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Sample records for bacterial dermatitis staphylococcus

  1. Nickel allergy and relationship with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bogdali, Anna M; Anna, Bogdali M; Grazyna, Antoszczyk; Wojciech, Dyga; Aleksander, Obtulowicz; Anna, Bialecka; Andrzej, Kasprowicz; Zofia, Magnowska; Krystyna, Obtulowicz

    2016-01-01

    The increase of nickel air pollution is supposed to frequent side effects of nickel action related to virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with nickel allergy in atopic dermatitis. The goal was to investigate the relationship between nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus in atopic dermatitis. Nickel allergy was confirmed in atopic patients and excluded in healthy volunteers using patch testing. Infection by S. aureus was tested in atopic patients and healthy volunteers by use of API Staph system. The specific IgE for staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B were measured. Secretion of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-13 by PBMC under nickel sulfate and the enterotoxins A and B stimulations were studied with ELISpot. We found the increased number of infections by S. aureus in atopic patients with nickel allergy in comparison to atopic patients and healthy volunteers without nickel allergy. The elevated secretion of IL-2 under nickel sulfate stimulation in vitro was exclusively found in atopic patients with nickel allergy infected by S. aureus. Our data suggest that nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus are linked in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial pattern and antibiotic sensitivity in children and adolescents with infected atopic dermatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samosir, C. T.; Ruslie, R. H.; Rusli, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease which affected approximately 20% in children. Bacterial infection is common in AD patients and correlates directly with AD severity. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial skin infection in AD patients and its relation with severity of AD and also to study bacteria in the infected AD and its antibiotic sensitivity. Samples were 86 children and adolescents with an AD in Helvetia Community Health Center Medan from March 2016 until February 2017. Index of SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) was used to evaluate the severity of AD. Lesion and nonlesional skinwere swabbed to take sterile cultures. All bacteria noted and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Datawere by using Chi-Square and Mann Whitney test with 95% CI and p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Fifty-six AD patients (65.1%) were bacterial infected. There was a significant relationship between severity of AD and bacterial infection (p = 0.006). Staphylococcus aureus was the leading bacteria from all degrees of AD severity. Isolated Staphylococcus aureuswas sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate (93.3%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%), and gentamicin (90%), while sensitivity to tetracycline was low (20%).

  3. Comprehensive pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial microbiota of the skin of patients with seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiomi; Cho, Otomi; Saito, Chie; Saito, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Sugita, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory dermatologic condition in which erythema and itching develop on areas of the body with sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face and chest. The inflammation is evoked directly by oleic acid, which is hydrolyzed from sebum by lipases secreted by skin microorganisms. Although the skin fungal genus, Malassezia, is thought to be the causative agent of SD, analysis of the bacterial microbiota of skin samples of patients with SD is necessary to clarify any association with Malassezia because the skin microbiota comprises diverse bacterial and fungal genera. In the present study, bacterial microbiotas were analyzed at non-lesional and lesional sites of 24 patients with SD by pyrosequencing and qPCR. Principal coordinate analysis revealed clear separation between the microbiota of non-lesional and lesional sites. Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were abundant at both sites. Propionibacterium was abundant at non-lesional sites, whereas Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus predominated at lesional sites; however, the extent of Propionibacterium colonization did not differ significantly between lesional and non-lesional sites according to qPCR. Given that these abundant bacteria hydrolyze sebum, they may also contribute to SD development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial microbiotas of the skin of SD patients. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Decreased levels of sphingosine, a natural antimicrobial agent, may be associated with vulnerability of the stratum corneum from patients with atopic dermatitis to colonization by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Junko; Ishibashi, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Makoto; Takagi, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Yoshiaki; Imokawa, Genji

    2002-08-01

    The stratum corneum of the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis is highly susceptible to colonization by various bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. The defense system of the skin against bacterial invasion appears to be significantly disrupted in atopic dermatitis skin, but little is known about the defense mechanism(s) involved. As one sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine is known to exert a potent antimicrobial effect on S. aureus at physiologic levels, and it may play a significant role in bacterial defense mechanisms of healthy normal skin. Because of the altered ceramide metabolism in atopic dermatitis, the possible alteration of sphingosine metabolism might be associated with the acquired vulnerability to colonization by S. aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis. In this study, we measured the levels of sphingosine in the upper stratum corneum from patients with atopic dermatitis, and then compared that with the colonization levels of bacteria in the same subjects. Levels of sphingosine were significantly downregulated in uninvolved and in involved stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis compared with healthy controls. This decreased level of sphingosine was relevant to the increased numbers of bacteria including S. aureus present in the upper stratum corneum from the same subjects. This suggests the possibility that the increased colonization of bacteria found in patients with atopic dermatitis may result from a deficiency of sphingosine as a natural antimicrobial agent. As for the mechanism involved in the decreased production of sphingosine in atopic dermatitis, analysis of the activities of ceramidases, major sphingosine-producing enzymes, revealed that, whereas the activity of alkaline ceramidase did not differ between patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls, the activity of acid ceramidase was significantly reduced in patients with atopic dermatitis and this had obvious relevance to the increased colonization of

  5. Clumping Factor B Promotes Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to Corneocytes in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Orla M.; McAleer, Maeve A.; Feuillie, Cécile; Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Sansevere, Emily; Bennett, Désirée E.; Towell, Aisling M.; McLean, W. H. Irwin; Kezic, Sanja; Robinson, D. Ashley; Fallon, Padraic G.; Foster, Timothy J.; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Irvine, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus skin infection is a frequent and recurrent problem in children with the common inflammatory skin disease atopic dermatitis (AD). S. aureus colonizes the skin of the majority of children with AD and exacerbates the disease. The first step during colonization and infection is bacterial adhesion to the cornified envelope of corneocytes in the outer layer, the stratum corneum. Corneocytes from AD skin are structurally different from corneocytes from normal healthy skin. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial proteins that promote the adherence of S. aureus to AD corneocytes. S. aureus strains from clonal complexes 1 and 8 were more frequently isolated from infected AD skin than from the nasal cavity of healthy children. AD strains had increased ClfB ligand binding activity compared to normal nasal carriage strains. Adherence of single S. aureus bacteria to corneocytes from AD patients ex vivo was studied using atomic force microscopy. Bacteria expressing ClfB recognized ligands distributed over the entire corneocyte surface. The ability of an isogenic ClfB-deficient mutant to adhere to AD corneocytes compared to that of its parent clonal complex 1 clinical strain was greatly reduced. ClfB from clonal complex 1 strains had a slightly higher binding affinity for its ligand than ClfB from strains from other clonal complexes. Our results provide new insights into the first step in the establishment of S. aureus colonization in AD patients. ClfB is a key adhesion molecule for the interaction of S. aureus with AD corneocytes and represents a target for intervention. PMID:28373353

  6. Thymol attenuates the worsening of atopic dermatitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyo Il; Jeong, Na Hee; Jun, So Hyun; Son, Joo Hee; Kim, Shukho; Jeon, Hyejin; Kang, Sun Chul; Kim, Sang Hyun; Lee, Je Chul

    2018-04-18

    Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicles (MVs) aggravate atopic dermatitis (AD) through the delivery of bacterial effector molecules to host cells and the stimulation of inflammatory responses. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of thymol, a phenolic monoterpene found in essential oils derived from plants, on the worsening of AD induced by S. aureus MVs both in vitro and in vivo. The sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of thymol disrupted S. aureus MVs. Intact S. aureus MVs induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and chemokine (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) genes in cultured keratinocytes, whereas thymol-treated S. aureus MVs did not stimulate the expression of these genes. Topical application of thymol-treated S. aureus MVs or treatment with thymol after intact S. aureus MVs to AD-like skin lesions diminished the pathology of AD. This included decreases in epidermal/dermal thickness and infiltration of eosinophils/mast cells, and inhibited expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes in mouse AD model. Moreover, thymol significantly suppressed the Th1, Th2, and Th17-mediated inflammatory responses in AD-like skin lesions induced by S. aureus MVs, and reduced the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a, mite-specific IgE, and total IgE. In summary, thymol disrupts S. aureus MVs and suppresses inflammatory responses in AD-like skin lesions aggravated by S. aureus MVs. Our results suggest that thymol is a possible candidate for the management of AD aggravation induced by S. aureus colonization or infection in the lesions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in impetigo contagiosa and secondarily infected atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alsterholm, Mikael; Flytström, Ingela; Bergbrant, Ing-Marie; Faergemann, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (FRSA) has been identified as a causative agent in outbreaks of impetigo and its emergence has been associated with increased use of topical fusidic acid. The frequency of FRSA in atopic dermatitis (AD) has been less extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial spectrum and frequency of FRSA in patients with impetigo or secondarily infected AD. A prospective study in our clinic in 2004 to 2008 included 38 patients with impetigo and 37 with secondarily infected AD. S. aureus was the predominant finding in all groups (bullous impetigo 92% (12/13), impetigo 76% (19/25) and secondarily infected AD 89% (33/37)). Seventy-five percent of S. aureus were fusidic acid resistant in bullous impetigo, 32% in impetigo and 6.1% in secondarily infected AD (bullous impetigo vs. AD p < 0.0001, impetigo vs. AD p < 0.05). We then performed a retrospective patient record review including all patients with impetigo or secondarily infected AD seen at the clinic during the first and last year of the prospective study. In the first year 33% (19/58) of the S. aureus isolates were fusidic acid-resistant in impetigo and 12% (5/43) in secondarily infected AD (p < 0.05). In the last year corresponding values were 24% (6/25) for impetigo and 2.2% (1/45) for AD (p < 0.01). In summary, the prospective study and the patient record review both showed higher FRSA levels in impetigo than in AD. FRSA levels were persistently low in AD. Continued restrictive use of topical fusidic acid is advised to limit an increase in FRSA levels in dermatology patients.

  8. A retrospective analysis of skin bacterial colonisation, susceptibility and resistance in atopic dermatitis and impetigo patients.

    PubMed

    Salah, Louai A; Faergemann, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and impetigo are skin conditions where bacterial colonisation and infection, especially with Staphylococcus aureus play an important role. We compared skin bacterial population, resistance patterns and choice of antimicrobial agents in patients diagnosed with AD and impetigo during 2005 and 2011 in our department. Number of positive cultures in the AD group were 40 and 53 in 2005 and 2011, with S. aureus found in 97.5% and 100%, respectively. Differences in resistance were marginal. In impetigo, S. aureus was found in all 70 patients in 2005 and all 40 patients in 2011. Antibiotic resistance to specifically fusidic acid was more common in 2005 impetigo patients (22.8%) versus 2011 (5%) (p = 0.078). The most commonly used oral antimicrobial was cefadroxil (in 57.5% and 52.8% of AD and 58.6% and 35% of impetigo patients in 2005 and 2011, respectively). Our observations confirm the high prevalence of S. aureus in both diseases and, interestingly, show a declining resistance trend in impetigo.

  9. Balance between beneficial microflora and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation: in vivo evaluation in patients with atopic dermatitis during hydrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bourrain, Muriel; Ribet, Virginie; Calvez, Audrey; Lebaron, Philippe; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The role of the balance between Staphylococcus aureus and commensal flora in the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions is not well understood. To determine the structure of skin microbiome in patients with AD and its changes during an 18-day course of hydrotherapy and to assess the association between S. aureus and micro-organism colonisation, local skin condition and AD severity. Three skin areas (xerotic, inflammatory and healthy) were identified in 25 moderate to severe AD patients for sampling before treatment, just after (day 1), and at day 10 and day 18. The structure of the bacterial community in the samples was assessed using a molecular biology approach based on 16S rRNA gene profiling. At each visit, AD severity was measured globally by the SCORAD index and at the lesional and healthy sampling sites. Clustering analysis of 296 samples showed two different bacterial community profiles: one with 2 peaks corresponding to S. aureus, the other displayed multiple peaks, identified as diversified microflora. At baseline, xerotic areas seemed to be less colonised by S. aureus than inflammatory areas. After 18 days of hydrotherapy, the number of lesional sites colonised by S. aureus (p<0.05) and the SCORAD index (p<0.00001) were significantly reduced, mainly in inflammatory and moist areas, promoting the emergence of a diversified microflora. We identified two bacterial community profiles corresponding to S. aureus and diversified microflora. The competitive balance between both profiles appears to be a key element associated with the severity of AD lesions.

  10. Ulcerative dermatitis and valvular endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus in a hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    PubMed

    Huynh, Minh; Carnaccini, Silvia; Driggers, Todd; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-06-01

    An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners.

  11. Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect againstStaphylococcus aureusand are deficient in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chen, Tiffany H; Narala, Saisindhu; Chun, Kimberly A; Two, Aimee M; Yun, Tong; Shafiq, Faiza; Kotol, Paul F; Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V; Latif, Haythem; Kim, Ji-Nu; Lockhart, Alexandre; Artis, Keli; David, Gloria; Taylor, Patricia; Streib, Joanne; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Grier, Alex; Gill, Steven R; Zengler, Karsten; Hata, Tissa R; Leung, Donald Y M; Gallo, Richard L

    2017-02-22

    The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus , a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects. CoNS strains with antimicrobial activity were common on the normal population but rare on AD subjects. A low frequency of strains with antimicrobial activity correlated with colonization by S. aureus The antimicrobial activity was identified as previously unknown antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by CoNS species including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis These AMPs were strain-specific, highly potent, selectively killed S. aureus , and synergized with the human AMP LL-37. Application of these CoNS strains to mice confirmed their defense function in vivo relative to application of nonactive strains. Strikingly, reintroduction of antimicrobial CoNS strains to human subjects with AD decreased colonization by S. aureus These findings show how commensal skin bacteria protect against pathogens and demonstrate how dysbiosis of the skin microbiome can lead to disease. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect against Staphylococcus aureus and are deficient in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chen, Tiffany H.; Narala, Saisindhu; Chun, Kimberly A.; Two, Aimee M.; Yun, Tong; Shafiq, Faiza; Kotol, Paul F.; Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V.; Latif, Haythem; Kim, Ji-Nu; Lockhart, Alexandre; Artis, Keli; David, Gloria; Taylor, Patricia; Streib, Joanne; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Grier, Alex; Gill, Steven R.; Zengler, Karsten; Hata, Tissa R.; Leung, Donald Y. M.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S.aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects. CoNS strains with antimicrobial activity were common on the normal population but rare on AD subjects. A low frequency of strains with antimicrobial activity correlated with colonization by S.aureus. The antimicrobial activity was identified as previously unknown antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by CoNS species including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis. These AMPs were strain-specific, highly potent, selectively killed S.aureus, and synergized with the human AMP LL-37. Application of these CoNS strains to mice confirmed their defense function in vivo relative to application of nonactive strains. Strikingly, reintroduction of antimicrobial CoNS strains to human subjects with AD decreased colonization by S.aureus. These findings show how commensal skin bacteria protect against pathogens and demonstrate how dysbiosis of the skin microbiome can lead to disease. PMID:28228596

  13. High Staphylococcus epidermidis Colonization and Impaired Permeability Barrier in Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    An, Qian; Sun, Meng; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhang, Li; Zhai, Jin-Long; Hong, Yu-Xiao; Song, Bing; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unclear, although overgrowth of Malassezia on the skin has been suggested to cause SD. This study investigated whether colonization with Staphylococcus plays a role in facial SD, which was not well addressed previously. Methods: The study was conducted from September 1, 2011 to February 20, 2012 in the First Hospital of China Medical University. In the first phase, the study evaluated the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus in defined skin areas of SD patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (HIV [+] SD [+] group, n = 13), classical SD (HIV [−] SD [+] group, n = 24) patients, HIV seropositive-non-SD (HIV [+] SD [−] group, n = 16) patients, and healthy volunteers (HIV [−] SD [−] group, n = 16). In the second phase, we enrolled another cohort of HIV (−) SD (+) patients who applied topical fusidic acid (n = 15), tacrolimus (n = 16), or moisturizer (n = 12). Changes in the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area Severity Index (SDASI), TEWL, and Staphylococcus density were evaluated 2 weeks later. Comparisons of each index were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference method. Results: The level of TEWL was greater through lesional sites in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (−) and HIV (−) SD (−) groups (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.873–47.071, P < 0.001 and 95% CI: 28.755–55.936, P < 0.001, respectively). The number of CFU of Staphylococcus was greater in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (−) and HIV (−) SD (−) groups (95% CI: 37.487–142.744, P = 0.001 and 95% CI: 54.936–156.400, P < 0.001, respectively). TEWL was significantly more improved in patients treated with tacrolimus and fusidic acid than that in those treated with moisturizers (95% CI: 7.560–38.987, P = 0.004 and 95% CI: 4.659–37

  14. HighStaphylococcus epidermidisColonization and Impaired Permeability Barrier in Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    An, Qian; Sun, Meng; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhang, Li; Zhai, Jin-Long; Hong, Yu-Xiao; Song, Bing; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2017-07-20

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unclear, although overgrowth of Malassezia on the skin has been suggested to cause SD. This study investigated whether colonization with Staphylococcus plays a role in facial SD, which was not well addressed previously. The study was conducted from September 1, 2011 to February 20, 2012 in the First Hospital of China Medical University. In the first phase, the study evaluated the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus in defined skin areas of SD patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (HIV [+] SD [+] group, n = 13), classical SD (HIV [-] SD [+] group, n = 24) patients, HIV seropositive-non-SD (HIV [+] SD [-] group, n = 16) patients, and healthy volunteers (HIV [-] SD [-] group, n = 16). In the second phase, we enrolled another cohort of HIV (-) SD (+) patients who applied topical fusidic acid (n = 15), tacrolimus (n = 16), or moisturizer (n = 12). Changes in the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area Severity Index (SDASI), TEWL, and Staphylococcus density were evaluated 2 weeks later. Comparisons of each index were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference method. The level of TEWL was greater through lesional sites in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (-) and HIV (-) SD (-) groups (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.873-47.071, P < 0.001 and 95% CI: 28.755-55.936, P < 0.001, respectively). The number of CFU of Staphylococcus was greater in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (-) and HIV (-) SD (-) groups (95% CI: 37.487-142.744, P = 0.001 and 95% CI: 54.936-156.400, P < 0.001, respectively). TEWL was significantly more improved in patients treated with tacrolimus and fusidic acid than that in those treated with moisturizers (95% CI: 7.560-38.987, P = 0.004 and 95% CI: 4.659-37.619, P = 0.011, respectively). Topical tacrolimus and fusidic

  15. Digital dermatitis in cattle: current bacterial and immunological findings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Globally, digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined, the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous Treponema species in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. Multiple treponeme phylotypes, ...

  16. Emergence of multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two patients with atopic dermatitis requiring linezolid treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Jaime S; Ross, Lawrence A; Ong, Peck Y

    2014-01-01

    We report two patients with atopic dermatitis who developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections resistant to clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole requiring repeated linezolid treatment. For one patient and family members who received an aggressive regimen of staphylococcal decolonization, including intranasal mupirocin, dilute bleach baths, and bleach cleansing of household items and surfaces, subsequent culture results demonstrated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus colonization and infection. These findings underscore the challenges presented by multiresistant MRSA infections in children with atopic dermatitis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus-derived membrane vesicles exacerbate skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jun, S H; Lee, J H; Kim, S I; Choi, C W; Park, T I; Jung, H R; Cho, J W; Kim, S H; Lee, J C

    2017-01-01

    Skin colonization or infection with Staphylococcus aureus is known to trigger aggravation of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the exact mechanisms by which S. aureus can worsen AD are unknown. We investigated whether and how S. aureus-derived membrane vesicles (MVs) contribute to worsening of AD. Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analyses were performed to detect staphylococcal protein A (SPA) in the epidermis of AD lesions. HaCaT cells were treated with S. aureus MVs and were analysed for the expression of cytokine genes. Immunopathology and cytokine gene profiles were analysed after topical application of S. aureus MVs to AD-like skin lesions in a mouse model. The MV component SPA was detected in the keratinocytes as well as in the intercellular space of the epidermis of AD lesions colonized with S. aureus. Intact MVs from S. aureus delivered their components to keratinocytes and stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in vitro. A knock-down of Toll-like receptor 2 or nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 using small interfering RNAs suppressed interleukin-8 gene expression. Topical application of intact S. aureus MVs to AD-like skin lesions in the mouse model induced massive infiltration of inflammatory cells and the resulting eczematous dermatitis. This inflammatory reaction was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response and enhanced expression of chemokine genes in AD-like skin lesions. This study showed the importance of S. aureus MVs as a potent mediator for worsening of AD among many exogenous worsening factors of AD. Thus, S. aureus MVs may be regarded as one of the therapeutic targets for the management of AD aggravation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of sodium hypochlorite against Staphylococcus aureus isolates derived from patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, S; van der Plas, M J A; Mörgelin, M; Sonesson, A

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by an increased susceptibility to skin infections. Staphylococcus aureus is reported to dominate in AD lesions and reports have revealed the presence of staphylococcal biofilms. These infections contribute to aggravation of the eczema. Sodium hypochlorite is known to reduce bacterial load of skin lesions, as well as disease severity, in patients with AD, but the effect on biofilms is unknown. To investigate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of sodium hypochlorite against S. aureus isolates derived from patients with AD. Skin biopsies derived from patients with infected AD were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using radial diffusion assays, biofilm assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we assessed the effect of sodium hypochlorite on S. aureus isolates derived from lesional skin of patients with AD. SEM revealed clusters of coccoid bacteria embedded in fibrin and extracellular substances at the skin of a patient with infected AD. At concentrations of 0·01-0·08%, sodium hypochlorite showed antibacterial effects against planktonic cells. Eradication of S. aureus biofilms in vitro was observed in concentrations ranging from 0·01% to 0·16%. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed these results. Finally, when human AD skin was subjected to sodium hypochlorite in an ex vivo model, a dose of 0·04% reduced the bacteria derived from AD skin. Sodium hypochlorite has antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against clinical S. aureus isolates. Our findings suggest usage of a higher concentration than currently used in bleach baths of patients with skin-infected AD. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Extracellular vesicles derived from Staphylococcus aureus induce atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hong, S-W; Kim, M-R; Lee, E-Y; Kim, J H; Kim, Y-S; Jeon, S G; Yang, J-M; Lee, B-J; Pyun, B-Y; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we found that Staphylococcus aureus produces extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain pathogenic proteins. Although S. aureus infection has been linked with atopic dermatitis (AD), the identities of the causative agents from S. aureus are controversial. We evaluated whether S. aureus-derived EV are causally related to the pathogenesis of AD. Extracellular vesicles were isolated by the ultracentrifugation of S. aureus culture media. The EV were applied three times per week to tape-stripped mouse skin. Inflammation and immune dysfunction were evaluated 48 h after the final application in hairless mice. Extracellular vesicles-specific IgE levels were measured by ELISA in AD patients and healthy subjects. The in vitro application of S. aureus EV increased the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and eotaxin) by dermal fibroblasts. The in vivo application of S. aureus EV after tape stripping caused epidermal thickening with infiltration of the dermis by mast cells and eosinophils in mice. These changes were associated with the enhanced cutaneous production of IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and IL-17. Interestingly, the serum levels of S. aureus EV-specific IgE were significantly increased in AD patients relative to healthy subjects. These results indicate that S. aureus EV induce AD-like inflammation in the skin and that S. aureus-derived EV are a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for the control of AD. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus exploits epidermal barrier defects in atopic dermatitis to trigger cytokine expression

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chen, Tiffany H.; Two, Aimee M.; Chun, Kimberly A.; Narala, Saisindhu; Geha, Raif S.; Hata, Tissa R.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have an abnormal skin barrier and are frequently colonized by S. aureus. In this study we investigated if S. aureus penetrates the epidermal barrier of subjects with AD and sought to understand the mechanism and functional significance of this entry. S. aureus was observed to be more abundant in the dermis of lesional skin from AD patients. Bacterial entry past the epidermis was observed in cultured human skin equivalents and in mice, but found to be increased in the skin of cathelicidin knockout (Camp−/−) and ovalbumin-sensitized filaggrin mutant (FLGft/ft) mice. S. aureus penetration through the epidermis was dependent on bacterial viability and protease activity as killed bacteria or a protease-null mutant strain of S. aureus was unable to penetrate. Entry of S. aureus directly correlated with increased expression of IL4, IL13, IL22, TSLP and other cytokines associated with AD, and with decreased expression of cathelicidin. These data illustrate how abnormalities of the epidermal barrier in AD can alter the balance of S. aureus entry into the dermis and provides an explanation for how such dermal dysbiosis results in increased inflammatory cytokines and exacerbation of disease. PMID:27381887

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Exploits Epidermal Barrier Defects in Atopic Dermatitis to Trigger Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chen, Tiffany H; Two, Aimee M; Chun, Kimberly A; Narala, Saisindhu; Geha, Raif S; Hata, Tissa R; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-11-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have an abnormal skin barrier and are frequently colonized by S. aureus. In this study we investigated if S. aureus penetrates the epidermal barrier of subjects with AD and sought to understand the mechanism and functional significance of this entry. S. aureus was observed to be more abundant in the dermis of lesional skin from AD patients. Bacterial entry past the epidermis was observed in cultured human skin equivalents and in mice but was found to be increased in the skin of cathelicidin knockout and ovalbumin-sensitized filaggrin mutant mice. S. aureus penetration through the epidermis was dependent on bacterial viability and protease activity, because killed bacteria and a protease-null mutant strain of S. aureus were unable to penetrate. Entry of S. aureus directly correlated with increased expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-22, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and other cytokines associated with AD and with decreased expression of cathelicidin. These data illustrate how abnormalities of the epidermal barrier in AD can alter the balance of S. aureus entry into the dermis and provide an explanation for how such dermal dysbiosis results in increased inflammatory cytokines and exacerbation of disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical features and Staphylococcus aureus colonization/infection in childhood atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Yin Ching; Pong, N H; Ng, Chantel; Ip, Margaret; Leung, Ting Fan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) colonization/infection is important in the pathophysiology of childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). This study evaluated which clinical features may predict presence of SA colonization/infection and reviewed antimicrobial sensitivity of SA in patients with AD. The associations between bacteriologic culture results of skin swabs (taken at the most severely affected area and at the antecubital fossa) and SCORing-Atopic-Dermatitis (SCORAD), skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and quality of life were evaluated. Moderate-to-heavy growth of SA was present in 31% of the swabs of the most severe area and in 16% of the flexural (antecubital fossae) areas of 95 AD patients (12.5 ± 4.8 years). Binomial logistic regression showed moderate-to-heavy growth of SA in the severe area were associated with objective SCORAD (p = 0.004) and lesion intensity [erythema (p = 0.022) and lichenification (p = 0.035)]; and excoriation (p = 0.024) and TEWL (p = 0.009) in the antecubital fossa. The relative risk of isolating moderate-to-heavy growth of SA in the most affected area in patients with severe disease (objective SCORAD >40) is 2.73 (1.43-5.21, p = 0.001). Any growth of SA in either swab sites was associated with objective SCORAD and lesion intensity (p = 0.001-0.019). SA had no association with quality of life and other clinical parameters. All specimens of methicillin-sensitive SA were sensitive to cloxacillin. All methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) (5.7%) was sensitive to co-trimoxazole and fusidic acid. Clinical features, especially severity and lesion intensity, are useful in "predicting" moderate-to-heavy SA colonization/infection in AD patients. Cloxacillin has a favorable sensitivity profile for MSSA, and co-trimoxazole and fusidic acid for MRSA. As colonization and infection are ambiguous and potentially overlapping clinical states, we recommend to abandon these terms and propose to describe quantitatively

  3. A comparison of adherence by four strains of Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus hominis to canine corneocytes collected from normal dogs and dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    McEwan, N A; Kalna, G; Mellor, D

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the adherence of four strains of Staphylococcus intermedius and a single strain of Staphylococcus hominis to corneocytes from both normal dogs and dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis. Cells from the skin surface, corneocytes, were collected from 10 normal dogs and 10 dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis. Four strains of S. intermedius, three isolated from canine pyoderma skin lesions (strains A, B and C), and one isolated form from canine synovial membrane sample from a case of septic arthritis (strain D) were compared. S. hominis, which is not normally associated with canine disease, was also evaluated for its ability to adhere to canine corneocytes. S. hominis did not adhere to canine corneocytes. All four strains of S. intermedius adhered well to canine corneocytes collected from both normal and atopic dogs. All strains of S. intermedius showed statistically greater adherence to corneocytes collected from atopic dogs compared with those collected from normal dogs. It was concluded that the adherence assay employed here showed that S. hominis does not adhere to canine corneocytes, S. intermedius adheres preferentially to atopic corneocytes.

  4. Host-Bacterial Crosstalk Determines Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Michelle E; McLoughlin, Rachel M

    2016-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus persistently colonizes the anterior nares of approximately one fifth of the population and nasal carriage is a significant risk factor for infection. Recent advances have significantly refined our understanding of S. aureus-host communication during nasal colonization. Novel bacterial adherence mechanisms in the nasal epithelium have been identified, and novel roles for both the innate and the adaptive immune response in controlling S. aureus nasal colonization have been defined, through the use of both human and rodent models. It is clear that S. aureus maintains a unique, complex relationship with the host immune system and that S. aureus nasal colonization is overall a multifactorial process which is as yet incompletely understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic sensor governing bacterial virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yue; Liu, Xing; Chen, Feifei; Di, Hongxia; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Lu; Deng, Xin; Wu, Min; Yang, Cai-Guang; Lan, Lefu

    2014-01-01

    An effective metabolism is essential to all living organisms, including the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. To establish successful infection, S. aureus must scavenge nutrients and coordinate its metabolism for proliferation. Meanwhile, it also must produce an array of virulence factors to interfere with host defenses. However, the ways in which S. aureus ties its metabolic state to its virulence regulation remain largely unknown. Here we show that citrate, the first intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, binds to and activates the catabolite control protein E (CcpE) of S. aureus. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that two arginine residues (Arg145 and Arg256) within the putative inducer-binding cavity of CcpE are important for its allosteric activation by citrate. Microarray analysis reveals that CcpE tunes the expression of 126 genes that comprise about 4.7% of the S. aureus genome. Intriguingly, although CcpE is a major positive regulator of the TCA-cycle activity, its regulon consists predominantly of genes involved in the pathogenesis of S. aureus. Moreover, inactivation of CcpE results in increased staphyloxanthin production, improved ability to acquire iron, increased resistance to whole-blood–mediated killing, and enhanced bacterial virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection. This study reveals CcpE as an important metabolic sensor that allows S. aureus to sense and adjust its metabolic state and subsequently to coordinate the expression of virulence factors and bacterial virulence. PMID:25368190

  6. Metabolic sensor governing bacterial virulence in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yue; Liu, Xing; Chen, Feifei; Di, Hongxia; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Lu; Deng, Xin; Wu, Min; Yang, Cai-Guang; Lan, Lefu

    2014-11-18

    An effective metabolism is essential to all living organisms, including the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. To establish successful infection, S. aureus must scavenge nutrients and coordinate its metabolism for proliferation. Meanwhile, it also must produce an array of virulence factors to interfere with host defenses. However, the ways in which S. aureus ties its metabolic state to its virulence regulation remain largely unknown. Here we show that citrate, the first intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, binds to and activates the catabolite control protein E (CcpE) of S. aureus. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that two arginine residues (Arg145 and Arg256) within the putative inducer-binding cavity of CcpE are important for its allosteric activation by citrate. Microarray analysis reveals that CcpE tunes the expression of 126 genes that comprise about 4.7% of the S. aureus genome. Intriguingly, although CcpE is a major positive regulator of the TCA-cycle activity, its regulon consists predominantly of genes involved in the pathogenesis of S. aureus. Moreover, inactivation of CcpE results in increased staphyloxanthin production, improved ability to acquire iron, increased resistance to whole-blood-mediated killing, and enhanced bacterial virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection. This study reveals CcpE as an important metabolic sensor that allows S. aureus to sense and adjust its metabolic state and subsequently to coordinate the expression of virulence factors and bacterial virulence.

  7. Association of a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus with fatal exudative dermatitis in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Simpson, V R; Davison, N J; Kearns, A M; Pichon, B; Hudson, L O; Koylass, M; Blackett, T; Butler, H; Rasigade, J P; Whatmore, A M

    2013-03-23

    Fatal exudative dermatitis (FED) is a recently described condition affecting red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) on the Isle of Wight and Jersey (Simpson et al., 2010a). Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin lesions in cases of FED were characterised by molecular and phenotypic approaches. The strains were found to belong to a single MLST clonal complex (CC49) representing either ST49 or a novel single locus variant thereof (ST1957), were closely related by other molecular typing approaches, and all possessed the leukotoxin M encoding gene (lukM). In contrast S. aureus was either not isolated from none-FED cases or belonged to distinct and diverse molecular types that, with one exception, did not encode lukM. All isolates from FED cases were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, including penicillin, and all proved negative for mecA and mecC as well as 14 other staphylococcal toxin genes. As all squirrels affected by FED were infected with S. aureus of the same lineage and encoded the lukM gene, it is possible that strains of this lineage may be involved in the pathogenesis of the dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Pathogenetic Effect of Natural and Bacterial Toxins on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Duck; Pak, Sok Cheon; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic skin disease that is associated with chronic, recurrent eczematous and pruritic lesions at the flexural folds caused by interacting factors related to environmental and immune system changes. AD results in dry skin, and immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions to foods and environmental allergens. While steroids and anti-histamines temporarily relieve the symptoms of AD, the possibility of side effects from pharmacological interventions remains. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms for AD have not been clarified. A study of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) established the role of its toxins in the pathogenesis of AD. Approximately 90% of patients with AD experience S. aureus colonization and up to 50%–60% of the colonizing S. aureus is toxin-producing. Any damage to the protective skin barrier allows for the entry of invading allergens and pathogens that further drive the pathogenesis of AD. Some natural toxins (or their components) that have therapeutic effects on AD have been studied. In addition, recent studies on inflammasomes as one component of the innate immune system have been carried out. Additionally, studies on the close relationship between the activation of inflammasomes and toxins in AD have been reported. This review highlights the literature that discusses the pathogenesis of AD, the role of toxins in AD, and the positive and negative effects of toxins on AD. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the role of inflammasomes in AD. PMID:28025545

  9. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis : This ... It is not caused by an allergy, but rather the skin's reaction ...

  10. [A study of the single nucleotide polymorphism fragments of the AUR gene metalloprotease strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Tuyrin, Y A; Shamsutdinov, A F; Fassahov, R S

    2014-01-01

    to study the heterogeneity of internal fragments of the aur gene coding a proteolytic enzyme aureolysin in strains of Staphylococcus aureus with different enzymatic activity, which were allocated with the affected skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. the study included 125 patients aged 1 to 35 years old with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. 100 clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus were studied in monoculture. Identification of the strains of Staphylococcus aureus in skin was performed using standard classical methods. Specific biochemical microtests using a set of APIs Staph 20 (bioMerieux SA, France) were conducted to confirm the obtained results. Reference strains of S. aureus ATCC 29213, NCTC at 8.325 were used. Specific aur gene loci were detected by the method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Proteolytic activity was determined by the ability to split the substrate (human IgG, Sigma) into fragments using as inhibitors of matrix 0.01-0.1M solutions of sodium EDTA. The sequencing of the amplified areas of aur gene, including the preliminary stages of separation and purification of DNA, was performed by Syntol, Moscow. different strains of the conservative plot amplicon fragment of aur contains up to 9 polymorphic nucleotides. The index of the nucleotide diversity for proteolytic active strains was less (Pi = 0.04) than for proteolytically inactive (Pi = 0.07), p < 0.05. It should be noted that all proteolytically active strains were isolated from the skin of patients with high and moderate severity of atopic dermatitis (67.8 +/- 5.4 points on SCORAD scale) with erythematous form of the disease. The inactive strains were allocated in patients of older age with reduced severity of atopic dermatitis (with the dry form of skin lesions).

  11. Adjuvant treatment with the bacterial lysate (OM-85) improves management of atopic dermatitis: A randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Bodemer, Christine; Guillet, Gerard; Cambazard, Frederic; Boralevi, Franck; Ballarini, Stefania; Milliet, Christian; Bertuccio, Paola; La Vecchia, Carlo; Bach, Jean-François; de Prost, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Background Environmental factors play a major role on atopic dermatitis (AD) which shows a constant rise in prevalence in western countries over the last decades. The Hygiene Hypothesis suggesting an inverse relationship between incidence of infections and the increase in atopic diseases in these countries, is one of the working hypothesis proposed to explain this trend. Objective This study tested the efficacy and safety of oral administration of the bacterial lysate OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®), in the treatment of established AD in children. Methods Children aged 6 months to 7 years, with confirmed AD diagnosis, were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to receive, in addition to conventional treatment with emollients and topical corticosteroids, 3.5mg of the bacterial extract OM-85 or placebo daily for 9 months. The primary end-point was the difference between groups in the occurrence of new flares (NF) during the study period, evaluated by Hazard Ratio (HR) derived from conditional Cox proportional hazard regression models accounting for repeated events. Results Among the 179 randomized children, 170 were analysed, 88 in the OM-85 and 82 in the placebo group. As expected most children in both treatment groups experienced at least 1 NF during the study period (75 (85%) patients in the OM-85 group and 72 (88%) in the placebo group). Patients treated with OM-85 as adjuvant therapy had significantly fewer and delayed NFs (HR of repeated flares = 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67–0.96), also when potential confounding factors, as family history of atopy and corticosteroids use, were taken into account (HR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69–0.98). No major side effect was reported, with comparable and good tolerability for OM-85 and placebo. Conclusions Results show an adjuvant therapeutic effect of a well standardized bacterial lysate OM-85 on established AD. PMID:28333952

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with atopic dermatitis from 1999 to 2014: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Quinn, Steve; Marshman, Gillian

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections in the general population, there may be a similar increase of such infections in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). There are few studies on MRSA prevalence in the AD population, and no previous studies in Australia. This study investigated the prevalence of MRSA and other organisms in the paediatric AD population over the previous 15 years. Skin swab results and other significant data, including patients' characteristics and comorbidities, were collected on patients with AD aged 0-18 years, admitted to a large teaching hospital in South Australia from 1999 to 2014 (N = 298). This longitudinal, retrospective study investigated, using logistic regression, the change of prevalence of MRSA, methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Streptococcus spp. in AD over the past 15 years. Compared with 1999-2002, in 2003-2006 patients were approximately threefold more likely (P = 0.350), in 2007-2010 they were approximately 13-fold more likely (P = 0.030) and in 2011-2014 they were approximately 24-fold more likely to test positive for MRSA (P = 0.008), despite low absolute MRSA numbers. There was a positive association between the number of previous hospital admissions per patient and MRSA (OR = 1.16 [1.08-1.25], P = 0.000). In contrast, there was no change in the prevalence of MSSA or Streptococcus spp. over time. The prevalence of MRSA in children with AD is clearly on the rise. This has negative consequences for individuals with AD and is also a major public health problem. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. Ozone therapy as an adjunct to vancomycin enhances bacterial elimination in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus mediastinitis.

    PubMed

    Gulmen, Senol; Kurtoglu, Tunay; Meteoglu, Ibrahim; Kaya, Selcuk; Okutan, Huseyin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the influence of intraperitoneal ozone therapy on bacterial elimination and mediastinal inflammation in experimental Staphylococcus aureus mediastinitis. Forty Wistar-Albino rats were randomized into five groups (eight per group) as follows: uncontaminated group, untreated contaminated group, ozone group, vancomycin group, and vancomycin + ozone group. Uncontaminated group underwent upper median sternotomy. The remaining four groups were inoculated with 0.5 mL 10(8) colony-forming units/mL methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the mediastinal and sternal layers. Untreated contaminated group had no treatment. Rats in the vancomycin group received intramuscular vancomycin (40 mg/kg/d), and ozone was administered intraperitoneally (70 μg/mL, 1 mg/kg/d) in the ozone group for the treatment of mediastinitis. Vancomycin + ozone group rats were treated by the combination of both methods. At the end of 10 d, quantitative bacterial cultures and sternal tissue samples were obtained for determination of bacterial counts and histologic degree of inflammation. Both the vancomycin and the ozone treatments caused significant reduction of bacterial counts in quantitative bacterial cultures. Combination of vancomycin and ozone treatments resulted in further reduction of bacterial counts in mediastinum and sternum. Histologic examination of tissue samples revealed significant reduction in severity of mediastinitis related inflammation in vancomycin and vancomycin + ozone groups compared with untreated contaminated group. Ozone therapy as an adjunct to vancomycin leads to enhanced bacterial elimination in infected sternal and mediastinal tissues in experimental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus mediastinitis. The benefit of adjuvant ozone therapy is suggested to be related to its bactericidal effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Otto, Caitlin C; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Haydel, Shelley E

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries associated with antibacterial activity of hydrated clays necessitate assessments of in vivo efficacy, practical use and safety. Surface properties of clays can lead to variations in the composition and abundance of bound compounds or ions, thus affecting antibacterial activity. Since exchangeable metal ions released from the clay surface are responsible for in vitro antibacterial activity, we evaluated the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of four natural clays (one illite clay, two montmorillonite clays and one kaolinite clay) and three ion-exchanged, antibacterial clays against superficial, cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in mice. Superficial, cutaneous wounds on the back of SKH1-Elite mice were generated and subsequently infected with MRSA. Following twice daily applications of a hydrated clay poultice to infected wounds for 7  days, we observed significant differences in the in vivo antibacterial efficacy between different types of clays. The natural and ion-exchanged illite clays performed best, as measured by bacterial load, inflammatory response and gross wound morphology with significant decreases in bacterial viability and dermatitis. Topical application of kaolinite clay was the least effective, resulting in the lowest decrease in bacterial load and exhibiting severe dermatitis. These data suggest that specific types of clays may offer a complementary and integrative strategy for topically treating MRSA and other cutaneous infections. However, since natural clays exhibit in vitro antibacterial variability and vary vastly in surface chemistries, adsorptive/absorptive characteristics and structural composition, the properties and characteristics of illite clays could aid in the development of standardized and customized aluminosilicates for topical infections.

  15. Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Caitlin C.; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries associated with antibacterial activity of hydrated clays necessitate assessments of in vivo efficacy, practical use and safety. Surface properties of clays can lead to variations in the composition and abundance of bound compounds or ions, thus affecting antibacterial activity. Since exchangeable metal ions released from the clay surface are responsible for in vitro antibacterial activity, we evaluated the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of four natural clays (one illite clay, two montmorillonite clays and one kaolinite clay) and three ion-exchanged, antibacterial clays against superficial, cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in mice. Superficial, cutaneous wounds on the back of SKH1-Elite mice were generated and subsequently infected with MRSA. Following twice daily applications of a hydrated clay poultice to infected wounds for 7 days, we observed significant differences in the in vivo antibacterial efficacy between different types of clays. The natural and ion-exchanged illite clays performed best, as measured by bacterial load, inflammatory response and gross wound morphology with significant decreases in bacterial viability and dermatitis. Topical application of kaolinite clay was the least effective, resulting in the lowest decrease in bacterial load and exhibiting severe dermatitis. These data suggest that specific types of clays may offer a complementary and integrative strategy for topically treating MRSA and other cutaneous infections. However, since natural clays exhibit in vitro antibacterial variability and vary vastly in surface chemistries, adsorptive/absorptive characteristics and structural composition, the properties and characteristics of illite clays could aid in the development of standardized and customized aluminosilicates for topical infections. PMID:26508716

  16. High Frequency and Diversity of Antimicrobial Activities Produced by Nasal Staphylococcus Strains against Bacterial Competitors.

    PubMed

    Janek, Daniela; Zipperer, Alexander; Kulik, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The human nasal microbiota is highly variable and dynamic often enclosing major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potential roles of bacteriocins or other mechanisms allowing certain bacterial clones to prevail in this nutrient-poor habitat have hardly been studied. Of 89 nasal Staphylococcus isolates, unexpectedly, the vast majority (84%) was found to produce antimicrobial substances in particular under habitat-specific stress conditions, such as iron limitation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Activity spectra were generally narrow but highly variable with activities against certain nasal members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, or several groups of bacteria. Staphylococcus species and many other Firmicutes were insusceptible to most of the compounds. A representative bacteriocin was identified as a nukacin-related peptide whose inactivation reduced the capacity of the producer Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK45 to limit growth of other nasal bacteria. Of note, the bacteriocin genes were found on mobile genetic elements exhibiting signs of extensive horizontal gene transfer and rearrangements. Thus, continuously evolving bacteriocins appear to govern bacterial competition in the human nose and specific bacteriocins may become important agents for eradication of notorious opportunistic pathogens from human microbiota.

  17. High Frequency and Diversity of Antimicrobial Activities Produced by Nasal Staphylococcus Strains against Bacterial Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Janek, Daniela; Zipperer, Alexander; Kulik, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The human nasal microbiota is highly variable and dynamic often enclosing major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potential roles of bacteriocins or other mechanisms allowing certain bacterial clones to prevail in this nutrient-poor habitat have hardly been studied. Of 89 nasal Staphylococcus isolates, unexpectedly, the vast majority (84%) was found to produce antimicrobial substances in particular under habitat-specific stress conditions, such as iron limitation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Activity spectra were generally narrow but highly variable with activities against certain nasal members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, or several groups of bacteria. Staphylococcus species and many other Firmicutes were insusceptible to most of the compounds. A representative bacteriocin was identified as a nukacin-related peptide whose inactivation reduced the capacity of the producer Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK45 to limit growth of other nasal bacteria. Of note, the bacteriocin genes were found on mobile genetic elements exhibiting signs of extensive horizontal gene transfer and rearrangements. Thus, continuously evolving bacteriocins appear to govern bacterial competition in the human nose and specific bacteriocins may become important agents for eradication of notorious opportunistic pathogens from human microbiota. PMID:27490492

  18. New perspectives on dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis: lessons we learned from bacterial and fungal skin microbiota.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Luciana Campos

    2017-06-01

    The human body is inhabited by complex microbial communities, which positively impact different aspects of our health, and might also be related to the development of diseases. Progress in technologies, particularly sequencing methods and bioinformatics tools, has been crucial for the advances in this field. Microbial communities from skin can modulate immune response and protect the host against pathogens, and there are also data supporting their association with several skin conditions; including dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. For decades, they have been thought to be related to Malassezia yeasts; however, the microbial role has not been elucidated, and their etiology remains poorly understood. This review discusses the recent findings in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis and their relation to the skin microbiota. Data provided new perceptions to aid in the understanding of these skin disorders, broadening our view of their etiology and the possible roles of microbial communities in symptom development.

  19. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jody L.; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; KC, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. PMID:25635914

  20. Antibacterial mechanism of daptomycin antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus based on a quantitative bacterial proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen; Zhang, Dan; Li, Guoshun; Liu, Jingjing; He, Gu; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Hongxia; Xu, Ningzhi; Liang, Shufang

    2017-01-06

    Daptomycin (DAP) is a novel lipopeptide antibiotic which exhibits excellent antibacterial activity against most clinically relevant Gram-positive bacteria, but the DAP-targeting protein molecules against host bacterial infection are far from clear. In order to discover bacterial protein response to DAP treatment, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was applied to identify differential bacterial proteome profiling of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 25923 to 0.125μg/ml DAP exposure. Totally 51 bacterial proteins were significantly changed with DAP treatment, among which 34 proteins were obviously up-regulated and 17 proteins were down-regulated. Meanwhile, 139 bacterial cell membrane (CM) proteins were identified, and 7 CM proteins were significantly altered to decrease CM potential to disrupt bacterial cell membrane. Especially the up-regulation of NDK and down-regulation of NT5 in several S. aureus strains are validated to be a universal variation tendency response to DAP treatment. Under DAP exposure, bacterial membrane potential is decreased and cell membrane is disrupted, and bacterial chromosome is aggregated, which contributes to bacterial DNA rapid release and induces bacteria death within 2-5h. In general, multiple bacterial protein expressions are changed in response to DAP antibiotic exposure, which disrupts host bacterial physiology by multiple cellular levels. To our knowledge, this is the first time to exactly identify infectious bacterial proteins in response to DAP antibiotic action. Our findings help better understand DAP antibacterial mechanism and develop novel DAP derivatives against the upcoming antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection. DAP is a novel lipopeptide antibiotic that it exhibits excellent in vitro activity against most clinically relevant Gram-positive bacteria, and the investigations on its pharmaceutical action mode of DAP have dramatically increased in the past decade due to its unique antimicrobial mechanism

  1. Persistent Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in Keratinocytes Lead to Activation of the Complement System with Subsequent Reduction in the Intracellular Bacterial Load.

    PubMed

    Abu-Humaidan, Anas H; Elvén, Malin; Sonesson, Andreas; Garred, Peter; Sørensen, Ole E

    2018-01-01

    The complement system is an ancient part of the innate immune system important for both tissue homeostasis and host defense. However, bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (SA) possess elaborative mechanisms for evading both the complement system and other parts of the immune system. One of these evasive mechanisms-important in causing chronic and therapy resistant infections-is the intracellular persistence in non-immune cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether persistent intracellular SA infection of epidermal keratinocytes resulted in complement activation. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that persistent SA, surviving intracellularly in keratinocytes, caused activation of the complement system with formation of the terminal complement complex (TCC) at the cell surface. Skin samples from atopic dermatitis patients analyzed by bacterial culture and microscopy, demonstrated that SA colonization was associated with the presence of intracellular bacteria and deposition of the TCC in epidermis in vivo . Complement activation on keratinocytes with persistent intracellular bacteria was found with sera deficient/depleted of the complement components C1q, Mannan-binding lectin, or complement factor B, demonstrating involvement of more than one complement activation pathway. Viable bacterial counts showed that complement activation at the cell surface initiated cellular responses that significantly reduced the intracellular bacterial burden. The use of an inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) abrogated the complement-induced reduction in intracellular bacterial load. These data bridge the roles of the complement system in tissue homeostasis and innate immunity and illustrate a novel mechanism by which the complement system combats persistent intracellular bacteria in epithelial cells.

  2. Persistent Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in Keratinocytes Lead to Activation of the Complement System with Subsequent Reduction in the Intracellular Bacterial Load

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Humaidan, Anas H.; Elvén, Malin; Sonesson, Andreas; Garred, Peter; Sørensen, Ole E.

    2018-01-01

    The complement system is an ancient part of the innate immune system important for both tissue homeostasis and host defense. However, bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (SA) possess elaborative mechanisms for evading both the complement system and other parts of the immune system. One of these evasive mechanisms—important in causing chronic and therapy resistant infections—is the intracellular persistence in non-immune cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether persistent intracellular SA infection of epidermal keratinocytes resulted in complement activation. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that persistent SA, surviving intracellularly in keratinocytes, caused activation of the complement system with formation of the terminal complement complex (TCC) at the cell surface. Skin samples from atopic dermatitis patients analyzed by bacterial culture and microscopy, demonstrated that SA colonization was associated with the presence of intracellular bacteria and deposition of the TCC in epidermis in vivo. Complement activation on keratinocytes with persistent intracellular bacteria was found with sera deficient/depleted of the complement components C1q, Mannan-binding lectin, or complement factor B, demonstrating involvement of more than one complement activation pathway. Viable bacterial counts showed that complement activation at the cell surface initiated cellular responses that significantly reduced the intracellular bacterial burden. The use of an inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) abrogated the complement-induced reduction in intracellular bacterial load. These data bridge the roles of the complement system in tissue homeostasis and innate immunity and illustrate a novel mechanism by which the complement system combats persistent intracellular bacteria in epithelial cells. PMID:29545804

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis, prevention of atopic dermatitis by oral application of bacterial lysate in newborns/small children.

    PubMed

    Kiencke, Peter; Viehmann, Kristina; Rychlik, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness compared to placebo of prophylactic treatment with sterile bacterial lysate (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) (verum) of newborns/small children with heredity for atopy [atopic dermatitis (AD)]. Infants were followed from the age of 5 weeks until 3 years of age. During this time, the number of children with AD who were treated with verum or placebo was observed at eight visits. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed at different time points. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial performed in Germany included 606 newborns. After randomization, n = 303 patients were classified in the placebo group and n = 303 in the verum group. A total of 119 participants left the study, so data from n = 250 patients of the placebo group and n = 237 patients of the verum group were available for analysis. At the beginning of the study, newborns were treated prophylactically with bacterial lysate or placebo for 26 weeks. After this, children were observed until the age of 3 years. A systematic literature research was done to evaluate treatment costs of atopic eczema in newborn/small children. Finally, 17 publications were included and checked for searched treatment costs of AD. A study was then initiated to evaluate the direct costs to statutory health insurance. Based on the described clinical trial, a decision tree model was developed. Using the evaluated direct costs and prevalence according to the clinical trial, the developed model can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses. The focus of the analyses was on the subgroup "single heredity for atopy" in clinical trials. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed an advantage for bacterial lysate after 3 years. To further support this result a model extension was executed; the model was expanded from 3 to 6 years. Cost-effectiveness of bacterial lysate was also proven after 6 years. Prophylactic treatment with bacterial lysate of infants

  4. Topical Antimicrobial Treatments Can Elicit Shifts to Resident Skin Bacterial Communities and Reduce Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus Competitors

    PubMed Central

    SanMiguel, Adam J.; Meisel, Jacquelyn S.; Horwinski, Joseph; Zheng, Qi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The skin microbiome is a complex ecosystem with important implications for cutaneous health and disease. Topical antibiotics and antiseptics are often employed to preserve the balance of this population and inhibit colonization by more pathogenic bacteria. However, despite their widespread use, the impact of these interventions on broader microbial communities remains poorly understood. Here, we report the longitudinal effects of topical antibiotics and antiseptics on skin bacterial communities and their role in Staphylococcus aureus colonization resistance. In response to antibiotics, cutaneous populations exhibited an immediate shift in bacterial residents, an effect that persisted for multiple days posttreatment. By contrast, antiseptics elicited only minor changes to skin bacterial populations, with few changes to the underlying microbiota. While variable in scope, both antibiotics and antiseptics were found to decrease colonization by commensal Staphylococcus spp. by sequencing- and culture-based methods, an effect which was highly dependent on baseline levels of Staphylococcus. Because Staphylococcus residents have been shown to compete with the skin pathogen S. aureus, we also tested whether treatment could influence S. aureus levels at the skin surface. We found that treated mice were more susceptible to exogenous association with S. aureus and that precolonization with the same Staphylococcus residents that were previously disrupted by treatment reduced S. aureus levels by over 100-fold. In all, the results of this study indicate that antimicrobial drugs can alter skin bacterial residents and that these alterations can have critical implications for cutaneous host defense. PMID:28630195

  5. The role of antiseptic agents in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Melissa; Van Bever, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The skin of individuals with atopic dermatitis has a susceptibility to be colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. This has been associated with increased frequency and severity of exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the use of antiseptic agents to target primary bacterial colonization and infection. Antiseptic agents have been found to be better tolerated and less likely to induce bacterial resistance as compared to antibiotics. There is also a wide variety of antiseptic agents available. The efficacy of antiseptic agents has yet to be established as the studies reviewed previously have been small and of suboptimal quality. This review discusses the rationale behind targeting S. aureus with antiseptic agents and presents findings from a review of studies assessing the efficacy of antiseptics in atopic dermatitis in the last five years. Four studies were found, including a bleach bath study which has already been reviewed elsewhere. The remaining 3 studies assessed the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite containing cleansing body wash, sodium hypochlorite baths and 1% triclosan in leave on emollient. These studies suggested some benefit for the inclusion of antiseptic use with the mainstay management of atopic dermatitis, including a potential steroid sparring effect. However, there are many limitations to these studies which therefore warrant further investigation on the impact of antiseptic use in atopic dermatitis.

  6. Osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus schleiferi and evidence of misidentification of this Staphylococcus species by an automated bacterial identification system.

    PubMed

    Calvo, J; Hernández, J L; Fariñas, M C; García-Palomo, D; Agüero, J

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of sternal osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus schleiferi in a patient who underwent thoracic surgery. This constitutes the first documented case of osteomyelitis caused by this Staphylococcus species. We also relate our experience in the utilization of commercially available MicroScan panels for the identification of this microorganism.

  7. Live Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial soluble factors induce different transcriptional responses in human airway cells.

    PubMed

    Moreilhon, Chimène; Gras, Delphine; Hologne, Coralie; Bajolet, Odile; Cottrez, Françoise; Magnone, Virginie; Merten, Marc; Groux, Hervé; Puchelle, Edith; Barbry, Pascal

    2005-02-10

    To characterize the response of respiratory epithelium to infection by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), human airway cells were incubated for 1 to 24 h with a supernatant of a S. aureus culture (bacterial supernatant), then profiled with a pangenomic DNA microarray. Because an upregulation of many genes was noticed around 3 h, three independent approaches were then used to characterize the host response to a 3-h contact either with bacterial supernatant or with live bacteria: 1) a DNA microarray containing 4,200 sequence-verified probes, 2) a semiquantitative RT-PCR with a set of 537 pairs of validated primers, or 3) ELISA assay of IL-8, IL-6, TNFalpha, and PGE(2). Among others, Fos, Jun, and EGR-1 were upregulated by the bacterial supernatant and by live bacteria. Increased expression of bhlhb2 and Mig-6, promoter regions which harbor HIF responding elements, was explained by an increased expression of the HIF-1alpha protein. Activation of the inducible form of cyclooxygenase, COX-2, and of the interleukins IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8, as well as of the NF-kappaB pathway, was observed preferentially in cells in contact with bacterial supernatant. Early infection was characterized by an upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes and a downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes. This correlated with a necrotic, rather than apoptotic cell death. Overall, this first global description of an airway epithelial infection by S. aureus demonstrates a larger global response to bacterial supernatant (in term of altered genes and variation factors) than to exponentially growing live bacteria.

  8. Comparative Structural and Functional Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Glucokinase with other Bacterial Glucokinases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P S; Kumar, Y N; Prasad, U V; Yeswanth, S; Swarupa, V; Vasu, D; Venkatesh, K; Srikanth, L; Rao, V K; Sarma, P V G K

    2014-09-01

    Glucokinase is classified in bacteria based upon having ATP binding site and 'repressor/open reading frames of unknown function/sugar kinases' motif, the sequence of glucokinase gene (JN645812) of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 showed presence of ATP binding site and 'repressor/open reading frames of unknown function/sugar kinases' motif. We have earlier observed glucokinase of S. aureus has higher affinity towards the substrate compared to other bacterial glucokinase and under anaerobic condition with increased glucose concentration S. aureus exhibited higher rate of biofilm formation. To establish this, 3D structure of glucokinase was built using homology modeling method, the PROCHECK and ProSA-Web analysis indicated this built glucokinase structure was close to the crystal structure. This structure was superimposed with different bacterial glucokinase structures and from the root-mean-square deviation values, it is concluded that S. aureus glucokinase exhibited very close homology with Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium difficle while with other bacteria it showed high degree of variations both in domain and nondomain regions. Glucose docking results indicated -12.3697 kcal/mol for S. aureus glucokinase compared with other bacterial glucokinase suggesting higher affinity of glucose which correlates with enzyme kinetics and higher rate of biofilm formation.

  9. Comparative Structural and Functional Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Glucokinase with other Bacterial Glucokinases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. S.; Kumar, Y. N.; Prasad, U. V.; Yeswanth, S.; Swarupa, V.; Vasu, D.; Venkatesh, K.; Srikanth, L.; Rao, V. K.; Sarma, P. V. G. K.

    2014-01-01

    Glucokinase is classified in bacteria based upon having ATP binding site and ‘repressor/open reading frames of unknown function/sugar kinases’ motif, the sequence of glucokinase gene (JN645812) of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 showed presence of ATP binding site and ‘repressor/open reading frames of unknown function/sugar kinases’ motif. We have earlier observed glucokinase of S. aureus has higher affinity towards the substrate compared to other bacterial glucokinase and under anaerobic condition with increased glucose concentration S. aureus exhibited higher rate of biofilm formation. To establish this, 3D structure of glucokinase was built using homology modeling method, the PROCHECK and ProSA-Web analysis indicated this built glucokinase structure was close to the crystal structure. This structure was superimposed with different bacterial glucokinase structures and from the root-mean-square deviation values, it is concluded that S. aureus glucokinase exhibited very close homology with Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium difficle while with other bacteria it showed high degree of variations both in domain and nondomain regions. Glucose docking results indicated -12.3697 kcal/mol for S. aureus glucokinase compared with other bacterial glucokinase suggesting higher affinity of glucose which correlates with enzyme kinetics and higher rate of biofilm formation. PMID:25425757

  10. Blue Laser Inhibits Bacterial Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira Alves; Santos, Marcos Ferracioli; Gomes, Rosana Caetano; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Martinez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of blue laser on bacterial growth of the main species that usually colonize cutaneous ulcers, as well as its effect over time following irradiation. Background data: The use of blue laser has been described as an adjuvant therapeutic method to inhibit bacterial growth, but there is no consensus about the best parameters to be used. Methods: Strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were suspended in saline solution at a concentration of 1.5×103 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. Next, 300 μL of this suspension was transferred to a microtitulation plate and exposed to a single blue laser irradiation (450 nm) at fluences of 0 (control), 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 J/cm2. Each suspension was spread over the surface of a Petri plate before being incubated at 37°C, and counts of CFU were determined after 24 and 48 h. Results: Blue laser inhibited the growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at fluences >6 J/cm2. On the other hand, E. coli was inhibited at all fluences tested, except at 24 J/cm2. Conclusions: Blue laser light was capable of inhibiting bacterial growth at low fluences over time, thus presenting no time-dependent effect. PMID:25954830

  11. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quach, D.T.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V.; Pogliano, J.; Pogliano, K.

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  12. Staphylococcus aureus: is it a pathogen of acute bacterial sinusitis in children and adults?

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2012-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the etiologic agents of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS). Staphylococcus aureus has been an uncommon cause of ABS despite its frequent occupancy within the anterior nares. A quantitative culture of a maxillary sinus aspirate is the gold standard for determining etiology of ABS. Cultures of the middle meatus cannot be used as a surrogate for a maxillary sinus aspirate in children with ABS, although they may be used in adults if interpretation is confined to usual sinus pathogens. Recent studies highlighting S. aureus as a major pathogen in ABS should be interpreted cautiously. Most isolates in recent pediatric studies were derived from cultures of the middle meatus. The range of reported results for the incidence of S. aureus as a cause of ABS in adults is similar to the results reported for staphylococcal colonization of the middle meatus in healthy adults.

  13. Development of a multicomponent Staphylococcus aureus vaccine designed to counter multiple bacterial virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Miller, Alita A.; Donald, Robert G.K.; Scully, Ingrid L.; Nanra, Jasdeep S.; Cooper, David; Jansen, Kathrin U.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease in hospitalized patients. Despite increasingly rigorous infection control guidelines, the prevalence and corresponding negative impact of S. aureus infections remain considerable. Difficulties in controlling S. aureus infections as well as the associated treatment costs are exacerbated by increasing rates of resistance to available antibiotics. Despite ongoing efforts over the past 20 years, no licensed S. aureus vaccine is currently available. However, learnings from past clinical failures of vaccine candidates and a better understanding of the immunopathology of S. aureus colonization and infection have aided in the design of new vaccine candidates based on multiple important bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. This review outlines important considerations in designing a vaccine for the prevention of S. aureus disease in healthcare settings. PMID:22922765

  14. Rapid Detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus in Atopic Dermatitis by Using the BD Max StaphSR Assay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Kyung; Park, Kui Young; Jin, Taewon; Kim, Ju Hee; Seo, Seong Jun

    2017-07-01

    Eczematous lesions of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients are known to be a source of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) transmission and might be a reservoir for community-associated methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA). The BD Max StaphSR (BD-SR) is a fully automated, multiplex real-time PCR assay for the direct detection and differentiation of SA and MRSA from nasal swab samples. We evaluated the detection rates of SA and MRSA from skin lesions of outpatients with AD using the BD-SR assay, and determined the usefulness of the BD-SR assay. A total of 244 skin swab samples (skin lesions of 213 outpatients with AD and normal skin of 31 healthy controls) were tested directly by using the BD-SR assay. Of the 213 samples from patients with AD, 69 (32.4%) were positive for SA, 6 (8.7%) of which were positive for MRSA. Only 1 (3.2%) of 31 samples from healthy controls was positive for SA. The BD-SR assay is effective for the rapid detection of SA and MRSA from skin swab samples, which can provide important information for managing patients with AD and preventing the spread of MRSA. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  15. Molecular mechanics of Staphylococcus aureus adhesin, CNA, and the inhibition of bacterial adhesion by stretching collagen

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Ali; Garakani, Kiavash

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to collagen, the most abundant protein in humans, is a critical step in the initiation and persistence of numerous bacterial infections. In this study, we explore the collagen binding mechanism of the multi-modular cell wall anchored collagen adhesin (CNA) in Staphylococcus aureus and examine how applied mechanical forces can modulate adhesion ability. The common structural-functional elements and domain organization of CNA are present across over 50 genera of bacteria. Through the use of molecular dynamics models and normal mode analysis, we shed light on the CNA’s structural and conformational dynamics and its interactions with collagen that lead to collagen binding. Our results suggest that the linker region, CNA165-173, acts as a hinge exhibiting bending, extensional, and torsional modes of structural flexibility and its residues are key in the interaction of the CNA-collagen complex. Steered molecular dynamics simulations were conducted with umbrella sampling. During the course of these simulations, the ‘locking’ latch from the CNA N2 domain was dissociated from its groove in the CNA N1 domain, implying the importance of the latch for effective ligand binding. Finally, we observed that the binding efficiency of the CNA N1-N2 domains to collagen decreases greatly with increasing tensile force application to the collagen peptides. Thus, CNA and similar adhesins might preferentially bind to sites in which collagen fibers are cleaved, such as in wounded, injured, or inflamed tissues, or in which the collagenous tissue is less mature. As alternative techniques for control of bacterial infection are in-demand due to the rise of bacterial antibiotic resistance, results from our computational studies with respect to the mechanoregulation of the collagen binding site may inspire new therapeutics and engineering solutions by mechanically preventing colonization and/or further pathogenesis. PMID:28665944

  16. PHACOS, a functionalized bacterial polyester with bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Dinjaski, Nina; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Mar; Selvam, Shivaram; Parra-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Lehman, Susan M.; Román, Julio San; García, Ernesto; García, José L.; García, Andrés J.; Prieto, María Auxiliadora

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections represent a significant clinical problem, and treatment of these microbial infections is becoming troublesome due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Here, we report a naturally functionalized bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHACOS) with antibacterial properties. We demonstrate that PHACOS selectively and efficiently inhibits the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) both in vitro and in vivo. This ability has been ascribed to the functionalized side chains containing thioester groups. Significantly less (3.2-fold) biofilm formation of S. aureus was detected on PHACOS compared to biofilms formed on control poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) and poly(ethylene terephthalate), but no differences were observed in bacterial adhesion among these polymers. PHACOS elicited minimal cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on murine macrophages and supported normal fibroblast adhesion. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrated minimal inflammation and excellent antibacterial activity for PHACOS compared to controls in an in vivo model of implant-associated infection. Additionally, reductions in neutrophils and macrophages in the vicinity of sterile PHACOS compared to sterile PHO implant were observed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, a similar percentage of inflammatory cells was found in the tissue surrounding sterile PHACOS and S. aureus pre-colonized PHACOS implants, and these levels were significantly lower than S. aureus pre-colonized control polymers. These findings support a contact active surface mode of antibacterial action for PHACOS and establish this functionalized polyhydroxyalkanoate as an infection-resistant biomaterial. PMID:24094939

  17. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and Analysis of Associated Bacterial Communities on Food Industry Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products. PMID:23023749

  18. Distribution of bacterial contamination in a teaching hospital in Tehran - a special focus on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mirzaii, Mehdi; Emaneini, Mohammad; Maleknejad, Parviz; Jonaidi, Nematollah; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Aligholi, Marzieh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Halimi, Shahnaz; Taherikalani, Morovat; Kasaeian, Amir

    2012-03-01

    There are documents that confirm the cycle of bacterial transmission between patients, staff, and the inanimate environment. The environment may have more effect on intensive care units (ICUs), because the patients who require intensive care have unstable clinical conditions and are more sensitive to infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteria in air and inanimate surface in the ICUs and to compare the microbial levels to standard levels.Air and inanimate surface in the four ICUs of a teaching hospital underwent weekly surveillance by means of air sampler and swabs for a period of six-month. Total bacterial counts were evaluated onto trypticase soy agar and mannitol salt agar (MSA).A total of 725 samples [air (168) and inanimate surfaces (557)] were collected. The total mean ± SD CFU/m3 of airborne bacteria in all of the ICUs were 115.93 ± 48.04. The most common bacteria in air of the ICUs were Gram-positive cocci (84.2%). The total mean ± SD airborne of Staphylococcus aureus was 12.10±8.11 CFU/m3. The highest levels of S. aureus contamination were found in ventilators and bed ledges. More suitable disinfection of hospital environments and monthly rotation in utilization of the various disinfectant agents are needed for the prevention of airborne and inanimate transmission of S. aureus.

  19. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and analysis of associated bacterial communities on food industry surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J; García, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products.

  20. Transcription of thymic stromal lymphopoietin via Toll-like receptor 2 in canine keratinocytes: a possible association of Staphylococcus spp. in the deterioration of allergic inflammation in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mayu; Asahina, Ryota; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Maeda, Sadatoshi

    2016-06-01

    Colonization, overgrowth and subsequent infection by Staphylococcus spp. is frequently observed in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD), where it contributes to the intensity of cutaneous inflammation. The mechanisms by which staphylococci contribute to the pathogenesis of CAD are unclear. Studies suggest that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine induced by a cell wall component of Staphylococcus spp., may play a critical role in Th2 responses including the pathogenesis of CAD. To determine if synthetic triacylated lipopeptide (TLR1/2 ligand), a cell wall component of Staphylococcus spp., induces the transcription of TSLP via TLR2 in canine keratinocytes. Transcription of TSLP was quantified in a canine keratinocyte cell line after stimulation with synthetic triacylated lipopeptide, and again after inhibition of TLR2 by a targeted small interfering RNA. The transcription of TSLP was enhanced 6 h after stimulation with the synthetic triacylated lipopeptide; it was completely suppressed by knockdown of TLR2. The results demonstrated that a synthetic cell wall component of Staphylococcus spp. induced transcription of TSLP via TLR2 in canine keratinocytes. Additional studies will be required to investigate whether Staphylococcus spp. contributes to Th2 responses in CAD through TLR2-mediated TSLP production. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Zosteriform Staphylococcus aureus Cutaneous Infection: Report of Two Patients With Dermatomal Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Schepp, Elizabeth D; Cohen, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe cutaneous infections, which are zosteriform in distribution, including two patients with dermatomal Staphylococcus aureus infection. Herpes zoster infectious lesions usually occur in a dermatomal distribution. Other viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, can also appear with zosteriform lesions and closely mimic the clinical presentation of herpes zoster. Additionally, other skin infections, less commonly, are zosteriform. Two patients who developed zosteriform S aureus skin infection are described. A medical literature search for zosteriform dermatomal infections yielded other cutaneous infections with a zosteriform presentation. Two patients had S aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus infection with skin lesions occupying the T11-T12 dermatomes and the T4 dermatome, respectively. They responded to antibacterial agents and adjuvant therapy. Patients with viral, fungal, and spirochete zosteriform infections are summarized. In addition to varicella-zoster virus infection, zosteriform skin infection can occur with viral (varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus), superficial (dermatophyte), and deep (phaeohyphomycosis and zygomycosis) fungal, and bacterial (S aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus) infections. These infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a zosteriform infection that does not present with the classic clinical picture for herpes zoster or that does not respond to standard treatments for varicellazoster virus.

  2. The Effect of Iatrogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis Intercellar Adhesion Operon on the Formation of Bacterial Biofilm on Polyvinyl Chloride Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yunchao, Huang; Guangqiang, Zhao; Kun, Yang; Xing, Liu; Fengli, Guo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The intercellular adhesion gene (ica) of Staphylococcus epidermidis is a key factor for bacterial aggregation. This study explored the effect of ica on the formation of bacterial biofilm on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces. Methods: Genes related to bacterial biofilm formation, including 16S rRNA, autolysin (atlE), fibrinogen binding protein gene (fbe), and ica were identified and sequenced from 112 clinical isolates of iatrogenic S. epidermidis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Based on the sequencing result, ica operon-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) and ica operon-negative (icaADB−/atlE+/fbe+) strains were separated and co-cultivated with PVC material. After 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h of co-culture, the thickness of the bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on the PVC surface were measured under the confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope. Results: The positive rate of S. epidermidis-specific 16SrRNA in 112 iatrogenic strains was 100% (112/112). The genotype of ica-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 57.1% (64/112), and genotype of ica-negative (icaADB−/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 37.5% (42/112). During 30 h of co-culture, no obvious bacterial biofilm formed on the surface of PVC in the ica-positive group, however, mature bacterial biofilm structure formed after 24 h. For all time points, thickness of bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on PVC surfaces in the ica operon-positive group were significantly higher than those in ica operon-negative group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Iatrogenic S. epidermidis can be categorized into ica operon-negative and ica operon-positive strains. The ica operon plays an important role in bacterial biofilm formation and bacterial multiplication on PVC material. PMID:25402758

  3. The effect of iatrogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis intercellar adhesion operon on the formation of bacterial biofilm on polyvinyl chloride surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lianhua, Ye; Yunchao, Huang; Guangqiang, Zhao; Kun, Yang; Xing, Liu; Fengli, Guo

    2014-12-01

    The intercellular adhesion gene (ica) of Staphylococcus epidermidis is a key factor for bacterial aggregation. This study explored the effect of ica on the formation of bacterial biofilm on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces. Genes related to bacterial biofilm formation, including 16S rRNA, autolysin (atlE), fibrinogen binding protein gene (fbe), and ica were identified and sequenced from 112 clinical isolates of iatrogenic S. epidermidis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Based on the sequencing result, ica operon-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) and ica operon-negative (icaADB-/atlE+/fbe+) strains were separated and co-cultivated with PVC material. After 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h of co-culture, the thickness of the bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on the PVC surface were measured under the confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope. The positive rate of S. epidermidis-specific 16SrRNA in 112 iatrogenic strains was 100% (112/112). The genotype of ica-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 57.1% (64/112), and genotype of ica-negative (icaADB-/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 37.5% (42/112). During 30 h of co-culture, no obvious bacterial biofilm formed on the surface of PVC in the ica-positive group, however, mature bacterial biofilm structure formed after 24 h. For all time points, thickness of bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on PVC surfaces in the ica operon-positive group were significantly higher than those in ica operon-negative group (p<0.01). Iatrogenic S. epidermidis can be categorized into ica operon-negative and ica operon-positive strains. The ica operon plays an important role in bacterial biofilm formation and bacterial multiplication on PVC material.

  4. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress.

    PubMed

    Surdel, Matthew C; Dutter, Brendan F; Sulikowski, Gary A; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within the vertebrate host, S. aureus requires heme as a nutrient iron source and as a cofactor for multiple cellular processes. Although required for pathogenesis, excess heme is toxic. S. aureus employs a two-component system, the heme sensor system (HssRS), to sense and protect against heme toxicity. Upon activation, HssRS induces the expression of the heme-regulated transporter (HrtAB), an efflux pump that alleviates heme toxicity. The ability to sense and respond to heme is critical for the pathogenesis of numerous Gram-positive organisms, yet the mechanism of heme sensing remains unknown. Compound '3981 was identified in a high-throughput screen as an activator of staphylococcal HssRS that triggers HssRS independently of heme accumulation. '3981 is toxic to S. aureus; however, derivatives of '3981 were synthesized that lack toxicity while retaining HssRS activation, enabling the interrogation of the heme stress response without confounding toxic effects of the parent molecule. Using '3981 derivatives as probes of the heme stress response, numerous genes required for '3981-induced activation of HssRS were uncovered. Specifically, multiple genes involved in the production of nitric oxide were identified, including the gene encoding bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). bNOS protects S. aureus from oxidative stress imposed by heme. Taken together, this work identifies bNOS as crucial for the S. aureus heme stress response, providing evidence that nitric oxide synthesis and heme sensing are intertwined.

  5. Porcine models of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Staphylococcus aureus: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Johanna G; Jensen, Henrik E; Johansen, Louise K; Kochl, Janne; Koch, Jørgen; Aalbaek, Bent; Nielsen, Ole L; Leifsson, Páll S

    2013-05-01

    Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and, in particular, infective endocarditis (IE), are serious and potentially life-threatening diseases. An increasingly important agent of human IE is Staphylococcus aureus, which typically causes an acute endocarditis with high mortality. The study aim was to evaluate the pig as a model for non-bacterial as well as S. aureus-associated endocarditis, as these models would have several advantages compared to other laboratory animal models. Fourteen animals underwent surgery with placement of a plastic catheter in the left side of the heart. Six of the pigs did not receive a bacterial inoculation and were used to study the development of NBTE. The remaining eight pigs were inoculated intravenously once or twice with S. aureus, 10(5)-10(7) cfu/kg body weight. Two bacterial strains were used: S54F9 (porcine) and NCTC8325-4 (human). Clinical examination, echocardiography and bacterial blood cultures were used to diagnose and monitor the development of endocarditis. Animals were euthanized at between two and 15 days after catheter placement, and tissue samples were collected for bacteriology and histopathology. Pigs inoculated with 10(7) cfu/kg of S. aureus strain S54F9 developed clinical, echocardiographic and pathologic signs of IE. All other pigs, except one, developed NBTE. Serial blood cultures withdrawn after inoculation were positive in animals with IE, and negative in all other animals. S. aureus endocarditis was successfully induced in pigs with an indwelling cardiac catheter after intravenous inoculation of 10(7) cfu/kg of S. aureus strain S54F9. The model simulates typical pathological, clinical and diagnostic features seen in the human disease. Furthermore, NBTE was induced in all but one of the pigs without IE. Thus, the pig model can be used in future studies of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of NBTE and S. aureus endocarditis.

  6. Effects of easy-to-perform procedures to reduce bacterial colonization with Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus on toothbrushes

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Annina; Schneider, Katja; Schlösser, Karolin; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F.; Frickmann, Hagen; Groß, Uwe; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that dental caries and periodontitis are the consequence of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the enamel surface. The continuous presence of bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface results in demineralization of the tooth enamel and induces an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding gums (gingivitis). The retention and survival of microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination especially for certain patients at risk for systemic infections originating from the oral cavity, e.g., after T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation. Thus, the effects of different decolonization schemes on bacterial colonization of toothbrushes were analyzed, in order to demonstrate their applicability to reduce the likelihood of (auto-)reinfections. Toothbrushes were intentionally contaminated with standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans or Staphylococcus aureus. Afterwards, the toothbrushes were exposed to rinsing under distilled water, rinsing and drying for 24 h, 0.2% chlorhexidine-based decolonization, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The remaining colony forming units were compared with freshly contaminated positive controls. Each experiment was nine-fold repeated. Bi-factorial variance analysis was performed; significance was accepted at P < 0.05. All tested procedures led to a significant reduction of bacteral colonization irrespective of the toothbrush model, the brush head type, or the acitivity state. Chlorhexidine-based decolonization was shown to be superior to rinsing and slightly superior to rinsing and drying for 24 h, while UV radiation was similarly effective as chlorhexidine. UV radiation was slightly less prone to species-dependent limitations of its decolonizing effects by bristle thickness of toothbrushes than chlorhexidin. Reduction of bacterial colonization of toothbrushes might reduce the risk of maintaining bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Accordingly, respective procedures are

  7. Staphylococcus aureus phenotype switching: an effective bacterial strategy to escape host immune response and establish a chronic infection

    PubMed Central

    Tuchscherr, Lorena; Medina, Eva; Hussain, Muzaffar; Völker, Wolfgang; Heitmann, Vanessa; Niemann, Silke; Holzinger, Dirk; Roth, Johannes; Proctor, Richard A; Becker, Karsten; Peters, Georg; Löffler, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause for serious, chronic and therapy-refractive infections in spite of susceptibility to antibiotics in vitro. In chronic infections, altered bacterial phenotypes, such as small colony variants (SCVs), have been found. Yet, it is largely unclear whether the ability to interconvert from the wild-type to the SCV phenotype is only a rare clinical and/or just laboratory phenomenon or is essential to sustain an infection. Here, we performed different long-term in vitro and in vivo infection models with S. aureus and we show that viable bacteria can persist within host cells and/or tissues for several weeks. Persistence induced bacterial phenotypic diversity, including SCV phenotypes, accompanied by changes in virulence factor expression and auxotrophism. However, the recovered SCV phenotypes were highly dynamic and rapidly reverted to the fully virulent wild-type form when leaving the intracellular location and infecting new cells. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial phenotype switching is an integral part of the infection process that enables the bacteria to hide inside host cells, which can be a reservoir for chronic and therapy-refractive infections. PMID:21268281

  8. Bacterial recovery using sonication versus swabbing of titanium and stainless steel implants inoculated with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Keeshen, Thomas; Case, J Brad; Wellehan, James F; Dujowich, Mauricio

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the use of sonication to improve recovery of bacteria from metal discs infected with bacteria commonly associated with implant infections in veterinary medicine. In vitro study in which sterile titanium (Ti6Al4V) and stainless steel (AIS1316-L) discs were incubated with either Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 24 hours. The following three groups were compared: 1) the sonication group involved immersing the discs in sterile saline and sonicating for five minutes; 2) the sham group was considered a negative control in which the discs were immersed in saline for five minutes without sonication; and 3) the swab group involved systematically swabbing the implant with a sterile culturette. All samples were plated on blood agar and incubated for 24 hours. Colonies were then counted and compared. For both species of bacteria, there was a significant increase in bacterial colonies isolated using sonication compared to the other two study groups (p = 0.0001). No differences in bacterial growth were found between the two types of metal implants. There was a significant increase in bacterial colony counts for S. pseudintermedius when comparing the swab group versus the sham group, but this was not significant for P. aeruginosa. Sonication significantly improves recovery of bacteria commonly associated with veterinary implant-associated surgical site infections compared to swabbing of implants in vitro. A prospective clinical evaluation is indicated to determine the in vivo efficacy of sonication in veterinary patients.

  9. Efficacy of (+)-Lariciresinol to Control Bacterial Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Vivek K.; Shukla, Shruti; Paek, Woon K.; Lim, Jeongheui; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Pankaj; Na, MinKyun

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the antibacterial potential of a polyphenolic compound (+)-lariciresinol isolated from Rubia philippinensis against selected foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1621 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. (+)-Lariciresinol at the tested concentrations (250 μg/disk) evoked a significant antibacterial effect as a diameter of inhibition zones (12.1–14.9 mm) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 125–250 and 125–250 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, (+)-lariciresinol at MIC showed reduction in bacterial cell viabilities, efflux of potassium (K+) ions and release of 260 nm materials against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus KCTC1621. Moreover, deteriorated cell wall morphology of E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus KCTC1621 cells treated with (+)-lariciresinol at MIC further confirmed its inhibitory effect against the tested pathogens, suggesting it to be an alternative means of antimicrobials. PMID:28515721

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Tissue Infection During Sepsis Is Supported by Differential Use of Bacterial or Host-Derived Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Francis

    2016-01-01

    To thrive in diverse environments, bacteria must shift their metabolic output in response to nutrient bioavailability. In many bacterial species, such changes in metabolic flux depend upon lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of enzyme complexes involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, glycine catabolism, and branched chain fatty acid biosynthesis. The requirement of lipoic acid for metabolic enzyme activity necessitates that bacteria synthesize the cofactor and/or scavenge it from environmental sources. Although use of lipoic acid is a conserved phenomenon, the mechanisms behind its biosynthesis and salvage can differ considerably between bacterial species. Furthermore, low levels of circulating free lipoic acid in mammals underscore the importance of lipoic acid acquisition for pathogenic microbes during infection. In this study, we used a genetic approach to characterize the mechanisms of lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage in the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and evaluated the requirements for both pathways during murine sepsis. We determined that S. aureus lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage genes exist in an arrangement that directly links redox stress response and acetate biosynthesis genes. In addition, we found that lipoic acid salvage is dictated by two ligases that facilitate growth and lipoylation in distinct environmental conditions in vitro, but that are fully compensatory for survival in vivo. Upon infection of mice, we found that de novo biosynthesis or salvage promotes S. aureus survival in a manner that depends upon the infectious site. In addition, when both lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage are blocked S. aureus is rendered avirulent, implying an inability to induce lipoic acid-independent metabolic programs to promote survival. Together, our results define the major pathways of lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage in S. aureus and support the notion that bacterial nutrient acquisition schemes are instrumental

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Tissue Infection During Sepsis Is Supported by Differential Use of Bacterial or Host-Derived Lipoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zorzoli, Azul; Grayczyk, James P; Alonzo, Francis

    2016-10-01

    To thrive in diverse environments, bacteria must shift their metabolic output in response to nutrient bioavailability. In many bacterial species, such changes in metabolic flux depend upon lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of enzyme complexes involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, glycine catabolism, and branched chain fatty acid biosynthesis. The requirement of lipoic acid for metabolic enzyme activity necessitates that bacteria synthesize the cofactor and/or scavenge it from environmental sources. Although use of lipoic acid is a conserved phenomenon, the mechanisms behind its biosynthesis and salvage can differ considerably between bacterial species. Furthermore, low levels of circulating free lipoic acid in mammals underscore the importance of lipoic acid acquisition for pathogenic microbes during infection. In this study, we used a genetic approach to characterize the mechanisms of lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage in the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and evaluated the requirements for both pathways during murine sepsis. We determined that S. aureus lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage genes exist in an arrangement that directly links redox stress response and acetate biosynthesis genes. In addition, we found that lipoic acid salvage is dictated by two ligases that facilitate growth and lipoylation in distinct environmental conditions in vitro, but that are fully compensatory for survival in vivo. Upon infection of mice, we found that de novo biosynthesis or salvage promotes S. aureus survival in a manner that depends upon the infectious site. In addition, when both lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage are blocked S. aureus is rendered avirulent, implying an inability to induce lipoic acid-independent metabolic programs to promote survival. Together, our results define the major pathways of lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage in S. aureus and support the notion that bacterial nutrient acquisition schemes are instrumental

  12. Wavelength and bacterial density influence the bactericidal effect of blue light on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Bumah, Violet V; Masson-Meyers, Daniela S; Cashin, Susan E; Enwemeka, Chukuka S

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wavelength and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) density on the bactericidal effect of 405 and 470 nm light. It is recognized that 405 and 470 nm light-emitting diode (LED) light kill MRSA in standard 5 × 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL cultures; however, the effect of bacterial density on the bactericidal effect of each wavelength is not known. In three experiments, we cultured and plated US300 MRSA at four densities. Then, we irradiated each plate once with either wavelength at 0, 1, 3, 45, 50, 55, 60, and 220 J/cm(2). Irradiation with either wavelength reduced bacterial colonies at each density (p<0.05). More bacteria were cleared as density increased; however, the proportion of colonies cleared, inversely decreased as density increased--the maximum being 100%, 96%, and 78% for 3 × 10(6), 5 × 10(6), and 7 × 10(6) CFU/mL cultures, respectively. Both wavelengths had similar effects on the sparser 3 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(6) CFU/mL cultures, but in the denser 7 × 10(6) CFU/mL culture, 405 nm light cleared more bacteria at each fluence (p<0.001). To determine the effect of beam penetration, denser 8 × 10(6) and 12 × 10(6) CFU/mL culture plates were irradiated either from the top, the bottom, or both directions. More colonies were eradicated from plates irradiated from top and bottom, than from plates irradiated from top or bottom at the same sum total fluences (p<0.001). The bactericidal effect of LED blue light is limited more by light penetration of bacterial layers than by bacterial density per se.

  13. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... at least once. We get contact dermatitis when something that our skin touches causes a rash. Some ... This type is more common. It develops when something irritates the skin. With enough contact, most things ...

  14. Perioral dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may occur after using face creams containing steroids for another condition. Young women are most likely ... Periorificial dermatitis may be brought on by: Topical steroids, either when they are applied to the face ...

  15. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Ulleryd, Marcus A.; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics, S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus. Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival. PMID:26857576

  16. NorB, an Efflux Pump in Staphylococcus aureus Strain MW2, Contributes to Bacterial Fitness in Abscesses▿

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yanpeng; Onodera, Yoshikuni; Lee, Jean C.; Hooper, David C.

    2008-01-01

    While remaining a major problem in hospitals, Staphylococcus aureus is now spreading in communities. Strain MW2 (USA400 lineage) and other community methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains most commonly cause skin infections with abscess formation. Multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps contribute to antimicrobial resistance but may also contribute to bacterial survival by removal of environmental toxins. In S. aureus, NorA, NorB, NorC, and Tet38 are chromosomally encoded efflux pumps whose overexpression can confer MDR to quinolones and other compounds (Nor pumps) or tetracyclines alone (Tet38), but the natural substrates of these pumps are not known. To determine the role of these efflux pumps in a natural environment in the absence of antibiotics, we used strain MW2 in a mouse subcutaneous abscess model and compared pump gene expression as determined by reverse transcription-PCR in the abscesses and in vitro. norB and tet38 were selectively upregulated in vivo more than 171- and 24-fold, respectively, whereas norA and norC were downregulated. These changes were associated with an increase in expression of mgrA, which encodes a transcriptional regulator known to affect pump gene expression. In competition experiments using equal inocula of a norB or tet38 mutant and parent strain MW2, each mutant exhibited growth defects of about two- to threefold in vivo. In complementation experiments, a single-copy insertion of norB (but not a single-copy insertion of tet38) in the attB site within geh restored the growth fitness of the norB mutant in vivo. Our findings indicate that some MDR pumps, like NorB, can facilitate bacterial survival when they are overexpressed in a staphylococcal abscess and may contribute to the relative resistance of abscesses to antimicrobial therapy, thus linking bacterial fitness and resistance in vivo. PMID:18723624

  17. Shoe dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S

    1997-05-01

    Chronic foot dermatitis can be disabling and footwear allergy is not always excluded as a cause, partly because patch testing to shoes and their components can be daunting. Once the diagnosis of shoe allergy is made, the difficult problem of finding suitable footwear remains. There is a lack of literature regarding the follow-up of these patients. We analysed the data on 55 patients with allergic contact dermatitis from their shoes and followed them up to see whether knowledge of the allergen had enabled them to find suitable footwear and to improve their dermatitis. The files of 55 patients with shoe allergy were analysed and 48 were followed up. Rubber was the commonest allergen, followed by chromate, p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin and colophony. All parts of the feet were affected, except the interdigital areas. The majority of patients suffered from hyperhidrosis. 43% were atopics, who had a super-added shoe allergy. The mean duration of the foot dermatitis before patch testing was 4 years 8 months. Follow-up of 48 cases showed that 87.5% had either improved or resolved completely. Most of our patients were successful in finding suitable footwear and many differing strategies were used. All patients with foot dermatitis which does not respond to treatment should be patch tested to exclude shoe allergy.

  18. Ceftaroline Fosamil for the Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Secondary to Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections or Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Jose A; Maggiore, Christy R; Cole, Phillip; Smith, Alexander; Jandourek, Alena; Friedland, H David

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Assessment Program and Teflaro® Utilization Registry is designed to collect information on the clinical use of ceftaroline fosamil in the Unites States. This report presents data on the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) secondary to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Patients diagnosed with ABSSSI or CABP were identified through sequential review of randomly ordered charts generated from pharmacy listings from August 2011 to February 2013. Data were collected by chart review 30 days or more after completion of ceftaroline fosamil therapy. Secondary SAB was reported in a total of 48 of 1428 evaluable patients (27 with ABSSSI, 21 with CABP). The mean (SD) patient age was 61 (15) years. At least 1 comorbidity was recorded for 74% of patients with ABSSSI and 81% with CABP. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was isolated from 59% of patients with ABSSSI and 76% with CABP. The mean (SD) duration of ceftaroline fosamil therapy was 5.8 (4.8) days for ABSSSI and 7.0 (3.8) days for CABP. Clinical success among all patients with SAB treated with ceftaroline fosamil was 58% (52% for SAB secondary to ABSSSI, 67% for SAB secondary to CABP). Clinical success rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus SAB were 50% (8/16) for ABSSSI and 63% (10/16) for CABP. This study supports the use of ceftaroline fosamil as a viable treatment option in hospitalized patients with SAB secondary to ABSSSI or CABP. Further studies evaluating the use of ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of SAB are warranted.

  19. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant bacterial burn infection in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Bingjie; Gao, Yiru; Li, Min; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Quanhong; Xu, Chuanshan; Wang, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Antibiotic resistance has emerged as one of the most important determinants of outcome in patients with serious infections, along with the virulence of the underlying pathogen. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) has been proposed as an alternative approach for the inactivation of bacteria. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect of sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS)-mediated PACT on Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods Bacteria were incubated with DVDMS and exposed to treatment with light. After PACT treatment, colony-forming units were counted to estimate the bactericidal effect. Intracellular reactive oxygen-species production was detected by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry and fluorescence-microscopy detection of bacterial cell-membrane permeability. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine expression of VEGF, TGFβ1, TNFα, IL6, and bFGF factors in burn infection. Results DVDMS-PACT effectively killed bacterial proliferation. Intracellular ROS levels were enhanced obviously in the PACT-treatment group. SYTO 9 and propidium iodide staining showed a decrease in the ratio of green:red fluorescence intensity in the PACT-treatment group in comparison to the control group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay results revealed that in the healing process, the expression of bFGF, TGFβ1, and VEGF in the treatment group were higher than in the control group, which inhibited inflammation-factor secretion. In addition, skin-tissue bacteria were reduced after treatment. Conclusion These results indicate that DVDMS-PACT presents significant bactericidal activity and promotes wound healing after burn infections. PMID:28860757

  20. Role of Rot in bacterial autolysis regulation of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xinmin; Xia, Rui; He, Nianan; Fang, Yuting

    2013-09-01

    Autolysis is an important process in cell wall turnover in Staphylococcus aureus, performed by several peptidoglycan hydrolases or so-called autolysins and controlled by many regulators. Rot is a global regulator that regulates numerous virulence genes, including genes encoding lipase, hemolysins, proteases and genes related to cell surface adhesion. The aim of our study was to determine whether Rot has the ability to regulate autolysis. We compared Triton-X-100-induced autolysis of S. aureus NCTC8325 and its rot knock-out mutant. We found that the rot mutant showed increased autolysis rates. By examining the transcript level of several autolysins and some known regulators responsible for regulating autolysis using real-time RT-PCR assays, we found that transcription of two autolysins (lytM, lytN) and one regulatory operon (lrgAB) was changed in the rot mutant. An in vitro approach was undertaken to determine which of these genes are directly controlled by Rot. Rot proteins were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Gel mobility shift DNA binding assays were used and showed that in-vitro-purified Rot can directly bind to the promoter region of lytM, lytN, lrgA and lytS. We also tested biofilm formation of the rot mutant, and it showed enhancement in biofilm formation. Taken together, our results reveal that Rot affects autolysis by directly regulating autolysins LytM and LytN, and, via a regulatory system, LrgAB. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cheyletiella dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Powell, R F; Palmer, S M; Palmer, C H; Smith, E B

    1977-10-01

    A mild dermatitis probably due to Cheyletiella yasguri was observed in 2 persons whose pet dog was infested with this parasite. Cheyletiella mites differ morphologically from sarcoptic mites, which cause canine and human scabies. Treatment of man and dog with 1% gamma benzene hexachloride is usually successful in clearing this condition.

  2. Seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Naldi, Luigi

    2010-12-07

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 10% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation by still poorly defined mechanisms. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and body in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bifonazole, emollients, ketoconazole, lithium succinate, selenium sulphide, tar shampoo, terbinafine, and topical corticosteroids (betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, hydrocortisone, mometasone furoate).

  3. Seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Ana Luisa Sobral Bittencourt; Mameri, Angela Cristina Akel; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Nunes, Amanda Pedreira; Carneiro, Sueli Coelho da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing erythematous scaly skin disease, the prevalence of which is around 1 to 3% of the general population in the United States. It has two incidence peaks, the first in the first three months of life and the second beginning at puberty and reaching its apex at 40 to 60 years of age. The prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis is higher in HIV-positive individuals and the condition tends to be more intense and refractory to treatment in these patients. Neurological disorders and other chronic diseases are also associated with the onset of seborrheic dermatitis. The currently accepted theory on the pathogenesis of this disease advocates that yeast of Malassezia spp., present on the skin surface of susceptible individuals, leads to a non-immunogenic irritation due to the production of unsaturated fatty acids deposited on the skin surface. This article provides a review of the literature on seborrheic dermatitis, focusing on immunogenetics, the clinical forms of the disease and its treatment.

  4. [Compositae dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Marina; Poljacki, Mirjana

    2003-01-01

    Compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the Compositae family. The first report of a cutaneous reaction to the Chrysanthemum genus was made by Howe JS in 1887. In 1895 Maiden JH reported about skin lesions among men working with Tagetes minuta. Case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the American literature as early as 1919. The North American feverfew--Parthenium Hysterophorus was brought to India from America in 1956 and it caused thousands of cases of so-called parthenium dermatitis. Ragweed and parthenium dermatitis became prototypes for the classic, so-called "airborne" Compositae dermatitis, that affects primarily exposed skin surfaces, and produces a universal erythroderma. The frequency of contact allergy to Compositae in Europe is higher than previously believed. It occurs most frequently in middle-aged and elderly persons, but also in all age groups. During the two past decades a more equal sex ratio has been established. The prevalence varies from 0.7-1.4% in the general population, up to 4.5% among occupationally exposed persons. Compositae allergy is among the top ten contact sensitivities in Europe. In North Europe plants were the cause of 4.4% cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS: Among cultivated Compositae plants, Chrysanthemum is considered to be a major sensitizer in Europe (60%). Among the edible types, it is lettuce--Lactuca sativa and endive Cichorium endivia (20-30%), and wild-growing feverfew--Tanace--tum parthenium (70-90%), tansy--Tanacetum vulgare (54%), and dandelion--Taraxacum officinale (65%). Sesquiterpene lactones are the main sensitizers of the Compositae family. Other components, thiophenes and acetylenes are said to elicit only phytophotodermatitis, but recent studies have demonstrated that some thiophenes and benzofuran derivates possess not only phototoxic activity, but also sensitizing properties. Photosensitivity is

  5. [Seborrheic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Aschoff, R; Kempter, W; Meurer, M

    2011-04-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a frequent skin disorder in infancy and adulthood. It also often occurs in patients with HIV or neurologic disorders like Parkinson disease or mood disorders. It is characterized by greasy, yellow flakes or scales in areas of high sebaceous gland activity like the scalp, face, chest and upper back. Additionally, erythema and itching can be present. The etiology and pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown; however, the focus lies on the involvement of Malassezia yeasts or fatty acid metabolites of Malassezia, on hormones and immunologic factors. The diagnosis is usually a clinical one, based on history and the appearance and site of lesions. The therapy consists mainly of antifungal agents, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and keratolytics. Because of the chronicity of the illness with frequent relapses, a treatment strategy in which effectiveness and potential side effects are weighed should be used.

  6. Efflux Transporter of Siderophore Staphyloferrin A in Staphylococcus aureus Contributes to Bacterial Fitness in Abscesses and Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Chen, Chunhui; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Kim, Eu Suk; Wang, Yin; Hooper, David C

    2017-08-01

    The siderophores staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB) of Staphylococcus aureus are essential for iron acquisition in the iron-restricted environment of the host, such as in subcutaneous abscesses. SA and SB are secreted by SfaA and SbnD transporters, respectively. To assess the further function of SfaA and SbnD in S. aureus fitness, we tested its effect on murine abscess models and intracellular replication in epithelial cells. Bacterial fitness in abscesses and in epithelial cells was studied, by comparing the parental strains RN6390 and MW2 and their Δ sfaA and Δ sbnD mutants using competition assays in a murine abscess model and invasion and replication assays with human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. In the murine abscess model using equal inocula of a Δ sfaA or Δ sbnD mutant and the wild-type RN6390 strain, the Δ sfaA mutant exhibited growth defects of 2.2-fold. Additionally, replication of the Δ sfaA mutant within A549 cells was decreased 3.0-fold. In complementation experiments, the Δ sfaA mutant carrying plasmid-borne sfaA restored the growth fitness in abscesses and epithelial cells. The Δ sbnD mutant, in contrast, showed no growth defect in either abscesses or epithelial cells. Our findings demonstrate that the efflux transporter of the siderophore SA contributes to the ability of S. aureus to replicate in abscesses and epithelial cells. Furthermore, fitness of S. aureus in these sites of replication is not compromised by the absence of transporter SbnD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Efflux Transporter of Siderophore Staphyloferrin A in Staphylococcus aureus Contributes to Bacterial Fitness in Abscesses and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Chen, Chunhui; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Wang, Yin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The siderophores staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB) of Staphylococcus aureus are essential for iron acquisition in the iron-restricted environment of the host, such as in subcutaneous abscesses. SA and SB are secreted by SfaA and SbnD transporters, respectively. To assess the further function of SfaA and SbnD in S. aureus fitness, we tested its effect on murine abscess models and intracellular replication in epithelial cells. Bacterial fitness in abscesses and in epithelial cells was studied, by comparing the parental strains RN6390 and MW2 and their ΔsfaA and ΔsbnD mutants using competition assays in a murine abscess model and invasion and replication assays with human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. In the murine abscess model using equal inocula of a ΔsfaA or ΔsbnD mutant and the wild-type RN6390 strain, the ΔsfaA mutant exhibited growth defects of 2.2-fold. Additionally, replication of the ΔsfaA mutant within A549 cells was decreased 3.0-fold. In complementation experiments, the ΔsfaA mutant carrying plasmid-borne sfaA restored the growth fitness in abscesses and epithelial cells. The ΔsbnD mutant, in contrast, showed no growth defect in either abscesses or epithelial cells. Our findings demonstrate that the efflux transporter of the siderophore SA contributes to the ability of S. aureus to replicate in abscesses and epithelial cells. Furthermore, fitness of S. aureus in these sites of replication is not compromised by the absence of transporter SbnD. PMID:28559406

  8. Novel Bacterial Metabolite Merochlorin A Demonstrates in vitro Activity against Multi-Drug Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Sakoulas, George; Nam, Sang-Jip; Loesgen, Sandra; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Nizet, Victor; Hensler, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the in vitro activity of a merochlorin A, a novel compound with a unique carbon skeleton, against a spectrum of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens and against previously characterized clinical and laboratory Staphylococcus aureus isolates with resistance to numerous antibiotics. Methods Merochlorin A was isolated and purified from a marine-derived actinomycete strain CNH189. Susceptibility testing for merochlorin A was performed against previously characterized human pathogens using broth microdilution and agar dilution methods. Cytotoxicity was assayed in tissue culture assays at 24 and 72 hours against human HeLa and mouse sarcoma L929 cell lines. Results The structure of as new antibiotic, merochlorin A, was assigned by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Merochlorin A demonstrated in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Clostridium dificile, but not against Gram negative bacteria. In S. aureus, susceptibility was not affected by ribosomal mutations conferring linezolid resistance, mutations in dlt or mprF conferring resistance to daptomycin, accessory gene regulator knockout mutations, or the development of the vancomycin-intermediate resistant phenotype. Merochlorin A demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against MRSA. Activity was lost in the presence of 20% serum. Conclusions The unique meroterpenoid, merochlorin A demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against S. aureus and C. dificile and did not show cross-resistance to contemporary antibiotics against Gram positive organisms. The activity was, however, markedly reduced in 20% human serum. Future directions for this compound may include evaluation for topical use, coating biomedical devices, or the pursuit of chemically modified derivatives of this compound that retain activity in the presence of serum. PMID:22279537

  9. Pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils and bacterial clearance in mice inoculated with aerosols of Pasteurella haemolytica or Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Burnes, J; López, A; Merino-Moncada, M; Ochoa-Galván, P; Mondragón, I

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages are considered to be the main phagocytic cell of the pulmonary defense mechanism. However recent studies indicate that neutrophils may also participate in the defense against inhaled bacteria. The aim of this investigation was to study in mice the correlation between numbers of phagocytic cells in the bronchoalveolar space and the pulmonary clearance of bacteria. White mice were exposed to aerosols of Pasteurella haemolytica (n = 129) or Staphylococcus aureus (n = 129) in three different experimental replicates. Another group of mice (n = 22) was sham exposed to an aerosol of sterile phosphate buffered solution in a single replicate. Animals were sacrificed at various times postaerosolization. The numbers of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in lung lavages and the pulmonary bacterial clearance rates were determined and statistically analysed. No significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were observed in the rates of pulmonary clearance between the two genera of bacteria, but P. haemolytica had a significant (p less than 0.05) replicate effect. The number of alveolar macrophages was not significantly affected by either bacteria or phosphate buffered solution. Exposure to P. haemolytica resulted in dramatic, significant (p less than 0.01) but transient increases in neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar space as well as a significant (p less than 0.01) increase in the weights of lung. The correlation between neutrophils and clearance was positive for P. haemolytica but negative for S. aureus. These results indicate that both species of bacteria are rapidly eliminated from the lung despite a rather different cellular response. PMID:4041978

  10. Discovery of kibdelomycin, a potent new class of bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor by chemical-genetic profiling in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John W; Goetz, Michael A; Smith, Scott K; Zink, Deborah L; Polishook, Jon; Onishi, Russell; Salowe, Scott; Wiltsie, Judyann; Allocco, John; Sigmund, Janet; Dorso, Karen; Lee, Suzy; Skwish, Stephen; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Martín, Jesús; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Lu, Jun; Painter, Ronald E; Young, Katherine; Overbye, Karen; Donald, Robert G K; Singh, Sheo B

    2011-08-26

    Bacterial resistance to known therapeutics has led to an urgent need for new chemical classes of antibacterial agents. To address this we have applied a Staphylococcus aureus fitness test strategy to natural products screening. Here we report the discovery of kibdelomycin, a novel class of antibiotics produced by a new member of the genus Kibdelosporangium. Kibdelomycin exhibits broad-spectrum, gram-positive antibacterial activity and is a potent inhibitor of DNA synthesis. We demonstrate through chemical genetic fitness test profiling and biochemical enzyme assays that kibdelomycin is a structurally new class of bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor preferentially inhibiting the ATPase activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Kibdelomycin is thus the first truly novel bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor with potent antibacterial activity discovered from natural product sources in more than six decades. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating a commercial PCR assay against bacterial culture for diagnosing Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Steele, N M; Williamson, J H; Thresher, R; Laven, R A; Hillerton, J E

    2017-05-01

    The performance of a commercial, real-time PCR assay was compared with traditional bacterial culture for the identification of Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk collected at different stages of lactation. Initial validation tests using fresh and frozen quarter milk samples identified factors that affected the success of the PCR. Therefore, the standard protocol was adjusted for samples collected at the first milking postpartum (colostrum) and from clinical mastitis cases. The adjustment involved PCR testing both undiluted and diluted (1 in 10 with sterile water) DNA extracts. The performance comparison between culture and the PCR assay used milk samples collected aseptically from individual quarters of mixed-age spring-calving dairy cows, during early, mid, and late lactation. Bacterial culture results were used to select a subset of samples for PCR testing (n = 315) that represented quarters with a current or prior Strep. uberis or Staph. aureus infection. Compared with culture, PCR had a sensitivity of 86.8% and specificity of 87.7% for detecting Strep. uberis (kappa = 0.74) and 96.4% and 99.7%, respectively, for detecting Staph. aureus (kappa = 0.96). The dilution of DNA extracts for colostrum and clinical samples increased the relative sensitivity from 79.2% to 86.8% for Strep. uberis detection and from 92.9% to 96.4% for Staph. aureus, presumably through diluting unidentified PCR inhibitors. The sensitivity for detecting Strep. uberis using PCR, relative to culture, was similar throughout lactation (85-89%), whereas relative specificity was lowest immediately postcalving (64%) but improved in mid and late lactation (98%). Specificity estimates for samples collected in early lactation can be optimized by reducing the cutoff cycle threshold (Ct) value from the recommended value of 37 to 34. Although using this value improved specificity (77%), it reduced test sensitivity (77%). The PCR assay lacked agreement with culture in early

  12. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Thomas; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. It may be associated with pruritus, and it primarily affects sebum-rich areas, such as the scalp, face, upper chest, and back. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, some postulate that the condition results from colonization of the skin of affected individuals with species of the genus Malassezia (formerly, Pityrosporum). A variety of treatment modalities are available, including eradication of the fungus, reducing or treating the inflammatory process, and decreasing sebum production. PMID:20592880

  13. Papulosquamous disorders: atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nickel contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Treadwell, Patricia A

    2011-04-01

    This article has addressed some of the recent discoveries in pathogenesis and treatment options of 4 papulosquamous disorders: atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nickel contact dermatitis.

  14. Skin Ulceration of Eyelids in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Kim David; Tschopp, Markus; Todorova, Margarita G

    2018-03-28

    Superinfection of atopic dermatitis due to a disturbed skin barrier is well known. Still, affected eyelids with ulceration are rarely described. We present a case series of three patients in different stages of upper eyelid superinfection. Three males aged 58, 37, and 52 years with clinical symptomatology of gradual expansion of eyelid ulcerations, crusts, and pus were evaluated. In all cases a standard ophthalmologic examination, including a detailed neuro-ophthalmological status, was performed. Consequently, a skin swab was obtained. The completed neuro-ophthalmological status and posterior segment findings were unremarkable in all patients. The skin swab results confirmed the presence of Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis , and Staphylococcus aureus , thus necessitating antibiotic therapy. Superinfected atopic dermatitis can develop massive ulcerations, indicating a swap and empiric therapy. A complete neuro-ophthalmological status is mandatory to exclude the possibility of orbital involvement. Nevertheless, any paradoxical worsening of symptomatology indicates further referral to a dermatologist. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Undetectable bacterial resistance to phage lytic proteins from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increase in antibiotic resistance world-wide revitalized the interest in the use of phage lysins to combat pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we tested for the emergence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus to any of three phage lytic proteins constructs. The investigated cell wall lytic enzymes w...

  16. Seborrheic Dermatitis Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... widespread seborrheic dermatitis, as shown here. Adults and adolescents Seborrheic dermatitis causes: Scaly patches on the skin. ... conditions requires a different treatment plan. Adults and adolescents: Scalp On the scalp, many people can get ...

  17. Blister beetle dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Narasimhalu, C R V; Murali, A; Kannan, R; Srinivasan, N

    2010-11-01

    Blister beetle dermatitis or paederus dermatitis is an irritant contact dermatitis due to accidental crush of insects belonging to paederus family on the skin. The characteristic features of blister beetle dermatitis are linear erythematous itchy vesicles over the exposed parts of body and kissing lesions. This condition is commonly seen during or after rainy season. The treatment is removal of irritant by gentle washing and topical steroids. It is often misdiagnosed and causes significant morbidity among the rural population.

  18. Dermatitis artefacta?

    PubMed

    Conde-Salazar, Luis; Valks, Ruud; Pastor, María Antonia; Gatica, María Elena; Núñez, Rodrigo; Perez Tato, Berta; Iglesias, Clara; Cuevas, Manuela

    2003-06-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of intensely pruritic excoriated and crusted linear lesions on the dorsa of the left hand and left forearm (Fig 1). The patient had worked in construction for 2 years, and his job consisted mainly in covering the facades of buildings with cement. The patient was right-handed and used a black rubber glove as a protective measure only on his left hand (Fig 2). He reported that the lesions resolved partially during holidays and weekends and clearly flared in association with his work. There was no history of atopic dermatitis, drug use, or intolerance to metals, rubber, or fruits. On physical examination, linear excoriations with crusts were observed on the dorsa of the left hand, extending to the ventral and dorsal aspects of the forearm, involving the whole area that was in contact with the glove. Lichenified erythematous plaques and excoriations on the dorsal surface of the metacarpophalangeal joints and scaly lesions on the dorsal surfaces of the fingers were also present. On the palm, only discrete hyperkeratosis was seen. The right hand and forearm were free of lesions. He complained of intense pruritus when wearing the rubber glove and admitted to continuous scratching to relieve his discomfort, inducing the linear and excoriated lesions. Treatment with topical corticosteroids was initiated, with progressive resolution of the lesions.

  19. Comparison of two methods of bacterial DNA extraction from human fecal samples contaminated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Jun; Kurosaki, Morito; Kawakami, Yuta; Kashimoto, Takashi; Tsunomori, Yoshie; Sato, Koji; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Watahiki, Masanori; Shima, Tomoko; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Etoh, Yoshiki; Horikawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoichi; Shirabe, Komei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 2 methods of DNA extraction were evaluated for use in conjunction with the screening system Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 (RFBS24), which employs multiplex real-time SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction (SG-PCR) and can simultaneously detect 24 target genes of foodborne pathogens in fecal DNA samples. The QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit (Qkit) and Ultra Clean Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (Ukit) were used for bacterial DNA extraction from fecal samples artificially inoculated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni. SG-PCR and simplex real-time quantitative PCR (S-qPCR) analyses revealed higher copy numbers (8-234 times) of DNA in samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit, resulting in lower cycle threshold values for the Ukit samples of the 4 bacteria on SG-PCR analysis. Fecal DNA samples from patients infected during foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella and Campylobacter were also prepared by Qkit and Ukit methods and subjected to RFBS24 analyses. Higher numbers of RFBS24 bacterial target genes were detected in DNA samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit. Thus, the higher DNA extraction efficiency of the Ukit method compared with Qkit renders the former more useful in achieving improved detection rates of these 4 bacteria in fecal samples using SG-PCR.

  20. Direct analysis of bacterial viability in endotracheal tube biofilm from a pig model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia following antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Barat, Laia; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Ferrer, Miquel; Bosch, Anna; Calvo, Maria; Vila, Jordi; Gabarrús, Albert; Martínez-Olondris, Pilar; Rigol, Montse; Esperatti, Mariano; Luque, Néstor; Torres, Antoni

    2012-07-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) helps to observe the biofilms formed in the endotracheal tube (ETT) of ventilated subjects and to determine its structure and bacterial viability using specific dyes. We compared the effect of three different treatments (placebo, linezolid, and vancomycin) on the bacterial biofilm viability captured by CLSM. Eight pigs with pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were ventilated up to 96 h and treated with linezolid, vancomycin, or placebo (controls). ETT images were microscopically examined after staining with the live/dead(®) BacLight(™) Kit (Invitrogen, Barcelona, Spain) with a confocal laser scanning microscope. We analyzed 127 images obtained by CLSM. The median ratio of live/dead bacteria was 0.51, 0.74, and 1 for the linezolid, vancomycin, and control groups, respectively (P = 0.002 for the three groups); this ratio was significantly lower for the linezolid group, compared with the control group (P = 0.001). Images showed bacterial biofilm attached and non-attached to the ETT surface but growing within secretions accumulated inside ETT. Systemic treatment with linezolid is associated with a higher proportion of dead bacteria in the ETT biofilm of animals with MRSA pneumonia. Biofilm clusters not necessarily attach to the ETT surface. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals.

  2. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Seborrheic dermatitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Kralj, Martina; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Lakoš Jukić, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. The prevalence of adult seborrheic dermatitis is estimated at 5%. Although the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis has yet to be understood, Malassezia yeasts, hormones (androgens), sebum levels and immune response are known to play important roles in its development. Additional factors including drugs, winter temperatures and stress may exacerbate seborrheic dermatitis. A variety of treatment modalities are available, including antifungal agents, topical low-potency steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators). This review summarizes current knowledge on the etiopathogenesis and therapy of adult seborrheic dermatitis.

  4. Differential induction of innate defense antimicrobial peptides in primary nasal epithelial cells upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines, Th17 cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium from Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Burgey, Christine; Kern, Winfried V; Römer, Winfried; Rieg, Siegbert

    2016-01-01

    To date it is incompletely understood why half of the human population is intrinsically resistant to Staphylococcus aureus colonization whereas the other half is intermittently or permanently colonized. Nasal colonization represents the primary niche for S. aureus. We therefore investigated whether primary nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) express antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) upon stimulation by inflammatory cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium (BCM) of different colonizing and invasive staphylococci. Stimulation with classical cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ) potently induced hBD-3 and RNase7 in HNEC. Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22) yielded comparably weak hBD-3 and RNase7 induction and no synergistic effects with classical cytokines. BCM of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates moderately induced hBD3 and RNase7 mRNA expression without significant differences when comparing colonizing vs. invasive isolates. Our results indicate that HNEC contribute to the innate defense by secretion of an AMP-containing chemical defense shield along the nasal mucosa i.e. within the primary colonization niche of S. aureus. Further studies are needed to investigate whether a deficient AMP expression in the nasal mucosa may be related to different S. aureus carrier states. AMPs or AMP-inducing agents may be promising candidates for future topical decolonization regimens that aim to prevent invasive S. aureus infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-related prevalence and antibiotic resistance of pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci in children with infected atopic dermatitis at a single-specialty center.

    PubMed

    Arkwright, Peter D; Daniel, Titilayo O; Sanyal, Debasis; David, Timothy J; Patel, Leena

    2002-07-01

    Skin staphylococci and streptococci are known to exacerbate atopic dermatitis, but the prevalence changes that occur with age are unknown. This study examined the age-related prevalence and antibiotic resistance of these pathogenic bacteria in children with atopic dermatitis and suspected skin infections. Medical records of 150 children with atopic dermatitis referred to a regional center, who had skin swabs taken for suspected infection, were studied retrospectively. All patients carried Staphylococcus aureus. The prevalence of methicillin sodium-resistant (P =.05) and fusidic acid-resistant (P =.001) S aureus tripled from infancy to school age. Lancefield groups A and G streptococci were the other pathogens found. The prevalence of group A streptococci was highest in children aged 3 to 6 (53%), compared with 11% of infants and 21% of patients aged 9 to 16 (P =.002). Significant differences in the age-related prevalence of group A streptococci skin carriage and antibiotic resistance of S aureus isolates occurred in this group of children with atopic dermatitis and suspected skin infections. Skin swabs to determine bacterial type and antibiotic sensitivities provide an important guide to antibiotic prescribing in these children.

  6. Toll-like receptor 9 enhances bacterial clearance and limits lung consolidation in murine pneumonia caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Anne Jan; Achouiti, Achmed; van der Ende, Arie; Soussan, Aicha A; Florquin, Sandrine; de Vos, Alex; Zeerleder, Sacha S; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-06-24

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen in pneumonia, associated with severe lung damage. Tissue injury causes release of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), which may perpetuate inflammation. DNA has been implicated as a DAMP that activates inflammation through Toll-like receptor (TLR)9. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLR9 in MRSA pneumonia. Wild-type (Wt) and TLR9 knockout ( tlr 9 -/- ) mice were infected intranasally with MRSA USA300 (BK 11540) (5 E7 CFU) and euthanized at 6,24,48 or 72 hours for analyses. MRSA pneumonia was associated with profound release of cell-free host DNA in the airways, as reflected by increases in nucleosome and DNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), accompanied by transient detection of pathogen DNA in MRSA-free BALF supernatants. In BALF, as compared to Wt -mice tlr 9 -/- mice showed reduced TNFα and IL-6 levels at 6 hours and reduced bacterial clearance at 6 and 24 hours post infection. Furthermore, tlr 9 -/- mice exhibited a greater influx of neutrophils in BALF and increased lung consolidation at 24 and 48 hours. This study demonstrates the release of host- and pathogen-derived TLR9 ligands (DNA) into the alveolar space after infection with MRSA via the airways and suggests that TLR9 has pro-inflammatory effects during MRSA pneumonia associated with enhanced bacterial clearance and limitation of lung consolidation.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oguzkaya-Artan, Muge; Baykan, Zeynep; Artan, Cem; Avsarogullari, Levent

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage among emergency department (ED) workers, and bacterial contamination on hand-touch surfaces at ED. This single-centered study enrolled 105 ED workers and 190 hand-touch surfaces at ED in June 2014. Nasal and environmental samples for S. aureus carriage and for bacterial contamination were obtained. For isolation swabs were cultured on ChromAgar S. aureus and environmental samples first cultured in broth and antibiogram obtained by clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A questionnaire was completed for each subject. The S. aureus carriage rate was 18.1% (n=19), with 2.9% (n=3) MRSA positivity. There were two (1.9%) mobile phone positivities for S. aureus, one of them was MRSA, and a computer keyboard contamination for MRSA was also detected. All MRSA isolates were susceptible for the tested antibiotics. There was significant difference between gender (p=0.044) in terms of nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA, all three MRSA isolates were from females. Our study showed that the carriage of MRSA was not affected by clinical exposure in the hospital because of the existing infection control policy in our hospital.

  8. Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus abscess proteome identifies antimicrobial host proteins and bacterial stress responses at the host-pathogen interface

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Ahmed S.; Cassat, James E.; Aranmolate, Sheg O.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Abscesses are a hallmark of invasive staphylococcal infections and the site of a dynamic struggle between pathogen and host. However, the precise host and bacterial factors that contribute to abscess formation and maintenance have not been completely described. In this work, we define the Staphylococcus aureus abscess proteome from both wildtype and neutropenic mice to elucidate the host response to staphylococcal infection and uncover novel S. aureus virulence factors. Among the proteins identified, the mouse protein histone H4 was enriched in the abscesses of wildtype compared to neutropenic animals. Histone H4 inhibits staphylococcal growth in vitro demonstrating a role for this protein in the innate immune response to staphylococcal infection. These analyses also identified staphylococcal proteins within the abscess, including known virulence factors and proteins with previously unrecognized roles in pathogenesis. Within the latter group was the universal stress protein Usp2, which was enriched in kidney lesions from neutropenic mice and required for the S. aureus response to stringent stress. Taken together, these data describe the S. aureus abscess proteome and lay the foundation for the identification of contributors to innate immunity and bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:23847107

  9. Acceleration of the direct identification of Staphylococcus aureus versus coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood culture material: a comparison of six bacterial DNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Loonen, A J M; Jansz, A R; Kreeftenberg, H; Bruggeman, C A; Wolffs, P F G; van den Brule, A J C

    2011-03-01

    To accelerate differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), this study aimed to compare six different DNA extraction methods from two commonly used blood culture materials, i.e. BACTEC and BacT/ALERT. Furthermore, we analysed the effect of reduced blood culture incubation for the detection of staphylococci directly from blood culture material. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) duplex assay was used to compare the six different DNA isolation protocols on two different blood culture systems. Negative blood culture material was spiked with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Bacterial DNA was isolated with automated extractor easyMAG (three protocols), automated extractor MagNA Pure LC (LC Microbiology Kit M(Grade)), a manual kit MolYsis Plus and a combination of MolYsis Plus and the easyMAG. The most optimal isolation method was used to evaluate reduced bacterial incubation times. Bacterial DNA isolation with the MolYsis Plus kit in combination with the specific B protocol on the easyMAG resulted in the most sensitive detection of S. aureus, with a detection limit of 10 CFU/ml, in BacT/ALERT material, whereas using BACTEC resulted in a detection limit of 100 CFU/ml. An initial S. aureus or CNS load of 1 CFU/ml blood can be detected after 5 h of incubation in BacT/ALERT 3D by combining the sensitive isolation method and the tuf LightCycler assay.

  10. Covalent Immobilization of Enoxacin onto Titanium Implant Surfaces for Inhibiting Multiple Bacterial Species Infection and In Vivo Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Bin'en; Long, Teng; Ao, Haiyong; Zhou, Jianliang; Tang, Tingting; Yue, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Infection is one of the most important causes of titanium implant failure in vivo A developing prophylactic method involves the immobilization of antibiotics, especially vancomycin, onto the surface of the titanium implant. However, these methods have a limited effect in curbing multiple bacterial infections due to antibiotic specificity. In the current study, enoxacin was covalently bound to an amine-functionalized Ti surface by use of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, and the bactericidal effectiveness was investigated in vitro and in vivo The titanium surface was amine functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), through which PEG spacer molecules were covalently immobilized onto the titanium, and then the enoxacin was covalently bound to the PEG, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). A spread plate assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the antimicrobial activity. For the in vivo study, Ti implants were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and implanted into the femoral medullary cavity of rats. The degree of infection was assessed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, and determination of the counts of adherent bacteria 3 weeks after surgery. Our data demonstrate that the enoxacin-modified PEGylated Ti surface effectively prevented bacterial colonization without compromising cell viability, adhesion, or proliferation in vitro Furthermore, it prevented MRSA infection of the Ti implants in vivo Taken together, our results demonstrate that the use of enoxacin-modified Ti is a potential approach to the alleviation of infections of Ti implants by multiple bacterial species. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Covalent Immobilization of Enoxacin onto Titanium Implant Surfaces for Inhibiting Multiple Bacterial Species Infection and In Vivo Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Bin'en; Long, Teng; Ao, Haiyong; Zhou, Jianliang; Tang, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection is one of the most important causes of titanium implant failure in vivo. A developing prophylactic method involves the immobilization of antibiotics, especially vancomycin, onto the surface of the titanium implant. However, these methods have a limited effect in curbing multiple bacterial infections due to antibiotic specificity. In the current study, enoxacin was covalently bound to an amine-functionalized Ti surface by use of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, and the bactericidal effectiveness was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The titanium surface was amine functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), through which PEG spacer molecules were covalently immobilized onto the titanium, and then the enoxacin was covalently bound to the PEG, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). A spread plate assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the antimicrobial activity. For the in vivo study, Ti implants were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and implanted into the femoral medullary cavity of rats. The degree of infection was assessed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, and determination of the counts of adherent bacteria 3 weeks after surgery. Our data demonstrate that the enoxacin-modified PEGylated Ti surface effectively prevented bacterial colonization without compromising cell viability, adhesion, or proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, it prevented MRSA infection of the Ti implants in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the use of enoxacin-modified Ti is a potential approach to the alleviation of infections of Ti implants by multiple bacterial species. PMID:27799220

  12. Arylthiazole antibiotics targeting intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis.

    PubMed

    Eid, Islam; Elsebaei, Mohamed M; Mohammad, Haroon; Hagras, Mohamed; Peters, Christine E; Hegazy, Youssef A; Cooper, Bruce; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit; Abulkhair, Hamada S; Seleem, Mohamed N; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S

    2017-10-20

    The promising antibacterial potency of arylthiazole antibiotics is offset by their limited activity against intracellular bacteria (namely methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)), similar to many clinically-approved antibiotics. The failure to target these hidden pathogens is due to the compounds' lack of proper characteristics to accumulate intracellularly. Fine tuning of the size and polar-surface-area of the linking heteroaromatic ring provided a new series of 5-thiazolylarylthiazoles with balanced properties that allow them to sufficiently cross and accumulate inside macrophages infected with MRSA. The most promising compound 4i exhibited rapid bactericidal activity, good metabolic stability and produced over 80% reduction of intracellular MRSA in infected macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of TLR2 by a small molecule produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis increases antimicrobial defense against bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yuping; Cogen, Anna L; Radek, Katherine A; Park, Hyun Jeong; Macleod, Daniel T; Leichtle, Anke; Ryan, Allen F; Di Nardo, Anna; Gallo, Richard L

    2010-09-01

    Production of antimicrobial peptides by epithelia is an essential defense against infectious pathogens. In this study we evaluated whether the commensal microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis may enhance production of antimicrobial peptides by keratinocytes and thus augment skin defense against infection. Exposure of cultured undifferentiated human keratinocytes to a sterile nontoxic small molecule of <10 kDa from S. epidermidis conditioned culture medium (SECM), but not similar preparations from other bacteria, enhanced human beta-defensin 2 (hBD2) and hBD3 mRNA expression and increased the capacity of cell lysates to inhibit the growth of group A Streptococcus (GAS) and S. aureus. Partial gene silencing of hBD3 inhibited this antimicrobial action. This effect was relevant in vivo as administration of SECM to mice decreased susceptibility to infection by GAS. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was important to this process as a TLR2-neutralizing antibody blocked induction of hBDs 2 and 3, and Tlr2-deficient mice did not show induction of mBD4. Taken together, these findings reveal a potential use for normal commensal bacterium S. epidermidis to activate TLR2 signaling and induce antimicrobial peptide expression, thus enabling the skin to mount an enhanced response to pathogens.

  14. Exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells in milk on bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yuya; Kiku, Yoshio; Sugawara, Kazue; Tanabe, Fuyuko; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2018-01-01

    The exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in milk is affected by physiological, breeding and environmental factors. Little is known about the relationship between the MEC exfoliation into milk and mammary-infected Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) load on bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between S. aureus load and the proportion of MEC exfoliation in milk using five substantial bovine mastitis models. In 64 randomly extracted milk samples from udders at 3-21 days after S. aureus infusion, there were various samples with different numbers of S. aureus counts and somatic cell counts. No significant correlations were found between the S. aureus counts and somatic cell count (r = 0.338). In contrast, a significant correlation was noted between S. aureus counts and the proportion of cytokeratin-positive cells in the milk from the infused udders (r = 0.734, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the increasing MEC exfoliation rate in milk from mastitis udders caused by S. aureus may contribute to reduced milk yield. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations.

    PubMed

    Hulterström, Anna Karin; Sellin, Mats; Monsen, Tor; Widerström, Micael; Gurram, Bharath Kumar; Berggren, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p < 0.0001) in the patients (88%) compared to a control group (13%). Corynebacterium spp. and Propionibacterium spp. were significantly more frequently identified in the control group. The PFGE analysis of S. aureus strains revealed a high genetic heterogeneity and no specific S. aureus genotypes were associated with septal perforation.

  16. Atopic Dermatitis: Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    David Boothe, W; Tarbox, James A; Tarbox, Michelle B

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis is complex and multifactorial, involving elements of barrier dysfunction, alterations in cell mediated immune responses, IgE mediated hypersensitivity, and environmental factors. Loss of function mutations in filaggrin have been implicated in severe atopic dermatitis due to a potential increase in trans-epidermal water loss, pH alterations, and dehydration. Other genetic changes have also been identified which may alter the skin's barrier function, resulting in an atopic dermatitis phenotype. The imbalance of Th2 to Th1 cytokines observed in atopic dermatitis can create alterations in the cell mediated immune responses and can promote IgE mediated hypersensitivity, both of which appear to play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis. One must additionally take into consideration the role of the environment on the causation of atopic dermatitis and the impact of chemicals such as airborne formaldehyde, harsh detergents, fragrances, and preservatives. Use of harsh alkaline detergents in skin care products may also unfavorably alter the skin's pH causing downstream changes in enzyme activity and triggering inflammation. Environmental pollutants can trigger responses from both the innate and adaptive immune pathways. This chapter will discuss the multifaceted etiology of atopic dermatitis which will help us to elucidate potential therapeutic targets. We will also review existing treatment options and their interaction with the complex inflammatory and molecular triggers of atopic dermatitis.

  17. Amino acid alterations in fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA) and bacterial genotype are associated with cardiac device related infection in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Hos, Nina J; Rieg, Siegbert; Kern, Winfried V; Jonas, Daniel; Fowler, Vance G; Higgins, Paul G; Seifert, Harald; Kaasch, Achim J

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus initiates cardiac device-related infection (CDI) by binding of fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA) to the device's surface. In FnBPA, specific "binding enhancing" amino acid alterations are associated with CDI. However, no study has investigated whether these mutations also occur in geographically different regions and whether they arise during infection or are inherent properties of the infecting isolate. We analysed bacterial isolates from 34 patients with S. aureus bacteraemia and implanted cardiac devices for association with CDI, FnBPA sequence, classification into a clonal complex (CC), and binding to fibronectin (Fn). We confirmed that amino acid alterations at positions 652, 782, and 786 in FnBPA were associated with CDI (p = 0.005). Furthermore, CC15 and CC45 isolates were associated with CDI (p = 0.004). All isolates within a CC exhibited a characteristic mutation pattern, with major changes occurring in CC45 including a duplication of D1 and an altered immunogenic epitope in the D3 repeat. Isolates harbouring the "binding enhancing" mutations showed a slightly increased Fn binding capability, whereas Fn binding was decreased in CC45 isolates, according to a microtiter plate assay. FnBPA sequence variations are lineage specific and display inherent properties of the infecting isolate. Sequence analysis of FnBPA, as well as the bacterial genotype, may be used to predict the risk for device-related infection. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Paederus dermatitis featuring chronic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, Andrija; Skerlev, Mihael; Culav-Košćak, Ivana; Kovačević, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a distinct variant of acute irritant contact dermatitis caused by mucocutaneous contact with the specific toxin of an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. It is characterized by the sudden onset of erythema and vesiculobullous lesions on exposed skin, with special predilection for the periorbital region. Paederus species have been mostly identified in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central/South America. We report a 51-year-old woman who experienced 4 recurrences of periorbital erythema and edema in the previous year. No consistent etiology could be established at the beginning. Only after taking a detailed medical history was it discovered that 1 year before our examination, the patient had traveled to Kenya, where she had experienced contact with the insect. This fact led us to the diagnosis of Paederus dermatitis. After appropriate treatment, a complete regression was observed over a 3-week period.

  19. Easy come easy go: surfaces containing immobilized nanoparticles or isolated polycation chains facilitate removal of captured Staphylococcus aureus by retarding bacterial bond maturation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Jiang, Ying; Rotello, Vincent M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Santore, Maria M

    2014-02-25

    Adhesion of bacteria is a key step in the functioning of antimicrobial surfaces or certain types of on-line sensors. The subsequent removal of these bacteria, within a ∼ 10-30 min time frame, is equally important but complicated by the tendency of bacterial adhesion to strengthen within minutes of initial capture. This study uses Staphylococcus aureus as a model bacterium to demonstrate the general strategy of clustering adhesive surface functionality (at length scales smaller than the bacteria themselves) on otherwise nonadhesive surfaces to capture and retain bacteria (easy come) while limiting the progressive strengthening of adhesion. The loose attachment facilitates bacteria removal by moderate shearing flow (easy go). This strategy is demonstrated using surfaces containing sparsely and randomly arranged immobilized amine-functionalized nanoparticles or poly-l-lysine chains, about 10 nm in size. The rest of the surface is backfilled with a nonadhesive polyethylene glycol (PEG) brush that, by itself, repels S. aureus. The nanoparticles or polymer chains cluster cationic functionality, providing small regions that attract negatively charged S. aureus cells. Compared with surfaces of nearly uniform cationic character where S. aureus adhesion quickly becomes strong (on a time scale less than 5 min), placement of cationic charge in small clusters retards or prevents processes that increase bacteria adhesion on a time scale of ∼ 30 min, providing "easy go" surfaces.

  20. Interferon-γ enhances both the anti-bacterial and the pro-inflammatory response of human mast cells to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Swindle, Emily J; Brown, Jared M; Rådinger, Madeleine; DeLeo, Frank R; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2015-01-01

    Human mast cells (huMCs) are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses where they release mediators including amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), eicosanoids and cytokines. We have reported that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enhances FcγR-dependent ROS production. The aim of this study was to extend these observations by investigating the effect of IFN-γ on the biological responses of huMCs to Staphylococcus aureus. We found that exposure of huMCs to S. aureus generated intracellular and extracellular ROS, which were enhanced in the presence of IFN-γ. IFN-γ also promoted bacteria killing, β-hexosaminidase release and eicosanoid production. Interferon-γ similarly increased expression of mRNAs encoding CCL1 to CCL4, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumour necrosis factor-α and CXCL8 in S. aureus-stimulated huMCs. The ability of IFN-γ to increase CXCL8 and GM-CSF protein levels was confirmed by ELISA. Fibronectin or a β1 integrin blocking antibody completely abrogated IFN-γ-dependent S. aureus binding and reduced S. aureus-dependent CXCL8 secretion. These data demonstrate that IFN-γ primes huMCs for enhanced anti-bacterial and pro-inflammatory responses to S. aureus, partially mediated by β1 integrin. PMID:26288256

  1. Direct bacterial loop-mediated isothermal amplification detection on the pathogenic features of the nosocomial pathogen - Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with respiratory origins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qun; Xu, Pusheng; Li, Jiaowu; Chen, Yin; Feng, Jieyi

    2017-08-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification based detection assays using bacterial culture or colony for direct detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) had been developed and evaluated, followed by its extensive application on a large scale of clinical MRSA isolated from respiratory origins, including nasal swabs and sputums. Six primers, including outer primers, inner primers and loop primers, were specifically designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on four targets: 16SrRNA, femA, mecA and orfX. Twenty-seven reference strains were used to develop, evaluate and optimize this assay. Then, a total of 532 clinical MRSA isolates were employed for each detected targets. And the results were determined through both visual observation of the color change by naked eye and electrophoresis. The specific of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65 °C for 40 min. The limit of detections (LOD) of bacteria culture LAMP assays were determined to be 10 4  CFU/ml for 16S rRNA, femA, as well as orfX and 10 5  CFU/ml for mecA, respectively. The established novel assays on MRSA detection may provide new strategies for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Inhibitory effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenol extracts on the bacterial growth and survival of clinical isolates of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pagliarulo, Caterina; De Vito, Valentina; Picariello, Gianluca; Colicchio, Roberta; Pastore, Gabiria; Salvatore, Paola; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study major polyphenols of pomegranate arils and peel by-products were extracted in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, characterized and used in microbiological assays in order to test antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated human pathogenic microorganisms. Total concentration of polyphenols and in vitro antioxidant properties were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods, respectively. The most abundant bioactive molecules, including anthocyanins, catechins, tannins, gallic and ellagic acids were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD, also coupled to off-line matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The inhibitory spectrum of extracts against test microorganisms was assessed by the agar well-diffusion method. Data herein indicated that both pomegranate aril and peel extracts have an effective antimicrobial activity, as evidenced by the inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth of two important human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which are often involved in foodborne illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotic reduction campaigns do not necessarily decrease bacterial resistance: the example of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kardas-Sloma, Lidia; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Opatowski, Lulla; Guillemot, Didier; Temime, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Interventions designed to reduce antibiotic consumption are under way worldwide. While overall reductions are often achieved, their impact on the selection of antibiotic-resistant selection cannot be assessed accurately from currently available data. We developed a mathematical model of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) transmission inside and outside the hospital. A systematic simulation study was then conducted with two objectives: to assess the impact of antibiotic class-specific changes during an antibiotic reduction period and to investigate the interactions between antibiotic prescription changes in the hospital and the community. The model reproduced the overall reduction in MRSA frequency in French intensive-care units (ICUs) with antibiotic consumption in France from 2002 to 2003 as an input. However, the change in MRSA frequency depended on which antibiotic classes changed the most, with the same overall 10% reduction in antibiotic use over 1 year leading to anywhere between a 69% decrease and a 52% increase in MRSA frequency in ICUs and anywhere between a 37% decrease and a 46% increase in the community. Furthermore, some combinations of antibiotic prescription changes in the hospital and the community could act in a synergistic or antagonistic way with regard to overall MRSA selection. This study shows that class-specific changes in antibiotic use, rather than overall reductions, need to be considered in order to properly anticipate the impact of an antibiotic reduction campaign. It also highlights the fact that optimal gains will be obtained by coordinating interventions in hospitals and in the community, since the effect of an intervention in a given setting may be strongly affected by exogenous factors.

  4. Contribution of mammary epithelial cells to the immune response during early stages of a bacterial infection to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To differentiate between the contribution of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and infiltrating immune cells to gene expression profiles of mammary tissue during early stage mastitis, we investigated in goats the in vivo transcriptional response of MEC to an experimental intra mammary infection (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus, using a non-invasive RNA sampling method from milk fat globules (MFG). Microarrays were used to record gene expression patterns during the first 24 hours post-infection (hpi). This approach was combined with laser capture microdissection of MEC from frozen slides of mammary tissue to analyze some relevant genes at 30 hpi. During the early stages post-inoculation, MEC play an important role in the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells through the IL-8 signalling pathway and initiate a sharp induction of innate immune genes predominantly associated with the pro-inflammatory response. At 30 hpi, MEC express genes encoding different acute phase proteins, including SAA3, SERPINA1 and PTX3 and factors, such as S100A12, that contribute directly to fighting the infection. No significant change in the expression of genes encoding caseins was observed until 24 hpi, thus validating our experimental model to study early stages of infection before the occurrence of tissue damage, since the milk synthesis function is still operative. This is to our knowledge the first report showing in vivo, in goats, how MEC orchestrate the innate immune response to an IMI challenge with S. aureus. Moreover, the non-invasive sampling method of mammary representative RNA from MFG provides a valuable tool to easily follow the dynamics of gene expression in MEC to search for sensitive biomarkers in milk for early detection of mastitis and therefore, to successfully improve the treatment and thus animal welfare. PMID:24521038

  5. Effect of irradiation on kinetic behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce and damage of bacterial cell envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Won-Bo; Je, Gil-Soo; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Mtenga, Adelard B.; Lee, Won-Gyeong; Song, Jeong-Un; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Yoon, Yohan

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated effect of gamma irradiation on survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on lettuce and damage of cell envelope. S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were inoculated on red leaf lettuce, and they were irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 kGy, and the samples were then stored at 7 and 25 °C for 7 days. Survival of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar and Baird-Parker agar, respectively. D10 value (dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/leaf) was calculated, and kinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rate; μmax and lag phase duration; LPD) were calculated by the modified Gompertz model. In addition, cell envelope damage of the pathogens was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). D10 values were 0.35 and 0.33 kGy for S. Typhimurium and S. aureus, respectively. During storage at 7 °C, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus had significant (P<0.05) growth only on non-irradiated samples up to about 2.5 and 4 log CFU/leaf at 0.42 and 1.28 log CFU/leaf/day of μmax, respectively. At 25 °C, cell counts of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus on the samples irradiated at 0 and 0.5 kGy increased (P<0.05) up to 3-6 log CFU/leaf. The μmax of both pathogens were higher in 0 kGy (1.08-2.27 log CFU/leaf/day) and 0.5 kGy (0.58-0.92 log CFU/leaf/day), and LPDs ranged from 1.53 to 3.14 day. SEM and TEM observations showed that cells irradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy showed disrupted cell membrane. These results indicate that gamma irradiation could be a useful decontamination technology to improve food safety of lettuce by destroying cells of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus.

  6. PLANT DERMATITIS: ASIAN PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Goon, Anthony Teik Jin; Goh, Chee Leok

    2011-01-01

    Occupational and recreational plant exposure on the skin is fairly common. Plant products and extracts are commonly used and found extensively in the environment. Adverse reactions to plants and their products are also fairly common. However, making the diagnosis of contact dermatitis from plants and plant extracts is not always simple and straightforward. Phytodermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by a plant. The clinical patterns may be allergic phytodermatitis, photophytodermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, pharmacological injury, and mechanical injury. In this article, we will focus mainly on allergy contact dermatitis from plants or allergic phytodermatitis occurring in Asia. PMID:22345775

  7. Spa contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yankura, Jessica A; Marks, James G; Anderson, Bryan E; Adams, David R

    2008-01-01

    Potassium monopersulfate (MPS) is widely used in spa and pool "shock" treatments, yet contact dermatitis associated with MPS has been rarely reported. A patient presented with a generalized scattered dermatitis from the neck down that worsened after spa use. Patch testing elicited a ++ reaction to ammonium persulfate. Contact with ammonium persulfate was ruled out; however, MPS, which can cross-react with ammonium persulfate, was found to be the active ingredient in the patient's spa shock treatments. The dermatitis cleared after the patient switched to a hydrogen peroxide-based shock treatment.

  8. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  9. Chromate Dermatitis from Paint

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1963-01-01

    Among 250 workers engaged on wet sandpapering of primer paint on car bodies 65 developed a contact dermatitis. The average latent period before dermatitis developed was 4·6 months: only 60% of the patients made a completely satisfactory recovery. The average duration of dermatitis was 5·3 months. Two thirds of the men used one of two barrier creams supplied, while one third used none. Routine patch testing showed that the majority was allergic to chromate. It was found that a primer paint contained zinc chromate, which had been introduced into the paint by the manufacturers shortly before the first cases occurred. Removal of chromate from the paint resulted in a prompt cessation of new cases of dermatitis. Images PMID:14046155

  10. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  11. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  12. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  13. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  14. [MICROBIAL COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS SURFACES OF SKIN DURING DEVELOP- MENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS BASED ON DATA FROM MALDI-TOF MASS-SPECTROMETRY IDENTIFICATION METHOD].

    PubMed

    Tyurin, Yu A; Fassakhov, R S; Grigorieva, T V; Mustafin, I G

    2016-01-01

    Study transformation of skin microflora during development of atopic dermatitis. 45 patients with various forms of atopic dermatitis (AtD) were examined. Control group consisted of 26 healthy individuals. The strains were cultivated on elective nutrient media. Identification ofthe isolated strains was carried out by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry method. A low frequency of occurrence of taxon Staphylococcus epidermidis on face skin and high frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on upper and lower limb skin was established for AtD patients compared with healthy individuals. The frequency of occurrence of proteolyti-cally active isolates of S. aureus in AtD patients was 3 times higher than in healthy carriers of this taxon. Taxons of microorganisms not inherent to healthy individuals such as Bacillus mycoides, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas radiobacter were isolated on lower limb and neck skin of AtD patients. A high frequency of occurrence of Cryptococcus satoi, Candida albicans, Malassezia globosa fungi was noted. A decrease of barrier functions of skin during AtD facilitates contamination of patients' skin with rare bacterial taxons and fungi. One of the possible mechanisms of suppression of immune competent cell functions could be proteolytic enzymes of S. aureus.

  15. Bacterial Genetic Architecture of Ecological Interactions in Co-culture by GWAS-Taking Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as an Example.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi; Ye, Meixia; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Jingqi; Jiang, Libo; Wu, Rongling

    2017-01-01

    How a species responds to such a biotic environment in the community, ultimately leading to its evolution, has been a topic of intense interest to ecological evolutionary biologists. Until recently, limited knowledge was available regarding the genotypic changes that underlie phenotypic changes. Our study implemented GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) to illustrate the genetic architecture of ecological interactions that take place in microbial populations. By choosing 45 such interspecific pairs of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains that were all genotyped throughout the entire genome, we employed Q-ROADTRIPS to analyze the association between single SNPs and microbial abundance measured at each time point for bacterial populations reared in monoculture and co-culture, respectively. We identified a large number of SNPs and indels across the genomes (35.69 G clean data of E. coli and 50.41 G of S. aureus ). We reported 66 and 111 SNPs that were associated with interaction in E. coli and S. aureus , respectively. 23 out of 66 polymorphic changes resulted in amino acid alterations.12 significant genes, such as murE, treA, argS , and relA , which were also identified in previous evolutionary studies. In S. aureus , 111 SNPs detected in coding sequences could be divided into 35 non-synonymous and 76 synonymous SNPs. Our study illustrated the potential of genome-wide association methods for studying rapidly evolving traits in bacteria. Genetic association study methods will facilitate the identification of genetic elements likely to cause phenotypes of interest and provide targets for further laboratory investigation.

  16. A novel CCR-2/TLR-2 triggered signaling in murine peritoneal macrophages intensifies bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus) killing by reactive oxygen species through TNF-R1.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2017-10-01

    Macrophages are remarkably versatile in their ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of stimuli by expressing a variety of surface and intracellular receptors and triggering multiple signal transduction pathways. The onset of microbial infection is primarily determined by the initial contacts made by the microbes with the host macrophages. Although there prevail a relationship between the chemokine receptor and Toll like receptors during disease, particularly TLR-2 and CCR-2 signaling interdependence on each other has not been yet investigated during acute staphylococcal infection. Thus, the present study was aimed to trace possible interaction between CCR-2 and TLR-2 in peritoneal macrophages during acute Staphylococcus aureus infection. We found that neutralization of CCR-2 attenuates TLR-2 expression and restricts S. aureus burden but TLR-2 neutralization augments CCR-2 expression in macrophages, along with compromised host-derived reactive oxygen species production. S. aureus infection to CCR-2 intact but TLR-2 neutralized macrophages triggered production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and expression of iNOS, TNFR-1 and GPx with concomitant decrease in IL-10 production. Further, study with NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) [iNOS blocker] and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) [GPx blocker] revealed that S. aureus infection enhanced TLR-2 expression in CCR-2 intact and TLR-2 neutralized macrophages possibly via iNOS and TNFR-1 up regulation and GPx down regulation. Overall, our data indicate that targeting CCR-2 with neutralizing antibody in the early phase of S. aureus infection could restrict excessive inflammation with less compromised bacterial killing. It certainly would be a therapeutic strategy in S. aureus induced inflammatory and infective diseases. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cutaneous microbiome effects of fluticasone proprionate cream and adjunctive bleach baths in childhood atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Mercedes E.; Schaffer, Julie V.; Orlow, Seth J.; Gao, Zhan; Li, Huilin; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are prone to skin infections, with microbes like Staphylococcus aureus suspected of contributing to pathogenesis. Bleach baths might improve AD by reducing skin microbial burden. Objective To characterize the microbiota of lesional and nonlesional skin in young children with AD and controls and compare changes after treatment with a topical corticosteroid (TCS) alone or TCS + dilute bleach baths (BB). Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded clinical trial in 21 children with AD and 14 healthy children, lesional and nonlesional AD skin was examined at baseline and after 4-week treatment with TCS alone or TCS plus BB. Microbial DNA was extracted for qPCR of predominant genera and 16S rRNA sequencing. Results At baseline, densities of total bacteria and Staphylococcus, including S. aureus, were significantly higher at the worst AD lesional site than nonlesional (p=0.001) or control (p<0.001) skin; bacterial communities on lesional and nonlesional AD skin significantly differed from each other (p=0.04) and from control (p<0.001). After TCS + BB or TCS alone, bacterial compositions on lesional skin normalized (p<0.0001), resembling nonlesional skin, with microbial diversity restored to control skin levels. Limitations The 4-week time period and/or the twice-weekly baths may not have been sufficient for additional impact on the cutaneous microbiome. More detailed sequencing may allow better characterization of the distinguishing taxa with BB-treatment. Conclusions Treatment with a topical corticosteroid cream suffices to normalize the cutaneous microbiota on lesional AD; after treatment, bacterial communities on lesional skin resemble nonlesional skin but remain distinct from control. PMID:27543211

  18. Seborrheic Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... widespread seborrheic dermatitis, as shown here. Adults and adolescents Seborrheic dermatitis causes: Scaly patches on the skin. ... conditions requires a different treatment plan. Adults and adolescents: Scalp On the scalp, many people can get ...

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to nasturtium.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S P; Wiener, S G; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    In conclusion, oil of mustard, contained in many plants and recognized mainly as a skin irritant, is also capable of causing an allergic contact dermatitis. Nasturtium, which contains mustard oil, should be added to the list of plants capable of causing this dermatitis and must be suspected in any patient who handles plants and presents with hand dermatitis.

  20. Red face revisited: Endogenous dermatitis in the form of atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia; Sampaio, Ana Luisa; Carneiro, Sueli

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis are multifactorial dermatitides that are known collectively as endogenous dermatitis. Both conditions can affect the face, but they have clinical, epidemiological, and physiopathological peculiarities that distinguish them from each other. These two diseases are very common all around the world. Atopic dermatitis is associated with xerosis and increased susceptibility to irritants and proteins; patients with this condition have a tendency to develop asthma, allergic rhinitis, and systemic manifestations that are mediated by immunoglobulin E. Seborrheic dermatitis is a moderate chronic dermatitis that is restricted to regions with a high production of sebum and areas that have cutaneous folds. There are many studies about pathophysiology related to the immunology and genetics of atopic dermatitis, but little is known about the genetic and immunological markers of seborrheic dermatitis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic antibacterial effect of apigenin with β-lactam antibiotics and modulation of bacterial resistance by a possible membrane effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, K; Ruckmani, K

    2016-12-30

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are easily spread among infected patients, where resistance has dramatically increased resulted in serious health issues. Therefore, there is a need to develop alternative natural or combination drug therapies. Apigenin (AP) is a natural poly phenolic flavonoid has been found to possess many beneficial biological actions. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-MRSA efficacy and synergistic effect of apigenin (AP) and in combination with ampicillin (AM) and ceftriaxone (CEF). The antibacterial activity of apigenin was assessed by the broth macro dilution, checkerboard micro dilution method and time-kill assay.  The mode of action was studied by outer and inner membrane permeabilisation assays, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apigenin against gram positive and gram negative strain ranged from 32.5 to 62.5µg/ml. In checkerboard method apigenin markedly reduced the MIC of the antibiotics ampicillin 800 µg/ml shifted to 107 µg/ml (AM+AP) and ceftriaxone 58 µg/ml shifted to 2.6 µg/ml (CEF+AP) against MRSA. The synergistic activity of ampicillin and ceftriaxone plus apigenin combinations with FIC indices (CI) between 0.18-0.47. The modulation of methicillin-resistance by apigenin significantly enhanced the activities of ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The result of time-kill assays of the two drug combinations AM +AP and CEF+AP against MRSA showed significant inhibitory effect and reduced the colony count by approximately 99% after 8 h The results for outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) permeabilization showed that ampicillin and ceftriaxone in combination with apigenin damaged MRSA cytoplasmic membrane and caused subsequent leakage of intracellular constituents. Electron microscopy clearly showed that the above said combination also caused marked morphological damage of cell wall, cell shape and plasma

  2. An Association Between Bacterial Genotype Combined With a High-Vancomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Risk of Endocarditis in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Clare E.; Batra, Rahul; Cooper, Ben S.; Patel, Amita K.; Klein, John; Otter, Jonathan A.; Kypraios, Theodore; French, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Antimicrobial resistance and bacterial virulence factors may increase the risk of hematogenous complications during methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI). This study reports on the impact of increasing vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (V-MICs) and MRSA clone type on risk of hematogenous complications from MRSA BSI during implementation of an effective MRSA control program. Methods. In sum, spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec allotyping, and vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs were performed on 821 consecutive MRSA bloodstream isolates from 1999 to 2009. Prospectively collected data, including focus of infection, were available for 695 clinically significant cases. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between clone type, vancomycin MIC (V-MIC), and focus of infection. Results. MRSA BSIs decreased by ∼90% during the 11 years. Typing placed isolates into 3 clonal complex (CC) groups that had different population median V-MICs (CC30, 0.5 μg/mL [n = 349]; CC22, 0.75 μg/mL [n = 272]; non-CC22/30, 1.5 μg/mL [n = 199]). There was a progressive increase in the proportion of isolates with a V-MIC above baseline median in each clonal group and a disproportionate fall in the clone group with lowest median V-MIC (CC30). In contrast, there were no increases in teicoplanin MICs. High V-MIC CC22 isolates (1.5–2 μg/mL) were strongly associated with endocarditis (odds ratio, 12; 95% confidence interval, 3.72–38.9) and with a septic metastasis after catheter-related BSI (odds ratio, 106; 95% confidence interval, 12.6–883) compared with other clone type/V-MIC combinations. Conclusions. An interaction between clone type and V-MIC can influence the risk of endocarditis associated with MRSA BSI, implying involvement of both therapeutic and host-pathogen factors. PMID:22186774

  3. In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Target Investigation of Two Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors, ACT-387042 and ACT-292706, in the Neutropenic Murine Thigh Model against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lepak, A J; Seiler, P; Surivet, J P; Ritz, D; Kohl, C; Andes, D R

    2016-06-01

    ACT-387042 and ACT-292706 are two novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae We used the neutropenic murine thigh infection model to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) of these investigational compounds against a group of 10 S. aureus and S. pneumoniae isolates with phenotypic resistance to beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones. The in vitro activities of the two compounds were very similar (MIC range, 0.03 to 0.125 mg/liter). Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined for each compound by using four escalating doses administered by the subcutaneous route. In treatment studies, mice had 10(7.4) to 10(8) CFU/thigh at the start of therapy with ACT-387042 and 10(6.7) to 10(8.3) CFU/thigh at the start of therapy with ACT-292706. A dose-response relationship was observed with all isolates over the dose range. Maximal kill approached 3 to 4 log10 CFU/thigh compared to the burden at the start of therapy for the highest doses examined. There was a strong relationship between the PK/PD index AUC/MIC ratio (area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC) and therapeutic efficacy in the model (R(2), 0.63 to 0.82). The 24-h free-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net stasis for ACT-387042 against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were 43 and 10, respectively. The 24-h free-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net stasis for ACT-292706 against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were 69 and 25, respectively. The stasis PD targets were significantly lower for S. pneumoniae (P < 0.05) for both compounds. The 1-log-kill AUC/MIC ratio targets were ∼2- to 4-fold higher than stasis targets. Methicillin, penicillin, or ciprofloxacin resistance did not alter the magnitude of the AUC/MIC ratio required for efficacy. These results should be

  4. [Atopic dermatitis physiopathology].

    PubMed

    Waton, J

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis has much improved over the recent years. Epidermal barrier alterations are integrated into 2 theories called inside out and outside in. They are related to complex immune abnormalities. Understanding their mechanism makes it possible to foresee new therapeutics. Moreover, environmental biodiversity, the diversity of cutaneous microbiota and genetic predispositions in atopic dermatitis lead to a new, more comprehensive theory, « the biodiversity theory », integrating epigenetics. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  5. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  6. Temporal shifts in the skin microbiome associated with disease flares and treatment in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Heidi H; Oh, Julia; Deming, Clay; Conlan, Sean; Grice, Elizabeth A; Beatson, Melony A; Nomicos, Effie; Polley, Eric C; Komarow, Hirsh D; Murray, Patrick R; Turner, Maria L; Segre, Julia A

    2012-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) has long been associated with Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization or infection and is typically managed with regimens that include antimicrobial therapies. However, the role of microbial communities in the pathogenesis of AD is incompletely characterized. To assess the relationship between skin microbiota and disease progression, 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial gene sequencing was performed on DNA obtained directly from serial skin sampling of children with AD. The composition of bacterial communities was analyzed during AD disease states to identify characteristics associated with AD flares and improvement post-treatment. We found that microbial community structures at sites of disease predilection were dramatically different in AD patients compared with controls. Microbial diversity during AD flares was dependent on the presence or absence of recent AD treatments, with even intermittent treatment linked to greater bacterial diversity than no recent treatment. Treatment-associated changes in skin bacterial diversity suggest that AD treatments diversify skin bacteria preceding improvements in disease activity. In AD, the proportion of Staphylococcus sequences, particularly S. aureus, was greater during disease flares than at baseline or post-treatment, and correlated with worsened disease severity. Representation of the skin commensal S. epidermidis also significantly increased during flares. Increases in Streptococcus, Propionibacterium, and Corynebacterium species were observed following therapy. These findings reveal linkages between microbial communities and inflammatory diseases such as AD, and demonstrate that as compared with culture-based studies, higher resolution examination of microbiota associated with human disease provides novel insights into global shifts of bacteria relevant to disease progression and treatment.

  7. Biphasic influence of Staphylococcus aureus on human epidermal tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Bäsler, Katja; Galliano, Marie-Florence; Bergmann, Sophia; Rohde, Holger; Wladykowski, Ewa; Vidal-Y-Sy, Sabine; Guiraud, Beatrice; Houdek, Pia; Schüring, Germar; Volksdorf, Thomas; Caruana, Antony; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Schneider, Stefan W; Duplan, Hélène; Brandner, Johanna M

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial infections (e.g., with Staphylococcus aureus) are serious problems in skin with a compromised barrier, such as in patients with atopic dermatitis. Previously, it was shown that tight junction (TJ) proteins are influenced by staphylococcal infection, and TJ function is impaired after infection of the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. However, functional studies in cells or models more similar to human skin are missing. Therefore, we investigated bacterial colonialization and infection with live S. aureus in primary human keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). We show that short-term inoculation results in increased TJ barrier function-which could not be seen in HaCaT cells-hinting at an early protective effect. This is accompanied by occludin phosphorylation and sustained localization of occludin and claudin-4 at cell membranes. Long-term incubation resulted in decreased presence of claudin-1 and claudin-4 at cell membranes and decreased TJ barrier function. The agr regulon of S. aureus plays a role in the increasing but not in the decreasing effect. Proinflammatory cytokines, which are produced as a result of S. aureus inoculation, influence both phases. In summary, we show here that S. aureus can have short-term promoting effects on the TJ barrier, while in the long term it results in disturbance of TJs. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Pooled analysis of single-dose oritavancin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including a large patient subset with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Corey, G Ralph; Arhin, Francis F; Wikler, Matthew A; Sahm, Daniel F; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Mediavilla, José R; Good, Samantha; Fiset, Claude; Jiang, Hai; Moeck, Greg; Kabler, Heidi; Green, Sinikka; O'Riordan, William

    2016-11-01

    Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The phase 3 studies SOLO I and SOLO II demonstrated comparable efficacy and safety of a single dose of oritavancin compared with 7-10 days of twice-daily vancomycin in adults with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs). The present analysis assessed clinical responses by pathogen at 48-72 h and at study days 14-24 in SOLO patients within the pooled data set. Of the 1959 patients in the pooled SOLO studies, 1067 had at least one baseline Gram-positive pathogen and 405 had MRSA. Clinical response rates were similar for oritavancin- and vancomycin-treated patients by pathogen, including Staphylococcus aureus with or without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene and from different clonal complexes, and were similar for pathogens within each treatment group. Oritavancin exhibited potent in vitro activity against all baseline pathogens, with MIC 90 values (minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 90% of the isolates) of 0.12 µg/mL for Staphylococcus  aureus, 0.25 µg/mL for Streptococcus pyogenes and 0.06 µg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis. Whereas both oritavancin and vancomycin achieved similarly high rates of clinical response by pathogen, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oritavancin provides a single-dose alternative to 7-10 days of twice-daily vancomycin to treat ABSSSIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Dermatitis in bulb growers.

    PubMed

    Bruynzeel, D P; de Boer, E M; Brouwer, E J; de Wolff, F A; de Haan, P

    1993-07-01

    A damaged skin forms a health hazard in flower-bulb growers as it enables higher permeation rates for pesticides than normal skin. Therefore, an investigation was performed into the skin condition of 103 bulb growers and 49 controls. Contact dermatitis of the hands was of the same order (11 and 10%) in both groups. However, minor signs of dermatitis were seen more often in bulb growers (30 versus 8%, p < 0.05). Most growers had contact with narcissus sap during the investigation. This irritant sap, as well as many other skin contacts with irritants such as hyacinth dust and pesticides, seemed to be responsible for many skin complaints. Contact sensitization was suspected in 19 growers and 3 controls. Patch tests showed that contact sensitization existed to pesticides in probably 10, and to flower-bulb extracts in 4 growers. Reactions to propachlor were not regarded as very reliable as the test concentration seemed to be marginally irritant. There were only a few allergic reactions to narcissus (3) and tulip (2) and none to hyacinth. This investigation showed that minor irritant contact dermatitis was frequent in bulb growers, and indicated that contact sensitization to pesticides and bulbs seemed to be a less frequent but important cause of dermatitis.

  10. Nummular Dermatitis (Discoid Eczema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... room moist with a humidifier. Outcome With proper treatment, nummular dermatitis can clear completely. Sores on the thighs, legs, and feet often take longer to heal and tend to leave behind darker or lighter spots. Some patients’ skin clears within a year. Others have these ...

  11. Diaper dermatitis: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Parisa; Wallace, Jill S; Pace, Nicole C

    2012-08-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. In this review, common causes of diaper dermatitis and similarly presenting conditions will be covered, as well as updates on treatments of common diaper dermatitides. There have been recent advancements in the treatment of diaper dermatitis. In addition, there are many newly recognized causes of diaper dermatitis that clinicians should be aware of. Irritant dermatitis is the most common cause of diaper dermatitis. However, there are multiple other common causes of diaper dermatitis and it is thus imperative that the clinician be aware of cutaneous mimickers of irritant diaper dermatitis as well as their treatments.

  12. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  13. Atopic dermatitis and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Finch, Justin; Munhutu, M N; Whitaker-Worth, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic disease with no cure, currently affects almost one-fifth of the population of industrialized nations. Treatment can be challenging for physicians and patients alike. Children are commonly affected, making it even more difficult to find safe therapeutic options, especially in severe disease. Interest in diet and nutrition has increased during the last few years. Nutritional interventions are both intriguing and accessible for many patients. Given the recent expansion of the field of nutrition in the realm of medicine and in popular culture, it is important for the dermatologist to be knowledgeable about the risks and benefits of nutritional interventions. This contribution reviews the current literature on the role of nutrition in atopic dermatitis, from dietary restriction to dietary supplementation, from traditional interventions such as vitamins and minerals to the emerging fields of probiotics and essential fatty acids, and from the prenatal period through infancy and adulthood. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  15. Berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Lisa Moed; Chang, Mary Wu

    2002-11-01

    Berloque dermatitis is a type of photocontact dermatitis. It occurs after perfumed products containing bergamot (or a psoralen) are applied to the skin followed by exposure to sunlight. Striking linear patterns of hyperpigmentation are characteristic, corresponding to local application of the scented product. In the acute phase, erythema and even blistering can be seen. We report a case of berloque dermatitis in a 9-year-old girl that was initially reported as child abuse. To our knowledge, this is the first report of berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse. Questioning to elicit a history of perfume application coupled with sunlight exposure should help to prevent this misdiagnosis in children.

  16. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  17. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  18. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel.

  19. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  20. Both anti-TNF and CTLA4 Ig treatments attenuate the disease severity of staphylococcal dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Na, Manli; Wang, Wanzhong; Fei, Ying; Josefsson, Elisabet; Ali, Abukar; Jin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    RA patients being treated with biologics are known to have an increased risk of infections. We recently demonstrated that both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatment aggravate systemic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in mice, but with distinct clinical manifestations. However, the effects of CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatments on a local S. aureus infection (e.g., skin infection) might differ from their effects on a systemic infection. The aim of this study was to examine the differential effects of anti-TNF versus CTLA4 Ig treatment on S. aureus skin infections in mice. Abatacept (CTLA4 Ig), etanercept (anti-TNF treatment) or PBS was given to NMRI mice subcutaneously inoculated with S. aureus strain SH1000. The clinical signs of dermatitis, along with histopathological changes due to skin infection, were compared between the groups. Both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatment resulted in less severe skin infections and smaller post-infectious hyperpigmentation compared with controls. Consistent with the clinical signs of dermatitis, smaller lesion size, more epithelial hyperplasia and more granulation were found in skin biopsies from mice receiving anti-TNF compared with PBS controls. However, both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF therapy tended to prolong the healing time, although this finding was not statistically significant. Serum MCP-1 levels were elevated in the anti-TNF group relative to the CTLA4 Ig and PBS groups, whereas IL-6 levels were higher in PBS controls than in the other two groups. Both anti-TNF and CTLA4 Ig treatments tended to down-regulate the necrosis/apoptosis ratio in the locally infected skin tissue. Importantly, no tangible difference was found in the bacterial burden among groups. Both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF therapies attenuate disease severity but may prolong the healing time required for S. aureus skin infections. Neither treatment has an impact on bacterial clearance in skin tissues.

  1. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  2. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. [Microecological and electron microscopic study of skin microbiota in patients with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Rybal'chenko, O V; Gusleva, O R; Orlova, O G; Blinova, Iu A; Bondarenko, V M

    2010-01-01

    Bacteriological and electron microscopic study of skin of healthy persons and patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Fifteen patients (7 males and 8 females aged 17-53 years) with lichenoid form of AD treated in dermatovenerologic outpatient clinics were compared with group of virtually healthy 10 persons of the same age. Comparative study of skin and electron microscopic evaluation of ultrathin sections from affected areas of the skin were performed in all participants. Main representatives of resident and facultative groups of microbiota were counted. Differences in microbial spectrum and level of physiological activity of microorganisms colonizing skin surface of healthy persons and patients with AD were revealed. Unlike microbes on healhy skin, the microorganisms colonizing skin of the patients with AD were characterized by profound polymorphism of cells. Widening of population spectrum of opportunistic microorganisms belonging to genuses Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Candida was accompanied by manifestation of destructive changes of the skin of patients with AD. Electron microscopic evaluation of skin of patients with AD showed that bacterial cells located predominantly in upper layers of epidermis. Major number of microorganisms colonized corneal layer and located between friable skin squama. Changes of skin microbiota with marked pathomorphologic changes of keratinocytes were observed in patients with AD that necessary to consider during basic therapy of this disease.

  5. Contact dermatitis in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dever, Tara T; Walters, Michelle; Jacob, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Military personnel encounter the same allergens and irritants as their civilian counterparts and are just as likely to develop contact dermatitis from common exposures encountered in everyday life. In addition, they face some unique exposures that can be difficult to avoid owing to their occupational duties. Contact dermatitis can be detrimental to a military member's career if he or she is unable to perform core duties or avoid the inciting substances. An uncontrolled contact dermatitis can result in the member's being placed on limited-duty (ie, nondeployable) status, needing a job or rate change, or separation from military service. We present some common causes of contact dermatitis in military personnel worldwide and some novel sources of contact dermatitis in this population that may not be intuitive.

  6. Unusual patterns in contact dermatitis: medicaments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark D P

    2009-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to topical medicaments occurs often. Common medicaments associated with allergic contact dermatitis include topically applied antibiotics, antihistamines, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, anesthetics, and corticosteroids. In cases of suspected allergic contact dermatitis, medicaments that the patient is using should be included when patch testing. Body sites susceptible to allergic contact dermatitis to topical medicaments include scalp, face, anogenital area, and lower extremities.

  7. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  8. Chronic actinic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Paek, So Yeon; Lim, Henry W

    2014-07-01

    Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) is an immunologically mediated photodermatosis characterized by pruritic eczematous and lichenified plaques located predominantly on sun-exposed areas with notable sparing of eyelids, skin folds, and postauricular skin. CAD is thought to be due to secondary photosensitization of an endogenous antigen in the skin. Management of CAD should include strict photoprotection and topical agents, including corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Other treatments with noted efficacy include oral prednisone, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and mycophenolate mofetil. Photoprotection and avoidance of allergens, if identified, may lead to spontaneous resolution of CAD in 50% of patients over 15 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tiffany Yvonne; Cohen, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced photosensitivity reactions are significant adverse effects. Ketoprofen is one of the most common drugs that can cause skin rash in sun-exposed areas. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ketoprofen, are often used for a variety of symptoms, including pain and fever. An understanding of the presentation and clinical course of ketoprofen-induced photosensitivity is necessary to correctly diagnose and manage this condition. Ketoprofen-induced photosensitivity reactions usually present as photoallergic dermatitis, which is a cell-mediated immune process. The benzophenone moiety in ketoprofen plays a major role in ketoprofen's ability to act as a photosensitizer. Several agents, such as fenofibrate and octocrylene have been found to be associated with aggravation of ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis or cross-photosensitization, and these reactions result from structural similarities with ketoprofen. Treatment of ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis includes discontinuation of ketoprofen, topical or systemic corticosteroids and avoidance of sun exposure and agents known to exacerbate dermatitis. In conclusion, photoallergic dermatitis is a significant adverse effect of ketoprofen. Some agents known to worsen dermatitis may be found in sun protection products (notably, octocrylene in sunscreen). Educating the patient to avoid these products is critical to treatment. Since NSAIDs, such as ketoprofen, are used commonly for a variety of illnesses, drug-induced photoallergic dermatitis should be high on the differential in individuals using these medications who present with acute onset of a rash in sun-exposed areas. PMID:28474616

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy cows and genetic diversity of resistant isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results i...

  11. Auranofin and related heterometallic gold(I)-thiolates as potent inhibitors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Hokai, Yozane; Jurkowicz, Boruch; Fernández-Gallardo, Jacob; Zakirkhodjaev, Nuruddinkodja; Sanaú, Mercedes; Muth, Theodore R; Contel, María

    2014-09-01

    A series of new heterometallic gold(I) thiolates containing ferrocenyl-phoshines were synthesized. Their antimicrobial properties were studied and compared to that of FDA-approved drug, auranofin (Ridaura), prescribed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. MIC in the order of one digit micromolar were found for most of the compounds against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and CA MRSA strains US300 and US400. Remarkably, auranofin inhibited S. aureus, US300 and US400 in the order of 150-300 nM. This is the first time that the potent inhibitory effect of auranofin on MRSA strains has been described. The effects of a selected heterometallic compound and auranofin were also studied in a non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: atopic dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... health and development? More about Mutations and Health Inheritance Pattern Allergic disorders tend to run in families; having ... gene mutations, atopic dermatitis has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern , which means one copy of the altered CARD11 ...

  13. Acral manifestations of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bangash, Haider K; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna

    Contact dermatitis is a broad term that encompasses both nonimmunologic irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and immunologically mediated allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Both ICD and ACD can negatively affect a patient's quality of life and are a source of exorbitant medical and societal costs. Avoidance of inciting irritants and/or allergens and liberal use of emollients or humectants are the cornerstone of therapy. When an allergic cause is suspected, patch testing is highly encouraged. In this contribution, we highlight both the commonalities and differences of acral contact dermatitis as it relates to specific regions of the body. In addition, a review of the predisposing conditions, risk factors, and treatment options in the literature is presented to help with the care of these challenging patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced filaggrin expression is accompanied by increased Staphylococcus aureus colonization of epidermal skin models.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, V; Haisma, E M; Out-Luiting, J J; Nibbering, P H; El Ghalbzouri, A

    2014-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by a reduced skin barrier function, reduced filaggrin (FLG) expression as well as increased colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. This study focused on the possible involvement of FLG in epidermal colonization by S. aureus and/or whether it affects the epidermal defence mechanisms, including the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and enzymes involved in stratum corneum barrier lipid synthesis. Furthermore, IL-31 has been shown to reduce FLG expression, but its effects on bacterial colonization and on the expression of AMPs and enzymes involved in the barrier lipid synthesis are not known. We established N/TERT-based epidermal models (NEMs), after FLG knockdown (FLG-KD) and/or cultured with IL-31, that were colonized with S. aureus for 24 h. Both FLG-KD and IL-31 supplementation resulted in significantly increased epidermal S. aureus colonization, as well as in an up-regulation of S. aureus-induced IL-8 expression. IL-31, but not FLG-KD, prevented S. aureus-induced up-regulation of mRNA expression for the AMPs human β-defensin 2 and -3 and RNAse7, whereas psoriasin expression remained unchanged. Furthermore, the S. aureus colonization induced changes in mRNA expression of ELOVL4 was not affected by FLG-KD, but was blocked by IL-31. Expression of SCD-1 and Gcase mRNA was reduced by IL-31, but not by FLG-KD. This study shows that NEMs, with FLG-KD and/or cultured in the presence of IL-31, mimic the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis in several aspects, including enhanced bacterial colonization, increased inflammatory and reduced protective responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experimental Transmission of Bovine Digital Dermatitis to Sheep: Development of an Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H; Nally, Jarlath E; Alt, David P; Palmer, Mitchell V; Coatney, John; Plummer, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Digital dermatitis is an infectious cause of lameness primarily affecting cattle but also described in sheep, goats, and wild elk. Digital dermatitis is a polymicrobial infection, involving several Treponema species and other anaerobic bacteria. Although the exact etiology has not been demonstrated, a number of bacterial, host, and environmental factors are thought to contribute to disease development. To study host-bacterial interactions, a reproducible laboratory model of infection is required. The objective of this study was to demonstrate key aspects of bovine digital dermatitis lesions in an easy-to-handle sheep model. Crossbred sheep were obtained from a flock free of hoof disease. Skin between the heel bulb and dewclaw was abraded before wrapping to emulate a moist, anaerobic environment. After 3 days, abraded areas were inoculated with macerated lesion material from active bovine digital dermatitis and remained wrapped. By 2 weeks postinoculation, experimentally inoculated feet developed erosive, erythematous lesions. At 4 weeks postinoculation, microscopic changes in the dermis and epidermis were consistent with those described for bovine digital dermatitis, including erosion, ulceration, hyperkeratosis, ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes, and the presence of neutrophilic infiltrates. Silver staining of lesion biopsy sections confirmed that spirochetes had penetrated the host epidermis. The model was then perpetuated by passaging lesion material from experimentally infected sheep into naïve sheep. This model of bovine digital dermatitis will allow for future novel insights into pathogenic mechanisms of infection, as well as the development of improved diagnostic methods and therapeutics for all affected ruminants.

  16. Stretch Garment Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mihan, Richard; Ayres, Samuel

    1968-01-01

    A disease of the skin, not hitherto described, is caused by pressure or tension on the skin from the wearing of tight-fitting stretch garments such as “stretch bras,” “stretch girdles” and “stretch socks.” The condition is not due to chemical sensitization of fabrics, dyes or other additives but is of mechanical origin. The eruption may assume various clinical forms and may be characterized by a nondescript erythematous and eczematous appearance or may consist of an exaggeration, in the areas covered by the stretch garment, of already existing dermatosis such as lichen planus, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, discoid lupus erythematosus or atopic dermatitis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:5639939

  17. Phototherapy for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rodenbeck, Dorothy L; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is a second-line treatment for moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) that effectively decreases cutaneous inflammation with minimal or no systemic side effects. Children in grade school, adolescents, and adults may benefit from phototherapy, when they have chronic AD refractory to first-line topical treatments. This review focuses on six approaches for phototherapy in AD: (1) broadband ultraviolet B (UVB), (2) Goeckerman regimen (coal tar + broadband UVB), (3) narrowband UVB, (4) excimer lasers for targeted areas, (5) combination UVA/UVB, and (6) UVA-1. Phototherapy can be very effective in some individuals, but it is limited by inconvenience and adverse effects, including limited access to in-office treatment, difficulty adhering to thrice-weekly schedule, flaring from excessive heat, and increased risk of skin cancer. Dosing regimen and treatment concerns are reviewed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts.

    PubMed

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E

    2002-09-01

    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  19. Factors influencing nickel dermatitis. I.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, G J; Spruit, D; Bongaarts, P J; Duller, P

    1978-06-01

    The nickel concentrations in urine and blood plasma of a very hypersensitive female patient have been followed during two periods of 34 and 42 days each. A limited degree of correlation was found between the course of the nickel concentration in plasma, the nickel concentration in urine and the clinical activity of the dermatitis. Evidently other factors also influence the activity of the dermatitis; among these menstruation and stress might be expected to play a role.

  20. Linoleic acid salt with ultrapure soft water as an antibacterial combination against dermato-pathogenic Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Jang, H; Makita, Y; Jung, K; Ishizaka, S; Karasawa, K; Oida, K; Takai, M; Matsuda, H; Tanaka, A

    2016-02-01

    Skin colonization of Staphylococcus spp. critically affects the severity of dermatitis in humans and animals. We examined different types of fatty acid salts for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus spp. when used in ultrapure soft water (UPSW). We also evaluated their therapeutic effect on a spontaneous canine model of dermatitis. UPSW, in which Ca(++) and Mg(++) were replaced with Na(+) , was generated using a water softener with cation-exchange resin. Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus), Staphylococcus intermedius (Staph. intermedius), and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staph. pseudintermedius) were incubated with various fatty acid salts in distilled water (DW) or UPSW and the number of bacteria was counted. Among the fatty acids, oleic acid salt and linoleic acid (LA) salt reduced the number of these bacteria. Also, UPSW enhanced the antibacterial effect of LA on Staph. spp. In spontaneously developed itchy dermatitis in companion dogs, shampoo treatment with liquid soap containing 10% LA in UPSW improved skin conditions. LA salt showed antibacterial activity against Staph. spp. Treatment with soap containing LA with UPSW reduced clinical conditions in dogs with dermatitis. Because colonization of Staph. spp. on the skin exacerbates dermatitis, the use of LA-containing soap in UPSW may reduce unpleasant clinical symptoms of the skin. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Effect of pulsed xenon ultraviolet room disinfection devices on microbial counts for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic bacterial colonies.

    PubMed

    Zeber, John E; Pfeiffer, Christopher; Baddley, John W; Cadena-Zuluaga, Jose; Stock, Eileen M; Copeland, Laurel A; Hendricks, Janet; Mohammadi, Jwan; Restrepo, Marcos I; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2018-04-11

    Inadequate environmental disinfection represents a serious risk for health care-associated infections. Technologic advancements in disinfection practices, including no-touch devices, offer significant promise to improve infection control. We evaluated one such device, portable pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) units, on microbial burden during an implementation trial across 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals. Environmental samples were collected before and after terminal room cleaning: 2 facilities incorporated PX-UV disinfection into their cleaning protocols and 2 practiced manual disinfection only. Specimens from 5 high-touch surfaces were collected from rooms harboring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or aerobic bacteria colonies (ABC). Unadjusted pre-post count reductions and negative binomial regression modeled PX-UV versus manual cleaning alone. Seventy samples were collected. Overall, PX-UV reduced MRSA and ABC counts by 75.3% and 84.1%, respectively, versus only 25%-30% at control sites. Adjusting for baseline counts, manually cleaned rooms had significantly higher residual levels than PX-UV sites. Combined analyses revealed an incident rate ratio of 5.32 (P = .0024), with bedrails, tray tables, and toilet handrails also showing statistically superior PX-UV disinfection. This multicenter study demonstrates significantly reduced disinfection across several common pathogens in facilities using PX-UV devices. Clinical impact of laboratory reductions on infection rates was not assessed, representing a critical future research question. However, such approaches to routine cleaning suggest a practical strategy when integrated into daily hospital operations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Comparison of MRSASelect Agar, CHROMagar Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Medium, and Xpert MRSA PCR for Detection of MRSA in Nares: Diagnostic Accuracy for Surveillance Samples with Various Bacterial Densities ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wolk, D. M.; Marx, J. L.; Dominguez, L.; Driscoll, D.; Schifman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid laboratory methods provide optimal support for active surveillance efforts to screen for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Most laboratories struggle to determine the optimal use of resources, considering options to balance cost, speed, and diagnostic accuracy. To assess the performance of common methods, the first comparison of MRSASelect agar (MS) and CHROMagar MRSA (CA), with and without broth enrichment followed by a 24-h subculture to MS, was performed. Results were compared to those of the Xpert MRSA assay. For direct culture methods, the agreement between MS and CA was 98.8%. At 18 h, direct MS identified 93% of all positive samples from direct culture and 84% of those identified by the Xpert MRSA. For Trypticase soy broth-enriched MS culture, incubated overnight and then subcultured for an additional 24 h, the agreement with Xpert MRSA was 96%. The agreement between direct MS and Xpert MRSA was 100% when semiquantitative culture revealed a bacterial density of 2+ or greater; however, discrepancies between culture and Xpert MRSA arose for MRSA bacterial densities of 1+ or less, indicating low density as a common cause of false-negative culture results. Since 1+ or less was established as the most common MRSA carrier state, broth enrichment or PCR may be critical for the identification of all MRSA carriers who may be reservoirs for transmission. In this active-surveillance convenience sample, the use of broth enrichment followed by subculture to MS offered a low-cost but sensitive method for MRSA screening, with performance similar to that of Xpert MRSA PCR. PMID:19828738

  3. The π Configuration of the WWW Motif of a Short Trp-Rich Peptide Is Critical for Targeting Bacterial Membranes, Disrupting Preformed Biofilms, and Killing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zarena, D; Mishra, Biswajit; Lushnikova, Tamara; Wang, Fangyu; Wang, Guangshun

    2017-08-08

    Tryptophan-rich peptides, being short and suitable for large-scale chemical synthesis, are attractive candidates for developing a new generation of antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria (superbugs). Although there are numerous pictures of the membrane-bound structure of a single tryptophan (W), how multiple Trp amino acids assemble themselves and interact with bacterial membranes is poorly understood. This communication presents the three-dimensional structure of an eight-residue Trp-rich peptide (WWWLRKIW-NH 2 with 50% W) determined by the improved two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance method, which includes the measurements of 13 C and 15 N chemical shifts at natural abundance. This peptide forms the shortest two-turn helix with a distinct amphipathic feature. A unique structural arrangement is identified for the Trp triplet, WWW, that forms a π configuration with W2 as the horizontal bar and W1/W3 forming the two legs. An arginine scan reveals that the WWW motif is essential for killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and disrupting preformed bacterial biofilms. This unique π configuration for the WWW motif is stabilized by aromatic-aromatic interactions as evidenced by ring current shifts as well as nuclear Overhauser effects. Because the WWW motif is maintained, a change of I7 to R led to a potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm peptide with 4-fold improvement in cell selectivity. Collectively, this study elucidated the structural basis of antibiofilm activity of the peptide, identified a better peptide candidate via structure-activity relationship studies, and laid the foundation for engineering future antibiotics based on the WWW motif.

  4. [Skin tests in chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bernier, C; Gélot, P

    2014-06-01

    Chronic hand dermatitis is often multifactorial but allergic causes are frequent and can complicate atopic dermatitis or irritant dermatitis. The management of patients affected by hand dermatitis includes detailed interrogation and a complete examination of the skin. Allergologic tests must be systematically realized if examination is suggestive of contact dermatitis or protein contact dermatitis, if an occupational origin is suspected but also in all patients in which treatment is ineffective. Skin tests include patch tests with the European standard series, specialized or additional series if necessary. Skin tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis. If protein contact dermatitis is suspected skin tests include prick tests. Only complete and definitive eviction of allergens can allow a complete and definitive cure of chronic hand dermatitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Intracellular Biosynthesis of Fluorescent CdSe Quantum Dots in Bacillus subtilis: A Strategy to Construct Signaling Bacterial Probes for Visually Detecting Interaction Between Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Ai, Xiao-Xia; Su, Yi-Long; Liu, Xin-Ying; Shan, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Mei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells' surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior.

  6. Efficacy of using a hydrodebrider and of citric acid/zwitterionic surfactant on a Staphylococcus aureus bacterial biofilm in the sheep model of rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Rowan; Jervis-Bardy, Josh; Psaltis, Alkis; Tan, Lor Wai; Wormald, Peter-John

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients are associated with recalcitrant disease patterns. Citric acid/zwitterionic surfactant (CAZS) has been shown to have significant efficacy at in vitro biofilm eradication. Unique hydrodebrider systems have been shown to have effective antibiofilm efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CAZS/hydrodebrider treatment on Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in the sheep model of CRS. Forty-two sheep frontal sinuses were inoculated with S. aureus, followed by 7 days of biofilm growth. Sinuses were randomized to one of nine treatment groups: control, hydrodebrider with saline or CAZS (killed on day 0 or day 7 posttreatment), CAZS, or saline flush (killed on day 0 or day 7 posttreatment). Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) was used to confirm extent of biofilm reduction. Samples of each sinus were taken, assessing cilia morphology using electron microscopy. A mean of 37.22 ± 9.65% of control (no treatment) CSLM images taken showed biofilms. Both CAZS flush and CAZS/hydrodebrider treatments showed initial improvements in biofilms but biofilm regrowth followed treatment, 14.74 ± 9.58% to 18.91 ± 12.14% and 15.60 ± 13.92% to 24.70 ± 3.66%, respectively (p > 0.05). Saline/hydrodebrider treatments showed a nonsignificant improvement in biofilm treatment, which was maintained, 18.34 ± 11.85% to 12.04 ± 10.28% (p > 0.05). Cilial morphology grade was significantly worse in the CAZS treatment groups (p < 0.05). CAZS solution (with and without a hydrodebrider system) can significantly adversely affect cilia morphology. The hydrodebrider system, when combined with saline, may be a useful treatment adjunct for mucosal biofilms.

  7. Impact of neonatal intensive care bed configuration on rates of late-onset bacterial sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Samuel; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Sellenriek, Patricia; Shannon, William D.; Hamvas, Aaron; Tarr, Phillip I.; Warner, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The association between nursery design and nosocomial infections has not been delineated. We hypothesized that rates of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), late-onset sepsis, and mortality are reduced in single-patient rooms. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting NICU in a tertiary referral center. Methods Our NICU is organized into single-patient and open-unit rooms. Clinical datasets including bed location and microbiology results were examined over a 29-month period. Differences in outcomes between bed configurations were determined by Chi-square and Cox regression. Patients All NICU patients. Results Among 1823 patients representing 55,166 patient-days, single-patient and open-unit models had similar incidences of MRSA colonization and MRSA colonization-free survival times. Average daily census was associated with MRSA colonization rates only in single-patient rooms (hazard ratio 1.31, p=0.039), while hand hygiene compliance on room entry and exit was associated with lower colonization rates independent of bed configuration (hazard ratios 0.834 and 0.719 per 1% higher compliance, respectively). Late-onset sepsis rates were similar in single-patient and open-unit models as were sepsis-free survival and the combined outcome of sepsis or death. After controlling for demographic, clinical and unit-based variables, multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that bed configuration had no effect on MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis, or mortality. Conclusions MRSA colonization rate was impacted by hand hygiene compliance, regardless of room configuration, while average daily census only affected infants in single-patient rooms. Single-patient rooms did not reduce the rates of MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis or death. PMID:26108888

  8. Use of adhesion-defective mutants of Staphylococcus aureus to define the role of specific plasma proteins in promoting bacterial adhesion to canine arteriovenous shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Vaudaux, P E; François, P; Proctor, R A; McDevitt, D; Foster, T J; Albrecht, R M; Lew, D P; Wabers, H; Cooper, S L

    1995-01-01

    We used an ex vivo canine arteriovenous shunt model, previously developed to study plasma protein adsorption and thrombogenesis on polymeric biomaterials, to define the role of host proteins in promoting adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus. Either polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride tubings were exposed to canine blood for 5, 15, or 60 min at a flow rate of 300 ml/min and then were flushed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), cut into 1.5-cm segments, and stored at -70 degrees C. After thawing, each segment was preincubated in 0.5% albumin in PBS to prevent nonspecific staphylococcal attachment to surfaces that were not exposed to blood. Each segment was then incubated with 4 x 10(6) CFU of [3H]thymidine-labelled S. aureus per ml for 60 min at 37 degrees C in an in vitro adhesion assay. Two site-specific mutants of S. aureus were tested: one specifically defective in adhesion to surface-bound fibronectin (FnAd-def) and the other defective in adhesion to fibrinogen (FgAD-def) [corrected]. Compared with their respective parental strains, the FgAd-def, but not the FnAd-def, mutant of S. aureus showed a strong (> 80%) decrease in attachment to ex vivo tubings. The adhesion of each strain of S. aureus onto polyethylene was consistently more than twofold higher than the adhesion onto polyvinyl chloride segments exposed to flowing blood for 5 or 15 min, but adhesion became similar to that on polyvinyl chloride after 60 min of exposure. In conclusion, the specific adhesion-defective mutants of S. aureus suggested that fibrinogen was the most active adhesion-promoting protein in a short-term blood-material interaction. The experimental approach described in this study should prove useful for screening materials thought to be resistant to protein-mediated staphylococcal adhesion and colonization. PMID:7822026

  9. Genetics of nickel allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schram, Sarah E; Warshaw, Erin M

    2007-09-01

    Nickel sulfate is the most frequently detected cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the world; the prevalence of nickel allergic contact dermatitis is between 8 and 11% in the general female population. Although it is well recognized that environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis of this dermatitis, some investigators have hypothesized that genetic factors are important as well. This review summarizes animal and human studies evaluating genetic factors in the development of allergic contact dermatitis from nickel.

  10. Malassezia species and seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Zisova, Lilia G

    2009-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are medically important dimorphic, lipophilic yeasts that form part of the normal cutaneous microflora of human. Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactor disease that needs endogenous and exogenous predisposing factors for its development. Presence of these factors leads to reproduction of the saprophytic opportunistic pathogen Malassezia spp. and development of a disease. The inflammatory reaction against the yeast Malassezia is considered basic in the etiology of the seborrheic dermatitis. The pathogenesis and exact mechanisms via which these yeasts cause inflammation are still not fully elucidated. They are rather complex and subject of controversy in literature. Most probably Malassezia spp. cause seborrheic dermatitis by involving and combining both nonummune and immune mechanisms (nonspecific and specific). Which of these mechanisms will dominate in any single case depends on the number and virulence of the yeasts as well as on the microorganism reactivity. In the recent years a great interest have been aroused by the epidemiological investigations. Depending on the geographical place of the countries different Malassezia species in seborrheic dermatitis dominate in the different countries. In view of the etiology and pathogenesis of the seborrheic dermatitis comprehensive antifungal preparations have been recently introduced and are nowadays the basic therapeutic resource in the treatment of this disease.

  11. Plant hair dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V; Haegi, L A

    1992-05-04

    To survey the ill effects of plant hairs on humans in Australia, incorporating new records. Retrospective analysis of new records, in some cases confirmed and supplemented by experimental skin contacts, along with a general survey of relevant literature. Reports of accidental injuries submitted to the authors, through either medical or other sources, and to the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium of South Australia, were studied and compared with existing literature; in some cases the effects were confirmed experimentally. A general survey of plant hair dermatitis in Australia is offered. Most species included have been referred to in the scattered earlier literature, but a few plants not previously recorded as irritating are included, notably Apalochlamys spectabilis, Wisteria sinensis and Grevillea species. Attention is also called to the penetrating and irritating pod spines of Brachychiton spp. (kurrajongs and relatives) and Lagunaria patersonii (Norfolk Island hibiscus or pyramid tree), which are often planted as ornamental street trees. Generally those most likely to receive these injuries are gardeners and children.

  12. Tungsten lamp and chronic actinic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Lan, Cheng-Che E

    2017-02-01

    Chronic actinic dermatitis is often associated with sensitivity to UV light. It is not well recognised that chronic actinic dermatitis may be exacerbated by light in the visible spectrum. We describe an unusual case of chronic actinic dermatitis exacerbated by a tungsten lamp, which emits light in the visible spectrum. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  14. Occupational dermatitis from IPPD in tires.

    PubMed

    Ancona, A; Monroy, F; Fernández-Diez, J

    1982-03-01

    A tire assembler developed contact dermatitis from IPPD, a rubber antioxidant. The lichenoid clinical pattern corresponded histologically to lichenified dermatitis. Tire assemblers appear to acquire contact dermatitis to this aromatic amine more frequently than any other workers in the tire manufacturing industry. Possible adjuvant factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  15. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., and...

  16. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., and...

  17. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., and...

  18. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., and...

  19. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., and...

  20. An update on the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Olivry, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease seen in veterinary clinical practice. Several factors appear to contribute to the cutaneous inflammation and pruritus. The therapeutic strategy should focus on control of those factors that can be identified and for which interventional measures are feasible; these include ectoparasites, bacterial/fungal infection and dietary hypersensitivity. Ectoparasites, particularly fleas, are not the cause of atopic dermatitis, but they are a confounding factor, which can exacerbate pruritus, and preventative measures are therefore indicated. Bacterial and yeast infections are frequently associated with atopic dermatitis and initial systemic and/or topical therapy should be considered, followed by regular topical treatment for preventing relapse. Concurrent dietary hypersensitivity should be investigated by undertaking an elimination/provocation trial, followed by feeding of a hypoallergenic diet where appropriate. Depending on the severity of the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis and the willingness and expectations of owners, symptomatic treatment and/or specific interventional therapy for environmental allergy (allergen avoidance, allergen-specific immunotherapy) may be implemented. Symptomatic treatment includes use of glucocorticoids (systemically or topically), ciclosporin and oclacitinib. Other treatment modalities of lower or less proven efficacy include antihistamines, dextromethorphan, fatty acids, feline interferon-omega, misoprostol, pentoxifylline, specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressant drugs. The therapeutic approach should be reviewed at regular intervals and tailored to the individual's needs. A successful long-term outcome can usually be achieved by combining the various treatment approaches in a way that maximises their benefits and minimises their drawbacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Patrizi, A; Bellini, F; Medri, M

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease which usually starts during the first years of life. In the management of AD, the correct approach requires a combination of multiple treatments to identify and eliminate trigger factors, and to improve the alteration of the skin barrier. In this article we try to explain the importance of skin care in the management of AD in relation to the use of textiles: they may be useful to improve disrupted skin but they are also a possible cause of triggering or worsening the lesions. Garments are in direct contact with the skin all day long, and for this reason it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics in atopic subjects who have disrupted skin. Owing to their hygienic properties fabrics produced from natural fibres are preferential. Wool fibres are frequently used in human clothes but are irritant in direct contact with the skin. Wool fibre has frequently been shown to be irritant to the skin of atopic patients, and for this reason wool intolerance was included as a minor criterion in the diagnostic criteria of AD by Hanifin and Rajka in 1980. Cotton is the most commonly used textile for patients with AD; it has wide acceptability as clothing material because of its natural abundance and inherent properties like good folding endurance, better conduction of heat, easy dyeability and excellent moisture absorption. Silk fabrics help to maintain the body temperature by reducing the excessive sweating and moisture loss that can worsen xerosis. However, the type of silk fabric generally used for clothes is not particularly useful in the care and dressing of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort when in direct contact with the skin. A new type of silk fabric made of transpiring and slightly elastic woven silk is now commercially available (Microair Dermasilk) and may be used for the skin care of children with AD. The presence of increased bacterial colonization

  2. [Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Laguna, C; de la Cuadra, J; Martín-González, B; Zaragoza, V; Martínez-Casimiro, L; Alegre, V

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common problem in the general population, although its prevalence appears to be underestimated. We reviewed cases of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics diagnosed in our dermatology department over a 7-year period with a view to identifying the allergens responsible, the frequency of occurrence of these allergens, and the cosmetic products implicated. Using the database of the skin allergy department, we undertook a search of all cases of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics diagnosed in our department from January 2000 through October 2007. In this period, patch tests were carried out on 2,485 patients, of whom 740 were diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and the cause was cosmetics in 202 of these patients (170 women and 32 men), who accounted for 27.3 % of all cases. A total of 315 positive results were found for 46 different allergens. Allergens most often responsible for contact dermatitis in a cosmetics user were methylisothiazolinone (19 %), paraphenylenediamine (15.2 %), and fragrance mixtures (7.8 %). Acrylates were the most common allergens in cases of occupational disease. Half of the positive results were obtained with the standard battery of the Spanish Group for Research Into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies (GEIDAC). The cosmetic products most often implicated among cosmetics users were hair dyes (18.5 %), gels/soaps (15.7 %), and moisturizers (12.7 %). Most patients affected were women. Preservatives, paraphenylenediamine, and fragrances were the most frequently detected cosmetic allergens, in line with previous reports in the literature. Finally, in order to detect new cosmetic allergens, cooperation between physicians and cosmetics producers is needed.

  3. Bindi dermatitis to 'chandan' bindi.

    PubMed

    Tewary, M; Ahmed, I

    2006-12-01

    Bindi (meaning dot in Sanskrit) is a mark worn by most Indian women on their forehead for religious and social purposes. Traditionally it was worn by only Hindu women to signify their marital status. Nowadays, it is a huge fashion accessory, being worn in different sizes, shapes, designs and colours. The variety includes sequined designs, motifs dusted with gold and silver powder, studded with beads, or even surrounded by glittering gems. Stick-on and liquid ranges are both equally in demand. We report a case of bindi dermatitis with 'chandan' (sandalwood) bindi. To our knowledge this is the first report of contact allergic dermatitis to 'chandan' (sandalwood) bindi.

  4. Crystal deodorant dermatitis: irritant dermatitis to alum-containing deodorant.

    PubMed

    Gallego, H; Lewis, E J; Crutchfield, C E

    1999-07-01

    Two patients developed an irritant dermatitis of the axillae shortly after using an over-the-counter "natural deodorant crystal" product containing alum. We discuss this previously unreported, untoward reaction to alum, an ancient agent with newfound popularity as an alternative health product.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis in children with and without atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schena, Donatella; Papagrigoraki, Anastasia; Tessari, Gianpaolo; Peroni, Anna; Sabbadini, Chiara; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence and causes of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children vary with time and geographical area. This study aimed to determine the relevant allergens causing ACD in children and the relation between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD). A cohort study on 349 children (0-15 years old) patch tested over a 7-year period was conducted. Patch test results were positive for at least 1 allergen in 69.3% of patients and were relevant in 69.8%. The highest sensitization rate (76.7%) was observed in children who are 0 to 5 years old (n = 86, 64% females), followed by the group of 6- to 10-year olds (70%, n = 157, 47.8% females), whereas 62.3% of 11- to 15-year-old children (n = 106, 59.4%) were sensitized. The most frequent allergens were nickel (16.3%), cobalt (6.9%), Kathon CG (5.4%), potassium dichromate (5.1%), fragrance mix (4.3%), and neomycin (4.3%). Body areas mostly affected were upper limbs and hands (31%). Approximately one third of children also had AD. Allergic contact dermatitis was more widespread in children with AD. Patch tests resulted positive in 55.3% (50% relevant) of AD compared with 76.9% (77.5% relevant) of the children without AD. Sensitizers were similar to children without AD. Very young children showed a high rate of relevant positive patch test reactions to common haptens. Allergic contact dermatitis may easily coexist with AD.

  6. Is dermatitis palmaris sicca an irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Juan; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yong-Hua; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis palmaris sicca (DPS) is a common dry-fissured palmar dermatitis in Asian women. It may be an irritant contact dermatitis, but the immunophenotype of the cells in its infiltrate is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of inflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of DPS. Patch testing was done in 68 patients with DPS, 87 subjects with hand eczema, and 31 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of cutaneous inflammatory cells was performed in 8 patients with DPS, 10 subjects with hand eczema, and 8 healthy individuals. Positive patch rates were higher in patients with DPS and those with hand eczema compared with healthy controls, but strong positive (++ or +++) reactions in DPS were fewer compared with hand eczema. Density of CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 cells in skin lesions of DPS and hand eczema was significantly higher than that in normal skin. Sparse CD20 cells were present only in hand eczema. Compared with hand eczema, the number of CD3, CD8, CD68, and dermal CD1a cells decreased, but epidermal CD1a cells and CD4/CD8 ratio increased in DPS. The absolute lack of CD20 cells and relative scarcity of dermal CD8 and CD1a cells in skin lesions might be insufficient to induce contact hypersensitivity, so DPS may be an irritant but not allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Amira; Munir, Tehmina; Rehman, Sabahat; Najeeb, Sara; Gilani, Mehreen; Latif, Mahwish; Ansari, Maliha; Saad, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Quasi-experimental study. Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30 μg) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was ≤ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 °C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  9. Efficiency of vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructures against bacterial adherence and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Bilcu, Maxim; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Popescu, Roxana Cristina; Mogoșanu, George Dan; Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, George A; Mihailescu, Dan Florin; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-11-04

    Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14) in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties.

  10. Both anti-TNF and CTLA4 Ig treatments attenuate the disease severity of staphylococcal dermatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Na, Manli; Wang, Wanzhong; Fei, Ying; Josefsson, Elisabet; Ali, Abukar

    2017-01-01

    Background RA patients being treated with biologics are known to have an increased risk of infections. We recently demonstrated that both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatment aggravate systemic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in mice, but with distinct clinical manifestations. However, the effects of CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatments on a local S. aureus infection (e.g., skin infection) might differ from their effects on a systemic infection. Aims The aim of this study was to examine the differential effects of anti-TNF versus CTLA4 Ig treatment on S. aureus skin infections in mice. Method Abatacept (CTLA4 Ig), etanercept (anti-TNF treatment) or PBS was given to NMRI mice subcutaneously inoculated with S. aureus strain SH1000. The clinical signs of dermatitis, along with histopathological changes due to skin infection, were compared between the groups. Results Both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatment resulted in less severe skin infections and smaller post-infectious hyperpigmentation compared with controls. Consistent with the clinical signs of dermatitis, smaller lesion size, more epithelial hyperplasia and more granulation were found in skin biopsies from mice receiving anti-TNF compared with PBS controls. However, both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF therapy tended to prolong the healing time, although this finding was not statistically significant. Serum MCP-1 levels were elevated in the anti-TNF group relative to the CTLA4 Ig and PBS groups, whereas IL-6 levels were higher in PBS controls than in the other two groups. Both anti-TNF and CTLA4 Ig treatments tended to down-regulate the necrosis/apoptosis ratio in the locally infected skin tissue. Importantly, no tangible difference was found in the bacterial burden among groups. Conclusion Both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF therapies attenuate disease severity but may prolong the healing time required for S. aureus skin infections. Neither treatment has an impact on bacterial clearance in skin tissues. PMID:28264025

  11. Diffuse HIV-associated seborrheic dermatitis - a case series.

    PubMed

    Forrestel, Amy K; Kovarik, Carrie L; Mosam, Anisa; Gupta, Deepti; Maurer, Toby A; Micheletti, Robert G

    2016-12-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is reported to have distinct clinical and histologic presentations in patients with HIV infection. Here we present 20 cases to further define some of these unique characteristics. Common features include erythematous, scaly papules, and plaques involving areas beyond the typical seborrheic distribution; thick, greasy scale on the scalp; and an increased frequency of erythroderma. Histologically, there is widespread parakeratosis, spongiosis, and necrotic keratinocytes. Treatment is often difficult, requiring prolonged use of oral and topical antifungals and corticosteroids as well as antibiotics for bacterial superinfection. SD with these features represents a marker for HIV infection and can aid in early diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Animal Models of Bacterial Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Marquart, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial keratitis is a disease of the cornea characterized by pain, redness, inflammation, and opacity. Common causes of this disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Animal models of keratitis have been used to elucidate both the bacterial factors and the host inflammatory response involved in the disease. Reviewed herein are animal models of bacterial keratitis and some of the key findings in the last several decades. PMID:21274270

  13. Atopic Dermatitis in Children: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Jonathan J.; Milner, Joshua D.; Stone, Kelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, highly pruritic skin condition resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier and associated immune dysregulation in the skin of genetically predisposed hosts. AD generally develops in early childhood, has a characteristic age-dependent distribution and is commonly associated with elevated IgE, peripheral eosinophilia and other allergic diseases. Staphylococcus aureus colonization is common and may contribute to disease progression and severity. Targeted therapies to restore both impaired skin barrier and control inflammation are required for optimal outcomes for patients with moderate to severe disease. Pruritus is universal among patients with AD and has a dominant impact on diminishing quality of life. Medications such as anti-histamines have demonstrated poor efficacy in controlling AD-associated itch. Education of patients regarding the primary underlying defects and provision of a comprehensive skin care plan is essential for disease maintenance and management of flares. PMID:25459583

  14. Retinal Detachment Associated With Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Nikisha; Young, Ryan C; Read, Sarah P; Tutiven, Jacqueline; Perez, Victor L; Flynn, Harry W; Berrocal, Audina M

    2017-06-01

    Ocular manifestations related to atopic dermatitis include keratoconus, keratoconjunctivitis, cataract, and retinal detachment. The authors report three cases of retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis. Although the pathogenesis is poorly understood, chronic blunt trauma may play a role in the development of retinal detachment. In addition, retinal detachments associated with atopic dermatitis may have lower rates of successful retinal detachment repair. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:513-517.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Mast cells in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Toshiaki; Ando, Tomoaki; Kimura, Miho; Wilson, Bridget S.; Kawakami, Yuko

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances Mast cells play as the major effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity through activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, although many other functions have recently been discovered for this cell type. Given the broad array of proinflammatory mediators secreted from FcεRI-activated mast cells, as well as sensitization to allergens, IgE elevation, and increased mast cells in a majority of atopic dermatitis patients, mast cells are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Numerous animal models have been used to study this epidemic disease. Here we review the recent progress to synthesize our current understanding of this disease and potential mechanisms for a mast cell's role in the disease. PMID:19828304

  16. Teaching interventions in contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Florian; Schliemann, Sibylle; Antonov, Dimitar; Elsner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Prevention of occupational contact dermatitis is of utmost significance for both insurers and legislators because it can preserve the individual's ability to work and result in decreased costs for public health. In the last 20 years, many concepts for educational interventions and a multitude of teaching aids have been developed by insurance associations and public institutions from different countries (eg, the United States, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, and Germany). For didactic purposes, terms of different levels of prevention have been inaugurated in northern Europe in the context of occupational dermatology. This review presents different educational interventions in the fields of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention as well as evaluation studies of these measures, especially among health care workers, hairdressers, metalworkers, and bakers' apprentices. Special emphasis is put on the prevention of allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. The history of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Owen N; Strom, Mark A; Ladizinski, Barry; Lio, Peter A

    Fred Wise (1881-1950) and Marion Sulzberger (1895-1983) are often credited with introducing the term atopic dermatitis to dermatology in 1933. This definition was based on atopy, a term first created by Arthur Coca (1875-1959) and Robert Cooke (1880-1960) in 1923, when they recognized an association between allergic rhinitis and asthma. Despite its recent introduction into our medical lexicon, historical precursors of atopic dermatitis date back to at least as early as 69-140 ce. In this contribution, we highlight both the prominent individuals credited with shaping the disorder into our current interpretation and the suspected historical precursors of this disease and reported treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Itch in Atopic Dermatitis Management.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Yayoi; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from chronic inflammatory dermatitis and antihistamine-resistant itch. The management of intractable pruritus in AD is important, requiring the development of new therapeutic approaches. At present, the standard treatments for AD include topical anti-inflammatory drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids. Topical emollient treatment is recommended to moisten the skin and to restore and maintain barrier function. Phototherapy is also effective in reducing the number of epidermal nerve fibers, normalizing imbalances in the levels of expression of axon guidance molecules, and inhibiting pruritus. Systemic treatments such as cyclosporine A and aprepitant are used to treat severe and intractable pruritus in AD. Clinical trials of dupilumab and CIM331 have displayed a significant reduction of pruritus in patients with AD. New antipruritic approaches are targeted to the central nervous system such as spinal interneurons and glial cells. This chapter describes therapeutic approaches for attenuating intractable itch in AD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  20. Dermatitis associated with Cheyletiella infestation in cats.

    PubMed

    McKeever, P J; Allen, S K

    1979-04-01

    Cheyletiella sp mites were isolated from 8 cats with pruritic dermatitis characterized by erythematous papules or increased scaling. Lesions cleared after treatments with malathion (dips) or pyrethrin (shampoos).

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  3. Diaper area skin microflora of normal children and children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Keswick, B H; Seymour, J L; Milligan, M C

    1987-01-01

    In vitro studies established that neither cloth nor disposable diapers demonstrably contributed to the growth of Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans when urine was present as a growth medium. In a clinical study of 166 children, the microbial skin flora of children with atopic dermatitis was compared with the flora of children with normal skin to determine the influence of diaper type. No biologically significant differences were detected between groups wearing disposable or cloth diapers in terms of frequency of isolation or log mean recovery of selected skin flora. Repeated isolation of S. aureus correlated with atopic dermatitis. The log mean recovery of S. aureus was higher in the atopic groups. The effects of each diaper type on skin microflora were equivalent in the normal and atopic populations. PMID:3546360

  4. Cheyletiella dermatitis: a report of fourteen cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, B W

    1991-02-01

    Cheyletiella dermatitis is an infrequently reported eruption caused by an ectoparasite whose normal hosts are household pets. Fourteen cases, documented over an eight-year period, are reported. All cases were found in one practice in a small community. Typical patients are female, aged forty years or younger, who experience pruritic papules in the winter months. Cheyletiella dermatitis is not a rare problem.

  5. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eyelid dermatitis: an evaluation of 447 patients.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Fabio; Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Bacchilega, Roberto; Berardesca, Enzo; Caraffini, Stefano; Corazza, Monica; Flori, Maria Laura; Francalanci, Stefano; Guarrera, Marcella; Lisi, Paolo; Santucci, Baldassarre; Schena, Donatella; Suppa, Francesco; Valsecchi, Rossano; Vincenzi, Colombina; Balato, Nicola

    2003-06-01

    Eyelids can be affected by various types of dermatitis that are often difficult to diagnose. The aim of the study was to establish some guidelines for a correct diagnosis. A total of 447 patients treated at 12 research units for eczema or other inflammatory dermatitis located on the eyelids were invited to complete a questionnaire. When necessary, patch tests with haptens of the standard series from Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca sulle Dermatiti da Contatto e Ambientali della Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Venereologia (SIDEV-GIRDCA) were performed. Of the subjects studied, 50.2 % were diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); 20.9% were affected by irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), 13.5% by atopic dermatitis, 6.3% by seborrheic dermatitis, 6.5% by aspecific xerotic dermatitis, and 2.3% by psoriasis. Approximately 91% of all subjects reported an absence of familial atopy. A significant statistical association between diagnosis type and a personal history of atopy was evident (p <.000001, chi-square test). The results of gradual logistic regression models showed four-eyelid involvement as the main risk factor for ACD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.1); with ICD, the main risk factor was the onset of symptoms at between 2 and 6 months (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.0), whereas for atopic dermatitis, the main risk factors were the onset of symptoms later than 6 months and a personal history of atopy (OR = 4.9 and 3.6, respectively). Results suggest that many characteristics of the patients examined can be used for the differential diagnosis of palpebral eczematous dermatitis.

  7. Seborrheic dermatitis among Oxford renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lally, A; Casabonne, D; Newton, R; Wojnarowska, F

    2010-05-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of 1-3% in the general population. It is recognized more commonly in those infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). No studies have looked at Seborrheic dermatitis in the context of immunosuppression secondary to organ transplantation. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of Seborrheic dermatitis in a renal transplant population and characteristics of those affected. A prospective study of 308 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) was carried out. All participants were examined for Seborrheic dermatitis. Descriptive statistics were employed and associations with Seborrheic dermatitis were examined using Fisher's exact test to calculate P-exact values, and Student's t-test was used to compare mean ages and time since transplantation. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 14.0 for Windows. Seborrheic dermatitis was identified in 29/308 (9.5%) patients and was more common in males (P-exact = 0.004) and in those who had been transplanted for longer (P = 0.02). The disease was mild-moderate severity in the majority but an unusual flexural appearance was recorded in 7/29 patients. Seborrheic dermatitis was less likely in those taking prednisolone (P-exact = 0.006) or tacrolimus (P-exact = 0.008). Seborrheic dermatitis was significantly associated with cutaneous malignancy, in particular squamous cell carcinoma (P-exact < 0.0001). Seborrheic dermatitis is more common than other inflammatory dermatoses in immunosuppressed RTRs, but is not as frequent as in those immunosuppressed secondary to HIV. Degree and duration of exposure to immunosuppression and increased colonization with Malassezia yeast genus are likely be important in the aetiology of Seborrheic dermatitis in RTRs. Further studies are required to clarify this.

  8. Acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Adam J; Kole, Lauren; Moran, Meena S

    2017-01-01

    Nearly all women who receive radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer experience some degree of radiation dermatitis. However, evidence describing the appropriate management of radiation dermatitis is often lacking or contradictory. Here, we summarize the available literature regarding radiation dermatitis causes, the presentation and timing of symptoms, methods for dermatitis assessment and prevention, and review evidence-based management strategies. PMID:28503074

  9. Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, A. George F.; Campbell, J. Alexander

    1992-01-01

    A national survey of 1937 members of the Canadian Celiac Association was conducted by mail questionnaire in June 1989 to study problems in diagnosing and managing celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis. Although 82% of the 1294 respondents were biopsied, 14% were diagnosed by their dramatic response to the gluten-free diet. Fifteen percent of biopsy-proven respondents saw five or more doctors before CD was diagnosed. Mean delays in diagnosis ranged from 5.8 (±10.9) years for those with nausea or vomiting to 13.9 (±14.5) years for those with headache or migraine. PMID:21221346

  10. [Seborrheic dermatitis in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Francesca; Mercuri, Santo Raffaele; Naldi, Luigi

    2011-03-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin condition characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches in areas rich in sebaceous glands. It is one of the most frequent skin disorders and may be socially embarrassing. Fungi of the genus Malassezia, lipid-dependent, ubiquitous skin residents, play a pathogenic role. Topical antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole) are the mainstay of treatment, and if used intermittently they can maintain remission. The vehicle itself may also play a relevant role. Improvements in diagnostic criteria, severity measures and outcome variables are needed to better design clinical trials and inform clinical practice.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis infections on implants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, W F; Silva, P M S; Silva, R C S; Silva, G M M; Machado, G; Coelho, L C B B; Correia, M T S

    2018-02-01

    Infections are one of the main reasons for removal of implants from patients, and usually need difficult and expensive treatments. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequently detected pathogens. We reviewed the epidemiology and pathogenesis of implant-related infections. Relevant studies were identified by electronic searching of the following databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Academic Google, and CAPES Journal Portal. This review reports epidemiological studies of implant infections caused by S. aureus and S. epidermidis. We discuss some methodologies used in the search for new compounds with antibiofilm activity and the main strategies for biomaterial surface modifications to avoid bacterial plaque formation and consequent infection. S. aureus and S. epidermidis are frequently involved in infections in catheters and orthopaedic/breast implants. Different methodologies have been used to test the potential antibiofilm properties of compounds; for example, crystal violet dye is widely used for in-vitro biofilm quantification due to its low cost and good reproducibility. Changes in the surface biomaterials are necessary to prevent biofilm formation. Some studies have investigated the immobilization of antibiotics on the surfaces of materials used in implants. Other approaches have been used as a way to avoid the spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials, such as the functionalization of these surfaces with silver and natural compounds, as well as the electrical treatment of these substrates. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent Insights into Atopic Dermatitis and Implications for Management of Infectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Leung, Donald Y. M.

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, complex disease that frequently follows a chronic, relapsing course and impacts the quality of life of patients and families in a significant manner. New insights into the pathophysiology of AD point to an important role of structural abnormalities in the epidermis combined with immune dysregulation. Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by a number of microbial organisms, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simpex virus. A multi-pronged approach directed at healing or protecting the skin barrier and addressing the immune dysregulation is necessary to improve the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20109729

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2013-11-01

    Chlorhexidine is a commonly used antiseptic agent in the health-care setting. Although exposure to chlorhexidine is very common, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is rarely reported. We report a case series of ACD to chlorhexidine in health-care workers and discuss our rates of allergy to chlorhexidine, from patch-testing performed at the Skin and Cancer Foundation, Melbourne, Australia. Of 7890 patients patch-tested, 840 patients were tested to 0.5% chlorhexidine diacetate with 28 (3%) positive reactions, 13 (2%) of which relevant to their presenting dermatitis. Altogether 1565 patients were tested to 0.5% chlorhexidine digluconate, with 47 (3%) positive reactions, 16 (1%) of which were relevant. We estimate our rate of relevant chlorhexidine ACD from our total clinic patients, non-occupational and occupational, to be at least 19/7890 (0.24%). Our rate of relevant chlorhexidine ACD in health-care workers is 10/541 (2%). Interestingly, our rates of chlorhexidine allergy are slightly higher than documented elsewhere. This raises the possibility that chlorhexidine is underestimated as an allergen worldwide, and should be tested for in health-care workers where there is a history of exposure. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Evolving Concepts in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sidbury, Robert; Khorsand, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Tremendous advances have been made in the field of atopic dermatitis in the past 5 years. We will explore developments in burden of disease, co-morbidities, pathogenesis, prevention, and management. The tremendous burden moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) places on families from a medical, psychosocial, and financial perspective has been characterized. Epidemiologic studies have identified intriguing new associations beyond the well-characterized "atopic march" of food allergies, asthma, and hay fever. Studies of primary prevention have gained traction including the remarkable impacts of early emollient therapy. Basic advances have simultaneously elucidated the nature of atopic inflammation, setting the stage for an explosion of new potential therapeutic targets. After a fallow period of nearly 15 years without a substantial therapeutic advance, this year has already seen two new FDA-approved treatments for AD. AD has a tremendous impact on quality of life with an underappreciated burden of disease; there are important newly described co-morbidities including ADHD and anemia; new insights into etio-pathogenesis have paved the way for novel topical therapies like crisaborole, and new systemic interventions like dupilumab.

  15. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient.

  16. Expression of interleukin-4 in the epidermis of transgenic mice results in a pruritic inflammatory skin disease: an experimental animal model to study atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chan, L S; Robinson, N; Xu, L

    2001-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease that occurs with increasing prevalence, is characterized by hyperactivated cytokines of helper T cell subset 2 and is frequently associated with staphylococcal infection. An experimental animal model of atopic dermatitis induced by transgenically introduced cytokine is not available. We generated a transgenic mouse line expressing epidermal interleukin-4, a critical cytokine of helper T cell subset 2. Here we show that transgenic mice spontaneously developed a pruritic inflammatory skin disease reproducing all key features of human atopic dermatitis, including xerosis, conjunctivitis, inflammatory skin lesions, Staphylococcus aureus infection, histopathology of chronic dermatitis with T cell, mast cell, macrophage-like mononuclear cell, and eosinophil infiltration, and elevation of total serum IgE and IgG1. The onset and early progression of skin disease coincided with increased total serum IgE and IgG1. The mouse disease occurred at a 43% annual incidence rate and primarily affected the poorly haired skin: ear (100%), neck (65%), eye (53%), face (29%), tail (12%), leg (12%), and torso (6%). As a group the affected transgenic mice manifested with a skin disorder that fulfilled the clinical diagnostic criteria established for atopic dermatitis in human patients. Pending further characterization to authenticate it as a model of atopic dermatitis, this experimental animal model of pruritic inflammatory skin disease may facilitate investigations for the roles of interleukin-4 in cutaneous inflammation and skin infection in human patients.

  17. Contact dermatitis from Eriodictyon parryi: a novel cause of contact dermatitis in California.

    PubMed

    Czaplicki, Christopher D

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Eriodictyon parryi, better known as poodle-dog bush, is a growing cause of contact dermatitis in California. Blooming after a large fire, E parryi is a threat to reforestation workers as well as countless outdoor enthusiasts across the state. This paper focuses on the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of contact dermatitis from this little-researched plant. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  19. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  20. The Role of Textiles in Dermatitis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Mobolaji-Lawal, Motunrayo; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Dermatitis has important implications for individuals who are affected. It can significantly impair function and quality of life. Dermatitis is multi-factorial and often includes elements of atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and irritant contact dermatitis in a co-existent manner. Textiles are in contact with the human skin for extended periods of time and as a result, they are an important part of the cutaneous environment. Thus, it is not surprising that textiles play a major role in both the etiology and the treatment of various types of dermatitis. This review discusses the role of textiles in dermatitis with an emphasis on interesting and recent advances, trends, perspectives, gaps, and conflicts in the field. In addition, we mention other disease processes to be aware of as they can often mimic textile pattern dermatitis. Lastly, we provide a diagnostic approach for patients presenting with textile pattern dermatitis.

  1. Atopic dermatitis phenotypes and the need for personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Brehler, Ann-Christin; Novak, Natalija

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe recent developments in therapies which target the molecular mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Recent findings Current advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of atopic dermatitis are leading to the stratification of different atopic dermatitis phenotypes. New therapies offer the option to target-specific molecules involved in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis. Current new therapies under investigation aim to modulate specific inflammatory pathways associated with distinctive atopic dermatitis phenotypes, which would potentially translate into the development of personalized, targeted-specific treatments of atopic dermatitis. Summary Despite the unmet need for well tolerated, effective, and personalized treatment of atopic dermatitis, the current standard treatments of atopic dermatitis do not focus on the individual pathogenesis of the disease. The development of targeted, phenotype-specific therapies has the potential to open a new promising era of individualized treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:28582322

  2. Photocontact dermatitis on the hand (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This person is sensitive to chemicals used in perfumes, and now develops a rash when the area is exposed to light (photocontact dermatitis). These perfumes include Oil of Bergamot, an oil also found ...

  3. Biological Treatments in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Montes-Torres, Andrea; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Pérez-Plaza, Alejandra; Solano-López, Guillermo; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases that affect both children and adults with a prevalence of 30% and 10%, respectively. Even though most of patients respond satisfactory to topical anti-inflammatory drugs, about 10% require one or more systemic treatments to achieve good control of their illness. The progressive and increasingly detailed knowledge in the immunopathogenesis of AD has allowed research on new therapeutic targets with very promising results in the field of biological therapy. In this article, we will review the different biological treatments with a focus on novel drugs. Their mechanism of action, current status and results from clinical trials and observational studies will be specified. PMID:26239349

  4. Dithiocarbamate therapy for nickel dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spruit, D; Bongaarts, P J; de Jongh, G J

    1978-12-01

    Increased internal exposure to nickel can cause an exacerbation of nickel contact dermatitis. Nickel ions are chelated by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and thereby inactivated. An oral dose of about 1 g DDC/day was given to a patient. The nickel excretion in the urine increased about tenfold; the nickel elimination in scalp hair did not increase. The slightly negative nickel balance did not exhaust the nickel content of the organs appreciably with a dose of 1.2 g DDC/day for 2 months. At the end of this experiment patch tests with nickel sulphate were still positive though less local therapy was needed, and the cross correlation between the activity of the eczema and the nickel concentration in the urine had lost its former periodicity. It is therefore not yet possible to conclude whether or not DDC may be really of help in the very nickel hypersensitive patient by reducing the exposure to nickel originating in food and other environmental sources.

  5. Jet Fuel-Associated Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Contestable, James J

    2017-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is a ubiquitous problem. Sailors onboard U.S. Navy vessels are at high risk given the multitude of potential workplace exposures. Solvents, petrochemicals, and fuels are abundant and can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Symptoms of contact dermatitis can cause inability to work and, if chronic, may require a change in rating or job. Prevention of this issue requires patient education about the risks and correct personnel protective equipment. Even with preventative strategies in place, exposures and cases of contact dermatitis will occur. Treatment consists of topical steroids and immunomodulators, as well as barrier creams and emollients. The goal of treatment is to fully restore the skin's natural barrier and prevent further exposure. A classic case of jet fuel-associated contact dermatitis is reviewed. A literature review utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search was conducted to elucidate our understanding of this issue, current occupational health guidelines, preventative approaches, and treatments. This case report provides guidance and recommendations for providers who encounter contact dermatitis related to petrochemicals, such as jet fuel. The literature review revealed limited knowledge surrounding in vivo human skin effects of jet fuel, specifically JP-5. Even larger gaps were found in our understanding of, and guidelines for, protective modalities against jet fuel exposure and dermatitis. A case is presented to facilitate recognition of jet fuel contact dermatitis and guidance for treatment and prevention. Given our current limited knowledge and guidelines concerning protective equipment and skin protectants, multiple proposals for future studies are suggested. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangmi

    2015-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed.

  7. Fragrance series testing in eyelid dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Kurt S; Ehrlich, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is considered one of the most common causes of eyelid dermatitis. In addition to metals and topical antibiotics, fragrances have emerged as a leading source of contact allergy for individuals with this condition. The objective of this study was to determine the added benefit of including a fragrance tray when patch testing patients presenting with eyelid dermatitis. During a 4.5-year period, all patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis involving the eyelids were patch tested with both standard and fragrance trays. One hundred consecutive patients with eyelid dermatitis were patch tested. Of these patients, 42 (42%) tested positive for 1 or more allergens within the fragrance series. Of these patients, 15 (36%) had no fragrance markers detected on the standard series, and these allergens would therefore have been missed had fragrance series testing not been performed. Overall, fragrance markers within the standard series detected 73.2% (41/56) of cases of fragrance allergy. Our results suggest that there may be a significant benefit to fragrance series testing in patients with eyelid dermatitis. Fragrance tray inclusion in this population may identify additional cases of fragrance allergy that are missed by the standard series.

  8. Optimizing Treatment Approaches in Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson’s disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment. PMID:23441240

  9. Optimizing treatment approaches in seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gary, Goldenberg

    2013-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson's disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment.

  10. Cow's Milk Allergy Is a Major Contributor in Recurrent Perianal Dermatitis of Infants.

    PubMed

    El-Hodhod, Mostafa Abdel-Aziz; Hamdy, Ahmad Mohamed; El-Deeb, Marwa Talaat; Elmaraghy, Mohamed O

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recurrent perianal inflammation has great etiologic diversity. A possible cause is cow's milk allergy (CMA). The aim was to assess the magnitude of this cause. Subjects and Methods. This follow up clinical study was carried out on 63 infants with perianal dermatitis of more than 3 weeks with history of recurrence. Definitive diagnosis was made for each infant through medical history taking, clinical examination and investigations including stool analysis and culture, stool pH and reducing substances, perianal swab for different cultures and staining for Candida albicans. Complete blood count and quantitative determination of cow's milk-specific serum IgE concentration were done for all patients. CMA was confirmed through an open withdrawal-rechallenge procedure. Serum immunoglobulins and CD markers as well as gastrointestinal endoscopies were done for some patients. Results. Causes of perianal dermatitis included CMA (47.6%), bacterial dermatitis (17.46%), moniliasis (15.87%), enterobiasis (9.52%) and lactose intolerance (9.5%). Predictors of CMA included presence of bloody and/or mucoid stool, other atopic manifestations, anal fissures, or recurrent vomiting. Conclusion. We can conclude that cow's milk allergy is a common cause of recurrent perianal dermatitis. Mucoid or bloody stool, anal fissures or ulcers, vomiting and atopic manifestations can predict this etiology.

  11. Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age,more » sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.« less

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Staphylococcus aureus (Staph Infection) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... from your health care provider. What is a staph infection? Staphylococcus aureus (staph) is a type of bacteria ( ...

  13. Contact dermatitis in the cleaning industry.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    The review summarizes recent findings on contact dermatitis in the cleaning industry. Contact dermatitis is still an important issue in cleaning. Recent studies identified cleaning work sites and tasks, as well as specific cleaning products, which incur a risk increase for occupational contact dermatitis in cleaning. Workers involved in cleaning outdoors prevalence ratio [PR 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-2.96], cleaning common areas of residential buildings (PR 1.77, 95% CI 1.11-2.84), schools (PR 1.84, 95% CI 1.15-2.93) and cleaning building sites (PR 1.87, 95% CI 1.18-2.95) showed significantly higher rates of contact dermatitis. Relevant allergens in cleaning are rubber chemicals and disinfectants. Leading allergens are thiurams (11.6%, 95% CI 9.1-14.1) and formaldehyde (3.4%, 95% CI 2.0-4.7), but contact with metal allergens might also be important. The most likely allergen sources for sensitization against rubber chemicals are protective gloves. High sensitization rates for disinfectants might result from the fact that employees in cleaning often use single-use medical examination gloves while cleaning. These gloves are not resistant to chemicals, which may break through the gloves within a short period of time, depending on glove material and thickness. No differences in sensitization rates and sensitization profiles were seen in cleaners of younger (≤40 years) and older (>40 years) age. Prevalence of occupational contact dermatitis is still high in cleaning. Irritant contact dermatitis is prevailing, but allergic contact dermatitis is quite frequent, too. Up to now, prevention strategies in cleaning seem to be insufficient.

  14. Hyperlinearity in atopic dermatitis, on the palm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture shows a manifestation of atopic dermatitis on the palm. Individuals with atopic dermatitis characteristically have increased numbers and depth of skin lines (hyperlinearity) on the palms with little redness (erythema).

  15. Eradication of bacterial species via photosensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Paul S.; Maddocks, L.; King, Terence A.; Drucker, D. B.

    1999-02-01

    Photosensitization and inactivation efficacy of three bacterial species: Prevotella nigrescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have been investigated. Samples of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were treated with the triphenylmethane dye malachite green isothiocyanate and exposed to light from a variety of continuous and pulsed light sauces at a wavelength of approximately 630 nm. Inactivation of the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus aureus was found to increase with radiation dose, whilst Gram-negative Escherichia coli was resistant to such treatment. Samples of the pigmented species Prevotella nigrescens were found to be inactivated by exposure to light alone. The mechanism of photosensitization and inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus with malachite green isothiocyanate is addressed. The possible roles of the excited triplet state of the photosensitizer, the involvement of molecular oxygen, and the bacterial cell wall are discussed. Photosensitization may provide a way of eliminating naturally pigmented species responsible for a variety of infections, including oral diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis.

  16. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis inmore » mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.« less

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gary W; Pope, Sara M; Jaboori, Khalid A

    2015-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition in infants, adolescents, and adults. The characteristic symptoms-scaling, erythema, and itching-occur most often on the scalp, face, chest, back, axilla, and groin. Seborrheic dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on the location and appearance of the lesions. The skin changes are thought to result from an inflammatory response to a common skin organism, Malassezia yeast. Treatment with antifungal agents such as topical ketoconazole is the mainstay of therapy for seborrheic dermatitis of the face and body. Because of possible adverse effects, anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors should be used only for short durations. Several over-the-counter shampoos are available for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, and patients should be directed to initiate therapy with one of these agents. Antifungal shampoos (long-term) and topical corticosteroids (short-term) can be used as second-line agents for treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  18. [Atopic dermatitis of the adult].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Aubert, H; Bernier, C; Néel, A; Barbarot, S

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) of the adult is a common skin disease. Its prevalence has greatly increased during the past decades. AD is commonly associated with other atopic disorders. Its impact on quality of life is often underestimated. Various immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in AD: innate epidermal barrier dysfunction due to filaggrin gene mutations, innate and adaptative abnormalities of the immune system (an initial Th2 phase precedes a chronic Th1 phase), intestinal and cutaneous microbiomes dysbiosis, and environmental factors. Diagnosis of AD is clinical and there is no predictive biomarker of future severity. The main differential diagnoses are: scabies, psoriasis, cutaneous adverse reaction, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, primary immunodeficiency, and Netherton's syndrome. Therapeutic management is challenging and should integrate a therapeutic education program. Topical corticosteroids are the first line treatment, including a preliminary assessment of possible topical corticosteroids phobia. Systemic treatments are recommended in severe, chronic and resistant AD, after careful evaluation in a reference centre. Dupilumab, an IL4/IL13 inhibitor, might be the first effective targeted therapy in AD, whereas therapies that specifically target the mechanisms of pruritus represent an exciting perspective. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Lyme disease as a cause of acropapular dermatitis of childhood.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Azfar, Rahat S; Honig, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Acropapular dermatitis of childhood is a symmetric self-limited papulovesicular exanthem that classically occurs on the cheeks, extensor extremities, and buttocks in young children. The eruption of acropapular dermatitis of childhood represents a reaction to a variety of infections usually of viral origin. We present a child with typical findings of acropapular dermatitis of childhood whose serologic workup revealed an acute Lyme infection.

  20. Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Urticaria: Cutaneous Manifestations of Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Gaudinski, Martin Robert; Milner, Joshua D

    2017-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic urticaria are common conditions of the skin that can also be the presenting symptoms of uncommon diseases. Defects leading to immunodeficiency may be associated with atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria. Unusually severe or otherwise atypical presentations of atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria may lead to clinical suspicion of an underlying immunodeficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Coated textiles in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Haug, S; Roll, A; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Johansen, P; Wüthrich, B; Kündig, T M; Senti, G

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with increasing prevalence over the last few decades. Various factors are known to aggravate the disease. In particular, wool and synthetic fabrics with harsh textile fibres, aggressive detergents and climatic factors may exacerbate AD. Cutaneous superinfection, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus, is also recognized as an important factor in the elicitation and maintenance of skin inflammation and acute exacerbations of AD. The severity of AD correlates with S. aureus colonization of the skin. Beside the treatment of AD patients with creams and emollients, new developments in the textile industry may have therapeutic implications. Silk or silvercoated textiles show antimicrobial properties that can significantly reduce the burden of S. aureus, leading to a positive effect on AD. Silver products have been used as wound dressing, whereby silver has antiseptic properties, and drug resistance is hardly found. Padycare textiles consist of micromesh material containing woven silver filaments with a total silver content of 20%. In vitro studies of these silver-coated textiles demonstrated a significant decrease in S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Candida albicans. Silk has been increasingly implemented in medical treatment of AD thanks to its unique smoothness that reduces irritation. Silk can be coated with antimicrobials (Dermasilk). The combination of the smoothness of silk with an antimicrobial finish appears to make an ideal textile for patients suffering from AD.

  2. The potential role of impaired Notch signalling in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    This review presents recent evidence of impaired Notch signalling in atopic dermatitis (AD), which is proposed to represent the "a-topic" defect linking both epidermal and immunological barrier dysfunctions in AD. AD epidermis exhibits a marked deficiency of Notch receptors. Mouse models with genetically suppressed Notch signalling exhibit dry skin, signs of scratching, skin barrier abnormalities, increased transepidermal water loss and TH2 cell-mediated immunological changes closely resembling human AD. Notch signals are critically involved in the differentiation of regulatory T cells, in the feedback inhibition of activated innate immunity, in late epidermal differentiation associated with filaggrin- and stratum corneum barrier lipid processing. Most importantly, Notch deficiency induces keratinocyte-mediated release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). TSLP promotes TH2 cell-driven immune responses associated with enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-31. Both TSLP and IL-31 stimulate sensory cutaneous neurons involved in the induction of itch. Notably, Notch1 is a repressor of activator protein-1 (AP-1), which is upregulated in AD epidermis. Without Notch-mediated suppression of AP-1 this transcription factor promotes excess expression of TH2 cell-related cytokines. Impaired Notch signalling negatively affects the homeostasis of aquaporin 3 and of the tight junction component claudin-1, thus explains disturbed skin barrier function with increased transepidermal water loss and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation as well as increased cutaneous susceptibility for viral infections. Thus, accumulating evidence links deficient Notch signalling to key pathological features of AD.

  3. Investigation of an outbreak of cercarial dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, B.; Giovenazzo, P.; Guerrier, P.; Laverdière, D.; Prud'Homme, H.

    2002-01-01

    We present the investigation of an outbreak of cercarial dermatitis that occurred in a recreational-tourist lake in the Quebec City region (Canada) in the summer of 1999. A case-reporting form was sent to 450 families likely to have activities that would bring them in contact with the lake's water. The snails were characterized and the prevalence of their infestation by schistosomes was investigated. In total, 63 episodes consistent with cercarial dermatitis were reported. Sixty-nine percent of the cases occurred from swimming at the same beach. This location was the one where the only population of snails in the lake was identified. Shoreline residents were informed that they should not feed waterfowl, and a clean-up of the snail population was done at the start of the following summer. There were no cases of cercarial dermatitis at this site the following summer. PMID:12403114

  4. Retapamulin 1% Ointment and Clobetasol Propionate 0.05% Foam is More Efficacious than Vehicle Ointment and Clobetasol 0.05% Propionate Foam in the Treatment of Hand/Foot Dermatitis: A Single Center, Randomized, Double-blind Study.

    PubMed

    Haddican, Madelaine; Linkner, Rita V; Singer, Giselle; Jim, Shelbi C; Gagliotti, Matthew; Goldenberg, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of adult hand/foot dermatitis. The authors hypothesized that retapamulin 1% ointment and clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam would decrease disease severity in subjects with hand/foot dermatitis and provide a higher clearance of Staphylococcus aureus colonization, when compared to vehicle (placebo) ointment and clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam. Adult subjects with moderate to very severe hand/foot dermatitis had twice-daily topical application of clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam to hands/feet for 14 days and were randomized to apply either retapamulin 1% ointment or vehicle ointment twice daily to hands/feet and nares for five days. Seventy-three percent of subjects in the retapamulin/clobetasol group were clear/almost clear at Day 15 compared to 47 percent of subjects in the vehicle/clobetasol group (p-value of 0.04). The percentage of subjects who had both negative skin and nares cultures and were clear/almost clear was also statistically significant in favor of the retapamulin/clobetasol group at Day 15 (p-value of 0.05). Sample size, study population. At Day 15, retapamulin 1% ointment with clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam was more efficacious than vehicle ointment and clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam for disease improvement and Staphylococcus aureus clearance in adult subjects with hand/foot dermatitis.

  5. Retapamulin 1% Ointment and Clobetasol Propionate 0.05% Foam is More Efficacious than Vehicle Ointment and Clobetasol 0.05% Propionate Foam in the Treatment of Hand/Foot Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Haddican, Madelaine; Linkner, Rita V.; Singer, Giselle; Jim, Shelbi C.; Gagliotti, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of adult hand/foot dermatitis. Objective: The authors hypothesized that retapamulin 1% ointment and clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam would decrease disease severity in subjects with hand/foot dermatitis and provide a higher clearance of Staphylococcus aureus colonization, when compared to vehicle (placebo) ointment and clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam. Methods: Adult subjects with moderate to very severe hand/foot dermatitis had twice-daily topical application of clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam to hands/feet for 14 days and were randomized to apply either retapamulin 1% ointment or vehicle ointment twice daily to hands/feet and nares for five days. Results: Seventy-three percent of subjects in the retapamulin/clobetasol group were clear/almost clear at Day 15 compared to 47 percent of subjects in the vehicle/clobetasol group (p-value of 0.04). The percentage of subjects who had both negative skin and nares cultures and were clear/almost clear was also statistically significant in favor of the retapamulin/clobetasol group at Day 15 (p-value of 0.05). Limitations: Sample size, study population. Conclusion: At Day 15, retapamulin 1% ointment with clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam was more efficacious than vehicle ointment and clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam for disease improvement and Staphylococcus aureus clearance in adult subjects with hand/foot dermatitis. PMID:25053981

  6. Contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Haltmeier, S; Yildiz, M; Müller, S; Anliker, M D; Heinzerling, L

    2011-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone(®)) is an immunomodulatory polypeptide used in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It represents a safe treatment option with mild side effects. In this study, we look at a 39-year-old woman who received glatiramer acetate as subcutaneous injections for two months and developed contact dermatitis. The drug had to be stopped, and treatment with topical prednisone was initiated. Prick/scratch testing was negative but the lymphocyte transformation test was highly positive for glatiramer acetate. This is the first report on contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate injections. The treatment consisted of local topical steroids and cessation of the drug.

  7. Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation.

  8. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as

  9. Effect of Topical Application of the Cream Containing Magnesium 2% on Treatment of Diaper Dermatitis and Diaper Rash in Children A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Seyyed Mohammad-Kazem; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjatollah; Kheiri, Maryam; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Shirani, Majid; Ahrani, Saeedeh; Karami, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diaper dermatitis is referred to the inflammation in outer layers of the skin in the perineal area, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. The lesions are maculopapular and usually itchy, which could cause bacterial or candida infection, and predispose the infants to penis or vaginal and urinary infection and lead to discomfort, irritability, and restlessness. The drugs which have been so far administered for this disease (topical steroids) cause special complications for the sensitive skin in this area. Magnesium (Mg) is known for its anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. Aim The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the cream containing Mg 2% on treatment of diaper dermatitis and diaper rash in children. Materials and Methods In this clinical trial study, 64 children aged less than two years old with diaper dermatitis referring Paediatric Ward of Hajar Hospital were randomly assigned to two groups of 32. Group one was treated with the combined cream Mg 2% and Calendula and group two with Calendula cream alone. The duration of recovery was compared between the two groups. Results The duration of recovery was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p-value<0.001), but there was no significant difference in the lesions size and diapers’ number between the two groups. Conclusion Based on the finding of this study, Mg is effective on treatment of diaper dermatitis and could be used for treating diaper dermatitis and other types of dermatitis. PMID:26894161

  10. Effect of Topical Application of the Cream Containing Magnesium 2% on Treatment of Diaper Dermatitis and Diaper Rash in Children A Clinical Trial Study.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Seyyed Mohammad-Kazem; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjatollah; Kheiri, Maryam; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Shirani, Majid; Ahrani, Saeedeh; Karami, Javad; Hafshejani, Zahra Keivani

    2016-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is referred to the inflammation in outer layers of the skin in the perineal area, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. The lesions are maculopapular and usually itchy, which could cause bacterial or candida infection, and predispose the infants to penis or vaginal and urinary infection and lead to discomfort, irritability, and restlessness. The drugs which have been so far administered for this disease (topical steroids) cause special complications for the sensitive skin in this area. Magnesium (Mg) is known for its anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the cream containing Mg 2% on treatment of diaper dermatitis and diaper rash in children. In this clinical trial study, 64 children aged less than two years old with diaper dermatitis referring Paediatric Ward of Hajar Hospital were randomly assigned to two groups of 32. Group one was treated with the combined cream Mg 2% and Calendula and group two with Calendula cream alone. The duration of recovery was compared between the two groups. The duration of recovery was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p-value<0.001), but there was no significant difference in the lesions size and diapers' number between the two groups. Based on the finding of this study, Mg is effective on treatment of diaper dermatitis and could be used for treating diaper dermatitis and other types of dermatitis.

  11. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palilu, Prayolga Toban; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Staphylococcus sp. is one of the most dangerous bacteria that could cause food poisoning. It is a pathogenic bacterium which is able to produce enterotoxin in foods. Milk is an ideal growth medium for Staphylococcus sp., that may cause problem if it is to be consumed, especially by infant. It is the objective of this research to detect the presence of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk. As many as 14 samples obtained from market were used as samples for bacterial isolation. The isolation were done by employing enrichment step on BHI-broth, continued with Baird-Parker Agar which will produce a typical colony. It is then picked and grown on Mannitol Salt Agar, and gram staining, coagulase assay, and fermentation tests. The confirmation step was done by using API-Staph which gives the identification of Staphylococcus hemoliticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a percentage of identity ranging from 65.9-97.7%. Two isolates with the highest identification similarity values were then picked for molecular detection. A PCR primer pair targeting gene coding for enterotoxin A was used, and it gives positive result for the two isolates being tested. It is then concluded that the two isolates belong to Staphylococcus sp., and further research need to be done to correctly identify these isolates.

  12. Staphylococcus intermedius cellulitis and toxic shock in a dog.

    PubMed Central

    Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1999-01-01

    A Labrador retriever was examined for sudden lameness and cellulitis of the right forelimb. Bacterial culture of the dermis yielded a large number of Staphylococcus intermedius. The association of this bacterium with toxic shock is discussed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10416072

  13. Atopic dermatitis and allergic reactions to individual fragrance chemicals.

    PubMed

    White, J M L; White, I R; Kimber, I; Basketter, D A; Buckley, D A; McFadden, J P

    2009-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis prevalence is reported as equal in atopic and nonatopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis is under-represented in those with allergic contact dermatitis to agents having cutaneous and dietary exposure. We compared rates of atopic dermatitis between patients with allergic contact dermatitis arising out of individual fragrance chemicals with known oral/cutaneous exposure against exclusively cutaneous exposure. Between 1982 and 2007, 37 065 dermatitis patients were tested with Fragrance mix I. Those who were positive were tested for individual fragrance allergy. Chemicals were categorized according to whether their exposure pattern was solely cutaneous, oral or mixed. Current and past atopic dermatitis rates were compared between the whole population and groups allergic to individual fragrances. Age and gender were controlled. Cinnamic alcohol and cinnamal allergy groups had reduced rates of both 'current' [24/266 (9.0%) P = 0.0008, 38/364 (10.4%) P = 0.0005] and 'past' atopic dermatitis [44/266 (16.5%) P = 0.009, 70/346 (19.2%) P = 0.037]. Atopic dermatitis rates in groups allergic to Evernia prunastri and hydroxycitronellal (cutaneous exposure only) were not reduced [120/597 (20.1%) and 41/153 (26.8%)]. Groups allergic to cinnamic alcohol (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001) and cinnamal (P < 0.0001, P < 0.004) had reductions in 'current' and 'past' atopic dermatitis, compared with Evernia prunastri. Patients allergic to individual fragrances with dietary exposure have reduced rates of atopic dermatitis. This suggests that patients with atopic dermatitis have heightened oral tolerance to dietary haptens, in contrast to the known close association of atopic dermatitis with food-protein allergy. Haptens may interfere with food protein tolerance by binding to soluble protein to alter its configuration and immunogenic profile.

  14. Contact dermatitis caused by dimethylfumarate in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lo Balbo, A; Gotelli, M J; Mac Cormack, W P; Kogan, N; Gotelli, C

    2011-07-01

    For the first time in Argentina, we describe an outbreak of contact dermatitis. New pairs of shoes caused intense pruritus, pain, and eruption, followed by edema, blisters, and a severe negative impact on the epidermal barrier of the feet. We identify dimethylfumarate as the causal agent and suggest an analytical method for its fast identification.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cocamide diethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-07-01

    Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Avian schistosomes and outbreaks of cercarial dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Horák, Petr; Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Fingerprint verification prediction model in hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chew K; Chang, Choong C; Johor, Asmah; Othman, Puwira; Baba, Roshidah

    2015-07-01

    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. A case-control study involving 100 patients with hand dermatitis. All patients verified their thumbprints against their identity card. Registered fingerprints were randomized into a model derivation and model validation group. Predictive model was derived using multiple logistic regression. Validation was done using the goodness-of-fit test. The fingerprint verification prediction model consists of a major criterion (fingerprint dystrophy area of ≥ 25%) and two minor criteria (long horizontal lines and long vertical lines). The presence of the major criterion predicts it will almost always fail verification, while presence of both minor criteria and presence of one minor criterion predict high and low risk of fingerprint verification failure, respectively. When none of the criteria are met, the fingerprint almost always passes the verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937, and the goodness-of-fit test showed agreement between the observed and expected number (P = 0.26). The derived fingerprint verification failure prediction model is validated and highly discriminatory in predicting risk of fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Nosocomial dermatitis caused by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, A P; Bories, C; Foulet, F; Bretagne, S; Botterel, F

    2008-03-01

    The mite Dermanyssus gallinae may cause pruritic dermatitis in humans. We describe a case of nosocomial infestation with D. gallinae from an abandoned pigeon nest suspended on the front wall of the Hôpital Henri Mondor near a window. Close surveillance and regular destruction of pigeon nests could prevent these incidents of infection in humans.

  19. T-cell inhibitors for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, W James; Fowler, Joseph F

    2018-03-01

    The management of atopic dermatitis is changing with the development of novel biologic agents to target specific molecules in the inflammatory cascade. Following the ability of dupilumab has proved its ability to act on the interleukin 4 receptor in treating atopic dermatitis. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin monoclonal antibody (AMG157/MEDI9929) and OX40 blocking antibody (GBR 830) were developed by targeting the same pathway as dupilumab further upstream. The clinical data on the efficacy for these drugs are not yet known. There is some early evidence that AMG157/MEDI9929 attenuates most measures of allergen-induced asthmatic responses. However, there are no public data on its ability to treat atopic dermatitis. In a phase 2a study, GBR 830 showed at least a 50% reduction in the Eczema Area and Severity Index scores of 17 of 23 patients, but it was not sufficiently powered for identification of statistical differences between GBR 830 versus placebo. Although there is potential for these 2 drugs to greatly improve the management of severe atopic dermatitis, significant clinical trials have not yet been completed to prove efficacy, and there are not yet any available phase 3 clinical trials, which are needed to truly evaluate their efficacy in affecting T-cells. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hand dermatitis in auto mechanics and machinists.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Jeffrey C H; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn

    2007-09-01

    Auto mechanics and machinists presenting with suspected allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have traditionally been patch-tested with a standard screening tray and a specialty tray such as the Oil and Cooling Fluid Series. While this has proven useful for patch-testing the machinist, there is a need for the development of a more specific allergen testing tray for the auto mechanic. The objective of the study was to compare clinical features and patch-test results of auto mechanics and machinists with hand dermatitis to evaluate differences in allergen profiles. We performed a chart review of 33 auto mechanics and 24 machinists referred to our Occupational Contact Dermatitis Clinic from 2002 to 2005 for evaluation of hand dermatitis. With a panel of 84 allergens, 52 positive reactions were detected in 17 cases of ACD in mechanics. The profiles were different from the cases of ACD diagnosed in 10 of 24 machinists. Mechanics and machinists differ in the spectrum of occupational exposures. Patch testing with greater numbers of allergens likely identifies a larger proportion of mechanics with occupationally relevant ACD. Further study is needed to determine the most appropriate allergens to include in a clinically useful "mechanic's tray."

  1. Careers advice to youths with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D S

    1975-01-01

    Adolescents who have suffered from atopic dermatitis frequently start training or apprenticeship for unsuitable jobs. The School Medical Serivce and the Youth Employment Service have now been linked with the Employment Medical Advisory Service to afford help to such young people. It is suggested that family doctors and parents be reminded of this with Guidance Notes.

  2. Seborrheic dermatitis: a clinical practice snapshot.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer A

    2011-08-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring skin disorder that has no cure.Current clinical research has implicated Malassezia yeast in the etiology. Using a clear, concise clinical picture and a thorough patient history, even the novice NP can formulate an effective treatment plan.

  3. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  4. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions.

  5. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ko, D; Leow, Y H; Goh, C L

    2001-04-10

    Singapore has a resident population of 3,000,000 and a workforce of 1,780,000. Most are employed in manufacturing, services and commerce (245,000). From 1996 to 1998, 3472 cases were notified to the Ministry of Manpower and confirmed as occupational diseases. Noise-induced hearing loss accounted for 82% of cases, while only 11% of cases were industrial dermatitis. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was not common, comprising approximately one third of the 369 cases of industrial dermatitis that were notified. However, we believe that the majority of cases are not notified to the authorities. The main occupational contact allergens were chromates, nickel, rubber chemicals, cutting fluids and resins. Most affected workers were from the construction, electronics and metalworking industries. Case series of occupational dermatoses among electronics and metal workers have been published. Of the cases of occupational dermatoses among electronics workers seen at a tertiary dermatological centre, 41% of 149 had allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The commonest allergens were nickel, resins and rubber chemicals. In another case series of 252 metalworkers seen at the same dermatological centre, 23% suffered from ACD. The common allergens were metals and cutting fluids. Besides the common causes of ACD, unusual allergens have also been described. One example is ACD to grasses, which is seen mainly among military personnel. Population studies have been conducted in several industries. A survey of 2567 electronics workers revealed a 2% point prevalence of ACD. Of the occupationally relevant cases, 46 were nickel sensitive, 7 reacted to colophony, and 1 case to epoxy resin. A study of 272 prefabrication construction workers showed a 14% prevalence rate of occupational dermatitis. Of the 38 cases, 42% were ACD to chromates and rubber chemicals. Occupational ACD in Singapore is not as uncommon as the reported statistics suggest. Population-based reports, which overcome the

  6. Acute sacroiliac joint infection in a rugby player with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tadashi; Nisimatsu, Hidekazu

    2012-11-01

    In athletes, acute bacterial infection is an unusual cause of pain in the sacroiliac joint. Although an entry site for infection is not always evident, the present case of a 15-year-old rugby player suggests the association between right sacroiliac joint infection and skin lesion of atopic dermatitis (AD) infected with group A streptococcus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed inflammation around the sacroiliac joint with abscess formation. The infection resolved after a course of antibiotics. Because atopic skin lesion is a potential portal of bacteria, treatment for AD is essential for the prevention of pyogenic arthritis in athletes.

  7. Prevalence and clinical features of adult atopic dermatitis in tertiary hospitals of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhou, Ping; Shen, Yi-Wei; Song, Qing-Kun

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased substantially. Previous studies have focused mostly on pediatric patients, while epidemiological investigation on adult AD has been very limited.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical features of adult AD in outpatients with dermatitis and eczema in China mainland.A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in China from July 1 to September 30, 2014.Of 8758 patients, 407 were adult AD. Compared with adults with other types of dermatitis, the mean age (41.8 ± 14.3 vs 42.04 ± 15.38 years, P < 0.05) and onset age (35.2 ± 11.2 vs 39.2 ± 14.0 years, P < 0.001) of adult AD were younger, and mean disease duration was longer (5.3 ± 7.1 vs 2.8 ± 4.9 years, P < 0.001). About 53.3% adult AD involved 3 or more body locations, higher than adults with other types of dermatitis (34.4%, P < 0.001), but lower than those with pediatric and adolescent AD (73.8%, P < 0.001). History of asthma (19.2% vs 6.9%, P < 0.001) or allergic conjunctivitis (21.9% vs 14.9%, P < 0.05) was more common in adult AD than pediatric/adolescent AD. Suspected bacterial infection was more frequently in adult AD than adults with other types of dermatitis (24.3% vs 14.6%, P < 0.001) and pediatric/adolescent AD (24.3% vs 14.9%, P < 0.001). More severe itching was observed in 31.4% of adult AD, higher than that of adults with other types of dermatitis (15.4%, P < 0.001), whereas similar to that of pediatric/adolescent AD (28.7%, P > 0.05). The highest (8.7%) and lowest prevalence (3.7%) of adult AD were in 25°N to 30°N and 35°N to 40°N latitude region.A substantial part of adult outpatients with eczema or dermatitis is adult AD. Middle age, more body location involvement, more suspected bacterial infection, and severe itching are the main clinical feathers of

  8. Effect of Dyes on Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Miller, Richard D.

    1973-01-01

    A rapid screening procedure was used to test the effect of 42 dyes on growth of 30 bacteria on solid media. The results indicated that many readily available dyes might have potential application for selective isolation of specific bacterial groups as well as value in differentiating between closely related bacterial taxa. Separation of Enterobacter from Escherichia, Salmonella from Shigella, and Staphylococcus from Micrococcus by selected dyes was also evaluated. PMID:4577179

  9. Recognizing and treating toilet-seat contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Sugathan, Paramoo; Cohen, Bernard A

    2010-02-01

    Toilet-seat contact dermatitis is a common condition around the world and is reemerging in the United States. It can be easily recognized and treated. However, few practitioners consider this diagnosis, which results in a delay in treatment and often exacerbation of the skin eruption. In the past, exposure to wooden toilet seats and associated varnish, lacquers, and paints led to the development of an allergic contact dermatitis on the buttocks and posterior thighs. In recent years, most public facilities have changed to plastic seats, resulting in a change in the clinical presentation of toilet-seat dermatitis. We present 5 cases of toilet-seat dermatitis in children from the United States and India and review the history, presentation, and clinical course of the disease. Our findings suggest that toilet-seat dermatitis is more common than previously recognized and should be considered in any child with a dermatitis that involves the buttocks and posterior thighs.

  10. Diagnosing Allergic Contact Dermatitis Through Elimination, Perception, Detection and Deduction.

    PubMed

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Puangpet, Pailin; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P

    2017-10-01

    Several authors have commented upon the skills of detection required in making a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we emphasise the search for clues in a systematic manner. We describe four stages as part of a systematic method for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Firstly, elimination (or inclusion) of non-allergic diagnoses. Secondly, perception: the pre-patch test diagnosis and the 'three scenarios' principle. Thirdly, detection: optimising the sensitivity of the patch test process. Fourthly, deduction: diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis by associating the dermatitis with the allergen exposure. We further compare and contrast the pre-patch test history and examination with the markedly different one ('microhistory' and 'microexamination') used after patch testing. The importance of knowledge of contact dermatitis literature is emphasised with a review of recent publications. Finally, we also highlight the use of contact allergy profiling as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

  11. Medicated shampoos for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, Whitney; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2008-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous disorder of the skin, affecting 3% to 5% of the population. Dandruff, a less severe form of seborrheic dermatitis, affects a greater proportion of the population. The exact pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown, however colonization of the lipophilic yeast, Malasezzia furfur, and an inflammatory reaction to this yeast each seem to play a role in disease etiology. Therefore, treatment for seborrheic dermatitis is aimed at yeast elimination and inflammation control. Several treatment modalities are available for seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff including shampoos, which contain both active ingredients related to antimycotic or anti-inflammatory effects and also surfactant ingredients that allow these shampoos to replace regular shampoos in affected patients. The literature regarding the treatment of therapeutic shampoos is reviewed, and treatment strategies for managing seborrheic dermatitis with therapeutic shampoos are provided.

  12. Dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin morbilliviral epizootic.

    PubMed

    Schulman, F Y; Lipscomb, T P

    1999-03-01

    Dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. The lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. In one dolphin, there was an associated lymphadenitis with ciliates, and in another, bronchopneumonia with rare intrabronchiolar ciliates. Ten of the dolphins were female, and eight were male. The animals ranged in length from 148 to 260 cm. Eleven were from Virginia, four were from New Jersey, and three were from Florida. In 13 dolphins, results of immunohistochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for morbillivirus infection. Results of immunohistochemical tests were negative in four dolphins that were not also tested with PCR. Results were also negative in one dolphin tested using both methods. Nine dolphins had concomitant bacterial, fungal, and/or other protozoal infections. Fourteen other dolphins with ciliate-associated dermatitis were identified from 414 Atlantic bottlenose dolphin cases (3%) archived at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The incidence of dermatitis with invasive ciliates is much greater in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 epizootic.

  13. Recent insights into atopic dermatitis and implications for management of infectious complications.

    PubMed

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common complex disease that frequently follows a chronic relapsing course and affects the quality of life of patients and families in a significant manner. New insights into the pathophysiology of AD point to an important role of structural abnormalities in the epidermis combined with immune dysregulation. Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by a number of microbial organisms, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. A multipronged approach directed at healing or protecting the skin barrier and addressing the immune dysregulation is necessary to improve the likelihood of successful outcomes. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Atopic dermatitis: a disease of altered skin barrier and immune dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an important chronic or relapsing inflammatory skin disease that often precedes asthma and allergic disorders. New insights into the genetics and pathophysiology of AD point to an important role of structural abnormalities in the epidermis as well as immune dysregulation not only for this skin disease but also for the development of asthma and allergies. Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by microbial organisms, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. Measures directed at healing and protecting the skin barrier and addressing the immune dysregulation are essential in the treatment of patients with AD, and early intervention may improve outcomes for both the skin disease as well as other target organs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Atopic Dermatitis: A Disease of Altered Skin Barrier and Immune Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Leung, Donald YM

    2011-01-01

    Summary Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an important chronic or relapsing inflammatory skin disease that often precedes asthma and allergic disorders. New insights into the genetics and pathophysiology of AD point to an important role of structural abnormalities in the epidermis as well as immune dysregulation not only for this skin disease but also for the development of asthma and allergies. Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by microbial organisms, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. Measures directed at healing and protecting the skin barrier and addressing the immune dysregulation are essential in the treatment of patients with AD and early intervention may improve outcomes for both the skin disease as well as other target organs. PMID:21682749

  16. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Chessa, Daniela; Ganau, Giulia; Spiga, Luisella; Bulla, Antonio; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Campus, Gian Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections. PMID:26811915

  17. Comparative study on nutrient depletion-induced lipidome adaptations in Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; Javed, Muhammad Afzal; Deneer, Harry

    2018-02-05

    Staphylococcus species are emerging opportunistic pathogens that cause outbreaks of hospital and community-acquired infections. Some of these bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are difficult to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics. We carried out a comparative study on the lipidome adaptations in response to starvation in the two most common coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species: a S. epidermidis strain sensitive to ampicillin and erythromycin and a S. haemolyticus strain resistant to both. The predominant fatty acid composition in glycerolipids was (17:0-15:0) in both bacteria. During the exponential phase, the two bacterial lipidomes were similar. Both were dominated by diacylglycerol (DAG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (Lysyl-PG) and Diglucosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG). Alanyl-PG was detected in small amounts in both bacterial lipids. N-succinyl-lysyl-PG was detected only in S. haemolyticus, while lysyl-DAG only in S. epidermidis. As the two bacteria entered stationary phase, both lipidomes became essentially nitrogen-free. Both bacteria accumulated large amounts of free fatty acids. Strikingly, the lipidome of S. epidermidis became dominated by cardiolipin (CL), while that of S. haemolyticus was simplified to DGDG and PG. The S. epidermidis strain also produced acyl-phosphatidylglycerol (APG) in the stationary phase.

  18. Transfer contact dermatitis caused by rosin use in bowling.

    PubMed

    Aboutalebi, Amir; Chan, C Stanley; Katta, Rajani

    2009-12-15

    The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis due to colophony may be challenging as this allergen is found in a number of products and used in a variety of settings. Diagnosis becomes more difficult when the distribution of dermatitis does not coincide with typical patterns of use of the allergen. We present a case of transfer contact dermatitis of the face due to rosin use in bowling.

  19. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial pathogens from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis conducted by the Japanese surveillance committee during 2009 and 2010: antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shingo; Uehara, Shinya; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Narita, Harunori; Kawano, Hiromi; Hosobe, Takahide; Takayama, Kazuo; Sumii, Toru; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Takashi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Izumitani, Masanobu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kano, Motonori; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Kenji; Inatomi, Hisato; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Nishi, Shohei; Takahashi, Koichi; Kawano, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Satoshi; Tsuneyoshi, Kengo; Matsushita, Shinji; Yamane, Takashi; Hirose, Takaoki; Fujihiro, Shigeru; Endo, Katsuhisa; Oka, Yasuhiko; Takeyama, Koh; Kimura, Takahiro; Uemura, Tetsuji

    2013-06-01

    The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.

  20. [Streptococcal impetigo at topical tacrolimus application sites in a woman with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Reynaert, G; Rey, A-C; Graveriau, C; Hesse, S; Denoeux, J-P

    2007-03-01

    We report a case of staphylococcal impetigo in a girl treated with tacrolimus ointment (Protopic) for atopic dermatitis. A 15 year-old girl was receiving treatment with tacrolimus 0.03% (Protopic) for an episode of atopic dermatitis. On reduction of applications of tacrolimus, a vesicular-pustular rash appeared and was treated with pristinamycin and valaciclovir. At the end of antibiotic and antiviral therapy, the vesicular-pustular rash recurred while the goal was receiving treatment once more with tacrolimus ointment 0.1%. The bacteriological and virological skin samples revealed B-haemolytic streptococcus group A. The negative results for cutaneous virological samples ruled out Kaposi-Juliusberg syndrome and a diagnosis of staphylococcal impetigo was made. The intrinsic imputability of tacrolimus was I3 (C3 S2). The most obvious specific feature of this impetigo was its limitation to areas of eczema treated by application of tacrolimus. In prospective studies in large patient cohorts, tacrolimus ointment has been associated with two types of adverse effect: local irritations and skin infections chiefly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To date, there have been no reports in the literature of impetigo due to haemolytic B streptococcus following application of tacrolimus. Because of its immunodepressant effect, tacrolimus ointment may result in increased incidence of skin infections even though a number of studies have shown a reduction in such infections.

  1. Abnormal epidermal barrier in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Wolf, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Despite the acknowledged contributions of a defective epidermal permeability barrier, dryness of the skin, and the propensity to develop secondary infections to the etiology and pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD), these epidermal changes have, until recently, been assumed to reflect downstream consequences that are secondary phenomena of the primary immunologic abnormality--the historical "inside-outside" view that AD is basically an intrinsic inflammatory disease. In this review, we focused on the role of the epidermal barrier function in the pathophysiology of AD. Specifically, we presented data in support of a barrier-initiated pathogenesis of AD, ie, the "outside-inside" concept. First, we reviewed the evidence on the existence of inherited barrier abnormalities in AD. Reported studies on the possible association of mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and data on human tissue kallikreins (KLKs) and AD have been addressed. We then dealt with the question of the causal link between impaired epidermal barrier and inflammation. Finally, the association between innate immune defense system and the increased avidity of Staphylococcus aureus for atopic skin was examined. Despite very convincing evidence to support the barrier-initiated pathogenesis of AD, the view that AD reflects the downstream consequences of a primary immunologic abnormality cannot be dismissed out of hand. Almost every line of evidence in support of the role of the epidermal barrier as the "driver" of the disease activity can be challenged and at least partially contradicted by opposing evidence. Until more data are available and until all the dust settles around this issue, we should take advantage of what we already know and use our knowledge for practical purposes. Deployment of specific strategies to restore the barrier function in AD means the use of moisturizers as first-line therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin*

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  3. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance: a review.

    PubMed

    Scheinman, P L

    1996-06-01

    Allergy to fragrance is the most common cause of cosmetic contact dermatitis and therefore constitutes a significant clinical problem. The widespread use of fragranced materials in skin care and household products is probably the most important reason for the high incidence of fragrance sensitization. This report will summarize the history of fragrance, review how to detect and evaluate fragrance allergy, discuss the problems inherent in patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents, describe systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of certain flavors, and give suggestions for fragrance-sensitive patients. The use of fragrance mix in patch testing has been invaluable in detecting fragrance allergy. Continued investigation into positive patch test responses to fragrance in scented products is essential in helping to identify new fragrance allergens. Additionally, more cooperation is necessary between industry and dermatologists in assisting patients to avoid proven allergens.

  5. [Treatment and prevention of acute radiation dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Benomar, S; Boutayeb, S; Lalya, I; Errihani, H; Hassam, B; El Gueddari, B K

    2010-06-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common side-effect of radiotherapy which often necessitates interruption of the therapy. Currently, there is no general consensus about its prevention or about the treatment of choice. The goal of this work was to focus on optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy and to determine if there are specific topical or oral agents for the prevention of this acute skin reaction. The prevention and the early treatment are the two focus points of the management of the acute radiation dermatitis. 2010 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Evaluation and management of acute radiation dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Modesto, A; Faivre, J-C; Granel-Brocard, F; Tao, Y-G; Pointreau, Y

    2012-09-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis remains one of the most commonly observed side effect during radiation therapy leading to complication such as superinfection or treatment disruption. Its management is characterized by a great heterogeneity. Few strategies have demonstrated a benefit in preventing radiation dermatitis, which relies mostly on decreasing dose delivered to the skin and skin care practices. Simple emollients and use of topical steroids can be useful in early stages. The singularity of the skin toxicity seen with cetuximab and radiotherapy warrants a specific grading system and distinctive clinical treatment with use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Textile allergic contact dermatitis: current status.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blattner, Collin M; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Andersen, Rosa; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a thorough review of Pubmed search results for "textile percutaneous penetration" and "textile absorption". We also determined relevant articles that discussed percutaneous penetration of textiles into the skin and their associated disease states. Due to limitations in current and past publications, we are uncertain of the extent of the clinical problem; however, for patients allergic to textile dye, it is of practical importance, both clinically and in their everyday life. There are many challenges to correctly identifying the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis. Different populations may exhibit varying degrees of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but more studies must be done to draw further conclusions. This is further complicated when counseling the patient on how to avoid the textile products most likely to cause a recurrence of ACD skin lesions.

  8. Dupilumab for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S; Torres, T

    2018-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disorder with high physical and emotional burden. AD usually starts in early childhood and has a heterogeneous course. Emerging evidence suggests that IL-4 and IL-13 are key cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of AD. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IL-4 receptor α subunit, that blocks both IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. Data from Phase I-III studies revealed that dupilumab, administered as monotherapy or with topical corticosteroids, is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe AD. A large proportion of patients receiving dupilumab had significant improvements in multiple efficacy indexes, including Eczema Area and Severity Index, Investigator's Global Assessment and SCORing Atopic Dermatitis scores. These results introduce a new era of targeted therapies in the management of AD. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Atopic dermatitis: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Smita; Rothe, Marti Jill; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    The approach to children and adults with atopic dermatitis is similar. In both age groups, failure to respond to conventional therapy should prompt evaluation for complicating factors such as secondary infection and secondary ACD. Immunologic, metabolic, genetic, and nutritional disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of refractory pediatric atopic dermatitis. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), cutaneous drug reactions, other spongiotic dermatoses, psoriasis, dermatomycosis, and infestations should be considered in the differential of refractory atopic dermatitis in adults. Systemic therapies prescribed to both children and adults with severe atopic dermatitis include oral corticosteroids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, azathioprine, and mycophenolate mofetil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Footwear contact dermatitis from dimethyl fumarate.

    PubMed

    Švecová, Danka; Šimaljakova, Maria; Doležalová, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective inhibitor of mold growth. In very low concentrations, DMF is a potent sensitizer that can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). It has been identified as the agent responsible for furniture contact dermatitis in Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients in Slovakia with footwear ACD associated with DMF, with regard to clinical manifestations, patch test results, and results of chemical analysis of their footwear. Nine patients with suspected footwear contact dermatitis underwent patch testing with the following allergens: samples of their own footwear, commercial DMF, the European baseline, shoe screening, textile and leather dye screening, and industrial biocides series. The results were recorded according to international guidelines. The content of DMF in footwear and anti-mold sachets was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute ACD was observed in nine Caucasian female patients. All patients developed delayed sensitization, as demonstrated by positive patch testing using textile footwear lining. Seven patients were patch tested with 0.1% DMF, and all seven were positive. Chemical analysis of available footwear showed that DMF was present in very high concentrations (25-80 mg/Kg). Dimethyl fumarate is a new footwear allergen and was responsible for severe ACD in our patients. To avoid an increase in the number of cases, the already approved European preventive measures should be accepted and commonly employed. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by alkyl glucosides.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, Dorien; Timmermans, An; Serrano, Pedro; Verreycken, Evelyne; Goossens, An

    2014-03-01

    Alkyl glucosides were not expected to have a sensitizing potential at the concentrations to be used in finished consumer products; however, several contact allergy cases have been published. To report on the patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis caused by alkyl glucosides observed in our department. During a 19-year period (1993-2012), 11 842 patients with suspected contact dermatitis were patch tested with the European baseline series and, if relevant, also with other series and individual allergens. For this study, the clinical data and the sensitization sources in the alkyl glucoside-positive patients were analysed. In total, 30 patients (24 women and 6 men) presented with a positive reaction to one or more alkyl glucosides. The causal products were shampoos (in 12), skin-cleansing products (in 12, among which were wipes for intimate hygiene), sunscreen products (in 5), skin-care products (in 4), and a deodorant (in 1). Sixteen patients showed multiple sensitivities (defined as three or more contact allergies), not only to other glucosides, but also to non-related chemicals. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by alkyl glucosides in cosmetics does occur, and might be more frequent than suspected. In view of their common use, their identification as allergenic culprits is important. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dupilumab for treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Seegräber, Marlene; Srour, Jerome; Walter, Alexandra; Knop, Macarena; Wollenberg, Andreas

    2018-03-20

    Dupilumab is a new treatment option for patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. It blocks IL-4/IL13-signaling and thereby inhibits receptor signaling downstream the JAK-STAT-pathway. Three of the main disease mechanisms of atopic dermatitis are affected by blocking this pathway; the decrease of skin barrier function, the class switch to IgE and the TH2-differentiation. Areas Covered: Dupilumab showed promising results in clinical trials of phase I-III. Clinical outcome parameters such as SCORAD, EASI, IGA and BSA improved with dupilumab. A positive effect on patient-reported outcomes like DLQI or pruritus-rating-scales was also demonstrated. The safety profile of dupilumab is superior to conventional immunosuppressive drugs, such as cyclosporine or methotrexate. Injection-site reactions and conjunctivitis were the most relevant side-effects. Skin infections were less frequently observed compared to placebo. Data on the use of dupilumab during pregnancy or in children are not published to date. Expert Commentary: Dupilumab was approved by the FDA in April 2017 for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis whose disease is not adequately controlled with topical prescription therapies or when those therapies are not advisable.

  13. Impact of Enhanced Staphylococcus DNA Extraction on Microbial Community Measures in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiangchao; Carmody, Lisa A.; Kalikin, Linda M.; Li, Jun; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Schloss, Patrick D.; Young, Vincent B.; LiPuma, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common constituent of the bacterial community inhabiting the airways of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). Culture-independent studies have shown that this species is often present in relatively high abundance and would therefore be expected to exert a pronounced effect on measures of CF airway bacterial community structure. We investigated the impact of DNA extraction method on pyrosequencing-based measures of Staphylococcus abundance and bacterial community structure in 17 sputum samples from five CF patients. Staphylococcus was detected in fewer samples when DNA was extracted using a standard bacterial lysis method compared to when DNA was extracted using a lysis buffer amended with lysostaphin and lysozyme. The standard lysis method resulted in significantly lower measures of Staphylococcus relative abundance and higher levels of community diversity, richness, and evenness compared to the lysostaphin-lysozyme modified method. Measures of community dynamics in serial sputum samples from the same individual were nevertheless highly concordant between the two DNA extraction methods. These results illustrate the impact of DNA preparation method on measures of Staphylococcus abundance and bacterial community structures in studies of the airways microbiota in CF. PMID:22412992

  14. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  15. Facing Antibiotic Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus Phages as a Medical Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use. PMID:24988520

  16. Essential Staphylococcus aureus toxin export system

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Som S.; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Duong, Anthony C.; Dieringer, Thomas D.; Tan, Vee Y.; Song, Yan; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Li, Min; Otto, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance among important bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus1 calls for alternative routes of drug development. Interfering with critical virulence determinants is considered a promising novel approach to control bacterial infection2. Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are peptide toxins with multiple key roles in pathogenesis3–5 and a major impact on the ability of highly virulent S. aureus to cause disease3,6. However, targeting PSMs for therapeutic intervention is hampered by their multitude and diversity. Here, we report that an ABC transporter with previously unknown function is responsible for the export of all PSM classes, thus representing a single target to interfere simultaneously with the production of all PSMs. The transporter had a strong effect on virulence phenotypes, such as neutrophil lysis, and the development of S. aureus infection, similar in extent to the sum of all PSMs. Furthermore, it proved essential for bacterial growth. Moreover, it protected the producer from the antimicrobial activity of secreted PSMs and contributed to defense against PSM-mediated bacterial interference. Our study reveals a non-canonical, dedicated secretion mechanism for an important toxin class and identifies this mechanism as a comprehensive potential target for the development of drugs efficiently inhibiting growth and virulence of pathogenic staphylococci. PMID:23396209

  17. The Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus Eye Infections

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of the eye able to infect the tear duct, eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior and posterior chambers, and the vitreous chamber. Of these infections, those involving the cornea (keratitis) or the inner chambers of the eye (endophthalmitis) are the most threatening because of their potential to cause a loss in visual acuity or even blindness. Each of these ocular sites is protected by the constitutive expression of a variety of antimicrobial factors and these defenses are augmented by a protective host response to the organism. Such infections often involve a predisposing factor that weakens the defenses, such as the use of contact lenses prior to the development of bacterial keratitis or, for endophthalmitis, the trauma caused by cataract surgery or intravitreal injection. The structural carbohydrates of the bacterial surface induce an inflammatory response able to reduce the bacterial load, but contribute to the tissue damage. A variety of bacterial secreted proteins including alpha-toxin, beta-toxin, gamma-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin and other two-component leukocidins mediate tissue damage and contribute to the induction of the inflammatory response. Quantitative animal models of keratitis and endophthalmitis have provided insights into the S. aureus virulence and host factors active in limiting such infections. PMID:29320451

  18. Bacterial Identification Using Light Scattering Measurements: a Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The light scattering properties of single bacterial cells were examined as a possible means of identification. Three species were studied with streptococcus faecalis exhibiting a unique pattern; the light-scattering traces for staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli were quite similar although differences existed. Based on preliminary investigations, the light scattering approach appeared promising with additional research needed to include a wide variety of bacterial species, computer capability to handle and analyze data, and expansion of light scattering theory to include bacterial cells.

  19. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis between the age of 15 to 49 years were 0.21%, 6%, and 19.6%, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of homicide-suicidal ideation in mothers or fathers of patients (aged 0-14 years) with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis were 0.11%,…

  20. Methotrexate use in allergic contact dermatitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashaki; Burns, Erin; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2018-03-01

    Methotrexate, a folate antimetabolite, is used to treat atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although methotrexate's therapeutic efficacy has been noted in the literature, there are few data on the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of methotrexate in treating allergic contact dermatitis at a single institution, and also to assess methotrexate efficacy in patients with chronic, unavoidable allergen exposure. We performed a retrospective chart review of 32 patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis by positive patch test reactions, and who received treatment with methotrexate from November 2010 to November 2014. Demographic and treatment-associated data were collected from electronic medical records. Ten patients were identified as allergen non-avoiders secondary to their occupation, and were subgrouped as such. Seventy-eight per cent (25/32) of patients showed either a partial or a complete response. Methotrexate had a comparable efficacy rate in the allergen non-avoiders subset, at 10 of 10. Of the 32 patients, 23% (5/22) had complete clearance of their dermatitis, and 1/10 of allergen non-avoiders had complete clearance of their dermatitis. Methotrexate is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for allergic contact dermatitis, and shows comparable efficacy to immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporine and azathioprine, with robust efficacy despite persistent allergen exposure in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates.

    PubMed

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates.

  2. Topical ROR Inverse Agonists Suppress Inflammation in Mouse Models of Atopic Dermatitis and Acute Irritant Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Jin Mo; Fisher, David E

    2017-12-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors RORα and RORγ are critical for the functions of specific subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells, which are key drivers of inflammatory disease in barrier tissues. Here, we investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of SR1001, a synthetic RORα/γ inverse agonist, in mouse models of atopic dermatitis and acute irritant dermatitis. Topical treatment with SR1001 reduces epidermal and dermal features of MC903-induced atopic dermatitis-like disease and suppresses the production of type 2 cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in lesional skin. In the epidermis, SR1001 treatment blocks MC903-induced expression of TSLP and reverses impaired keratinocyte differentiation. SR1001 is also effective in alleviating acute dermatitis triggered by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Overall, our results suggest that RORα/γ are important therapeutic targets for cutaneous inflammation and suggest topical usage of inhibitory ligands as an approach to treating skin diseases of inflammatory etiology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Making contact for contact dermatitis: a survey of the membership of the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

    PubMed

    Nezafati, Kaveh A; Carroll, Bryan; Storrs, Frances J; Cruz, Ponciano D

    2013-01-01

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) is the principal organization representing the subspecialty of contact dermatitis in the United States. The aim of this study was to characterize ACDS members with respect to demographic characteristics, patch-test practices, and sentiments regarding the Society and its journal Dermatitis. We conducted cross-sectional postal and online surveys of ACDS members. More than a third of ACDS members responded to the survey, 92% of whom practice dermatology, and most of whom are community practitioners. Responders manage patients with allergic and irritant dermatitis at a similar frequency. On average, they patch test 4 patients per week using 66 allergens per patient, which often include customized trays. Almost half of these practitioners learned patch testing from their residency programs. Most of the responders read and value the Society journal, value the Contact Allergen Management Program database, and attend society meetings. The ACDS is comprised overwhelmingly of dermatologists who are primarily community-based, young relative to the start of their practices, and use the Society's resources for continuing education.

  4. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Joan A; Smith, Emma J; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J

    2009-09-18

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping factor B of S. aureus, a surface protein that is in part responsible for colonisation of the human nares. Ligand-affinity blotting with cell-wall extracts demonstrated that S. pseudintermedius 326 expressed a cell-wall anchored fibronectin binding protein which recognised the N-terminal 29kDa fragment. The ability to bind fibronectin is an important attribute of pathogenic S. aureus and is associated with the ability of S. aureus to colonise skin of human atopic dermatitis patients. S. pseudintermedius genomic DNA was probed with labelled DNA amplified from the serine-aspartate repeat encoding region of clfA of S. aureus. This probe hybridised to a single SpeI fragment of S. pseudintermedius DNA. In the cell-wall extract of S. pseudintermedius 326, a 180kDa protein was discovered which bound to fibrinogen by ligand-affinity blotting and reacted in a Western blot with antibodies raised against the serine-aspartate repeat region of ClfA and the B-repeats of SdrD of S. aureus. It is proposed that this is an Sdr protein with B-repeats that has an A domain that binds to fibrinogen. Whether it is the same protein that binds cytokeratin 10 is not clear.

  5. Contact dermatitis from dielectric fluids in electrodischarge machining.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L; Ho, S F

    1993-03-01

    We report an outbreak of irritant contact dermatitis in the aerospace industry from electrodischarge machining (EDM). 20 workers doing EDM developed irritant contact dermatitis from the dielectric fluid used in EDM, a form of precision metal machining that is widely used in mould making and precision engineering. Dielectric fluid contains hydrocarbons that are aromatic, paraffinic or naphthenic and are skin irritants. Irritant contact dermatitis from dielectric fluid has not been reported previously. EDM will become more widespread and occupational dermatitis from dielectric fluid is likely to become more prevalent in the future. Our experience was that irritant contact dermatitis from dielectric fluid can be prevented by simple preventive measures such as personal hygiene and health education.

  6. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with allergy to intraoral metals.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Brambilla, Lucia; Ferrucci, Silvia; Zerboni, Roberto; Somalvico, Francesco; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2014-10-15

    Contact (allergic) dermatitis is a skin disorder related to natural exposure to various allergens. Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) describes a cutaneous eruption in response to systemic exposure to an allergen. The exact pathologic mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we describe a 36-year-old woman with symmetric systemic allergic contact dermatitis, unresponsive to conventional treatment, associated with dental alloy-contact hypersensitivity. We did skin patch testing and the blood lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) from the dental allergen series to assess contact allergy to restorative dental materials. On patch testing, positive allergic contact dermatitis reactions to metals occurred (nickel, potassium dichromate, and gold). Nickel hypersensitivity was confirmed by LTT, which also revealed silver-amalgam sensitization. Our case report highlights the need to consider adverse reactions to base-metal dental alloys in the differential diagnosis of cases of systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  8. Survival of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in modified Romanowsky staining solutions.

    PubMed

    Misan, Angus; Chan, Wei Yee; Trott, Darren; Hill, Peter B

    2017-08-01

    Stains that are used regularly for patient-side diagnosis to rapidly identify bacterial and fungal infections could become contaminated by common pathogens, such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, during slide immersion. To determine whether the inoculation of S. pseudintermedius into modified Romanowsky type stains (Quick Dip ® ) results in viable bacterial contamination and whether this is influenced by the addition of organic debris (canine hair and skin). A clinical isolate of S. pseudintermedius was inoculated into clean and organically contaminated Quick Dip ® solutions (methanol fixative, eosin, methylene blue), and positive (broth) and negative (bleach) controls. Each solution was tested for the presence of viable bacteria by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) at various time points. Solutions also were examined under high power microscopy to count the number of visible bacteria at each time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was able to survive in the clean and contaminated Quick Dip ® stains for at least one hour, but by 24 h no viable bacteria remained. Survival of the bacteria was not supported in the fixative at any time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius remained visible under high power microscopy for up to 2 weeks in all organically contaminated solutions of the Quick Dip ® set. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius only remains viable in eosin and methylene blue for short periods of time, but the prolonged visibility of dead organisms could theoretically lead to the misdiagnosis of cytology samples. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Neutrophil evasion strategies by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Megan L; Surewaard, Bas G J

    2018-03-01

    Humans are well equipped to defend themselves against bacteria. The innate immune system employs diverse mechanisms to recognize, control and initiate a response that can destroy millions of different microbes. Microbes that evade the sophisticated innate immune system are able to escape detection and could become pathogens. The pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are particularly successful due to the development of a wide variety of virulence strategies for bacterial pathogenesis and they invest significant efforts towards mechanisms that allow for neutrophil evasion. Neutrophils are a primary cellular defense and can rapidly kill invading microbes, which is an indispensable function for maintaining host health. This review compares the key features of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in epidemiology, with a specific focus on virulence mechanisms utilized to evade neutrophils in bacterial pathogenesis. It is important to understand the complex interactions between pathogenic bacteria and neutrophils so that we can disrupt the ability of pathogens to cause disease.

  10. Multifocal papular deep bacterial pyoderma in a Boxer dog caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C G; Vogelnest, L J

    2008-11-01

    A young adult Boxer dog was presented with a papular dermatitis on the dorsal back and ventral neck that had developed while it was being treated with cyclosporine and cephalexin for atopic dermatitis and secondary superficial staphylococcal pyoderma, respectively. Histopathology demonstrated nodular to diffuse pyogranulomatous dermatitis with focal furunculosis. Numerous bacterial rods, free in the tissue and engulfed by neutrophils and macrophages, could be demonstrated on stained samples (haematoxylin-eosin; Giemsa). Bacterial culture from an aseptically collected skin biopsy punch sample yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, sensitive to a variety of antimicrobials. Successful treatment was accomplished following discontinuation of cyclosporine and an extended course of enrofloxacin. There has not been a recurrence of the pseudomonal pyoderma during the subsequent 2 years.

  11. Cellular Light Scattering for the Identification of Bacteria and Its Application to the Identification of Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    Haavig, David L; Hollen, Kaylagh R; Debruin, Abbey E; Lisecki, Shelbi R; Shoup, Nicole C; Stimac, Mickey J H; Treloar, Anthony M; Jodoin, Zachary N; Bohm, Margaret S; Sharp, Josh S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid identification of bacteria is critical in clinical and food safety applications. This paper describes a novel instrument and data analysis method for identifying bacteria based on the measurement of laser light scattering as the beam interacts with bacterial cells suspended in water. A description of the technology is followed by an identification performance study for a set of strains from the genus Staphylococcus (the inclusive target organisms) and a set of non-Staphylococcus strains (the exclusive organisms). Staphylococcus and non-Staphylococcus cells were grown on sheep blood agar (SBA), tryptic soy agar, brain heart infusion (BHI) agar, or Luria-Bertani (LB) agar and identified based on how cells scattered light. Bacteria from the genus Staphylococcus grown on solid media were correctly identified more than 92% of the time. To determine whether the system could also identify bacteria grown in liquid culture, six different Staphylococcus strains and six different non-Staphylococcus strains were grown in tryptic soy broth, BHI broth, or LB broth. This system accurately identified all targeted Staphylococcus samples tested, and no misidentifications occurred. A single-blind identification experiment was also performed on human clinical isolates obtained from the Upper Peninsula Health System. Ninety blind-coded clinical bacterial isolates on SBA were tested to determine whether they were from the genus Staphylococcus. All Staphylococcus were accurately identified, and no misidentifications occurred. This study demonstrated the proof of concept of a novel system that can rapidly and accurately identify bacteria from pure culture based on cellular light-scattering properties.

  12. Workplace screening for hand dermatitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nichol, K; Copes, R; Spielmann, S; Kersey, K; Eriksson, J; Holness, D L

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for developing occupational skin disease (OSD) such as dermatitis primarily due to exposure to wet work. Identification of risk factors and workplace screening can help early detection of OSD to avoid the condition becoming chronic. To determine risk factors and clinical findings for hand dermatitis using a workplace screening tool. Employees at a large teaching hospital in Toronto, Canada, were invited to complete a two-part hand dermatitis screening tool. Part 1 inquired about hand hygiene practices and Part 2 comprised a visual assessment of participants' hands by a health professional and classification as (i) normal, (ii) mild dermatitis or (iii) moderate/severe dermatitis. Risk factors were determined using chi-square and Cochran-Armitage analysis on a dichotomous variable, where Yes represented either a mild or moderate/severe disease classification. There were 183 participants out of 643 eligible employees; response rate 28%. Mild or moderate/severe dermatitis was present in 72% of participants. These employees were more likely to work directly with patients, have worked longer in a health care setting, wash hands and change gloves more frequently, wear gloves for more hours per day, have a history of eczema or dermatitis and report a current rash on the hands or rash in the past 12 months. There was a high percentage of HCWs with dermatitis and risk factors for dermatitis. These findings argue for increased attention to prevention and early identification of hand dermatitis and support further testing of the workplace screening tool. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Atopic dermatitis, melatonin, and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Sen; Chou, Yen-Ting; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Lee, Pei-Lin; Dai, Yang-Shia; Sun, Chi; Lin, Yu-Tsan; Wang, Li-Chieh; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Chun-An; Wan, Kong-Sang; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-08-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). However, studies have largely been questionnaire-based, and the pathophysiology remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine objective characteristics of sleep disturbance in children with AD and explore contributing factors and clinical predictors. Sleep parameters were measured by actigraphy and polysomnography in 72 patients with AD and 32 controls ages 1 to 18 years. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, serum cytokines, and total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were also measured. The patients with AD had significantly reduced sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more sleep fragmentation, and less nonrapid eye movement sleep. Results from actigraphy correlated well with those from polysomnography. The AD disease severity was associated with sleep disturbance (r = 0.55-0.7), and a Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index of ≥48.7 predicted poor sleep efficiency with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 75% (area under the curve = 0.81, P = .001). Lower nocturnal melatonin secretion was significantly associated with sleep disturbance in the patients with AD. Other correlates of sleep disturbance included pruritus, scratching movements, higher total serum IgE levels, and allergic sensitization to dust mite and staphylococcal enterotoxins. Poor sleep efficiency is common in children with AD and can be predicted by the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index. Melatonin and IgE might play a role in the sleep disturbance. Further studies are required to explore the mechanisms and clinical implications, and actigraphy could serve as a useful evaluating tool. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Airborne contact dermatitis caused by tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M

    1982-10-01

    A case of airborne contact dermatitis in a seedsman due to tulip bulbs is reported. The eczema finally involved the whole integument. It was caused by small particles from the outer layers of the bulbs, which arise when the bulbs are rubbed together. These particles, which contain the sensitizer tuliposide-A, contaminated the whole environment of the seed shop and the car and clothes of the patient. Epicutaneous tests were strongly positive with tuliposide-A as well as with an extract of the dust taken from the patient's office.

  15. Atopic dermatitis: epidemiology and pathogenesis update.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Ellis, Charles N; Mancini, Anthony J; Paller, Amy S; Simpson, Eric L

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased markedly in the United States over the past 5 decades, with current reports varying from 10% to 20% prevalence in US children, and new diagnoses are estimated at almost 11% per year. Recent research in AD pathophysiology and pathogenesis has demonstrated that AD is associated with epidermal barrier dysfunction and that mutations in the filaggrin gene are implicated in barrier defects. These discoveries hold promise for future breakthroughs in the diagnosis and management of AD. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Defining intrinsic vs. extrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Karimkhani, Chante; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-06-16

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition characterized by eczematous lesions, i.e. ill-demarcated erythematous patches and plaques. AD is commonly associated with elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) and atopic disorders, such as asthma, hay fever, and food allergies. Rackemann and Mallory were some of the first to distinguish between asthma based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of allergy. This distinction has subsequently been applied to AD based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of increased IgE and atopic disease. Although the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic AD is widely used, it remains controversial.

  17. ▼Dupilumab for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    2018-03-01

    ▼Dupilumab (Dupixent - Sanofi-Aventis Groupe), a monoclonal antibody for the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in adults who require systemic therapy, was licensed by the European Medicines Agency in September 2017. It is the first biological drug approved specifically for this condition. Here, we review the evidence for its efficacy and safety and consider its place in therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. New and developing therapies for atopic dermatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Hajar, Tamar; Gontijo, João Renato Vianna; Hanifin, Jon M

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease. New understanding in disease pathogenesis has led to a considerable number of promising new drugs in development. New topical agents can be especially helpful for children, providing an alternative to the need for chronic topical corticosteroid use. While many patients with mild or moderate disease can be managed with topical treatments, there are unmet needs for recalcitrant and severe cases. New and developing therapies hold promise for real advances in management of this complex disease. PMID:29641707

  19. [Nickel allergy in contact and atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Antoszczyk, Grazyna; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Szmigiel-Michalak, Katarzyna; Bogdaszewska-Czabanowska, Jadwiga; Obtułowicz, Aleksander

    2003-01-01

    The study is aimed to determine the importance of type I and type IV allergy in eczema caused by allergy to nickel. The study was performed at 55 patients (42 women, 13 men, aged 16-58 yrs) suffering from hand dermatitis (19 cases), disseminated eczema (22 cases) and atopic dermatitis (14 cases) with positive skin patch test to 2.5% nickel sulphate. In each patients history of illness was analyzed, total serum IgE level (tIgE) was estimated and specific IgE (sIgE) for nickel and also absolute blood eosinophils and basophils counts were estimated for the evaluation of the atopy features. In each patient patch skin test with different nickel sulphate dilutions were performed as well as skin prick tests with different dilutions of nickel sulphate. The following oral provocation tests were carried out with the nickel sulphate in doses 0.56 mg, 1.12 mg, 2.24 mg, 5.6 mg and 11.2 mg. The test was stopped at the dose provoking the symptoms of illness. Positive family history, the increased tIgE serum level as well as absolute counts of eosinophils and basophils were present in some patients with atopic and contact dermatitis and they were not useful in differential diagnosis of this forms of skin allergy. Skin patch test with different concentrations of nickel sulphate was helpful to establish the degree of contact sensitivity in all patients. The oral provocation test with different dose of nickel sulphate also provoked symptoms in some patients in each observed groups, but the reaction to the lowest dose was observed only in patients with atopic dermatitis. Specific IgE to nickel as well as skin prick testing also with different dilutions of nickel sulphate are not useful in the diagnosis of nickel allergy. In the all examined patients they were negative. It seems that both types of allergy (type I and IV) may take part in the patho-mechanism of atopic and contact skin allergy with alternate prevalence of one of its depending on patient condition.

  20. Metal ion acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus: overcoming nutritional immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cassat, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals are essential nutrients to virtually all forms of life, including bacterial pathogens. In Staphylococcus aureus, metal ions participate in diverse biochemical processes such as metabolism, DNA synthesis, regulation of virulence factors, and defense against oxidative stress. As an innate immune response to bacterial infection, vertebrate hosts sequester transition metals in a process that has been termed “nutritional immunity.” To successfully infect vertebrates, S. aureus must overcome host sequestration of these critical nutrients. The objective of this review is to outline the current knowledge of staphylococcal metal ion acquisition systems, as well as to define the host mechanisms of nutritional immunity during staphylococcal infection. PMID:22048835

  1. Multidrug efflux pumps in Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is rapidly spreading among bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of diseases in humans. For the last two decades, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps have drawn attention due to their potential association with clinical multidrug resistance. Numerous researchers have demonstrated efflux-mediated resistance in vitro and in vivo and found novel multidrug transporters using advanced genomic information about bacteria. This article aims to provide a concise summary of multidrug efflux pumps and their important clinical implications, focusing on recent findings concerning S. aureus efflux pumps.

  2. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  3. Bacterial Proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology.

  4. Bacterial Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... include Streptococcus pneumoniae Group B Streptococcus Neisseria meningitidis Haemophilus influenzae Listeria monocytogenes On average, bacterial meningitis caused about 4,100 cases and 500 deaths ...

  5. MicroDSC study of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, Dragos C; Iancu, Cezar; Steriade, Alexandru T; Muntean, Alexandru A; Balint, Octavian; Popa, Vlad T; Popa, Mircea I; Bogdan, Miron A

    2010-12-17

    A microcalorimetric study was carried out using a Staphylococcus epidermidis population to determine the reproducibility of bacterial growth and the variability of the results within certain experimental parameters (temperature, bacterial concentration, sample thermal history). Reproducibility tests were performed as series of experiments within the same conditions using either freshly prepared populations or samples kept in cold storage. In both cases, the samples were obtained by serial dilution from a concentrated TSB bacterial inoculum incubated overnight. The results show that experiments are fairly reproducible and that specimens can be preserved at low temperatures (1 - 2°C) at least 4 days. The thermal signal variations at different temperatures and initial bacterial concentrations obey a set of rules that we identified. Our study adds to the accumulating data and confirms available results of isothermal microcalorimetry applications in microbiology and can be used to standardize this method for either research or clinical setting.

  6. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bacterial infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, and lacerations caused by Staphylococcus aureus... infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, lacerations, and pyogenic dermatitis. (ii) Horses. For treatment or prevention of bacterial infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, lacerations, and following...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bacterial infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, and lacerations caused by Staphylococcus aureus... infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, lacerations, and pyogenic dermatitis. (ii) Horses. For treatment or prevention of bacterial infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, lacerations, and following...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bacterial infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, and lacerations caused by Staphylococcus aureus... infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, lacerations, and pyogenic dermatitis. (ii) Horses. For treatment or prevention of bacterial infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, lacerations, and following...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bacterial infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, and lacerations caused by Staphylococcus aureus... infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, lacerations, and pyogenic dermatitis. (ii) Horses. For treatment or prevention of bacterial infection of superficial wounds, abrasions, lacerations, and following...

  10. Atopic dermatitis: current treatment guidelines. Statement of the experts of the Dermatological Section, Polish Society of Allergology, and the Allergology Section, Polish Society of Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciak, Magdalena; Wilkowska, Aleksandra; Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Ługowska-Umer, Hanna; Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Kowalewski, Cezary; Kruszewski, Jerzy; Maj, Joanna; Silny, Wojciech; Śpiewak, Radosław; Petranyuk, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition frequently encountered in medical practices across the country. More than 60% of children with AD are at risk to develop allergic rhinitis or asthma (the atopic march). Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by Staphylococcus aureus. Treatments for AD need to rapidly control symptoms of the disease, improve quality of life and prevent exacerbations. Given the chronic and relapsing nature of the disease, therapies need to encourage good compliance and be well tolerated. PMID:26366146

  11. Transcriptional profiling of CcpE-regulated genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Ding, Yue; Lan, Lefu

    2015-09-01

    The transcriptional regulator CcpE is an important citrate-sensing regulator that modulates metabolic state, virulence factor expression, and bacterial virulence of Staphylococcus aureus (Ding et al., 2014 [1]). In this article, we report detailed methods for genome-wide transcriptional profiling of CcpE-regulated genes generated for the research article "Metabolic sensor governing bacterial virulence in Staphylococcus aureus" (Ding et al., 2014 [1]). All transcriptional profiling data was deposited to Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE57260.

  12. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-10-01

    To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients. Most of the components present in cosmetic products are also occurring in household and industrial products, often under other trade names. Patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special problem because their quality of life is severely affected by the multitude of eliciting products in the environment. We still lack a good understanding of why these patients become so easily sensitized.

  13. Fabric preferences of atopic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Love, W Elliot; Nedorost, Susan T

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients have sensitive skin with impaired barrier function. Lyocell is a cellulosic fiber that offers unique characteristics and may be suitable for use by AD patients. To compare preferences of subjects with atopic dermatitis and normal skin for 100% lyocell clothing and bedding versus 100% cotton fabrics. Thirty subjects were enrolled and randomly selected to use cotton or lyocell shirts, pajamas, and bedding for 1 week. Following a 1-week washout period, participants wore the other fabric for 1 week. At the end of each week, participants completed a preference questionnaire, and AD subjects also rated daily itching on a visual analog scale. A random subset of AD and normal participants underwent measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Overall, there was a significant preference for lyocell (vs cotton) for its softness, temperature control, moisture control, and wrinkle resistance. AD subjects did not have stronger fabric preferences than did normal subjects. Although not significant, lower average itching and decreased TEWL were seen in participants while they wore lyocell. Lyocell is superior to cotton in many performance characteristics and equivalent to cotton for itch reduction. Lyocell is currently available as a beneficial fabric to improve patient comfort.

  14. Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry Inaugural Case Data.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Mousdicas, Nico; Silverberg, Nanette; Powell, Douglas; Pelletier, Janice L; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Zippin, Jonathan; Fonacier, Luz; Tosti, Antonella; Lawley, Leslie; Wu Chang, Mary; Scheman, Andrew; Kleiner, Gary; Williams, Judith; Watsky, Kalman; Dunnick, Cory A; Frederickson, Rachel; Matiz, Catalina; Chaney, Keri; Estes, Tracy S; Botto, Nina; Draper, Michelle; Kircik, Leon; Lugo-Somolinos, Aida; Machler, Brian; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in US children. More widespread diagnostic confirmation through epicutaneous patch testing is needed. The aim was to quantify patch test results from providers evaluating US children. The study is a retrospective analysis of deidentified patch test results of children aged 18 years or younger, entered by participating providers in the Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry, during the first year of data collection (2015-2016). One thousand one hundred forty-two cases from 34 US states, entered by 84 providers, were analyzed. Sixty-five percent of cases had one or more positive patch test (PPT), with 48% of cases having 1 or more relevant positive patch test (RPPT). The most common PPT allergens were nickel (22%), fragrance mix I (11%), cobalt (9.1%), balsam of Peru (8.4%), neomycin (7.2%), propylene glycol (6.8%), cocamidopropyl betaine (6.4%), bacitracin (6.2%), formaldehyde (5.7%), and gold (5.7%). This US database provides multidisciplinary information on pediatric ACD, rates of PPT, and relevant RPPT reactions, validating the high rates of pediatric ACD previously reported in the literature. The registry database is the largest comprehensive collection of US-only pediatric patch test cases on which future research can be built. Continued collaboration between patients, health care providers, manufacturers, and policy makers is needed to decrease the most common allergens in pediatric consumer products.

  15. Wound-Related Allergic/Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Ladizinski, Barry; Saraiya, Ami; Lee, Kachiu C; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy; Maibach, Howard

    2016-06-01

    To provide information from a literature review about the prevention, recognition, and treatment for contact dermatitis. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify signs and symptoms of and diagnostic measures for contact dermatitis.2. Identify causes and risks for contact dermatitis.3. Select appropriate treatment for contact dermatitis and its prevention. Contact dermatitis to wound care products is a common, often neglected problem. A review was conducted to identify articles relevant to contact dermatitis.A PubMed English-language literature review was conducted for appropriate articles published between January 2000 and December 2015.Contact dermatitis is both irritant (80% of cases) or allergic (20% of cases). Frequent use of potential contact allergens and impaired barrier function of the skin can lead to rising sensitization in patients with chronic wounds. Common known allergens to avoid in wound care patients include fragrances, colophony, lanolin, and topical antibiotics.Clinicians should be cognizant of the allergens in wound care products and the potential for sensitization. All medical devices, including wound dressings, adhesives, and bandages, should be labeled with their complete ingredients, and manufacturers should be encouraged to remove common allergens from wound care products, including topical creams, ointments, and dressings.

  16. Phenazine antibiotic inspired discovery of potent bromophenazine antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Nicholas V; Bai, Fang; Perez, Cristian; Duong, Benjamin Q; Rocca, James R; Jin, Shouguang; Huigens, Robert W

    2014-02-14

    Nearly all clinically used antibiotics have been (1) discovered from microorganisms (2) using phenotype screens to identify inhibitors of bacterial growth. The effectiveness of these antibiotics is attributed to their endogenous roles as bacterial warfare agents against competing microorganisms. Unfortunately, every class of clinically used antibiotic has been met with drug resistant bacteria. In fact, the emergence of resistant bacterial infections coupled to the dismal pipeline of new antibacterial agents has resulted in a global health care crisis. There is an urgent need for innovative antibacterial strategies and treatment options to effectively combat drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe the implementation of a Pseudomonas competition strategy, using redox-active phenazines, to identify novel antibacterial leads against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this report, we describe the chemical synthesis and evaluation of a diverse 27-membered phenazine library. Using this microbial warfare inspired approach, we have identified several bromophenazines with potent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The most potent bromophenazine analogue from this focused library demonstrated a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78-1.56 μM, or 0.31-0.62 μg mL(-1), against S. aureus and S. epidermidis and proved to be 32- to 64-fold more potent than the phenazine antibiotic pyocyanin in head-to-head MIC experiments. In addition to the discovery of potent antibacterial agents against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we also report a detailed structure-activity relationship for this class of bromophenazine small molecules.

  17. Oral administration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 suppresses inflammation by decreasing interleukin-6 responses in a murine model of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kano, Hiroshi; Kita, Junko; Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    The oral intake of Lactobacillus spp. can provide beneficial effects to the host by modulating the immune response. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic inflammatory disease mediated by various immune responses. In this study, we examined the effect of a Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (OLL1073R-1), on AD development in a murine model of AD that was developed by the topical application of mite antigen in NC/Nga mice. The oral intake of heat-killed OLL1073R-1 cells inhibited both the development of dermatitis and the elevation of an acute inflammation marker, serum amyloid A. Another bacterial strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus OLL2984, exerted no inhibitory effects on dermatitis. The oral intake of heat-killed OLL1073R-1 cells also attenuated secretion of IL-6 from lymph node cells in response to mite antigen and reduced IL-6 levels in inflamed tissues, such as auricles. Production of IFN-γ or IL-4 was not influenced by OLL1073R-1 intake. We also found that inhibition of IL-6 signaling by gp130-Fc (a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular portion of glycoprotein 130 fused to the Fc region of human IgG1) markedly decreased the severity of dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Moreover, secretion of IL-6 by lymph node cells was augmented in NC/Nga mice compared with that in BALB/c mice. These results indicate that IL-6 plays an essential role in the development of dermatitis in the NC/Nga mouse model of AD, and that OLL1073R-1 inhibits dermatitis, at least in part, by suppressing the IL-6 response. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  19. Thymoma associated with exfoliative dermatitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Vallim Jacobina; Moura, Mariana Pereira; Monteiro, Fabio Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    A 7-year-old, castrated male, domestic shorthair cat presented with generalized exfoliative dermatitis, lethargy, anorexia and weight loss. Multiple skin scrapings taken at the time did not reveal any abnormalities. Skin histopathological examination was consistent with sebaceous adenitis or exfoliative dermatitis caused by an underlying thymoma (thymoma-associated feline exfoliative dermatitis). Thoracic radiographs revealed a cranial mediastinal mass, which was removed surgically. Histopathological examinations indicated that it was a thymoma. Within 90 days of surgery, the cutaneous signs had resolved, suggesting a causal relationship between the thymoma and the skin disease. Recurrence of thymoma was detected 24 months after surgery. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  20. Occupational Airborne Contact Dermatitis From Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeKoven, Joel G; Yu, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Few published reports have described occupational contact dermatitis from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure in the literature. We present an additional case of a 58-year-old male pharmaceutical worker with an occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis to PPIs confirmed by patch testing. This is a novel report of workplace exposure to dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole PPIs with resultant clinical contact allergy and relevant positive patch test results to these 2 agents. A literature review of all previously reported cases of occupational contact dermatitis to PPI is summarized. The case also emphasizes the importance of even minute exposures when considering workplace accommodation.

  1. "Inflammatory skin march" in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Furue, Masutaka; Kadono, Takafumi

    2017-10-01

    Comorbidities of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), metabolic syndrome and autoimmune diseases with systemic inflammation are recent topics in medicine. Inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are an active source of diverse proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which are readily detectable in the circulation and are likely to be involved in developing comorbidities. Both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are frequently comorbid with CVD, metabolic syndrome and autoimmune diseases, the consequence of which is called "inflammatory skin march", "psoriatic march" or "march of psoriasis". In this review, we summarize the epidemiological evidence and pathogenetic concepts regarding inflammatory skin march in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  2. History of Seborrheic Dermatitis: Conceptual and Clinico-Pathologic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Mameri, Angela Cristina Akel; Carneiro, Sueli; Mameri, Letícia Maria Akel; Telles da Cunha, José Marcos; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory and chronic disease with a high incidence and prevalence (1% to 3% in the general population, 3% to 5% in young adults, and 40% to 80% in HIV-positive individuals). Although the condition was first described in 1887, its clinical aspects and clinical forms have still not been well individualized, nor has its etiopathogenesis been fully elucidated. The disease, despite having clinical features similar to dermatitis, does not have the same histopathologic features or the same progressive clinical behavior. This contribution reviews the history of seborrheic dermatitis.

  3. Differentiation Between {\\varvec{Staphylococcus aureus}} and {\\varvec{Staphylococcus epidermidis}} Using Microcalorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Natividad Lago; Soto, José L. Legido; Santos, Isaac Arias; Casás, Lidia M.

    2013-06-01

    Microcalorimetry is a highly sensitive experimental technique that determines heat changes in any process or transformation. All organisms produce heat due to their metabolism. The rate of heat flow is an adequate measure of metabolic activity of living beings and their component parts. Microorganisms produce small amounts of heat: 1 pW to 3 pW per cell. Although the heat produced by bacteria is very small, their exponential reproduction in a culture medium permits heat detection through microcalorimetry. A microcalorimetric growth and metabolic study was carried out for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, by using heat liberated during metabolism. A thermal conductivity calorimeter of the Calvet type was used. The inside of the calorimeter contains two stainless steel cells (experimental and reference) with a screw-on Teflon cap with a hole in the center. Experiments were carried out with final concentrations of the order of (106, 105, 103, and 10) CFU {\\cdot } { ml }^{-1}. These were kept at a constant temperature of 309.65 K. The plot of change in heat voltage versus time enables acquisition of the characteristic growth curve for each bacterial strain. Thermograms were analyzed mathematically and helped determine the characteristic parameters for each microorganism, and led to the identification of the bacterial species.

  4. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-15

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel.

  5. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  6. Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis: dermatitis due to live bee acupuncture therapy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Biotic Interactions Shape the Ecological Distributions of Staphylococcus Species.

    PubMed

    Kastman, Erik K; Kamelamela, Noelani; Norville, Josh W; Cosetta, Casey M; Dutton, Rachel J; Wolfe, Benjamin E

    2016-10-18

    Many metagenomic sequencing studies have observed the presence of closely related bacterial species or genotypes in the same microbiome. Previous attempts to explain these patterns of microdiversity have focused on the abiotic environment, but few have considered how biotic interactions could drive patterns of microbiome diversity. We dissected the patterns, processes, and mechanisms shaping the ecological distributions of three closely related Staphylococcus species in cheese rind biofilms. Paradoxically, the most abundant species (S. equorum) is the slowest colonizer and weakest competitor based on growth and competition assays in the laboratory. Through in vitro community reconstructions, we determined that biotic interactions with neighboring fungi help resolve this paradox. Species-specific stimulation of the poor competitor by fungi of the genus Scopulariopsis allows S. equorum to dominate communities in vitro as it does in situ Results of comparative genomic and transcriptomic experiments indicate that iron utilization pathways, including a homolog of the S. aureus staphyloferrin B siderophore operon pathway, are potential molecular mechanisms underlying Staphylococcus-Scopulariopsis interactions. Our integrated approach demonstrates that fungi can structure the ecological distributions of closely related bacterial species, and the data highlight the importance of bacterium-fungus interactions in attempts to design and manipulate microbiomes. Decades of culture-based studies and more recent metagenomic studies have demonstrated that bacterial species in agriculture, medicine, industry, and nature are unevenly distributed across time and space. The ecological processes and molecular mechanisms that shape these distributions are not well understood because it is challenging to connect in situ patterns of diversity with mechanistic in vitro studies in the laboratory. Using tractable cheese rind biofilms and a focus on coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS

  8. Interfering with Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Kerstin; Steinbach, Anke; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) describes the exchange of chemical signals in bacterial populations to adjust the bacterial phenotypes according to the density of bacterial cells. This serves to express phenotypes that are advantageous for the group and ensure bacterial survival. To do so, bacterial cells synthesize autoinducer (AI) molecules, release them to the environment, and take them up. Thereby, the AI concentration reflects the cell density. When the AI concentration exceeds a critical threshold in the cells, the AI may activate the expression of virulence-associated genes or of luminescent proteins. It has been argued that targeting the QS system puts less selective pressure on these pathogens and should avoid the development of resistant bacteria. Therefore, the molecular components of QS systems have been suggested as promising targets for developing new anti-infective compounds. Here, we review the QS systems of selected gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, namely, Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and discuss various antivirulence strategies based on blocking different components of the QS machinery. PMID:26819549

  9. Occupational dermatitis in health care workers evaluated for suspected allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Salmon; Belsito, Donald V

    2015-01-01

    Contact dermatitides occur commonly among health care workers (HCWs). To contrast the atopic status and incidence, location, and final diagnosis of skin diseases afflicting HCWs versus non-HCWs (NHCWs) evaluated for suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); and among the population diagnosed with ACD, to compare the incidence and occupational relatedness of allergens found in HCWs with the rates observed in NHCWs. Between July 1, 1994, and May 30, 2014, 2611 patients underwent patch testing by the senior author. Of these, 165 were classified as HCWs based on their primary occupation. Statistical analysis was done using a χ test. Health care workers were more likely than NHCWs to be women and to have hand dermatitis. Women, but not men, HCWs suffered more irritant contact dermatitis. Health care workers had significantly more work-related ACD, especially to formaldehyde, quaternium-15, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, cocamide diethanolamine (DEA), thiuram mix, carba mix, thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde, and bacitracin. Only patients suspected of having ACD were tested. Our population was geographically limited to metropolitan Kansas City, MO and metropolitan New York, NY. Health care workers suffer more from occupational ACD, especially of the hands, than do NHCWs, including to allergens not present on available standard allergen series.

  10. Bacterial phytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Strobel, G A

    1977-01-01

    Representatives of all of the major genera of plant disease-causing bacteria have been shown to produce one or more phytotoxins. Toxicological studies on the bacterial diseases of the major food crops have not been extensive. Bacterial phytotoxins belong to a number of classes of organic substances, including peptide, derivatized amino acid, polysaccharide, and glycopeptide. The mechanism of action of these compounds is largely unknown, as is their origin and importance in the disease syndrome. Nevertheless, some progress has been made in these areas in isolated cases. There is a tremendous potential in the future for studies on the bacterial phytotoxins.

  11. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thomer, Lena; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , a Gram-positive bacterium colonizing nares, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract, frequently invades the skin, soft tissues, and bloodstreams of humans. Even with surgical and antibiotic therapy, bloodstream infections are associated with significant mortality. The secretion of coagulases, proteins that associate with and activate the host hemostatic factor prothrombin, and the bacterial surface display of agglutinins, proteins that bind polymerized fibrin, are key virulence strategies for the pathogenesis of S. aureus bloodstream infections, which culminate in the establishment of abscess lesions. Pathogen-controlled processes, involving a wide spectrum of secreted factors, are responsible for the recruitment and destruction of immune cells, transforming abscess lesions into purulent exudate, with which staphylococci disseminate to produce new infectious lesions or to infect new hosts. Research on S. aureus bloodstream infections is a frontier for the characterization of protective vaccine antigens and the development of immune therapeutics aiming to prevent disease or improve outcomes. PMID:26925499

  12. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Barbara M.; Mrochen, Daniel; Péton, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research. PMID:26999219

  13. Molecular mechanisms of Staphylococcus aureus iron acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The unique redox potential of iron is ideal for use as a cofactor in diverse biochemical reactions. Iron is therefore vital for the growth and proliferation of nearly all organisms, including pathogenic bacteria. Vertebrates sequester excess iron within proteins in order to alleviate toxicity and restrict the amount of free iron available for invading pathogens. Restricting the growth of infectious microorganisms by sequestering essential nutrients is referred to as nutritional immunity. In order to circumvent nutritional immunity bacterial pathogens have evolved elegant systems that allow for the acquisition of iron during infection. The Gram-positive extracellular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal organism that can cause severe disease when it gains access to underlying tissues. Iron acquisition is required for S. aureus colonization and subsequent pathogenesis. Herein we review the strategies S. aureus employs to obtain iron through the production of siderophores and the consumption of host heme. PMID:21639791

  14. Mechanisms of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Gardete, Susana; Tomasz, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used for the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. Traditionally, it has been used as a drug of last resort; however, clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin (vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus [VISA]) and more recently with high-level vancomycin resistance (vancomycin-resistant S. aureus [VRSA]) have been described in the clinical literature. The rare VRSA strains carry transposon Tn1546, acquired from vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, which is known to alter cell wall structure and metabolism, but the resistance mechanisms in VISA isolates are less well defined. Herein, we review selected mechanistic aspects of resistance in VISA and summarize biochemical studies on cell wall synthesis in a VRSA strain. Finally, we recapitulate a model that integrates common mechanistic features of VRSA and VISA strains and is consistent with the mode of action of vancomycin.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Dupilumab in Patients ≥12 to <18 Years of Age, With Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-18

    Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis; Dermatitis, Dermatitis Atopic; Eczema, Skin Diseases, Skin; Diseases Genetic, Genetic; Diseases Inborn, Skin; Disease, Eczematous Skin; Hypersensitivity, Immediate; Hypersensitivity, Immune System Diseases; Dermatitis, Atopic

  16. The papain inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibits bacterial cysteine proteases and is an antagonist of bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Zindel, Stephan; Kaman, Wendy E; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Peters, Anna; Hays, John P; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar

    2013-07-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacterial virulence factors and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic treatment against a range of unrelated pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Laser Capture Microdissection of Feline Streptomyces spp Pyogranulomatous Dermatitis and Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Traslavina, R P; Reilly, C M; Vasireddy, R; Samitz, E M; Stepnik, C T; Outerbridge, C; Affolter, V K; Byrne, B A; Lowenstine, L J; White, S D; Murphy, B

    2015-11-01

    Suspected Streptomyces spp infections were identified in 4 cats at UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1982 and 2011. Three had ulcerated, dark red mycetomas involving the dermis, subcutis, and fascia with fistulous tracts and/or regional lymphadenopathy. One cat had pyogranulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis. Granulomatous inflammation in all cats contained colonies of Gram-positive, non-acid-fast organisms. All 4 cats failed to respond to aggressive medical and surgical treatment and were euthanized. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to selectively harvest DNA from the affected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Cloned amplicons from LCM-derived tissue confirmed the presence of Streptomyces spp in the dermatitis cases. Amplicons from the remaining cat with peritoneal involvement aligned with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene for Actinomycetales. Usually considered a contaminant, Streptomyces spp can be associated with refractory pyogranulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis in cats with outdoor access. LCM is useful in the diagnosis of bacterial diseases where contamination may be an issue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Breaking the cycle: the etiology of incontinence dermatitis and evaluating and using skin care products.

    PubMed

    Fiers, S A

    1996-04-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem for incontinent patients; a cycle of moisture, friction, bacteria and breakdown can be established. To break this cycle, the clinician must understand the etiology of incontinence dermatitis and choose appropriate skin care products. Healthy skin has a mean acid mantle of 5.5 pH. This natural acidity discourages bacterial colonization and provides a moisture barrier. Aging skin experiences increased dryness (allowing cracks in which bacteria colonizes) and slower recovery from the effects of alkaline substances. Incontinence results in elevated friction coefficient, exposure to moisture, bacteria and ammonia (leading to alkaline conditions), and increased enzymatic activity. When choosing products to protect the skin, clinicians should check that the product's pH level is within the desirable range (4 to 7), that ingredients are appropriate and not contraindicated for particular patients, and that the product has been tested for dermal irritation and antimicrobial efficacy. Three basic product types are cleansers, moisturizers and barriers. Skin should be cleansed gently without high alkalinity (as in some bar soaps) or rubbing (which denudes fragile skin), patted or air dried, moisturized after bathing, and protected with a barrier. Using the appropriate products can reduce the risk for breakdown and enhance the skin health of your patients.

  19. Soy allergy in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jarmila, Celakovská; Květuše, Ettlerová; Karel, Ettler; Jaroslava, Vaněčková; Josef, Bukač

    2013-07-01

    The evaluation of soy allergy in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis. The evaluation of the correlation to the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy. Altogether 175 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: Specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests to soy, history and food allergy to peanut and pollen allergy were evaluated. The early allergic reaction to soy was recorded in 2.8% patients. Sensitization to soy was found in another 27.2% patients with no clinical manifestation after soy ingestion. The correlation between the positive results of examinations to soy and between the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy was confirmed in statistics. Almost one third of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are sensitized to soy without clinical symptoms. The early allergic reaction to soy occur in minority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  20. Atopic dermatitis and skin allergies - update and outlook.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, A; Feichtner, K

    2013-12-01

    During the last few years, an impressive amount of experimental studies and clinical trials have dealt with a variety of distinct topics in allergic skin diseases - especially atopic dermatitis. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide relevant insights into clinical and pathophysiological aspects of allergic skin diseases or discuss promising targets and strategies for the future treatment of skin allergy. This includes aspects of barrier malfunction and inflammation as well as the interaction of the cutaneous immune system with the skin microbiome and diagnostic procedures for working up atopic dermatitis patients. Additionally, contact dermatitis, urticaria, and drug reactions are addressed in this review. This update summarizes novel evidence, highlighting current areas of uncertainties and debates that will stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field of atopic dermatitis and skin allergies in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Scalp Psoriasis vs. Seborrheic Dermatitis: What's the Difference?

    MedlinePlus

    ... does a doctor tell the difference between scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp? Answers from ... such as pitting. Compare signs and symptoms Scalp psoriasis Red skin covered with flakes and silvery scales ...

  2. [The role of the innate immune system in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Volz, T; Kaesler, S; Skabytska, Y; Biedermann, T

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms how the innate immune system detects microbes and mounts a rapid immune response have been more and more elucidated in the past years. Subsequently it has been shown that innate immunity also shapes adaptive immune responses and determines their quality that can be either inflammatory or tolerogenic. As atopic dermatitis is characterized by disturbances of innate and adaptive immune responses, colonization with pathogens and defects in skin barrier function, insight into mechanisms of innate immunity has helped to understand the vicious circle of ongoing skin inflammation seen in atopic dermatitis patients. Elucidating general mechanisms of the innate immune system and its functions in atopic dermatitis paves the way for developing new therapies. Especially the novel insights into the human microbiome and potential functional consequences make the innate immune system a very fundamental and promising target. As a result atopic dermatitis manifestations can be attenuated or even resolved. These currently developed strategies will be introduced in the current review.

  3. Gallate Contact Dermatitis: Product Update and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Zachary E; Van Noord, Megan G; Atwater, Amber Reck

    Allergic contact dermatitis related to cosmetic use can result from allergens not routinely evaluated by standard patch test protocols. Propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates are commonly used antioxidant preservatives with reports of associated allergic contact dermatitis in the literature. The objectives of this review were to investigate the role of gallates in allergic contact dermatitis and to explore products containing these preservatives. A systematic review of the literature through April 2016 was performed to explore cases of reported gallate allergy. Food and cosmetic product databases were searched for products containing gallates. Seventy-four cases of gallate contact allergy have been reported. In addition, a variety of commercially available cosmetic products and foods contain gallate chemicals. Propyl gallate is the most commonly reported gallate contact allergen and often causes facial and/or hand dermatitis.

  4. Soy Allergy in Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jarmila, Čelakovská; Květuše, Ettlerová; Karel, Ettler; Jaroslava, Vaněčková; Josef, Bukač

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of soy allergy in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis. The evaluation of the correlation to the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy. Materials and Methods: Altogether 175 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: Specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests to soy, history and food allergy to peanut and pollen allergy were evaluated. Results: The early allergic reaction to soy was recorded in 2.8% patients. Sensitization to soy was found in another 27.2% patients with no clinical manifestation after soy ingestion. The correlation between the positive results of examinations to soy and between the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy was confirmed in statistics. Conclusion: Almost one third of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are sensitized to soy without clinical symptoms. The early allergic reaction to soy occur in minority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:23919016

  5. Dasatinib-induced Seborrheic Dermatitis-like Eruption.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Ryan R; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-07-01

    Dasatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. It has been investigated in treating other neoplasms, including non-small-cell lung cancer and a subset of melanomas. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by erythematous patches or plaques with scaling typically affecting the external ear, glabella, hair-bearing areas of the face, nasolabial fold, and scalp. Antitumor agents are often associated with mucocutaneous side effects, including seborrheic dermatitis. We describe the case of a 79-year-old woman with a history of sinonasal melanoma who developed a seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption while taking dasatinib. We also review the molecular abnormalities associated with melanoma, summarize the mucocutaneous side effects of dasatinib, and list the other antineoplastic agents associated with a seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption.

  6. Dasatinib-induced Seborrheic Dermatitis-like Eruption

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Ryan R.

    2017-01-01

    Dasatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. It has been investigated in treating other neoplasms, including non-small-cell lung cancer and a subset of melanomas. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by erythematous patches or plaques with scaling typically affecting the external ear, glabella, hair-bearing areas of the face, nasolabial fold, and scalp. Antitumor agents are often associated with mucocutaneous side effects, including seborrheic dermatitis. We describe the case of a 79-year-old woman with a history of sinonasal melanoma who developed a seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption while taking dasatinib. We also review the molecular abnormalities associated with melanoma, summarize the mucocutaneous side effects of dasatinib, and list the other antineoplastic agents associated with a seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption. PMID:29104720

  7. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human ... your chance of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic ...

  8. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E.; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections. PMID:26369955

  9. Adhesion force of staphylococcus aureus on various biomaterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alam, Fahad; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises of more than half of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they can cause major bone infection which can result in destruction of joint and bone. In the current study, adhesion force of bacteria on the surface of various biomaterial surfaces is measured using atomic force microscope (AFM). Staphylococcus aureus was immobilized on an AFM tipless cantilever as a force probe to measure the adhesion force between bacteria and biomaterials (viz. ultra-high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE), stainless steel (SS), Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hydroxyapatite (HA)). At the contact time of 10s, UHMWPE shows weak adhesion force (~4nN) whereas SS showed strong adhesion force (~15nN) due to their surface energy and surface roughness. Bacterial retention and viability experiment (3M™ petrifilm test, agar plate) dictates that hydroxyapatite shows the lowest vaibility of bacteria, whereas lowest bacterial retention is observed on UHMWPE surface. Similar results were obtained from live/dead staining test, where HA shows 65% viability, whereas on UHMWPE, SS and Ti-6Al-4V, the bacterial viability is 78%, 94% and 97%, respectively. Lower adhesion forces, constrained pull-off distance (of bacterial) and high antibacterial resistance of bioactive-HA makes it a potential biomaterial for bone-replacement arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  11. Drug-Induced Rosacea-like Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Paštar, Zrinjka

    2016-04-01

    Rosacea is a common, chronic cutaneous disorder with a prevalence of 0.5-10%, predominantly affecting women. The disease presents with a heterogeneous clinical picture characterized by transient flushing, persistent facial redness, telangiectasias, and, in more severe clinical forms, the presence of inflammatory papules and pustules in the central third of the face. Although its pathophysiology is complex and still remains unknown, factors that exacerbate the disease are well defined. They include genetic predisposition as well as external factors such as exposure to UV light, high temperature, and diet. Besides these well-known factors, recent studies suggest that drugs and vitamins could also be possible factors inducing rosacea-like dermatitis or aggravating pre-existing rosacea. Although these are less common possible triggering factors, the aim of this article is to present the current knowledge on the association between use of certain drugs or vitamins and rosacea.

  12. Food intake of patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barth, G A; Weigl, L; Boeing, H; Disch, R; Borelli, S

    2001-01-01

    There is only restricted information about the nutritional behavior of adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Our purpose was to evaluate the food intake in a series of patients with AD with particular consideration of self-reported food intolerance. Particular attention was paid to the risks of nutrient deficiencies. We examined the intake of 28 food items in 116 AD patients with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). For each food item the cohort was divided in two groups according to whether symptoms were reported or not (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic). We found in a series of food items a significant lower food intake among symptomatic patients. Significantly lower intakes were reported by symptomatic patients for dairy products, fish, egg, pork, oranges, non-specified fruits, apples, kiwis, green or red peppers, peanuts and hazelnuts. We concluded that in symptomatic AD patients supplementation with specific nutrients might become mandatory. This is particularly pertinent for calcium, iodine, vitamin C and n-3 fatty acids.

  13. Atopic dermatitis: skin care and topical therapies.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Udkoff, Jeremy; Borok, Jenna; Friedman, Adam; Nicol, Noreen; Bienstock, Jeffrey; Lio, Peter; Tollefson, Megha M; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis is strongly influenced by Type 2 innate lymphoid cell and T-helper cell type 2 lymphocyte-driven inflammation and skin barrier dysfunction. AD therapies attempt to correct this pathology, and guidelines suggest suggest basics of AD therapy, which include repair of the skin barrier through bathing practices and moisturizers, infection control, and further lifestyle modifications to avoid and reduce AD triggers.While some patients' AD may be controlled using these measures, inflammatory eczema including acute flares and maintenance therapy in more severe patients are treated with topical pharmacologic agents such as topical corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and, more recently, topical PDE-4 inhibitors. This model of basic skin therapy and, as needed, topical pharmacologic agents may be used to treat the vast majority of patients with AD and remains the staple of AD therapy. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  14. Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433

  15. [In vitro testing for allergic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brehler, R; Merk, H

    2005-12-01

    Patch testing is the standard method to identify allergic contact dermatitis. Simple, safe and accurate in vitro methods identifying contact allergies would offer both theoretical and practical advantages. Using the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), allergen-specific lymphocytes central to the pathogenesis of Type IV allergies can be identified. Various studies have assessed the value of LTT in the diagnosis of contact allergies. The current assessment is that the test can be helpful in distinguishing between irritant and allergic reactions. LTT is especially useful in demonstrating drug allergies and can also be employed to prove sensitization to gases or toxic substances. At the present time, it is not an alternative for patch testing in daily practice.

  16. Diaper dermatitis and advances in diaper technology.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Friedlander, S F

    2000-08-01

    During the last decade, a number of technological innovations in disposable diaper designs and materials have aimed at reducing dermatological problems in the diaper area. The introduction of absorbent gelling materials led to a decrease in skin overhydration and made possible a more beneficial pH in the diaper area. A retrospective evaluation of clinical studies conducted before and after the introduction of absorbent gelling materials confirms that utilization of these materials has been associated with a marked reduction in the severity of diaper dermatitis. More recently, a novel diaper designed to deliver dermatological formulations to the skin also appears to improve the condition of diapered skin. Disposable wipes now are available that are nonirritating and suitable for use on damaged or broken skin. Ongoing innovative efforts in this area promise to further decrease the prevalence of diaper-associated dermatologic conditions.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Adjunctive Management of Itch in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elmariah, Sarina B

    2017-07-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is a hallmark feature of atopic dermatitis (AD). The impact of AD-related pruritus can range from mildly distressing or distracting to completely disabling. Traditionally, management of itch in AD patients has focused on restoring the altered skin barrier with topical emollients and/or reducing inflammation. A growing emphasis has been placed on directly targeting the neural transmission pathways that mediate itch signaling. Off-label use of neuromodulatory agents has helped reduce this aggravating symptom in atopic patients. This article reviews the current literature on the use of neuromodulatory agents and nonpharmacologic alternative therapies used to treat AD-related pruritus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in construction workers.

    PubMed

    Condé-Salazar, L; Guimaraens, D; Villegas, C; Romero, A; Gonzalez, M A

    1995-10-01

    We report the patch test results of 449 construction workers who came as patients to the Occupational Dermatology Service of the Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo in Madrid between 1989 and 1993. 90.8% of them were patch tested, because they had cutaneous lesions or a clinical history suggestive of occupational dermatitis. 65.5% (268) of those patch tested showed one or more reactions connected with their work. Chromate at 42.1% was the main allergen, followed by cobalt, 20.5%, nickel, 10%, and epoxy resin, 7.5%. 25.9% (106) of patients showed sensitization to rubber components, the majority at 23.7% to thiuram mix, with TETD being the main allergen.

  20. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Career counsellors and occupational contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Helen; Keegel, Tessa; Nixon, Rosemary; Frowen, Kath

    2003-04-01

    Career counsellors are in a unique position to provide timely preventive advice to young people at risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. Career counsellors need to be aware of risk factors for this condition, including atopic eczema, and of high-risk occupations, such as hairdressing. A cross-sectional survey of 82 career counsellors was conducted at an Australian career counsellors' conference. 24 (29%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 19-40%) correctly identified eczema as a risk factor. 25 (30%, 95% CI 21-41%) indicated consideration of past skin problems during career counselling. 30 (36%, 95% CI 25-47%) correctly reported at least 1 high-risk occupation, with hairdressing being most frequently identified. Only 3 of the 82 (4%, 95% CI 0-7%) correctly answered all 3 questions.

  2. Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Borda, Luis J.; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C.

    2016-01-01

    Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) and dandruff are of a continuous spectrum of the same disease that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Dandruff is restricted to the scalp, and involves itchy, flaking skin without visible inflammation. SD can affect the scalp as well as other seborrheic areas, and involves itchy and flaking or scaling skin, inflammation and pruritus. Various intrinsic and environmental factors, such as sebaceous secretions, skin surface fungal colonization, individual susceptibility, and interactions between these factors, all contribute to the pathogenesis of SD and dandruff. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SD and dandruff, including epidemiology, burden of disease, clinical presentations and diagnosis, treatment, genetic studies in humans and animal models, and predisposing factors. Genetic and biochemical studies and investigations in animal models provide further insight on the pathophysiology and strategies for better treatment. PMID:27148560

  3. Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Borda, Luis J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C

    2015-12-01

    Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) and dandruff are of a continuous spectrum of the same disease that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Dandruff is restricted to the scalp, and involves itchy, flaking skin without visible inflammation. SD can affect the scalp as well as other seborrheic areas, and involves itchy and flaking or scaling skin, inflammation and pruritus. Various intrinsic and environmental factors, such as sebaceous secretions, skin surface fungal colonization, individual susceptibility, and interactions between these factors, all contribute to the pathogenesis of SD and dandruff. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SD and dandruff, including epidemiology, burden of disease, clinical presentations and diagnosis, treatment, genetic studies in humans and animal models, and predisposing factors. Genetic and biochemical studies and investigations in animal models provide further insight on the pathophysiology and strategies for better treatment.

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented.

  6. Intraocular lens subluxation in a patient with facial atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, S; Nakamura, K; Kurosaka, D

    2001-02-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese man presented with subluxation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) caused by a rupture of part of Zinn's zonule but no retinal break 2 years after phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. He had a history of atopic dermatitis since infancy. This case presents a rare ocular complication of scratching and rubbing the face and eyelids because of itching related to atopic dermatitis.

  7. American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series: 2017 Update.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Peter C; Dunnick, Cory A; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce; Warshaw, Erin; Mowad, Christen

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series was introduced in 2012. After 4 years of use, changes in our recommended allergens are necessary. For the updated series, we have reordered the first 4 panels to approximately mirror the current TRUE Test and removed parthenolide, triclosan, glutaraldehyde, and jasmine. Polymyxin B, lavender, sodium benzoate, ethylhexylglycerin, and benzoic acid are new additions to the American Contact Dermatitis Society series.

  8. Chronic actinic dermatitis: clinical cases, diagnostic workup, and therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Beach, Renée A; Pratt, Melanie D

    2009-01-01

    We report four cases of chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) occurring in middle-aged men with significant outdoor exposure. The aim of this report is to show the spectrum of presentations of patients with CAD and to outline the proper diagnostic workup of these individuals. Phototesting was performed to determine the minimal erythema doses to ultraviolet (UV)A (315-400 nm) and UVB (280-315 nm) and photopatch testing and patch testing for each individual with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard series and the Chemotechnique Plant series, supplemented by the Hausen Plant series and the patients' own products. All patients were men, over 45 years, who worked outdoors or had outdoor hobbies. Two had a past known history of allergic contact dermatitis. Two had atopic dermatitis. Three had positive reactions to Compositae plants and sesquiterpene lactone; one had a reaction to lichen acid mix. All had photocontact dermatitis or contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals, including benzophenone 3 (oxybenzone), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone), and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (octinoxate). All reacted to fragrance mix; two reacted to balsam of Peru and two to colophony. All had biopsies showing an eczematous pattern. CAD is persistent, with a classic presentation, and requires a specific diagnostic workup. Effective therapeutic options exist for patients with CAD.

  9. Photoaggravated allergic contact dermatitis and transient photosensitivity caused by methylisothiazolinone.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Olivier; Goossens, An; Marguery, Marie-Claude; Castelain, Michel; Boursault, Lucile; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise; Lambert, Julien; Milpied, Brigitte

    2018-04-01

    Photoaggravated allergic contact dermatitis caused by methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI) and MI has been reported. To describe the clinical characteristics and results of (photo)patch tests and photo-tests of 10 patients in Belgium and France suffering from photoaggravated contact dermatitis caused by MI. Five men and five women, with a median age of 49.5 years, were investigated between January 2012 and February 2017 because of suspected photoaggravated contact dermatitis. Patch tests, photopatch tests and/or photo-tests were performed. Seven patients had positive patch test reactions to both MCI/MI and MI, whereas 3 patients had positive patch test reactions only to MI. In most cases, MI was the (strong) primary sensitizer. Photopatch tests with MCI/MI and/or MI gave stronger reactions than patch tests with these derivatives, indicating photoaggravation. Sensitization probably took place from cosmetics and work-related biocides, whereas elicitation of dermatitis was remarkably often related to airborne exposure to MI present in paints or industrial biocides. Four patients suffered from transient photosensitivity. Photoaggravated allergic contact dermatitis and transient photosensitivity caused by MI is a peculiar clinical presentation of allergic contact dermatitis caused by this preservative, and should be considered in daily clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Polysensitization and individual susceptibility to allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gosnell, Amy L; Schmotzer, Brian; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-01-01

    Patients with allergic contact dermatitis to 1 antigen have been shown to be at increased risk of developing delayed type hypersensitivity reactions to additional antigens. Both environmental and genetic factors likely influence the risk of sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine whether polysensitization occurs at a higher frequency than would be expected based on chance and whether polysensitization occurs more often in subsets of patients with hand involvement and atopic dermatitis. From a database of patch test results from a single practitioner, the probability of having positive reactions to 3 or more unrelated allergens was calculated under the assumption that positive reactions are independent and compared with the observed proportion having positive reactions to 3 or more unrelated allergens. The analysis was repeated excluding patients with leg involvement as a proxy for venous insufficiency dermatitis. The proportion of patients from the polysensitized and nonpolysensitized cohorts with either hand involvement or a history of atopic dermatitis was also calculated. Polysensitization occurs more often than expected based on chance. Polysensitized patients were more likely to have hand dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis was not significantly associated with polysensitization in this analysis. Polysensitized individuals may represent a phenotype with increased genetic susceptibility to sensitization.

  11. Topical tea tree oil effective in canine localised pruritic dermatitis--a multi-centre randomised double-blind controlled clinical trial in the veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Reichling, J; Fitzi, J; Hellmann, K; Wegener, T; Bucher, S; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Tea tree oil, a volatile oil, is well known for its broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. A standardised and stabilised 10% tea tree oil cream was tested against a commercial skin care cream (control cream) in the management of canine localised acute and chronic dermatitis. Fifty-seven dogs with clinical manifestations of mostly pruritic skin lesions or alterations, skin fold pyodermas and other forms of dermatitis, corroborated by predominantly positive fungal and bacterial skin isolates, were enrolled by seven practising veterinarians and randomly allocated to two study groups (28:29) and were treated twice daily with a blinded topical preparation. After 10 days of treatment, success rates of 71% for the tea tree oil cream and 41% for the control cream (over-all efficacy documented by the veterinary investigator) differed significantly (p = 0.04), favouring tea tree oil cream treatment. Accordingly on day 10, the tea tree oil cream caused significantly faster relief than the control cream (p = 0.04) for two common clinical dermatitis signs, pruritus (occurring in 84 % of dogs) and alopecia. Only one adverse event was reported in the tea tree oil group (suspected not to be causally related to the study drug) and none in the control cream group. The tested herbal cream appears to be a fast-acting safe alternative to conventional therapy for symptomatic treatment of canine localised dermatitis with pruritus.

  12. Bacterial contamination of computer touch screens.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P; Wuollet, Adam L; Raisanen, Peter; Lopez, Gerardo U

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens on the surfaces of computer touch screens used in hospitals and grocery stores. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria were isolated on touch screens in hospitals; Clostridium difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and in grocery stores; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Enteric bacteria were more common on grocery store touch screens than on hospital computer touch screens. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Increased concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus sp. in small animals exposed to aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.

  14. [L forms of Staphylococcus aureus. Behavior of coagulase, hemolytic and desoxyribonuclease activities and antibiotic sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Loschiavo, F; Giarrizzo, S

    1977-01-01

    L Forms derived from strains of coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, have, on the whole, preserved their DNAsic, haemolitic and coagulastic activities. L. forms showed high resistence to antibiotics acting on the bacterial cell-wall. The sensibility to other antibiotics was, roughly, analogous for the L forms as well as for the bacterial strains ones, with the exception of the clortetraciclin and the diidrostreptomicin, ehich proved to be comparatively more active on the L forms.

  15. Are toilet seats a vector for transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Mary Anne; Nance, Donna; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2010-01-01

    We studied the bacterial burden on toilet seats in a children's cancer hospital to validate a policy requesting that immunocompromised children use alcohol wipes on the seats prior to use of the toilets. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 3.3% of hospital toilets when wipes were not in use. Use of wipes resulted in a 50-fold reduction in mean daily bacterial counts and eliminated MRSA. PMID:19243856

  16. Are toilet seats a vector for transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed

    Giannini, Mary Anne; Nance, Donna; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2009-08-01

    We studied the bacterial burden on toilet seats in a children's cancer hospital to validate a policy requesting that immunocompromised children use alcohol wipes on the seats prior to use of the toilets. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 3.3% of hospital toilets when wipes were not in use. Use of wipes resulted in a 50-fold reduction in mean daily bacterial counts and eliminated MRSA.

  17. Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse

    PubMed Central

    HIDAKA, Shuhei; KOBAYASHI, Mitsutoshi; ANDO, Kunihide; FUJII, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2–5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified. The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Staphylococcus sciuri, with a cumulative disappearance rate of 80% or more at the termination of instillation. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome. Full or partial bacterial clearance was detected in 95% or more of the 62 horses. One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops. Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses. PMID:25787926

  18. Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi; Ando, Kunihide; Fujii, Yoshikazu

    2015-07-01

    Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2-5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified. The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Staphylococcus sciuri, with a cumulative disappearance rate of 80% or more at the termination of instillation. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome. Full or partial bacterial clearance was detected in 95% or more of the 62 horses. One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops. Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses.

  19. Silver nanoparticles toxicity against airborne strains of Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna A; Malina, Dagmara K

    2017-11-10

    The aim of this study was to explore the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by chemical reduction method assessment with regard to airborne strains of Staphylococcus spp. The first step of the experiment was the preparation of silver nanoparticle suspension. The suspension was obtained by a fast and simple chemical method involving the reduction of silver ions through a reducing factor in the presence of the suitable stabilizer required to prevent the aggregation. In the second stage, varied instrumental techniques were used for the analysis and characterization of the obtained nanostructures. Third, the bacteria of the Staphylococcus genus were isolated from the air under stable conditions with 47 sports and recreational horses, relatively. Next, isolated strains were identified using biochemical and spectrophotometric methods. The final step was the evaluation of the Staphylococcus genus sensitivity to nanosilver using the disk diffusion test. It has been proven that prepared silver nanoparticles exhibit strong antibacterial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentration for tested isolates was 30 μg/mL. It has been found that the sensitivity of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from six identified species differs considerably. The size distribution of bacterial growth inhibition zones indicates that resistance to various nanosilver concentrations is an individual strain feature, and has no connection with belonging to a specific species.

  20. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HERPESVIRAL DERMATITIS IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) IN NAMIBIA.

    PubMed

    Flacke, Gabriella L; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) housed at the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia developed cutaneous lesions consisting of alopecia, erythema, ulceration, and crusting on the left fore and hind limbs. Histopathology of skin biopsies in conjunction with indirect fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus-1 dermatitis; microbial culture indicated secondary bacterial infection. Therapy included targeted systemic antimicrobial and antiviral treatment, topical medications, and repeated cryotherapy. Lesions exhibited varying degrees of clinical improvement but, overall, progressed in extent, size, and severity during the subsequent 2.5 yr of intense treatment. The cheetah was ultimately euthanized due to a guarded prognosis and concerns about poor quality of life. Potential factors initiating or contributing (or both) to the severity and nonhealing nature of the cutaneous lesions include chronic unidentified stress, altered immune system function, and other environmental influences.

  1. Local Inflammation Exacerbates the Severity of Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Christopher P.; Daniels, Melvin D.; Zhao, Fan; Spellberg, Brad; Chong, Anita S.; Daum, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin infections. In a mouse model of S. aureus skin infection, we found that lesion size did not correlate with bacterial burden. Athymic nude mice had smaller skin lesions that contained lower levels of myeloperoxidase, IL-17A, and CXCL1, compared with wild type mice, although there was no difference in bacterial burden. T cell deficiency did not explain the difference in lesion size, because TCR βδ (-/-) mice did not have smaller lesions, and adoptive transfer of congenic T cells into athymic nude mice prior to infection did not alter lesion size. The differences observed were specific to the skin, because mortality in a pneumonia model was not different between wild type and athymic nude mice. Thus, the clinical severity of S. aureus skin infection is driven by the inflammatory response to the bacteria, rather than bacterial burden, in a T cell independent manner. PMID:23861974

  2. A Mouse Model for Ocular Surface Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdel-Razek, Osama; Wang, Guirong

    2017-03-02

    Creation of an appropriate animal model that accurately reflects the disease and host immune response to bacterial infection in humans is a major challenge in ocular-surface infection research. For decades, mice have been the ideal small animal model for ocular-surface infection research because of the availability and relatively low cost of various genetic backgrounds, targeted defects, and immunologic reagents. By employing different combinations of mouse and bacterial strains, murine infection models can be used to explore a complete picture of bacterial infection and innate immunity of the ocular surface. A murine model of Staphylococcus aureus infection under normal ocular circumstances is presented here as a convenient and tractable model system in which to study mammalian host responses to pathogens. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Application of Sub-Micrometer Vibrations to Mitigate Bacterial Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Paces, Will R.; Holmes, Hal R.; Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Snyder, Katherine L.; Tan, Ee Lim; Rajachar, Rupak M.; Ong, Keat Ghee

    2014-01-01

    As a prominent concern regarding implantable devices, eliminating the threat of opportunistic bacterial infection represents a significant benefit to both patient health and device function. Current treatment options focus on chemical approaches to negate bacterial adhesion, however, these methods are in some ways limited. The scope of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel means of modulating bacterial adhesion through the application of vibrations using magnetoelastic materials. Magnetoelastic materials possess unique magnetostrictive property that can convert a magnetic field stimulus into a mechanical deformation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that vibrational loads generated by the magnetoelastic materials significantly reduced the number of adherent bacteria on samples exposed to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus suspensions. These experiments demonstrate that vibrational loads from magnetoelastic materials can be used as a post-deployment activated means to deter bacterial adhesion and device infection. PMID:24956354

  4. Bacterial Succession on Rat Carcasses and Applications for PMI Estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Guo, Juan-juan; Telet-Siyit; Peng, Yu-long; Xie, Dan; Guo, Ya-dong; Yan, Jie; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Ji-feng

    2016-02-01

    Abstract: To investigate the bacterial succession on rat carcasses and to evaluate the use of bacterial succession for postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Adult female SD rat remains were placed in carton boxes. The bacterial colonization of circumocular skin, mouth and vagina was collected to be identified using culture-dependent biochemical methods. The changes in community composition were regularly documented. The bacterial succession in three habitats showed that Staphylococcus and Neisseria were predominated in early PMI, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria lactamica in 6 hours after death. Lactobacillus casei developed on the 3-4 days regularly, and kept stable at a certain level in late PMI. The involvement of normal and putrefactive bacteria in three body habitats of rat remains can be used for PMI estimation.

  5. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers: an analysis of patch test data from the Danish contact dermatitis group, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne D; Veien, Niels K; Funding, Anne T; Avnstorp, Christian; Osterballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Paulsen, Evy; Mortz, Charlotte G; Sommerlund, Mette; Danielsen, Anne; Andersen, Bo L; Thormann, Jens; Kristensen, Ove; Kristensen, Berit; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels H; Thyssen, Jacob P; Søsted, Heidi

    2014-04-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 1995 matched controls with contact dermatitis, registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group between January 2002 and December 2011, were analysed. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, and hairdressers were additionally tested with the hairdressing series. Occupational contact dermatitis (p < 0.001) and hand eczema (p < 0.001) were observed significantly more often among hairdressers than among controls. Atopic dermatitis was less commonly observed among hairdressers (21.3%) than among controls (29.4%) (p < 0.01). Allergens from the European baseline series with a statistically significant association with the occupation of hairdressing were p-phenylenediamine, thiuram mix, and benzocaine. Frequent sensitizers from the hairdressing series were ammonium persulfate, toluene-2,5-diamine, 3-aminophenol, and 4-aminophenol. Cysteamine hydrochloride and chloroacetamide emerged as new sensitizers. These results indicate a healthy worker effect among hairdressers diagnosed with eczema. Ammonium persulfate and p-phenylenediamine remain frequent sensitizers in hairdressers with contact dermatitis. Cysteamine hydrochloride and chloroacetamide should be included in future surveillance studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. TNF as biomarker for rapid quantification of active Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen which causes clinical infection and food poisoning. This bacterium produces a group of twenty-one enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities. They cause gastroenteritis and function as superantigens t...

  7. Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" on Campus: A New Challenge to College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, H. Richard

    2008-01-01

    As new drugs to control bacterial pathogens are developed, the organisms evolve to survive. "Staphylococcus aureus", a common organism, has steadily developed resistance to antibiotics. For more than 40 years, resistant "S. aureus" presented a formidable problem to hospitalized patients; in the past decade, however, it has begun to appear outside…

  8. [Investigation of biofilm formation properties of staphylococcus isolates].

    PubMed

    Öcal, Duygu Nilüfer; Dolapçı, İştar; Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Tekeli, Alper

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm production is an important virulence factor which allows staphylococci to adhere to medical devices. The principal component of biofilm is a "polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)" which is composed of a beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine polymer synthesized by an enzyme (N-acetylglucosamine transferase) encoded by the ica operon found on the bacterial chromosome. This operon is composed of four genes (A, B, C, and D), and a transposable element IS256. In this study, we aimed to determine the biofilm production characteristics of invasive/non-invasive staphylococcus isolates and different staphylococcus species. Biofilm production of 166 staphylococci was phenotypically investigated on Congo Red Agar (CRA); the presence of icaA, icaD and IS256 genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 74 of the isolates (44.6%) were identified as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 25 (15.1%) as methicillin sensitive S.aureus (MSSA), 25 (37.3%) as Staphylococcus hominis, 20 (12%) as S.epidermidis, ten (15%) as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, nine (13.4%) as Staphylococcus capitis, two (3%) Staphylococcus saprophyticus and one (1.5%) as Staphylococcus warnerii. Of the MRSA strains, 52 were isolated from blood and 22 from nose; all MSSA strains were isolated from nose cultures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) strains were composed of invasive and non-invasive strains isolated from nose, catheter tip and blood cultures from patients with catheter. Production with CRA method was found to be statistically significant in invasive isolates (p< 0.001). It is concluded that; as the biofilm formation capacity of invasive isolates can cause refractory infections and the importance of carriage and hospital infections of these bacteria, it is important to prevent the spread of these isolates. A combination of phenotypic and genotypic tests is recommended for the investigation of biofilm formation in staphylococci. 40.3% of the CoNS isolates, and 85

  9. Awareness of bacterial resistance among physicians, pharmacists and nurses.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Karem; Ayoub, Nehad; Al-Sakaji, Suehair; Al-Azzam, Sayer; Mhaidat, Nizar; Masadeh, Majed

    2009-01-01

    To assess the level of medical staff awareness of bacterial resistance and characterize the most common resistant bacterial species, the factors contributing to the development of such resistance, and the possible measures to limit the increasing rate of resistance to current antibacterial therapies. A questionnaire was administered to 352 health care professionals including physicians, pharmacists and nurses at four central university hospitals in Jordan. Our results indicate that most of the responding physicians and pharmacists considered Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus the most frequently encountered resistant bacterial species. However, nurses recognized both methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) as the most prevalent resistant species. Physicians and nurses (50.0% and 61.6%, respectively) reported prolonged hospitalization as a factor likely to contribute to the increased incidence of bacterial resistance. About 58% of pharmacists indicated the use of antibiotics without prescription as a significant reason for the development of bacterial resistance. Most of physicians (61.2%) reported that appropriate infection control is the most important measure to reduce bacterial resistance. Pharmacists (58.1%) recognized better adherence to the infection control guidelines as the most important factor that could reduce the risk of bacterial resistance. The findings of this study indicate a varying level of awareness of bacterial resistance among the health care professionals. Thus, serious efforts are still needed to develop and implement strategies to decrease the future risk of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  10. Emollient use alters skin barrier and microbes in infants at risk for developing atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Polley, Eric C.; Segre, Julia A.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Emollients are a mainstay of treatment in atopic dermatitis (AD), a disease distinguished by skin bacterial dysbiosis. However, changes in skin microbiota when emollients are used as a potential AD preventative measure in infants remain incompletely characterized. Results We compared skin barrier parameters, AD development, and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of cheek, dorsal and volar forearm samples from 6-month-old infants with a family history of atopy randomized to receive emollients (n = 11) or no emollients (controls, n = 12). The emollient group had a lower skin pH than the control group. The number of bacterial taxa in the emollient group was higher than in the control group at all sites. The Streptococcus salivarius proportion was higher in the emollient versus control groups at all sites. S. salivarius proportion appeared higher in infants without AD compared to infants with AD. A decrease in S. salivarius abundance was further identified in a separate larger population of older children demonstrating an inverse correlation between AD severity at sampling sites and S. salivarius proportions. Conclusions The decreased skin pH and the increased proportion of S. salivarius after long-term emollient use in infants at risk for developing AD may contribute to the preventative effects of emollients in high-risk infants. PMID:29489859

  11. Emollient use alters skin barrier and microbes in infants at risk for developing atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Jo, Jay-Hyun; Kennedy, Elizabeth A; Polley, Eric C; Segre, Julia A; Simpson, Eric L; Kong, Heidi H

    2018-01-01

    Emollients are a mainstay of treatment in atopic dermatitis (AD), a disease distinguished by skin bacterial dysbiosis. However, changes in skin microbiota when emollients are used as a potential AD preventative measure in infants remain incompletely characterized. We compared skin barrier parameters, AD development, and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of cheek, dorsal and volar forearm samples from 6-month-old infants with a family history of atopy randomized to receive emollients (n = 11) or no emollients (controls, n = 12). The emollient group had a lower skin pH than the control group. The number of bacterial taxa in the emollient group was higher than in the control group at all sites. The Streptococcus salivarius proportion was higher in the emollient versus control groups at all sites. S. salivarius proportion appeared higher in infants without AD compared to infants with AD. A decrease in S. salivarius abundance was further identified in a separate larger population of older children demonstrating an inverse correlation between AD severity at sampling sites and S. salivarius proportions. The decreased skin pH and the increased proportion of S. salivarius after long-term emollient use in infants at risk for developing AD may contribute to the preventative effects of emollients in high-risk infants.

  12. Changes of Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated in 8 Consecutive Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Chunguang; Yao, Hanxin; Xu, Jiancheng

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1469 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from sputum 705 (18.0%), secretions 206 (14.0%), pus 177 (12.0%) during the past 8 years. The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were between 50.8% and 83.3% during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus had increased. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance to Staphylococcus aureus should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  13. Allergic Alteration of Neutrophils during Interaction with Bacterial Allergens and Viral Antigens in the Clinic of Neuroinfectious Diseases,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Streptococcus viridans , E. coli. Proteus, and with enteroviral antigens of ECHO-7, Coxsackie B-3 in 147 patients suffering from neuroinfectious diseases of...The author applied the reaction of allergic alteration of neutrophils with bacterial allergens of hemolytic Streptococcus , Staphylococcus...increased allergic alteration of neutrophils to the allergen of a hemolytic Streptococcus , Staphylococcus, and E. coli was revealed in this group; a

  14. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    PubMed

    David, Michael Z; Daum, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, although generally identified as a commensal, is also a common cause of human bacterial infections, including of the skin and other soft tissues, bones, bloodstream, and respiratory tract. The history of S. aureus treatment is marked by the development of resistance to each new class of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial drugs, including the penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and others, complicating therapy. S. aureus isolates identified in the 1960s were sometimes resistant to methicillin, a ß-lactam antimicrobial active initially against a majority S. aureus strains. These MRSA isolates, resistant to nearly all ß-lactam antimicrobials, were first largely confined to the health care environment and the patients who attended it. However, in the mid-1990s, new strains, known as community-associated (CA-) MRSA strains, emerged. CA-MRSA organisms, compared with health care-associated (HA-) MRSA strain types, are more often susceptible to multiple classes of non ß-lactam antimicrobials. While infections caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains are usually treated with drugs in the ß-lactam class, such as cephalosporins, oxacillin or nafcillin, MRSA infections are treated with drugs in other antimicrobial classes. The glycopeptide drug vancomycin, and in some countries teicoplanin, is the most common drug used to treat severe MRSA infections. There are now other classes of antimicrobials available to treat staphylococcal infections, including several that have been approved after 2009. The antimicrobial management of invasive and noninvasive S. aureus infections in the ambulatory and in-patient settings is the topic of this review. Also discussed are common adverse effects of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents, advantages of one agent over another for specific clinical syndromes, and the use of adjunctive therapies such as surgery and intravenous immunoglobulin. We have detailed considerations in the

  15. Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry Data on Contact Allergy in Children With Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; McGowan, Maria; Silverberg, Nanette B; Pelletier, Janice L; Fonacier, Luz; Mousdicas, Nico; Powell, Doug; Scheman, Andrew; Goldenberg, Alina

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have a dynamic relationship not yet fully understood. Investigation has been limited thus far by a paucity of data on the overlap of these disorders in pediatric patients. To use data from the Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry to elucidate the associations and sensitizations among patients with concomitant AD and ACD. This retrospective case review examined 1142 patch test cases of children younger than 18 years, who were registered between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015, by 84 health care providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) from across the United States. Data were gathered electronically from multidisciplinary providers within outpatient clinics throughout the United States on pediatric patients (ages 0-18 years). All participants were patch-tested to assess sensitizations to various allergens; history of AD was noted by the patch-testing providers. Primary outcomes were sensitization rates to various patch-tested allergens. A total of 1142 patients were evaluated: 189 boys (34.2%) and 363 girls (65.8%) in the AD group and 198 boys (36.1%) and 350 girls (63.9%) in the non-AD group (data on gender identification were missing for 17 patients). Compared with those without AD, patch-tested patients with AD were 1.3 years younger (10.5 vs 11.8 years; P < .001) and had longer history of dermatitis (3.5 vs 1.8 years; P < .001). Patch-tested patients designated as Asian or African American were more likely to have concurrent AD (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.20-3.10; P = .008; and OR, 4.09; 95% CI, 2.70-6.20; P <.001, respectively). Patients with AD with generalized distribution were the most likely to be patch tested (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.50-6.30; P < .001). Patients with AD had different reaction profiles than those without AD, with increased frequency of reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine, wool alcohol, lanolin, tixocortol pivalate, and

  16. PUSTULAR DERMATITIS CAUSED BY IMPETIGO IN RED-TAILED MONKEYS ( CERCOPITHECUS ASCANIUS).

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Patrick; Bradford, Carol; Montali, Richard J; Bronson, Ellen

    2018-03-01

    Impetigo is a bacterial infection of the superficial layer of the epidermis with crusting or bullae caused by Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., or both. A 14-yr-old red-tailed monkey ( Cercopithecus ascanius) presented with recurrent scabbing and ulceration under the nares over an 8-yr period. Repeated cultures and biopsy samples led to a presumptive diagnosis of impetigo, later confirmed on necropsy. Multiple antibiotic regimens were employed with varying success during multiple episodes, while lesions resolved on their own at other times. This condition has not been previously reported in a nonhuman primate, although it is not uncommon in humans.

  17. Bacterial contamination of computer keyboards in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Maureen; Gill, Janet; Zubairi, Sabiha; Huber, Ruth; Gordin, Fred

    2003-04-01

    We tested 100 keyboards in 29 clinical areas for bacterial contamination. Ninety five were positive for microorganisms. Streptococcus, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus (including one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus), Staphylococcus aureus, fungi, and gram-negative organisms were isolated. Computer equipment must be kept clean so it does not become another vehicle for transmission of pathogens to patients.

  18. Bacterial valvular endocarditis in a black bear from Labrador.

    PubMed

    McBurney, S; Veitch, A M; Daoust, P Y

    2000-10-01

    In fall 1991, a radio-collared black bear (Ursus americanus) in northern Labrador (Canada) died from valvular endocarditis caused by coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, with widespread dissemination of the infection to other organs shortly before death. Apparently, this is the first reported case of bacterial valvular endocarditis in a wild black bear.

  19. A Case of a Paediatric Patient With Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Sandre, Matthew; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandra

    Allergic contact dermatitis to benzoyl peroxide can occur in up to 6.5% of those with a history of exposure to this potential allergen. Conversely, irritant contact dermatitis is very common with benzoyl peroxide and can be differentiated from allergic contact dermatitis based on the patient's history and clinical signs and symptoms. We present a case of a paediatric patient with patch test-confirmed severe allergic contact dermatitis to benzoyl peroxide requiring hospitalisation and systemic treatment.

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  1. Seborrheic dermatitis - an early and common skin manifestation in HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Chatzikokkinou, Paraskevi; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Katoulis, Alexandros; Luzzati, Roberto; Trevisan, Giusto

    2008-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common dermatosis occurring on the scalp, face and chest. In the general population, the prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis varies between 3% and 5%, while in HIV positive patients there is an increased prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis ranging between 30% and 83%. Seborrheic dermatitis occurs early in the course of HIV disease and may be an initial clinical marker of HIV infection.

  2. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that coats the walls of the vagina Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant or fishlike odor Vaginal pain or itching Burning during urination Doctors are unsure of the incubation period for bacterial vaginosis. How Is the Diagnosis Made? Your child’s pediatrician can make the diagnosis ...

  3. Bioactive Compounds Produced by Hypoxylon fragiforme against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Yuyama, Kamila Tomoko; Chepkirui, Clara; Wendt, Lucile; Fortkamp, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Treating infections organized in biofilms is a challenge due to the resistance of the pathogens against antibiotics and host immune cells. Many fungi grow in a wet environment, favorable for the growth of bacterial biofilms, and we speculated that fungi possess some strategies to control these bacterial biofilms. A fungus identified as Hypoxylon fragiforme, was collected in the Harz Mountains, Germany, and its mycelial culture was fermented in different culture media for 67 days to test its biological potential against bacterial biofilms. Sclerin, sclerin diacid and its 3-methyl monoester (methyl 1-(5-hydroxy-6-carboxylic-2,3,4-trimethylphenyl) propionate) are here described for the first time from this fungus. Sclerin and its diacid interfered with the biofilm formation of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting 86% and 80% of the biofilm at 256 μg mL−1, respectively, but not killing the bacterium. Interestingly, the monomethylester of sclerin diacid was inactive. Although these compounds did not possess any activity against a pre-formed biofilm, they prevented its formation at subtoxic concentrations. Furthermore, sclerin and its diacid displayed a high specificity against Staphylococcus aureus, indicating a good strategy against pathogenic biofilms when combined with antibiotics. PMID:29231891

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis ΔSortase A strain elicits protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yifang; Wang, Peng; Zou, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two of the most significant opportunistic human pathogens, causing medical implant and nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria contain surface proteins that play crucial roles in multiple biological processes. It has become apparent that they have evolved a number of unique mechanisms by which they can immobilise proteins on their surface. Notably, a conserved cell membrane-anchored enzyme, sortase A (SrtA), can catalyse the covalent attachment of precursor bacterial cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan. Considering its indispensable role in anchoring substrates to the cell wall and its effects on virulence, SrtA has attracted great attention. In this study, a 549-bp gene was cloned from a pathogenic S. epidermidis strain, YC-1, which shared high identity with srtA from other Staphylococcus spp. A mutant strain, YC-1ΔsrtA, was then constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. The direct survival rate assay suggested that YC-1ΔsrtA had a lower survival capacity in healthy mice blood compare with the wild-type strain, indicating that the deletion of srtA affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. epidermidis YC-1. YC-1ΔsrtA was then administered via intraperitoneal injection and it provided a relative percent survival value of 72.7 % in mice against S. aureus TC-1 challenge. These findings demonstrate the possbility that YC-1ΔsrtA might be used as a live attenuated vaccine to produce cross-protection against S. aureus.

  5. Bullous cryothermic dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray abuse.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, A; Bender, A; Hertl, M; König, A

    2011-08-01

    Dermatitis artefacta belongs to a broad spectrum of factitious diseases of lesions usually self-induced by patients. Here we report a surprisingly effective induction of blisters and thermic dermatitis by excessive abuse of common deodorant sprays. We evaluated the clinical course and outcome in three patients with dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray. A 12-year-old boy only admitted the abuse of deodorant spray after psychiatric intervention. Two adults (21-year-old and 37-year-old women) had borderline personality disorder and frankly reported the urge to induce pain by spraying for at least 100 s at a short distance. Bullous dermatitis was the acute presenting sign in all patients. The bullae were found on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, with a distribution of older lesions showing erosions and scarring and fresh lesions with intact bullae with a diameter of 3-15 cm. After searching for the causative agent and removal of the deodorant spray, clinical outcome showed a healing without and with scars. Cryo-damage by abuse of common deodorant sprays seems to become a popular mechanism by which an impressive bullous dermatitis can be artificially induced. Dermatologists and psychiatrist should be aware of this method of injury. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac sodium in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Hitona; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-Ichi; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Eyelid dermatitis and/or periocular dermatitis (ED/PD) is commonly seen in a variety of skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, but is most often associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Here, a case of ACD in an 82-year-old man is described; he used 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops and exhibited pruritic erythema on the eyelids. Patch test for diclofenac sodium eye drops was positive. Further patch tests revealed a positive reaction to diclofenac sodium (monosodium 2-[2, 6-dichlorophenylamino] phenylacetate), which was the main component in the eye drop medicine. Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and is frequently used in everyday oral medications, topical ointments, gel agents and eye drops. Case reports on ACD caused by diclofenac sodium eye drops are extremely rare. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider ACD due to diclofenac sodium when a patient with ED/PD has a history of use of diclofenac sodium eye drops. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Concurrent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis in Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Milene A; Demaula, Christopher D; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Senter, David A; Myers, Sherry

    2003-06-01

    Recurrent or persistent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis are described in nine Boxers. Data on age, sex, seasonality of alopecia and histopathological features of the follicular dysplasia in these nine Boxers are comparable with those described in previous reports. The interface dermatitis was characterized by multifocal annular crusted lesions confined to the areas of follicular dysplasia. The inflammatory lesions were neither pruritic nor painful and affected dogs were otherwise healthy. Histopathologically the clinically inflammatory lesions were characterized as an interface dermatitis. Immunohistochemical studies failed to demonstrate immunoglobulins or complement at the basement membrane zone or within blood vessel walls. In dogs with recurrent or persistent disease, the follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis ran identical, concurrent courses of spontaneous remission and recurrence, or persistence, respectively. One dog with persistent disease was treated successfully with tetracycline and niacinamide for the interface dermatitis, and melatonin for the follicular dysplasia. Although the aetiopathogenesis of this newly described condition and the relationship between the two histological reaction patterns are not known, photoperiod and genetic predisposition appear to play a role.

  8. [Tobacco contact dermatitis caused by sensitivity to sorbic acid].

    PubMed

    Grange-Prunier, A; Bezier, M; Perceau, G; Bernard, P

    2008-02-01

    Contact dermatitis caused by tobacco is rare and poorly understood. In this paper, we report what is to our knowledge, the first case of tobacco contact dermatitis with identification of the causative agent. A 46-year-old man was hospitalised for diffuse dermatitis originating in the left leg. Subsequent epicutaneous tests indicated that this dermatitis was ascribable to sensitisation to the sorbic acid present in Fucidin cream applied around a chronic wound. A persistent plaque of eczema observed on the day of examination opposite the patient's right trouser pocket suggested the implication of tobacco powder with which the pocket was soiled. An epicutaneous test using tobacco (moistened in water) proved positive (++ at 48 and 72 h). This tobacco contained sorbic acid, used as a preservative. The positive test for sorbic acid was relevant not only regarding the lesions on the patient's legs (application of a topical cream containing sorbic acid) but also for the lesion on the patient's thigh and for palmar dyshidrosis (through contact with strands of loose rolling tobacco). To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of contact dermatitis caused by sorbic acid in tobacco.

  9. Contact Dermatitis to Personal Sporting Equipment in Youth.

    PubMed

    Marzario, Barbara; Burrows, Dianne; Skotnicki, Sandy

    2016-07-01

    Contact dermatitis to personal sporting equipment in youth is poorly studied. To review the results of patch testing 6 youth to their sporting equipment in a dermatology general private practice from 2006 to 2011. A retrospective analysis of 6 youth aged 11 to 14 who were evaluated for chronic and persistent dermatitis occurring in relation to sports equipment was conducted. All patients were subjected to epicutaneous (patch) testing, which included some or all of the following: North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACGD) series, textile series, rubber series, corticosteroid series, and raw material from the patients' own personal equipment. All cases had 1 or more positive patch test reactions to an allergen within the aforementioned series, and 3 subjects tested positive to their personal equipment in raw form. Allergic contact dermatitis, not irritant, was deemed the relevant cause of chronic dermatitis in 4 of the 6 patients due to positive reactions to epicutaneous tests and/or personal equipment. The utility of testing to patients' own sporting equipment was shown to be of additional value and should be considered when patch testing for contact allergy to sporting equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Atopic dermatitis: diagnosis, treatment, and aeromedical implications.

    PubMed

    Gates, Trina

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 30 yr, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased significantly in the general population. Given this increased burden of disease, more AD will be seen in civilian and military aviators. This article reviews the clinical aspects of AD with a focus on the aeromedical implications of the disease. The diagnosis of AD is mainly clinical. Treatment options are numerous, although topical corticosteroids are generally the mainstay of treatment. The new immunomodulators are options for treatment of AD and have advantages and disadvantages when compared with topical corticosteroids. These immunomodulators are discussed in detail with an emphasis on their mechanism of action, efficacy, side effect profile, and possible risks. The implications of AD in aviators and safety of flight are reviewed. Interference of the wearing of cockpit equipment, use of systemic or topical medications, and AD's association with the other diseases of atopy all contribute to whether an aviator is qualified to fly. Environmental triggers, such as temperature changes, sweating, humidity, bathing frequency, contact with irritating substances, and stress may exacerbate the aviator's disease. Special consideration should be given to the severity of their disease, the treatment the aviator requires, and the environment he or she will be working and living in before giving aeromedical clearance. Finally, the policies of each military service and experiences in civil aviation are discussed.

  11. New drug targets in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by eczematous skin lesions, pruritus and typical histopathological features. T cells are thought to play a key role, but B cells might also participate in the pathogenesis of AD. In two investigator-initiated pilot studies, we studied the effects of B cell depletion by monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody therapy or a reduction of activated T cells by LFA3-IgG fusion protein on moderate-to-severe AD. All patients treated with either rituximab or alefacept showed an improvement of their skin symptoms with a sustained effect after treatment. In both studies, histological alterations, such as spongiosis, acanthosis and dermal infiltrate, including T and B cell numbers, dramatically improved and the expression of IL-5 and IL-13 was reduced after therapy. Upon rituximab therapy, allergen-specific IgE levels were not altered and total serum IgE levels only slightly decreased. According to recent studies, neutralizing B and T cells products such as IgE or IL-5 might be effective in subgroups of patients with AD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Autoimmune diseases in adults with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Yuki M F; Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-02-01

    An increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease has been shown in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), but data remain scarce and inconsistent. We examined the co-occurrence of selected autoimmune diseases in adult patients with AD. Nationwide health registers were used. Adult patients with a hospital diagnosis of AD in Denmark between 1997 and 2012 were included as cases (n = 8112) and matched with controls (n = 40,560). The occurrence of autoimmune diseases was compared in the 2 groups. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. AD was significantly associated with 11 of 22 examined autoimmune diseases. In addition, AD was associated with having multiple autoimmune comorbidities. Patients with a history of smoking had a significantly higher occurrence of autoimmune comorbidities compared to nonsmokers. This study was limited to adult patients with AD. No information about AD severity or degree of tobacco consumption was available. Results from a hospital population of AD patients cannot be generalized to the general population. Our results suggest a susceptibility of autoimmune diseases in adult patients with AD, especially in smokers. While we cannot conclude on causality based on these data, an increased awareness of autoimmune comorbidities in patients with AD may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy.

    PubMed

    Lidén, C

    1994-06-06

    Contact allergy to nickel is a large dermatological problem affecting 10-15% of women and 1% of men in the general population. The aim of this study was to illustrate the significance of occupational nickel exposure in men. Patch testing was carried out to identify patients with nickel allergy and the dimethylglyoxime test was used to identify sources of nickel exposure. 8% of the men and 30% of the women were patch-test positive to nickel. Most of the patients had hand eczema, and a few had facial eczema. Tools and equipment used in different jobs by workers such as carpenters, electricians, painters, and plumbers were often found to cause nickel release. Black-nickel plating is used for optical equipment while cold-sealing of aluminium with nickel is a method of treating anodized aluminium. Both black-nickel and cold-sealed aluminium were found to be unexpected causes of dermatitis due to nickel release. Sources of occupational nickel exposure are often missed by dermatologists, due to lack of knowledge. Occupational nickel exposure is however important to identify, and the dimethylglyoxime test is a helpful tool.

  14. Drug evaluation review: dupilumab in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer D; Ungar, Benjamin; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-driven inflammation. Dupilumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-4 receptor α subunit that blocks the signaling of IL-4 and IL-13, both key cytokines in Th2-mediated pathways. In Phase I and II studies of adults with moderate-to-severe AD, dupilumab administered as monotherapy or with topical corticosteroids resulted in rapid, significant improvements in clinical efficacy, patient-reported outcomes, and Th2-related serum and tissue biomarkers, and shifted the RNA expression profile of lesional skin to a more nonlesional signature. In all clinical studies to date, dupilumab has shown a favorable safety profile with no dose-limiting toxicity. The robust effects of dupilumab on skin inflammation and pruritus confirm the pathogenic role of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling in adult AD, and further support the application of Th2 cytokine antagonists in the treatment of this disease.

  15. Use of emollients in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ng, J P X; Liew, H M; Ang, S B

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder that has strong financial and psychosocial impacts. Its pathogenesis is related to increased transepidermal water loss due to a defective skin epidermal barrier. Emollients serve as first-line therapy during both acute flares and remission. However, their use is poorly characterized, posing therapeutic challenges to clinicians and patients. In this article, we review available evidence to provide recommendations, aiming to standardize and optimize the use of emollients in AD. Literature search was performed using Pubmed and Google. All articles were retrieved using Pubmed. Recommendations were graded based on the British Medical Journal's Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system and the American Academy of Family Physicians' Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy. Emollients should be applied post-bathing. However, the need for immediate application is debatable. The optimal frequency for application is still undetermined, but multiple applications daily are encouraged. Ideally, a balance should be achieved between patient's compliance and clinical efficacy. Emollients hold the potential to act as steroid-sparing agents, but more well-designed studies are pertinent for a definite conclusion. At present, it is recommended that 250-500 g of emollients be applied every week. Finally, primary prevention of AD by regular application of emollients in high-risk infants cannot yet be recommended. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Malassezia furfur in infantile seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wananukul, Siriwan; Chindamporn, Ariya; Yumyourn, Poomjit; Payungporn, Sunchai; Samathi, Chanchuree; Poovorawan, Yong

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to study both incidence and various strains of Malassezia in infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). Sixty infants between 2 weeks and 2 years old with clinical diagnosis of ISD at the Department of Pediatrics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from May 2002 to April 2003 were recruited. Malassezia spp. were isolated from cultured skin samples of the patients, genomic DNA was extracted and the ITS1 rDNA region was amplified. The PCR product was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequences were determined. The ITS1 sequences were also subjected to phylogenetic analysis and species identification. ISD is most commonly found in infants below the age of 2 months (64%), followed by those between 2 and 4 months (28%) old. Cultures yielded yeast-like colonies in 15 specimens. PCR yielded 200-bp products (Candida) in 3 patients and 300-bp products (Malassezia furfur) in 12 patients (18%). Sugar fermentation using API 20C aux performed on the three 200-bp PCR products yielded Candida species. M. furfur was the only Malassezia recovered from skin scrapings of children with ISD.

  17. Intrapartum Antibiotics and Childhood Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, Debra L.; Curry, William J.; Mauger, Dave; Miller, Jennifer; Tyrie, Kaitlyn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atopic dermatitis (AD) in children significantly impacts families due to medical costs, “lost” hours, and secondary characteristics like asthma and ancillary infections. We investigate whether children delivered vaginally to women receiving intrapartum antibiotics have a greater risk of AD under the age of 2 years than their counterparts. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of women who delivered child(ren) vaginally between 1996 and 2008. Women were identified as those who received intrapartum antibiotics and those who did not. Pediatric records were used to determine incidence of AD. Results We collected data for 492 mother-child pairs. Intrapartum antibiotics were administered during 128 births; 28.9% of those children were diagnosed with AD by 2 years (RR 1.03 [0.75-1.41], p=0.854). Factors with greatest risks of diagnosis with AD by 2 years were intrapartum antibiotic exposure for >24hrs (RR 1.99 [1.13-3.49], p=0.0173), first born (RR 1.78 [1.33-2.38], p<0.0001) and higher maternal education (RR 1.43[0.99-2.06], p=0.039). No statistical difference in prevalence of AD related to parental eczema, maternal Group B Streptococcus status, or gestational age existed. Conclusions Exposure to antibiotics for <24hrs during a vaginal delivery does not increase the risk of AD. Studies are needed to understand if exposures >24hrs during the intrapartum period increase the risk of AD. PMID:25567826

  18. Immunoadsorption for treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Joanna; Weinmann-Menke, Julia; von Stebut, Esther

    2017-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease affecting up to 10-20% of the population with the largest disease burden in childhood. Treatment options include basic emollient treatment, topical as well as systemic immunosuppressants. The pathogenesis is complex and among various triggers, genetic predisposition and immunological alterations contribute to development of disease. Atopy is common in patients with AD and many patients have high levels of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), some of which recognizes exogenous or auto/self-allergens. Treatment options targeting IgE such as specific immunotherapy against e.g. house dust mites or using anti-IgE antibodies (omalizumab) showed variable results that were not convincing. We now review recent data on the application of unspecific and IgE-selective immunoadsorption (IA) in AD. All in all, 53 patients have been treated with non-specific pan Ig IA and 28 patients with IgE-selective IA. Side effects were rarely seen. The efficacy of IgE depletion was generally high (<∼80%) for each IA cycle, but transient and lasted only a few days/weeks. Of note, disease activity appeared to improve in almost all cases and lasted for several weeks. Although the evidence is still weak, these case studies suggest that IgE depletion in AD is effective and helped control the disease. The mechanism of action is not understood yet. Future controlled trials are needed to validate this observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Infraorbital crease, ethnic group, and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Williams, H C; Pembroke, A C

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of a prominent infraorbital skin crease as a marker of atopic dermatitis (AD) was examined in 160 consecutive children aged 3 to 11 years in a population setting of a primary school in London, England. Infraorbital crease was recorded by two trained observers according to a strict protocol, and AD was determined by an independent dermatologist who was blinded to the study design. A prominent infraorbital crease was present in only four (27%) of 15 children with AD, compared with 49 (34%) of 145 children who did not have AD (P = .80). A prominent crease was a common finding in black children, even in the absence of AD, affecting 49% (34/69) of normal black children and 25% (11/44) of white children (P = .02). Interobserver agreement for the presence of infraorbital crease was low, with a kappa value of 0.38 (95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.53). While infraorbital crease may be of some use in diagnosing individual cases of AD in a hospital setting, it may be less useful in population-based studies because of its poor validity and repeatability. Studies that still use this sign as an indication of allergy need to take ethnic group differences into account.

  20. Atopic dermatitis and the atopic march revisited.

    PubMed

    Dharmage, S C; Lowe, A J; Matheson, M C; Burgess, J A; Allen, K J; Abramson, M J

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) has become a significant public health problem because of increasing prevalence, together with increasing evidence that it may progress to other allergic phenotypes. While it is now acknowledged that AD commonly precedes other allergic diseases, a link termed 'the atopic march', debate continues as to whether this represents a causal relationship. An alternative hypothesis is that this association may be related to confounding by familial factors or phenotypes that comanifest, such as early-life wheeze and sensitization. However, there is increasing evidence from longitudinal studies suggesting that the association between AD and other allergies is independent of confounding by comanifest allergic phenotypes. The hypotheses on plausible biological mechanisms for the atopic march focus on defective skin barrier function and overexpression of inflammatory mediators released by the skin affected by AD (including thymic stromal lymphopoietin). Both human and animal studies have provided evidence supporting these potential biological mechanisms. Evidence from prevention trials is now critical to establishing a causal nature of the atopic march. An emerging area of research is investigation into environmental modifiers of the atopic march. Such information will assist in identifying secondary prevention strategies to arrest the atopic march. Despite much research into the aetiology of allergies, little progress has been made in identifying effective strategies to reduce the burden of allergic conditions. In this context, the atopic march remains a promising area of investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Tadayuki; Uehara, Yoshio; Shinji, Hitomi; Tajima, Akiko; Seo, Hiromi; Takada, Koji; Agata, Toshihiko; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2010-05-20

    Commensal bacteria are known to inhibit pathogen colonization; however, complex host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions have made it difficult to gain a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of colonization. Here we show that the serine protease Esp secreted by a subset of Staphylococcus epidermidis, a commensal bacterium, inhibits biofilm formation and nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, a human pathogen. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the presence of Esp-secreting S. epidermidis in the nasal cavities of human volunteers correlates with the absence of S. aureus. Purified Esp inhibits biofilm formation and destroys pre-existing S. aureus biofilms. Furthermore, Esp enhances the susceptibility of S. aureus in biofilms to immune system components. In vivo studies have shown that Esp-secreting S. epidermidis eliminates S. aureus nasal colonization. These findings indicate that Esp hinders S. aureus colonization in vivo through a novel mechanism of bacterial interference, which could lead to the development of novel therapeutics to prevent S. aureus colonization and infection.

  2. Improving the safety of Staphylococcus aureus polyvalent phages by their production on a Staphylococcus xylosus strain.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Plante, Pier-Luc; Dumaresq, Jeannot; Katsarava, Ramaz; Labrie, Steve; Corbeil, Jacques; St-Gelais, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Team1 (vB_SauM_Team1) is a polyvalent staphylococcal phage belonging to the Myoviridae family. Phage Team1 was propagated on a Staphylococcus aureus strain and a non-pathogenic Staphylococcus xylosus strain used in industrial meat fermentation. The two Team1 preparations were compared with respect to their microbiological and genomic properties. The burst sizes, latent periods, and host ranges of the two derivatives were identical as were their genome sequences. Phage Team1 has 140,903 bp of double stranded DNA encoding for 217 open reading frames and 4 tRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis revealed similarities to staphylococcal phages ISP (97%) and G1 (97%). The host range of Team1 was compared to the well-known polyvalent staphylococcal phages phi812 and K using a panel of 57 S. aureus strains collected from various sources. These bacterial strains were found to represent 18 sequence types (MLST) and 14 clonal complexes (eBURST). Altogether, the three phages propagated on S. xylosus lysed 52 out of 57 distinct strains of S. aureus. The identification of phage-insensitive strains underlines the importance of designing phage cocktails with broadly varying and overlapping host ranges. Taken altogether, our study suggests that some staphylococcal phages can be propagated on food-grade bacteria for biocontrol and safety purposes.

  3. Improving the Safety of Staphylococcus aureus Polyvalent Phages by Their Production on a Staphylococcus xylosus Strain

    PubMed Central

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Plante, Pier-Luc; Dumaresq, Jeannot; Katsarava, Ramaz; Labrie, Steve; Corbeil, Jacques; St-Gelais, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Team1 (vB_SauM_Team1) is a polyvalent staphylococcal phage belonging to the Myoviridae family. Phage Team1 was propagated on a Staphylococcus aureus strain and a non-pathogenic Staphylococcus xylosus strain used in industrial meat fermentation. The two Team1 preparations were compared with respect to their microbiological and genomic properties. The burst sizes, latent periods, and host ranges of the two derivatives were identical as were their genome sequences. Phage Team1 has 140,903 bp of double stranded DNA encoding for 217 open reading frames and 4 tRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis revealed similarities to staphylococcal phages ISP (97%) and G1 (97%). The host range of Team1 was compared to the well-known polyvalent staphylococcal phages phi812 and K using a panel of 57 S. aureus strains collected from various sources. These bacterial strains were found to represent 18 sequence types (MLST) and 14 clonal complexes (eBURST). Altogether, the three phages propagated on S. xylosus lysed 52 out of 57 distinct strains of S. aureus. The identification of phage-insensitive strains underlines the importance of designing phage cocktails with broadly varying and overlapping host ranges. Taken altogether, our study suggests that some staphylococcal phages can be propagated on food-grade bacteria for biocontrol and safety purposes. PMID:25061757

  4. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nostril anteriors and subungual spaces of the hand: comparative study of medical staff, patients, and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Namura, S; Nishijima, S; Higashida, T; Asada, Y

    1995-03-01

    An epidemiologic investigation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization was conducted at Kansai Medical University Hospital between 1990 and 1991. The incidence of nasal and subungual positivity for S. aureus was examined in a total of 156 subjects including inpatients, physicians, and nurses at a ward for dermatology, plastic surgery, and emergency patients, outpatients with atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases, and normal controls. Inpatients were most heavily colonized with MRSA (40.8%), but S. aureus colonization was most frequent in outpatients with atopic dermatitis (95.5%). Not only nostrils, which have been much discussed as a reservoir of S. aureus, but also subungual spaces seemed to be havens of S. aureus. Twelve out of 22 atopic dermatitis patients were positive for S. aureus on skin regions, and coagulase and phage testing showed a correlation between the nasal and skin-colonizing S. aureus. Coagulase type II and phase type NT (not typable) were the predominant types of S. aureus, including MRSA.

  5. Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Dillague, Kristine M; Syah-Tjundawan, Bertha S

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) skin is dry and readily colonized by Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Coconut and olive oils are traditionally used to moisturize and treat skin infections. To compare virgin coconut oil (VCO) and virgin olive oil (VOO) in moisturizing dryness and removing SA from colonized AD skin. This was a double-blind controlled trial in two outpatient dermatology clinics with adult AD patients who were diagnosed by history, pattern, evolution, and skin lesions and who were randomized to apply VCO or VOO twice daily at two noninfected sites. SA cultures, photography, and objective-SCORAD severity index (O-SSI) scoring were done at baseline and after 4 weeks. Twenty-six subjects each received VCO or VOO. Of those on VCO, 20 were positive for SA colonies at baseline versus 12 on VOO. Post intervention, only 1 (5%) VCO subject remained positive versus 6 (50%) of those on VOO. Relative risk for VCO was 0.10, significantly superior to that for VOO (10:1, p = .0028; 95% CI, 0.01-0.73); thus, the number needed to treat was 2.2. For the O-SSI, the difference was not significant at baseline (p = .15) but was significantly different post treatment (p = .004); this was reduced for both oils (p < .005) but was greater with VCO. VCO and monolaurin's O-SSI reduction and in vitro broad-spectrum activity against SA (given clinical validity here), fungi, and viruses may be useful in the proactive treatment of AD colonization.

  6. Treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis and economic burden of illness in Asia Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bee Wah; Detzel, Patrick R

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition in children. In Asia, the prevalence of AD is increasing, which is largely attributed to environmental and socioeconomic factors including family income, parental education, lifestyle and metropolitan living. Current clinical guidelines recommend a stepped approach in the management of eczema in children, with treatment steps tailored to the severity of the eczema. To address the skin barrier dysfunction, skin hydration and the application of emollients is essential. There is evidence supporting the use of bleach baths as an antimicrobial therapy against Staphylococcus aureus. In patients in whom topical treatment fails, wet wrap therapy may be considered as a treatment option before considering systemic therapies. In the second part of this article, the economic burden of AD is addressed. AD not only negatively impacts the child's quality of life but also that of the whole family and is associated with a burden on health-care costs and society. AD in an infant will lead to frequent additional visits to the pediatrician, to additional and partially expensive treatment costs and, in rare cases, to hospitalization. It is thus of utmost importance to define efficient strategies to not only treat AD but also to decrease the risk of developing the disease. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension for bacterial conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nafziger, Anne N; Bertino, Joseph S

    2009-08-01

    Besifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic suspension 0.6% (Besivance) is a recently approved fluoroquinolone for the topical treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. The drug is rapidly bactericidal against common bacterial pathogens causing conjunctivitis, i.e., coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae as well as against other less common organisms. In addition to being a potent agent against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens including those resistant to other fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin has balanced DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activity, which should slow the development of resistance. Topical administration achieves high sustained concentrations in human tears and good ocular tissue penetration in animals while demonstrating an excellent safety profile. Besifloxacin's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics meet the criteria for successful eradication of many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria while demonstrating minimal systemic exposure. The biochemical properties, achievement of target pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic goals and the restriction of besifloxacin to topical ophthalmic use should result in slower development of bacterial resistance, making besifloxacin a new, appealing option for empiric therapy in acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  8. Current epidemiology of atopic dermatitis in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nnoruka, Edith N

    2004-10-01

    .6%) and allergic conjunctivitis (2.1%), while 55 (13.3%) of controls had a positive family history (P < 0.01) of allergy. A personal history of AD only, without concomitant respiratory allergies, was seen in 486 (47.7%) patients. The face was affected in 431 (42.3%) patients. Inverse distribution of a flexural rash was observed over the extensor aspect of the joints: the elbow in 502 patients (49.3%), the wrist joint in 183 patients (17.9%) and the knee joints in 354 patients (34.7). The commonly observed minor features included xerosis in 719 patients (71%), papular lichenoid lesions in 547 patients (54.1%), infraorbital folds in 498 patients (49.2%), palmar hyper linearity in 524 patients (51.8%) and raised peripheral blood eosinophils in 519 patients (51%), particularly for those with severe AD. Fissured heels, forehead lichenification, orbital darkening, nail pitting, sand paper-like skin lesions on the elbows/knees/lateral malleolli, knuckle dermatitis of the hands, palmar erythema and pitted keratolysis occurred more uncommonly as minor features. Infective complications were very common and included bacterial infections (folliculitis, impetiginized dermatitis and pyodermas) in 425 (41.7%) patients, fungal infections in 377 (37%) patients, parasitic infections (scabies) in 90 (8.8%) patients and viral infection (herpes simplex and molluscum contagiosum) in 29 (2.9%) patients. Thirteen of these atopics were also HIV positive. Aggravating factors most commonly reported included heat intolerance, excessive sweating, humidity, grass intolerance, thick woollen clothing and drug reactions. Only three patients had food intolerance. Three hundred and ten patients (30.4%) recalled their AD being worse in the hot humid periods and 383 (37.6%) could not recall any periods of relief or remission. The prevalence of AD amongst south-eastern Nigerian Blacks is on the increase, as in other areas, although it is still lower here than in other parts of the world. Many conventional

  9. Comparison on conjunctival sac bacterial flora of the seniors with dry eye in Ganzi autonomous prefecture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Duo, Ji; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Jiachu, Dan-Ba; Zewang, Ge-Ma

    2013-01-01

    To compare the bacterial flora in palpebral conjunctiva of xerophthalmia seniors of Tibetan, Yi and Han, and analyze the differences and similarities of the bacteria. The test subjects were selected from 2 Tibetan, 2 Yi and 3 Han populated places, respectively. Total 222 seniors (444 eyes) with dry eye were examined. Secretion was collected from the palpebral conjunctiva of the subjects and then inoculated onto a blood agar plate. After 48h of incubation, the bacteria were examined for the differences and similarities between different ethnics. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) of Gram stain characterization, dominant bacteria and number of the bacterial species present in oxrophthalmia patients among Tibetan, Yi and Han nationalities. The bacteria presented in all groups include staphylococcus epidermidis, corynebacterium, micrococcus luteu, intracellular bacteria sphingomonas, pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria detected from the two of three ethnic groups were staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus haemolyticus, escherichia coli, kytococcus sedentarius, streptococcus angina, micrococcus lylae, and staphylococcus heads. The incidence rate of bacteria-associated dry eye in Tibetan population was significantly lower than that of Han and Yi population. There is no significant difference in the bacteria flora of palpebral conjunctiva observed among dry eye elder populations of Tibetan, Yi and Han people. All of staphylococcus epidermidis, corynebacterium, micrococcus luteu, intracellular bacteria sphingomonas, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus haemolyticus, escherichia coli, kytococcus sedentarius, streptococcus angina, micrococcus lylae and staphylococcus heads are common bacteria flora of the three nationalities inhibiting in this area.

  10. Comparison on conjunctival sac bacterial flora of the seniors with dry eye in Ganzi autonomous prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Duo, Ji; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Jiachu, Dan-Ba; Zewang, Ge-Ma

    2013-01-01

    AIM To compare the bacterial flora in palpebral conjunctiva of xerophthalmia seniors of Tibetan, Yi and Han, and analyze the differences and similarities of the bacteria. METHODS The test subjects were selected from 2 Tibetan, 2 Yi and 3 Han populated places, respectively. Total 222 seniors (444 eyes) with dry eye were examined. Secretion was collected from the palpebral conjunctiva of the subjects and then inoculated onto a blood agar plate. After 48h of incubation, the bacteria were examined for the differences and similarities between different ethnics. RESULTS There was no significant difference (P>0.05) of Gram stain characterization, dominant bacteria and number of the bacterial species present in oxrophthalmia patients among Tibetan, Yi and Han nationalities. The bacteria presented in all groups include staphylococcus epidermidis, corynebacterium, micrococcus luteu, intracellular bacteria sphingomonas, pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria detected from the two of three ethnic groups were staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus haemolyticus, escherichia coli, kytococcus sedentarius, streptococcus angina, micrococcus lylae, and staphylococcus heads. The incidence rate of bacteria-associated dry eye in Tibetan population was significantly lower than that of Han and Yi population. CONCLUSION There is no significant difference in the bacteria flora of palpebral conjunctiva observed among dry eye elder populations of Tibetan, Yi and Han people. All of staphylococcus epidermidis, corynebacterium, micrococcus luteu, intracellular bacteria sphingomonas, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus haemolyticus, escherichia coli, kytococcus sedentarius, streptococcus angina, micrococcus lylae and staphylococcus heads are common bacteria flora of the three nationalities inhibiting in this area. PMID:23991377

  11. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence: Implication for Skin Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Awa; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Diaz, Suraya; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Percoco, Giuseppe; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lefeuvre, Luc; Harmer, Nicholas J; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP) is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis.

  12. Patch-testing North American lip dermatitis patients: data from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, 2001 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Zug, Kathryn A; Kornik, Rachel; Belsito, Donald V; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Maibach, Howard I; Marks, James G; Mathias, C G Toby; Pratt, Melanie D; Rietschel, Robert L; Sasseville, Denis; Storrs, Frances J; Taylor, James S; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    The most common differential diagnoses for patients presenting with lip dermatitis or inflammation include atopic, allergic, and irritant contact dermatitis. Patch testing can be performed to identify the allergic contact conditions. To report North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch-test results of patients who presented for patch testing with only lip involvement from 2001 to 2004. Patient characteristics, allergen frequencies, relevance, final diagnoses, and relevant allergic sources not in the NACDG screening series were evaluated. The NACDG 2001-2004 database was used to select patients presenting with only lip involvement. Of 10,061 patients tested, 2% (n = 196) had lips as the sole involved site. Most (84.2%) were women. After patch testing, 38.3% (n = 75) were diagnosed with allergic contact cheilitis. Fragrance mix, Myroxilon pereirae, and nickel were the most common relevant allergens. Of 75 patients, 27 (36%) had relevant positive patch-test reactions to items not on the NACDG series; lipstick and cosmetics were the predominant sources. Patch testing is valuable in the evaluation and identification of contact allergy in patients referred for lip dermatitis. The use of supplementary allergens based on history and exposure is important in the identification of additional relevant allergens. Over a third of patients with contact allergy had other factors, such as irritant dermatitis, considered relevant to their condition.

  13. Bacterial Virulence in the Moonlight: Multitasking Bacterial Moonlighting Proteins Are Virulence Determinants in Infectious Disease ▿

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brian; Martin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Men may not be able to multitask, but it is emerging that proteins can. This capacity of proteins to exhibit more than one function is termed protein moonlighting, and, surprisingly, many highly conserved proteins involved in metabolic regulation or the cell stress response have a range of additional biological actions which are involved in bacterial virulence. This review highlights the multiple roles exhibited by a range of bacterial proteins, such as glycolytic and other metabolic enzymes and molecular chaperones, and the role that such moonlighting activity plays in the virulence characteristics of a number of important human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:21646455

  14. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  15. Past, present, and future for biologic intervention in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Howell, M D; Parker, M L; Mustelin, T; Ranade, K

    2015-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a debilitating disease that significantly alters the quality of life for one in four children and one in 10 adults. Current management of AD utilizes combinations of treatments to symptomatically alleviate disease by suppressing the inflammatory response and restoring barrier function in the skin, reducing disease exacerbation and flare, and preventing secondary skin infections. Resolution is temporary and long-term usage of these treatments can be associated with significant side-effects. Antibody therapies previously approved for inflammatory diseases have been opportunistically evaluated in patients with atopic dermatitis; however, they often failed to demonstrate a significant clinical benefit. Monoclonal antibodies currently in development offer hope to those individuals suffering from the disease by specifically targeting immune and molecular pathways important for the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Here, we review the underlying biological pathways and the state of the art in therapeutics in AD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Follicular contact dermatitis due to coloured permanent-pressed sheets

    PubMed Central

    Panaccio, François; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester coloured permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4268628

  17. Occupational dermatitis in workers exposed to detergents, disinfectants, and antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Loddé, Brice; Paul, Marianne; Roguedas-Contios, Anne-Marie; Eniafe-Eveillard, Moriamo Ola Bisi; Misery, Laurent; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Anti-infective prevention has led to a significant use of disinfectants, detergents, and antiseptics in various areas of activities. Most of these products are skin irritants and allergens, which can cause skin disorders in exposed workers. The authors conducted a descriptive and retrospective study on occupational dermatitis diagnosed at an occupational dermatology hospital consultation service, targeting exposed workers in the health, food, and cleaning industries. These included 20.9% (61 of 291) of the patients seen at this consultation. An occupational origin was proven for 50 of these 61 patients. The most frequent dermatoses were irritant contact dermatitis (42%) and allergic contact dermatitis (26.3%). The main allergens were disinfectants and antiseptics (26.3%), especially quaternary ammoniums, aldehydes, and nickel. Patients exposed to disinfectants, detergents, and antiseptics in the workplace represent an important part (about 1 of 5) of occupational dermatology consultations, although factors may be contributory. Prevention and knowledge are necessary for this increasing issue.

  18. Recalcitrant atopic dermatitis due to allergy to Compositae.

    PubMed

    Wintzen, M; Donker, A S; van Zuuren, E J

    2003-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is often complicated by allergic contact dermatitis, although patch testing may reveal positive reactions of uncertain relevance. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis, with a positive patch-test reaction to Compositae mix (CM). Initially, sensitization appeared to be of past relevance only, due to use of calendula. However, it turned out that she followed a self-devised diet consisting largely of food products of the Compositae family. On excluding these food products her skin condition improved quickly. This case report underscores the difficulty in determining the relevance of positive patch tests, and shows that thorough analysis of positive patch tests, by both patient and physician, may reveal unexpected or less common sources of contact allergens.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by colophony in an epilating product.

    PubMed

    Quain, Rhonda D; Militello, Giuseppe; Crawford, Glen H

    2007-06-01

    Considering the widespread use of colophony-containing epilating products and the frequency of sensitization to colophony, it is somewhat surprising that reports of allergic contact dermatitis from these products are so infrequent. Reactions to colophony can be severe, and they may present even after initial exposure (primary sensitization). Consequently, health care practitioners should be aware of potential colophony-induced allergic contact dermatitis in patients exposed to epilating products. Patch testing with commercially available colophony unmodified rosins often fails to detect reactions to the modified-rosin derivatives found in the actual epilating products. Therefore, the evaluation of colophony allergy may require testing with the patient's own products as well as additional modified colophony rosins. We describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by colophony found in an epilating product.

  20. Rational Management of Papulopustular Rosacea With Concomitant Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    McFalda, Wendy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of papulopustular rosacea with concomitant seborrheic dermatitis and discuss how signs and symptoms were ameliorated using a rational therapeutic approach. Design: Patient case report. Setting: Clinical practice. Participant: One male patient with rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, and actinic keratoses. Measurements: Change in signs and symptoms over time. Results: Improved skin care practices and treatment with azelaic acid 15% gel twice daily in combination with low-dosage oral isotretinoin resulted in improvement in symptoms of both rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis. Conclusion: In patients with multiple skin disorders, use of medications with benefits for more than one of the skin conditions may, in some cases, reduce the overall number of medications needed, thus simplifying treatment. PMID:21278898

  1. Topical Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:23441238

  2. Bacterial Rheotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Marcos; Fu, Henry; Powers, Thomas; Stocker, Roman

    2011-11-01

    Rheotaxis is the directed movement of an organism resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates and spermatozoa. Here we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Using controlled microfluidic shear flows, we demonstrate and quantify rheotaxis in Bacillus subtilis. A mathematical model of a bacterium swimming in a shear flow is in good agreement with observations and reveals that bacterial rheotaxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that reorients the cell, altering its swimming direction. The magnitude of the observed rheotactic velocity is comparable to typical chemotactic velocities, suggesting that rheotaxis can interfere with bacterial processes based on directed motility, such as foraging and infection.

  3. Complete Bypass of Restriction Systems for Major Staphylococcus aureus Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Tree, Jai J.; Howden, Benjamin P.; Stinear, Timothy P.; Foster, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent global nosocomial and community-acquired bacterial pathogen. A strong restriction barrier presents a major hurdle for the introduction of recombinant DNA into clinical isolates of S. aureus. Here, we describe the construction and characterization of the IMXXB series of Escherichia coli strains that mimic the type I adenine methylation profiles of S. aureus clonal complexes 1, 8, 30, and ST93. The IMXXB strains enable direct, high-efficiency transformation and streamlined genetic manipulation of major S. aureus lineages. PMID:26015493

  4. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  5. Epidemio-allergological study in 155 cases of footwear dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chowdhuri, Sanjib; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Footwear dermatitis represents a distinct and common group among all types of contact dermatitis cases seen in India. This ailment, however, often remains undiagnosed, misdiagnosed or empirically diagnosed without pinpointing the contributory allergens. This study was undertaken to detect the epidemio-allergological pattern of footwear dermatitis in India. A total number of 155 cases with footwear dermatitis were evaluated from July 2005 to June 2006, by detailed history and clinical examination. They were patch tested using Indian Standard Battery (ISB) approved by the Contact and Occupational Dermatoses Forum of India (CODFI) with pre- and post patch-test counseling. The proportion of footwear dermatitis was 24.22% (n=155) among a total of 640 patients patch tested during that period. Females [61.93% (n=96)] were commonly affected than males [38.06% (n=59)]. The ages ranged from 8 to 75 years. The age group that predominantly involved was the fifth decade [24.52% (n=38)]. Occupationwise housewives were most commonly involved [47.48 (n=66)]. Contributory allergens in order of frequency were: potassium dichromate, 45.8% (n=71); cobalt chloride, 38.06% (n=59); paraphenylenediamine, 32.25% (n=50); epoxy resin, 20% (n=31); black rubber mix, 20% (n=31); nickel sulfate, 14.83% (n=23); mercaptobenzothiazole, 12.9% (n=20); colophony, 11.6% (n=18); thiuram mix, 10.32 % (n=16); p-tert-butyl-formaldehyde resin, 9.67% (n=15); and formaldehyde, 4.5% (n=7). Among the different categories of footwear allergens, the highest positivity was shown by leather and leather-related chemicals in 61.9% cases (n=96). Footwear dermatitis, a common dermatosis, is mostly caused by leather processing chemicals, metal buckles, black dyes of shoes and socks, adhesives, plastic, rubber shoes and polishing agents in order of frequency.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  7. Seborrheic dermatitis treatment with stellate ganglion block: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun Woo; Mun, Ki Ho; Song, Jeong Yun; Kim, Byung Gun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Lee, Choon Soo; Cha, Young Deog

    2016-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder presumed to be caused by increased sebaceous gland secretion, metabolic changes in the cutaneous microflora, and changes in the host immune function. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is known to increase the blood flow rate without altering the blood pressure, heart rate, or cardiac output, to stabilize hypertonic conditions of the sympathetic nerves, and to affect the endocrine and immune systems. It is used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders of the head, neck, and upper limbs. The authors report the first case of successful treatment of a patient with seborrheic dermatitis through repeated SGB trials. PMID:27064785

  8. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Fernanda; das Graças, Maria; Melo, Mota; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field. PMID:21436967

  9. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fernanda; das Graças, Maria; Melo, Mota; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-04-17

    Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field.

  10. Systemic Therapy of Atopic Dermatitis: Welcome to the Revolution.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Stein Gold, Linda F

    2016-03-01

    Until recently, systemic therapy of atopic dermatitis was limited to off-label use of immunomodulators, which can pose significant safety concerns, and treatment with systemic corticosteroids, not recommended in the most recent guidelines. The introduction of dupilumab in 2017 marked a major advance in systemic therapy for atopic dermatitis. It has demonstrated long-term efficacy in adults with moderate to severe disease, and is being studied in children. Several other biologic agents and "small molecules" with varying mechanisms of action are in phase 2 or 3 development. Semin Cutan Med Surg 36(supp4):S103-S105. 2017 published by Frontline Medical Communications.

  11. Dermatitis caused by Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) in human.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Rezaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Rakhshanpour, Arash; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Human infestation to ectoparasites such as ticks, lice, cimex, fleas, mites and others agents may result in intensive allergic reaction with symptoms of itching, skin infection and severe irritation. In this case report, we present a case of dermatitis caused by cat flea. A three-member family referred to dermatology clinic in Babol due to dermal complications. They complained of irritation and the unrest caused by intense itching. Samples of tiny live insects were detected from their clothing which was recognized as C. felis (cat flea). This report highlights the importance of ectoparasites causing dermatitis.

  12. Are You at Risk for Contact Dermatitis? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    You probably don’t give much thought to hand health. Until something goes wrong, almost everyone takes for granted that these crucial appendages will continue working as they always have. But hand health is an important consideration, especially at work. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis account for 15–20 percent of all reported occupational diseases, and they cost employers an estimated $1 billion each year in lost workdays and decreased productivity.

  13. Seborrheic dermatitis treatment with stellate ganglion block: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun Woo; Mun, Ki Ho; Song, Jeong Yun; Kim, Byung Gun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Lee, Choon Soo; Cha, Young Deog; Song, Jang Ho

    2016-04-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder presumed to be caused by increased sebaceous gland secretion, metabolic changes in the cutaneous microflora, and changes in the host immune function. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is known to increase the blood flow rate without altering the blood pressure, heart rate, or cardiac output, to stabilize hypertonic conditions of the sympathetic nerves, and to affect the endocrine and immune systems. It is used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders of the head, neck, and upper limbs. The authors report the first case of successful treatment of a patient with seborrheic dermatitis through repeated SGB trials.

  14. Validating MDS Data about Risk Factors for Perineal Dermatitis by Comparing With Nursing Home Records

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Anna M.; Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Wyman, Jean F.

    2011-01-01

    Perineal dermatitis is one of the main complications of incontinence and increases the cost of health care. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) contains data about factors associated with perineal dermatitis identified in a published conceptual model of perineal dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of MDS data related to perineal dermatitis risk factors by comparing them with data in nursing home chart records. Findings indicate that MDS items defining factors associated with perineal dermatitis were valid and supported use of the MDS in further investigation of a significant, costly, and understudied health problem of nursing home residents. PMID:18512629

  15. Characteristic bacteriolytic activities of Staphylococcus hyicus.

    PubMed Central

    Lämmler, C

    1989-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus demonstrated characteristic bacteriolytic activities towards a Micrococcus luteus reference strain. This lytic activity was demonstrated on medium containing M. luteus cells as large zones of transparency around the culture streak. Smaller zones of transparency were observed with Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and some strains of Staphylococcus aureus but not with other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. The distribution and extent of the bacteriolytic activity could be useful as additional criteria for differentiation of S. hyicus. Images PMID:2768457

  16. Intrapartum antibiotics and childhood atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Debra L; Curry, William J; Mauger, Dave; Miller, Jennifer; Tyrie, Kaitlyn

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) in children significantly impacts families because of medical costs, "lost" hours, and secondary characteristics such as asthma and ancillary infections. We investigate whether children delivered vaginally to women receiving intrapartum antibiotics have a greater risk of AD when younger than the age of 2 years than their counterparts. We conducted a retrospective analysis of women who delivered child(ren) vaginally between 1996 and 2008. Women were identified as those who received intrapartum antibiotics and those who did not. Pediatric records were used to determine the incidence of AD. We collected data for 492 mother-child pairs. Intrapartum antibiotics were administered during 128 births; 28.9% of those children were diagnosed with AD by age 2 years (relative risk [RR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.41). Factors with the greatest risk of diagnosis of AD by 2 years of age were intrapartum antibiotic exposure for >24 hours (RR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.13-3.49), first born (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.33-2.38), and higher maternal education (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.99-2.06). No statistical differences in the prevalence of AD related to parental eczema, maternal group B Streptococcus status, or gestational age existed. Exposure to antibiotics for <24 hours during a vaginal delivery does not increase the risk of AD. Studies are needed to understand whether exposure for >24 hours during the intrapartum period increases the risk of AD. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  18. BASOPHILIC LEUKOCYTES IN ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Harold F.; Mihm, Martin C.

    1972-01-01

    A variety of cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in experimental animals include a prominent infiltrate of basophilic leukocytes. This form of reactivity has been designated cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity and is favored when sensitization to several types of antigen is accomplished without the use of complete Freund's adjuvant. A similar type of hypersensitivity response was sought in man using morphologic techniques which permit identification of basophilic leukocytes. Eight individuals with allergic contact dermatitis to a variety of allergens were studied and six of these developed typical contact reactions with erythema, edema, and epidermal vesicles. The microscopic findings in 3-day biopsies from these individuals differed significantly from classic descriptions of tuberculin hypersensitivity and showed, in addition to mononuclear cells and the characteristic epidermal changes, a substantial infiltrate of basophilic leukocytes and evidence of altered vascular permeability with vascular compaction, dermal edema, and fibrin deposition. Serial biopsies from one individual permitted analysis of the microscopic pathology as it unfolded at successive intervals after patch test. The initial lesion consisted of perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes; this was followed by an influx of basophils and, subsequently, of eosinophils. These findings associate contact allergy in man with the parallel reactions of cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity in animals and provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of the cellular immune response. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that interaction between sensitized lymphocytes and antigen, at a local test site, is responsible for the attraction of basophils. They also directly implicate the clotting system in delayed-type reactions and suggest the possibility of a synergistic relationship between cellular immunity and reactions mediated by basophil-bound, homocytotrophic antibody. PMID:5060290

  19. Complementary and alternative interventions in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Bielory, Leonard

    2010-08-01

    The burden of atopic diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD), is significant and far-reaching. In addition to cost of care and therapies, it affects the quality of life for those affected as well as their caretakers. Complementary and alternative therapies are commonly used because of concerns about potential adverse effects of conventional therapies and frustration with the lack of response to prescribed medications, be it due to the severity of the AD or the lack of appropriate regular use. Despite the promising results reported with various herbal medicines and biologic products, the clinical efficacy of such alternative therapies remains to be determined. Physicians need to be educated about alternative therapies and discuss benefits and potential adverse effects or limitations with patients. A systematic approach and awareness of reputable and easily accessible resources are helpful in dealing with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM interventions is common among individuals with AD. Epidemiologic data have been a motivating drive for better elucidation of the efficacy of CAM interventions for allergic disease. Herbal medicines and biologics for AD treatment and, more recently, prevention comprise a major area of clinical investigation. Potential mechanisms of therapeutic effect elucidated by animal models and human clinical studies implicate modulation of TH2-type allergic inflammation and induction of immune tolerance. Population-based research regarding the use of CAM for allergic diseases underscores the increasing challenge for care providers with respect to identifying CAM use and ensuring safe use of allopathic and complementary medicines in disease management. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Histamine and antihistamines in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Buddenkotte, Jörg; Maurer, Marcus; Steinhoff, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Itching (pruritus) is perhaps the most common symptom associated with inflammatory skin diseases and can be a lead symptom ofextracutaneous disease (e.g., malignancy, infection, metabolic disorders). In atopic dermatitis itching sensations constitute one of the most prominent and distressing features. The most characteristic response to itching is the scratch reflex: a more or less voluntary, often sub-conscious motor activity, to counteract the itch by slightly painful stimuli. The benefit of a short-termed relieve from itching through this scratch reflex though is counteracted by a simultaneous damage of the epidermal layer of the skin which leads to increased transepidermal water loss and drying, which in turn results in a cycle of more itching and more scratching. A wide range of peripheral itch-inducing stimuli generated within or administered to the skin are able to trigger pruritus, one of them being histamine. Based on early experiments, histamine has been suggested to may play a key role in the pathogenesis ofAD. This is reflected by a history for antihistamines in the therapeutic medication of AD patients. Antihistamines are believed to share a common antipruritic effect and therefore are prescribed to the vast majority of AD patient suffering from itch to act alleviating. The level of evidence in support of the benefits of antihistamine treatment, however, is low. To assess the benefit of antihistamines in the treatment of AD in a better way, their mechanisms and specific effects need to be understood more precisely. In particular their precise indication is crucial for successful use. This book chapter will therefore summarize and assess the role of histamine in AD and the efficacy of antihistamines in its treatment based on results of basic research and clinical studies.