic calcifications similar to computed tomography, and it is much better than conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. PMID:27004542

  6. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... body. Approximately 3 million American men have some type of prostate disease. The most common prostate diseases ...

  7. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from the bladder and out of the body. A young man's prostate is ...

  8. Differentiation of prostatitis and prostate cancer using the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS).

    PubMed

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Kukuk, Guido; Wolter, Karsten; Decker, Georges; Fischer, Stefan; Marx, Christian; Traeber, Frank; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Block, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    To determine if prostate cancer (PCa) and prostatitis can be differentiated by using PI-RADS. 3T MR images of 68 patients with 85 cancer suspicious lesions were analyzed. The findings were correlated with histopathology. T2w imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), and MR-Spectroscopy (MRS) were acquired. Every lesion was given a single PI-RADS score for each parameter, as well as a sum score and a PI-RADS v2 score. Furthermore, T2-morphology, ADC-value, perfusion type, citrate/choline-level, and localization were evaluated. 44 of 85 lesions showed PCa (51.8%), 21 chronic prostatitis (24.7%), and 20 other benign tissue such as hyperplasia or fibromuscular tissue (23.5%). The single PI-RADS score for T2WI, DWI, DCE, as well as the aggregated score including and not including MRS, and the PI-RADS v2-score were all significantly higher for PCa than for prostatitis or other tissue (p<0.001). The single PI-RADS score for MRS and the PI-RADS sum score including MRS were significantly higher for prostatitis than for other tissue (p=0.029 and p=0.020), whereas the other parameters were not different. Prostatitis usually presented borderline pathological PI-RADS scores, showed restricted diffusion with ADC≥900mm(2)/s in 100% of cases, was more often indistinctly hypointense on T2WI (66.7%), and localized in the transitional zone (57.1%). An ADC≥900mm(2)/s achieved the highest predictive value for prostatitis (AUC=0.859). Prostatitis can be differentiated from PCa using PI-RADS, since all available parameters are more distinct in cases of cancer. However, there is significant overlap between prostatitis and other benign findings, thus PI-RADS is only suitable to a limited extent for the primary assessment of prostatitis. Restricted diffusion with ADC≥900mm(2)/s is believed to be a good indicator for prostatitis. MRS can help to distinguish between prostatitis and other tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  9. Dutasteride reduces prostate size and prostate specific antigen in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephanie T; Hirano, Lianne; Gilchriest, Janet; Dighe, Manjiri; Amory, John K; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypogonadism are common disorders in aging men. There is concern that androgen replacement in older men may increase prostate size and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined whether combining dutasteride, which inhibits testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion, with testosterone treatment in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduces androgenic stimulation of the prostate compared to testosterone alone. We conducted a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 53 men 51 to 82 years old with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate volume 30 cc or greater and serum total testosterone less than 280 ng/dl (less than 9.7 nmol/l). Subjects were randomized to daily transdermal 1% T gel plus oral placebo or dutasteride for 6 months. Testosterone dosing was adjusted to a serum testosterone of 500 to 1,000 ng/dl. The primary outcomes were prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen and androgen levels. A total of 46 subjects completed all procedures. Serum testosterone increased similarly into the mid-normal range in both groups. Serum dihydrotestosterone increased in the testosterone only but decreased in the testosterone plus dutasteride group. In the testosterone plus dutasteride group prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (mean ± SEM) decreased 12% ± 2.5% and 35% ± 5%, respectively, compared to the testosterone only group in which prostate volume and prostate specific antigen increased 7.5% ± 3.3% and 19% ± 7% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008), respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Prostate symptom scores improved in both groups. Combined treatment with testosterone plus dutasteride reduces prostate volume and prostate specific antigen compared to testosterone only. Coadministration of a 5α-reductase inhibitor with testosterone appears to spare the prostate from androgenic stimulation during testosterone replacement in older

  10. 76 FR 60518 - Notice of Discontinuation of H-2A and H-2B Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program Pilot CBP Dec. 11-16

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... design and implementation. During this period, DHS gathered enough data to assess the pilot's technology, design and implementation and to identify lessons learned that can be applied to programs that may have... was designed to be an automated system, considerable time and resources by CBP field personnel were...

  11. Lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients: orchestrated by chronic prostatic inflammation and prostatic calculi?.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Kyu In; Koh, Jun Sung; Min, Ki Ouk; Cho, Su Yeon; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between chronic prostatic inflammation and prostatic calculi, and clinical parameters of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study was based on 225 patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate for BPH. Chronic inflammation was graded as 0 (n = 44), I (n = 54), II (n = 88) or III (n = 39) according to severity. Prostatic calculi were classified into types A (n = 66), B (n = 44), M (n = 77) and N (n = 38). The relationship between inflammation and calculus type was analyzed, and clinical parameters of BPH were compared for each group. There was no correlation between severity of inflammation and calculus type. Prostatic volume increased with the severity of inflammation and showed significant differences between G2, G3 and G0. The International Prostate Symptom Score also increased with increasing inflammation. There was no significant difference between each clinical parameter according to calculus type. Prostatic calculi had no significant association with chronic inflammation and clinical parameters of BPH. Chronic inflammation was associated with the volume of the prostate and storage symptoms; thus, it is not only presumed to be related to the progression of BPH, but may also be one of the causes of lower urinary tract symptoms. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Recruitment of activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to herpes simplex virus ICP0 nuclear foci: Potential role in blocking IFN-{beta} induction

    SciTech Connect

    Melroe, Gregory T.; Silva, Lindsey; Schaffer, Priscilla A.

    2007-04-10

    The host innate response to viral infection includes the production of interferons, which is dependent on the coordinated activity of multiple transcription factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been shown to block efficient interferon expression by multiple mechanisms. We and others have demonstrated that HSV-1 can inhibit the transcription of genes promoted by interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), including interferon beta (IFN-{beta}), and that the immediate-early ICP0 protein is sufficient for this function. However, the exact mechanism by which ICP0 blocks IRF-3 activity has yet to be determined. Unlike some other viral proteins that inhibit IRF-3 activity, ICP0 does notmore » appear to affect phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF-3. Here, we show that a portion of activated IRF-3 co-localizes with nuclear foci containing ICP0 at early times after virus infection. Co-localization to ICP0-containing foci is also seen with the IRF-3-binding partners and transcriptional co-activators, CBP and p300. In addition, using immunoprecipitation of infected cell lysates, we can immunoprecipitate a complex containing ICP0, IRF-3, and CBP. Thus we hypothesize that ICP0 recruits activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to nuclear structures, away from the host chromatin. This leads to the inactivation and accelerated degradation of IRF-3, resulting in reduced transcription of IFN-{beta} and an inhibition of the host response. Therefore, ICP0 provides an example of how viruses can block IFN-{beta} induction by sequestration of important transcription factors essential for the host response.« less

  13. Prostate-specific antigen lowering effect of metabolic syndrome is influenced by prostate volume.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Suk; Heo, Nam Ju; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen levels by considering prostate volume and plasma volume. We retrospectively analyzed 4111 men who underwent routine check-ups including prostate-specific antigen and transrectal ultrasonography. The definition of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Prostate-specific antigen mass density (prostate-specific antigen × plasma volume / prostate volume) was calculated for adjusting plasma volume and prostate volume. We compared prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen mass density levels of participants with metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome group, n = 1242) and without metabolic syndrome (non-prostate-specific antigen metabolic syndrome group, n = 2869). To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen, linear regression analysis for the natural logarithm of prostate-specific antigen was used. Patients in the metabolic syndrome group had significantly older age (P < 0.001), larger prostate volume (P < 0.001), higher plasma volume (P < 0.001) and lower mean serum prostate-specific antigen (non-metabolic syndrome group vs metabolic syndrome group; 1.22 ± 0.91 vs 1.15 ± 0.76 ng/mL, P = 0.006). Prostate-specific antigen mass density in the metabolic syndrome group was still significantly lower than that in the metabolic syndrome group (0.124 ± 0.084 vs 0.115 ± 0.071 μg/mL, P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, prostate volume and plasma volume using linear regression model, the presence of metabolic syndrome was a significant independent factor for lower prostate-specific antigen (prostate-specific antigen decrease by 4.1%, P = 0.046). Prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with metabolic syndrome seem to be lower, and this finding might be affected by the prostate volume. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Bioaugmentation with Clostridium tyrobutyricum to improve butyric acid production through direct rice straw bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xue; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yafei; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-02

    One-pot bioconversion is an economically attractive biorefinery strategy to reduce enzyme consumption. Direct conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for butyric acid production is still challenging because of competition among microorganisms. In a consolidated hydrolysis/fermentation bioprocessing (CBP) the microbial structure may eventually prefer the production of caproic acid rather than butyric acid production. This paper presents a new bioaugmentation approach for high butyric acid production from rice straw. By dosing 0.03 g/L of Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 in the CBP, an increase of 226% higher butyric acid was yielded. The selectivity and concentration also increased to 60.7% and 18.05 g/L, respectively. DNA-sequencing confirmed the shift of bacterial community in the augmented CBP. Butyric acid producer was enriched in the bioaugmented bacterial community and the bacteria related to long chain acids production was degenerated. The findings may be useful in future research and process design to enhance productivity of desired bio-products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Invasive liver abscess syndrome predisposed by Klebsiella pneumoniae related prostate abscess in a nondiabetic patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Yi; Yang, Ya-Sung; Yeh, Yen-Cheng; Ben, Ren-Jy; Lee, Ching-Chang; Tsai, Chi-Chang; Wang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Chiang

    2016-08-09

    Prostate abscess is usually a complication of acute urinary tract infection. Invasive liver abscess syndrome is characterized with Klebsiella pneumoniae related multiple organ metastasis. Concomitant pyogenic liver abscess and prostate abscess have rarely been reported. Recurrent episode of liver abscess is even rarer. We report a 71-year-old male with acute bacterial prostate abscess and urinary tract infection caused by K. pneumoniae associated with multiple liver abscess, psoas muscle abscess and osteomyelitis. Blood culture and urine culture yielded K. pneumoniae, which confirmed the diagnosis of invasive liver abscess syndrome caused by K. pneumoniae. The patient was successfully treated with empirical antibiotics for 6 weeks. This case emphasizes the importance of timely and accurate diagnosis followed by appropriate treatment in disseminated K. pneumoniae infection to prevent significant morbidity and mortality.

  16. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in relation to NIH category IV prostatitis in autopsy prostate.

    PubMed

    Dikov, Dorian; Bachurska, Svitlana; Staikov, Dimitri; Sarafian, Victoria

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of the number, normal and pathologic ratios between lymphocytes and epithelial cells (ECs), and the significance of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in normal prostatic epithelium, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in relation to NIH category IV prostatitis (histologic prostatitis: HP) was studied in autopsy prostate. IELs were analysed in 59 autopsy prostates, which was routinely embedded in paraffin and immunohistochemically stained for CD3. An average of 300-500 ECs were counted per case. The number of IELs was calculated as the mean/100 ECs. Category IV prostatitis was evaluated using NIH consensus grading system in terms of anatomical localization and grade. In healthy individuals the mean number of IELs/100 ECs was 0.61 ± 0.34% or ≤1 lymphocyte/100 ECs, which is considered as the normal basal level of prostate IELs. In category IV prostatitis, the mean number of IELs/100 ECs was 8.53 ± 3.25% or 5-11 lymphocytes/100 ECs. The number of IELs in both around and inside inflammation areas correlated to the grade and location of HP (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0003), the presence of acute glandular inflammation (P < 0.0001), the scattered stromal lymphocytes (P = 0.029), and BPH and PIN associated prostatic inflammation (P < 0.0001). The study presents the first attempt to examine and score the basic quantitative values of prostatic IELs in normal prostate and in relation to category IV prostatitis. The detected normal upper limit of CD3+ IELs is 1 lymphocyte/100 ECs in the normal prostate epithelium. This is considered as an organ specific characteristic of the prostate-associated lymphoid tissue (PALT). Values >5 IELs/100 ECs indicate the presence of category IV prostatitis. The severity of inflammation correlates to the number of IELs. There is an intimate link between the quantity of the IELs, the degree of the severity and the localization of category IV

  17. Testosterone and the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ronny B W; Silberstein, Jonathan L; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2014-10-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), and prostate cancer commonly coexist in the aging male. Due to a better understanding of the physiology and impact of testosterone on benign and malignant diseases of the prostate, the view toward testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in these individuals has changed dramatically over time. This communication evaluates the effects of testosterone on benign prostatic growth and prostate cancer and reviews the evidence for TRT for men with BPE and prostate cancer. A literature review was performed with regards to TRT in men with prostate cancer as well as the effect of testosterone on the growth of benign prostate tissue and prostate cancer carcinogenesis. To evaluate the evidence for an effect of testosterone on the growth of benign prostate tissue and the development of prostate cancer and TRT in men with prostate cancer. TRT does not exacerbate LUTS. Current evidence is lacking but suggests that TRT may not increase the risk of subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer, and is unlikely to impact recurrence or progression for men with treated prostate cancer, but longer follow-up is needed. There is no evidence to suggest that TRT is contraindicated in men with BPE or effectively treated prostate cancer. Tan RBW, Silberstein JL, and Hellstrom WJG. Testosterone and the prostate. Sex Med Rev 2014;2:112-120. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treating the Problem Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Prostate Enlargement Treating the Problem Prostate Past Issues / Winter 2017 ... Don't put it off." Read More "Prostate Enlargement" Articles Treating the Problem Prostate / Understanding Prostate Enlargement / ...

  19. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Contribution of the Collagen-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans to Bacterial Colonization of Inflamed Dental Pulp.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ryota; Ogaya, Yuko; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of dental caries. Collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) (approximately 120 kDa), termed Cnm and Cbm, are regarded as important cell surface antigens related to the adherence of S. mutans to collagenous tissue. Furthermore, CBP-positive S. mutans strains are associated with various systemic diseases involving bacteremia, such as infective endocarditis. Endodontic infection is considered to be an important cause of bacteremia, but little is known regarding the presence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissue. In the present study, the distribution and virulence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissues were investigated by focusing on CBPs. Adhesion and invasion properties of various S. mutans strains were analyzed using human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs). CBP-positive strains had a significantly higher rate of adhesion to HDPFs compared with CBP-defective isogenic mutant strains (P<0.001). In addition, CBP-positive strains induced HDPF proliferation, which is a possible mechanism related to development of hyperplastic pulpitis. The distribution of S. mutans strains isolated from infected root canal specimens was then analyzed by PCR. We found that approximately 50% of the root canal specimens were positive for S. mutans. Approximately 20% of these strains were Cnm-positive, while no Cbm-positive strains were isolated. The Cnm-positive strains isolated from the specimens showed adhesion to HDPFs. Our results suggest that CBP-positive S. mutans strains exhibit high colonization in dental pulp. This could be a possible virulence factor for various systemic diseases.

  1. Risk Factor Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Pathogen-Induced Acute Bacterial Prostatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young; Lee, Dong Gi; Lee, Sang Hyub; Yoo, Koo Han

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate risk factors and the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in patients with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP). We reviewed the medical records of 307 patients who were diagnosed with ABP between January 2006 and December 2015. The etiologic pathogens and risk factors for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing microbes, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and the incidence of ESBL in patients with ABP were described. History of prior urologic manipulation was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant (P = 0.005) and ESBL-producing microbes (P = 0.005). Advanced age (over 60 years) was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant microbes (P = 0.022). The ciprofloxacin susceptibility for Escherichia coli in groups without prior manipulation was documented 85.7%. For groups with prior manipulation, the susceptibility was 10.0%. Incidence of ESBL-producing microbes by pathogen was 3.8% for E. coli and 1.0% for Klebsiella pneumonia in the absence of manipulation group, and 20% and 33.3% in the presence of manipulation group, respectively. Initial treatment of ABP must consider patient's age and the possibility of prior manipulation to optimize patient treatment. With the high rate of resistance to fluoroquinolone, cephalosporins with amikacin, or carbapenems, or extended-spectrum penicillin with beta lactamase inhibitor should be considered as the preferred empirical ABP treatment in the patients with history of prior urologic manipulation.

  2. Prostate Health Index improves multivariable risk prediction of aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Stacy; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Broyles, Dennis L; Wei, John T; Sanda, Martin; Klee, George; Partin, Alan W; Sokoll, Lori; Chan, Daniel W; Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; Catalona, William J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the use of the Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a continuous variable in multivariable risk assessment for aggressive prostate cancer in a large multicentre US study. The study population included 728 men, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 2-10 ng/mL and a negative digital rectal examination, enrolled in a prospective, multi-site early detection trial. The primary endpoint was aggressive prostate cancer, defined as biopsy Gleason score ≥7. First, we evaluated whether the addition of PHI improves the performance of currently available risk calculators (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC] risk calculators). We also designed and internally validated a new PHI-based multivariable predictive model, and created a nomogram. Of 728 men undergoing biopsy, 118 (16.2%) had aggressive prostate cancer. The PHI predicted the risk of aggressive prostate cancer across the spectrum of values. Adding PHI significantly improved the predictive accuracy of the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators for aggressive disease. A new model was created using age, previous biopsy, prostate volume, PSA and PHI, with an area under the curve of 0.746. The bootstrap-corrected model showed good calibration with observed risk for aggressive prostate cancer and had net benefit on decision-curve analysis. Using PHI as part of multivariable risk assessment leads to a significant improvement in the detection of aggressive prostate cancer, potentially reducing harms from unnecessary prostate biopsy and overdiagnosis. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. AgNOR histochemical expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, R.; Delyuzar; Laksmi, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma were common diseases and usually occurred after the 5th decade of life. The problem in diagnosing using Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was how to differentiate whether it is benign or malignant zone. Therefore, proliferating markers, such as AgNOR, could be helping to over this difficulty. A descriptive study using consecutive sampling as the method of sample recruiting was conducted to describe AgNOR histochemical expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma. AgNOR staining was done in 13 benign prostatic hyperplasia samples and 7 prostatic adenocarcinoma samples, which have been confirmed using p63 immunohistochemical staining before. Benign prostatic hyperplasia usually showed lower AgNOR proliferating activity while all of theprostatic adenocarcinoma (100%) had high AgNOR proliferating activity.

  4. Stromal androgen receptor roles in the development of normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-02-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostatic Lesions in Odontocete Cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Santana, Cristian M; Sierra, Eva; Díaz-Delgado, Josue; Zucca, Daniele; de Quirós, Yara Bernaldo; Puig-Lozano, Raquel; Câmara, Nakita; De la Fuente, Jesús; de Los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa; Rivero, Miguel; Arbelo, Manuel; Fernández, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    The prostate is the only accessory male genital gland described in cetaceans. Although few studies describe the gross and histologic anatomy of the prostate in cetaceans, there is no information on pathological findings involving this organ. The prostate glands of 45 cetaceans, including 8 different odontocete species ( n = 44) and 1 mysticete, were evaluated. The main pathologic diagnoses were verminous prostatitis, septic prostatitis, viral prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatitis of unknown etiology. Verminous prostatitis ( n = 12) was caused by nematodes of the genus Crassicauda, and different presentations were observed. Septic prostatitis, identified in 2 cases, both involved nematode infestation and Clostridium spp coinfection. One case of viral prostatitis was identified and was associated with morbillivirus infection. In prostatitis of unknown cause ( n = 7), varying degrees of prostatic lesions, mostly chronic inflammation, were identified. Impacts at individual levels (eg, localized disease, loss of reproductive capacity) and population levels (eg, decreased reproductive success) are plausible. Our results indicate a high occurrence of prostatic lesions in free-ranging odontocetes. For this reason, the prostate should be routinely inspected and sampled during necropsy of odontocete cetaceans.

  6. Monoamine Oxidase Deficiency Causes Prostate Atrophy and Reduces Prostate Progenitor Cell Activity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijuan; Li, Jingjing; Liao, Chun-Peng; Jason Wu, Boyang

    2018-04-10

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) degrade a number of biogenic and dietary amines, including monoamine neurotransmitters, and play an essential role in many biological processes. Neurotransmitters and related neural events have been shown to participate in the development, differentiation, and maintenance of diverse tissues and organs by regulating the specialized cellular function and morphological structures of innervated organs such as the prostate. Here we show that mice lacking both MAO isoforms, MAOA and MAOB, exhibit smaller prostate mass and develop epithelial atrophy in the ventral and dorsolateral prostates. The cellular composition of prostate epithelium showed reduced CK5 + or p63 + basal cells, accompanied by lower Sca-1 expression in p63 + basal cells, but intact differentiated CK8 + luminal cells in MAOA/B-deficient mouse prostates. MAOA/B ablation also decreased epithelial cell proliferation without affecting cell apoptosis in mouse prostates. Using a human prostate epithelial cell line, we found that stable knockdown of MAOA and MAOB impaired the capacity of prostate stem cells to form spheres, coinciding with a reduced CD133 + /CD44 + /CD24 - stem cell population and less expression of CK5 and select stem cell markers, including ALDH1A1, TROP2, and CD166. Alternative pharmacological inhibition of MAOs also repressed prostate cell stemness. In addition, we found elevated expression of MAOA and MAOB in epithelial and/or stromal components of human prostate hyperplasia samples compared with normal prostate tissues. Taken together, our findings reveal critical roles for MAOs in the regulation of prostate basal progenitor cells and prostate maintenance. Stem Cells 2018. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  7. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer.html National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/ ...

  8. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal structures of CbpF complexed with atropine and ipratropium reveal clues for the design of novel antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Silva-Martín, Noella; Retamosa, M Gracia; Maestro, Beatriz; Bartual, Sergio G; Rodes, María J; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M; Hermoso, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen responsible of important diseases worldwide such as pneumonia and meningitis. An increasing resistance level hampers the use of currently available antibiotics to treat pneumococcal diseases. Consequently, it is desirable to find new targets for the development of novel antimicrobial drugs to treat pneumococcal infections. Surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) are essential in bacterial physiology and infectivity. In this sense, esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs) such as atropine and ipratropium have been previously described to act as choline analogs and effectively compete with teichoic acids on binding to CBPs, consequently preventing in vitro pneumococcal growth, altering cell morphology and reducing cell viability. With the aim of gaining a deeper insight into the structural determinants of the strong interaction between CBPs and EBAs, the three-dimensional structures of choline-binding protein F (CbpF), one of the most abundant proteins in the pneumococcal cell wall, complexed with atropine and ipratropium, have been obtained. The choline analogs bound both to the carboxy-terminal module, involved in cell wall binding, and, unexpectedly, also to the amino-terminal module, that possesses a regulatory role in pneumococcal autolysis. Analysis of the complexes confirmed the importance of the tropic acid moiety of the EBAs on the strength of the binding, through π-π interactions with aromatic residues in the binding site. These results represent the first example describing the molecular basis of the inhibition of CBPs by EBA molecules and pave the way for the development of new generations of antipneumococcal drugs. © 2013.

  10. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. STEAP: A prostate-specific cell-surface antigen highly expressed in human prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Rene S.; Vivanco, Igor; Chen, Emily; Rastegar, Shiva; Leong, Kahan; Mitchell, Steve C.; Madraswala, Rashida; Zhou, Yanhong; Kuo, James; Raitano, Arthur B.; Jakobovits, Aya; Saffran, Douglas C.; Afar, Daniel E. H.

    1999-01-01

    In search of novel genes expressed in metastatic prostate cancer, we subtracted cDNA isolated from benign prostatic hypertrophic tissue from cDNA isolated from a prostate cancer xenograft model that mimics advanced disease. One novel gene that is highly expressed in advanced prostate cancer encodes a 339-amino acid protein with six potential membrane-spanning regions flanked by hydrophilic amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains. This structure suggests a potential function as a channel or transporter protein. This gene, named STEAP for six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate, is expressed predominantly in human prostate tissue and is up-regulated in multiple cancer cell lines, including prostate, bladder, colon, ovarian, and Ewing sarcoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical specimens demonstrates significant STEAP expression at the cell–cell junctions of the secretory epithelium of prostate and prostate cancer cells. Little to no staining was detected at the plasma membranes of normal, nonprostate human tissues, except for bladder tissue, which expressed low levels of STEAP at the cell membrane. Protein analysis located STEAP at the cell surface of prostate-cancer cell lines. Our results support STEAP as a cell-surface tumor-antigen target for prostate cancer therapy and diagnostic imaging. PMID:10588738

  12. Prostate Mechanical Imaging: A New Method For Prostate Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Robert E; Egorov, Vladimir; Ayrapetyan, Suren; Sarvazyan, Noune; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ability of Prostate Mechanical Imaging (PMI) technology to provide an objective and reproducible image and to assess the prostate nodularity. Methods The PMI device developed by Artann Laboratories was evaluated in a pilot clinical study. For the 168 patients (ages 44 to 94) presented to an urologist for prostate evaluation, PMI-produced images and assessment of prostate size, shape, consistency/hardness, mobility, nodularity, and was compared with digital rectal examination (DRE) findings. The PMI and DRE results were further tested for correlation against a transrectal ultrasound of the prostate (TRUS) guided biopsy for a sub-group of 21 patients with an elevated PSA level. Results In 84% of the cases the PMI device was able to reconstruct 3-D and 2-D cross-sectional images of the prostate. The PMI System and DRE pre-tests were able to determine malignant nodules in 10 and 6 patients, respectively, of the 13 patients with biopsy-confirmed malignant inclusions. The PMI System findings were consistent with all 8 biopsy negative cases, while the DRE had 1 abnormal reading for this group. The correlation between PMI and DRE detection of palpable nodularity was 81%, as indicated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Estimates of the prostate size provided by PMI and DRE were found to be statistically significantly correlated. Conclusions The PMI has the potential to enable a physician to obtain, examine and store a three dimensional image of the prostate based on mechanical and geometrical characteristics of the gland and its internal structures. PMID:18342178

  13. Incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at a tertiary-care medical center in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Shahait, Mohammed; Degheili, Jad; El-Merhi, Fadi; Tamim, Hani; Nasr, Rami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Urosepsis is a rare but life-threatening complication following transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided needle prostate biopsy. Despite the technological and pharmacological improvements, the problem of bacterial urosepsis after prostate biopsy remains. A strategy for preventing urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy in areas with high prevalence of resistant strains or patients presenting risk factors is lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of urosepsis, as well its predictors, following TRUS guided needle biopsy of the prostate in a tertiary care medical center in Lebanon. Materials and Methods We carried out a retrospective study on all patients who underwent TRUS prostate biopsy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between January 1, 2011 and June 31, 2013. Patients’ hospital charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographic information, pre-procedure disease specific information, as well as post-procedure information. Predictors of urosepsis following TRUS were assessed. Results In total, 265 patients were included in this study, where the prevalence of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy was found to be 9.4%. The significant independent predictors of urosepsis were found to be: age with an OR=0.93 (95% CI: 0.88–1.00, p-value=0.03), and hypertension comorbidity with an OR=3.25 (95% CI: 1.19–8.85, p-value=0.02). Conclusion We found a high prevalence of urosepsis among patients who have undergone TRUS prostate biopsy, and identified two significant risk factors. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing strategies for prevention of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy. PMID:27136468

  14. Prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and physical activity in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Lacey, J V; Deng, J; Dosemeci, M; Gao, Y T; Mostofi, F K; Sesterhenn, I A; Xie, T; Hsing, A W

    2001-04-01

    Studies suggest that increased levels of physical activity might decrease the risk of prostate cancer. We ascertained lifetime measures of activity in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer in Shanghai, China to investigate physical activity in a population where the incidence of prostate cancer is low but rising. In all, 238 men with prostate cancer, diagnosed 1993-1995, were identified through a rapid reporting system. A second group of 206 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was matched to prostate cancer cases, and 471 age-matched and population-based controls were identified from urban Shanghai. Through personal interviews, we ascertained all daily, occupational, and recreational activities at ages 20-29, ages 40-49, and in 1988 to generate hours spent sleeping, sitting, in moderate activity, and in vigorous activity. Time spent per week in different activities was converted to metabolic equivalents (MET-h) and energy expended. Time spent in, MET-h of, and energy expended in physical activities were not consistently related to either prostate cancer or BPH when compared to controls. Few men reported regular vigorous activity. Occupational activity, based on an energy expenditure index using job titles, was suggestively associated with a decreased risk of BPH, but not associated with prostate cancer. Associations did not vary according to age or stage of prostate cancer at diagnosis. Our results, based on regular physical activity, occupational activity, hours in activities, MET-h, and energy expended, did not support a protective role of physical activity in prostate cancer or BPH for men in a low-risk population.

  15. Salicylate, diflunisal and their metabolites inhibit CBP/p300 and exhibit anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Kotaro; Wang, Lan; Man, Na; Maksimoska, Jasna; Sorum, Alexander W; Lim, Hyung W; Lee, Intelly S; Shimazu, Tadahiro; Newman, John C; Schröder, Sebastian; Ott, Melanie; Marmorstein, Ronen; Meier, Jordan; Nimer, Stephen; Verdin, Eric

    2016-05-31

    Salicylate and acetylsalicylic acid are potent and widely used anti-inflammatory drugs. They are thought to exert their therapeutic effects through multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenases, modulation of NF-κB activity, and direct activation of AMPK. However, the full spectrum of their activities is incompletely understood. Here we show that salicylate specifically inhibits CBP and p300 lysine acetyltransferase activity in vitro by direct competition with acetyl-Coenzyme A at the catalytic site. We used a chemical structure-similarity search to identify another anti-inflammatory drug, diflunisal, that inhibits p300 more potently than salicylate. At concentrations attainable in human plasma after oral administration, both salicylate and diflunisal blocked the acetylation of lysine residues on histone and non-histone proteins in cells. Finally, we found that diflunisal suppressed the growth of p300-dependent leukemia cell lines expressing AML1-ETO fusion protein in vitro and in vivo. These results highlight a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of action for salicylate and derivative drugs.

  16. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 84. Read More Prostate brachytherapy Prostate cancer Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test Radical prostatectomy Review Date 2/21/2017 Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, DO, Urologist with the Michigan ... Cancer Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  17. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets ...

  18. [Prostatic calculi: silent stones].

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, H; Aslan, G; Sen, B H; Tuna, B; Yörükoğlu, K

    2010-06-01

    Prostate stones are frequently encountered during transurethral resection of the prostate in urology practice. We aimed to demonstrate the physical and chemical properties of prostate stones. We also aimed to determine possible relationship between inflammation of prostate gland and prostate stones. The consecutive patients (excluding subjects with PSA>or=4ng/ml and urolithiasis), who underwent TURP operation and who were observed to have prostatic calculi during TURP, were included in the study. The prostatic stones obtained from each patient during TURP were analysed for chemical composition and observed under electron microscopy (SEM) for structure and surface morphology. The pathological specimens were assessed by the uropathologist for the final diagnosis and existence and degree of inflammation. Five patients were included in the study. From each patient at least three (range 3-8) samples of stones (diameter varying from 1mm up to 5mm) were obtained. The stones were made of mixed composition of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. The stones were found to have lobular surface made up of small spheres under SEM. Histopathological examination of the TURP specimens revealed being prostatic hyperplasia accompanied with inflammation of mild to severe degree. Prostatic stones are concentrically precipitated calcium stones within the prostatic ductuli with granular grape like morphology. Histopathological inflammation seems to be associated with these prostatic calculi.

  19. Notch signaling dynamics in the adult healthy prostate and in prostatic tumor development.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ana-Rita; Graça, José L; Carvalho, Sandra; Peleteiro, Maria C; Duarte, António; Trindade, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in prostate development, maintenance and tumorigenesis by its key role in cell-fate determination, differentiation and proliferation. Therefore, we proposed to analyze Notch family members transcription and expression, including ligands (Dll1, 3, 4 and Jagged1 and 2), receptors (Notch1-4) and effectors (Hes1, 2, 5 and Hey1, 2, L), in both normal and tumor bearing mouse prostates to better understand the dynamics of Notch signaling in prostate tumorigenesis. Wild type mice and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model (TRAMP) mice were sacrificed at 18, 24 or 30 weeks of age and the prostates collected and processed for either whole prostate or prostate cell specific populations mRNA analysis and for protein expression analysis by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. We observed that Dll1 and Dll4 are expressed in the luminal compartment of the mouse healthy prostate, whereas Jagged2 expression is restricted to the basal and stromal compartment. Additionally, Notch2 and Notch4 are normally expressed in the prostate luminal compartment while Notch2 and Notch3 are also expressed in the stromal layer of the healthy prostate. As prostate tumor development takes place, there is up-regulation of Notch components. Particularly, the prostate tumor lesions have increased expression of Jagged1 and 2, of Notch3 and of Hey1. We have also detected the presence of activated Notch3 in prostatic tumors that co-express Jagged1 and ultimately the Hey1 effector. Taken together our results point out the Notch axis Jagged1-2/Notch3/Hey1 to be important for prostate tumor development and worthy of additional functional studies and validation in human clinical disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen increase during dutasteride to indicate the need for prostate biopsy: influence of prostatic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sciarra, Alessandro; Maggi, Martina; Fasulo, Andrea; Salciccia, Stefano; Gentile, Vincenzo; Cattarino, Susanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of an increase in total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels despite dutasteride treatment as a predictor of prostate cancer (PC) at biopsy. We focused our attention on the rate of the first PSA increase and on the influence of prostatic inflammation. From 2011 to 2016, 365 men with a previous negative prostate biopsy and persistent elevated PSA levels received dutasteride treatment. The population was followed for a range of 12-48 months. One hundred twelve cases with a confirmed PSA increase >0.5 ng/ml over the nadir value during the follow-up were included in Group A and underwent a new prostate biopsy. In Group A, the PSA increase was associated with PC at the re-biopsy in 66% of cases. The percentage of PSA reduction after 6 months of treatment was not a significant indicator of the risk for PC. The distribution of inflammatory infiltrates significantly (p<00.01) varied from positive to negative prostate biopsies. The relative risk for PC at biopsy significantly increased according to PSA level during dutasteride. Treatment with dutasteride can help to analyze PSA kinetic. A persistent prostatic inflammation is a factor able to reduce the performance of PSA kinetic during dutasteride treatment.

  1. Prognostic Importance of Small Prostate Size in Men Receiving Definitive Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Galbreath, Robert W.

    Purpose: To assess whether small prostate size is an adverse prognostic factor in men undergoing brachytherapy in the same manner in which it seems to be for men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2008, 2024 patients underwent brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist. Median follow-up was 7.4 years. The role of small prostate size ({<=}20 cm{sup 3}) as a prognostic factor for biochemical progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and all-cause mortality was investigated. The differences in survival between men with small and larger prostates were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results: Median prostate sizemore » for the entire cohort was 32.7 cm{sup 3}. For the 167 men with small prostates, median prostate size was 17.4 cm{sup 3}. There was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival (95.2% vs 96.2%, P=.603), cause-specific survival (97.7% vs 98.3%, P=.546), or all-cause mortality (78.0% vs 77.2%, P=.838) at 10 years for men with small prostates compared with men with larger prostates. On univariate and multivariate analysis, small prostate size was not associated with any of the primary outcome measures. Conclusion: Men with small prostates treated with brachytherapy have excellent outcomes and are at no higher risk of treatment failure than men with larger glands. High-quality implants with adequate margins seem sufficient to address the increased adverse risk factors associated with small prostate size.« less

  2. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate cancer Genetic Testing Registry: Prostate cancer aggressiveness quantitative trait locus on chromosome 19 Genetic Testing Registry: ... OMIM (25 links) PROSTATE CANCER PROSTATE CANCER AGGRESSIVENESS QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ON CHROMOSOME 19 PROSTATE CANCER ANTIGEN ...

  3. Pathogenesis of prostate cancer and hormone refractory prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Girling, J. S.; Whitaker, H. C.; Mills, I. G.; Neal, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy in males and the leading cause of cancer death. Prostate cancer is initially androgen dependent and relies upon the androgen receptor (AR) to mediate the effects of androgens. The AR is also the target for therapy using antiandrogens and LHRH analogues. However, all cancers eventually become androgen independent, often referred to as hormone refractory prostate cancer. The processes involved in this transformation are yet to be fully understood but research in this area has discovered numerous potential mechanisms including AR amplification, over-expression or mutation and alterations in the AR signaling pathway. This review of the recent literature examines the current knowledge and developments in the understanding of the molecular biology of prostate cancer and hormone refractory prostate cancer, summarizing the well characterized pathways involved as well as introducing new concepts that may offer future solutions to this difficult problem. PMID:19675761

  4. Outcomes of transurethral resection of the prostate in benign prostatic hyperplasia comparing prostate size of more than 80 grams to prostate size less than 80 grams.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H N; De Jong, I J; Karmacharya, R M; Shrestha, B; Shrestha, R

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition occurring in elderly men in which the prostate gland is enlarged, hence the condition also known as benign enlargement of prostate. Benign hyperplasia can lead to both obstructive and irritative symptoms. Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) still remains the gold standard modality of surgical treatment of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms due to Benign hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of TURP in large prostate (>80 grams) in comparison to small prostate (<80 grams) in terms of efficacy, safety and complications. A total of 65 cases included in this prospective study, which were operated by a single surgeon with conventional monopolar TURP using standard technique. Intra -operative and post-operative complications, pre and post- operative quality of life (QoL) and international prostate symptom score (IPSS), operative time, time to removal of catheter and hospital stay were evaluated between small and large prostate gland volumes. Out of 65 cases, 30 were with large prostate size i.e. 80 grams or more (group 1), and 35 cases were with small prostate size than 80 grams size (group 2). Mean age was 71.8 SD ± 6.9 years in group 1 and 68.2 SD ± 12.7 years in group 2. The mean preoperative volume of prostate was 88.8 grams (range 80-115 grams) in group 1 and 40.3 (range 20-65 grams) in group 2. The mean preoperative post void residual volume of urine (PVRU) was 244 ml SD ± 190.8 ml in group 1 and 117 ml ± 70.3 ml in group 2. Mean resection time in group 1 was 110 (range 90-130) minutes and in group 2 it was 90 minutes (range 55-115) minutes. There were quite satisfactory improvements in IPSS and QoL. No significant complications were observed except TUR syndrome in 2 cases from group 2, which were managed well in postoperative period. With meticulous resection and intra-operative haemostasis using continuous out flow resectoscope, conventional monopolar TURP is equally safe

  5. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  6. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0595 TITLE: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer...Sep 2016 - 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate

  7. Serum Autoantibodies in Chronic Prostate Inflammation in Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Schlick, Bettina; Massoner, Petra; Lueking, Angelika; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Blattner, Mirjam; Schaefer, Georg; Marquart, Klaus; Theek, Carmen; Amersdorfer, Peter; Zielinski, Dirk; Kirchner, Matthias; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Rubin, Mark A; Müllner, Stefan; Schulz-Knappe, Peter; Klocker, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is frequently observed on histological analysis of malignant and non-malignant prostate specimens. It is a suspected supporting factor for prostate diseases and their progression and a main cause of false positive PSA tests in cancer screening. We hypothesized that inflammation induces autoantibodies, which may be useful biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate prostate inflammation associated serum autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and evaluate the expression of corresponding autoantigens. Radical prostatectomy specimens of prostate cancer patients (N = 70) were classified into high and low inflammation groups according to the amount of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. The corresponding pre-surgery blood serum samples were scrutinized for autoantibodies using a low-density protein array. Selected autoantigens were identified in prostate tissue and their expression pattern analyzed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The identified autoantibody profile was cross-checked in an independent sample set (N = 63) using the Luminex-bead protein array technology. Protein array screening identified 165 autoantibodies differentially abundant in the serum of high compared to low inflammation patients. The expression pattern of three corresponding antigens were established in benign and cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry and qPCR: SPAST (Spastin), STX18 (Syntaxin 18) and SPOP (speckle-type POZ protein). Of these, SPAST was significantly increased in prostate tissue with high inflammation. All three autoantigens were differentially expressed in primary and/or castration resistant prostate tumors when analyzed in an inflammation-independent tissue microarray. Cross-validation of the inflammation autoantibody profile on an independent sample set using a Luminex-bead protein array, retrieved 51 of the significantly discriminating autoantibodies. Three autoantibodies were significantly upregulated in both screens, MUT, RAB11B and CSRP2 (p>0

  8. Serum Autoantibodies in Chronic Prostate Inflammation in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schlick, Bettina; Massoner, Petra; Lueking, Angelika; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Blattner, Mirjam; Schaefer, Georg; Marquart, Klaus; Theek, Carmen; Amersdorfer, Peter; Zielinski, Dirk; Kirchner, Matthias; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Rubin, Mark A.; Müllner, Stefan; Schulz-Knappe, Peter; Klocker, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is frequently observed on histological analysis of malignant and non-malignant prostate specimens. It is a suspected supporting factor for prostate diseases and their progression and a main cause of false positive PSA tests in cancer screening. We hypothesized that inflammation induces autoantibodies, which may be useful biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate prostate inflammation associated serum autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and evaluate the expression of corresponding autoantigens. Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens of prostate cancer patients (N = 70) were classified into high and low inflammation groups according to the amount of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. The corresponding pre-surgery blood serum samples were scrutinized for autoantibodies using a low-density protein array. Selected autoantigens were identified in prostate tissue and their expression pattern analyzed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The identified autoantibody profile was cross-checked in an independent sample set (N = 63) using the Luminex-bead protein array technology. Results Protein array screening identified 165 autoantibodies differentially abundant in the serum of high compared to low inflammation patients. The expression pattern of three corresponding antigens were established in benign and cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry and qPCR: SPAST (Spastin), STX18 (Syntaxin 18) and SPOP (speckle-type POZ protein). Of these, SPAST was significantly increased in prostate tissue with high inflammation. All three autoantigens were differentially expressed in primary and/or castration resistant prostate tumors when analyzed in an inflammation-independent tissue microarray. Cross-validation of the inflammation autoantibody profile on an independent sample set using a Luminex-bead protein array, retrieved 51 of the significantly discriminating autoantibodies. Three autoantibodies were significantly upregulated in both screens, MUT

  9. Auraptene Induces Apoptosis via Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1-Mediated Activation of Caspases in PC3 and DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Shin, Eun Ah; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Bo-Im; Chitsazian-Yazdi, Mahsa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Although auraptene, a prenyloxy coumarin from Citrus species, was known to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, antiinflammatory, and anti-tumor activities, the underlying anti-tumor mechanism of auraptene in prostate cancers is not fully understood to date. Thus, in the present study, we have investigated the anti-tumor mechanism of auraptene mainly in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, because auraptene suppressed the viability of androgen-independent PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells better than androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Also, auraptene notably increased sub-G1 cell population and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells as features of apoptosis in two prostate cancer cells compared with untreated control. Consistently, auraptene cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2 and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), and also activated pro-apoptotic protein Bax in both prostate cancer cells. However, Mcl-1 overexpression reversed the apoptotic effect of auraptene to increase sub-G1 population and induce caspase-9/3 in both prostate cancer cells. Taken together, the results support scientific evidences that auraptene induces apoptosis in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells via Mcl-1-mediated activation of caspases as a potent chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors

    PubMed Central

    Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p ≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p < .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p = .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p = .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:27099348

  11. Flaxseed suppressed prostatic epithelial proliferation in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Said, Mahmoud M; Hassan, Nahla S; Schlicht, Michael J; Bosland, Maarten C

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a disease occurring frequently among elderly males, is a slow progressive enlargement of the fibromuscular and epithelial structures of the prostate gland. Dietary factors may influence the prostate and exert an influence on prostatic growth and disease. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of dietary flaxseed supplementation against testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in male rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: (1) untreated control; (2) treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) to induce prostate enlargement; (3) TP-treated group fed a diet containing 5% milled flaxseed; (4) TP-treated group fed a diet containing 10% milled flaxseed; and (5) TP-treated group fed a diet containing 20 ppm finasteride. Treatment with TP significantly increased the absolute and relative weights of different prostatic lobes, serum testosterone (T), and testosterone/estradiol ratio, as well as prostatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, RNA synthesis per cell, and epithelial cell proliferation, detected as Ki67 labeling. Histopathological examination did not reveal marked differences in acinar morphology in ventral prostate, whereas morphometric analysis showed significantly increased epithelial cell height. Co-administration of flaxseed or finasteride with TP significantly reduced prostatic VEFG, epithelial cell proliferation, and RNA/DNA ratio, along with a significant increase in serum T and testosterone/estradiol ratio compared with TP-only-treated rats. Our results indicate that flaxseed, similar to the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride, blocked TP-induced prostate enlargement in a rat model of BPH, likely through suppression of prostatic VEFG and cellular proliferation.

  12. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Knockout AR in Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    enlarged ventral prostates, we evaluated fertility. We found that there were no significant differences in litter-size when either WT or pes-ARKO males...prostate (DLP), ventral prostate (VP) all lobes of prostate (Pr), testes (T), glans penis (Pe); *Pɘ.05, ***Pɘ.001. PI: Chang, Chawnshang 7

  14. Prostate-specific antigen-based prostate cancer screening: Past and future.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Arnout R; Schoots, Ivo G; Roobol, Monique J

    2015-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen-based prostate cancer screening remains a controversial topic. Up to now, there is worldwide consensus on the statement that the harms of population-based screening, mainly as a result of overdiagnosis (the detection of clinically insignificant tumors that would have never caused any symptoms), outweigh the benefits. However, worldwide opportunistic screening takes place on a wide scale. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer showed a reduction in prostate cancer mortality through prostate-specific antigen based-screening. These population-based data need to be individualized in order to avoid screening in those who cannot benefit and start screening in those who will. For now, lacking a more optimal screening approach, screening should only be started after the process of shared decision-making. The focus of future research is the reduction of unnecessary testing and overdiagnosis by further research to better biomarkers and the value of the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, potentially combined in already existing prostate-specific antigen-based multivariate risk prediction models. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity Is Required for Prostatic Budding in the Developing Mouse Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Gamat, Melissa; Malinowski, Rita L.; Parkhurst, Linnea J.; Steinke, Laura M.; Marker, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-α-difluromethylornithine (DFMO) to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effect in mediating

  16. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial tissue and prostate cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R.; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L.; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Summary This protocol describes a recently developed strategy to generate 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate (either bulk or FAC-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumour cells. Organoids derived from healthy material contain the differentiated luminal and basal cell types, whereas organoids derived from prostate cancer tissue mimic the histology of the tumour. The stepwise establishment of these cultures and the fully defined serum-free conditioned medium that is required to sustain organoid growth are outlined. Organoids established using this protocol can be used to study many different aspects of prostate biology, including homeostasis, tumorigenesis and drug discovery. PMID:26797458

  17. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    PubMed

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  18. Development and external multicenter validation of Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium prostate cancer risk calculator for initial prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Xue, Wei; Ye, Zhangqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-09-01

    Substantial differences exist in the relationship of prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level between Western and Asian populations. Classic Western risk calculators, European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator, were shown to be not applicable in Asian populations. We aimed to develop and validate a risk calculator for predicting the probability of PCa and high-grade PCa (defined as Gleason Score sum 7 or higher) at initial prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Urology outpatients who underwent initial prostate biopsy according to the inclusion criteria were included. The multivariate logistic regression-based Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium Risk Calculator (CPCC-RC) was constructed with cases from 2 hospitals in Shanghai. Discriminative ability, calibration and decision curve analysis were externally validated in 3 CPCC member hospitals. Of the 1,835 patients involved, PCa was identified in 338/924 (36.6%) and 294/911 (32.3%) men in the development and validation cohort, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that 5 predictors (age, logPSA, logPV, free PSA ratio, and digital rectal examination) were associated with PCa (Model 1) or high-grade PCa (Model 2), respectively. The area under the curve of Model 1 and Model 2 was 0.801 (95% CI: 0.771-0.831) and 0.826 (95% CI: 0.796-0.857), respectively. Both models illustrated good calibration and substantial improvement in decision curve analyses than any single predictors at all threshold probabilities. Higher predicting accuracy, better calibration, and greater clinical benefit were achieved by CPCC-RC, compared with European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in predicting PCa. CPCC-RC performed well in discrimination and calibration and decision curve analysis in external validation compared

  19. Serum ferritin in combination with prostate-specific antigen improves predictive accuracy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijuan; An, Peng; Zeng, Jiling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bo; Fang, Xuexian; Wang, Fudi; Ren, Guoping; Min, Junxia

    2017-03-14

    Ferritin is highly expressed in many cancer types. Although a few studies have reported an association between high serum ferritin levels and an increased risk of prostate cancer, the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a large case-control study consisting of 2002 prostate cancer patients and 951 control patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We found that high ferritin levels were positively associated with increased serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and prostate cancer risk; each 100 ng/ml increase in serum ferritin increased the odds ratio (OR) by 1.20 (95% CI: 1.13-1.36). In the prostate cancer group, increased serum ferritin levels were significantly correlated with higher Gleason scores (p < 0.001). Notably, serum PSA values had even higher predictive accuracy among prostate cancer patients with serum ferritin levels > 400 ng/ml (Gleason score + total PSA correlation: r = 0.38; Gleason score + free PSA correlation: r = 0.49). Moreover, using immunohistochemistry, we found that prostate tissue ferritin levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in prostate cancer patients (n = 129) compared to BPH controls (n = 31). Prostate tissue ferritin levels were also highly correlated with serum ferritin when patients were classified by cancer severity (r = 0.81). Importantly, we found no correlation between serum ferritin levels and the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) in prostate cancer patients. In conclusion, serum ferritin is significantly associated with prostate cancer and may serve as a non-invasive biomarker to complement the PSA test in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of prostate cancer.

  20. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic determination of levofloxacin in human plasma and prostate tissue with use of experimental design optimization procedures.

    PubMed

    Szerkus, O; Jacyna, J; Wiczling, P; Gibas, A; Sieczkowski, M; Siluk, D; Matuszewski, M; Kaliszan, R; Markuszewski, M J

    2016-09-01

    Fluoroquinolones are considered as gold standard for the prevention of bacterial infections after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. However, recent studies reported that fluoroquinolone- resistant bacterial strains are responsible for gradually increasing number of infections after transrectal prostate biopsy. In daily clinical practice, antibacterial efficacy is evaluated only in vitro, by measuring the reaction of bacteria with an antimicrobial agent in culture media (i.e. calculation of minimal inhibitory concentration). Such approach, however, has no relation to the treated tissue characteristics and might be highly misleading. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop, with the use of Design of Experiments approach, a reliable, specific and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography- diode array detection method for the quantitative analysis of levofloxacin in plasma and prostate tissue samples obtained from patients undergoing prostate biopsy. Moreover, correlation study between concentrations observed in plasma samples vs prostatic tissue samples was performed, resulting in better understanding, evaluation and optimization of the fluoroquinolone-based antimicrobial prophylaxis during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize chromatographic conditions of the isocratic elution program in order to obtain desirable retention time, peak symmetry and resolution of levofloxacine and ciprofloxacine (internal standard) peaks. Fractional Factorial design 2(4-1) with four center points was used for screening of significant factors affecting levofloxacin extraction from the prostatic tissue. Due to the limited number of tissue samples the prostatic sample preparation procedure was further optimized using Central Composite design. Design of Experiments approach was also utilized for evaluation of parameter robustness. The method was found linear over the range of 0.030-10μg/mL for human

  1. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows that you have a higher than normal prostate specific antigen (PSA) level Your provider discovers a lump or abnormality in your prostate during a digital rectal exam Normal Results Normal ...

  2. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br; Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality ofmore » life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.« less

  3. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ...

  4. Androgen receptor and immune inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Kouji; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-01-01

    Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are frequent diseases in middle-aged to elderly men worldwide. While both diseases are linked to abnormal growth of the prostate, the epidemiological and pathological features of these two prostate diseases are different. BPH nodules typically arise from the transitional zone, and, in contrast, PCa arises from the peripheral zone. Androgen deprivation therapy alone may not be sufficient to cure these two prostatic diseases due to its undesirable side effects. The alteration of androgen receptor-mediated inflammatory signals from infiltrating immune cells and prostate stromal/epithelial cells may play key roles in those unwanted events. Herein, this review will focus on the roles of androgen/androgen receptor signals in the inflammation-induced progression of BPH and PCa. PMID:26594314

  5. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) Urinary Diversion Urinary Retention Urine Blockage in Newborns Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) The ... Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs Jobs at NIDDK Visit Us Contact Us News News ...

  6. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 40. Kaplan SA. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. In: Goldman ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  7. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J.; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome. PMID:25421658

  9. Prostate cancer epigenome.

    PubMed

    Chinaranagari, Swathi; Sharma, Pankaj; Bowen, Nathan J; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden within the ever-increasingly aging US population. The molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer are diverse and heterogeneous. In this context, epigenetic changes, both global and gene specific, are now an emerging alternate mechanism in disease initiation and progression. The three major risk factors in prostate cancer: age, geographic ancestry, and environment are all influenced by epigenetics and additional significant insight is required to gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The androgen receptor and its downstream effector pathways, central to prostate cancer initiation and progression, are subject to a multitude of epigenetic alterations. In this review we focus on the global perspective of epigenetics and the use of recent next-generation sequencing platforms to interrogate epigenetic changes in the prostate cancer genome.

  10. Serum pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98) in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nagakawa, Osamu; Furuya, Yuzo; Fujiuchi, Yasuyoshi; Fuse, Hideki

    2002-09-01

    To clarify whether serum levels of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) (31-98) could be a useful marker in patients with prostatic carcinoma. GRP is produced and secreted by prostatic neuroendocrine cells. Serum levels of ProGRP(31-98) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 107 patients with prostatic carcinoma. The mean serum levels of ProGRP(31-98) in patients with distant metastasis and hormone-resistant prostate cancer were significantly elevated compared with those in patients with organ-confined disease. Significantly elevated levels of ProGRP(31-98) were detected in 9 patients with prostatic carcinoma before any treatment. During hormone-resistant prostate cancer progression, ProGRP(31-98) levels were elevated in 9 patients (23%). Of the 9 patients with Stage D3 and elevated serum ProGRP, 4 had a normal serum prostate-specific antigen level. ProGRP may be a potential tumor marker for prostate cancer. Additional studies in large groups of patients are needed to define the clinical value of ProGRP.

  11. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  12. Prostate Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancers are often adenocarcinomas. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is often present in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Find evidence-based information on prostate cancer including treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  13. Prostate specific antigen velocity does not aid prostate cancer detection in men with prior negative biopsy.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J; Wolters, Tineke; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; O'Brien, M Frank; Roobol, Monique J; Aus, Gunnar; Scardino, Peter T; Hugosson, Jonas; Schröder, Fritz H; Lilja, Hans

    2010-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen velocity has been proposed as a marker to aid in prostate cancer detection. We determined whether prostate specific antigen velocity could predict repeat biopsy results in men with persistently increased prostate specific antigen after initial negative biopsy. We identified 1,837 men who participated in the Göteborg or Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer and who underwent 1 or more subsequent prostate biopsies after an initial negative finding. We evaluated whether prostate specific antigen velocity improved predictive accuracy beyond that of prostate specific antigen alone. Of the 2,579 repeat biopsies 363 (14%) were positive for prostate cancer, of which 44 (1.7%) were high grade (Gleason score 7 or greater). Prostate specific antigen velocity was statistically associated with cancer risk but had low predictive accuracy (AUC 0.55, p <0.001). There was some evidence that prostate specific antigen velocity improved AUC compared to prostate specific antigen for high grade cancer. However, the small increase in risk associated with high prostate specific antigen velocity (from 1.7% to 2.8% as velocity increased from 0 to 1 ng/ml per year) had questionable clinical relevance. Men with prior negative biopsy are at lower risk for prostate cancer at subsequent biopsies with high grade disease particularly rare. We found little evidence to support prostate specific antigen velocity to aid in decisions about repeat biopsy for prostate cancer. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of obesity on the predictive accuracy of prostate-specific antigen density and prostate-specific antigen in native Korean men undergoing prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Heon; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Lee, Kwang Woo; Lee, Chang Ho; Song, Yun Seob; Jeon, Yoon Su; Kim, Min Eui; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of obesity on the biopsy detection of prostate cancer. We retrospectively reviewed data of 1182 consecutive Korean patients (≥50 years) with serum prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL who underwent initial extended 12-cores biopsy from September 2009 to March 2013. Patients who took medications that were likely to influence the prostate-specific antigen level were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density predicting cancer status among non-obese and obese men. A total of 1062 patients (mean age 67.1 years) were enrolled in the analysis. A total of 230 men (21.7%) had a positive biopsy. In the overall study sample, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of serum prostate-specific antigen for predicting prostate cancer on biopsy were 0.584 and 0.633 for non-obese and obese men, respectively (P = 0.234). However, the area under the curve for prostate-specific antigen density in predicting cancer status showed a significant difference (non-obese 0.696, obese 0.784; P = 0.017). There seems to be a significant difference in the ability of prostate-specific antigen density to predict biopsy results between non-obese and obese men. Obesity positively influenced the overall ability of prostate-specific antigen density to predict prostate cancer. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Low Prostate Concentration of Lycopene Is Associated with Development of Prostate Cancer in Patients with High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Simone; Lionetto, Luana; Cavallari, Michele; Tubaro, Andrea; Rasio, Debora; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Hong, Gena M.; Borro, Marina; Simmaco, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a frequent male malignancy and represents the second most diagnosed cancer in men. Since pre-cancerous lesions, i.e., the high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), can be detected years before progression to PC, early diagnosis and chemoprevention are targeted strategies to reduce PC rates. Animal studies have shown that lycopene, a carotenoid contained in tomatoes, is a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of PC. However, its efficacy in humans remains controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the relevance of plasma and prostate concentration of lycopene after a lycopene-enriched diet in patients diagnosed with HGPIN. Thirty-two patients diagnosed with HGPIN were administered a lycopene-enriched diet (20–25 mg/day of lycopene; through 30 g/day of triple concentrated tomato paste) for 6 months. A 6-month follow-up prostate biopsy assessed progression to PC. Patients were classified into three groups according to the histopathological features of the 6-month follow-up biopsy results: prostatitis; HGPIN and PC. PSA and plasma lycopene levels were measured before and after the dietary lycopene supplementation. Prostatic lycopene concentration was only assessed after the supplementation diet. Only prostatic lycopene concentration showed significant differences between the three groups (p = 0.03). Prostatic lycopene concentration below a 1 ng/mg threshold was associated with PC at 6-month follow-up biopsy (p = 0.003). We observed no overall benefits from a 6-month lycopene supplementation, as the rate of HGPIN progression to PC in our population (9/32, 28%) was similar to rates reported in the literature. Baseline PSA levels also showed no significant changes after a lycopene-enriched diet. Our findings point to prostatic lycopene concentration as a promising biomarker of PC. Further prospective longitudinal studies are needed to assess the prognostic role of prostatic lycopene in PC. PMID:24451130

  16. Prostate-specific antigen screening and mortality from prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Marcella, Stephen W; Rhoads, George G; Carson, Jeffrey L; Merlino, Frances; Wilcox, Homer

    2008-03-01

    There is no available evidence from randomized trials that early detection of prostate cancer improves health outcomes, but the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is commonly used to screen men for prostate cancer. The objective of the study is to see if screening with PSA decreases mortality from prostate cancer. This is a case-control study using one-to-one matching on race, age, and time of availability of exposure to PSA screening. Decedents, 380, from New Jersey Vital Statistics 1997 to 2000 inclusive, 55-79 years of age at diagnosis were matched to living controls without metastatic prostate cancer. Medical records were obtained from all providers, and we abstracted information about PSA tests from 1989 to the time of diagnosis in each index case. Measurements consist of a comparison of screening (yes, no) between cases and controls. Measure of association was the odds ratio. Eligible cases were diagnosed each year from 1989 to 1999 with the median year being 1993. PSA screening was evident in 23.2-29.2% of cases and 21.8-26.1% of controls depending on the screening criteria. The unadjusted, matched odds ratio for dying of prostate cancer if ever screened was 1.09 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.60) for the most restrictive criteria and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.66) for the least restrictive. Adjustment for comorbidity and education level made no significant differences in these values. There were no significant interactions by age or race. PSA screening using an ever/never tabulation for tests from 1989 until 2000 did not protect New Jersey men from prostate cancer mortality.

  17. Evaluation of the resistive index of prostatic blood flow in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Osama; El-Barky, Ehab; Khalil, Mostafa Mahmoud; Kamar, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the resistive index (RI) of prostatic blood flow by transrectal power Doppler sonography in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) to determine its correlation with other parameters of BPH. Eighty-two male patients aged 52-86 years with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH were included in the study. Patients with prostate cancer, neurogenic bladder, or with other pathology (e.g. prostatitis, bladder stone) were excluded from the study. All patients were evaluated by full history including Internatinoal Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), general and local examination (DRE), neurologic examination, uroflowmetry, laboratory investigations including urine analysis, routine laboratory tests and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Transrectal ultrasonography was used to calculate the total prostatic volume. Transrectal Power Doppler Ultrasound (PUD) was used to identify the capsular and urethral arteries of the prostate and to measures the RI value. The mean prostate volume was 75.1 ± 44.7 g. The mean RI of the right and left capsular arteries were 0.76 ± 0.06 and 0.76 ± 0.07, respectively. The mean RI of the urethral arteries was 0.76 ± 0.08. There was a high significative correlation between the increase of the RI of the right and left capsular and urethral arteries and the degree of obstruction (P value < 0.001), severity of symptoms (P value < 0.001) and also the prostatic volume (P value < 0.001). Resistive index of the prostatic blood flow can be applied as an easy and non-invasive tool to evaluate the lower urinary tract obstruction due to BPH.

  18. The Role of Prostatitis in Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yunxia, Zhang; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Junjiang; Pumill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. Evidence Acquisition Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. Selection criteria: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. Evidence Synthesis In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62), and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98). Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29), compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45). Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990’s: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000’s: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010’s: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990’s: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000’s: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010’s: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90.CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical evidence that

  19. Immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: association with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Paul Friedrich; Seklehner, Stephan; Brustmann, Hermann; Lusuardi, Lukas; Riedl, Claus R

    2015-04-01

    This study prospectively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and a possible association of these conditions with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis National Institutes of Health (NIH) category IV. The study included 139 consecutive patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and transvesical enucleation of the prostate (n = 82) or radical prostatectomy (n = 57). To characterize inflammatory changes the criteria proposed by Irani et al. [J Urol 1997;157:1301-3] were used. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was studied by a standard immunohistochemical method. Results were correlated with tumour, node, metastasis stage, Gleason scores, total prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score and body mass index. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was significantly higher in neoplastic prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue of prostate cancer patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.04, respectively). Prostate cancer patients with prostatitis showed significantly higher IL-2R expression than those without inflammation (p < 0.03). In patients with BPH, expression of IL-2R as well as IL-6 was higher in patients with prostatitis than in those without (p < 0.01 and p < 0.02, respectively). IL-2R and IL-6 expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Patients with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV showed significantly greater activity.

  20. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue and prostate cancer in the finasteride arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Murtola, Teemu J.; Gurel, Bora; Umbehr, Martin; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Kristal, Alan R.; Parnes, Howard L.; Lippman, Scott M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Barber, John R.; Drake, Charles G.; Nelson, William G.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A previous analysis of the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) reported 82% overall prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation and identified a link between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer and serum PSA. Here we studied these associations in the PCPT finasteride arm. Methods Prostate cancer cases (N=197) detected either on a clinically indicated biopsy or on protocol-directed end-of-study biopsy, and frequency-matched controls (N=248) with no cancer on an end-of-study biopsy were sampled from the finasteride arm. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue was visually assessed using digital images of H&E stained sections. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results In the finasteride arm, 91.6% of prostate cancer cases and 92.4% of controls had at least one biopsy core with inflammation in benign areas; p < 0.001 for difference compared to placebo arm. Overall, the odds of prostate cancer did not differ by prevalence (OR=0.90, 95% CI 0.44-1.84) or extent (P-trend=0.68) of inflammation. Inflammation was not associated with higher-grade disease (prevalence: OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.43-2.69). Furthermore, mean PSA concentration did not differ by the prevalence or extent of inflammationin either cases or controls. Conclusion The prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation was higher in the finasteride than placebo arm of the PCPT, with no association with higher-grade prostate cancer. Impact Finasteride may attenuate the association between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer. Moreover, the missing link between intraprostatic inflammation and PSA suggests that finasteride may reduce inflammation-associated PSA elevation. PMID:26715424

  1. Treating Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer: Update of a 2008 Systematic Review . Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 146. (Prepared by the ECRI ... Prostate Cancer Research Protocol Archived March 29, 2013 Comparative Effectiveness of Therapies for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: ...

  2. Prostate-Specific G-Protein Coupled Receptor, an Emerging Biomarker Regulating Inflammation and Prostate Cancer Invasion.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Siwko, S; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent among men in developed countries, but a significant proportion of detected cancers remain indolent, never progressing into aggressive carcinomas. This highlights the need to develop refined biomarkers that can distinguish between indolent and potentially dangerous cases. The prostate-specific G-protein coupled receptor (PSGR, or OR51E2) is an olfactory receptor family member with highly specific expression in human prostate epithelium that is highly overexpressed in PIN and prostate cancer. PSGR has been functionally implicated in prostate cancer cell invasiveness, suggesting a potential role in the transition to metastatic PCa. Recently, transgenic mice overexpressing PSGR in the prostate were reported to develop an acute inflammatory response followed by emergence of low grade PIN, whereas mice with compound PSGR overexpression and loss of PTEN exhibited accelerated formation of invasive prostate adenocarcinoma. This article will review recent PSGR findings with a focus on its role as a potential prostate cancer biomarker and regulator of prostate cancer invasion and inflammation.

  3. Structural Variation of Prostate Urethra Reflected by the Ratio Between Prostate Volume and Prostatic Urethral Length is Associated with the Degrees of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Hwii; Song, Phil Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Because it is well known that the prostate volume is not directly associated with the degrees of lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS), we hypothesized that change of the prostatic urethra led by prostatic enlargement as missing links between them. To provide an integral description, we determined the ratio between prostate volume and prostatic urethral length (RPVL), and investigated its clinical implication. Prostate volume, prostatic urethral length, RPVL was measured from transrectal ultrasonography for 213 consecutive patients. The degree of LUTS was investigated using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry, then the correlations were analyzed. While no variables were significantly linked with total IPSS, obstructive symptoms (IPSS Q247) showed a negative association (r = -0.3, P < 0.001) and irritative symptoms (IPSS Q1356) showed a positive association solely with RPVL (r = 0.186, P = 0.007). These relevancies were enhanced (r = -0.471 [P = <0.001] and 0.3 [P = 0.004], respectively) in patients with a larger prostate (over 30 g, n = 93), but disappeared in their smaller counterparts (below 30 g, n = 120), (r = -0.133 [P = 0.143] and 0.75 [P = 0.410], respectively). In uroflowmetry, prostate urethral length showed positive correlation (r = 0.319 [P < 0.001]), and RPVL showed negative correlation (r = -0.195 [P = 0.004]) with post voiding residual amount, but these relationships similarly vanished in men with a smaller prostate. The structural variation of the prostatic urethra within the prostate reflected by RPVL showed correlation with the degree of LUTS, with a tendency toward increasing prostatic urethra in obstructive and decreasing prostatic urethra in irritative symptoms, in men with a relatively large prostate. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-11-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.

  5. Prostate CT segmentation method based on nonrigid registration in ultrasound-guided CT-based HDR prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xyang43@emory.edu; Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The technological advances in real-time ultrasound image guidance for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy have placed this treatment modality at the forefront of innovation in cancer radiotherapy. Prostate HDR treatment often involves placing the HDR catheters (needles) into the prostate gland under the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance, then generating a radiation treatment plan based on CT prostate images, and subsequently delivering high dose of radiation through these catheters. The main challenge for this HDR procedure is to accurately segment the prostate volume in the CT images for the radiation treatment planning. In this study, the authors propose a novel approachmore » that integrates the prostate volume from 3D TRUS images into the treatment planning CT images to provide an accurate prostate delineation for prostate HDR treatment. Methods: The authors’ approach requires acquisition of 3D TRUS prostate images in the operating room right after the HDR catheters are inserted, which takes 1–3 min. These TRUS images are used to create prostate contours. The HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intraoperative TRUS and postoperative CT images, and subsequently used as landmarks for the TRUS–CT image fusion. After TRUS–CT fusion, the TRUS-based prostate volume is deformed to the CT images for treatment planning. This method was first validated with a prostate-phantom study. In addition, a pilot study of ten patients undergoing HDR prostate brachytherapy was conducted to test its clinical feasibility. The accuracy of their approach was assessed through the locations of three implanted fiducial (gold) markers, as well as T2-weighted MR prostate images of patients. Results: For the phantom study, the target registration error (TRE) of gold-markers was 0.41 ± 0.11 mm. For the ten patients, the TRE of gold markers was 1.18 ± 0.26 mm; the prostate volume difference between the authors’ approach and the MRI-based volume was 7

  6. Prostate CT segmentation method based on nonrigid registration in ultrasound-guided CT-based HDR prostate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi; Marcus, David M.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Mao, Hui; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The technological advances in real-time ultrasound image guidance for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy have placed this treatment modality at the forefront of innovation in cancer radiotherapy. Prostate HDR treatment often involves placing the HDR catheters (needles) into the prostate gland under the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance, then generating a radiation treatment plan based on CT prostate images, and subsequently delivering high dose of radiation through these catheters. The main challenge for this HDR procedure is to accurately segment the prostate volume in the CT images for the radiation treatment planning. In this study, the authors propose a novel approach that integrates the prostate volume from 3D TRUS images into the treatment planning CT images to provide an accurate prostate delineation for prostate HDR treatment. Methods: The authors’ approach requires acquisition of 3D TRUS prostate images in the operating room right after the HDR catheters are inserted, which takes 1–3 min. These TRUS images are used to create prostate contours. The HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intraoperative TRUS and postoperative CT images, and subsequently used as landmarks for the TRUS–CT image fusion. After TRUS–CT fusion, the TRUS-based prostate volume is deformed to the CT images for treatment planning. This method was first validated with a prostate-phantom study. In addition, a pilot study of ten patients undergoing HDR prostate brachytherapy was conducted to test its clinical feasibility. The accuracy of their approach was assessed through the locations of three implanted fiducial (gold) markers, as well as T2-weighted MR prostate images of patients. Results: For the phantom study, the target registration error (TRE) of gold-markers was 0.41 ± 0.11 mm. For the ten patients, the TRE of gold markers was 1.18 ± 0.26 mm; the prostate volume difference between the authors’ approach and the MRI-based volume was 7.28% ± 0

  7. Salicylate, diflunisal and their metabolites inhibit CBP/p300 and exhibit anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Shirakawa, Kotaro; Wang, Lan; Man, Na; Maksimoska, Jasna; Sorum, Alexander W; Lim, Hyung W; Lee, Intelly S; Shimazu, Tadahiro; Newman, John C; Schröder, Sebastian; Ott, Melanie; Marmorstein, Ronen; Meier, Jordan; Nimer, Stephen; Verdin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Salicylate and acetylsalicylic acid are potent and widely used anti-inflammatory drugs. They are thought to exert their therapeutic effects through multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenases, modulation of NF-κB activity, and direct activation of AMPK. However, the full spectrum of their activities is incompletely understood. Here we show that salicylate specifically inhibits CBP and p300 lysine acetyltransferase activity in vitro by direct competition with acetyl-Coenzyme A at the catalytic site. We used a chemical structure-similarity search to identify another anti-inflammatory drug, diflunisal, that inhibits p300 more potently than salicylate. At concentrations attainable in human plasma after oral administration, both salicylate and diflunisal blocked the acetylation of lysine residues on histone and non-histone proteins in cells. Finally, we found that diflunisal suppressed the growth of p300-dependent leukemia cell lines expressing AML1-ETO fusion protein in vitro and in vivo. These results highlight a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of action for salicylate and derivative drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11156.001 PMID:27244239

  8. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) — also called prostate gland enlargement — is a common condition as men get older. ... There are several effective treatments for prostate gland enlargement, including medications, minimally invasive therapies and surgery. To ...

  9. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M.; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M.; Figg, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Methods Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Results and Conclusions Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106 PMID:25955319

  10. The influence of prostatic anatomy and neurotrophins on basal prostate epithelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Höfner, Thomas; Klein, Corinna; Eisen, Christian; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Haferkamp, Axel; Trumpp, Andreas; Sprick, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Based on findings of surface marker, protein screens as well as the postulated near-urethral location of the prostate stem cell niche, we were interested whether androgen ablation, distinct anatomic regions within the prostate or neurotrophins have an influence on basal prostate epithelial progenitor cells (PESCs). Microdissection of the prostate, enzymatic digestion, and preparation of single cells was performed from murine and human prostates. Adult PESC marker expressions were compared between a group of C57BL/6 mice and a separate group of castrated C57BL/6 mice. Surface markers CD13/CD271 on human prostate epithelial progenitor cells were evaluated by FACS analyses in cells cultured under novel stem cell conditions. The effect of neurotrophins NGF, NT3, and BDNF were evaluated with respect to their influence on proliferation and activation of human basal PESCs in vitro. We demonstrate the highest percentage of CD49f+ and Trop2+ expressing cells in the urethra near prostatic regions of WT mice (Trop2+ proximal: 10% vs. distal to the urethra: 3%, P < 0.001). While a marked increase of Trop2 expressing cells can be measured both in the proximal and distal prostatic regions after castration, the most prominent increase in Trop2+ cells can be measured in the prostatic tissue distant to the urethra. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proportion of syndecan-1 expressing cells greatly increases in the regions proximal to the urethra after castration (WT: 5% vs. castrated: 40%). We identified heterogeneous CD13 and nerve growth factor receptor (p75(NGFR), CD271) expression on CD49f(+)/TROP2(high) human basal PESCs. Addition of the neurotrophins NT3, BDNF, and NGF to the stem cell media led to a marked temporary increase in the proliferation of human basal PESCs. Our results in mice support the model, in which the proximal urethral region contains the prostate stem cell niche while a stronger androgen-dependent regulation of adult prostate stem cells can be found in

  11. Predicting prostate biopsy outcome: prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) are useful biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Mazzarella, Claudia; Marino, Ada; Sorrentino, Alessandra; Di Carlo, Angelina; Autorino, Riccardo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Altieri, Vincenzo; Mariano, Angela; Macchia, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2012-08-16

    Indication for prostate biopsy is presently mainly based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels and digital-rectal examination (DRE). In view of the unsatisfactory accuracy of these two diagnostic exams, research has focused on novel markers to improve pre-biopsy prostate cancer detection, such as phi and PCA3. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of phi and PCA3 for prostate cancer using biopsy as gold standard. Phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay) and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA) were assessed before a 18-core prostate biopsy in a group of 251 subjects at their first biopsy. Values of %p2PSA and phi were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared with PCa-negative group (p<0.001) and also compared with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) (p<0.001). PCA3 score values were significantly higher in PCa compared with PCa-negative subjects (p<0.001) and in HGPIN vs PCa-negative patients (p<0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi and PCA3 are predictive of malignancy. In conclusion, %p2PSA, phi and PCA3 may predict a diagnosis of PCa in men undergoing their first prostate biopsy. PCA3 score is more useful in discriminating between HGPIN and non-cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase, a PTEN-functional homologue in prostate epithelia, functions as a prostate-specific tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Ingersoll, Matthew A.; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2014-01-01

    The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a vital role in the progression of human cancers. Nevertheless, those ubiquitous TSGs have been shown with limited roles in various stages of diverse carcinogenesis. Investigation on identifying unique TSG, especially for early stage of carcinogenesis, is imperative. As such, the search for organ-specific TSGs has emerged as a major strategy in cancer research. Prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest incidence in solid tumors in US males. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP) is a prostate-specific differentiation antigen. Despite intensive studies over the past several decades on PAcP as a PCa biomarker, the role of cPAcP as a PCa-specific tumor suppressor has only recently been emerged and validated. The mechanism underlying the pivotal role of cPAcP as a prostate-specific TSG is, in part, due to its function as a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) as well as a phosphoinositide phosphatase (PIP), an apparent functional homologue to Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in PCa cells. This review is focused on discussing the function of this authentic prostate-specific tumor suppressor and the mechanism behind the loss of cPAcP expression leading to prostate carcinogenesis. We review other phosphatases’ roles as TSGs which regulate oncogenic PI3K signaling in PCa and discuss the functional similarity between cPAcP and PTEN in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:24747769

  13. Prostate-specific antigen screening impacts on biochemical recurrence in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Ohori, Makoto; Shimodaira, Kenji; Kaburaki, Naoto; Hirasawa, Yosuke; Satake, Naoya; Gondo, Tatsuo; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Namiki, Kazunori; Ohno, Yoshio

    2018-06-01

    To clarify the impact of prostate-specific antigen screening on surgical outcomes of prostate cancer. Patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were divided into two groups according to prostate-specific antigen testing opportunity (group 1, prostate-specific antigen screening; group 2, non-prostate-specific antigen screening). Perioperative clinical characteristics were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum and χ 2 -tests. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent predictors of postoperative biochemical recurrence-free survival. In total, 798 patients (63.2%) and 464 patients (36.8%) were categorized into groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 2 patients were more likely to have a higher prostate-specific antigen level and age at diagnosis and larger prostate volume. Clinical T stage, percentage of positive cores and pathological Gleason score did not differ between the groups. The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was 83.9% for group 1 and 71.0% for group 2 (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen testing opportunity (hazard ratio 2.530; P < 0.001) was an independent predictive factor for biochemical recurrence after surgery, as well as pathological T stage, pathological Gleason score, positive surgical margin and lymphovascular invasion. Additional analyses showed that prostate-specific antigen screening had a greater impact on biochemical recurrence in a younger patients, patients with a high prostate-specific antigen level, large prostate volume and D'Amico high risk, and patients meeting the exclusion criteria of the Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance study. Detection by screening results in favorable outcomes after surgery. Prostate-specific antigen screening might contribute to reducing biochemical recurrence in patients with localized prostate cancer. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening and Mortality from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, George G.; Carson, Jeffrey L.; Merlino, Frances; Wilcox, Homer

    2008-01-01

    Background There is no available evidence from randomized trials that early detection of prostate cancer improves health outcomes, but the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is commonly used to screen men for prostate cancer. Objective The objective of the study is to see if screening with PSA decreases mortality from prostate cancer. Design, setting, and participants This is a case-control study using one-to-one matching on race, age, and time of availability of exposure to PSA screening. Decedents, 380, from New Jersey Vital Statistics 1997 to 2000 inclusive, 55–79 years of age at diagnosis were matched to living controls without metastatic prostate cancer. Medical records were obtained from all providers, and we abstracted information about PSA tests from 1989 to the time of diagnosis in each index case. Measurements Measurements consist of a comparison of screening (yes, no) between cases and controls. Measure of association was the odds ratio. Results Eligible cases were diagnosed each year from 1989 to 1999 with the median year being 1993. PSA screening was evident in 23.2–29.2% of cases and 21.8–26.1% of controls depending on the screening criteria. The unadjusted, matched odds ratio for dying of prostate cancer if ever screened was 1.09 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.60) for the most restrictive criteria and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.66) for the least restrictive. Adjustment for comorbidity and education level made no significant differences in these values. There were no significant interactions by age or race. Conclusions PSA screening using an ever/never tabulation for tests from 1989 until 2000 did not protect New Jersey men from prostate cancer mortality. PMID:18172740

  15. Progesterone receptor in the prostate: A potential suppressor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, RuiQi; Yu, Yue; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) eventually progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), suggesting that (i) androgen receptor (AR) blockage is incomplete, and (ii) there are other critical molecular pathways contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Although most PCa occurs in the epithelium, prostate stroma is increasingly believed to play a crucial role in promoting tumorigenesis and facilitating tumor progression. In the stroma, sex steroid hormone receptors such as AR and estrogen receptor-α are implicated to have important functions, whereas the progesterone receptor (PR) remains largely under-investigated despite the high sequence and structural similarities between PR and AR. Stromal progesterone/PR signaling may play a critical role in PCa development and progression because not only progesterone is a critical precursor for de novo androgen steroidogenesis and an activator of mutant androgen receptors, but also PR functions in a ligand-independent manner in various important pathways. In fact, recent progress in our understanding of stromal PR function suggests that this receptor may exert an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), reactive stroma development, and PCa progression. These early findings of stromal PR warrant further investigations as this receptor could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    PubMed

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  17. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    PubMed

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  19. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Smith, Bryan A; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Shokat, Kevan M; Gustafson, W Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-11

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance, and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of neuroendocrine differentiation in human benign prostate and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aprikian, A G; Cordon-Cardo, C; Fair, W R; Reuter, V E

    1993-06-15

    This report describes an immunohistopathologic analysis characterizing the incidence, pattern of distribution, and hormonal content of neuroendocrine (NE) cells in human benign prostate and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded material from 15 benign prostates, 31 primary prostatic adenocarcinomas, 16 metastatic lesions, 21 primary tumors treated with short-course diethylstilbestrol (DES), and 10 specimens from hormone-refractory patients were examined. NE cells were identified using silver histochemistry and a panel of immunohistochemical NE markers (chromogranin-A, serotonin, neuron-specific enolase), and specific peptide hormone antibodies. NE cells were identified in all benign prostates. NE cells were identified in 77% of primary untreated adenocarcinomas with no significant differences with respect to pathologic stage. NE cells were found isolated and dispersed in the tumor, composing the minority of malignant cells. Double-labeling and serial section immunohistochemistry demonstrated the coexpression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in NE cells. In addition to serotonin, some tumors expressed multiple hormone immunoreactivities. NE cells were identified in 56% of metastatic deposits, with a similar pattern of distribution. In DES-treated cases, NE cells were found consistently in the adjacent benign epithelium, whereas 52% of tumors contained NE cells. Hormone-refractory tumors contained NE cells in 60% of cases. This analysis demonstrates that a significant proportion of primary and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas contain a subpopulation of NE cells, the expression of which does not appear to be suppressed with androgen ablation and does not correlate with pathologic stage. Furthermore, NE cells coexpress PSA, suggesting a common precursor cell of origin. The elaboration of biogenic amines and neuropeptides suggests that NE cells dispersed in prostatic carcinoma may play a paracrine growth-regulatory role.

  1. Sexual steroids in serum and prostatic tissue of human non-cancerous prostate (STERPROSER trial).

    PubMed

    Neuzillet, Yann; Raynaud, Jean-Pierre; Radulescu, Camélia; Fiet, Jean; Giton, Franck; Dreyfus, Jean-François; Ghoneim, Tarek P; Lebret, Thierry; Botto, Henry

    2017-11-01

    The specific involvement of the sex steroids in the growth of the prostatic tissue remains unclear. Sex steroid concentrations in plasma and in fresh surgical samples of benign central prostate were correlated to prostate volume. Monocentric prospective study performed between September 2014 and January 2017. Age, obesity parameters, and both serum and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroids were collected complying with the latest Endocrine Society guidelines and the steroids assessed by GC/MS. Statistical calculations were adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). Thirty-two patients, equally divided between normal- and high-volume prostate groups, were included in the analysis. High-volume prostate patients were older, heavier and had higher BMI. Comparison adjusted for age and BMI showed higher DHT concentrations in high-volume prostate. Both normal- and high-volume prostate tissues concentrate sex steroids in a similar way. Comparison of enzymatic activity surrogate marker ratios within tissue highlighted similar TT/E1 and TT/E2 ratios, and higher DHT/E1 ratio and lower DHT/PSA ratio in the high-volume prostates. STERPROSER trial provides evidence for higher DHT concentration in highvolume prostates, that could reflect either higher 5-alpha reductase expression or lower expression of downstream metabolizing enzymes such as 3a-hydoxysteroid dehydrogenase. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pharmacotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, P; Indudhara, R

    1994-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign neoplasm of the prostate seen in men of advancing age. Microscopic evidence of the disorder is seen in about 70% of men by 70 years of age, whereas symptoms requiring some form of surgical intervention occur in 30% of men during their lifetime. Although the exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not clear, it is well recognized that high levels of intraprostatic androgens are required for the maintenance of prostatic growth. In recent years, extensive surveys of patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate reveal an 18% incidence of morbidity that has essentially not changed in the past 30 years. This procedure is also the second highest reimbursed surgical therapy under Medicare. These findings have resulted in an intensive search for alternative therapies for prostatic hyperplasia. An alternative that has now been well defined is the use of alpha-adrenergic blockers to relax the prostatic urethra. This is based on findings that a major component of benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms is spasm of the prostatic urethra and bladder neck, which is mediated by the alpha-adrenergic nerves. A second approach is to block androgens involved in maintaining prostate growth. Several such drugs are now available for clinical use, and we discuss their side effects and use. We also include the newer recommendations on evaluating benign prostatic hyperplasia that are cost-effective yet comprehensive. Images PMID:7528957

  3. CBP for Field Workers – Results and Insights from Three Usability and Interface Design Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Bly, Aaron Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Even though the paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety, improving procedure use could yield significant savings in increased efficiency as well as improved nuclear safety through human performance gains. The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use and adherence, researchers in the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, togethermore » with the nuclear industry, have been investigating the possibility and feasibility of replacing the current paper-based procedure process with a computer-based procedure (CBP) system. This report describes a field evaluation of new design concepts of a prototype computer-based procedure system.« less

  4. Extra-prostatic Transgene-associated Neoplastic Lesions in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D.; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubulo-acinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of two novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice as well as in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this paper we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubulo-acinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice. PMID:24742627

  5. Extra-prostatic transgene-associated neoplastic lesions in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.

    PubMed

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J; Clinton, Steven K; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista M D

    2015-02-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here, we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of 2 novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice and in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this article, we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  6. Differential Gene Expression in Benign Prostate Epithelium of Men with and without Prostate Cancer: Evidence for a Prostate Cancer Field Effect

    PubMed Central

    Risk, Michael C; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Coleman, Ilsa; Dumpit, Ruth F; Kristal, Alan R; LeMeur, Nolwenn; Gentleman, Robert C; True, Lawrence D; Nelson, Peter S; Lin, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Background Several malignancies are known to exhibit a “field-effect” whereby regions beyond tumor boundaries harbor histological or molecular changes that are associated with cancer. We sought to determine if histologically benign prostate epithelium collected from men with prostate cancer exhibits features indicative of pre-malignancy or field effect. Methods Prostate needle biopsies from 15 men with high grade(Gleason 8–10) prostate cancer and 15 age- and BMI-matched controls were identified from a biospecimen repository. Benign epithelia from each patient were isolated by laser capture microdissection. RNA was isolated, amplified, and used for microarray hybridization. Quantitative PCR(qPCR) was used to determine the expression of specific genes of interest. Alterations in protein expression were analyzed through immunohistochemistry. Results Overall patterns of gene expression in microdissected benign-associated benign epithelium (BABE) and cancer-associated benign epithelium (CABE) were similar. Two genes previously associated with prostate cancer, PSMA and SSTR1, were significantly upregulated in the CABE group(FDR <1%). Expression of other prostate cancer-associated genes, including ERG, HOXC4, HOXC5 and MME, were also increased in CABE by qRT-PCR, although other genes commonly altered in prostate cancer were not different between the BABE and CABE samples. The expression of MME and PSMA proteins on IHC coincided with their mRNA alterations. Conclusion Gene expression profiles between benign epithelia of patients with and without prostate cancer are very similar. However, these tissues exhibit differences in the expression levels of several genes previously associated with prostate cancer development or progression. These differences may comprise a field effect and represent early events in carcinogenesis. PMID:20935156

  7. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections.

  8. Prostatic specific antigen. From its early days until becoming a prostate cancer biomarker.

    PubMed

    Dellavedova, T

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been since the mid 80's the most commonly used biomarker for measuring current and future risk of prostate cancer, for its early detection and to measure response to treatments and detecting recurrence in all stages of the disease. PSA's early development came along with progress in the field of immunology, which allowed detection and study of antigens from different tissues and fluids when injecting them into rabbits to promote immune response. Rubin Flocks in 1960 was the first to investigate and discover prostate-specific antigens in benign and malignant tissue. Some years later, Hara, a Japanese forensic investigator, found 'gamma seminoprotein', that he used to detect human semen in rape cases. However, his work published in Japanese did not reach the Englishspeaking scientific community. In 1970 Ablin discovered both in prostatic fluid and tissue what he called "prostate-specific antigen", but he didn't characterize or describe it. Investigators Li and Beling, and Sensabaugh, approached the current PSA, but they were limited by available technology at that time. Dr T Ming Chu led a research team on prostate cancer in New York, USA and published their results in 1979. He finally received the patent for the discovery of "human purified prostate antigen" in 1984. Due to this work, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in USA, approved the use of PSA for monitoring recurrence after treatment. It was later known that PSA was not prostate-specific since it was produced in other tissues and fluids, but it was recognized that it was human species-specific. Works by Papsidero and Stamey showed new indications and utilities for PSA, but it was Catalona who first used it as a marker for prostate cancer in 1991. Thanks to these advances FDA authorized in 1994 the clinical use of PSA for early detection of prostate cancer.

  9. Clinical Usefulness of the Histoculture Drug Response Assay for Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hypertrophy (BPH).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) has been adapted to determine androgen sensitivity in Gelfoam histoculture of human benign prostatic tissue as well as prostate cancer. Gelfoam histoculture was used to measure androgen-independent and androgen-dependent growth of benign and malignant prostate tissue. The androgen-sensitivity index was significantly higher in 23 paired specimens of prostate cancer compared to benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH). Genistein decreased the androgen-sensitivity index of BPH and prostate cancer in Gelfoam ® histoculture in a dose-dependent manner.

  10. Clinicopathological Overview of Granulomatous Prostatitis: An Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Dravid, Nandkumar; Nikumbh, Dhiraj; Patil, Ashish; Nagappa, Karibasappa Gundabaktha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Granulomatous prostatitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the prostate. Granulomatous prostatitis is important because, it mimics prostatic carcinoma clinically and hence the diagnosis can be made only by histopathological examination. Aim To study the histomorphological features and to know the prevalence of granulomatous prostatitis. Materials and Methods Histopathological records of 1,203 prostatic specimens received in the Department of the Pathology over a period of five years (June 2009 – June 2014). Seventeen cases of histopathologically, diagnosed granulomatous prostatitis were retrieved and reterospective data was collected from the patient’s records. Results Out of 17 cases of granulomatous prostatitis, we encountered 9 cases of non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, 5 cases of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis and 3 cases of specific tubercular prostatitis. The common age ranged from 51-75 years (mean 63 years) with mean PSA level of 15.8ng/ml. Six patients showed focal hypoechoic areas on TRUS and 11 cases revealed hard and fixed nodule on DRE. Conclusion Non-specific granulomatous prostatitis is the most common type of granulomatous prostatitis. There is no specific pattern of clinical, biochemical and ultrasound findings that allows the diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis or differentiates it from prostatic carcinoma. Hence, histomorphological diagnosis is the gold standard in differentiating various prostatic lesions. PMID:27014642

  11. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  12. Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies.

    PubMed

    Hansel, D E; DeMarzo, A M; Platz, E A; Jadallah, S; Hicks, J; Epstein, J I; Partin, A W; Netto, G J

    2007-05-01

    Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p=0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in

  13. Digoxin and prostate cancer survival in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaapu, Kalle J; Murtola, Teemu J; Talala, Kirsi; Taari, Kimmo; Tammela, Teuvo Lj; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-22

    Protective effects have been suggested for digoxin against prostate cancer risk. However, few studies have evaluated the possible effects on prostate cancer-specific survival. We studied the association between use of digoxin or beta-blocker sotalol and prostate cancer-specific survival as compared with users of other antiarrhythmic drugs in a retrospective cohort study. Our study population consisted of 6537 prostate cancer cases from the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer diagnosed during 1996-2009 (485 digoxin users). The median exposure for digoxin was 480 DDDs (interquartile range 100-1400 DDDs). During a median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis, 617 men (48 digoxin users) died of prostate cancer. We collected information on antiarrhythmic drug purchases from the national prescription database. Both prediagnostic and postdiagnostic drug usages were analysed using the Cox regression method. No association was found for prostate cancer death with digoxin usage before (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56-1.80) or after (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.43-1.51) prostate cancer diagnosis. The results were also comparable for sotalol and antiarrhythmic drugs in general. Among men not receiving hormonal therapy, prediagnostic digoxin usage was associated with prolonged prostate cancer survival (HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.86). No general protective effects against prostate cancer were observed for digoxin or sotalol usage.

  14. Prostate Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly, and finding and treating it before symptoms occur may not improve men’s health. Start here to find information on prostate cancer treatment, research, causes and prevention, screening, and statistics.

  15. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Reveals a Role for miR-128 in Prostate Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amjad P.; Poisson, Laila M.; Bhat, Vadiraja B.; Fermin, Damian; Zhao, Rong; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Michailidis, George; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Sreekumar, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Multiple, complex molecular events characterize cancer development and progression. Deciphering the molecular networks that distinguish organ-confined disease from metastatic disease may lead to the identification of biomarkers of cancer invasion and disease aggressiveness. Although alterations in gene expression have been extensively quantified during neoplastic progression, complementary analyses of proteomic changes have been limited. Here we interrogate the proteomic alterations in a cohort of 15 prostate-derived tissues that included five each from adjacent benign prostate, clinically localized prostate cancer, and metastatic disease from distant sites. The experimental strategy couples isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation with multidimensional liquid phase peptide fractionation followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Over 1000 proteins were quantified across the specimens and delineated into clinically localized and metastatic prostate cancer-specific signatures. Included in these class-specific profiles were both proteins that were known to be dysregulated during prostate cancer progression and new ones defined by this study. Enrichment analysis of the prostate cancer-specific proteomic signature, to gain insight into the functional consequences of these alterations, revealed involvement of miR-128-a/b regulation during prostate cancer progression. This finding was validated using real time PCR analysis for microRNA transcript levels in an independent set of 15 clinical specimens. miR-128 levels were elevated in benign prostate epithelial cell lines compared with invasive prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of miR-128 induced invasion in benign prostate epithelial cells, whereas its overexpression attenuated invasion in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our profiles of the proteomic alterations of prostate cancer progression revealed miR-128 as a potentially important negative regulator of prostate cancer cell invasion. PMID:19955085

  17. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5-20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6-20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa.

  18. Inflammation on Prostate Needle Biopsy is Associated with Lower Prostate Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, Shaleen R; Dobbs, Ryan W; Kajdacsy-Balla, André A; Abern, Michael R; Moreira, Daniel M

    2018-05-01

    We performed a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of inflammation on prostate needle biopsies and prostate cancer risk. We searched Embase®, PubMed® and Web of Science™ from January 1, 1990 to October 1, 2016 for abstracts containing the key words prostate cancer, inflammation and biopsy. Study inclusion criteria were original research, adult human subjects, cohort or case-control study design, histological inflammation on prostate needle biopsy and prostate cancer on histology. Two independent teams reviewed abstracts and extracted data from the selected manuscripts. Combined ORs and 95% CIs of any, acute and chronic inflammation were calculated using the random effects method. Of the 1,030 retrieved abstracts 46 underwent full text review and 25 were included in the final analysis, comprising a total of 20,585 subjects and 6,641 patients with prostate cancer. There was significant heterogeneity among studies (I 2 = 84.4%, p <0.001). The presence of any inflammation was significantly associated with a lower prostate cancer risk in 25 studies (OR 0.455, 95% CI 0.337-0.573). There was no evidence of publication bias (p >0.05). When subanalyzed by inflammation type, acute inflammation in 4 studies and chronic inflammation in 15 were each associated with a lower prostate cancer risk (OR 0.681, 95% CI 0.450-0.913 and OR 0.499, 95% CI 0.334-0.665, respectively). In a meta-analysis of 25 studies inflammation on prostate needle biopsy was associated with a lower prostate cancer risk. Clinically the presence of inflammation on prostate needle biopsy may lower the risk of a subsequent prostate cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autoantibody signatures as biomarkers to distinguish prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with increased serum prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Dennis J; DiJohnson, Daniel A; Caiazzo, Robert J; Nelson, James C; Ure, David; O'Leary, Michael P; Richie, Jerome P; Liu, Brian C-S

    2012-03-22

    Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentrations lack the specificity to differentiate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), resulting in unnecessary biopsies. We identified 5 autoantibody signatures to specific cancer targets which might be able to differentiate prostate cancer from BPH in patients with increased serum PSA. To identify autoantibody signatures as biomarkers, a native antigen reverse capture microarray platform was used. Briefly, well-characterized monoclonal antibodies were arrayed onto nanoparticle slides to capture native antigens from prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer patient serum samples (n=41) and BPH patient samples (collected starting at the time of initial diagnosis) with a mean follow-up of 6.56 y without the diagnosis of cancer (n=39) were obtained. One hundred micrograms of IgGs were purified and labeled with a Cy3 dye and incubated on the arrays. The arrays were scanned for fluorescence and the intensity was quantified. Receiver operating characteristic curves were produced and the area under the curve (AUC) was determined. Using our microarray platform, we identified autoantibody signatures capable of distinguishing between prostate cancer and BPH. The top 5 autoantibody signatures were TARDBP, TLN1, PARK7, LEDGF/PSIP1, and CALD1. Combining these signatures resulted in an AUC of 0.95 (sensitivity of 95% at 80% specificity) compared to AUC of 0.5 for serum concentration PSA (sensitivity of 12.2% at 80% specificity). Our preliminary results showed that we were able to identify specific autoantibody signatures that can differentiate prostate cancer from BPH, and may result in the reduction of unnecessary biopsies in patients with increased serum PSA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A new model consists of intravesical prostatic protrusion, prostate volume and serum prostatic-specific antigen in the evaluation of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ding; Yu, Yongjiang; Zhu, Yunkai; Huang, Tao; Chen, Yaqing; Qi, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is largely used to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa) in last decades. However, its specificity is low in patients with a PSA level ranging from 4.0 to 10.0 ng/ml. This study aims to define the correlation between intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and PSA and to establish a new model to predict PCa. A total of 339 patients order than 45 years examined between October 2010 and June 2012 were enrolled. Eligible patients were recommended for transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies after measuring total prostate volume (TPV), tranzisional zone volume (TZV) and IPP. The levels of total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) were analyzed by using Hybritech calibrated Access tPSA and fPSA assays. A new mathematical model, named IPP removed PCa predicting score (IRPPS), consists of tPSA, TZV and IPP was established. The predictive accuracy of IRPPS, PSA density (PSAD), %PSA and tPSA were compared using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Eighty-six patients had PSA levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml. Twenty of them were diagnosed as PCa. Using ROC curves, the areas under the curve for IRPPS, PSAD and %PSA and tPSA were 0.786, 0.768 and 0.664 and 0.585, respectively. We suggested IPP grade had a significant relationship with serum tPSA levels. The predictive accuracy of IRPPS was higher than the other 3 indictors.

  1. Emerging Roles of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hoon Young; Byun, Jonghoe

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent non-skin related cancers. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among males in most Western countries. If prostate cancer is diagnosed in its early stages, there is a higher probability that it will be completely cured. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a non-specific phosphomonoesterase synthesized in prostate epithelial cells and its level proportionally increases with prostate cancer progression. PAP was the biochemical diagnostic mainstay for prostate cancer until the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which improved the detection of early-stage prostate cancer and largely displaced PAP. Recently, however, there is a renewed interest in PAP because of its usefulness in prognosticating intermediate to high-risk prostate cancers and its success in the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Although PAP is believed to be a key regulator of prostate cell growth, its exact role in normal prostate as well as detailed molecular mechanism of PAP regulation is still unclear. Here, many different aspects of PAP in prostate cancer are revisited and its emerging roles in other environment are discussed. PMID:24009853

  2. Prostate-specific antigen kallikrein: from prostate cancer to cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2009-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), considered only an established marker for the detection of prostate cancer, has been identified as a member (hK3) of the human kallikrein family of serine proteases and now, it is known that PSA is not specific to prostate, semen, and gender. Increased PSA serum levels have been reported also in cardiovascular patients and both elevated as well as diminished PSA have been reported during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Preliminary observations have concluded that when elevation of prostate-specific antigen occurs during AMI, it seems to relate to a higher occurrence of major adverse cardiac events and that coronary lesions are frequent and often more severe than when a diminution of PSA occurs. Large studies need to be done to confirm these preliminary results but the journey of PSA could be longer than expected.

  3. Prostate ultrasound: back in business!

    PubMed

    Crisan, Nicolae; Andras, Iulia; Radu, Corina; Andras, David; Coman, Radu-Tudor; Tucan, Paul; Pisla, Doina; Crisan, Dana; Coman, Ioan

    2017-11-29

    The use of grey scale prostate ultrasound decreased after the implementation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and evaluation of prostate cancer. The new developments, such as multiparametric ultrasound and MRI-ultrasound fusion technology, renewed the interest for this imaging method in the assessment of prostate cancer. The purpose of this paper was to review the current role of prostate ultrasound in the setting of these new applications. A thorough reevaluation of the selection criteria of the patients is required to assess which patients would benefit from multiparametric ultrasound, who wouldbenefit from multiparametric MRI or the combination of both to assist prostate biopsy in order to ensure the balance between overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of prostate cancer.

  4. The influence of PSA-RNA yield on the analysis of expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Christopher; Crocitto, Laura; Kawachi, Mark; Chan, Kevin; Smith, David; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven

    2013-02-01

    In patients with prostate cancer, luminal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) enters the circulation because the basement membrane and glandular epithelium are damaged. Given that excess mobilization of prostate cells during prostatic massage can influence normalization in diagnostic testing, we studied PSA mRNA levels in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) from patients undergoing biopsy for prostate cancer to determine if prostate cells are preferentially mobilized from patients with prostate cancer during prostatic massage. Quantitative Reverse-Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the RNA levels of GAPDH, PSA, TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in EPS specimens obtained from patients undergoing biopsy for prostate cancer. The level of PSA mRNA is significantly elevated in EPS specimens obtained from patients with a subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer. This correlation influenced diagnostic testing results from EPS in two ways. First, when used as an exclusion parameter it appears to improve the diagnostic performance of TMPRSS2:ERG in EPS. Second, when used as a normalization parameter it appears to decrease the performance of these same tests. When comparing the results of mRNA based prostate cancer diagnostics in EPS it will be essential to consider PSA mRNA as a prostate specific gene and not a housekeeping gene.

  5. Extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for prostatic calculus image using PCA-SVM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi.

  6. Extraction of Prostatic Lumina and Automated Recognition for Prostatic Calculus Image Using PCA-SVM

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D. Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi. PMID:21461364

  7. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Carlos E; Pisters, Louis L

    2003-06-01

    Cryotherapy, or the use of freezing, is a long-established method of tumor cell destruction. Although in the past cryotherapy was widely used as a local treatment for prostate cancer, this technique was abandoned not due to lack of efficacy but because the complication rate was unacceptably high. However, there has been a re-emergence in the popularity of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer due to improvements in instrumentation, tumor localization and treatment delivery. Using transrectal ultrasound imaging, prostate cryotherapy is currently delivered with multiple probes via a percutaneous transperineal approach. The extent of freezing can be precisely controlled and monitored with thermocouples and tissue destruction is monitored with real-time visualization of the prostate and surrounding structures. The role of cryotherapy in localized prostate cancer is reviewed.

  8. Ratio of prostate specific antigen to the outer gland volume of prostrate as a predictor for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Min; Yan, Yang; Wang, Fang; Gu, Wen-Yu; Hu, Guang-Hui; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    As a definite diagnosis of prostate cancer, puncture biopsy of the prostate is invasive method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of OPSAD (the ratio of PSA to the outer gland volume of prostate) as a non-invasive screening and diagnosis method for prostate cancer in a select population. The diagnosis data of 490 subjects undergoing ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. This included 133 patients with prostate cancer, and 357 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The OPSAD was significantly greater in patients with prostate cancer (1.87 ± 1.26 ng/ml(2)) than those with BPH (0.44 ± 0.21 ng/ml(2)) (P < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the performance of OPSAD as a diagnostic tool is superior to PSA and PSAD for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In the different groups divided according to the Gleason score of prostate cancer, OPSAD is elevated with the rise of the Gleason score. OPSAD may be used as a new indicator for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer, and it can reduce the use of unnecessary puncture biopsy of the prostate.

  9. The association between local atherosclerosis of the prostatic artery and benign prostatic enlargement in humans: Putative mechanism of chronic ischemia for prostatic enlargement.

    PubMed

    Haga, Nobuhiro; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hata, Junya; Aikawa, Ken; Yanagida, Tomohiko; Matsuoka, Kanako; Koguchi, Tomoyuki; Hoshi, Seiji; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kataoka, Masao; Sato, Yuichi; Ishibashi, Kei; Suzuki, Osamu; Hashimoto, Yuko; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2018-05-21

    To investigate the possible pathogenesis of the benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) induced by local atherosclerosis, the association between local atherosclerosis and prostatic enlargement was investigated, and molecular biological analyses were performed using human prostatectomy specimens. A total of 69 consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) participated in this prospective study. To evaluate actual local atherosclerosis, prostatic arteries were removed during RARP. Microscopic assessment of local atherosclerosis was classified as one of three degrees of narrowing (minimal, moderate, and severe) according to the degree of obstruction of the inner cavity of the prostatic artery. The expressions of several mediators related to chronic ischemia and cell proliferation of the prostate were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The median age of the present cohort was 68 (range: 55-75) years. Although there was no relationship between local atherosclerosis and lower urinary symptoms evaluated by questionnaires, local atherosclerosis was significantly more severe in patients who had a history of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (P = 0.02). Prostate size was significantly larger in the severe local atherosclerosis group than in the minimal and moderate local atherosclerosis groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Thepositive expression rates of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, malondialdehyde (MDA), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 , and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the prostate were significantly higher in patients with local atherosclerosis than in patients without local atherosclerosis (all P < 0.01, respectively). In human surgical specimens, there is evidence that local atherosclerosis of the prostatic artery is significantly associated with prostate size. Given the molecular evidence provided in this study, the putative mechanism for this relationship is that chronic

  10. Prostatitis: myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J C

    1998-03-01

    To explore the myths surrounding the enigmatic syndrome that the urologic community has labeled as prostatitis and to determine the actual realities associated with this disease. A critical evaluation of the syndrome of prostatitis based on examination of the recent world literature, undisputed scientific facts, solid hypotheses, common sense, and the author's personal opinion. The most common myths surrounding the importance, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and treatment of prostatitis are in fact merely myths. Recent research has led to a new awareness of the importance of prostatitis, new insights into its pathogenesis, improved disease classification and symptom assessment, and will ultimately lead to more rational diagnostic and treatment strategies. The introduction of a new more rational classification system, the development and validation of reliable symptom assessment instruments, new funding initiatives by granting agencies and the pharmaceutical industry, and an awakening appeal for intellectual examination of this common prostate disease by academic urologists guarantees that prostatitis will find an important place on the urologic agenda as we enter the next millennium.

  11. Prostate radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  12. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Michaeli, J; Heston, W D; Fair, W R

    1988-01-01

    In our previous work we demonstrated that prostate-derived growth factor (PrGF) is homologous to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), not acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). Using Northern blot analysis we now show that the messenger RNA for bFGF but not aFGF is expressed in benign prostatic hyperplastic (BPH) tissue as well as in carcinoma of the prostate (CAP). This not only corroborates our previous results, but suggests that PrGF is produced locally and not merely stored in the prostate. The demonstration of local production of bFGF by prostate tissue may indicate that this growth factor plays a role, either alone or in conjunction with other factors, in the etiology of benign hyperplasia or prostatic cancer.

  13. Clinical Significance of Prostatic Calculi: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Prostatic calculi often occur in middle-aged and old men. Prostatic calculi are usually classified as primary/endogenous stones or secondary/extrinsic stones. Endogenous stones are commonly caused by obstruction of the prostatic ducts around the enlarged prostate by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or by chronic inflammation. Extrinsic stones occur mainly around the urethra, because they are caused by urine reflux. The exact prevalence of prostatic calculi is not known, and it has been reported to vary widely, from 7% to 70%. Most cases of prostatic calculi are not accompanied by symptoms. Therefore, most cases are found incidentally during the diagnosis of BPH using transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). However, prostatic calculi associated with chronic prostatitis may be accompanied by chronic pelvic pain. Rare cases have been reported in which extrinsic prostatic calculi caused by urine reflux have led to voiding difficulty due to their size. More than 80% of prostatic calculi are composed of calcium phosphate. Prostatic calculi can be easily diagnosed using TRUS or computed tomography. Treatment is often unnecessary, but if an individual experiences difficulty in urination or chronic pain, prostatic calculi can be easily removed using a transurethral electroresection loop or holmium laser. PMID:29076299

  14. An inducible model of abacterial prostatitis induces antigen specific inflammatory and proliferative changes in the murine prostate

    PubMed Central

    Haverkamp, Jessica M.; Charbonneau, Bridget; Meyerholz, David K.; Cohen, Michael B.; Snyder, Paul W.; Svensson, Robert U.; Henry, Michael D.; Wang, Hsing- Hui

    2011-01-01

    Background Prostatitis is a poorly understood disease and increasing evidence suggests inflammation is involved in other prostatic diseases, including prostate cancer. Methods The ability of pre-activated CD8 T cells to induce prostatitis was examined by adoptive transfer into POET-3 mice or POET-3/Luc/Pten−/+ mice. Characterization of the inflammatory response was determined by examining leukocyte infiltration by histological analysis, flow cytometry and by evaluating cytokine and chemokine levels in prostate tissue. The impact of inflammation on the prostate was evaluated by monitoring epithelial cell proliferation over time. Results Initiation of inflammation by ovalbumin specific CD8+ T cells (OT-I cells) resulted in development of acute prostatitis in the anterior, dorsolateral and anterior prostate of POET-3 and POET-3/Luc/Pten−/+ mice. Acute prostatitis was characterized by recruitment of adoptively transferred OT-I cells and importantly, autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T cells (Treg). In concert with leukocyte infiltration elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. Inflammation also resulted in marked epithelial cell proliferation that was sustained up to 80 days post adoptive-transfer of OT-I cells. Conclusions The POET-3 model represents a novel mouse model to study both acute and chronic prostate inflammation in an antigen-specific system. Further, the POET-3 mouse model can be crossed with other genetic models of disease such as the C57/Luc/Pten−/− model of prostate cancer, allowing the impact of prostatitis on other prostatic diseases to be evaluated. PMID:21656824

  15. Impact of Prostate Inflammation on Lesion Development in the POET3+Pten+/− Mouse Model of Prostate Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Burcham, Grant N.; Cresswell, Gregory M.; Snyder, Paul W.; Chen, Long; Liu, Xiaoqi; Crist, Scott A.; Henry, Michael D.; Ratliff, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence linking prostatitis and prostate cancer development is contradictory. To study this link, the POET3 mouse, an inducible model of prostatitis, was crossed with a Pten-loss model of prostate cancer (Pten+/−) containing the ROSA26 luciferase allele to monitor prostate size. Prostatitis was induced, and prostate bioluminescence was tracked over 12 months, with lesion development, inflammation, and cytokine expression analyzed at 4, 8, and 12 months and compared with mice without induction of prostatitis. Acute prostatitis led to more proliferative epithelium and enhanced bioluminescence. However, 4 months after initiation of prostatitis, mice with induced inflammation had lower grade pre-neoplastic lesions. A trend existed toward greater development of carcinoma 12 months after induction of inflammation, including one of two mice with carcinoma developing perineural invasion. Two of 18 mice at the later time points developed lesions with similarities to proliferative inflammatory atrophy, including one mouse with associated carcinoma. Pten+/− mice developed spontaneous inflammation, and prostatitis was similar among groups of mice at 8 and 12 months. Analyzed as one cohort, lesion number and grade were positively correlated with prostatitis. Specifically, amounts of CD11b+Gr1+ cells were correlated with lesion development. These results support the hypothesis that myeloid-based inflammation is associated with lesion development in the murine prostate, and previous bouts of CD8-driven prostatitis may promote invasion in the Pten+/− model of cancer. PMID:25455686

  16. Prostate ultrasound--for urologists only?

    PubMed

    Frauscher, Ferdinand; Gradl, Johann; Pallwein, Leo

    2005-11-23

    The value of ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has dramatically increased in the past decade. This is mainly related to the increasing incidence of prostate cancer, the most common cancer in men and one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. The value of conventional gray-scale US for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, and has shown a low sensitivity and specificity. Therefore conventional gray-scale US is mainly used by urologists for guiding systematic prostate biopsies. With the development of new US techniques, such as color and power Doppler US, and the introduction of US contrast agents, the role of US for prostate cancer detection has dramatically changed. Advances in US techniques were introduced to further increase the value of US contrast agents. Although most of these developments in US techniques, which use the interaction of the contrast agent with the transmitted US waves, are very sensitive for the detection of microbubbles, they are mostly unexplored, in particular for prostate applications. Early reports of contrast-enhanced US investigations of blood flow of the prostate have shown that contrast-enhanced US adds important information to the conventional gray-scale US technique. Furthermore, elastography or 'strain imaging' seems to have great potential in prostate cancer detection. Since these new advances in US are very sophisticated and need a long learning curve, radiologists, who are overall better trained with these new US techniques, will play a more important role in prostate cancer diagnosis. Current trends show that these new US techniques may allow for targeted biopsies and therefore replace the current 'gold standard' for prostate cancer detection--the systematic biopsy. Consequently the use of these new US techniques for the detection and clinical staging of prostate cancer is promising. However, future clinical trials will be needed to determine if the promise of these new

  17. CBP-mediated SMN acetylation modulates Cajal body biogenesis and the cytoplasmic targeting of SMN.

    PubMed

    Lafarga, Vanesa; Tapia, Olga; Sharma, Sahil; Bengoechea, Rocio; Stoecklin, Georg; Lafarga, Miguel; Berciano, Maria T

    2018-02-01

    The survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of spliceosomal snRNPs and the molecular assembly of Cajal bodies (CBs). Deletion of or mutations in the SMN1 gene cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with degeneration and loss of motor neurons. Reduced SMN levels in SMA lead to deficient snRNP biogenesis with consequent splicing pathology. Here, we demonstrate that SMN is a novel and specific target of the acetyltransferase CBP (CREB-binding protein). Furthermore, we identify lysine (K) 119 as the main acetylation site in SMN. Importantly, SMN acetylation enhances its cytoplasmic localization, causes depletion of CBs, and reduces the accumulation of snRNPs in nuclear speckles. In contrast, the acetylation-deficient SMNK119R mutant promotes formation of CBs and a novel category of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies enriched in this protein. Acetylation increases the half-life of SMN protein, reduces its cytoplasmic diffusion rate and modifies its interactome. Hence, SMN acetylation leads to its dysfunction, which explains the ineffectiveness of HDAC (histone deacetylases) inhibitors in SMA therapy despite their potential to increase SMN levels.

  18. The role of chronic prostatic inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Gandaglia, Giorgio; Briganti, Alberto; Gontero, Paolo; Mondaini, Nicola; Novara, Giacomo; Salonia, Andrea; Sciarra, Alessandro; Montorsi, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Several different stimuli may induce chronic prostatic inflammation, which in turn would lead to tissue damage and continuous wound healing, thus contributing to prostatic enlargement. Patients with chronic inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been shown to have larger prostate volumes, more severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and a higher probability of acute urinary retention than their counterparts without inflammation. Chronic inflammation could be a predictor of poor response to BPH medical treatment. Thus, the ability to identify patients with chronic inflammation would be crucial to prevent BPH progression and develop target therapies. Although the histological examination of prostatic tissue remains the only available method to diagnose chronic inflammation, different parameters, such as prostatic calcifications, prostate volume, LUTS severity, storage and prostatitis-like symptoms, poor response to medical therapies and urinary biomarkers, have been shown to be correlated with chronic inflammation. The identification of patients with BPH and chronic inflammation might be crucial in order to develop target therapies to prevent BPH progression. In this context, clinical, imaging and laboratory parameters might be used alone or in combination to identify patients that harbour chronic prostatic inflammation. © 2013 BJU International.

  19. Prostate Cancer in Deceased Liver Donors.

    PubMed

    Skalski, M; Gierej, B; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, B; Hołówko, W; Krawczyk, M

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common malignant tumor (13%) among male subjects in Poland. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of prostate cancer in a group of deceased liver donors. A total of 784 liver procurement attempts from deceased donors were performed in the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, from January 1, 2012, to April 1, 2015; 700 grafts were actually used in a liver transplant. A retrospective analysis was performed based on these data. Among male donors (n = 486 [62%]), there were 30 (6.2%) cases of a frozen biopsy of the prostate performed before making the decision regarding liver graft utilization. In the group of 30 donors who underwent prostate examination, 3 (10%) were diagnosed as having prostate cancer of a moderate invasive stage. In 2 other cases, fresh frozen section suggested prostate cancer; however, this fact was not confirmed in routine section. liver transplantation was not performed in these cases of suspicion of prostate cancer (5 of 30 [17%]) in the frozen biopsy specimens. The difference between groups of donors with prostate cancer and benign pathology of the prostate gland according to prostate-specific antigen serum concentration (P = .578) or age (P = .730) was not statistically significant. Increased prostate-specific antigen serum concentrations without a diagnosis of prostate cancer in histopathologic examinations should not be an independent contraindication for performing organ transplantation. Nevertheless, for recipient safety, even when prostate cancer is only suspected in the frozen biopsy sample, the procured organ should not be used for transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostatic tuberculosis and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lanjewar, D N; Maheshwari, M B

    1994-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the prostate is rare and is thought to be either due to haematogenous dissemination or secondary to renal infection. We describe, possibly for the first time, two male patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had tuberculous abscesses in the prostate discovered at post-mortem examination. Only one of them had mild urinary symptoms and neither had evidence of urogenital tuberculosis before death. We suggest that in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome tuberculous infection of the prostate should be sought by microscopic examination of the urine, semen and prostatic fluid obtained after massage.

  1. Comparison of intravesical prostatic protrusion, prostate volume and serum prostatic-specific antigen in the evaluation of bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kok Bin; Ho, Henry; Foo, Keong Tatt; Wong, Michael Yuet Chen; Fook-Chong, Stephanie

    2006-12-01

    The aims of this study were to define the relationship between intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) and to determine which one of them is the best predictor of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostatic enlargement. A prospective study of 114 male patients older than 50 years examined between November 2001 and 2002 was performed. They were evaluated with digital rectal examination, International Prostate Symptoms Score, PSA, uroflowmetry, postvoid residual urine measurement, IPP and PV using transabdominal ultrasound scan. Statistical analysis included scatter plot with Spearman's correlation coefficients and nominal logistic regression Prostate volume, IPP and PSA showed parallel correlation. Although all three indices had good correlation with BOO index, IPP was the best. The Spearman rho correlation coefficients were 0.314, 0.408 and 0.507 for PV, PSA and IPP, respectively. Using receiver-operator characteristic curves, the areas under the curve for PV, PSA and IPP were 0.637, 0.703 and 0.772, respectively. The positive predictive values of PV, PSA and IPP were 65%, 68% and 72%, respectively. Using a nominal regression model, IPP remained the most significant independent index to determine BOO. All three non-invasive indices correlate with one another. The study showed that IPP is a better predictor for BOO than PSA or PV.

  2. Prognostic value of saturated prostate cryoablation for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Hsin; Tai, Yi-Sheng; Pu, Yeong-Shiau

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the oncological outcomes and complications of patients with saturated prostate cryoablation. A cohort of 208 patients cumulatively treated between June 2008 and December 2012 qualified for study inclusion, each undergoing total-gland cryoablation for prostate cancer. The degree of saturated prostate cryoablation was defined as the average prostate volume per cryoprobe (APVC), and divided into four groups (groups 1-4: <3 ml, 3 to <4 ml, 4 to <5 ml, ≧5 ml, respectively). Post-ablative complications were measured prospectively at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 by using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Biochemical failure was gauged by Phoenix criterion. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and Chi-square test were used to compare clinical characteristics of therapeutic subsets. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied for comparison of recurrence risk between groups. APVC group 1 had the highest pre-operative PSA value and smallest prostate size among the groups. Multivariate analysis of risks of biochemical failures revealed that the larger the APVC, the higher the hazard (p for trend = 0.01). Compared to the group 1 patients, the hazard ratios of biochemical failures in groups 2-4 were 4.4 (confidence interval (CI): 0.5-37), 8.8 (CI 1.1-73), and 9.4 (CI 1.1-78), respectively. Nevertheless, the complication rate of APVC group 1 patients was similar to the other three groups. Saturated prostate cryoablation by reducing APVC would be beneficial for cancer control without compromising patient safety.

  3. Radiographic and anatomic basis for prostate contouring errors and methods to improve prostate contouring accuracy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Patrick W; Evans, Cheryl; Feng, Mary; Narayana, Vrinda

    2010-02-01

    Use of highly conformal radiation for prostate cancer can lead to both overtreatment of surrounding normal tissues and undertreatment of the prostate itself. In this retrospective study we analyzed the radiographic and anatomic basis of common errors in computed tomography (CT) contouring and suggest methods to correct them. Three hundred patients with prostate cancer underwent CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prostate was delineated independently on the data sets. CT and MRI contours were compared by use of deformable registration. Errors in target delineation were analyzed and methods to avoid such errors detailed. Contouring errors were identified at the prostatic apex, mid gland, and base on CT. At the apex, the genitourinary diaphragm, rectum, and anterior fascia contribute to overestimation. At the mid prostate, the anterior and lateral fasciae contribute to overestimation. At the base, the bladder and anterior fascia contribute to anterior overestimation. Transition zone hypertrophy and bladder neck variability contribute to errors of overestimation and underestimation at the superior base, whereas variable prostate-to-seminal vesicle relationships with prostate hypertrophy contribute to contouring errors at the posterior base. Most CT contouring errors can be detected by (1) inspection of a lateral view of prostate contours to detect projection from the expected globular form and (2) recognition of anatomic structures (genitourinary diaphragm) on the CT scans that are clearly visible on MRI. This study shows that many CT prostate contouring errors can be improved without direct incorporation of MRI data. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunohistochemical staining of precursor forms of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Parwani, Anil V; Marlow, Cameron; Demarzo, Angelo M; Mikolajczyk, Stephen D; Rittenhouse, Harry G; Veltri, Robert W; Chan, Theresa Y

    2006-10-01

    Precursors of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) have been previously shown to be more concentrated in prostate cancer tissue. This study characterizes the immunohistochemical staining (IHS) of proPSA forms in metastatic prostate cancer compared with prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP). A tissue microarray, consisting of 74 cases of metastatic prostate carcinoma and control tissues, was used. IHS, using monoclonal antibodies against proPSA with a truncated proleader peptide containing 2 amino acids ([-2]pPSA), native ([-5/-7]pPSA), PSA, and PAP, was analyzed. The monoclonal antibodies were specific for both benign and malignant prostatic glandular tissue. IHS with [-5/-7]pPSA showed the least number of cases with negative staining (3%), and the most number of cases with moderate or strong staining (76%). In the 60 cases where all 4 stains could be evaluated, none of them were negative for proPSA and positive for PSA or PAP, and all 7 cases that were negative for both PSA and PAP showed IHS to proPSA. [-5/-7]pPSA (native proPSA) may be a better marker than PSA and PAP in characterizing metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, with most of the cases showing positivity for the marker. Even cases that were negative for PSA and PAP, were reactive for proPSA. Such enhanced detection is particularly important in poorly differentiated carcinomas involving metastatic sites where prostate carcinoma is a consideration. A panel of markers, including proPSA, should be performed when metastatic prostate carcinoma is in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Prostate specific antigen density to predict prostate cancer upgrading in a contemporary radical prostatectomy series: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Magheli, Ahmed; Hinz, Stefan; Hege, Claudia; Stephan, Carsten; Jung, Klaus; Miller, Kurt; Lein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the value of pretreatment prostate specific antigen density to predict Gleason score upgrading in light of significant changes in grading routine in the last 2 decades. Of 1,061 consecutive men who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1999 and 2004, 843 were eligible for study. Prostate specific antigen density was calculated and a cutoff for highest accuracy to predict Gleason upgrading was determined using ROC curve analysis. The predictive accuracy of prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen density to predict Gleason upgrading was evaluated using ROC curve analysis based on predicted probabilities from logistic regression models. Prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen density predicted Gleason upgrading on univariate analysis (as continuous variables OR 1.07 and 7.21, each p <0.001) and on multivariate analysis (as continuous variables with prostate specific antigen density adjusted for prostate specific antigen OR 1.07, p <0.001 and OR 4.89, p = 0.037, respectively). When prostate specific antigen density was added to the model including prostate specific antigen and other Gleason upgrading predictors, prostate specific antigen lost its predictive value (OR 1.02, p = 0.423), while prostate specific antigen density remained an independent predictor (OR 4.89, p = 0.037). Prostate specific antigen density was more accurate than prostate specific antigen to predict Gleason upgrading (AUC 0.61 vs 0.57, p = 0.030). Prostate specific antigen density is a significant independent predictor of Gleason upgrading even when accounting for prostate specific antigen. This could be especially important in patients with low risk prostate cancer who seek less invasive therapy such as active surveillance since potentially life threatening disease may be underestimated. Further studies are warranted to help evaluate the role of prostate specific antigen density in Gleason upgrading and its significance for biochemical outcome.

  6. [PSA interest and prostatitis: literature review].

    PubMed

    Bruyère, F; Amine Lakmichi, M

    2013-12-01

    Prostatitis is easily diagnosed but sometimes associated with PSA measurement. An increased PSA in an asymptomatic patient may be associated with antibiotic use to eliminate the inflammatory part and to confirm prostate biopsy. It seems interesting to confirm or infirm these attitudes with a systematic review of the literature We performed a literature review using the words [prostatitis], [acute prostatitis], [prostate specific antigen], [PSA], in the MEDLINE, Pubmed and AMBASE database searching for articles in French or English published in the past 20 years. PSA is not always increased during an acute prostatitis episode. An increased PSA in an asymptomatic man does not seem to be systematically correlated to prostate inflammation. Analyzing the studies, it seems inaccurate to measure PSA value during a febrile urinary infection episode in men. Systematic use of antibiotic to decrease PSA and not performing prostate biopsy is not relevant and may induce resistance to antibiotic and doesn't induce a reduction risk of having prostate biopsy. PSA is unnecessary in case of febrile urinary tract infection in men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  8. Combination of prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density predicts biopsy outcome in prostate biopsy naïve patients.

    PubMed

    Washino, Satoshi; Okochi, Tomohisa; Saito, Kimitoshi; Konishi, Tsuzumi; Hirai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Tomoaki

    2017-02-01

    To assess the value of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scoring system, for prostate multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect prostate cancer, and classical parameters, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume and PSA density, for predicting biopsy outcome in biopsy naïve patients who have suspected prostate cancer. Patients who underwent mpMRI at our hospital, and who had their first prostate biopsy between July 2010 and April 2014, were analysed retrospectively. The prostate biopsies were taken transperineally under transrectal ultrasonography guidance. In all, 14 cores were biopsied as a systematic biopsy in all patients. Two cognitive fusion-targeted biopsy cores were added for each lesion in patients who had suspicious or equivocal lesions on mpMRI. The PI-RADS scoring system version 2.0 (PI-RADS v2) was used to describe the MRI findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. In all, 288 patients were analysed. The median patient age, PSA level, prostate volume and PSA density were 69 years, 7.5 ng/mL, 28.7 mL, and 0.26 ng/mL/mL, respectively. The biopsy results were benign, clinically insignificant, and clinically significant prostate cancer in 129 (45%), 18 (6%) and 141 (49%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were independent predictors for prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. When PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were combined, a PI-RADS v2 score of ≥4 and PSA density ≥0.15 ng/mL/mL, or PI-RADS v2 score of 3 and PSA density of ≥0.30 ng/mL/mL, was associated with the highest clinically significant prostate cancer detection rates (76-97%) on the first biopsy. Of the patients in this group with negative biopsy results, 22% were subsequently diagnosed as prostate cancer. In contrast, a PI

  9. Prostate volume did not affect voiding function improvements in diode laser enucleation of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Chiang, I-Ni; Lin, Chia-Da; Chang, Shang-Jen

    2013-03-01

    We compared safety and surgical outcomes in patients with different prostate sizes treated with diode laser enucleation of the prostate. From 2008 to 2012 consecutive patients with benign prostatic obstruction undergoing diode laser prostate enucleation at our institution were enrolled for analysis. A single surgeon performed diode laser prostate enucleation with an end firing, continuous wave diode laser (980 nm). Based on preoperative prostate volume on transrectal ultrasound, patients were stratified into 2 groups, including group 1-65 with less than 60 ml and group 2-55 with 60 ml or greater. Baseline and perioperative characteristics, and postoperative surgical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 120 men with a mean ± SD age of 70.2 ± 9.0 years were enrolled for analysis. Compared with group 1 patients, those in group 2 had larger mean total prostate volume (85.0 ± 24.6 vs 40.9 ± 10.8 ml), longer mean operative time (117.7 ± 48.2 vs 60.7 ± 25.0 minutes), higher mean retrieved prostate weight (37.3 ± 16.1 vs 12.5 ± 7.3 gm) and a higher mean tissue retrieval ratio (74.4% ± 22.2% vs 58.8% ± 23.2%, p <0.01). There was no significant difference in the postoperative hemoglobin decrease in the 2 groups (median 0.5 vs 0.9 mg/dl, p = 0.11). The rate of temporary postoperative urinary retention after Foley catheter removal was significantly lower in group 2 (15.4% vs 3.6%, p = 0.04). Postoperative improvements in the peak flow rate, post-void residual urine volume and International Prostate Symptom Score were comparable in the 2 groups. Although patients with a larger prostate required significantly longer operative time and laser energy, voiding function improvements and surgical complication rates of diode laser prostate enucleation were comparable in patients with a larger vs smaller prostate. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in normal prostate tissue, postatrophic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and tumor histological lesions in men with and without prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Sabina; Andren, Ove; Ohlson, Anna-Lena; Carlsson, Jessica; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Giunchi, Francesca; Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2018-01-01

    The tumor promoting or counteracting effects of the immune response to cancer development are thought to be mediated to some extent by the infiltration of regulatory T cells (T regs ). In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of T reg populations in stromal and epithelial compartments of normal, post atrophic hyperplasia (PAH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and tumor lesions in men with and without prostate cancer. Study subjects were 102 men consecutively diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and 38 men diagnosed with bladder cancer undergoing cystoprostatectomy without prostate cancer at the pathological examination. Whole mount sections from all patients were evaluated for the epithelial and stromal expression of CD4 + T regs and CD8 + T regs in normal, PAH, PIN, and tumor lesions. A Friedmańs test was used to investigate differences in the mean number of T regs across histological lesions. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for each histological area. In men with prostate cancer, similarly high numbers of stromal CD4 + T regs were identified in PAH and tumor, but CD4 + T regs were less common in PIN. Greater numbers of epithelial CD4+ T regs in normal prostatic tissue were positively associated with both Gleason score and pT-stage. We observed a fourfold increased risk of prostate cancer in men with epithelial CD4 + T regs in the normal prostatic tissue counterpart. Our results may suggest a possible pathway through which PAH develops directly into prostate cancer in the presence of CD4 + T regs and indicate that transformation of the anti-tumor immune response may be initiated even before the primary tumor is established. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  11. Incidental Prostate Cancer in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Specimens in the Modern Era

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Christopher; Te, Alexis E.; Kaplan, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify rates of incidentally detected prostate cancer in patients undergoing surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods. A retrospective review was performed on all transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP) regardless of technique from 2006 to 2011 at a single tertiary care institution. 793 men (ages 45–90) were identified by pathology specimen. Those with a known diagnosis of prostate cancer prior to TURP were excluded (n = 22) from the analysis. Results. 760 patients had benign pathology; eleven (1.4%) patients were found to have prostate cancer. Grade of disease ranged from Gleason 3 + 3 = 6 to Gleason 3 + 4 = 7. Nine patients had cT1a disease and two had cT1b disease. Seven patients were managed by active surveillance with no further events, one patient underwent radiation, and three patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Conclusions. Our series demonstrates that 1.4% of patients were found to have prostate cancer, of these 0.5% required treatment. Given the low incidental prostate cancer detection rate, the value of pathologic review of TURP specimens may be limited depending on the patient population. PMID:24876835

  12. Incidental prostate cancer in transurethral resection of the prostate specimens in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Otto, Brandon; Barbieri, Christopher; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A; Robinson, Brian; Chughtai, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify rates of incidentally detected prostate cancer in patients undergoing surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods. A retrospective review was performed on all transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP) regardless of technique from 2006 to 2011 at a single tertiary care institution. 793 men (ages 45-90) were identified by pathology specimen. Those with a known diagnosis of prostate cancer prior to TURP were excluded (n = 22) from the analysis. Results. 760 patients had benign pathology; eleven (1.4%) patients were found to have prostate cancer. Grade of disease ranged from Gleason 3 + 3 = 6 to Gleason 3 + 4 = 7. Nine patients had cT1a disease and two had cT1b disease. Seven patients were managed by active surveillance with no further events, one patient underwent radiation, and three patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Conclusions. Our series demonstrates that 1.4% of patients were found to have prostate cancer, of these 0.5% required treatment. Given the low incidental prostate cancer detection rate, the value of pathologic review of TURP specimens may be limited depending on the patient population.

  13. Role of prostate artery embolization in the management of refractory haematuria of prostatic origin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Keith; Halpern, Joshua A; McClure, Timothy D; Lewis, Nicholas A; Kably, Isaam; Bhatia, Shivank; Hu, Jim C

    2016-09-01

    Prostatic haematuria is among the most common genitourinary complaints of emergency room visits, distressing and troublesome to men and a challenging clinical problem to the treating physician. The most common aetiologies of prostatic haematuria include benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Prostatic haematuria usually resolves with conservative and medical methods; failure of these interventions results in refractory haematuria of prostatic origin (RHPO), a potentially life-threatening scenario. Several different treatments have been described, with varying degrees of success. Patients with RHPO are often elderly and unfit for radical surgery. Prostate artery embolization (PAE) has evolved as a safe and effective technique in the management of RHPO. Use of a superselective approach optimizes clinical success while minimizing complications. This minimally invasive approach improves patients with haemodynamic instability, serves as a bridge to elective surgery, and is a highly effective treatment for RHPO. It may obviate the need for more invasive and morbid surgical therapies. The aim of the present review was to describe the current management of RHPO and the technique of PAE and to review its efficacy and associated morbidity. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a possible biomarker in non-prostatic cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ibave, Diana Cristina; Burciaga-Flores, Carlos Horacio; Elizondo-Riojas, Miguel-Ángel

    2018-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease produced by epithelial prostatic cells and its main function is to liquefy seminal coagulum. Currently, PSA is a biomarker for the diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and it was the first cancer biomarker approved by the FDA. The quantity and serum isoforms of male PSA, allows distinguishing between carcinoma and benign inflammatory disease of the prostate. Initially, it was thought that PSA was produced only by the prostate, and thus, a protein that was expressed exclusively in men. However, several authors report that PSA is a protein that is expressed by multiple non-prostatic tissues not only in men but also in women. Some authors also report that in women, the expression of this protein is highly related to breast and colon cancer and therefore can act as a possible biomarker for early detection, diagnosis and prognosis of these cancers in women. In this review, we will focus on the characteristics of the PSA at a molecular level, its current clinical implications, the expression of this protein in non-prostatic tissues, and its relationship with cancer, especially in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma cell-free DNA and its DNA integrity as biomarker to distinguish prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with increased serum prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiang; Gang, Feng; Li, Xiao; Jin, Tang; Houbao, Huang; Yu, Cao; Guorong, Li

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) or its integrity could differentiate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in patients with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 4 ng/ml. Ninety-six patients with prostate cancer and 112 patients with BPH were enrolled. cfDNA levels in plasma before prostate biopsy were quantified by real-time PCR amplification of ALU gene (product size of 115 bp), and quantitative ratio of ALU (247 bp) to ALU (115 bp) reflected the integrity of cfDNA. In patients with serum PSA ≥ 4 ng/ml, there were significant differences in plasma cfDNA or its integrity between the patients with prostate cancer (19.74 ± 4.43, 0.34 ± 0.05) and patients with BPH (7.36 ± 1.58, 0.19 ± 0.03; P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Prostate cancer could be differentiated with a sensitivity of 73.2 % and a specificity of 72.7 % by cfDNA (AUC = 0.864). The integrity of cfDNA had a sensitivity of 81.7 % and a specificity of 78.8 % for the distinguishing prostate cancer from BPH (AUC = 0.910). cfDNA and its integrity could be applied to differentiate prostate cancer from BPH in patients with serum PSA ≥ 4 ng/ml.

  16. Risk factors for infection development after transrectal prostate biopsy and the role of resistant bacteria in colonic flora.

    PubMed

    Eruz, Emine Dilek; Yalci, Aysun; Ozden, Eriz; Aslaner, Halide; Ogucu-Durgun, Suna; Koseoglu-Taymur, Deniz Derya; Memikoglu, Kemal Osman; Erdem, Hakan; Kurt, Halil

    2017-02-28

    In this study, we aimed to identify risk factors for the development of infectious complications after prostate biopsy and to investigate the role of intestinal colonization of bacteria that are resistant to prophylactic antibiotics. A total of 168 patients who had undergone transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) under ciprofloxacin and gentamycin prophylaxis were included in the study. Stool cultures and subsequent antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed in all patients before the start of antibiotic prophylaxis. Of the 168 patients, 17 (10.1%) developed urinary tract infection (UTI), while 6 (3.57%) developed sepsis within seven days after biopsy. Ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial colonization was detected in 81 (48.2%) of the patients. None of the patients with ciprofloxacin-sensitive bacteria in intestinal flora developed a UTI. The colonization of intestinal ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria increased UTI risk significantly after TRPB (p < 0.0001). Urolithiasis history, presence of permanent urinary catheterization, hospitalization history for more than 48 hours in the last year, and recent antibiotic usage significantly increased UTI risk after TRPB. Development of an infection was more frequent in patients with resistant bacterial colonization. We hope to guide more comprehensive studies designed to find a standard prophylactic regimen for TRPB that can be used all over the world.

  17. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  18. Prostate cancer: cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Katsuto

    2003-11-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has more than doubled in the last 10 years, and 220,900 new cases will be detected in 2003. This increase is due in large part to increased use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening, transrectal ultrasonography, and random biopsy of the prostate. The treatment of prostate cancer, however, remains controversial, and no consensus has been established as to what constitutes appropriate treatment for any stage of disease, especially for localized cancers. Radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, or watchful waiting all have their advocates, and the risks and benefits of these approaches are discussed frequently. Skepticism about conventional treatments has stimulated patients and physicians to search for alternatives that are effective and associated with limited morbidity. Technologic developments have rekindled interest in cryotherapy as a viable alternative to other, more conventional localized therapies. Given the relative paucity of alternatives for patients who experience biochemical progression after radiotherapy, cryosurgery also may prove to be a good alternative for those patients whose tumors appear to remain localized despite progression. In addition, it appears that cryosurgery will play an increased role in the future management of prostate cancer.

  19. Role of Inflammation in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Bilal; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation of the prostate may represent a mechanism for hyperplastic changes to occur in the prostate. There are a variety of growth factors and cytokines that may lead to a proinflammatory process within the prostate. There are several proposed mechanisms that lead to both the intrinsic and extrinsic basis of inflammation. Prostatic inflammation may represent an important factor in influencing prostatic growth and progression of symptoms. This article reviews the recent literature on inflammation leading to chronic prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:22110398

  20. Recent Biomarker-Confirmed Unprotected Vaginal Sex, But Not Self-reported Unprotected Sex, Is Associated With Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Norris Turner, Abigail; Carr Reese, Patricia; Snead, Margaret Christine; Fields, Karen; Ervin, Melissa; Kourtis, Athena P; Klebanoff, Mark A; Gallo, Maria F

    2016-03-01

    Self-reported unprotected vaginal sex seems to increase risk of bacterial vaginosis (BV). However, the validity of self-reports is questionable, given their inconsistency with more objective measures of recent semen exposure such as detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We examined whether recent unprotected sex, as measured both by PSA detection on vaginal swabs and by self-report, was associated with increased BV recurrence. We analyzed randomized trial data from nonpregnant, BV-positive adult women recruited from a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Participants received BV therapy at enrollment and were scheduled to return after 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Bacterial vaginosis (by Nugent score) and PSA were measured at each visit. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between PSA positivity and recurrent BV. We also evaluated associations between self-reported unprotected sex (ever/never since the last visit and in the last 48 hours, analyzed separately) and recurrent BV. Prostate-specific antigen and BV results were available for 96 women who contributed 226 follow-up visits. Prostate-specific antigen positivity was associated with increased BV recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-4.21). In contrast, we observed no significant increase in BV recurrence among women self-reporting unprotected sex since the last visit (aHR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.77-3.43) or in the last 48 hours (aHR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.70-2.36). Estimates from earlier studies linking self-reported unprotected sex and BV may be biased by misclassification. Biomarkers can improve measurement of unprotected sex, a critical exposure variable in sexual health research.

  1. Aetiology of chronic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Skerk, Visnja; Schönwald, Slavko; Krhen, Ivan; Markovinović, Leo; Beus, Ante; Kuzmanović, Natasa-Sterk; Kruzić, Vladimira; Vince, Adriana

    2002-06-01

    A total of 388 patients with symptoms of chronic prostatitis and inflammatory findings in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) or in a urine sample collected immediately after prostate massage, were examined over a 2 year period at the Outpatient Department for Urogenital Infections, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases 'Dr Fran Mihaljević', Zagreb, Croatia. The infective aetiology was determined in 276 (71.13%) patients. Chlamydia trachomatis was the causative pathogen in 109 patients, Trichomonas vaginalis in 52, Escherichia coli in 26, enterococci in 25, Proteus mirabilis in 14, Klebsiella pneumoniae in six, Streptococcus agalactiae in eight, Ureaplasma urealyticum in seven patients with chronic prostatitis. Other patients had a mixed infection.

  2. Metabolomic signatures of aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McDunn, Jonathan E; Li, Zhen; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Neri, Bruce P; Wolfert, Robert L; Milburn, Michael V; Lotan, Yair; Wheeler, Thomas M

    2013-10-01

    Current diagnostic techniques have increased the detection of prostate cancer; however, these tools inadequately stratify patients to minimize mortality. Recent studies have identified a biochemical signature of prostate cancer metastasis, including increased sarcosine abundance. This study examined the association of tissue metabolites with other clinically significant findings. A state of the art metabolomics platform analyzed prostatectomy tissues (331 prostate tumor, 178 cancer-free prostate tissues) from two independent sites. Biochemicals were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses identified metabolites associated with cancer aggressiveness: Gleason score, extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle and lymph node involvement. Prostate tumors had significantly altered metabolite profiles compared to cancer-free prostate tissues, including biochemicals associated with cell growth, energetics, stress, and loss of prostate-specific biochemistry. Many metabolites were further associated with clinical findings of aggressive disease. Aggressiveness-associated metabolites stratified prostate tumor tissues with high abundances of compounds associated with normal prostate function (e.g., citrate and polyamines) from more clinically advanced prostate tumors. These aggressive prostate tumors were further subdivided by abundance profiles of metabolites including NAD+ and kynurenine. When added to multiparametric nomograms, metabolites improved prediction of organ confinement (AUROC from 0.53 to 0.62) and 5-year recurrence (AUROC from 0.53 to 0.64). These findings support and extend earlier metabolomic studies in prostate cancer and studies where metabolic enzymes have been associated with carcinogenesis and/or outcome. Furthermore, these data suggest that panels of analytes may be valuable to translate metabolomic findings to clinically useful diagnostic tests

  3. Two-micrometer thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Jian; Wei, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Hai-Tao; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    The 2-μm thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT) has been introduced as a minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study was undertaken to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of TmLRP-TT for the treatment of BPH patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy. A prospective analysis of 51 patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy who underwent surgical treatment using TmLRP-TT was performed from December 2011 to December 2013. Preoperative status, surgical details, and perioperative complications were recorded. The follow-up outcome was evaluated with subjective and objective tests at 1 and 6 months. TmLRP-TT was successfully completed in all patients. Mean prostate volume, operative duration, and catheterization time were 93.3 ± 37.9 ml, 69.5 ± 39.5 min, and 6.5 ± 1.3 days, respectively. The mean International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, maximum urinary flow rate, and post-void residual urine volume changed notably at 6-month follow-up (22.5 ± 6.9 vs 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 1.3 vs 1.1 ± 0.9, 7.3 ± 4.5 vs 18.9 ± 7.1 ml s-1 , and 148.7 ± 168.7 vs 28.4 ± 17.9 ml). Two (3.9%) patients required blood transfusion perioperatively, while 3 (5.9%) patients experienced transient hematuria postoperatively, and 2 (3.9%) patients received 3 days recatheterization due to clot retention. TmLRP-TT is a safe and effective minimally invasive technique for patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy during the 6-month follow-up. This promising technology may be a feasible surgical method for previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy in the future.

  4. Two-micrometer thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jian; Wei, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Hai-Tao; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Jun-Lu; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    The 2-μm thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT) has been introduced as a minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study was undertaken to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of TmLRP-TT for the treatment of BPH patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy. A prospective analysis of 51 patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy who underwent surgical treatment using TmLRP-TT was performed from December 2011 to December 2013. Preoperative status, surgical details, and perioperative complications were recorded. The follow-up outcome was evaluated with subjective and objective tests at 1 and 6 months. TmLRP-TT was successfully completed in all patients. Mean prostate volume, operative duration, and catheterization time were 93.3 ± 37.9 ml, 69.5 ± 39.5 min, and 6.5 ± 1.3 days, respectively. The mean International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, maximum urinary flow rate, and post-void residual urine volume changed notably at 6-month follow-up (22.5 ± 6.9 vs 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 1.3 vs 1.1 ± 0.9, 7.3 ± 4.5 vs 18.9 ± 7.1 ml s−1, and 148.7 ± 168.7 vs 28.4 ± 17.9 ml). Two (3.9%) patients required blood transfusion perioperatively, while 3 (5.9%) patients experienced transient hematuria postoperatively, and 2 (3.9%) patients received 3 days recatheterization due to clot retention. TmLRP-TT is a safe and effective minimally invasive technique for patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy during the 6-month follow-up. This promising technology may be a feasible surgical method for previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy in the future. PMID:26732107

  5. GPRC6A regulates prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Min; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND GPRC6A is a nutrient sensing GPCR that is activated in vitro by a variety of ligands, including amino acids, calcium, zinc, osteocalcin (OC) and testosterone. The association between nutritional factors and risk of prostate cancer, the finding of increased expression of OC in prostate cancer cells and the association between GPRC6A and risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men implicates a role of GPRC6A in prostate cancer. METHODS We examined if GPRC6A is expressed in human prostate cancer cell lines and used siRNA-mediated knockdown GPRC6A expression in prostate cancer cells to explore the function of GPRC6A in vitro. To assess the role GPRC6A in prostate cancer progression in vivo we intercrossed Gprc6a−/− mice onto the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model. RESULTS GPRC6A transcripts were markedly increased in prostate cancer cell lines 22Rv1, PC-3 and LNCaP, compared to the normal prostate RWPE-1 cell line. In addition, a panel of GPRC6A ligands, including calcium, OC, and arginine, exhibited in prostate cancer cell lines a dose-dependent stimulation of ERK activity, cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and prostate specific antigen and Runx 2 gene expression. These responses were inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of GPRC6A. Finally, transfer of Gprc6a deficiency onto a TRAMP mouse model of prostate cancer significantly retarded prostate cancer progression and improved survival of compound Gprc6a−/−/TRAMP mice. CONCLUSIONS GPRC6A is a novel molecular target for regulating prostate growth and cancer progression. Increments in GPRC6A may augment the ability of prostate cancer cells to proliferate in response to dietary and bone derived ligands. PMID:21681779

  6. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Negative Metastases-A Potential Pitfall in Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET.

    PubMed

    Noto, Benjamin; Auf der Springe, Katharina; Huss, Sebastian; Allkemper, Thomas; Stegger, Lars

    2018-06-01

    Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was performed in a 74-year-old man because of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer following radiation therapy of the prostate gland 24 months earlier. Besides focal nuclide accumulation in the prostate gland suggestive of local recurrence, PET scan revealed no further pathologic uptake. However, CT showed multiple pulmonic nodules suggestive of metastases. Thoracotomy and pathologic examination revealed the nodules to be prostate cancer metastasis. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining with PSMA antibodies demonstrated a virtual lack of PSMA expression. This case demonstrates the possibility of PSMA-negative metastases of prostate cancer an important pitfall that should be known to physicians interpreting PSMA PET.

  7. Effectiveness of the combined evaluation of KLK3 genetics and free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Prayer-Galetti, Tommaso; Basso, Daniela; Padoan, Andrea; Rossi, Elisa; Secco, Silvia; Pelloso, Michela; Fogar, Paola; Navaglia, Filippo; Moz, Stefania; Zattoni, Filiberto; Plebani, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Of serum prostate specific antigen variability 40% depends on inherited factors. We ascertained whether the knowledge of KLK3 genetics would enhance prostate specific antigen diagnostic performance in patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. We studied 1,058 men who consecutively underwent prostate biopsy for clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. At histology prostate cancer was present in 401 cases and absent in 657. Serum total prostate specific antigen and the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio were determined. Four polymorphisms of the KLK3 gene (rs2569733, rs2739448, rs925013 and rs2735839) and 1 polymorphism of the SRD5A2 gene (rs523349) were studied. The influence of genetics on prostate specific antigen variability was evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis. The performance of total prostate specific antigen and the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio alone or combined with a genetically based patient classification were defined by ROC curve analyses. For prostate cancer diagnosis the free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio index alone (cutoff 11%) was superior to total prostate specific antigen (cutoff 4 ng/ml) and to free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio reflex testing (positive predictive value 61%, 43% and 54%, respectively). Prostate specific antigen correlated with KLK3 genetics (rs2735839 polymorphism p = 0.001, and rs2569733, rs2739448 and rs925013 haplotype combination p = 0.003). In patients with different KLK3 genetics 2 optimal free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio cutoffs (11% and 14.5%) were found. For free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio values between 11% and 14.5% the prostate cancer probability ranged from 30.0% to 47.4% according to patient genetics. The free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio is superior to total prostate specific antigen for prostate cancer diagnosis, independent of total prostate specific antigen results. Free-to-total prostate

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of choline-binding protein F from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, Rafael; González, Ana; Moscoso, Miriam

    2007-09-01

    The modular choline-binding protein F (CbpF) from S. pneumoniae has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A SAD data set from a gadolinium-complex derivative has been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Choline-binding protein F (CbpF) is a modular protein that is bound to the pneumococcal cell wall through noncovalent interactions with choline moieties of the bacterial teichoic and lipoteichoic acids. Despite being one of the more abundant proteins on the surface, along with the murein hydrolases LytA, LytB, LytC and Pce, its function is still unknown. CbpF has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction-qualitymore » orthorhombic crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.13, b = 114.94, c = 75.69 Å. A SAD data set from a Gd-HPDO3A-derivatized CbpF crystal was collected to 2.1 Å resolution at the gadolinium L{sub III} absorption edge using synchrotron radiation.« less

  9. Prostatic Tissue Elimination After Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE): A Report of Three Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Leite, Leandro Cardarelli; Assis, Andre Moreira de; Moreira, Airton Mota

    PurposeWe report three cases of spontaneous prostatic tissue elimination through the urethra while voiding following technically successful prostatic artery embolization (PAE) as a treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsAll patients were embolized with 100- to 300-μm microspheres alone or in combination with 300- to 500-μm microspheres.ResultsDuring follow-up prior to eliminating the tissue fragments, the three patients all presented with intermittent periods of LUTS improvement and aggravation. After expelling the prostatic tissue between 1 and 5 months of follow-up, significant improvements in LUTS and urodynamic parameters were observed in all patients.ConclusionsUrethral obstruction after PAEmore » caused by sloughing prostate tissue is a potential complication of the procedure and should be considered in patients with recurrent LUTS in order to avoid inappropriate management.« less

  10. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... or routine screening test for prostate cancer. Screening tests for prostate cancer are under study, and there are screening clinical trials taking place ...

  11. The Prostate Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  12. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy-guided transperineal prostate biopsy and brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Agnieszka Szot; Haker, Steven J; Mulkern, Robert V; So, Minna; D'Amico, Anthony V; Tempany, Clare M

    2005-12-01

    Brachytherapy targeted to the peripheral zone with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance is a prostate cancer treatment option with potentially fewer complications than other treatments. Follow-up MRI when failure is suspected is, however, difficult because of radiation-induced changes. Furthermore, MR spectroscopy (MRS) is compromised by susceptibility artifacts from radioactive seeds in the peripheral zone. We report a case in which combined MRI/MRS was useful for the detection of prostate cancer in the transitional zone in patients previously treated with MR-guided brachytherapy. We propose that MRI/MRS can help detect recurrent prostate cancer, guide prostate biopsy, and help manage salvage treatment decisions.

  13. Incidental Metastatic Melanoma Identified on 68Ga-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT for Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Snow, Hayden A; Hofman, Michael S; Mitchell, Catherine A; Gyorki, David E; Smith, Myles J F

    2018-07-01

    A 78-year-old man with a history of surgically treated prostate cancer and melanoma underwent Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT for biochemical recurrence of his prostate cancer. This revealed locoregionally recurrent prostate cancer and a separate PSMA-avid nodule in his left arm. Subsequent F-FDG PET/CT and excision confirmed this to be an in-transit melanoma metastasis. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT has become a widely used and valuable tool in the assessment of prostate cancer, particularly biochemically recurrent. Uptake of PSMA has been described in a multitude of different benign and malignant conditions, but it has only rarely been documented in melanoma.

  14. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors: Process and Outcomes of a Prostate Cancer Informed Decision-Making Training Program.

    PubMed

    Vines, Anissa I; Hunter, Jaimie C; Carlisle, Veronica A; Richmond, Alan N

    2016-04-19

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train "Prostate Cancer Ambassadors" on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was implemented in three predominantly African American communities over an 8-month period between 2013 and 2014. Following training, Ambassadors committed to contacting at least 10 people within 3 months using a toolkit composed of wallet-sized informational cards for distribution, a slide presentation, and a flip chart. Thirty-two Ambassadors were trained, with more than half being females (59%) and half reporting a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer knowledge improved significantly among Ambassadors (p≤ .0001). Self-efficacy improved significantly for performing outreach tasks (p< .0001), and among women in helping a loved one with making an informed decision (p= .005). There was also an improvement in collective efficacy in team members (p= .0003). Twenty-nine of the Ambassadors fulfilled their commitment to reach at least 10 people (average number of contacts per Ambassador was 11). In total, 355 individuals were reached with the prostate cancer information. The Ambassador training program proved successful in training Ambassadors to reach communities about prostate cancer and how to make an informed decision about screening. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in normal prostate tissue, postatrophic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and tumor histological lesions in men with and without prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andren, Ove; Ohlson, Anna‐Lena; Carlsson, Jessica; Andersson, Swen‐Olof; Giunchi, Francesca; Rider, Jennifer R.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2017-01-01

    Background The tumor promoting or counteracting effects of the immune response to cancer development are thought to be mediated to some extent by the infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs). In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of Treg populations in stromal and epithelial compartments of normal, post atrophic hyperplasia (PAH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and tumor lesions in men with and without prostate cancer. Methods Study subjects were 102 men consecutively diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and 38 men diagnosed with bladder cancer undergoing cystoprostatectomy without prostate cancer at the pathological examination. Whole mount sections from all patients were evaluated for the epithelial and stromal expression of CD4+ Tregs and CD8+ Tregs in normal, PAH, PIN, and tumor lesions. A Friedmańs test was used to investigate differences in the mean number of Tregs across histological lesions. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for each histological area. Results In men with prostate cancer, similarly high numbers of stromal CD4+ Tregs were identified in PAH and tumor, but CD4+ Tregs were less common in PIN. Greater numbers of epithelial CD4+ Tregs in normal prostatic tissue were positively associated with both Gleason score and pT‐stage. We observed a fourfold increased risk of prostate cancer in men with epithelial CD4+ Tregs in the normal prostatic tissue counterpart. Conclusions Our results may suggest a possible pathway through which PAH develops directly into prostate cancer in the presence of CD4+ Tregs and indicate that transformation of the anti‐tumor immune response may be initiated even before the primary tumor is established. PMID:29105795

  16. Ejaculatory function after permanent 125I prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Huyghe, Eric; Delannes, Martine; Wagner, Fabien; Delaunay, Boris; Nohra, Joe; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Shut-Yee, J Yeung; Plante, Pierre; Soulie, Michel; Thonneau, Patrick; Bachaud, Jean Marc

    2009-05-01

    Ejaculatory function is an underreported aspect of male sexuality in men treated for prostate cancer. We conducted the first detailed analysis of ejaculatory function in patients treated with permanent (125)I prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Of 270 sexually active men with localized prostate cancer treated with permanent (125)I prostate brachytherapy, 241 (89%), with a mean age of 65 years (range, 43-80), responded to a mailed questionnaire derived from the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire regarding ejaculatory function. Five aspects of ejaculatory function were examined: frequency, volume, dry ejaculation, pleasure, and pain. Of the 241 sexually active men, 81.3% had conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy; however, the number of patients with rare/absent ejaculatory function was double the pretreatment number (p < .0001). The latter finding was correlated with age (p < .001) and the preimplant International Index of Erectile Function score (p < .001). However, 84.9% of patients with maintained ejaculatory function after implantation reported a reduced volume of ejaculate compared with 26.9% before (p < .001), with dry ejaculation accounting for 18.7% of these cases. After treatment, 30.3% of the patients experienced painful ejaculation compared with 12.9% before (p = .0001), and this was associated with a greater number of implanted needles (p = .021) and the existence of painful ejaculation before implantation (p < .0001). After implantation, 10% of patients who continued to be sexually active experienced no orgasm compared with only 1% before treatment. in addition, more patients experienced late/difficult or weak orgasms (p = .001). Most men treated with brachytherapy have conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy. However, most of these men experience a reduction in volume and a deterioration in orgasm.

  17. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and the Risk of Prostate Cancer and Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoyu; Fang, Xiangming; Ma, Ying; Xianyu, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been suggested to be a risk factor for certain urologic cancers, but the current evidence is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BPH and urologic cancers. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for potential eligible studies. We included case-control studies or cohort studies, which evaluated the association between BPH and urologic cancers (including prostate cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, or penile cancer). Overall effect estimates were calculated using the DerSimonian–Laird method for a random-effects model. Summary effect-size was calculated as risk ratio (RR), together with the 95% confidence interval (CI). This systematic review included 16 case-control studies and 10 cohort studies evaluating the association of BPH and prostate or bladder cancer; we did not identify any study about other urologic cancers. Meta-analyses demonstrated that BPH was associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (case-control study: RR = 3.93, 95% CI = 2.18–7.08; cohort-study: RR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.00–1.99) and bladder cancer (case-control study: RR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.63–3.84; cohort-study: RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.28–1.95). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the association between BPH and prostate cancer was much stronger in Asians (RR = 6.09, 95% CI = 2.96–12.54) than in Caucasians (RR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.19–2.01). Egger's tests indicated low risk of publication bias (prostate cancer: P = 0.11; bladder cancer: P = 0.95). BPH is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and bladder cancer. The risk of prostate cancer is particularly high in Asian BPH patients. Given the limitations of included studies, additional prospective studies with strict design are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27149447

  18. Alterations in expressed prostate secretion-urine PSA N-glycosylation discriminate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chenxia; Wen, Fuping; Wang, Haifeng; Guo, Huaizu; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuanliang; Xu, Chuanliang; Yang, Chenghua; Sun, Yinghao

    2017-01-01

    The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is widely used for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, its limited sensitivity has led to over-diagnosis and over-treatment of PCa. Glycosylation alteration is a common phenomenon in cancer development. Different PSA glycan subforms have been proposed as diagnostic markers to better differentiate PCa from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we purified PSA from expressed prostate secretions (EPS)-urine samples from 32 BPH and 30 PCa patients and provided detailed PSA glycan profiles in Chinese population. We found that most of the PSA glycans from EPS-urine were complex type biantennary glycans. We observed two major patterns in PSA glycan profiles. Overall there was no distinct separation of PSA glycan profiles between BPH and PCa patients. However, we detected a significant increase of glycan FA2 and FM5A2G2S1 in PCa when compared with BPH patients. Furthermore, we observed that the composition of FA2 glycan increased significantly in advanced PCa with Gleason score ≥8, which potentially could be translated to clinic as a marker for aggressive PCa. PMID:29100363

  19. Alterations in expressed prostate secretion-urine PSA N-glycosylation discriminate prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jia, Gaozhen; Dong, Zhenyang; Sun, Chenxia; Wen, Fuping; Wang, Haifeng; Guo, Huaizu; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuanliang; Xu, Chuanliang; Yang, Chenghua; Sun, Yinghao

    2017-09-29

    The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is widely used for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, its limited sensitivity has led to over-diagnosis and over-treatment of PCa. Glycosylation alteration is a common phenomenon in cancer development. Different PSA glycan subforms have been proposed as diagnostic markers to better differentiate PCa from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we purified PSA from expressed prostate secretions (EPS)-urine samples from 32 BPH and 30 PCa patients and provided detailed PSA glycan profiles in Chinese population. We found that most of the PSA glycans from EPS-urine were complex type biantennary glycans. We observed two major patterns in PSA glycan profiles. Overall there was no distinct separation of PSA glycan profiles between BPH and PCa patients. However, we detected a significant increase of glycan FA2 and FM5A2G2S1 in PCa when compared with BPH patients. Furthermore, we observed that the composition of FA2 glycan increased significantly in advanced PCa with Gleason score ≥8, which potentially could be translated to clinic as a marker for aggressive PCa.

  20. Prostate health index and prostate cancer gene 3 score but not percent-free Prostate Specific Antigen have a predictive role in differentiating histological prostatitis from PCa and other nonneoplastic lesions (BPH and HG-PIN) at repeat biopsy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Fiori, Cristian; Bollito, Enrico; Cappia, Susanna; Mario Scarpa, Roberto; Sottile, Antonino; Franco Randone, Donato; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    To determine if prostate health index (PHI), prostate cancer antigen gene 3 (PCA3) score, and percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) may be used to differentiate asymptomatic acute and chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer (PCa), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) in patients with elevated PSA levels and negative findings on digital rectal examination at repeat biopsy (re-Bx). In this prospective study, 252 patients were enrolled, undergoing PHI, PCA3 score, and %fPSA assessments before re-Bx. We used 3 multivariate logistic regression models to test the PHI, PCA3 score, and %fPSA as risk factors for prostatitis vs. PCa, vs. BPH, and vs. HG-PIN. All the analyses were performed for the whole patient cohort and for the "gray zone" of PSA (4-10ng/ml) cohort (171 individuals). Of the 252 patients, 43 (17.1%) had diagnosis of PCa. The median PHI was significantly different between men with a negative biopsy and those with a positive biopsy (34.9 vs. 48.1, P<0.001), as for the PCA3 score (24 vs. 54, P<0.001) and %fPSA (11.8% vs. 15.8%, P = 0.012). The net benefit of using PCA3 and PHI to differentiate prostatitis and PCa was moderate, although it extended to a good range of threshold probabilities (40%-100%), whereas that from using %fPSA was negligible: this pattern was reported for the whole population as for the "gray zone" PSA cohort. In front of a good diagnostic performance of all the 3 biomarkers in distinguishing negative biopsy vs. positive biopsy, the clinical benefit of using the PCA3 score and PHI to estimate prostatitis vs. PCa was comparable. PHI was the only determinant for prostatitis vs. BPH, whereas no biomarkers could differentiate prostate inflammation from HG-PIN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  2. Biomarkers in localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Matteo; Buonerba, Carlo; Terracciano, Daniela; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Bottero, Danilo; Deliu, Victor M; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Coman, Ioman; De Placido, Sabino; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers can improve prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early diagnosis of prostate cancer is not satisfactory, as it is an organ- but not cancer-specific biomarker, and it can be improved by using models that incorporate PSA along with other test results, such as prostate cancer antigen 3, the molecular forms of PSA (proPSA, benign PSA and intact PSA), as well as kallikreins. Recent reports suggest that new tools may be provided by metabolomic studies as shown by preliminary data on sarcosine. Additional molecular biomarkers have been identified by the use of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We review the most relevant biomarkers for early diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer. PMID:26768791

  3. Relative value of race, family history and prostate specific antigen as indications for early initiation of prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Vertosick, Emily A; Poon, Bing Ying; Vickers, Andrew J

    2014-09-01

    Many guidelines suggest earlier screening for prostate cancer in men at high risk, with risk defined in terms of race and family history. Recent evidence suggests that baseline prostate specific antigen is strongly predictive of the long-term risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We compared the usefulness of risk stratifying early screening by race, family history and prostate specific antigen at age 45 years. Using estimates from the literature we calculated the proportion of men targeted for early screening using family history, black race or prostate specific antigen as the criterion for high risk. We calculated the proportion of prostate cancer deaths that would occur in those men by age 75 years. Screening based on family history involved 10% of men, accounting for 14% of prostate cancer deaths. Using black race as a risk criterion involved 13% of men, accounting for 28% of deaths. In contrast, 44% of prostate cancer deaths occurred in the 10% of men with the highest prostate specific antigen at age 45 years. In no sensitivity analysis for race and family history did the ratio of risk group size to number of prostate cancer deaths in that risk group approach that of prostate specific antigen. Basing decisions for early screening on prostate specific antigen at age 45 years provided the best ratio between men screened and potential cancer deaths avoided. Given the lack of evidence that race or family history affects the relationship between prostate specific antigen and risk, prostate specific antigen based risk stratification would likely include any black men or men with a family history who are destined to experience aggressive disease. Differential screening based on risk should be informed by baseline prostate specific antigen. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urinary prostate-specific antigen: predictor of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression?

    PubMed

    Pejcic, Tomislav P; Tulic, Cane Dz; Lalic, Natasa V; Glisic, Biljana D; Ignjatovic, Svetlana D; Markovic, Biljana B; Hadzi-Djokic, Jovan B

    2013-04-01

    Urinary prostate-specific antigen (uPSA) can be used as additional parameter of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. From January 2001 to December 2011, uPSA was determined in 265 patients with benign prostate. Based on total prostate volume (TPV), the patients with benign prostate were divided in two groups: TPV < 31 mL and TPV ≥ 31 mL. Additional three groups were formed upon MTOPS study criteria: non- progressive BPH group (TPV < 31 mL, PSA < 1.6 ng/mL, age < 62 yrs), intermediate group (one, or two parameters {TPV, PSA, age} increased) and progressive BPH group (TPV ≥ 31 ml, PSA ≥ 1.6 ng/mL, age ≥ 62 yrs). Average uPSA values in the groups TPV < 31 mL and TPV ≥ 31 mL were 119.3 ± 124.5 and 255.5 ± 204.9 ng/mL, respectively and they were significantly different (p < 0.0001). Average uPSA values in the non- progressive BPH group, intermediate group and progressive BPH group were 86.8 ± 82.4 ng/mL, 166.6 ± 164.9 ng/mL and 274.9 ± 208.3 ng/mL, respectively and they were significantly different (p < 0.0001). The level of uPSA correlated significantly with TPV (r = 0.32, p < 0.0001). The cut off uPSA level of 150 ng/mL discriminates the patients with non-progressive BPH and progressive BPH with specificity of 0.83 and sensitivity of 0.67. The level of uPSA reflects prostatic hormonal activity and correlates with TPV, PSA and age. UPSA level ≥ 150 ng/mL can be used as additional predictive parameter of BPH progression.

  5. Isolation and Growth of Prostate Stem Cells and Establishing Cancer Cell Lines from Human Prostate Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    contaminating rat UGSE cells ; and regions of host mouse glands were either from circulating pluripotent stem cells or local epithelial cells which were...CONTRACT NUMBER Isolation and Growth of Prostate Stem Cells and Establishing Cancer Cell Lines from Human Prostate Tumors 5b. GRANT NUMBER 81WXH...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of this proposal was to isolate, grow, and characterize normal prostate stem cells and establish new prostate

  6. Dihydrotestosterone in prostatic hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Siiteri, Pentti K.; Wilson, Jean D.

    1970-01-01

    To explore the relation between androgens and prostatic hypertrophy in man, the concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione and the rate of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone have been measured in normal and hypertrophic prostate tissue. First, a double isotope derivative technique was adapted for the measurement of tissue androgen content in 15 normal and 10 hypertrophic prostates. Although there was no significant difference in the content of androstenedione and testosterone between the two types of tissue, the content of dihydrotestosterone was significantly greater in the hypertrophic tissue (0.60 ±0.10 μg/100 g) than in the normal glands (0.13 ±0.05 μg/100 g). Second, a regional study was performed in three normal prostates and four glands with early hypertrophy, and it was demonstrated that the dihydrotestosterone content was two and three fold greater in the periurethral area where prostatic hypertrophy usually commences than in the outer regions of the gland. Finally, the rate of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone has been measured under standardized conditions in tissue slices from 4 normal and 20 hypertrophic prostates. There was no significant difference in the rate of dihydrotestosterone formation between the two types of gland (6.0 ±0.8 and 7.8 ±0.5 μμmoles/15 mg of tissue per hr). While the mechanism by which dihydrotestosterone accumulation occurs remains unexplained, it is possible that the local accumulation of dihydrotestosterone may be involved in the pathogenesis of prostatic hypertrophy in man. Images PMID:4194768

  7. A novel canine model for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jill M; Schade, George R; Ives, Kimberly; Cheng, Xu; Rosol, Thomas J; Piert, Morand; Siddiqui, Javed; Roberts, William W; Keller, Evan T

    2013-06-01

    No existing animal model fully recapitulates all features of human prostate cancer. The dog is the only large mammal, besides humans, that commonly develops spontaneous prostate cancer. Canine prostate cancer features many similarities with its human counterpart. We sought to develop a canine model of prostate cancer that would more fully represent the features of human prostate cancer than existing models. The Ace-1 canine prostate cancer cell line was injected transabdominally under transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance into the prostates of immunosuppressed, intact, adult male dogs. Tumor progression was monitored by TRUS imaging. Some dogs were subjected to positron emission tomography (PET) for tumor detection. Time of euthanasia was determined based on tumor size, impingement on urethra, and general well-being. Euthanasia was followed by necropsy and histopathology. Ace-1 tumor cells grew robustly in every dog injected. Tumors grew in subcapsular and parenchymal regions of the prostate. Tumor tissue could be identified using PET. Histological findings were similar to those observed in human prostate cancer. Metastases to lungs and lymph nodes were detected, predominantly in dogs with intraprostatic tumors. We have established a minimally invasive dog model of prostate cancer. This model may be valuable for studying prostate cancer progression and distant metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Predictive value of different prostate-specific antigen-based markers in men with baseline total prostate-specific antigen <2.0 ng/mL.

    PubMed

    Fujizuka, Yuji; Ito, Kazuto; Oki, Ryo; Suzuki, Rie; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the predictive value of various molecular forms of prostate-specific antigen in men with baseline prostate-specific antigen <2.0 ng/mL. The case cohort comprised 150 men with a baseline prostate-specific antigen level <2.0 ng/mL, and who developed prostate cancer within 10 years. The control cohort was 300 baseline prostate-specific antigen- and age-adjusted men who did not develop prostate cancer. Serum prostate-specific antigen, free prostate-specific antigen, and [-2] proenzyme prostate-specific antigen were measured at baseline and last screening visit. The predictive impact of baseline prostate-specific antigen- and [-2] proenzyme prostate-specific antigen-related indices on developing prostate cancer was investigated. The predictive impact of those indices at last screening visit and velocities from baseline to final screening on tumor aggressiveness were also investigated. The baseline free to total prostate-specific antigen ratio was a significant predictor of prostate cancer development. The odds ratio was 6.08 in the lowest quintile baseline free to total prostate-specific antigen ratio subgroup. No serum indices at diagnosis were associated with tumor aggressiveness. The Prostate Health Index velocity and [-2] proenzyme prostate-specific antigen/free prostate-specific antigen velocity significantly increased in patients with higher risk D'Amico risk groups and higher Gleason scores. Free to total prostate-specific antigen ratio in men with low baseline prostate-specific antigen levels seems to predict the risk of developing prostate cancer, and it could be useful for a more effective individualized screening system. Longitudinal changes in [-2] proenzyme prostate-specific antigen-related indices seem to correlate with tumor aggressiveness, and they could be used as prognostic tool before treatment and during active surveillance. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Should I Get Screened for Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about being screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Before making a decision, men should ... Task Force Prostate Cancer Screening Final Recommendation Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health ... Cancer Institute) What Is Screening? ...

  10. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Is it necessary to cure prostate cancer when it is possible? (Understanding the role of prostate inflammation resolution to prostate cancer evolution)

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Ronald E

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Definitive therapy with radical prostatectomy, cryotherapy, or radiation therapy generally follows the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer, particularly when men have at least 10 additional years of life expectancy. There is growing concern regarding the optimal conservative treatment for patients who decline or do not otherwise qualify for such definitive curative treatment. For those patients who choose a watchful waiting approach, it would be beneficial to know what specific dietary and nutritional methods could potentially slow the progression of their disease. In this prospective study, it was our goal to analyze the efficacy and safety of treating prostate cancer conservatively using the principles of a Mediterranean diet in association with a specific prostate nutritional supplement. Method: Twenty-three men aged 43–74 (median age: 64) with biopsy proven, organ-confined prostate cancer who had already declined immediate hormonal therapy and attempts at a curative cancer treatment agreed to participate in a Chronic Disease Management (CDM) protocol highlighted by diet with a specific prostate nutritional supplement. The diet recommended was a modified Mediterranean diet while a patented nutritional prostatitis formula (Peenuts®) was the supplement common to all patients. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), a recognized marker of prostate disease and prostate cancer activity, was the primary indicator to validate exacerbation or suppression of disease. All men were followed with serial PSA testing, a digital rectal exam, an International Prostate Symptom Score index (IPSS-Index) and an expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) examination. The primary Gleason sum/score represented in this study was 6 (n = 11), while Gleason sum patterns 5, 5/6, 6/7, and 7 were also evaluated. Referencing the Partin Tables, organ confinement was predicted to be 66%. Results: Eighty-seven percent of men (n = 20) noted a 58% reduction (range of improvement: 13%–90%) in

  12. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  13. Cholesterol and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations. PMID:22824430

  14. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  15. Chronic Pelvic Pain Development and Prostate Inflammation in Strains of Mice With Different Susceptibility to Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Breser, Maria L; Motrich, Ruben D; Sanchez, Leonardo R; Rivero, Virginia E

    2017-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the prostate characterized by peripheral prostate-specific autoimmune responses associated with prostate inflammation. EAP is induced in rodents upon immunization with prostate antigens (PAg) plus adjuvants and shares important clinical and immunological features with the human disease chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). EAP was induced in young NOD, C57BL/6, and BALB/c male mice by immunization with PAg plus complete Freund́s adjuvant. Tactile allodynia was assessed using Von Frey fibers as a measure of pelvic pain at baseline and at different time points after immunization. Using conventional histology, immunohistochemistry, FACS analysis, and protein arrays, an interstrain comparative study of prostate cell infiltration and inflammation was performed. Chronic pelvic pain development was similar between immunized NOD and C57BL/6 mice, although the severity of leukocyte infiltration was greater in the first case. Coversely, minimal prostate cell infiltration was observed in immunized BALB/c mice, who showed no pelvic pain development. Increased numbers of mast cells, mostly degranulated, were detected in prostate samples from NOD and C57BL/6 mice, while lower total counts and resting were observed in BALB/c mice. Prostate tissue from NOD mice revealed markedly increased expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, vascular endothelial growth factor, and metalloproteinases. Similar results, but to a lesser extent, were observed when analyzing prostate tissue from C57BL/6 mice. On the contrary, the expression of the above mediators was very low in prostate tissue from immunized BALB/c mice, showing significantly slight increments only for CXCL1 and IL4. Our results provide new evidence indicating that NOD, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice develop different degrees of chronic pelvic pain, type, and amount of prostate cell infiltration

  16. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullane, Stephanie A; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-05-01

    Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients.

  17. Association analysis of 9,560 prostate cancer cases from the International Consortium of Prostate Cancer Genetics confirms the role of reported prostate-cancer associated SNPs for familial disease

    PubMed Central

    Teerlink, Craig C.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Rinckleb, Antje; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Egrot, Christophe; Cussenot, Olivier; Foulkes, William D.; Giles, Graham G.; Hopper, John L.; Severi, Gianluca; Eeles, Ros; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Ray, Anna M.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Lange, Ethan M.; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Isaacs, William B.; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo; Schleutker, Johanna; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Emanuelsson, Monica; Carpten, John; Bailey-Wilson, Joan; Whittemore, Alice S.; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Catalona, William J.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Jin, Guangfu; Lu, Lingyi; Xu, Jianfeng; Camp, Nicola J.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous GWAS studies have reported significant associations between various common SNPs and prostate cancer risk using cases unselected for family history. How these variants influence risk in familial prostate cancer is not well studied. Here, we analyzed 25 previously reported SNPs across 14 loci from prior prostate cancer GWAS. The International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) previously validated some of these using a family-based association method (FBAT). However, this approach suffered reduced power due to the conditional statistics implemented in FBAT. Here, we use a case-control design with an empirical analysis strategy to analyze the ICPCG resource for association between these 25 SNPs and familial prostate cancer risk. Fourteen sites contributed 12,506 samples (9,560 prostate cancer cases, 3,368 with aggressive disease, and 2,946 controls from 2,283 pedigrees). We performed association analysis with Genie software which accounts for relationships. We analyzed all familial prostate cancer cases and the subset of aggressive cases. For the familial prostate cancer phenotype, 20 of the 25 SNPs were at least nominally associated with prostate cancer and 16 remained significant after multiple testing correction (p≤1E−3) occurring on chromosomal bands 6q25, 7p15, 8q24, 10q11, 11q13, 17q12, 17q24, and Xp11. For aggressive disease, 16 of the SNPs had at least nominal evidence and 8 were statistically significant including 2p15. The results indicate that the majority of common, low-risk alleles identified in GWAS studies for all prostate cancer also contribute risk for familial prostate cancer, and that some may be contribute risk to aggressive disease. PMID:24162621

  18. The effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dong; Han, GuangWei; Shang, YongGang; Mu, LiJun; Long, QingZhi; Du, YueFeng

    2015-01-01

    Prostatitis is a common disease in urology departments. Prostatic zinc accumulation is connected with the secretory function of the prostate, and zinc concentrations present in prostatic diseases differ greatly from the normal level. Studies have investigated the effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of chronic prostatitis on the zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, Embase, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to March 2015 for case-control studies that involved the relationship between chronic prostatitis and zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Standard mean differences (SMDs) of zinc concentration were identified with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a random- or fixed-effects model. Our results illustrated that the zinc concentrations in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma from chronic prostatitis patients were significantly lower than normal controls (SMD [95% CI] -246.71 [-347.97, -145.44], -20.74 [-35.11, -6.37], respectively). The sample size of each study was relatively small, and a total of 731 chronic prostatitis patients and 574 normal controls were investigated in all fourteen studies. Several studies related to the subject were excluded due to lack of control data or means and standard deviations. The present study illustrates that there was a significant negative effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better illuminate the negative impact of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations.

  19. SYSTEMS MODELING OF PROSTATE REGULATION AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The prostate is an androgen-dependent tissue that is an important site of disease in human males as well as an important indicator of androgen status in animals. The rat prostate is used for studying antiandrogenic drugs as well as for evaluation of endocrine disruption (e.g., Hershberger Assay). Pubertal changes in the prostate have been observed to be as sensitive to environmental antiandrogens as in utero effects. The goal of this research is to model the biology of prostate androgen function on a systems level to determine the factors responsible for the dose-response observable with androgens and antiandrogens in the male rat. This includes investigation of the roles of positive and negative feedback loops in prostatic response following castration and dosing with testosterone and/or antiandrogens. A biologically-based, systems-level model will be developed describing the regulation of the prostate by androgens. The model will extend an existing model for the male rat central axis, which describes feedback between luteinizing hormone and testosterone production in the testes, to include the prostate and conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The prostate model will describe binding of androgens to the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase catalyzed production of DHT, and gene regulation affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, and prostatic fluid production. The model will combine pharmacokinetic models for endogenous hormones (i.e., testost

  20. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in the diagnostic algorithm of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Tobias; Akre, Olof; Aly, Markus; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone leads to un-necessary biopsying and overdiagnosis. PSA density is easily accessible, but early evidence on its use for biopsy decisions was conflicting and use of PSA density is not commonly recommended in guidelines. We analyzed biopsy outcomes in 5291 men in the population-based STHLM3 study with PSA ≥ 3 ng/ml and ultrasound-guided prostate volume measurements by using percentages and regression models. PSA density was calculated as total PSA (ng/ml) divided by prostate volume (ml). Main endpoint was clinically significant cancer (csPCa) defined as Gleason Score ≥ 7. The median PSA-density was 0.10 ng/ml 2 (IQR 0.075-0.14). PSA-density was associated with the risk of finding csPCa both with and without adjusting for the additional clinical information age, family history, previous biopsies, total PSA and free/total PSA (OR 1.06; 95% CI:1.05-1.07 and OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08). Discrimination for csPCa was better when PSA density was added to a model with additional clinical information (AUC 0.75 vs. 0.73, P < 0.05). The proportion of men with Gleason Score 6 (ISUP 1) was similar across stratas of PSA-density. Omitting prostate biopsy for men with PSA-density ≤0.07 ng/ml 2 would save 19.7% of biopsy procedures, while missing 6.9% of csPCa. PSA-density cutoffs of 0.10 ng/ml 2 and 0.15 ng/ml 2 resulted in detection of 77% (729/947) and 49% (461/947) of Gleason Score ≥7 tumors. PSA-density might inform biopsy decisions, and spare some men from the morbidity associated with a prostate biopsy and diagnosis of low-grade prostate cancer.

  1. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 2, Insights into the Technical Rationale

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Fei, E-mail: feisun@ccmijesususon.com; Crisóstomo, Verónica, E-mail: crisosto@ccmijesususon.com; Báez-Díaz, Claudia, E-mail: cbaez@ccmijesususon.com

    Rationale of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is conventionally believed to include two parts: shrinkage of the enlarged prostate gland as a result of PAE-induced ischemic infarction and potential effects to relax the increased prostatic smooth muscle tone by reducing the number and density of α{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor in the prostate stroma. This review describes new insights into the likely mechanisms behind PAE, such as ischemia-induced apoptosis, apoptosis enhanced by blockage of androgens circulation to the embolized prostate, secondary denervation following PAE, and potential effect of nitric oxide pathway immediately after embolization. Studiesmore » on therapeutic mechanisms in PAE may shed light on potentially new treatment strategies and development of novel techniques.« less

  2. Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer screening may help detect prostate cancer, but remains controversial as it has not been shown to reduce deaths from prostate cancer. Learn more about prostate cancer screening, including the potential benefits and harms, in this expert-reviewed information summary.

  3. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center ofmore » excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  4. Dietary patterns and prostatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Cimino; Vincenzo, Favilla; Tommaso, Castelli; Giuseppe, Sortino; Marco, Russo; Ivana, Caldarella; Giorgio, Russo; Massimo, Madonia; Giuseppe, Morgia

    2012-01-01

    Dietary patterns play a role on prostatic diseases in association with genetic, behavioral, occupational and environmental ones. Data from reviewed literature provide evidences of a possible relationship between dietary habits and the incidence of prostate disorders, even if it is not enough to justify a widespread adoption of new dietary habits. In this review the role of dietary patterns, including the use of supplements, in the prevention and treatment of the most frequent and known prostatic diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC) was analyzed. A limited number of well designed trials were identified in which diet and dietary supplement intervention appeared to slow disease progression. Although conclusive evidences are limited, the current data suggest that a diet low in total calories and fat, high in vegetables and fruits and that body weight control could be possibly effective in preventing prostatic diseases. On the other hand care must be taken to ensure that over-consumption of dietary supplements does not occur because it may be harmful.

  5. Transurethral resection of the prostate - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... men report a lower amount of semen during orgasm after having TURP. Urinary Catheters You may feel ... More Enlarged prostate Prostate resection - minimally invasive Retrograde ejaculation Simple prostatectomy Transurethral resection of the prostate Urinary ...

  6. Disinfection of a probe used in ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

    2007-08-01

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies are among the most common outpatient diagnostic procedures in urology clinics and carry the risk of introducing pathogens that may lead to infection. To investigate the effectiveness of procedures for disinfecting a probe used in ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. The effectiveness of disinfection was determined by inoculating 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the following 3 sites on the probe: the interior lumen of the biopsy needle guide, the outside surface of the biopsy needle guide, and the interior lumen of the ultrasound probe where the needle guide passes through the transducer. Each site was investigated separately. After inoculation, the probe was immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde for 20 minutes and then assessed for the level of microbial contamination. The results demonstrated that disinfection (ie, a reduction in bacterial load of greater than 7 log(10) cfu) could be achieved if the needle guide was removed from the probe. However, if the needle guide was left in the probe channel during immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde, disinfection was not achieved (ie, the reduction was approximately 1 log(10) cfu). Recommendations for probe disinfection are provided and include disassembling the device and immersing the probe and the needle guide separately in a high-level disinfectant.

  7. State of the art of prostatic arterial embolization for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, Mario; Pesapane, Filippo; Fumarola, Enrico Maria; Emili, Ilaria; Acquasanta, Marzia; Patella, Francesca; Angileri, Salvatore Alessio; Rossi, Umberto G; Piacentini, Igor; Granata, Antonio Maria; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2018-04-01

    Prostatectomy via open surgery or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the standard treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Several patients present contraindication for standard approach, individuals older than 60 years with urinary tract infection, strictures, post-operative pain, incontinence or urinary retention, sexual dysfunction, and blood loss are not good candidates for surgery. Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is emerging as a viable method for patients unsuitable for surgery. In this article, we report results about technical and clinical success and safety of the procedure to define the current status.

  8. Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonists reduce prostatic enlargement and inflammation in carrageenan-induced chronic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Popovics, Petra; Cai, Renzhi; Sha, Wei; Rick, Ferenc G; Schally, Andrew V

    2018-05-21

    Inflammation plays a key role in the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through multiple pathways involving the stimulation of proliferation by cytokines and growth factors as well as the induction of the focal occurrence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have previously reported that GHRH acts as a prostatic growth factor in experimental BPH and in autoimmune prostatitis models and its blockade with GHRH antagonists offer therapeutic approaches for these conditions. Our current study was aimed at the investigation of the beneficial effects of GHRH antagonists in λ-carrageenan-induced chronic prostatitis and at probing the downstream molecular pathways that are implicated in GHRH signaling. To demonstrate the complications triggered by recurrent/chronic prostatic inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats, 50 μL 3% carrageenan was injected into both ventral prostate lobes two times, 3 weeks apart. GHRH antagonist, MIA-690, was administered 5 days after the second intraprostatic injection at 20 μg daily dose for 4 weeks. GHRH-induced signaling events were identified in BPH-1 and in primary prostate epithelial (PrEp) cells at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min with Western blot. Inflammation induced prostatic enlargement and increased the area of the stromal compartment whereas treatment with the GHRH antagonist significantly reduced these effects. This beneficial activity was consistent with a decrease in prostatic GHRH, inflammatory marker COX-2, growth factor IGF-1 and inflammatory and EMT marker TGF-β1 protein levels and the expression of multiple genes related to EMT. In vitro, GHRH stimulated multiple pathways involved in inflammation and growth in both BPH-1 and PrEp cells including NFκB p65, AKT, ERK1/2, EGFR, STAT3 and increased the levels of TGF-β1 and Snail/Slug. Most interestingly, GHRH also stimulated the transactivation of the IGF receptor. The study demonstrates that GHRH antagonists could be beneficial for the treatment of

  9. Conditional Deletion of the Pten Gene in the Mouse Prostate Induces Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasms at Early Ages but a Slow Progression to Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunfang; Lee, Suk Hyung; Ye, Ding-Wei; Luong, Richard; Sun, Zijie

    2013-01-01

    The PTEN tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Using Osr1 (odd skipped related 1)-Cre mice, we generated a novel conditional Pten knockout mouse strain, PtenLoxP:Osr1-Cre. Conditional biallelic and monoallelic Pten knockout mice were viable. Deletion of Pten expression was detected in the prostate of PtenLoxP/LoxP:Osr1-Cre mice as early as 2 weeks of age. Intriguingly, PtenLoxP/LoxP:Osr1-Cre mice develop high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PINs) with high penetrance as early as one-month of age, and locally invasive prostatic tumors after 12-months of age. PtenLoxP/+:Osr1-Cre mice show only mild oncogenic changes after 8-weeks of age. Castration of PtenLoxP/LoxP:Osr1-Cre mice shows no significant regression of prostate tumors, although a shift of androgen receptor (AR) staining from the nuclei to cytoplasm is observed in Pten null tumor cells of castrated mice. Enhanced Akt activity is observed in Pten null tumor cells of castrated PtenLoxP/LoxP:Osr1-Cre. This study provides a novel mouse model that can be used to investigate a primary role of Pten in initiating oncogenic transformation in the prostate and to examine other genetic and epigenetic changes that are required for tumor progression in the mouse prostate. PMID:23308230

  10. Elevated insulin and reduced insulin like growth factor binding protein-3/prostate specific antigen ratio with increase in prostate size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Karli; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Rajappa, Medha; Vinayagam, Vickneshwaran

    2017-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have growth promoting effects, while insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has growth inhibitory effects. The present study was designed to assess the concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their association with prostate size in patients with BPH. Ninety 90 BPH cases and 90 controls were enrolled in the study. Insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, PSA, testosterone and estradiol were estimated in both the groups. Insulin, IGF-1 and estradiol were increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was decreased in BPH cases when compared with controls. Insulin (r=0.64, p=0.001) and IGF-1 (r=0.22, p=0.03) were positively correlated and IGFBP-3/PSA (r=-0.316, p=0.002) were negatively correlated with prostate size in BPH. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin (p=0.001) and IGFBP-3/PSA (p=0.004) predicts the prostate size in patients with BPH. Insulin was increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was reduced in BPH patients with increased prostate size. At a cutoff concentration of 527.52, IGFBP-3/PSA ratio was found to differentiate benign growth of prostate from normal prostate with 96% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Insulin is elevated and IGFBP-3/PSA is reduced with increase prostate size in BPH cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Larger men have larger prostates: Detection bias in epidemiologic studies of obesity and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, Andrew; Wang, Yun; Sadasivan, Sudha; Chitale, Dhananjay A.; Gupta, Nilesh S.; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa), but not with over-all PCa risk. However, obese men have larger prostates which may lower biopsy accuracy and cause a systematic bias towards the null in epidemiologic studies of over-all risk. METHODS Within a cohort of 6,692 men followed-up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 495 prostate cancer cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy versus TURP and procedure date. Data on body mass index and prostate volume at the time of the initial procedure were abstracted from medical records. RESULTS Prior to consideration of differences in prostate volume, overweight (OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.01, 1.97) and obese status (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.09, 2.33) at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP were associated with PCa incidence during follow-up. Prostate volume did not significantly moderate the association between body-size and PCa, however it did act as an inverse confounder; adjustment for prostate volume increased the effect size for overweight by 22% (adjusted OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.08, 2.14) and for obese status by 23% (adjusted OR = 1.77; 95% CI 1.20, 2.62). Larger prostate volume at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP was inversely associated with PCa incidence during follow-up (OR = 0.92 per 10 cc difference in volume; 95% CI 0.88, 0.97). In analyses that stratified case-control pairs by tumor aggressiveness of the case, prostate volume acted as an inverse confounder in analyses of non-aggressive PCa but not in analyses of aggressive PCa. CONCLUSIONS In studies of obesity and PCa, differences in prostate volume cause a bias towards the null, particularly in analyses of non-aggressive PCa. A pervasive underestimation of the association between obesity and overall PCa risk may exist in the literature. PMID:28349547

  12. Larger men have larger prostates: Detection bias in epidemiologic studies of obesity and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Andrew; Wang, Yun; Sadasivan, Sudha; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Gupta, Nilesh S; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa), but not with over-all PCa risk. However, obese men have larger prostates which may lower biopsy accuracy and cause a systematic bias toward the null in epidemiologic studies of over-all risk. Within a cohort of 6692 men followed-up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 495 prostate cancer cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy versus TURP, and procedure date. Data on body mass index and prostate volume at the time of the initial procedure were abstracted from medical records. Prior to consideration of differences in prostate volume, overweight (OR = 1.41; 95%CI 1.01, 1.97), and obese status (OR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.09, 2.33) at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP were associated with PCa incidence during follow-up. Prostate volume did not significantly moderate the association between body-size and PCa, however it did act as an inverse confounder; adjustment for prostate volume increased the effect size for overweight by 22% (adjusted OR = 1.52; 95%CI 1.08, 2.14) and for obese status by 23% (adjusted OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.20, 2.62). Larger prostate volume at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP was inversely associated with PCa incidence during follow-up (OR = 0.92 per 10 cc difference in volume; 95%CI 0.88, 0.97). In analyses that stratified case-control pairs by tumor aggressiveness of the case, prostate volume acted as an inverse confounder in analyses of non-aggressive PCa but not in analyses of aggressive PCa. In studies of obesity and PCa, differences in prostate volume cause a bias toward the null, particularly in analyses of non-aggressive PCa. A pervasive underestimation of the association between obesity and overall PCa risk may exist in the literature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Locus-specific gene repositioning in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leshner, Marc; Devine, Michelle; Roloff, Gregory W.; True, Lawrence D.; Misteli, Tom; Meaburn, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Genes occupy preferred spatial positions within interphase cell nuclei. However, positioning patterns are not an innate feature of a locus, and genes can alter their localization in response to physiological and pathological changes. Here we screen the radial positioning patterns of 40 genes in normal, hyperplasic, and malignant human prostate tissues. We find that the overall spatial organization of the genome in prostate tissue is largely conserved among individuals. We identify three genes whose nuclear positions are robustly altered in neoplastic prostate tissues. FLI1 and MMP9 position differently in prostate cancer than in normal tissue and prostate hyperplasia, whereas MMP2 is repositioned in both prostate cancer and hyperplasia. Our data point to locus-specific reorganization of the genome during prostate disease. PMID:26564800

  14. [Calculus formation in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection of the prostate: causes, treatment and prevention].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Wen; Zhou, Wen-Quan; Ge, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Gao, Jian-Ping

    2012-05-01

    To study the causes, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention of calculus that develops in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection of the prostate. We reported 11 cases of calculus that developed in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection or transurethral plasmakinetic resection of prostate. The patients complained of repeated symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition and urodynia after operation, accompanied with urinary tract infection and some with urinary obstruction, which failed to respond to anti-infective therapies. Cystoscopy revealed calculi in the prostatic cavity, with eschar, sphacelus, uneven wound surface and small diverticula in some cases. After diagnosis, 1 case was treated by holmium laser lithotripsy and a second transurethral resection of the prostate, while the other 10 had the calculi removed under the cystoscope, followed by 1 -2 weeks of anti-infective therapy. After treatment, all the 11 cases showed normal results of routine urinalysis, and no more symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition and urodynia. Three- to six-month follow-up found no bladder irritation symptoms and urinary tract infection. Repeated symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition, urodynia and urinary tract infection after transurethral resection of the prostate should be considered as the indicators of calculus in the prostatic cavity, which can be confirmed by cystoscopy. It can be treated by lithotripsy or removal of the calculus under the cystoscope, or even a second transurethral resection of the prostate. For its prevention, excessive electric coagulation and uneven wound surface should be avoided and anti-infection treatment is needed.

  15. The roles of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives in predicting prostate cancer in patients with PSA less than 20.0 ng/mL.

    PubMed

    Shen, P; Zhao, J; Sun, G; Chen, N; Zhang, X; Gui, H; Yang, Y; Liu, J; Shu, K; Wang, Z; Zeng, H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nomograms for predicting prostate cancer and its zonal location using prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives. A total of 928 consecutive patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than 20.0 ng/mL, who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal 12-core prostate biopsy at West China Hospital between 2011 and 2014, were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly split into training cohort (70%, n = 650) and validation cohort (30%, n = 278). Predicting models and the associated nomograms were built using the training cohort, while the validations of the models were conducted using the validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed. Then, new nomograms were generated based on multivariate regression coefficients. The discrimination power and calibration of these nomograms were validated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the calibration curve. The potential clinical effects of these models were also tested using decision curve analysis. In total, 285 (30.7%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Among them, 131 (14.1%) and 269 (29.0%) had transition zone prostate cancer and peripheral zone prostate cancer. Each of zone-adjusted derivatives-based nomogram had an AUC more than 0.75. All nomograms had higher calibration and much better net benefit than the scenarios in predicting patients with or without different zones prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives have important roles in detecting prostate cancer and its zonal location for patients with PSA 2.5-20.0 ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nomogram using these parameters to predict outcomes of 12-core prostate biopsy. These instruments can help clinicians to increase the accuracy of prostate cancer screening and to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy. © 2017

  16. Association of serum prostate-specific antigen levels with the results of the prostate needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Janbaziroudsari, Hamid; Mirzaei, Arezoo; Maleki, Nasrollah

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the relationship of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels with outcomes of prostate needle biopsy in men 50 or more years old. We measured serum PSA levels in 1472 healthy men 50 or more years old. Men who had serum PSA values 4.0ng/mL or higher underwent digital rectal examination. If there were either an elevated PSA level (≥4ng/mL) or abnormal digital rectal examination, a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed. The mean serum total PSA level was 13.73±11.44ng/mL, and the mean serum free PSA level was 4.99±0.97ng/mL. Of the 260 men who had serum total PSA levels of≥4ng/mL, 139 underwent biopsy. Of these 139 men, 45 (32.4%) had prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia with or without prostatitis was diagnosed in 94 patients (67.6%). There was no significant correlation between age and histologic results of prostate needle biopsy (P-value=0.469). The serum free PSA showed no significant correlation with histologic results of prostate needle biopsy, whereas the serum total PSA level had a significant correlation in patients with adenocarcinoma compared with other diagnosis. The overall frequency of detection of prostate adenocarcinoma was 32.4%. This study revealed that no level of PSA was associated with a 100% positive predictive value and negative biopsy can occur virtually at any PSA level. There is a need to create awareness among the general population and health professionals for an early diagnosis of this common form of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [LUTS in BPH patients with histological prostatitis before and after transurethral resection of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Qin, Bin; Liang, Yi-Wen; Wu, Qing-Guo; Li, Chang-Zan; Wei, Gang-Shan; Ji, Han-Chu; Liang, Yang-Bing; Chen, Hong-Qiu; Guan, Ting

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) complicated by histological prostatitis. This study included 432 cases of BPH pathologically confirmed after TURP. Excluding those with LUTS-related factors before and after surgery and based on the international prostatitis histological classification of diagnostic criteria, the remaining 144 cases were divided into groups A (pure BPH, n = 30), B (mild inflammation, n = 55), C (moderate inflammation, n = 31), and D (severe inflammation, n = 28). Each group was evaluated for LUTS by IPSS before and a month after surgery. A total of 399 cases (92.4%) were diagnosed as BPH with histological prostatitis, 269 (67.4%) mild, 86 (21.6%) moderate and 44 (11.0%) severe. The preoperative IPSS was 21.43 +/- 6.09 in group A, 21.75 +/- 5.97 in B, 27.84 +/- 4.18 in C and 31.00 +/- 2.92 in D, with statistically significant differences among different groups (P < 0.001) except between A and B (P = 1.000); the postoperative IPSS was 5.60 +/- 2.16 in A, 7.36 +/- 2.77 in B, 11.55 +/- 3.39 in C and 16.89 +/- 3.37 in D, with statistically significant differences among different groups (P < 0.01), and remarkably lower than the preoperative one (P < 0.001). Almost all the infiltrating inflammatory cells in BPH with histological prostatitis were lymphocytes. BPH is mostly complicated with histological chronic prostatitis. The severity of LUTS is higher in BPH patients with histological prostatitis than in those without before and after TURP, and positively correlated with the grade of inflammation. Those complicated with moderate or severe histological prostatitis should take medication for the management of LUTS.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Indolent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    prostate - specific antigen (PSA) test, and treated aggressively following diagnosis, leading to the contemporary problem of prostate cancer over-diagnosis... specific purpose of comparing low- risk and high-risk prostate cancer. Figure 3 shows the mapping rates for exon, intron, and inter-genic sequences. The...FFPE specimens, for the specific comparison of low-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. 5. Identified sufficient number of biopsy cases and sections

  19. Acute inflammatory proteins constitute the organic matrix of prostatic corpora amylacea and calculi in men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sfanos, Karen S.; Wilson, Brice A.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Isaacs, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Corpora amylacea (CA) are a frequent microscopic finding in radical prostatectomy specimens from men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer. Although often observed histologically to be associated with inflammation, the contribution of CA to prostatitis-related symptoms of unknown etiology or to prostate carcinogenesis remains unclear. Prostatic calculi (PC), which potentially represent calcified forms of CA, are less common but can cause urological disease including urinary retention and prostatitis. We conducted a comprehensive compositional analysis of CA/PC to gain insight into their biogenesis. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of calculi collected from 23 patients confirmed a prevalence of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite. This result sets PC apart from most urinary stones, which largely are composed of calcium oxalate. Tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of CA/PC revealed that lactoferrin is the predominant protein component, a result that was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Other proteins identified, including calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, and α-defensins, are proteins contained in neutrophil granules. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) suggested the source of lactoferrin to be prostate-infiltrating neutrophils as well as inflamed prostate epithelium; however, IHC for calprotectin suggested prostate-infiltrating neutrophils as a major source of the protein, because it was absent from other prostate compartments. This study represents a definitive analysis of the protein composition of prostatic CA and calculi and suggests that acute inflammation has a role in their biogenesis—an intriguing finding, given the prevalence of CA in prostatectomy specimens and the hypothesized role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:19202053

  20. Enlarged prostate - after care

    MedlinePlus

    BPH - self-care; Benign prostatic hypertrophy - self-care; Benign prostatic hyperplasia - self-care ... Your health care provider may have you take a medicine called alpha-1- blocker. Most people find that these drugs help ...

  1. PROSTATE REGULATION: MODELING ENDOGENOUS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ALTERATIONS IN PROSTATE WEIGHT AND HISTOPATHOLOGY ARE OBSERVED FOLLOWING IN UTERO, PUBERTAL AND ADULT EXPOSURES TO ANTIANDROGENS. ALTERATIONS IN PROSTATE WEIGHT AND HISTOPATHOLOGY ARE OBSERVED FOLLOWING IN UTERO, PUBERTAL AND ADULT EXPOSURES TO ANTIANDROGENS.

  2. Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate on Diagnostic Needle Biopsy Predicts Prostate Cancer Mortality: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Saeter, Thorstein; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Waaler, Gudmund; Servoll, Einar; Nesland, Jahn M; Axcrona, Karol; Axcrona, Ulrika

    2017-06-01

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is a distinct histopathologic feature associated with high-grade, advanced prostate cancer. Although studies have shown that IDC-P is a predictor of progression following surgical or radiation treatment for prostate cancer, there are sparse data regarding IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy as a prognosticator of prostate cancer mortality. This was a population-based study of all prostate cancer patients diagnosed using needle biopsy and without evidence of systemic disease between 1991 and 1999 within a defined geographic region of Norway. Patients were identified by cross-referencing the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Of 318 eligible patients, 283 had biopsy specimens available for central pathology review. Clinical data were obtained from medical charts. We examined whether IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy was associated with adverse clinicopathological features and prostate cancer mortality. Patients with IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy had a more advanced stage and a higher Gleason score compared to patients without IDC-P. IDC-P was also associated with an intensively reactive stroma. The 10-year prostate cancer-specific survival was 69% for patients with IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy and 89% for patients without IDC-P (Log rank P-value < 0.005). The presence of IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy remained an independent predictor of prostate cancer mortality after adjustments for clinical prognostic factors and treatment. After adjustment for the newly implemented Grade Group system of prostate cancer, IDC-P showed a strong tendency toward statistical significance. However, IDC-P did not remain a statistically significant predictor in the multivariable analysis. IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy is an indicator of prostate cancer with a high risk of mortality. Accordingly, a diagnosis of IDC-P on needle biopsy should be reported and considered a feature of high-risk prostate cancer. Moreover, the association

  3. Re-epithelialization resulted from prostate basal cells in canine prostatic urethra may represent the ideal healing method after two-micron laser resection of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ying; Luo, Guang-Heng; Luo, Lei; Yang, Xiu-Shu; Hu, Jian-Xin; Shi, Hua; Huang, Ping; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the re-epithelialization of wound healing in canine prostatic urethra and to evaluate the effect of this re-epithelialization way after two-micron laser resection of the prostate (TmLRP). TmLRP and partial bladder neck mucosa were performed in 15 healthy adult male crossbred canines. Wound specimens were harvested at 3 days, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after operation, respectively. The histopathologic characteristics were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of cytokeratin 14 (CK14), CK5, CK18, synaptophysin (Syn), chromogranin A (CgA), uroplakin, transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), and TGF-β type II receptor in prostatic urethra wound were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Van Gieson staining was performed to determine the expression of collagen fibers in prostatic urethra and bladder neck would. The results showed that the re-epithelialization of the prostatic urethra resulted from the mobilization of proliferating epithelial cells from residual prostate tissue under the wound. The proliferating cells expressed CK14, CK5, but not CK18, Syn, and CgA and re-epithelialize expressed uroplakin since 3 weeks. There were enhanced TGF-β1 and TGF-β type II receptor expression in proliferating cells and regenerated cells, which correlated with specific phases of re-epithelialization. Compared with the re-epithelialization of the bladder neck, re-epithelialization of canine prostatic urethra was faster, and the expression of collagen fibers was relatively low. In conclusion, re-epithelialization in canine prostatic urethra resulted from prostate basal cells after TmLRP and this re-epithelialization way may represent the ideal healing method from anatomic repair to functional recovery after injury. PMID:25652631

  4. A novel approach for evaluation of prostate deformation and associated dosimetric implications in IGRT of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Mayyas, Essa, E-mail: emayyas1@hfhs.org, E-mail: ortonc@comcast.net; Kim, Jinkoo; Kumar, Sanath

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Prostate deformation is assumed to be a secondary correction and is typically ignored in the planning target volume (PTV) margin calculations. This assumption needs to be tested, especially when planning margins are reduced with daily image-guidance. In this study, deformation characteristics of the prostate and seminal vesicles were determined, and the dosimetric impact on treatment plans with different PTV margins was investigated. Methods: Ten prostate cancer patients were retrospectively selected for the study, each with three fiducial markers implanted in the prostate. Two hundred CBCT images were registered to respective planning CT images using a B-spline-based deformable image registrationmore » (DIR) software. A manual bony anatomy-based match was first applied based on the alignment of the pelvic bones and fiducial landmarks. DIR was then performed. For each registration, deformation vector fields (DVFs) of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SVs) were quantified using deformation-volume histograms. In addition, prostate rotation was evaluated and compared with prostate deformation. For a patient demonstrating small and large prostate deformations, target coverage degradation was analyzed in each of three treatment plans with PTV margins of 10 mm (6 mm at the prostate/rectum interface), as well as 5, and 3 mm uniformly. Results: Deformation of the prostate was most significant in the anterior direction. Maximum prostate deformation of greater than 10, 5, and 3 mm occurred in 1%, 17%, and 76% of the cases, respectively. Based on DVF-histograms, DVF magnitudes greater than 5 and 3 mm occurred in 2% and 27% of the cases, respectively. Deformation of the SVs was most significant in the posterior direction, and it was greater than 5 and 3 mm in 7.5% and 44.9% of the cases, respectively. Prostate deformation was found to be poorly correlated with rotation. Fifty percent of the cases showed rotation with negligible deformation and 7% of the cases

  5. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  6. Prostate cancer: a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Howe, R J

    1994-11-01

    During the last few years a tremendous amount of media attention has been focused on prostate cancer. This increased visibility has been the direct result of the prostate specific antigen test, which has led to a doubling of the number of new cases detected in just 4 years. With this visibility has come controversy about which treatment is the most effective or whether this disease should be treated aggressively at all. The formation and rapid expansion of the prostate cancer support group movement are reviewed, and the positive and negative impacts of media coverage on present and future patients are assessed. My personal case is reviewed briefly to make a specific point about the hazards of watchful waiting. Other issues, such as mass screening, Prostate Cancer Awareness Week and expenditures for prostate cancer research, are examined in some detail.

  7. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  8. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  9. The Prostate Health Index in predicting initial prostate biopsy outcomes in Asian men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 4-10 ng/mL.

    PubMed

    Ng, C F; Chiu, Peter K F; Lam, N Y; Lam, H C; Lee, Kim W M; Hou, Simon S M

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the role of the Prostate Health Index (phi) in prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4-10 ng/mL receiving their first prostatic biopsy in an Asian population. This was a retrospective study of archived serum samples from patients enlisted in our tissue bank. Patients over 50 years old, with PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL, a negative digital rectal examination, and received their first prostatic biopsy between April 2008 and April 2013, were recruited. The serum sample collected before biopsy was retrieved for the measurement of various PSA derivatives and the phi value was calculated for each patient. The performance of these parameters in predicting the prostatic biopsy results was assessed. Two hundred and thirty consecutive patients, with 21 (9.13 %) diagnosed with PCa, were recruited for this study. Statistically significant differences between PCa patients and non-PCa patients were found for total PSA, PSA density, [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), free-to-total PSA ratio (%fPSA), p2PSA-to-free PSA ratio (%p2PSA), and phi. The areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for total PSA, PSA density, %fPSA, %p2PSA, and phi were 0.547, 0.634, 0.654, 0.768, and 0.781, respectively. The phi was the best predictor of the prostatic biopsies results. At a sensitivity of 90 %, the use of the phi could have avoided unnecessary biopsies in 104 (45.2 %) patients. Use of the phi could improve the accuracy of PCa detection in patients with an elevated PSA level and thus avoid unnecessary prostatic biopsies.

  10. Biochemical characterization of prostate-specific membrane antigen from canine prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lisa Y; Johnson, Jacqueline M; Simmons, Jessica K; Mendes, Desiree E; Geruntho, Jonathan J; Liu, Tiancheng; Dirksen, Wessel P; Rosol, Thomas J; Davis, William C; Berkman, Clifford E

    2014-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) remains an important target for diagnostic and therapeutic application for human prostate cancer. Model cell lines have been recently developed to study canine prostate cancer but their PSMA expression and enzymatic activity have not been elucidated. The present study was focused on determining PSMA expression in these model canine cell lines and the use of fluorescent small-molecule enzyme inhibitors to detect canine PSMA expression by flow cytometry. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the transcriptional and translational expression of PSMA on the canine cell lines Leo and Ace-1. An endpoint HPLC-based assay was used to monitor the enzymatic activity of canine PSMA and the potency of enzyme inhibitors. Flow cytometry was used to detect the PSMA expressed on Leo and Ace-1 cells using a fluorescently tagged PSMA enzyme inhibitor. Canine PSMA expression on the Leo cell line was confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR, the enzyme activity, and flow cytometry. Kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of PSMA enzymatic activity for the synthetic substrate (PABGγG) were determined to be 393 nM and 220 pmol min(-1)  mg protein(-1) , respectively. The inhibitor core 1 and fluorescent inhibitor 2 were found to be potent reversible inhibitors (IC50  = 13.2 and 1.6 nM, respectively) of PSMA expressed on the Leo cell line. Fluorescent labeling of Leo cells demonstrated that the fluorescent PSMA inhibitor 2 can be used for the detection of PSMA-positive canine prostate tumor cells. Expression of PSMA on Ace-1 was low and not detectable by flow cytometry. The results described herein have demonstrated that PSMA is expressed on canine prostate tumor cells and exhibits similar enzymatic characteristics as human PSMA. The findings show that the small molecule enzyme inhibitors currently being studied for use in diagnosis and therapy of human prostate cancer can also be extended to include canine prostate cancer. Importantly

  11. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mullane, Stephanie A.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Recent findings Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Summary Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients. PMID:26909474

  12. Beyond Seed and Soil: Understanding and Targeting Metastatic Prostate Cancer; Report From the 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting.