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Sample records for bacterial dermatitis staphylococcus

  1. Recent microbiological shifts in perianal bacterial dermatitis: Staphylococcus aureus predominance.

    PubMed

    Heath, Candrice; Desai, Nina; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, bacterial infections of the anal skin have been found to be caused by Streptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the breakdown of bacterial isolates and the current presentation of bacterial diseases involving the perineum. From the chart review of children who had bacterial cultures of the anus from 2005 to 2008 in a pediatric dermatology practice population in New York City, 26 pediatric patients (ages 5 months to 12 yrs) who had the indications of anal erythema or recurrent buttocks dermatitis were identified. Bacterial cultures of 17 patients grew pathogens, that of 14 (82% of identifiably infected patients) grew Staphylococcus aureus, in 11 as a solo pathogen (6 MSSA and 5 MRSA in 2 family clusters). Streptococcus was identified in three patients, two on culture and one on latex agglutination test; and two patients were identified as having both group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (2 MSSA and 1 MRSA). In patients with S. aureus perianally, concurrent small papules and pustules of the buttocks or extension of the erythema to adjacent buttock skin was the primary clinical feature distinguishing this condition from isolated streptococcal disease. Whereas Streptococcal infections of the anus and buttocks occur commonly, Staphylococcus aureus has become the leading cause of anal bacterial infection in the setting of skin involvement; therefore, antibacterial therapy for anal and buttock bacterial infections should be tailored accordingly. PMID:20199443

  2. Dysbiosis and Staphylococcus aureus colonization drives inflammation in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Glatz, Martin; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kaplan, Daniel H.; Kong, Heidi H.; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Summary Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization is universal in atopic dermatitis and common in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. However, the causal relationship of dysbiosis and eczema has yet to be clarified. Herein, we demonstrate that Adam17fl/flSox9-Cre mice, generated to model ADAM17-deficiency in human, developed eczematous dermatitis with naturally occurring dysbiosis, similar to that observed in atopic dermatitis. Corynebacterium mastitidis, S. aureus, and Corynebacterium bovis sequentially emerged during the onset of eczematous dermatitis, and antibiotic specific for these bacterial species almost completely reversed dysbiosis and eliminated skin inflammation. Whereas S. aureus prominently drove eczema formation, C. bovis induced robust T helper 2 cell responses. Langerhans cells were required for eliciting immune responses against S. aureus inoculation. These results characterize differential contributions of dysbiotic flora during eczema formation, and highlight the microbiota-host immunity axis as a possible target for future therapeutics in eczematous dermatitis. PMID:25902485

  3. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to topical antimicrobials in atopic dermatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Bessa, Giancarlo Rezende; Quinto, Vanessa Petry; Machado, Daiane Corrêa; Lipnharski, Caroline; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of children and adults diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and S. aureus colonization. We used miscellaneous literature reported breakpoints to define S. aureus resistance to mupirocin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, neomycin and bacitracin. Results A total of 91 patients were included and 100 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. All strains were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We found a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance (1.1% and 5.9%, respectively), but high levels of neomycin and bacitracin resistance (42.6% and 100%, respectively). Fusidic acid resistance was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, demonstrated by higher EASI scores (median 17.8 vs 5.7, p=.009). Our results also corroborate the literature on the absence of cross-resistance between the aminoglycosides neomycin and gentamicin. Conclusions Our data, in a southern Brazilian sample of AD patients, revealed a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance of S. aureus atopic eczema colonizer strains. However, for neomycin and bacitracin, which are commonly used topical antimicrobial drugs in Brazil, high levels of resistance were identified. Further restrictions on the use of these antimicrobials seem necessary to keep resistance as low as possible.

  4. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Asthma Food Allergy Immune System Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ​ Javascript ... atopic dermatitis. Bacterial Infections Scanning electron micrograph of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Credit: NIAID A major health risk ...

  5. Food compounds inhibit Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the toxicity of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A (SEA) associated with atopic dermatitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atopic dermatitis or eczema is characterized by skin rashes and itching is an inflammatory disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are present on the skin of nearly all patients with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics that suppress colonization of S. au...

  6. Digital Dermatitis in Cattle: Current Bacterial and Immunological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Alt, David P.; Nally, Jarlath E.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Digital dermatitis causes lameness in cattle. Numerous studies have identified multiple bacteria associated with these painful lesions. Several types of a spiral shaped bacteria, Treponema species, are thought to play a role in disease development. Little is known about the immune response to bacteria involved in digital dermatitis. Local inflammatory cells can contribute to the non-healing nature of the disease. Animal models of infection are required to develop effective vaccines and treatments. Abstract Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development. Local innate immune responses may contribute to the proliferative, inflammatory conditions that perpetuate digital dermatitis lesions. While serum antibody is produced to bacterial antigens in the lesions, little is known about cellular-based immunity. Studies are still required to delineate the pathogenic traits of treponemes associated with digital dermatitis; and other host factors that mediate pathology and protection of digital dermatitis lesions. PMID:26569318

  7. Comprehensive pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial microbiota of the skin of patients with seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiomi; Cho, Otomi; Saito, Chie; Saito, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Sugita, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory dermatologic condition in which erythema and itching develop on areas of the body with sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face and chest. The inflammation is evoked directly by oleic acid, which is hydrolyzed from sebum by lipases secreted by skin microorganisms. Although the skin fungal genus, Malassezia, is thought to be the causative agent of SD, analysis of the bacterial microbiota of skin samples of patients with SD is necessary to clarify any association with Malassezia because the skin microbiota comprises diverse bacterial and fungal genera. In the present study, bacterial microbiotas were analyzed at non-lesional and lesional sites of 24 patients with SD by pyrosequencing and qPCR. Principal coordinate analysis revealed clear separation between the microbiota of non-lesional and lesional sites. Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were abundant at both sites. Propionibacterium was abundant at non-lesional sites, whereas Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus predominated at lesional sites; however, the extent of Propionibacterium colonization did not differ significantly between lesional and non-lesional sites according to qPCR. Given that these abundant bacteria hydrolyze sebum, they may also contribute to SD development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial microbiotas of the skin of SD patients. PMID:27301664

  8. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial isolates from cases of canine dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, Francesca; Piancastelli, Chiara; Taddei, Simone; Gandolfo, Emanuele; Cavirani, Sandro; Cabassi, Clotilde Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Among 97 bacterial isolates, 74 strains of Staphylococcus spp developed from 95 swabs taken from skin lesions in dogs. Twenty-eight staphylococcal strains resistant to methicillin and/or oxacillin were identified and mecA expression was confirmed for 14 of these strains. S. aureus and S. intermedius group (SIG) strains were particularly relevant in our cases due to their antibiotic resistance leading to an increased veterinary and public health risk. We suggest a diagnostic protocol based on cytological examination, bacterial identification to species level, and antibiotic sensitivity testing prior to prescribing antibiotic treatment for canine skin diseases.

  9. Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in impetigo contagiosa and secondarily infected atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alsterholm, Mikael; Flytström, Ingela; Bergbrant, Ing-Marie; Faergemann, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (FRSA) has been identified as a causative agent in outbreaks of impetigo and its emergence has been associated with increased use of topical fusidic acid. The frequency of FRSA in atopic dermatitis (AD) has been less extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial spectrum and frequency of FRSA in patients with impetigo or secondarily infected AD. A prospective study in our clinic in 2004 to 2008 included 38 patients with impetigo and 37 with secondarily infected AD. S. aureus was the predominant finding in all groups (bullous impetigo 92% (12/13), impetigo 76% (19/25) and secondarily infected AD 89% (33/37)). Seventy-five percent of S. aureus were fusidic acid resistant in bullous impetigo, 32% in impetigo and 6.1% in secondarily infected AD (bullous impetigo vs. AD p < 0.0001, impetigo vs. AD p < 0.05). We then performed a retrospective patient record review including all patients with impetigo or secondarily infected AD seen at the clinic during the first and last year of the prospective study. In the first year 33% (19/58) of the S. aureus isolates were fusidic acid-resistant in impetigo and 12% (5/43) in secondarily infected AD (p < 0.05). In the last year corresponding values were 24% (6/25) for impetigo and 2.2% (1/45) for AD (p < 0.01). In summary, the prospective study and the patient record review both showed higher FRSA levels in impetigo than in AD. FRSA levels were persistently low in AD. Continued restrictive use of topical fusidic acid is advised to limit an increase in FRSA levels in dermatology patients.

  10. A retrospective analysis of skin bacterial colonisation, susceptibility and resistance in atopic dermatitis and impetigo patients.

    PubMed

    Salah, Louai A; Faergemann, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and impetigo are skin conditions where bacterial colonisation and infection, especially with Staphylococcus aureus play an important role. We compared skin bacterial population, resistance patterns and choice of antimicrobial agents in patients diagnosed with AD and impetigo during 2005 and 2011 in our department. Number of positive cultures in the AD group were 40 and 53 in 2005 and 2011, with S. aureus found in 97.5% and 100%, respectively. Differences in resistance were marginal. In impetigo, S. aureus was found in all 70 patients in 2005 and all 40 patients in 2011. Antibiotic resistance to specifically fusidic acid was more common in 2005 impetigo patients (22.8%) versus 2011 (5%) (p = 0.078). The most commonly used oral antimicrobial was cefadroxil (in 57.5% and 52.8% of AD and 58.6% and 35% of impetigo patients in 2005 and 2011, respectively). Our observations confirm the high prevalence of S. aureus in both diseases and, interestingly, show a declining resistance trend in impetigo. PMID:25367860

  11. A retrospective analysis of skin bacterial colonisation, susceptibility and resistance in atopic dermatitis and impetigo patients.

    PubMed

    Salah, Louai A; Faergemann, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and impetigo are skin conditions where bacterial colonisation and infection, especially with Staphylococcus aureus play an important role. We compared skin bacterial population, resistance patterns and choice of antimicrobial agents in patients diagnosed with AD and impetigo during 2005 and 2011 in our department. Number of positive cultures in the AD group were 40 and 53 in 2005 and 2011, with S. aureus found in 97.5% and 100%, respectively. Differences in resistance were marginal. In impetigo, S. aureus was found in all 70 patients in 2005 and all 40 patients in 2011. Antibiotic resistance to specifically fusidic acid was more common in 2005 impetigo patients (22.8%) versus 2011 (5%) (p = 0.078). The most commonly used oral antimicrobial was cefadroxil (in 57.5% and 52.8% of AD and 58.6% and 35% of impetigo patients in 2005 and 2011, respectively). Our observations confirm the high prevalence of S. aureus in both diseases and, interestingly, show a declining resistance trend in impetigo.

  12. Ulcerative dermatitis and valvular endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus in a hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    PubMed

    Huynh, Minh; Carnaccini, Silvia; Driggers, Todd; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-06-01

    An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners.

  13. Digital dermatitis in cattle: current bacterial and immunological findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined, the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous Treponema species in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. Multiple treponeme phylotypes, ...

  14. A comparison of adherence by four strains of Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus hominis to canine corneocytes collected from normal dogs and dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    McEwan, N A; Kalna, G; Mellor, D

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the adherence of four strains of Staphylococcus intermedius and a single strain of Staphylococcus hominis to corneocytes from both normal dogs and dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis. Cells from the skin surface, corneocytes, were collected from 10 normal dogs and 10 dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis. Four strains of S. intermedius, three isolated from canine pyoderma skin lesions (strains A, B and C), and one isolated form from canine synovial membrane sample from a case of septic arthritis (strain D) were compared. S. hominis, which is not normally associated with canine disease, was also evaluated for its ability to adhere to canine corneocytes. S. hominis did not adhere to canine corneocytes. All four strains of S. intermedius adhered well to canine corneocytes collected from both normal and atopic dogs. All strains of S. intermedius showed statistically greater adherence to corneocytes collected from atopic dogs compared with those collected from normal dogs. It was concluded that the adherence assay employed here showed that S. hominis does not adhere to canine corneocytes, S. intermedius adheres preferentially to atopic corneocytes.

  15. Fabrics for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    The type of fabric worn by sufferers from atopic dermatitis should not exacerbate the condition but, if possible, help to control it. Synthetic fabrics and wool tend to produce itching and irritate the skin. Cotton is traditionally recommended but its structure contains short fibres which expand and contract, causing a rubbing movement that can irritate delicate skin. Dyes used in cotton garments can increase the potential of a sensitivity reaction. Cotton is also prone to bacterial and fungal attack. Silk garments are often closely woven which impedes the flow of air, and some people are allergic to the sericin protein in silk. Published studies suggest that a specially treated silk material (DermaSilk), which is loosely knitted, has had the sericin removed and has a microbial agent (AEM 5772/5) permanently bonded to it, is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the skin of children and adults with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis often becomes infected, commonly with Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have investigated the use of clothing materials impregnated with substances such as silver, which has antimicrobial properties. However, these are still unproven and there are concerns about bacterial resistance and the local and environmental effects of silver. The use of the antimicrobial AEM 5772/5, which does not transfer to the skin of the patient, is a new development in the control of atopic dermatitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether an antimicrobial shield bonded to clothing material will reduce the colonisation of atopic skin by S. aureus.

  16. Superantigens Modulate Bacterial Density during Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Stacey X.; Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; McCormick, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are potent microbial toxins that function to activate large numbers of T cells in a T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ-specific manner, resulting in excessive immune system activation. Staphylococcus aureus possesses a large repertoire of distinct SAgs, and in the context of host-pathogen interactions, staphylococcal SAg research has focused primarily on the role of these toxins in severe and invasive diseases. However, the contribution of SAgs to colonization by S. aureus remains unclear. We developed a two-week nasal colonization model using SAg-sensitive transgenic mice expressing HLA-DR4, and evaluated the role of SAgs using two well-studied stains of S. aureus. S. aureus Newman produces relatively low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and although we did not detect significant TCR-Vβ specific changes during wild-type S. aureus Newman colonization, S. aureus Newman Δsea established transiently higher bacterial loads in the nose. S. aureus COL produces relatively high levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and colonization with wild-type S. aureus COL resulted in clear Vβ8-specific T cell skewing responses. S. aureus COL Δseb established consistently higher bacterial loads in the nose. These data suggest that staphylococcal SAgs may be involved in regulating bacterial densities during nasal colonization. PMID:26008236

  17. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists. PMID:26962155

  19. Evidence for the involvement of bacterial superantigens in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and Kawasaki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, J M; Leung, D Y; Schlievert, P M

    2000-11-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates streptococcal and staphylococcal superantigens in the development of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and Kawasaki syndrome. In each of these illnesses, an abnormal state of immunologic activity is observed. Superantigens, which have a unique ability to activate large numbers of lymphocytes, are likely to contribute to these disorders in a number of ways. The demonstrated activities of bacterial superantigens include increasing the number of circulating lymphocytes, with activation of autoreactive subsets, upregulation of tissue homing receptors on circulating lymphocytes, and local activation of immune cells within affected tissues. Through these and other mechanisms, superantigens have a proven ability to induce high levels of inflammatory cytokines and/or initiate autoimmune responses that contribute to the development of skin and vascular disorders. Though development of the illnesses discussed in this review are highly complex processes, superantigens may well play a critical role in their onset or maintenance. Understanding superantigen function may elucidate potential therapeutic strategies for these disorders.

  20. Oral application of bacterial lysate in infancy diminishes the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in children at risk for atopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, S

    2014-06-01

    Numerous interventions such as avoidance of food allergens, prolonged breast feeding and supplementation of pro-and/or prebiotics have been tried as primary prevention of atopic dermatitis. Recent data suggest that prevention of infantile eczema is possible in a subgroup of children by feeding bacterial lysates early in life. Bacterial lysates of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were found to impair allergic immune responses in rats. An interventional trial in 606 infants at risk for atopy showed a reduction of atopic dermatitis at the end of the treatment phase (month 2 until month 7) of 50% in a subgroup of children with single heredity for atopy. This was even more pronounced in the group of children with paternal heredity for atopy. This effect was still seen at age 1 year. There was no effect on food sensitisation. In conclusion, an immune modulation in terms of prevention of atopic dermatitis in infancy if single atopic family history is present seems to be possible by feeding bacterial lysates early in life. PMID:23886978

  1. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  2. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-05-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l(-1). The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters.

  3. High Frequency and Diversity of Antimicrobial Activities Produced by Nasal Staphylococcus Strains against Bacterial Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Janek, Daniela; Zipperer, Alexander; Kulik, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The human nasal microbiota is highly variable and dynamic often enclosing major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potential roles of bacteriocins or other mechanisms allowing certain bacterial clones to prevail in this nutrient-poor habitat have hardly been studied. Of 89 nasal Staphylococcus isolates, unexpectedly, the vast majority (84%) was found to produce antimicrobial substances in particular under habitat-specific stress conditions, such as iron limitation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Activity spectra were generally narrow but highly variable with activities against certain nasal members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, or several groups of bacteria. Staphylococcus species and many other Firmicutes were insusceptible to most of the compounds. A representative bacteriocin was identified as a nukacin-related peptide whose inactivation reduced the capacity of the producer Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK45 to limit growth of other nasal bacteria. Of note, the bacteriocin genes were found on mobile genetic elements exhibiting signs of extensive horizontal gene transfer and rearrangements. Thus, continuously evolving bacteriocins appear to govern bacterial competition in the human nose and specific bacteriocins may become important agents for eradication of notorious opportunistic pathogens from human microbiota. PMID:27490492

  4. High Frequency and Diversity of Antimicrobial Activities Produced by Nasal Staphylococcus Strains against Bacterial Competitors.

    PubMed

    Janek, Daniela; Zipperer, Alexander; Kulik, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The human nasal microbiota is highly variable and dynamic often enclosing major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potential roles of bacteriocins or other mechanisms allowing certain bacterial clones to prevail in this nutrient-poor habitat have hardly been studied. Of 89 nasal Staphylococcus isolates, unexpectedly, the vast majority (84%) was found to produce antimicrobial substances in particular under habitat-specific stress conditions, such as iron limitation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Activity spectra were generally narrow but highly variable with activities against certain nasal members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, or several groups of bacteria. Staphylococcus species and many other Firmicutes were insusceptible to most of the compounds. A representative bacteriocin was identified as a nukacin-related peptide whose inactivation reduced the capacity of the producer Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK45 to limit growth of other nasal bacteria. Of note, the bacteriocin genes were found on mobile genetic elements exhibiting signs of extensive horizontal gene transfer and rearrangements. Thus, continuously evolving bacteriocins appear to govern bacterial competition in the human nose and specific bacteriocins may become important agents for eradication of notorious opportunistic pathogens from human microbiota.

  5. High Frequency and Diversity of Antimicrobial Activities Produced by Nasal Staphylococcus Strains against Bacterial Competitors.

    PubMed

    Janek, Daniela; Zipperer, Alexander; Kulik, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The human nasal microbiota is highly variable and dynamic often enclosing major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potential roles of bacteriocins or other mechanisms allowing certain bacterial clones to prevail in this nutrient-poor habitat have hardly been studied. Of 89 nasal Staphylococcus isolates, unexpectedly, the vast majority (84%) was found to produce antimicrobial substances in particular under habitat-specific stress conditions, such as iron limitation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Activity spectra were generally narrow but highly variable with activities against certain nasal members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, or several groups of bacteria. Staphylococcus species and many other Firmicutes were insusceptible to most of the compounds. A representative bacteriocin was identified as a nukacin-related peptide whose inactivation reduced the capacity of the producer Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK45 to limit growth of other nasal bacteria. Of note, the bacteriocin genes were found on mobile genetic elements exhibiting signs of extensive horizontal gene transfer and rearrangements. Thus, continuously evolving bacteriocins appear to govern bacterial competition in the human nose and specific bacteriocins may become important agents for eradication of notorious opportunistic pathogens from human microbiota. PMID:27490492

  6. Modification of the bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus by antioxidant blooming on polyurethane films.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Johanna; Herry, Jean-Marie; Marlière, Christian; Renault, Margareth; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Yagoubi, Najet

    2015-11-01

    Medical device-related infections are a major problem in hospital. The risk of developing an infection is linked to the bacterial adhesion ability of pathogen strains on the device and their ability to form a biofilm. Here we focused on polymer surfaces exhibiting a blooming of antioxidant (Irganox 3114® and Irganox 1076®) on their surface. We tried to put into evidence the effect of such a phenomenon on the bacterial adhesion in terms of number of viable cultivable bacteria and bacteria localization on the surface. We showed that the blooming has a tendency to increase the Staphylococcus aureus adhesion phenomenon in part for topographic reasons.

  7. Multidrug efflux pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jody L; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; K C, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F

    2015-02-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations.

  8. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jody L.; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; KC, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. PMID:25635914

  9. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, F.S.; Abad, E.D.; Lyra, Y.C.; Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M.; Ferreira, D.C.; dos Santos, K.R.N.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD. PMID:25992644

  10. Identification of bacterial species associated with the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis) by using amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Hogg, J C; Lehane, M J

    1999-09-01

    This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis.

  11. Analysis of Bacterial Biofilms on a Cochlear Implant Following Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Im, Gi Jung; An, Yun Suk; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2015-12-01

    To demonstrate biofilm formations on a cochlear implant magnet of a pediatric patient suffering from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The appearance of biofilm colonies was analyzed on different magnet sections. The appearance of MRSA biofilms on the surface of an explanted cochlear implant was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focusing on the pattern of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) within the biofilms. SEM revealed unique biofilms with a three-dimensional EPS complex and tower-like formations. Biofilm configurations changed from the margin to the center of the magnet. Biofilms were solitary and scattered at the margin; large and plate-like in the center; and stacked in layers, forming towers and water channels, in the middle region. After a MRSA infection, biofilm formations were observed on the surface of a magnet. Bacterial biofilms provide optimal conditions for bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance and can cause intractable infections that lead to device failure.

  12. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Contact dermatitis Overview Contact dermatitis: Many health care workers ... to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Contact dermatitis: Overview Almost everyone gets this type of ...

  13. Epidemiological and molecular evidence of a monophyletic infection with Staphylococcus aureus causing a purulent dermatitis in a dairy farmer and multiple cases of mastitis in his cows.

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, A.; Hittman, A.; Leyland, M.; Rogers, L.; Le Quesne, B.

    2004-01-01

    An epidemiological and molecular investigation of a cutaneous suppurative infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a dairy farmer, occurring concurrently with an outbreak of clinical mastitis in his herd, was carried out. A common aetiology for the diseases in the farmer and his cows was established by combining clinical evidence with a molecular genomic analysis of the bacterial isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of DNA macro-restriction fragments. This case indicates the possibility of the emergence and circulation of anthropozoonotic clones of S. aureus in dairy herds. It also provides further evidence of the severe impact of infection with highly virulent clones on dairy lactating cattle. PMID:15188719

  14. Change in Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Skin-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis during Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Min; Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jin, Hyunju; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Do-Won; Jang, Ho-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background A small subset of adolescents atopic dermatitis (AD) tends to persist. This also leads to get more antibiotics exposure with advancing years. Antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a serious problem during Staphylococcus aureus treatment, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Objective It was investigated the S. aureus colonization frequency in the skin lesions and anterior nares of adolescent AD patients and evaluated the changes in S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility for years. Methods Patients who visited our clinic from September 2003 to August 2005 were classified into group A, and patients who visited from August 2010 to March 2012 were classified into group B. To investigate the differences with regard to patients' age and disease duration, the patients were subdivided into groups according to age. Lesional and nasal specimens were examined. Results Among the 295 AD patients, the total S. aureus colonization rate in skin lesions was 66.9% (95/142) for group A and 78.4% (120/153) for group B. No significant changes in the systemic antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. aureus strains isolated from adolescent AD patients were observed during about 10-year period. The increased trend of MRSA isolation in recent adolescent AD outpatients suggest that the community including school could be the source of S. aureus antibiotic resistance and higher fusidic acid resistance rates provides evidence of imprudent topical use. Conclusion Relatively high MRSA isolation and fusidic acid resistance rates in recent AD patients suggest that the community harbors antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27489430

  15. Osteomyelitis Caused by Staphylococcus schleiferi and Evidence of Misidentification of This Staphylococcus Species by an Automated Bacterial Identification System

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Jorge; Hernández, José L.; Fariñas, Maria C.; García-Palomo, Daniel; Agüero, Jesús

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of sternal osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus schleiferi in a patient who underwent thoracic surgery. This constitutes the first documented case of osteomyelitis caused by this Staphylococcus species. We also relate our experience in the utilization of commercially available MicroScan panels for the identification of this microorganism. PMID:11015429

  16. [Importance of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the bacterial colonization of abdominal drains in surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Chisena, S; Marconato, R; Cantoni, G; Zappa, M; Inzaghi, A; Pasargiklian, I; Mascheroni, E; Ranzi, M L; Longo, T

    1991-03-31

    Bacterial adherence to biomaterials as an element of clinical relevance is a well-known factor in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Drainages, intravascular catheters, surgical prostheses and other devices are susceptible to bacterial colonization with clinical consequences. In the last few years attention has been paid to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (S. epidermidis), mainly to some strains able to produce a highly adhesive polysaccharide substance, called glycocalix or slime. This promotes adherence either interbacterial either between bacteria and biologic tissues or synthetic materials acting as a pathogenetic factor in sepsis being able to increase bacterial resistance to phagocytes and antibiotics. Bacterial contamination of 40 abdominal drainage tubes in patients operated in elective and in emergency surgery for various pathology has been evaluated. Sonication of the tip of the drainage was utilized in order to promote the detachment of adherent colonies and its effectiveness was compared to that of microcentrifugation. Culture of 25 drainages (62.5%) showed no bacterial contamination; 7 drainages (17.5%) have proved to be colonized by S. epidermidis, in 4 cases the isolated strains were also methicillin-resistant, 2 of which slime-producing. Out of the 7 drainages colonized by S. epidermidis, 4 were removed from patients operated in emergency: none of the isolated strains was slime-producing. Six drainages (15%) were colonized by Gram+ bacteria (S. fecalis, P-sensible cocci, rods), 1 (2.5%) by E. coli and 1 (2.5%) by P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis appears to be the chief contaminant of abdominal drainages, especially in emergency surgery; slime production has always been observed in methicillin-resistant strains: this confirms the hypothesis that slime production is typical of specialized, virulent strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2046968

  17. The Crystal Structures of EAP Domains from Staphylococcus aureus Reveal an Unexpected Homology to Bacterial Superantigens

    SciTech Connect

    Geisbrecht, B V; Hamaoka, B Y; Perman, B; Zemla, A; Leahy, D J

    2005-10-14

    The Eap (extracellular adherence protein) of Staphylococcus aureus functions as a secreted virulence factor by mediating interactions between the bacterial cell surface and several extracellular host proteins. Eap proteins from different Staphylococcal strains consist of four to six tandem repeats of a structurally uncharacterized domain (EAP domain). We have determined the three-dimensional structures of three different EAP domains to 1.8, 2.2, and 1.35 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a core fold that is comprised of an {alpha}-helix lying diagonally across a five-stranded, mixed {beta}-sheet. Comparison of EAP domains with known structures reveals an unexpected homology with the C-terminal domain of bacterial superantigens. Examination of the structure of the superantigen SEC2 bound to the {beta}-chain of a T-cell receptor suggests a possible ligand-binding site within the EAP domain (Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. (1996) Nature 384, 188-192). These results provide the first structural characterization of EAP domains, relate EAP domains to a large class of bacterial toxins, and will guide the design of future experiments to analyze EAP domain structure/function relationships.

  18. Inability to sustain intraphagolysosomal killing of Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to bacterial persistence in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jubrail, Jamil; Morris, Paul; Bewley, Martin A; Stoneham, Simon; Johnston, Simon A; Foster, Simon J; Peden, Andrew A; Read, Robert C; Marriott, Helen M; Dockrell, David H

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are critical effectors of the early innate response to bacteria in tissues. Phagocytosis and killing of bacteria are interrelated functions essential for bacterial clearance but the rate-limiting step when macrophages are challenged with large numbers of the major medical pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is unknown. We show that macrophages have a finite capacity for intracellular killing and fail to match sustained phagocytosis with sustained microbial killing when exposed to large inocula of S. aureus (Newman, SH1000 and USA300 strains). S. aureus ingestion by macrophages is associated with a rapid decline in bacterial viability immediately after phagocytosis. However, not all bacteria are killed in the phagolysosome, and we demonstrate reduced acidification of the phagolysosome, associated with failure of phagolysosomal maturation and reduced activation of cathepsin D. This results in accumulation of viable intracellular bacteria in macrophages. We show macrophages fail to engage apoptosis-associated bacterial killing. Ultittop mately macrophages with viable bacteria undergo cell lysis, and viable bacteria are released and can be internalized by other macrophages. We show that cycles of lysis and reuptake maintain a pool of viable intracellular bacteria over time when killing is overwhelmed and demonstrate intracellular persistence in alveolar macrophages in the lungs in a murine model.

  19. Bacterial Delivery of Staphylococcus aureus α-Hemolysin Causes Regression and Necrosis in Murine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    St. Jean, Adam T; Swofford, Charles A; Panteli, Jan T; Brentzel, Zachary J; Forbes, Neil S

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial therapies, designed to manufacture therapeutic proteins directly within tumors, could eliminate cancers that are resistant to other therapies. To be effective, a payload protein must be secreted, diffuse through tissue, and efficiently kill cancer cells. To date, these properties have not been shown for a single protein. The gene for Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin (SAH), a pore-forming protein, was cloned into Escherichia coli. These bacteria were injected into tumor-bearing mice and volume was measured over time. The location of SAH relative to necrosis and bacterial colonies was determined by immunohistochemistry. In culture, SAH was released and killed 93% of cancer cells in 24 hours. Injection of SAH-producing bacteria reduced viable tissue to 9% of the original tumor volume. By inducing cell death, SAH moved the boundary of necrosis toward the tumor edge. SAH diffused 6.8 ± 0.3 µm into tissue, which increased the volume of affected tissue from 48.6 to 3,120 µm3. A mathematical model of molecular transport predicted that SAH efficacy is primarily dependent on colony size and the rate of protein production. As a payload protein, SAH will enable effective bacterial therapy because of its ability to diffuse in tissue, kill cells, and expand tumor necrosis. PMID:24590046

  20. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Quach, D T; Sakoulas, G; Nizet, V; Pogliano, J; Pogliano, K

    2016-02-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1-2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  1. Inability to sustain intraphagolysosomal killing of Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to bacterial persistence in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jubrail, Jamil; Morris, Paul; Bewley, Martin A.; Stoneham, Simon; Johnston, Simon A.; Foster, Simon J.; Peden, Andrew A.; Read, Robert C.; Marriott, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Macrophages are critical effectors of the early innate response to bacteria in tissues. Phagocytosis and killing of bacteria are interrelated functions essential for bacterial clearance but the rate‐limiting step when macrophages are challenged with large numbers of the major medical pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is unknown. We show that macrophages have a finite capacity for intracellular killing and fail to match sustained phagocytosis with sustained microbial killing when exposed to large inocula of S. aureus (Newman, SH1000 and USA300 strains). S. aureus ingestion by macrophages is associated with a rapid decline in bacterial viability immediately after phagocytosis. However, not all bacteria are killed in the phagolysosome, and we demonstrate reduced acidification of the phagolysosome, associated with failure of phagolysosomal maturation and reduced activation of cathepsin D. This results in accumulation of viable intracellular bacteria in macrophages. We show macrophages fail to engage apoptosis‐associated bacterial killing. Ultittop mately macrophages with viable bacteria undergo cell lysis, and viable bacteria are released and can be internalized by other macrophages. We show that cycles of lysis and reuptake maintain a pool of viable intracellular bacteria over time when killing is overwhelmed and demonstrate intracellular persistence in alveolar macrophages in the lungs in a murine model. PMID:26248337

  2. Blue Laser Inhibits Bacterial Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira Alves; Santos, Marcos Ferracioli; Gomes, Rosana Caetano; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Martinez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of blue laser on bacterial growth of the main species that usually colonize cutaneous ulcers, as well as its effect over time following irradiation. Background data: The use of blue laser has been described as an adjuvant therapeutic method to inhibit bacterial growth, but there is no consensus about the best parameters to be used. Methods: Strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were suspended in saline solution at a concentration of 1.5×103 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. Next, 300 μL of this suspension was transferred to a microtitulation plate and exposed to a single blue laser irradiation (450 nm) at fluences of 0 (control), 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 J/cm2. Each suspension was spread over the surface of a Petri plate before being incubated at 37°C, and counts of CFU were determined after 24 and 48 h. Results: Blue laser inhibited the growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at fluences >6 J/cm2. On the other hand, E. coli was inhibited at all fluences tested, except at 24 J/cm2. Conclusions: Blue laser light was capable of inhibiting bacterial growth at low fluences over time, thus presenting no time-dependent effect. PMID:25954830

  3. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quach, D.T.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V.; Pogliano, J.; Pogliano, K.

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  4. Ramoplanin at bactericidal concentrations induces bacterial membrane depolarization in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mu; Huang, Johnny X; Ramu, Soumya; Butler, Mark S; Cooper, Matthew A

    2014-11-01

    Ramoplanin is an actinomycetes-derived antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria that has been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile infections. Recent studies have proposed that ramoplanin binds to bacterial membranes as a C2 symmetrical dimer that can sequester Lipid II, which causes inhibition of cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell death. In this study, ramoplanin was shown to bind to anionic and zwitterionic membrane mimetics with a higher affinity for anionic membranes and to induce membrane depolarization of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 at concentrations at or above the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The ultrastructural effects of ramoplanin on S. aureus were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and this showed dramatic changes to bacterial cell morphology. The correlation observed between membrane depolarization and bacterial cell viability suggests that this mechanism may contribute to the bactericidal activity of ramoplanin. PMID:25182650

  5. Staphylococcus aureus: is it a pathogen of acute bacterial sinusitis in children and adults?

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2012-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the etiologic agents of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS). Staphylococcus aureus has been an uncommon cause of ABS despite its frequent occupancy within the anterior nares. A quantitative culture of a maxillary sinus aspirate is the gold standard for determining etiology of ABS. Cultures of the middle meatus cannot be used as a surrogate for a maxillary sinus aspirate in children with ABS, although they may be used in adults if interpretation is confined to usual sinus pathogens. Recent studies highlighting S. aureus as a major pathogen in ABS should be interpreted cautiously. Most isolates in recent pediatric studies were derived from cultures of the middle meatus. The range of reported results for the incidence of S. aureus as a cause of ABS in adults is similar to the results reported for staphylococcal colonization of the middle meatus in healthy adults.

  6. Influence of antibiotic pressure on bacterial bioluminescence, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; Harapanahalli, Akshay; Dijkstra, Rene J B; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2015-12-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is used for longitudinal evaluation of bacteria in live animals. Clear relations exist between bacterial numbers and their bioluminescence. However, bioluminescence images of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, S. aureus Xen36 and Escherichia coli Xen14 grown on tryptone soy agar in Etests demonstrated increased bioluminescence at sub-MICs of different antibiotics. This study aimed to further evaluate the influence of antibiotic pressure on bioluminescence in S. aureus Xen29. Bioluminescence of S. aureus Xen29, grown planktonically in tryptone soy broth, was quantified in the absence and presence of different concentrations of vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin or chloramphenicol and was related to expression of the luxA gene under antibiotic pressure measured using real-time PCR. In the absence of antibiotics, staphylococcal bioluminescence increased over time until a maximum after ca. 6h of growth, and subsequently decreased to the detection threshold after 24h of growth owing to reduced bacterial metabolic activity. Up to MICs of the antibiotics, bioluminescence increased according to a similar pattern up to 6h of growth, but after 24h bioluminescence was higher than in the absence of antibiotics. Contrary to expectations, bioluminescence per organism (CFU) after different growth periods in the absence and at MICs of different antibiotics decreased with increasing expression of luxA. Summarising, antibiotic pressure impacts the relation between CFU and bioluminescence. Under antibiotic pressure, bioluminescence is not controlled by luxA expression but by co-factors impacting the bacterial metabolic activity. This conclusion is of utmost importance when evaluating antibiotic efficacy in live animals using bioluminescent bacterial strains.

  7. Influence of antibiotic pressure on bacterial bioluminescence, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; Harapanahalli, Akshay; Dijkstra, Rene J B; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2015-12-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is used for longitudinal evaluation of bacteria in live animals. Clear relations exist between bacterial numbers and their bioluminescence. However, bioluminescence images of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, S. aureus Xen36 and Escherichia coli Xen14 grown on tryptone soy agar in Etests demonstrated increased bioluminescence at sub-MICs of different antibiotics. This study aimed to further evaluate the influence of antibiotic pressure on bioluminescence in S. aureus Xen29. Bioluminescence of S. aureus Xen29, grown planktonically in tryptone soy broth, was quantified in the absence and presence of different concentrations of vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin or chloramphenicol and was related to expression of the luxA gene under antibiotic pressure measured using real-time PCR. In the absence of antibiotics, staphylococcal bioluminescence increased over time until a maximum after ca. 6h of growth, and subsequently decreased to the detection threshold after 24h of growth owing to reduced bacterial metabolic activity. Up to MICs of the antibiotics, bioluminescence increased according to a similar pattern up to 6h of growth, but after 24h bioluminescence was higher than in the absence of antibiotics. Contrary to expectations, bioluminescence per organism (CFU) after different growth periods in the absence and at MICs of different antibiotics decreased with increasing expression of luxA. Summarising, antibiotic pressure impacts the relation between CFU and bioluminescence. Under antibiotic pressure, bioluminescence is not controlled by luxA expression but by co-factors impacting the bacterial metabolic activity. This conclusion is of utmost importance when evaluating antibiotic efficacy in live animals using bioluminescent bacterial strains. PMID:26526893

  8. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and analysis of associated bacterial communities on food industry surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J; García, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products.

  9. PHACOS, a functionalized bacterial polyester with bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Dinjaski, Nina; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Mar; Selvam, Shivaram; Parra-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Lehman, Susan M.; Román, Julio San; García, Ernesto; García, José L.; García, Andrés J.; Prieto, María Auxiliadora

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections represent a significant clinical problem, and treatment of these microbial infections is becoming troublesome due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Here, we report a naturally functionalized bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHACOS) with antibacterial properties. We demonstrate that PHACOS selectively and efficiently inhibits the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) both in vitro and in vivo. This ability has been ascribed to the functionalized side chains containing thioester groups. Significantly less (3.2-fold) biofilm formation of S. aureus was detected on PHACOS compared to biofilms formed on control poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) and poly(ethylene terephthalate), but no differences were observed in bacterial adhesion among these polymers. PHACOS elicited minimal cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on murine macrophages and supported normal fibroblast adhesion. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrated minimal inflammation and excellent antibacterial activity for PHACOS compared to controls in an in vivo model of implant-associated infection. Additionally, reductions in neutrophils and macrophages in the vicinity of sterile PHACOS compared to sterile PHO implant were observed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, a similar percentage of inflammatory cells was found in the tissue surrounding sterile PHACOS and S. aureus pre-colonized PHACOS implants, and these levels were significantly lower than S. aureus pre-colonized control polymers. These findings support a contact active surface mode of antibacterial action for PHACOS and establish this functionalized polyhydroxyalkanoate as an infection-resistant biomaterial. PMID:24094939

  10. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and Analysis of Associated Bacterial Communities on Food Industry Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products. PMID:23023749

  11. Lack of biofilm contribution to bacterial colonisation in an experimental model of foreign body infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Francois, Patrice; Tu Quoc, Patrick H; Bisognano, Carmelo; Kelley, William L; Lew, Daniel P; Schrenzel, Jacques; Cramton, Sarah E; Götz, Friedrich; Vaudaux, Pierre

    2003-03-20

    The contribution of in vivo biofilm-forming potential of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was studied in an experimental model of foreign body infections. Increasing inocula (from 10(2) to 10(7) organisms) of ica-positive strains of S. aureus and S. epidermidis and their ica-negative isogenic mutants (the ica locus codes for a major polysaccharide component of biofilm) were injected into subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in guinea pigs. Surprisingly, bacterial counts and time-course of tissue cage infection by ica-positive strains of S. aureus or S. epidermidis were equivalent to those of their respective ica-negative mutants, in the locally infected fluids and on tissue-cage-inserted plastic coverslips.

  12. Effects of temperature on the morphological, polymeric, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Leonid; Sturtevant, Rachael A; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J

    2015-02-17

    Changes in temperature were found to affect the morphology, cell viability, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms. S. epidermidis biofilms are commonly associated with hospital-acquired medical device infections. We observed the effect of heat treatment on three physical properties of the biofilms: the bacterial cell morphology and viability, the polymeric properties of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and the rheological properties of the bulk biofilm. After application of a 1 h heat treatment at 45 °C, cell reproduction had ceased, and at 60 °C, cell viability was significantly reduced. Size exclusion chromatography was used to fractionate the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) based on size. Chemical analysis of each fraction showed that the relative concentrations of the polysaccharide, protein, and DNA components of the EPS were unchanged by the heat treatment at 45 and 60 °C. The results suggest that the EPS molecular constituents are not significantly degraded by the temperature treatment. However, some aggregation on the scale of 100 nm was found by dynamic light scattering at 60 °C. Finally, relative to control biofilms maintained at 37 °C, we observed an order of magnitude reduction in the biofilm yield stress after 60 °C temperature treatment. No such difference was found for treatment at 45 °C. From these results, we conclude that the yield stress of bacterial biofilms is temperature-sensitive and that this sensitivity is correlated with cell viability. The observed significant decrease in yield stress with temperature suggests a means to weaken the mechanical integrity of S. epidermidis biofilms with applications in areas such as the treatment of biofilm-infected medical devices.

  13. Effects of temperature on the morphological, polymeric, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Leonid; Sturtevant, Rachael A; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J

    2015-02-17

    Changes in temperature were found to affect the morphology, cell viability, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms. S. epidermidis biofilms are commonly associated with hospital-acquired medical device infections. We observed the effect of heat treatment on three physical properties of the biofilms: the bacterial cell morphology and viability, the polymeric properties of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and the rheological properties of the bulk biofilm. After application of a 1 h heat treatment at 45 °C, cell reproduction had ceased, and at 60 °C, cell viability was significantly reduced. Size exclusion chromatography was used to fractionate the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) based on size. Chemical analysis of each fraction showed that the relative concentrations of the polysaccharide, protein, and DNA components of the EPS were unchanged by the heat treatment at 45 and 60 °C. The results suggest that the EPS molecular constituents are not significantly degraded by the temperature treatment. However, some aggregation on the scale of 100 nm was found by dynamic light scattering at 60 °C. Finally, relative to control biofilms maintained at 37 °C, we observed an order of magnitude reduction in the biofilm yield stress after 60 °C temperature treatment. No such difference was found for treatment at 45 °C. From these results, we conclude that the yield stress of bacterial biofilms is temperature-sensitive and that this sensitivity is correlated with cell viability. The observed significant decrease in yield stress with temperature suggests a means to weaken the mechanical integrity of S. epidermidis biofilms with applications in areas such as the treatment of biofilm-infected medical devices. PMID:25602470

  14. Nipple Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem including: Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Thrush (oral yeast infection) An allergic reaction (contact dermatitis) Local irritation ... Breast-feeding women with a previous history of yeast vaginitis or whose infants also use a bottle ...

  15. Zosteriform Staphylococcus aureus Cutaneous Infection: Report of Two Patients With Dermatomal Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Schepp, Elizabeth D; Cohen, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe cutaneous infections, which are zosteriform in distribution, including two patients with dermatomal Staphylococcus aureus infection. Herpes zoster infectious lesions usually occur in a dermatomal distribution. Other viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, can also appear with zosteriform lesions and closely mimic the clinical presentation of herpes zoster. Additionally, other skin infections, less commonly, are zosteriform. Two patients who developed zosteriform S aureus skin infection are described. A medical literature search for zosteriform dermatomal infections yielded other cutaneous infections with a zosteriform presentation. Two patients had S aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus infection with skin lesions occupying the T11-T12 dermatomes and the T4 dermatome, respectively. They responded to antibacterial agents and adjuvant therapy. Patients with viral, fungal, and spirochete zosteriform infections are summarized. In addition to varicella-zoster virus infection, zosteriform skin infection can occur with viral (varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus), superficial (dermatophyte), and deep (phaeohyphomycosis and zygomycosis) fungal, and bacterial (S aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus) infections. These infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a zosteriform infection that does not present with the classic clinical picture for herpes zoster or that does not respond to standard treatments for varicellazoster virus. PMID:26861424

  16. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress.

    PubMed

    Surdel, Matthew C; Dutter, Brendan F; Sulikowski, Gary A; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within the vertebrate host, S. aureus requires heme as a nutrient iron source and as a cofactor for multiple cellular processes. Although required for pathogenesis, excess heme is toxic. S. aureus employs a two-component system, the heme sensor system (HssRS), to sense and protect against heme toxicity. Upon activation, HssRS induces the expression of the heme-regulated transporter (HrtAB), an efflux pump that alleviates heme toxicity. The ability to sense and respond to heme is critical for the pathogenesis of numerous Gram-positive organisms, yet the mechanism of heme sensing remains unknown. Compound '3981 was identified in a high-throughput screen as an activator of staphylococcal HssRS that triggers HssRS independently of heme accumulation. '3981 is toxic to S. aureus; however, derivatives of '3981 were synthesized that lack toxicity while retaining HssRS activation, enabling the interrogation of the heme stress response without confounding toxic effects of the parent molecule. Using '3981 derivatives as probes of the heme stress response, numerous genes required for '3981-induced activation of HssRS were uncovered. Specifically, multiple genes involved in the production of nitric oxide were identified, including the gene encoding bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). bNOS protects S. aureus from oxidative stress imposed by heme. Taken together, this work identifies bNOS as crucial for the S. aureus heme stress response, providing evidence that nitric oxide synthesis and heme sensing are intertwined. PMID:27626297

  17. Paederus Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a peculiar, irritant contact dermatitis characterized by a sudden onset of erythematobullous lesions on exposed areas of the body. The disease is provoked by an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. This beetle does not bite or sting, but accidental brushing against or crushing the beetle over the skin provokes the release of its coelomic fluid, which contains paederin, a potent vesicant agent. This article describes this dermatitis, which occurred in three healthcare personnel aboard a medical mission boat on the Amazon River. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of paederus dermatitis is reviewed as well its treatment and prevention. PMID:22125660

  18. Perfume dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    1985-01-01

    The most common reaction to fragrance materials seen by practicing dermatologists is allergic contact dermatitis. Photodermatitis is occasionally seen, as is contact urticaria, irritation, and depigmentation. Fragrances are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics. The fragrance mixture can cause false-positive reactions; therefore, it is more desirable to test with a separate series of fragrance materials.

  19. Stoma dermatitis: prevalent but often overlooked.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shilpa; Ehrlich, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Peristomal dermatoses commonly afflict the area around stoma openings in ostomy patients. These complications, however, are often unreported by patients and remain untreated for years, thus affecting maintenance and recovery from the surgery. These dermatoses can have chemical, mechanical, irritant, bacterial, immunologic, or disease-related etiologies. Examples of common forms of dermatitis that occur peristomally include fecal or urine irritant contact dermatitis, chronic papillomatous dermatitis, mechanical dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. This article summarizes various skin irritations that can occur after an ostomy and also reviews previously published reports of peristomal allergic contact dermatitis. In addition, the clinical importance of identifying these dermatoses (most important, their effects on the patient's quality of life), risk factors for the skin irritations, the importance of patch testing, treatment of stoma dermatitis, and the importance of patient education and patient-doctor communication are also discussed.

  20. [Selected bacterial infections of the skin in childhood].

    PubMed

    Mempel, M; Schnopp, C

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial infections of the skin are often seen by dermatologists. The majority of infections are caused by the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. These induce blistering/erosive (impetigo, ecthymata) and abceeding (folliculitis) infections of the skin, respectively. Owing to their differences in virulence factors and host immunity, these strains can lead to varying presentations and courses of the infections. This review focuses on impetigo, folliculitis, perianal streptococcal dermatitis, and ecthymata. PMID:25783212

  1. Diffuse scaling dermatitis in an athymic nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Invernizzi, A; Gobbi, A; Radaelli, E

    2013-07-01

    This report describes the clinicopathological features of a case of diffuse scaling dermatitis that occurred in a 16-week-old female athymic nude (CrTac:NCr-Foxn1(nu)) mouse. Gross presentation was suggestive of Corynebacterium bovis infection (scaly skin disease). However, C. bovis was not isolated from the skin of the affected animal or from the skin of unaffected CrTac:NCr-Foxn1(nu) mice housed in the same cage or room. Staphylococcus xylosus was instead isolated in high numbers from the skin lesion, whereas only a few colonies were recovered from the skin of unaffected mice. Microscopically, the affected skin was characterized by chronic hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with focal ulcerations, extensive serocellular crusts, and intralesional clusters of Gram-positive coccoid bacteria. Although gross presentation of the reported case was suggestive of C. bovis infection, epidemiological, histopathological, and bacteriological findings definitively ruled out an outbreak of scaly skin disease. A diagnostic hypothesis of hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic dermatitis associated with opportunistic S. xylosus infection was formulated based on increased bacterial burden and presence of intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacteria.

  2. Nummular Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggers such as frequent bathing, irritating and drying soaps, and exposure to irritating fabrics such as wool. ... dermatitis. Moisturizing skin-care routines are essential. Non-soap cleansers, such as Cetaphil®, or moisturizing soaps, such ...

  3. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... red patches on the skin. The normal skin yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, lives in oil-rich skin regions ... due to the body's inflammatory response to the yeast found on the skin. Seborrheic dermatitis seems to ...

  4. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. This condition is known as steroid-induced rosacea. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp may include ... Information for Patients All About Rosacea Faces of Rosacea Treatment Photos Rosacea FAQ Management Options Medical Therapy When ...

  5. Effects of easy-to-perform procedures to reduce bacterial colonization with Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus on toothbrushes

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Annina; Schneider, Katja; Schlösser, Karolin; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F.; Frickmann, Hagen; Groß, Uwe; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that dental caries and periodontitis are the consequence of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the enamel surface. The continuous presence of bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface results in demineralization of the tooth enamel and induces an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding gums (gingivitis). The retention and survival of microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination especially for certain patients at risk for systemic infections originating from the oral cavity, e.g., after T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation. Thus, the effects of different decolonization schemes on bacterial colonization of toothbrushes were analyzed, in order to demonstrate their applicability to reduce the likelihood of (auto-)reinfections. Toothbrushes were intentionally contaminated with standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans or Staphylococcus aureus. Afterwards, the toothbrushes were exposed to rinsing under distilled water, rinsing and drying for 24 h, 0.2% chlorhexidine-based decolonization, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The remaining colony forming units were compared with freshly contaminated positive controls. Each experiment was nine-fold repeated. Bi-factorial variance analysis was performed; significance was accepted at P < 0.05. All tested procedures led to a significant reduction of bacteral colonization irrespective of the toothbrush model, the brush head type, or the acitivity state. Chlorhexidine-based decolonization was shown to be superior to rinsing and slightly superior to rinsing and drying for 24 h, while UV radiation was similarly effective as chlorhexidine. UV radiation was slightly less prone to species-dependent limitations of its decolonizing effects by bristle thickness of toothbrushes than chlorhexidin. Reduction of bacterial colonization of toothbrushes might reduce the risk of maintaining bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Accordingly, respective procedures are

  6. Bacterial interference among nasal inhabitants: eradication of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal cavities by artificial implantation of Corynebacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Y; Nakama, H; Agematsu, K; Uchida, M; Kawakami, Y; Abdul Fattah, A S; Maruchi, N

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the role of normal flora in the nares in preventing Staphylococcus aureus colonization, we conducted a replacement study in vivo. Staphylococcus epidermidis (rate of colonization: 100%), various species of corynebacteria (52.5%) and S. aureus (25.%) were the major bacterial inhabitants in the nares of 156 healthy volunteers. The low incidence of S. aureus colonization in the carriers with corynebacteria (8.5%), compared to non-carriers (44. 5%) indicated the possibility of competition for survival between S. aureus and corynebacteria. To confirm this hypothesis, we artificially implanted a strain of Corynebacterium sp (API Coryne bioprofile; 5100304), denoted as Co304 into the nares of 17 S. aureus carriers. S. aureus was completely eradicated in 71% of carriers by up to 15 inoculations of Co304. However, similar doses of 0.9% NaCl or S. epidermidis into the nares of 10 volunteers did not eradicate S. aureus. No bacteriocin-like activity against S. aureus was detectable, even after mitomycin C stimulation of Co304. Thus Co304 interfered with S. aureus by a different mechanism to a bacteriocin-like activity.

  7. Bacterial interference among nasal inhabitants: eradication of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal cavities by artificial implantation of Corynebacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Y; Nakama, H; Agematsu, K; Uchida, M; Kawakami, Y; Abdul Fattah, A S; Maruchi, N

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the role of normal flora in the nares in preventing Staphylococcus aureus colonization, we conducted a replacement study in vivo. Staphylococcus epidermidis (rate of colonization: 100%), various species of corynebacteria (52.5%) and S. aureus (25.%) were the major bacterial inhabitants in the nares of 156 healthy volunteers. The low incidence of S. aureus colonization in the carriers with corynebacteria (8.5%), compared to non-carriers (44. 5%) indicated the possibility of competition for survival between S. aureus and corynebacteria. To confirm this hypothesis, we artificially implanted a strain of Corynebacterium sp (API Coryne bioprofile; 5100304), denoted as Co304 into the nares of 17 S. aureus carriers. S. aureus was completely eradicated in 71% of carriers by up to 15 inoculations of Co304. However, similar doses of 0.9% NaCl or S. epidermidis into the nares of 10 volunteers did not eradicate S. aureus. No bacteriocin-like activity against S. aureus was detectable, even after mitomycin C stimulation of Co304. Thus Co304 interfered with S. aureus by a different mechanism to a bacteriocin-like activity. PMID:10662563

  8. Case report: Diaper dermatitis presenting as pustules.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ann T; Emerson, Ashley N; Wyatt, Julie P; Brodell, Robert T

    2014-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common dermatologic disorder of infancy. Its cause can often be determined clinically based on the clinical presentation. Primary diaper dermatitis is associated with irritants and spares the deep skin folds. Secondary diaper dermatitis is most often caused by Candida yeast overgrowth and typically presents as a well-defined area of beefy red erythema covering the diaper area and including the deep folds of skin with hallmark satellite pustules. Other causes include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, acrodermatitis enteropathica, allergic contact dermatitis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and, in the setting of a primarily pustular eruption, bacterial folliculitis. A simple potassium hydroxide preparation (KOH) can confirm the diagnosis of candida diaper dermatitis and guide proper treatment.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus Tissue Infection During Sepsis Is Supported by Differential Use of Bacterial or Host-Derived Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Francis

    2016-01-01

    To thrive in diverse environments, bacteria must shift their metabolic output in response to nutrient bioavailability. In many bacterial species, such changes in metabolic flux depend upon lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of enzyme complexes involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, glycine catabolism, and branched chain fatty acid biosynthesis. The requirement of lipoic acid for metabolic enzyme activity necessitates that bacteria synthesize the cofactor and/or scavenge it from environmental sources. Although use of lipoic acid is a conserved phenomenon, the mechanisms behind its biosynthesis and salvage can differ considerably between bacterial species. Furthermore, low levels of circulating free lipoic acid in mammals underscore the importance of lipoic acid acquisition for pathogenic microbes during infection. In this study, we used a genetic approach to characterize the mechanisms of lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage in the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and evaluated the requirements for both pathways during murine sepsis. We determined that S. aureus lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage genes exist in an arrangement that directly links redox stress response and acetate biosynthesis genes. In addition, we found that lipoic acid salvage is dictated by two ligases that facilitate growth and lipoylation in distinct environmental conditions in vitro, but that are fully compensatory for survival in vivo. Upon infection of mice, we found that de novo biosynthesis or salvage promotes S. aureus survival in a manner that depends upon the infectious site. In addition, when both lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage are blocked S. aureus is rendered avirulent, implying an inability to induce lipoic acid-independent metabolic programs to promote survival. Together, our results define the major pathways of lipoic acid biosynthesis and salvage in S. aureus and support the notion that bacterial nutrient acquisition schemes are instrumental

  10. Atopic dermatitis: allergic dermatitis or neuroimmune dermatitis?*

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil; Aidé, Márcia Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in knowledge of neurocellulars relations have provided new directions in the understanding and treatment of numerous conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is known that emotional, physical, chemical or biological stimuli can generate more accentuated responses in atopic patients than in non-atopic individuals; however, the complex network of control covered by these influences, especially by neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and their genetic relations, still keep secrets to be revealed. Itching and airway hyperresponsiveness, the main aspects of atopy, are associated with disruption of the neurosensory network activity. Increased epidermal innervation and production of neurotrophins, neuropeptides, cytokines and proteases, in addition to their relations with the sensory receptors in an epidermis with poor lipid mantle, are the aspects currently covered for understanding atopic dermatitis. PMID:27579744

  11. Atopic dermatitis: allergic dermatitis or neuroimmune dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil; Aidé, Márcia Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in knowledge of neurocellulars relations have provided new directions in the understanding and treatment of numerous conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is known that emotional, physical, chemical or biological stimuli can generate more accentuated responses in atopic patients than in non-atopic individuals; however, the complex network of control covered by these influences, especially by neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and their genetic relations, still keep secrets to be revealed. Itching and airway hyperresponsiveness, the main aspects of atopy, are associated with disruption of the neurosensory network activity. Increased epidermal innervation and production of neurotrophins, neuropeptides, cytokines and proteases, in addition to their relations with the sensory receptors in an epidermis with poor lipid mantle, are the aspects currently covered for understanding atopic dermatitis. PMID:27579744

  12. Antimicrobial proteins from snake venoms: direct bacterial damage and activation of innate immunity against Staphylococcus aureus skin infection.

    PubMed

    Samy, R P; Stiles, B G; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Chow, V T K

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against microbial diseases. Antimicrobial proteins produced by snake venoms have recently attracted significant attention due to their relevance to bacterial infection and potential development into new therapeutic agents. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major human pathogens causing a variety of infections involving pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, and skin lesions. With the recent emergence of methicillin (MRSA) and vancomycin (VRSA) resistance, S. aureus infection is a serious clinical problem that will have a grave socio-economic impact in the near future. Although S. aureus susceptibility to innate antimicrobial peptides has been reported recently, the protective effect of snake venom phospholipase A₂ (svPLA₂) proteins on the skin from S. aureus infection has been understudied. This review details the protective function of svPLA₂s derived from venoms against skin infections caused by S. aureus. We have demonstrated in vivo that local application of svPLA₂ provides complete clearance of S. aureus within 2 weeks after treatment compared to fusidic acid ointment (FAO). In vitro experiments also demonstrate that svPLA₂ proteins have inhibitory (bacteriostatic) and killing (bactericidal) effects on S. aureus in a dose-dependant manner. The mechanism of bacterial membrane damage and perturbation was clearly evidenced by electron microscopic studies. In summary, svPLA₂s from Viperidae and Elapidae snakes are novel molecules that can activate important mechanisms of innate immunity in animals to endow them with protection against skin infection caused by S. aureus.

  13. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  14. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Ulleryd, Marcus A.; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics, S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus. Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival. PMID:26857576

  15. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important.

  16. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. PMID:21882101

  17. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Syed Nurul Rasool; Raza, Naeem; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2006-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis, a type of irritant contact dermatitis attributed to a Staphylinid beetle, is prevalent in most parts of the world. We studied 50 cases of Paederus dermatitis at the United Nations Hospital at Koidu Sierra Leone (West Africa), over a period of 6 months from Oct 2003 to Mar 2004. The objectives of the study were to determine clinical patterns of dermatitis and its response to topical steroids, with and without antibiotics. Patients with a definite history of contact with the insect were included in the study. Amongst these, 14 of the more severe cases were treated with oral prednisolone or intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. The remainder of the 36 patients were divided in two equal groups A and B. Patients in Group A were treated with topical diflucortolone valerate 0.001 percent and oral cetirizine hydrochloride; patients in group B were given oral ciprofloxacin in addition. In 50 patients studied, 43 (86%) were males and 7 (14%) were females. The neck was the most common site involved followed by face. Healing time ranged from 14 to 28 days and lesions in all the patients healed with residual dyschromia. Healing time was shorter in Group B patients in comparison with those in Group A. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone is a relatively severe form of this dermatitis. The better response to a combination of topical steroids and oral antibiotics may indicate concurrent bacterial infection. PMID:17459295

  18. External Bacterial Flora and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Two Household Cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Menasria, Taha; Tine, Samir; Mahcene, Djaouida; Benammar, Leyla; Megri, Rochdi; Boukoucha, Mourad; Debabza, Manel

    2015-04-01

    A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of the external bacterial flora of two domestic cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis) collected from households in Tebessa (northeast Algeria). Three major bacterial groups were cultured (total aerobic, enterobacteria, and staphylococci) from 14 specimens of cockroaches, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested for both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas isolates. Culturing showed that the total bacterial load of cockroaches from different households were comparable (P<0.001) and enterobacteria were the predominant colonizers of the insect surface, with a bacterial load of (2.1 × 10⁵ CFU/insect), whereas the staphylococci group was the minority. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated, and susceptibility patterns showed that most of the staphylococci isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin, pristinamycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin; however, Pseudomonas strains exhibited resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, and the second-generation antibiotic cephalosporin cefuroxime.

  19. Seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 10% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation by still poorly defined mechanisms. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and body in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bifonazole, emollients, ketoconazole, lithium succinate, selenium sulphide, tar shampoo, terbinafine, and topical corticosteroids (betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, hydrocortisone, mometasone furoate). PMID:21418692

  20. Yuletide dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barkley, A

    1989-12-15

    An unwelcome aspect of the festive season is contact dermatitis. This may be a gift of cosmetics, jewellery or clothing, or may be food related. It is important to be aware of the possible causative agents as the mainstay of management is withdrawal.

  1. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, M.; Rai, Reena; Raj, Anju

    2012-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA) is a psychocutaneous disorder where the skin lesions are self self-induced to satisfy an unconscious psychological or emotional need. We report a case of DA where we video recorded the patient self-inducing the lesions. PMID:23130292

  2. Ceftaroline Fosamil for the Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Secondary to Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections or Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Jose A.; Maggiore, Christy R.; Cole, Phillip; Smith, Alexander; Jandourek, Alena; Friedland, H. David

    2015-01-01

    Background The Clinical Assessment Program and Teflaro® Utilization Registry is designed to collect information on the clinical use of ceftaroline fosamil in the Unites States. This report presents data on the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) secondary to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Methods Patients diagnosed with ABSSSI or CABP were identified through sequential review of randomly ordered charts generated from pharmacy listings from August 2011 to February 2013. Data were collected by chart review 30 days or more after completion of ceftaroline fosamil therapy. Results Secondary SAB was reported in a total of 48 of 1428 evaluable patients (27 with ABSSSI, 21 with CABP). The mean (SD) patient age was 61 (15) years. At least 1 comorbidity was recorded for 74% of patients with ABSSSI and 81% with CABP. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was isolated from 59% of patients with ABSSSI and 76% with CABP. The mean (SD) duration of ceftaroline fosamil therapy was 5.8 (4.8) days for ABSSSI and 7.0 (3.8) days for CABP. Clinical success among all patients with SAB treated with ceftaroline fosamil was 58% (52% for SAB secondary to ABSSSI, 67% for SAB secondary to CABP). Clinical success rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus SAB were 50% (8/16) for ABSSSI and 63% (10/16) for CABP. Conclusions This study supports the use of ceftaroline fosamil as a viable treatment option in hospitalized patients with SAB secondary to ABSSSI or CABP. Further studies evaluating the use of ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of SAB are warranted. PMID:25574117

  3. [Blister beetle dermatitis: Dermatitis linearis].

    PubMed

    Dieterle, R; Faulde, M; Erkens, K

    2015-05-01

    Several families of beetles cause toxic reactions on exposed human skin. Cantharidin provokes nearly asymptomatic vesicles and blisters, while pederin leads to itching and burning erythema with vesicles and small pustules, later crusts. Paederi are attracted by fluorescent light especially after rain showers and cause outbreaks in regions with moderate climate. Clinical findings and patient history lead to the diagnosis: dermatitis linearis.

  4. Malassezia dermatitis and otitis.

    PubMed

    Morris, D O

    1999-11-01

    The incidence of dermatitis and otitis resulting from overgrowth of M. pachydermatis is great enough that cytological sampling techniques should be considered a routine part of the dermatological examination. Because most cases of MD and Malassezia otitis cannot be grossly distinguished from bacterial pyoderma and otitis, respectively, efficiency in performing cytology testing of skin and ear canal exudate is essential to the successful diagnosis and management of pruritic skin diseases and otitis. Although Malassezia infections are rarely primary, therapy can be instituted to remove the yeast as a confounding factor while a differential diagnosis is pursued in evaluating the underlying disease process. PMID:10563001

  5. Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Two Independent Cases of Bacteremia Display Increased Bacterial Fitness and Novel Immune Evasion Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R. L.; Haigh, R. D.; Pascoe, B.; Sheppard, S. K.; Price, F.; Jenkins, D.; Rajakumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia cases are complicated by bacterial persistence and treatment failure despite the confirmed in vitro susceptibility of the infecting strain to administered antibiotics. A high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia cases are classified as persistent and are associated with poorer patient outcomes. It is still unclear how S. aureus evades the host immune system and resists antibiotic treatment for the prolonged duration of a persistent infection. In this study, the genetic changes and associated phenotypic traits specific to S. aureus persistent bacteremia were identified by comparing temporally dispersed isolates from persistent infections (persistent isolates) originating from two independent persistent S. aureus bacteremia cases with the initial infection isolates and with three resolved S. aureus bacteremia isolates from the same genetic background. Several novel traits were associated specifically with both independent sets of persistent S. aureus isolates compared to both the initial isolates and the isolates from resolved infections (resolved isolates). These traits included (i) increased growth under nutrient-poor conditions; (ii) increased tolerance of iron toxicity; (iii) higher expression of cell surface proteins involved in immune evasion and stress responses; and (iv) attenuated virulence in a Galleria mellonella larva infection model that was not associated with small-colony variation or metabolic dormancy such as had been seen previously. Whole-genome sequence analysis identified different single nucleotide mutations within the mprF genes of all the isolates with the adaptive persistence traits from both independent cases. Overall, our data indicate a novel role for MprF function during development of S. aureus persistence by increasing bacterial fitness and immune evasion. PMID:26056388

  6. Persistent Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two independent cases of bacteremia display increased bacterial fitness and novel immune evasion phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Richards, R L; Haigh, R D; Pascoe, B; Sheppard, S K; Price, F; Jenkins, D; Rajakumar, K; Morrissey, J A

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia cases are complicated by bacterial persistence and treatment failure despite the confirmed in vitro susceptibility of the infecting strain to administered antibiotics. A high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia cases are classified as persistent and are associated with poorer patient outcomes. It is still unclear how S. aureus evades the host immune system and resists antibiotic treatment for the prolonged duration of a persistent infection. In this study, the genetic changes and associated phenotypic traits specific to S. aureus persistent bacteremia were identified by comparing temporally dispersed isolates from persistent infections (persistent isolates) originating from two independent persistent S. aureus bacteremia cases with the initial infection isolates and with three resolved S. aureus bacteremia isolates from the same genetic background. Several novel traits were associated specifically with both independent sets of persistent S. aureus isolates compared to both the initial isolates and the isolates from resolved infections (resolved isolates). These traits included (i) increased growth under nutrient-poor conditions; (ii) increased tolerance of iron toxicity; (iii) higher expression of cell surface proteins involved in immune evasion and stress responses; and (iv) attenuated virulence in a Galleria mellonella larva infection model that was not associated with small-colony variation or metabolic dormancy such as had been seen previously. Whole-genome sequence analysis identified different single nucleotide mutations within the mprF genes of all the isolates with the adaptive persistence traits from both independent cases. Overall, our data indicate a novel role for MprF function during development of S. aureus persistence by increasing bacterial fitness and immune evasion.

  7. Bacteriophages of Staphylococcus aureus efficiently package various bacterial genes and mobile genetic elements including SCCmec with different frequencies.

    PubMed

    Mašlaňová, Ivana; Doškař, Jiří; Varga, Marian; Kuntová, Lucie; Mužík, Jan; Malúšková, Denisa; Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human and veterinary pathogen in which new strains with increasing virulence and antimicrobial resistance occur due to acquiring new genes by horizontal transfer. It is generally accepted that temperate bacteriophages play a major role in gene transfer. In this study, we proved the presence of various bacterial genes of the S. aureus COL strain directly within the phage particles via qPCR and quantified their packaging frequency. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed that transducing bacteriophages φ11, φ80 and φ80α of serogroup B, in contrast to serogroup A bacteriophage φ81, efficiently package selected chromosomal genes localized in 4 various loci of the chromosome and 8 genes carried on variable elements, such as staphylococcal cassette chromosome SCCmec, staphylococcal pathogenicity island SaPI1, genomic islands vSaα and vSaβ, and plasmids with various frequency. Bacterial gene copy number per ng of DNA isolated from phage particles ranged between 1.05 × 10(2) for the tetK plasmid gene and 3.86 × 10(5) for the SaPI1 integrase gene. The new and crucial finding that serogroup B bacteriophages can package concurrently ccrA1 (1.16 × 10(4)) and mecA (1.26 × 10(4)) located at SCCmec type I into their capsids indicates that generalized transduction plays an important role in the evolution and emergence of new methicillin-resistant clones.

  8. Mining the bacterial unknown proteome: identification and characterization of a novel family of highly conserved protective antigens in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schluepen, Christina; Malito, Enrico; Marongiu, Ambra; Schirle, Markus; McWhinnie, Elisabeth; Lo Surdo, Paola; Biancucci, Marco; Falugi, Fabiana; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Marchi, Sara; Fontana, Maria Rita; Lombardi, Benedetta; De Falco, Maria Grazia; Rinaudo, C Daniela; Spraggon, Glen; Nissum, Mikkel; Bagnoli, Fabio; Grandi, Guido; Bottomley, Matthew J; Liberatori, Sabrina

    2013-11-01

    In the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, there exists an enormous diversity of proteins containing DUFs (domains of unknown function). In the present study, we characterized the family of conserved staphylococcal antigens (Csa) classified as DUF576 and taxonomically restricted to Staphylococci. The 18 Csa paralogues in S. aureus Newman are highly similar at the sequence level, yet were found to be expressed in multiple cellular locations. Extracellular Csa1A was shown to be post-translationally processed and released. Molecular interaction studies revealed that Csa1A interacts with other Csa paralogues, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the same cellular process. The structures of Csa1A and Csa1B were determined by X-ray crystallography, unveiling a peculiar structure with limited structural similarity to other known proteins. Our results provide the first detailed biological characterization of this family and confirm the uniqueness of this family also at the structural level. We also provide evidence that Csa family members elicit protective immunity in in vivo animal models of staphylococcal infections, indicating a possible important role for these proteins in S. aureus biology and pathogenesis. These findings identify the Csa family as new potential vaccine candidates, and underline the importance of mining the bacterial unknown proteome to identify new targets for preventive vaccines.

  9. Microrheology of bacterial biofilms in vitro: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S S; van der Walle, C; Waigh, T A

    2008-12-01

    The rheology of bacterial biofilms at the micron scale is an important step to understanding the communal lifecycles of bacteria that adhere to solid surfaces, as it measures how they mutually adhere and desorb. Improvements in particle-tracking software and imaging hardware have allowed us to successfully employ particle-tracking microrheology to measuring single-species bacterial biofilms, based on Staphlococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By tracking displacements of the cells at a range of timescales, we separate active and thermal contributions to the cell motion. The S. aureus biofilms in particular show power-law rheology, in common with other dense colloidal suspensions. By calculating the mean compliance of S. aureus biofilms, we observe them becoming less compliant during growth, and more compliant during starvation. The biofilms are rheologically inhomogeneous on the micron scale, as a result of the strength of initial adhesion to the flow cell surface, the arrangement of individual bacteria, and larger-scale structures such as flocs of P. aeruginosa. Our S. aureus biofilms became homogeneous as a function of height as they matured: the rheological environment experienced by a bacterium became independent of how far it lived from the flow cell surface. Particle-tracking microrheology provides a quantitative measure of the "strength" of a biofilm. It may therefore prove useful in identifying drug targets and characterizing the effect of specific molecular changes on the micron-scale rheology of biofilms.

  10. DNA microarray analysis of Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infection: bacterial genes associated with mortality?

    PubMed

    Blomfeldt, A; Aamot, H V; Eskesen, A N; Monecke, S; White, R A; Leegaard, T M; Bjørnholt, J V

    2016-08-01

    Providing evidence for microbial genetic determinants' impact on outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SABSI) is challenging due to the complex and dynamic microbe-host interaction. Our recent population-based prospective study reported an association between the S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 30 genotype and mortality in SABSI patients. This follow-up investigation aimed to examine the genetic profiles of the SABSI isolates and test the hypothesis that specific genetic characteristics in S. aureus are associated with mortality. SABSI isolates (n = 305) and S. aureus CC30 isolates from asymptomatic nasal carriers (n = 38) were characterised by DNA microarray analysis and spa typing. Fisher's exact test, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and elastic net regressions were performed to discern within four groups defined by patient outcome and characteristics. No specific S. aureus genetic determinants were found to be associated with mortality in SABSI patients. By applying LASSO and elastic net regressions, we found evidence suggesting that agrIII and cna were positively and setC (=selX) and seh were negatively associated with S. aureus CC30 versus non-CC30 isolates. The genes chp and sak, encoding immune evasion molecules, were found in higher frequencies in CC30 SABSI isolates compared to CC30 carrier isolates, indicating a higher virulence potential. In conclusion, no specific S. aureus genes were found to be associated with mortality by DNA microarray analysis and state-of-the-art statistical analyses. The next natural step is to test the hypothesis in larger samples with higher resolution methods, like whole genome sequencing. PMID:27177754

  11. DNA microarray analysis of Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infection: bacterial genes associated with mortality?

    PubMed

    Blomfeldt, A; Aamot, H V; Eskesen, A N; Monecke, S; White, R A; Leegaard, T M; Bjørnholt, J V

    2016-08-01

    Providing evidence for microbial genetic determinants' impact on outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SABSI) is challenging due to the complex and dynamic microbe-host interaction. Our recent population-based prospective study reported an association between the S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 30 genotype and mortality in SABSI patients. This follow-up investigation aimed to examine the genetic profiles of the SABSI isolates and test the hypothesis that specific genetic characteristics in S. aureus are associated with mortality. SABSI isolates (n = 305) and S. aureus CC30 isolates from asymptomatic nasal carriers (n = 38) were characterised by DNA microarray analysis and spa typing. Fisher's exact test, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and elastic net regressions were performed to discern within four groups defined by patient outcome and characteristics. No specific S. aureus genetic determinants were found to be associated with mortality in SABSI patients. By applying LASSO and elastic net regressions, we found evidence suggesting that agrIII and cna were positively and setC (=selX) and seh were negatively associated with S. aureus CC30 versus non-CC30 isolates. The genes chp and sak, encoding immune evasion molecules, were found in higher frequencies in CC30 SABSI isolates compared to CC30 carrier isolates, indicating a higher virulence potential. In conclusion, no specific S. aureus genes were found to be associated with mortality by DNA microarray analysis and state-of-the-art statistical analyses. The next natural step is to test the hypothesis in larger samples with higher resolution methods, like whole genome sequencing.

  12. Dermatitis papulosa adultorum.

    PubMed

    Kraigher, O; Brenner, S

    2009-12-01

    Dermatitis papulosa juvenilis, also referred to as frictional lichenoid eruption, summertime lichenoid dermatitis of the elbows, Sutton's summer prurigo, recurrent papular eruption of childhood, and sandbox dermatitis, has been reported previously only in children. We describe three cases of DPJ in adults, which were confirmed by clinical and histology investigations. The term 'dermatitis papulosa adultorum' is suggested for this condition in adults.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus-Induced G2/M Phase Transition Delay in Host Epithelial Cells Increases Bacterial Infective Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Sintia; Legembre, Patrick; Edmond, Valérie; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Even, Sergine; Taieb, Frédéric; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration. PMID:23717407

  14. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, Ludmila; Rault, Lucie; Almeida, Sintia; Legembre, Patrick; Edmond, Valérie; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Even, Sergine; Taieb, Frédéric; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  15. Contact Dermatitis (Including Latex Dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient education: Contact dermatitis (including latex dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics) Authors ... defined as an inflammation of the skin [ 1 ]. Contact dermatitis refers to dermatitis that is caused by ...

  16. Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Yalçın; Wolf, Ronni; Bağlam, Süleyman; Engin, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial.

  17. Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Yalçın; Wolf, Ronni; Bağlam, Süleyman; Engin, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial. PMID:26051065

  18. Sofa dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schad, Karin; Nobbe, Stephan; French, Lars E; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    Furniture components can cause contact allergies. In the last years several cases of eczema after sofa contact have been reported. Typically the skin lesions develop on the back, the buttocks, the dorsal aspects of the thighs and arms and are often very resistant to topical corticoid therapy. Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is postulated to be the causative agent for this Type IV hypersensitivity reaction. DMF is an antimicrobial substance, which is used in asian upholstered furniture industry amongst others. We report the case of a 65-year old patient with generalised severely itching maculopapular, partly eczematous skin lesions on the buttocks, back, abdomen and arms. The resistance to therapy, several relapses after discharge from hospital as well as the detailed history lead us to the tentative diagnosis. The sofa dermatitis was proven by positive patch testing with furniture material and dimethylfumarate.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as “methicillin resistance to staphylococcus aureus” or “MRSA”. Other medications are available for treatment in this situation. What will a staph or MRSA skin infection look like? Staph bacterial infections, including ...

  20. Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Irritant Contact Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This ... severe involvement in the patient's armpit. Overview Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct ...

  1. [Contact dermatitis in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Niang, S O

    2007-01-01

    Because of the widespread repartition of allergens, allergic contact dermatitis is the most common inflammatory skin disease. It's the best model of dilated hypersensibility mediated by T lymphocytes cells. Atopic dermatitis and irritative dermatitis are to be distinguished to contact dermatitis. The aetiological diagnosis is the most important step of management of patients with that disease because it's the best way to avoid recurrences. The identification of cause is based on aetiological interrogatory and epicutaneous tests with 23 allergens completed with personnel products and specialised tests. Contact dermatitis can be classified according to results of aetiological management. In occupational contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis due to drugs, to metals, cosmetics, clothes and accessory and proteins. Management of patients with contact dermatitis is based on individual eviction, protection, cosmetovigilance, declaration of occupational dermatosis and allergovigilance. PMID:19102084

  2. Atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin disorder that can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals as well as their families. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood, it appears to result from the complex interplay between defects in skin barrier function, environmental and infectious agents, and immune abnormalities. There are no specific diagnostic tests for AD; therefore, the diagnosis is based on specific clinical criteria that take into account the patient’s history and clinical manifestations. Successful management of the disorder requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, optimal skin care practices, anti-inflammatory treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), the use of first-generation antihistamines to help manage sleep disturbances, and the treatment of skin infections. Systemic corticosteroids may also be used, but are generally reserved for the acute treatment of severe flare-ups. Topical corticosteroids are the first-line pharmacologic treatments for AD, and evidence suggests that these agents may also be beneficial for the prophylaxis of disease flare-ups. Although the prognosis for patients with AD is generally favourable, those patients with severe, widespread disease and concomitant atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are likely to experience poorer outcomes. PMID:22166055

  3. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. PMID:27517356

  4. Undetectable bacterial resistance to phage lytic proteins from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increase in antibiotic resistance world-wide revitalized the interest in the use of phage lysins to combat pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we tested for the emergence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus to any of three phage lytic proteins constructs. The investigated cell wall lytic enzymes w...

  5. Improving the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Ee Ting; Tidman, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis usually starts at puberty with a peak incidence at 40 years of age and is more common in males. Patients develop symmetrical, well demarcated, dull or yellowish red patches and plaques with overlying adherent, yellowish greasy scales. Seborrhoeic dermatitis has a distinctive distribution in areas rich in sebaceous glands - the scalp, eyebrows, glabella, nasolabial and nasofacial folds, cheeks, peri-auricular skin, pre-sternal and interscapular areas. It may occur in flexures, especially the axillae, groin, anogenital skin, infra-mammary skin and the umbilicus. Some patients may develop blepharitis with erythematous eyelids and destruction of eyelash follicles. Patients with HIV infection, neurological diseases, including parkinsonism and cranial nerve palsies, have a higher incidence of seborrhoeic dermatitis. Patients presenting with sudden onset severe seborrhoeic dermatitis should be screened for risk factors for HIV. Patients should be referred in the following situations: diagnostic uncertainty - consider other differential diagnoses; failure to respond to first-line treatment after four weeks - consider secondary changes e.g. bacterial infection, flexural intertrigo, lichenification, otitis externa; and severe/widespread disease. Patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis have a good prognosis, particularly infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, which usually remits within a few weeks or months and does not recur. PMID:24689165

  6. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  7. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals.

  8. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals. PMID:23445624

  9. Differential induction of innate defense antimicrobial peptides in primary nasal epithelial cells upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines, Th17 cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium from Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Burgey, Christine; Kern, Winfried V; Römer, Winfried; Rieg, Siegbert

    2016-01-01

    To date it is incompletely understood why half of the human population is intrinsically resistant to Staphylococcus aureus colonization whereas the other half is intermittently or permanently colonized. Nasal colonization represents the primary niche for S. aureus. We therefore investigated whether primary nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) express antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) upon stimulation by inflammatory cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium (BCM) of different colonizing and invasive staphylococci. Stimulation with classical cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ) potently induced hBD-3 and RNase7 in HNEC. Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22) yielded comparably weak hBD-3 and RNase7 induction and no synergistic effects with classical cytokines. BCM of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates moderately induced hBD3 and RNase7 mRNA expression without significant differences when comparing colonizing vs. invasive isolates. Our results indicate that HNEC contribute to the innate defense by secretion of an AMP-containing chemical defense shield along the nasal mucosa i.e. within the primary colonization niche of S. aureus. Further studies are needed to investigate whether a deficient AMP expression in the nasal mucosa may be related to different S. aureus carrier states. AMPs or AMP-inducing agents may be promising candidates for future topical decolonization regimens that aim to prevent invasive S. aureus infections.

  10. Contact dermatitis in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kockentiet, Brett; Adams, Brian B

    2007-06-01

    Athletes face numerous hazards in their daily activities. An athlete's skin, in particular, endures repeated exposure to trauma, heat, moisture, and numerous allergens and chemicals. These factors combine with other unique and less well-defined genetically predisposing factors in the athlete's skin to cause both allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). As with other cases of contact dermatitis, these eruptions in athletes present as a spectrum of acute to subacute to chronic dermatitis. Recognizing the unique environmental irritants and allergens encountered by athletes is paramount to facilitate appropriate therapy and prevention. This review comprehensively examines the literature on contact dermatitis in athletes. The different types of contact dermatitis have been classified under sport-specific subheadings. Furthermore, within each subheading, both ACD and ICD types are discussed.

  11. The Staphylococcus aureus ABC-Type Manganese Transporter MntABC Is Critical for Reinitiation of Bacterial Replication Following Exposure to Phagocytic Oxidative Burst

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Alison; Xu, Min; Phung, Qui; Cheung, Tommy K.; Bakalarski, Corey; Alexander, Mary Kate; Lehar, Sophie M.; Kim, Janice; Park, Summer; Tan, Man-Wah; Nishiyama, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Manganese plays a central role in cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, manganese acquisition is considered to be important for bacterial pathogenesis by counteracting the oxidative burst of phagocytic cells during host infection. However, detailed analysis of the interplay between bacterial manganese acquisition and phagocytic cells and its impact on bacterial pathogenesis has remained elusive for Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen. Here, we show that a mntC mutant, which lacks the functional manganese transporter MntABC, was more sensitive to killing by human neutrophils but not murine macrophages, unless the mntC mutant was pre-exposed to oxidative stress. Notably, the mntC mutant formed strikingly small colonies when recovered from both type of phagocytic cells. We show that this phenotype is a direct consequence of the inability of the mntC mutant to reinitiate growth after exposure to phagocytic oxidative burst. Transcript and quantitative proteomics analyses revealed that the manganese-dependent ribonucleotide reductase complex NrdEF, which is essential for DNA synthesis and repair, was highly induced in the mntC mutant under oxidative stress conditions including after phagocytosis. Since NrdEF proteins are essential for S. aureus viability we hypothesize that cells lacking MntABC might attempt to compensate for the impaired function of NrdEF by increasing their expression. Our data suggest that besides ROS detoxification, functional manganese acquisition is likely crucial for S. aureus pathogenesis by repairing oxidative damages, thereby ensuring efficient bacterial growth after phagocytic oxidative burst, which is an attribute critical for disseminating and establishing infection in the host. PMID:26379037

  12. The Staphylococcus aureus ABC-Type Manganese Transporter MntABC Is Critical for Reinitiation of Bacterial Replication Following Exposure to Phagocytic Oxidative Burst.

    PubMed

    Coady, Alison; Xu, Min; Phung, Qui; Cheung, Tommy K; Bakalarski, Corey; Alexander, Mary Kate; Lehar, Sophie M; Kim, Janice; Park, Summer; Tan, Man-Wah; Nishiyama, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Manganese plays a central role in cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, manganese acquisition is considered to be important for bacterial pathogenesis by counteracting the oxidative burst of phagocytic cells during host infection. However, detailed analysis of the interplay between bacterial manganese acquisition and phagocytic cells and its impact on bacterial pathogenesis has remained elusive for Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen. Here, we show that a mntC mutant, which lacks the functional manganese transporter MntABC, was more sensitive to killing by human neutrophils but not murine macrophages, unless the mntC mutant was pre-exposed to oxidative stress. Notably, the mntC mutant formed strikingly small colonies when recovered from both type of phagocytic cells. We show that this phenotype is a direct consequence of the inability of the mntC mutant to reinitiate growth after exposure to phagocytic oxidative burst. Transcript and quantitative proteomics analyses revealed that the manganese-dependent ribonucleotide reductase complex NrdEF, which is essential for DNA synthesis and repair, was highly induced in the mntC mutant under oxidative stress conditions including after phagocytosis. Since NrdEF proteins are essential for S. aureus viability we hypothesize that cells lacking MntABC might attempt to compensate for the impaired function of NrdEF by increasing their expression. Our data suggest that besides ROS detoxification, functional manganese acquisition is likely crucial for S. aureus pathogenesis by repairing oxidative damages, thereby ensuring efficient bacterial growth after phagocytic oxidative burst, which is an attribute critical for disseminating and establishing infection in the host.

  13. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load during Septic Staphylococcus aureus Infection and Improve Neutrophil Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Grahnemo, Louise; Pálsdóttir, Vilborg; Nookaew, Intawat; Wendt, Karl; Gabrielsson, Britt; Schéle, Erik; Benrick, Anna; Andersson, Niklas; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov

    2014-01-01

    Severe infection, including sepsis, is an increasing clinical problem that causes prolonged morbidity and substantial mortality. At present, antibiotics are essentially the only pharmacological treatment for sepsis. The incidence of resistance to antibiotics is increasing; therefore, it is critical to find new therapies for sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of septic mortality. Neutrophils play an important role in the defense against bacterial infections. We have shown that a diet with high levels of dietary saturated fatty acids decreases survival in septic mice, but the mechanisms behind this remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the differences in dietary fat composition affect survival and bacterial load after experimental septic infection and neutrophil function in uninfected mice. We found that, after S. aureus infection, mice fed a polyunsaturated high-fat diet (HFD-P) for 8 weeks had increased survival and decreased bacterial load during sepsis compared with mice fed a saturated high-fat diet (HFD-S), similar to mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Uninfected mice fed HFD-P had a higher frequency of neutrophils in bone marrow than mice fed HFD-S. In addition, mice fed HFD-P had a higher frequency of neutrophils recruited to the site of inflammation in response to peritoneal injection of thioglycolate than mice fed HFD-S. Differences between the proportion of dietary protein and carbohydrate did not affect septic survival at all. In conclusion, polyunsaturated dietary fat increased both survival and efficiency of bacterial clearance during septic S. aureus infection. Moreover, this diet increased the frequency and chemotaxis of neutrophils, key components of the immune response to S. aureus infections. PMID:25404025

  14. Whole metagenome profiling reveals skin microbiome-dependent susceptibility to atopic dermatitis flare.

    PubMed

    Chng, Kern Rei; Tay, Angeline Su Ling; Li, Chenhao; Ng, Amanda Hui Qi; Wang, Jingjing; Suri, Bani Kaur; Matta, Sri Anusha; McGovern, Naomi; Janela, Baptiste; Wong, Xuan Fei Colin C; Sio, Yang Yie; Au, Bijin Veonice; Wilm, Andreas; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Lim, Thiam Chye; Tang, Mark Boon Yang; Ginhoux, Florent; Connolly, John E; Lane, E Birgitte; Chew, Fook Tim; Common, John E A; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Whole metagenome analysis has the potential to reveal functional triggers of skin diseases, but issues of cost, robustness and sampling efficacy have limited its application. Here, we have established an alternative, clinically practical and robust metagenomic analysis protocol and applied it to 80 skin microbiome samples epidemiologically stratified for atopic dermatitis (AD). We have identified distinct non-flare, baseline skin microbiome signatures enriched for Streptococcus and Gemella but depleted for Dermacoccus in AD-prone versus normal healthy skin. Bacterial challenge assays using keratinocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells established distinct IL-1-mediated, innate and Th1-mediated adaptive immune responses with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial differences were complemented by perturbations in the eukaryotic community and functional shifts in the microbiome-wide gene repertoire, which could exacerbate a dry and alkaline phenotype primed for pathogen growth and inflammation in AD-susceptible skin. These findings provide insights into how the skin microbial community, skin surface microenvironment and immune system cross-modulate each other, escalating the destructive feedback cycle between them that leads to AD flare. PMID:27562258

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Enhances Bacterial Clearance and Limits Lung Consolidation in Murine Pneumonia Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Anne Jan; Achouiti, Achmed; van der Ende, Arie; Soussan, Aicha Ait; Florquin, Sandrine; de Vos, Alex; Zeerleder, Sacha S; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen in pneumonia associated with severe lung damage. Tissue injury causes release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which may perpetuate inflammation. DNA has been implicated as a DAMP that activates inflammation through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLR9 in MRSA pneumonia. Wild-type (Wt) and TLR9 knockout (tlr9−/−) mice were infected intranasally with MRSA USA300 (BK 11540) (5E7 CFU) and euthanized at 6, 24, 48 or 72 h for analyses. MRSA pneumonia was associated with profound release of cell-free host DNA in the airways, as reflected by increases in nucleosome and DNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), accompanied by transient detection of pathogen DNA in MRSA-free BALF supernatants. In BALF, as compared with Wt mice, tlr9−/− mice showed reduced tumor necrosis factor α and IL-6 levels at 6 h and reduced bacterial clearance at 6 and 24 h postinfection. Furthermore, tlr9−/− mice exhibited a greater influx of neutrophils in BALF and increased lung consolidation at 24 and 48 h. This study demonstrates the release of host- and pathogen-derived TLR9 ligands (DNA) into the alveolar space after infection with MRSA via the airways and suggests that TLR9 has proinflammatory effects during MRSA pneumonia associated with enhanced bacterial clearance and limitation of lung consolidation. PMID:27508882

  16. Complement regulator C4BP binds to Staphylococcus aureus surface proteins SdrE and Bbp inhibiting bacterial opsonization and killing☆

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Pamela S.; Foley, Caitlin K.; Krishna, Neel K.; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Foster, Timothy J.; Cunnion, Kenji M.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a premier human pathogen and the most common cause of osteoarticular, wound, and implanted device infections. We recently demonstrated S. aureus efficiently binds the classical complement regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP) inhibiting antibody-initiated complement-mediated opsonization. Here we identify S. aureus surface protein SdrE as a C4BP-binding protein. Recombinant SdrE and recombinant bone sialoprotein-binding protein (Bbp), an allelic variant of SdrE, both efficiently bound to C4BP in heat-inactivated human serum. We previously described SdrE as binding alternative pathway regulator factor H. Recombinant SdrE and Bbp efficiently bound C4BP and factor H in serum without apparent interference. Gain of function studies utilizing Lactococcus lactis clones expressing SdrE or Bbp increased serum C4BP and factor H binding, compared with empty-vector control (WT) approximately 2-fold. Correspondingly, classical pathway-mediated C3-fragment opsonization and bacterial killing by human neutrophils decreased by half for L. lactis clones expressing SdrE or Bbp compared with WT. In summary, we identify SdrE and allelic variant Bbp as S. aureus surface proteins that bind the complement regulator C4BP inhibiting classical pathway-mediated bacterial opsonization and killing. PMID:24600566

  17. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    PubMed

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils. PMID:27109773

  18. Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus abscess proteome identifies antimicrobial host proteins and bacterial stress responses at the host-pathogen interface

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Ahmed S.; Cassat, James E.; Aranmolate, Sheg O.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Abscesses are a hallmark of invasive staphylococcal infections and the site of a dynamic struggle between pathogen and host. However, the precise host and bacterial factors that contribute to abscess formation and maintenance have not been completely described. In this work, we define the Staphylococcus aureus abscess proteome from both wildtype and neutropenic mice to elucidate the host response to staphylococcal infection and uncover novel S. aureus virulence factors. Among the proteins identified, the mouse protein histone H4 was enriched in the abscesses of wildtype compared to neutropenic animals. Histone H4 inhibits staphylococcal growth in vitro demonstrating a role for this protein in the innate immune response to staphylococcal infection. These analyses also identified staphylococcal proteins within the abscess, including known virulence factors and proteins with previously unrecognized roles in pathogenesis. Within the latter group was the universal stress protein Usp2, which was enriched in kidney lesions from neutropenic mice and required for the S. aureus response to stringent stress. Taken together, these data describe the S. aureus abscess proteome and lay the foundation for the identification of contributors to innate immunity and bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:23847107

  19. [Advantan for therapy of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Beridze, L R; Zosidze, N R

    2009-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic skin disease characterized by dry, itchy and easily irritated skin. It occurs most commonly in infants and young children, but can persist into adulthood. Severe cases can lead to sleep deprivation, chronic bacterial infections, and depression. Along with other allergic diseases, its prevalence has grown significantly in recent years. Topical medicines are the most common and effective treatment for atopic dermatitis. Drugs taken orally and used to suppress the immune system have been converted into an ointment or cream. These topical immunosuppressive agents are being used now to treat eczema. Advantan (0.1% methylprednisolone aceponate) is indicated for the treatment of eczema and other inflammatory skin disorders as a highly effective topical corticosteroid. The effect of Advantan in the treatment of atopic dermatitis was studied. A clinical study of Advantan ointment involved 26 patients aged between 6 and 56 years with atopic dermatitis. Positive therapeutic effect was achieved in the overwhelming majority of the patients (n=25). It was concluded that Advantan ointment produced by Schering AC had marked antiinflammatory and antipruritic action. It was convenient to use and well tolerated by the patients. It is concluded that Advantan may be used for the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis.

  20. Contact dermatitis in Nigeria. (III). Dermatitis of the neck.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Y

    1987-09-01

    Out of 545 consecutive contact dermatitis clinic patients, 73 (13%) had dermatitis of the neck of whom 18 (25%) were nickel positive. 7 had clothing dermatitis and 3 of them reacted to chromate in military uniforms. 5 patients were sensitised to perfume and 4 to medicaments used to treat existing dermatitis. 3 patients were sensitised to hair dyes. Nickel dermatitis, was clinically overdiagnosed, mainly due (for various reasons) to inability to make a firm diagnosis of atopy.

  1. Transplantation of human skin microbiota in models of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Ian A.; Williams, Kelli W.; Reckhow, Jensen D.; Jammeh, Momodou L.; Pincus, Nathan B.; Sastalla, Inka; Saleem, Danial; Stone, Kelly D.; Datta, Sandip K.

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by reduced barrier function, reduced innate immune activation, and susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus. Host susceptibility factors are suggested by monogenic disorders associated with AD-like phenotypes and can be medically modulated. S. aureus contributes to AD pathogenesis and can be mitigated by antibiotics and bleach baths. Recent work has revealed that the skin microbiome differs significantly between healthy controls and patients with AD, including decreased Gram-negative bacteria in AD. However, little is known about the potential therapeutic benefit of microbiome modulation. To evaluate whether parameters of AD pathogenesis are altered after exposure to different culturable Gram-negative bacteria (CGN) collected from human skin, CGN were collected from healthy controls and patients with AD. Then, effects on cellular and culture-based models of immune, epithelial, and bacterial function were evaluated. Representative strains were evaluated in the MC903 mouse model of AD. We found that CGN taken from healthy volunteers but not from patients with AD were associated with enhanced barrier function, innate immunity activation, and control of S. aureus. Treatment with CGN from healthy controls improved outcomes in a mouse model of AD. These findings suggest that a live-biotherapeutic approach may hold promise for treatment of patients with AD. PMID:27478874

  2. Paederus dermatitis featuring chronic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, Andrija; Skerlev, Mihael; Culav-Košćak, Ivana; Kovačević, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a distinct variant of acute irritant contact dermatitis caused by mucocutaneous contact with the specific toxin of an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. It is characterized by the sudden onset of erythema and vesiculobullous lesions on exposed skin, with special predilection for the periorbital region. Paederus species have been mostly identified in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central/South America. We report a 51-year-old woman who experienced 4 recurrences of periorbital erythema and edema in the previous year. No consistent etiology could be established at the beginning. Only after taking a detailed medical history was it discovered that 1 year before our examination, the patient had traveled to Kenya, where she had experienced contact with the insect. This fact led us to the diagnosis of Paederus dermatitis. After appropriate treatment, a complete regression was observed over a 3-week period.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lever, R; Forsyth, A

    1992-01-01

    Of 73 adult patients attending a clinic specially provided to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, 31 (42%) showed one or more positive patch reaction on contact testing. There was a striking female preponderance in the patch test positive group (26F:5M) in contrast to those with negative test results (9F:17M). The commonest allergens identified were fragrances in 13 patients, nickel (7), rubber (5), lanolin (4) and formaldehyde (3). In 21 patients, topical preparations, cosmetic or medically prescribed, could be implicated. Contact sensitivity seems to be relatively common in adult patients who have a continuing problem with their atopic dermatitis. Recognizing this sensitization may be important in their management.

  4. Identification of vaccine candidate antigens of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by whole proteome characterization and serological proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Couto, Natacha; Martins, Joana; Lourenço, Ana Mafalda; Pomba, Constança; Varela Coelho, Ana

    2016-02-01

    The recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) has complicated considerably the treatment of infections caused by these bacteria. Therefore new treatment strategies are urgently needed, namely through the development of vaccines towards the control of bacterial infections. Our study describes an extensive characterization of the proteome of S. pseudintermedius through a 2-DE MALDI-TOF/TOF approach, followed by SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) to identify potential vaccine candidate antigens. We were able to identify 361 unique proteins, of which 39 are surface proteins. In order to assess the immunogenic potential of S. pseudintermedius proteins, a Western blot analysis of two-dimensional gels was carried out with serum from healthy dogs, dogs with atopic dermatitis infected and not infected with S. pseudintermedius. Only immunogenic areas detected by ≥ 50% of the dogs with atopic dermatitis infected with S. pseudintermedius sera and by <50% of the healthy dogs sera were excised and identified from Coomassie-colloidal stained gels. The areas identified by IgE were not considered as vaccine targets, because those proteins could induce hypersensitivity. We were able to identify 13 unique proteins after in-gel digestion of selected protein gel spots, with 4 antigenic proteins showing promising features for vaccine development. No specific antibodies were identified in the dogs with atopic dermatitis not infected with S. pseudintermedius sera that could contribute to prevention of infection. The SERPA approach employed in this study revealed novel candidate therapeutic targets for the control of S. pseudintermedius infections. PMID:26721443

  5. Identification of vaccine candidate antigens of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by whole proteome characterization and serological proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Couto, Natacha; Martins, Joana; Lourenço, Ana Mafalda; Pomba, Constança; Varela Coelho, Ana

    2016-02-01

    The recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) has complicated considerably the treatment of infections caused by these bacteria. Therefore new treatment strategies are urgently needed, namely through the development of vaccines towards the control of bacterial infections. Our study describes an extensive characterization of the proteome of S. pseudintermedius through a 2-DE MALDI-TOF/TOF approach, followed by SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) to identify potential vaccine candidate antigens. We were able to identify 361 unique proteins, of which 39 are surface proteins. In order to assess the immunogenic potential of S. pseudintermedius proteins, a Western blot analysis of two-dimensional gels was carried out with serum from healthy dogs, dogs with atopic dermatitis infected and not infected with S. pseudintermedius. Only immunogenic areas detected by ≥ 50% of the dogs with atopic dermatitis infected with S. pseudintermedius sera and by <50% of the healthy dogs sera were excised and identified from Coomassie-colloidal stained gels. The areas identified by IgE were not considered as vaccine targets, because those proteins could induce hypersensitivity. We were able to identify 13 unique proteins after in-gel digestion of selected protein gel spots, with 4 antigenic proteins showing promising features for vaccine development. No specific antibodies were identified in the dogs with atopic dermatitis not infected with S. pseudintermedius sera that could contribute to prevention of infection. The SERPA approach employed in this study revealed novel candidate therapeutic targets for the control of S. pseudintermedius infections.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against accumulation-associated protein affect EPS biosynthesis and enhance bacterial accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Tao; Lou, Qiang; Wang, Xueqin; Wu, Yang; Huang, Renzheng; Liu, Jingran; Liu, Huayong; Yu, Fangyou; Ding, Baixing; Huang, Yalin; Tong, Wenyan; Qu, Di

    2011-01-01

    Because there is no effective antibiotic to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infections that lead to the failure of medical device implantations, the development of anti-biofilm vaccines is necessary. Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis requires accumulation-associated protein (Aap) that contains sequence repeats known as G5 domains, which are responsible for the Zn(2+)-dependent dimerization of Aap to mediate intercellular adhesion. Antibodies against Aap have been reported to inhibit biofilm accumulation. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the Aap C-terminal single B-repeat construct followed by the 79-aa half repeat (AapBrpt1.5) were generated. MAb(18B6) inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis RP62A to 60% of the maximum, while MAb(25C11) and MAb(20B9) enhanced biofilm accumulation. All three MAbs aggregated the planktonic bacteria to form visible cell clusters. Epitope mapping revealed that the epitope of MAb(18B6), which recognizes an identical area within AapBrpt constructs from S. epidermidis RP62A, was not shared by MAb(25C11) and MAb(20B9). Furthermore, all three MAbs were found to affect both Aap expression and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, including extracellular DNA and PIA) biosynthesis in S. epidermidis and enhance the cell accumulation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of staphylococcal biofilm formation and will help to develop epitope-peptide vaccines against staphylococcal infections.

  7. Intracellular replication of Staphylococcus aureus in mature phagolysosomes in macrophages precedes host cell death, and bacterial escape and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Flannagan, Ronald S; Heit, Bryan; Heinrichs, David E

    2016-04-01

    The success of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen is partly attributable to its ability to thwart host innate immune responses, which includes resisting the antimicrobial functions of phagocytes. Here, we have studied the interaction of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain USA300 with murine RAW 264.7 and primary human macrophages using molecular imaging and single cell analysis to obtain an unprecedented understanding of the interaction between the macrophage and MRSA. Herein we demonstrate that macrophages fail to control intracellular infection by MRSA USA300 despite trafficking the bacteria into mature phagolysosomes. Using fluorescence-based proliferation assays we also show that intracellular staphylococci proliferate and that replication commences while the bacteria are residing in mature phagolysosomes hours after initial phagocytosis. Finally, live-cell fluorescence video microscopy allowed for unprecedented visual insight into the escape of MRSA from macrophages, demonstrating that the macrophages die through a pathway characterized by membrane blebbing and activation of caspase-3 followed by acquisition of the vital dye propidium iodide. Moreover, cell death precedes the emergence of MRSA from infected macrophages, and these events can be ablated by prolonged exposure of infected phagocytes to gentamicin. PMID:26408990

  8. Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations.

    PubMed

    Hulterström, Anna Karin; Sellin, Mats; Monsen, Tor; Widerström, Micael; Gurram, Bharath Kumar; Berggren, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p < 0.0001) in the patients (88%) compared to a control group (13%). Corynebacterium spp. and Propionibacterium spp. were significantly more frequently identified in the control group. The PFGE analysis of S. aureus strains revealed a high genetic heterogeneity and no specific S. aureus genotypes were associated with septal perforation. PMID:26852671

  9. Activation of TLR2 by a small molecule produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis increases antimicrobial defense against bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yuping; Cogen, Anna L; Radek, Katherine A; Park, Hyun Jeong; Macleod, Daniel T; Leichtle, Anke; Ryan, Allen F; Di Nardo, Anna; Gallo, Richard L

    2010-09-01

    Production of antimicrobial peptides by epithelia is an essential defense against infectious pathogens. In this study we evaluated whether the commensal microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis may enhance production of antimicrobial peptides by keratinocytes and thus augment skin defense against infection. Exposure of cultured undifferentiated human keratinocytes to a sterile nontoxic small molecule of <10 kDa from S. epidermidis conditioned culture medium (SECM), but not similar preparations from other bacteria, enhanced human beta-defensin 2 (hBD2) and hBD3 mRNA expression and increased the capacity of cell lysates to inhibit the growth of group A Streptococcus (GAS) and S. aureus. Partial gene silencing of hBD3 inhibited this antimicrobial action. This effect was relevant in vivo as administration of SECM to mice decreased susceptibility to infection by GAS. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was important to this process as a TLR2-neutralizing antibody blocked induction of hBDs 2 and 3, and Tlr2-deficient mice did not show induction of mBD4. Taken together, these findings reveal a potential use for normal commensal bacterium S. epidermidis to activate TLR2 signaling and induce antimicrobial peptide expression, thus enabling the skin to mount an enhanced response to pathogens. PMID:20463690

  10. PLANT DERMATITIS: ASIAN PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Goon, Anthony Teik Jin; Goh, Chee Leok

    2011-01-01

    Occupational and recreational plant exposure on the skin is fairly common. Plant products and extracts are commonly used and found extensively in the environment. Adverse reactions to plants and their products are also fairly common. However, making the diagnosis of contact dermatitis from plants and plant extracts is not always simple and straightforward. Phytodermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by a plant. The clinical patterns may be allergic phytodermatitis, photophytodermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, pharmacological injury, and mechanical injury. In this article, we will focus mainly on allergy contact dermatitis from plants or allergic phytodermatitis occurring in Asia. PMID:22345775

  11. Staphylococcus intermedius binding to immobilized fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Nuttall, Tim; Fazakerley, Jennie; McEwan, Neil

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial adhesion is a key step in colonization of the skin. Staphylococcus intermedius adheres strongly to canine and feline corneocytes, and adhesion is greater to corneocytes from dogs affected with atopic dermatitis, but comparatively little is known about adhesion-receptor interaction compared to S. aureus. The aim of this study was to compare the binding of S. intermedius isolates from healthy (n = 21) and atopic dogs (n = 33) to immobilized human fibronectin and epidermal cytokeratin and canine fibrinogen in vitro. Staphylococcus intermedius and the positive control S. aureus P1 exhibited concentration-dependent binding to all three protein layers. The negative control S. aureus Newman strain and S. hominis did not bind. The majority of S. intermedius isolates adhered strongly, and there was no significant difference between isolates from atopic and healthy dogs or from lesional or nonlesional skin of atopic dogs (fibronectin P = 0.971 and 0.837; fibrinogen P = 0.811 and 0.564; cytokeratin P = 0.409 and 0.564). These results suggest that S. intermedius may possess specific microbial components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules, like S. aureus, that bind to the substrates used in this study. Adherence and therefore colonization and infection in canine atopic dermatitis, however, are more likely to be related to host factors rather than the possession of specific virulence factors.

  12. Fructose transport-deficient Staphylococcus aureus reveals important role of epithelial glucose transporters in limiting sugar-driven bacterial growth in airway surface liquid.

    PubMed

    Garnett, James P; Braun, Daniela; McCarthy, Alex J; Farrant, Matthew R; Baker, Emma H; Lindsay, Jodi A; Baines, Deborah L

    2014-12-01

    Hyperglycaemia as a result of diabetes mellitus or acute illness is associated with increased susceptibility to respiratory infection with Staphylococcus aureus. Hyperglycaemia increases the concentration of glucose in airway surface liquid (ASL) and promotes the growth of S. aureus in vitro and in vivo. Whether elevation of other sugars in the blood, such as fructose, also results in increased concentrations in ASL is unknown and whether sugars in ASL are directly utilised by S. aureus for growth has not been investigated. We obtained mutant S. aureus JE2 strains with transposon disrupted sugar transport genes. NE768(fruA) exhibited restricted growth in 10 mM fructose. In H441 airway epithelial-bacterial co-culture, elevation of basolateral sugar concentration (5-20 mM) increased the apical growth of JE2. However, sugar-induced growth of NE768(fruA) was significantly less when basolateral fructose rather than glucose was elevated. This is the first experimental evidence to show that S. aureus directly utilises sugars present in the ASL for growth. Interestingly, JE2 growth was promoted less by glucose than fructose. Net transepithelial flux of D-glucose was lower than D-fructose. However, uptake of D-glucose was higher than D-fructose across both apical and basolateral membranes consistent with the presence of GLUT1/10 in the airway epithelium. Therefore, we propose that the preferential uptake of glucose (compared to fructose) limits its accumulation in ASL. Pre-treatment with metformin increased transepithelial resistance and reduced the sugar-dependent growth of S. aureus. Thus, epithelial paracellular permeability and glucose transport mechanisms are vital to maintain low glucose concentration in ASL and limit bacterial nutrient sources as a defence against infection.

  13. Bacterial Hypoxic Responses Revealed as Critical Determinants of the Host-Pathogen Outcome by TnSeq Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Invasive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Aimee D.; Snyder, Daniel J.; Putnam, Nicole E.; Valentino, Michael D.; Hammer, Neal D.; Lonergan, Zachery R.; Hinger, Scott A.; Aysanoa, Esar E.; Blanchard, Catlyn; Dunman, Paul M.; Wasserman, Gregory A.; Chen, John; Shopsin, Bo; Gilmore, Michael S.; Skaar, Eric P.; Cassat, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of infecting nearly every organ in the human body. In order to infiltrate and thrive in such diverse host tissues, staphylococci must possess remarkable flexibility in both metabolic and virulence programs. To investigate the genetic requirements for bacterial survival during invasive infection, we performed a transposon sequencing (TnSeq) analysis of S. aureus during experimental osteomyelitis. TnSeq identified 65 genes essential for staphylococcal survival in infected bone and an additional 148 mutants with compromised fitness in vivo. Among the loci essential for in vivo survival was SrrAB, a staphylococcal two-component system previously reported to coordinate hypoxic and nitrosative stress responses in vitro. Healthy bone is intrinsically hypoxic, and intravital oxygen monitoring revealed further decreases in skeletal oxygen concentrations upon S. aureus infection. The fitness of an srrAB mutant during osteomyelitis was significantly increased by depletion of neutrophils, suggesting that neutrophils impose hypoxic and/or nitrosative stresses on invading bacteria. To more globally evaluate staphylococcal responses to changing oxygenation, we examined quorum sensing and virulence factor production in staphylococci grown under aerobic or hypoxic conditions. Hypoxic growth resulted in a profound increase in quorum sensing-dependent toxin production, and a concomitant increase in cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Moreover, aerobic growth limited quorum sensing and cytotoxicity in an SrrAB-dependent manner, suggesting a mechanism by which S. aureus modulates quorum sensing and toxin production in response to environmental oxygenation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that bacterial hypoxic responses are key determinants of the staphylococcal-host interaction. PMID:26684646

  14. Superimposed MRSA infection of vulvar eczematous dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Erin; Zedek, Daniel; Lewis, Jasmine; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulvar eczematous dermatitis predisposes patients to superimposed infections, which may result in late diagnosis and architectural destruction. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is on the rise in genitalia and lower extremities. Case 44 year-old female presented with recurrent vulvar lesions and pain. A diagnosis of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus in the setting of eczema was achieved with concomitant use of photography and dermatopathologic review. Antibiotics were tailored to the resistant infection and preventative moisturization therapy was utilized. Conclusion Awareness of dermatologic conditions affecting the vulva is principal in routine gynecologic care. Barrier protection of eczematous vulvar skin may prevent superficial infections. The regular use of photographic documentation and dermatopathology may decrease time to diagnosis with infrequent conditions. PMID:23763013

  15. Interferon-γ enhances both the anti-bacterial and the pro-inflammatory response of human mast cells to Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Swindle, Emily J; Brown, Jared M; Rådinger, Madeleine; DeLeo, Frank R; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2015-11-01

    Human mast cells (huMCs) are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses where they release mediators including amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), eicosanoids and cytokines. We have reported that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enhances FcγR-dependent ROS production. The aim of this study was to extend these observations by investigating the effect of IFN-γ on the biological responses of huMCs to Staphylococcus aureus. We found that exposure of huMCs to S. aureus generated intracellular and extracellular ROS, which were enhanced in the presence of IFN-γ. IFN-γ also promoted bacteria killing, β-hexosaminidase release and eicosanoid production. Interferon-γ similarly increased expression of mRNAs encoding CCL1 to CCL4, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumour necrosis factor-α and CXCL8 in S. aureus-stimulated huMCs. The ability of IFN-γ to increase CXCL8 and GM-CSF protein levels was confirmed by ELISA. Fibronectin or a β1 integrin blocking antibody completely abrogated IFN-γ-dependent S. aureus binding and reduced S. aureus-dependent CXCL8 secretion. These data demonstrate that IFN-γ primes huMCs for enhanced anti-bacterial and pro-inflammatory responses to S. aureus, partially mediated by β1 integrin.

  16. Staphylococcus epidermidis SrrAB Regulates Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Formation Differently under Oxic and Microaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Youcong; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Tao; Han, Haiyan; Liu, Huayong; Xu, Tao; Francois, Patrice; Fischer, Adrien; Bai, Li; Götz, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    SrrAB expression in Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 1457 (SE1457) was upregulated during a shift from oxic to microaerobic conditions. An srrA deletion (ΔsrrA) mutant was constructed for studying the regulatory function of SrrAB. The deletion resulted in retarded growth and abolished biofilm formation both in vitro and in vivo and under both oxic and microaerobic conditions. Associated with the reduced biofilm formation, the ΔsrrA mutant produced much less polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) and showed decreased initial adherence capacity. Microarray analysis showed that the srrA mutation affected transcription of 230 genes under microaerobic conditions, and 51 genes under oxic conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed this observation and showed downregulation of genes involved in maintaining the electron transport chain by supporting cytochrome and quinol-oxidase assembly (e.g., qoxB and ctaA) and in anaerobic metabolism (e.g., pflBA and nrdD). In the ΔsrrA mutant, the expression of the biofilm formation-related gene icaR was upregulated under oxic conditions and downregulated under microaerobic conditions, whereas icaA was downregulated under both conditions. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay further revealed that phosphorylated SrrA bound to the promoter regions of icaR, icaA, qoxB, and pflBA, as well as its own promoter region. These findings demonstrate that in S. epidermidis SrrAB is an autoregulator and regulates biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner. Under oxic conditions, SrrAB modulates electron transport chain activity by positively regulating qoxBACD transcription. Under microaerobic conditions, it regulates fermentation processes and DNA synthesis by modulating the expression of both the pfl operon and nrdDG. PMID:25404696

  17. Contribution of mammary epithelial cells to the immune response during early stages of a bacterial infection to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To differentiate between the contribution of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and infiltrating immune cells to gene expression profiles of mammary tissue during early stage mastitis, we investigated in goats the in vivo transcriptional response of MEC to an experimental intra mammary infection (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus, using a non-invasive RNA sampling method from milk fat globules (MFG). Microarrays were used to record gene expression patterns during the first 24 hours post-infection (hpi). This approach was combined with laser capture microdissection of MEC from frozen slides of mammary tissue to analyze some relevant genes at 30 hpi. During the early stages post-inoculation, MEC play an important role in the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells through the IL-8 signalling pathway and initiate a sharp induction of innate immune genes predominantly associated with the pro-inflammatory response. At 30 hpi, MEC express genes encoding different acute phase proteins, including SAA3, SERPINA1 and PTX3 and factors, such as S100A12, that contribute directly to fighting the infection. No significant change in the expression of genes encoding caseins was observed until 24 hpi, thus validating our experimental model to study early stages of infection before the occurrence of tissue damage, since the milk synthesis function is still operative. This is to our knowledge the first report showing in vivo, in goats, how MEC orchestrate the innate immune response to an IMI challenge with S. aureus. Moreover, the non-invasive sampling method of mammary representative RNA from MFG provides a valuable tool to easily follow the dynamics of gene expression in MEC to search for sensitive biomarkers in milk for early detection of mastitis and therefore, to successfully improve the treatment and thus animal welfare. PMID:24521038

  18. Antibiotic reduction campaigns do not necessarily decrease bacterial resistance: the example of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kardas-Sloma, Lidia; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Opatowski, Lulla; Guillemot, Didier; Temime, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Interventions designed to reduce antibiotic consumption are under way worldwide. While overall reductions are often achieved, their impact on the selection of antibiotic-resistant selection cannot be assessed accurately from currently available data. We developed a mathematical model of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) transmission inside and outside the hospital. A systematic simulation study was then conducted with two objectives: to assess the impact of antibiotic class-specific changes during an antibiotic reduction period and to investigate the interactions between antibiotic prescription changes in the hospital and the community. The model reproduced the overall reduction in MRSA frequency in French intensive-care units (ICUs) with antibiotic consumption in France from 2002 to 2003 as an input. However, the change in MRSA frequency depended on which antibiotic classes changed the most, with the same overall 10% reduction in antibiotic use over 1 year leading to anywhere between a 69% decrease and a 52% increase in MRSA frequency in ICUs and anywhere between a 37% decrease and a 46% increase in the community. Furthermore, some combinations of antibiotic prescription changes in the hospital and the community could act in a synergistic or antagonistic way with regard to overall MRSA selection. This study shows that class-specific changes in antibiotic use, rather than overall reductions, need to be considered in order to properly anticipate the impact of an antibiotic reduction campaign. It also highlights the fact that optimal gains will be obtained by coordinating interventions in hospitals and in the community, since the effect of an intervention in a given setting may be strongly affected by exogenous factors.

  19. Staphylococcus epidermidis SrrAB regulates bacterial growth and biofilm formation differently under oxic and microaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Youcong; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Tao; Han, Haiyan; Liu, Huayong; Xu, Tao; Francois, Patrice; Fischer, Adrien; Bai, Li; Götz, Friedrich; Qu, Di

    2015-02-01

    SrrAB expression in Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 1457 (SE1457) was upregulated during a shift from oxic to microaerobic conditions. An srrA deletion (ΔsrrA) mutant was constructed for studying the regulatory function of SrrAB. The deletion resulted in retarded growth and abolished biofilm formation both in vitro and in vivo and under both oxic and microaerobic conditions. Associated with the reduced biofilm formation, the ΔsrrA mutant produced much less polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) and showed decreased initial adherence capacity. Microarray analysis showed that the srrA mutation affected transcription of 230 genes under microaerobic conditions, and 51 genes under oxic conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed this observation and showed downregulation of genes involved in maintaining the electron transport chain by supporting cytochrome and quinol-oxidase assembly (e.g., qoxB and ctaA) and in anaerobic metabolism (e.g., pflBA and nrdD). In the ΔsrrA mutant, the expression of the biofilm formation-related gene icaR was upregulated under oxic conditions and downregulated under microaerobic conditions, whereas icaA was downregulated under both conditions. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay further revealed that phosphorylated SrrA bound to the promoter regions of icaR, icaA, qoxB, and pflBA, as well as its own promoter region. These findings demonstrate that in S. epidermidis SrrAB is an autoregulator and regulates biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner. Under oxic conditions, SrrAB modulates electron transport chain activity by positively regulating qoxBACD transcription. Under microaerobic conditions, it regulates fermentation processes and DNA synthesis by modulating the expression of both the pfl operon and nrdDG.

  20. A noninferiority clinical trial comparing fluconazole and ketoconazole in combination with cephalexin for the treatment of dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sickafoose, L; Hosgood, G; Snook, T; Westermeyer, R; Merchant, S

    2010-01-01

    This double-blinded noninferiority clinical trial evaluated the use of oral fluconazole for the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs by comparing it with use of an accepted therapeutic agent, ketoconazole. Dogs presenting with Malassezia dermatitis were treated with either fluconazole or ketoconazole in addition to cephalexin for concurrent bacterial dermatitis. Statistically significant improvements in cytologic yeast count, clinical signs associated with Malassezia dermatitis, and pruritus were seen with both antifungal treatments. There was no statistical difference between the treatments with regard to the magnitude of reduction in these parameters. These results suggest that fluconazole is at least as effective as ketoconazole for the treatment of dogs with Malassezia dermatitis. PMID:20957617

  1. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  2. Milk tester's dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Herzog, J; Dunne, J; Aber, R; Claver, M; Marks, J G

    1988-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is a frequent problem among workers in milk testing laboratories. An epidemiologic study was conducted at the Pennsylvania Dairy Herd Improvement Association Milk Testing Laboratory, where more than 300,000 milk samples are examined monthly for protein, butterfat, and "somatic" cells. These samples are preserved with potassium dichromate for transport from the farm to the laboratory. A survey of the laboratory was conducted and workers were interviewed. Eight of 16 subjects reported a history of occupationally exacerbated hand dermatitis. Three of 16 subjects had positive patch test results to potassium dichromate. Two of 15 subjects who underwent patch testing to milk preserved with potassium dichromate had positive reactions. None reacted to milk alone, bronopol, or Kathon CG. Two workers are receiving workers' compensation because of severe allergic contact dermatitis of the hands to potassium dichromate. We conclude that milk testing laboratory workers are at substantial risk for acquiring allergic contact dermatitis from milk preserved with potassium dichromate. PMID:2971694

  3. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  4. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  5. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  7. Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... extra ingredients. A good, cheap moisturizer is plain petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline). Use moisturizers that are ... a flare-up? SourceSome information taken from: National Institutes of Health. Handout on Health: Atopic Dermatitis. Accessed ...

  8. Flagellate shiitake mushroom dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Luber, Adam J; Ackerman, Lindsay S

    2015-08-15

    An 84-year-old woman presented with 5 days of a pruritic skin eruption that formed arciform and linear patterns. She was diagnosed with flagellate shiitake mushroom dermatitis related to shiitake mushroom consumption the day prior symptom onset.

  9. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  10. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  11. Clinicians Discuss Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Mary; McGuire, Stephanie; Merrill, Lisa; Rossing, Francine; Sayaseng, Kammi

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis in infants is commonly seen by clinicians in both primary care and acute care settings. The condition can cause significant discomfort for infants and distress for their parents and caregivers. Nursing for Women's Health convened a group of nursing clinicians who work in a variety of settings to discuss the issues and challenges related to preventing and treating diaper dermatitis in both healthy term newborns and premature newborns.

  12. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  13. Purpuric agave dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricks, M R; Vogel, P S; Elston, D M; Hivnor, C

    1999-02-01

    Agave americana is a low growing, thick, long-leaved, subtropical plant used for medicinal, commercial, and ornamental purposes. The plant's sap contains calcium oxalate crystals, acrid oils, saponins, and other compounds. Despite these known irritants, Agave-induced irritant dermatitis has rarely been reported. Previous case reports have noted a papulovesicular eruption consistent with an irritant contact dermatitis. We report a case of Agave-induced purpura in an otherwise healthy patient. Histopathology was consistent with an evolving leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  14. Effect of irradiation on kinetic behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce and damage of bacterial cell envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Won-Bo; Je, Gil-Soo; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Mtenga, Adelard B.; Lee, Won-Gyeong; Song, Jeong-Un; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Yoon, Yohan

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated effect of gamma irradiation on survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on lettuce and damage of cell envelope. S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were inoculated on red leaf lettuce, and they were irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 kGy, and the samples were then stored at 7 and 25 °C for 7 days. Survival of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar and Baird-Parker agar, respectively. D10 value (dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/leaf) was calculated, and kinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rate; μmax and lag phase duration; LPD) were calculated by the modified Gompertz model. In addition, cell envelope damage of the pathogens was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). D10 values were 0.35 and 0.33 kGy for S. Typhimurium and S. aureus, respectively. During storage at 7 °C, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus had significant (P<0.05) growth only on non-irradiated samples up to about 2.5 and 4 log CFU/leaf at 0.42 and 1.28 log CFU/leaf/day of μmax, respectively. At 25 °C, cell counts of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus on the samples irradiated at 0 and 0.5 kGy increased (P<0.05) up to 3-6 log CFU/leaf. The μmax of both pathogens were higher in 0 kGy (1.08-2.27 log CFU/leaf/day) and 0.5 kGy (0.58-0.92 log CFU/leaf/day), and LPDs ranged from 1.53 to 3.14 day. SEM and TEM observations showed that cells irradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy showed disrupted cell membrane. These results indicate that gamma irradiation could be a useful decontamination technology to improve food safety of lettuce by destroying cells of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus.

  15. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  16. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  17. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  18. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  19. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  20. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  1. Textile dye dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K L; Maibach, H I

    1995-04-01

    The literature concerning textile dye dermatitis published during the last decade was reviewed. Sixty-one cases of dye-allergic contact dermatitis in which the presentation or course of the dermatitis was unusual or the dye allergen was one not previously reported have been described. The four new dye allergens discovered were Disperse Blue 106, Disperse Blue 85, Disperse Brown 1, and Basic Red 46. The incidence of dye dermatitis varied from 1% to 15.9% depending on the country, patient sample, and number of dyes in the patch test series. The 10 new dye allergens discovered in these studies were Disperse Blue 153, Disperse Orange 13, Basic Black 1, Basic Brown 1, the acid dyes Supramine Yellow and Supramine Red, the direct dye Diazol Orange, the basic dye Brilliant Green, Turquoise Reactive, and Neutrichrome Red. Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 were shown to be the strongest clothing dye sensitizers to date. Standard screening patch test series were found to be inadequate for the detection of textile dye sensitivity; therefore textile dye patch test series should be used. It is difficult to determine whether the incidence of dye dermatitis is increasing or decreasing because controlled epidemiologic studies are lacking, but data suggest that textile dye sensitivity is more common than previously believed.

  2. Abnormal skin barrier in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Schmuth, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Many recent studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Accordingly, current therapy has been largely directed towards ameliorating Th2-mediated inflammation and/or pruritus. We will review here emerging evidence that the inflammation in atopic dermatitis results from inherited and acquired insults to the barrier and the therapeutic implications of this new paradigm. Recent findings Recent molecular genetic studies have shown a strong association between mutations in FILAGGRIN and atopic dermatitis, particularly in Northern Europeans. But additional acquired stressors to the barrier are required to initiate inflammation. Sustained hapten access through a defective barrier stimulates a Th1 → Th2 shift in immunophenotype, which in turn further aggravates the barrier. Secondary Staphylococcus aureus colonization not only amplifies inflammation but also further stresses the barrier in atopic dermatitis. Summary These results suggest a new ‘outside-to-inside, back to outside’ paradigm for the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This new concept is providing impetus for the development of new categories of ‘barrier repair’ therapy. PMID:19550302

  3. Seborrheic dermatitis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert A; Janusz, Christopher A; Janniger, Camila K

    2006-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis affects the scalp, central face, and anterior chest. In adolescents and adults, it often presents as scalp scaling (dandruff). Seborrheic dermatitis also may cause mild to marked erythema of the nasolabial fold, often with scaling. Stress can cause flare-ups. The scales are greasy, not dry, as commonly thought. An uncommon generalized form in infants may be linked to immunodeficiencies. Topical therapy primarily consists of antifungal agents and low-potency steroids. New topical calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators) sometimes are administered. PMID:16848386

  4. Hand dermatitis: an allergist's nightmare.

    PubMed

    Wold, Lindsey; Chen, Jennifer K; Lampel, Heather P

    2014-11-01

    Hand dermatitis is a common skin complaint. We use our hands to explore our environment; subsequently, our hands are in frequent contact with potential allergens and irritants. Patients with hand dermatitis may present to their allergist with this complaint. Approaching the diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis can be challenging, as both internal and external factors may contribute to the overall condition. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis of hand dermatitis is broad and the cause often multifactorial. Obtaining a thorough history and performing a focused examination may help the clinician differentiate between multiple causes of hand dermatitis. Numerous treatment options exist for hand dermatitis, and new potential treatments are in development as well. We aim to provide the allergist with a streamlined toolkit for help in the diagnosis and management of hand dermatitis.

  5. Genetics of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Caroline; Weidinger, Stephan; Novak, Natalija

    2011-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial disease, with a strong genetic predisposition. Genome-wide studies as well as candidate gene studies revealed several susceptibility loci. Since the observation of a strong association of "loss of function" mutations in the filaggrin gene with AD, the epidermal barrier was rediscovered as important pathophysiological co-factor of this disease. PMID:21518425

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  7. Identifying host pathogenic pathways in bovine digital dermatitis by RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Scholey, R A; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Massey, J P; Murray, R D; Smith, R F; Ollier, W E; Carter, S D

    2013-09-01

    Digital dermatitis is a painful foot disease compromising welfare in dairy cattle. The disease has a complex multibacterial aetiology, but little is known about its pathogenesis. In this study, gene expression in skin biopsies from five bovine digital dermatitis lesions and five healthy bovine feet was compared using RNA-Seq technology. Differential gene expression was determined after mapping transcripts to the Btau 4.0 genome. Pathway analysis identified gene networks involving differentially expressed transcripts. Bovine digital dermatitis lesions had increased expression of mRNA for α2-macroglobulin-like 1, a protein potentially involved in bacterial immune evasion and bacterial survival. There was increased expression of keratin 6A and interleukin 1β mRNA in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, but reduced expression of most other keratin and keratin-associated genes. There was little evidence of local immune reactions to the bacterial infection present in lesions.

  8. Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

    2011-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log₁₀ TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst the schemes with the lowest (5.6±4.7 log₁₀ cfu/ml) and highest (6.7±5.8 log₁₀ cfu/ml) recorded from Marirangwe and Nharira respectively. The mean log₁₀ of TBC of processed milk (6.6±6.0 log₁₀ cfu/ml) were marginally higher than those of raw milk (6.4±5.6 log₁₀ cfu/ml) but not significant (P>0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (P<0.05) amongst the study areas. The variation in TBC, coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus counts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities

  9. Examination of hospital length of stay in Canada among patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Potashman, Michele H; Stokes, Michael; Liu, Jieruo; Lawrence, Robin; Harris, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Skin infections, particularly those caused by resistant pathogens, represent a clinical burden. Hospitalization associated with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major contributor to the economic burden of the disease. This study was conducted to provide current, real-world data on hospitalization patterns for patients with ABSSSI caused by MRSA across multiple geographic regions in Canada. Patients and methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated length of stay (LOS) for hospitalized patients with ABSSSI due to MRSA diagnosis across four Canadian geographic regions using the Discharge Abstract Database. Patients with ICD-10-CA diagnosis consistent with ABSSSI caused by MRSA between January 2008 and December 2014 were selected and assigned a primary or secondary diagnosis based on a prespecified ICD-10-CA code algorithm. Results Among 6,719 patients, 3,273 (48.7%) and 3,446 (51.3%) had a primary and secondary diagnosis, respectively. Among patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis, the cellulitis/erysipelas subtype was most common. The majority of patients presented with 0 or 1 comorbid condition; the most common comorbidity was diabetes. The mean LOS over the study period varied by geographic region and year; in 2014 (the most recent year analyzed), LOS ranged from 7.7 days in Ontario to 13.4 days in the Canadian Prairie for a primary diagnosis and from 18.2 days in Ontario to 25.2 days in Atlantic Canada for a secondary diagnosis. A secondary diagnosis was associated with higher rates of continuing care compared with a primary diagnosis (10.6%–24.2% vs 4.6%–12.1%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that the mean LOS associated with ABSSSI due to MRSA in Canada was minimally 7 days. Clinical management strategies, including medication management, which might facilitate hospital discharge, have the potential to reduce hospital LOS and related economic

  10. In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Target Investigation of Two Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors, ACT-387042 and ACT-292706, in the Neutropenic Murine Thigh Model against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lepak, A J; Seiler, P; Surivet, J P; Ritz, D; Kohl, C; Andes, D R

    2016-06-01

    ACT-387042 and ACT-292706 are two novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae We used the neutropenic murine thigh infection model to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) of these investigational compounds against a group of 10 S. aureus and S. pneumoniae isolates with phenotypic resistance to beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones. The in vitro activities of the two compounds were very similar (MIC range, 0.03 to 0.125 mg/liter). Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined for each compound by using four escalating doses administered by the subcutaneous route. In treatment studies, mice had 10(7.4) to 10(8) CFU/thigh at the start of therapy with ACT-387042 and 10(6.7) to 10(8.3) CFU/thigh at the start of therapy with ACT-292706. A dose-response relationship was observed with all isolates over the dose range. Maximal kill approached 3 to 4 log10 CFU/thigh compared to the burden at the start of therapy for the highest doses examined. There was a strong relationship between the PK/PD index AUC/MIC ratio (area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC) and therapeutic efficacy in the model (R(2), 0.63 to 0.82). The 24-h free-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net stasis for ACT-387042 against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were 43 and 10, respectively. The 24-h free-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net stasis for ACT-292706 against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were 69 and 25, respectively. The stasis PD targets were significantly lower for S. pneumoniae (P < 0.05) for both compounds. The 1-log-kill AUC/MIC ratio targets were ∼2- to 4-fold higher than stasis targets. Methicillin, penicillin, or ciprofloxacin resistance did not alter the magnitude of the AUC/MIC ratio required for efficacy. These results should be

  11. [Etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Oehling, A; Jerez, J

    1975-01-01

    There is a wide variety of criteria in regard to the etiology of atopic dermatitis of neurodermitis. The allergic factor may play a very important role in its etiology. There is neither a general agreement on the importance of food allergy in this regard. Broadly considered, these patients may evoke intense positive reactions to intradermal tests to food and inhalative allergens, nevertheless it will be possible to establish that the lesions appear or disappear after the exposure of suppression of the antigens which evoked the positive reaction. On this basis, many dermatologists deny the allergic etiology in atopic dermatitis, even though in most instances no food skin tests are performed. In this study, 110 patients, both children and adults of both sexes, suffering from atopic dermatitis are investigated. The onset in most of the cases is before the age of six months, following the ages between 1-10 years; the groups between 6 months and one year, and 10-20 years followed a descending order per decade until 70 years. 60.9% of the cases showed food allergy to one or more food items. In 39% of the cases, no food allergy was found. The food-stuffs more commonly involved were: milk (37.7%), egg (26.3%) and fish (20.9%), followed by coca, wheat flour, seafood, fruits, vegetables and meat. A remission of the reaction followed the suppression of the allergen. Intestinal parasitosis is evaluated in relation to atopic dermatitis. 30.9% of the 110 cases were affected with intestinal parasitosis, being the most common the flagelates (lamblias), protozoa (amoeba) and nematodes (ascaris, tricocephalus and oxijrus). Finally, a concurrence is found between atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases in 81 cases (73.6%), being bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis the most frequent, and allergic rhinitis, urticaria and Quincke's edema less frequent. PMID:1180202

  12. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  13. Dermatitis artefacta as a symptom of schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Majtyka, Magdalena; Kowman, Maciej; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Kwiecińska, Ewa; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a disease that occurs as a result of a self-inflicted injury of the skin. The skin lesions are most often located on the areas within easy reach of the patient's dominant hand sparing the middle part of the back. Dermatitis artefacta may coexist with psychiatric disorders and imitate many dermatologic diseases. As most of the patients with self-inflicted dermatoses usually initially deny any psychiatric problems, what delays psychiatric intervention, they are typically first seen by dermatologists. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old man with a 3-year-long history of schizophrenia who has been treated at a dermatologist's office sequentially with acne, bacterial lesions, suspected tuberculosis. However, the treatment was ineffective. He was diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta after 7 years of disease duration. During this time he was treated with many medicines e.g. isotretinoin, which is contraindicated in psychosis as it worsens the course of disease. After establishing the correct diagnosis and antipsychotic treatment, a significant improvement was obtained in both skin condition and mental state. These are the reasons why we would like to recommend close cooperation between dermatologists and psychiatrists. PMID:25254016

  14. The ACVD task force on canine atopic dermatitis (XII): the relationship of cutaneous infections to the pathogenesis and clinical course of canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, D J; Marsella, R

    2001-09-20

    Dogs and human beings with atopic dermatitis (AD) frequently exhibit concurrent skin infections with Staphylococcus sp. bacteria or Malassezia yeast, and treatment of such infections is an important facet of managing these patients. Staphylococci appear to colonize atopic skin readily, and bacterial products on the skin could augment cutaneous inflammation via immediate hypersensitivity responses to the bacteria, by superantigen-mediated lymphocyte activation, or other non-specific mechanisms. Similarly, skin colonization by Malassezia yeast could contribute to clinical signs of AD; yeast components could induce inflammation via non-specific mechanisms, such as alteration in mediator release, or via antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions. Clinical and experimental evidence exists that secondary microbial infections can both initiate and perpetuate episodes of AD in dogs and humans, and could even participate in promotion of pro-allergic immunologic responses. Mechanistic details of these complex interactions are under extensive investigation in human beings; only a few observations have been extended to include dog with AD. PMID:11553386

  15. Contact dermatitis to homomenthyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Rietschel, R L; Lewis, C W

    1978-03-01

    Two patients with follicular dermatitis were found to have a contact sensitivity to homomenthyl salicylate, a sunscreening chemical present in a commercially available suntan lotion. One patient did not use the product, but her boyfriend did, and contact between the two individuals resulted in a follicular dermatitis developing in her. A second patient with contact dermatitis to homomenthyl salicylate also had a follicular eruption. Both patients appear to represent true allergic sensitivities.

  16. An update on diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Klunk, Christopher; Domingues, Erik; Wiss, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis leads to approximately 20% of all childhood dermatology visits. There have been several technologic advances in diaper design the last several years; however, due to the unique environment of the diaper area, many children continue to suffer from a variety of dermatologic conditions of this region. Common causes include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, infection, and psoriasis. Treatments include allergen avoidance, barrier protection, parent education, and topical therapies.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from cardamom.

    PubMed

    Mobacken, H; Fregert, S

    1975-06-01

    A case is presented of a confectioner with a chronic hand dermatitis and positive patch test reactions to cardamom and certain terpenoid compounds present in the dried ripe seeds of cardamom. Cardamom is a popular traditional flavouring agent for baked goods and confectionery. Dermatitis from skin exposure to cardamom has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We report one case of allergic contact dermatitis to cardamom elicited by terpenes present in the seeds.

  18. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  19. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  20. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Allergic Diseases Asthma Food Allergy Immune System Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) National ... allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, and food allergy. Children whose parents have asthma and allergies are ...

  1. Berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Lisa Moed; Chang, Mary Wu

    2002-11-01

    Berloque dermatitis is a type of photocontact dermatitis. It occurs after perfumed products containing bergamot (or a psoralen) are applied to the skin followed by exposure to sunlight. Striking linear patterns of hyperpigmentation are characteristic, corresponding to local application of the scented product. In the acute phase, erythema and even blistering can be seen. We report a case of berloque dermatitis in a 9-year-old girl that was initially reported as child abuse. To our knowledge, this is the first report of berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse. Questioning to elicit a history of perfume application coupled with sunlight exposure should help to prevent this misdiagnosis in children.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  3. Dermatitis artefacta: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Pichardo, A; García Bravo, B

    2013-12-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rarely diagnosed disorder that is often a source of perplexity and anxiety for dermatologists because they know less about the cause of this self-inflicted condition than the patients themselves. It differs from other skin disorders in that diagnosis is made by exclusion rather than on the basis of histologic and biochemical findings and therefore involves a considerable investment of time and resources. Based on the findings of a study of 201 patients diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta between 1976 and 2006, we review the different clinical presentations of this skin disorder and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. The series analyzed comprised 152 women and 49 men (female to male ratio of 3.1:1) with a mean age of 31.2 years. The patients were mostly single and had a low educational level and few or no job qualifications or skills.

  4. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  5. Contact dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Wanscher, B

    1976-04-01

    Two patients with contact dermatitis due to the natural product propolis (bee glue) are reported. They presented perioral eczema and stomatitis which were recalcitrant until propolis was considered as the cause. Patch tests with propolis preparations were positive in both patients, and, furthermore, in the second patient the lesions relapsed after provocation tests. European standard patch test including balsam of Peru were negative. The complexity of propolis, its supposed anti-inflammatory effect due to flavonoids, and the sensitizing agents originating mainly from the poplar trees are discussed together with the cross-sensitization to balsam of Peru. Contact dermatitis due to propolis should be considered in unexplained eczemas, mainly perioral but also in other areas, as propolis preparations are available also as ointments and cosmetic creams.

  6. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  7. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel. PMID:16426285

  8. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  9. A retrospective review of streptococcal infections in pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Jeffrey L; Hersh, Adam L; Okamura, Tessie; Howard, Renee; Frieden, Ilona J

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess the clinical characteristics and impact of group A streptococcal infection in children with atopic dermatitis, a retrospective review was performed in children diagnosed with atopic dermatitis who had a skin culture. Culture results and clinical characteristics of those with group A streptococcus were compared with those with Staphlococcus aureus. Infection with group A streptococcus was present in 16%; infection with Staphlococcus aureus was present in 72%, and 14% had mixed cultures. Patients infected with group A streptococcus were more likely to be febrile, to have facial and periorbital involvement, and to be hospitalized compared with those infected with Staphlococcus aureus alone (p ≤ 0.01 for all comparisons). Bacteremia and cellulitis were significantly more common in those infected with group A streptococcus than in those infected with Staphlococcus aureus. Retrospective design and review of only those patients receiving bacterial cultures may select for greater severity than in the general atopic dermatitis population. Group A streptococcus appears to be a significant skin pathogen infecting children with atopic dermatitis. Children with atopic dermatitis and group A streptococcal infection are more likely to have invasive disease and complications than those infected with Staphlococcus aureus alone.

  10. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  11. Atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, L G; Esterly, N B

    1994-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis remains a common skin problem in the pediatric age group. General approaches to management focus on reducing inflammation and pruritus as well as preventing xerosis. Ichthyosis vulgaris is the most common form of the ichthyoses and often is associated with atopic dermatitis. Recognition of these conditions is necessary to institute therapy that will alleviate the discomfort experienced by affected individuals.

  12. Livedoid Dermatitis Treated With Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Wheless, Lee; Zhu, Lilly; Mashayekhi, Mona; Fissell, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous injection of buprenorphine as a cause of livedoid dermatitis is a recently described phenomenon. This report reviews the brief literature of this finding, and presents a case of livedoid dermatitis of both heels following injection more than one day prior, and thesuccessful treatment with nifedipine monotherapy. PMID:26885536

  13. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics.

  14. Proof of Principle for a Real-Time Pathogen Isolation Media Diagnostic: The Use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Discriminate Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Grown on Blood Agar.

    PubMed

    Multari, Rosalie A; Cremers, David A; Bostian, Melissa L; Dupre, Joanne M; Gustafson, John E

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a rapid, in situ, diagnostic technique in which light emissions from a laser plasma formed on the sample are used for analysis allowing automated analysis results to be available in seconds to minutes. This speed of analysis coupled with little or no sample preparation makes LIBS an attractive detection tool. In this study, it is demonstrated that LIBS can be utilized to discriminate both the bacterial species and strains of bacterial colonies grown on blood agar. A discrimination algorithm was created based on multivariate regression analysis of spectral data. The algorithm was deployed on a simulated LIBS instrument system to demonstrate discrimination capability using 6 species. Genetically altered Staphylococcus aureus strains grown on BA, including isogenic sets that differed only by the acquisition of mutations that increase fusidic acid or vancomycin resistance, were also discriminated. The algorithm successfully identified all thirteen cultures used in this study in a time period of 2 minutes. This work provides proof of principle for a LIBS instrumentation system that could be developed for the rapid discrimination of bacterial species and strains demonstrating relatively minor genomic alterations using data collected directly from pathogen isolation media.

  15. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  16. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection associated with nodular skin lesions and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sa-Hee; Kang, Min-Hee; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old Pekingese dog with atopic dermatitis was referred due to pyrexia, multiple skin nodules, anorexia, and depression. The dog was diagnosed as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by bacterial dermatitis. This case presents diagnosis and treatment of SIRS with staphylococcal skin infection in a dog that was immunosuppressed due to long-term use of corticosteroid. PMID:24790236

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  18. Conctact dermatitis: some important topics.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, P D

    2015-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred patients with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6%. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up.

  19. Environmental dermatitis. Contact dermatitis from perfumes in soap.

    PubMed

    Burry, J N

    Perfumes in soaps cause nondescript patterns of contact dermatitis. Patch testing with balsam of Peru and a fragrance mixture can confirm a sensitivity to a perfume. The use of additive-free soaps determines its clinical relevance.

  20. Differentiation of Staphylococcus spp. by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Slany, Michal; Vanerkova, Martina; Nemcova, Eva; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ruzicka, Filip; Freiberger, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a fast (post-PCR) high-throughput method to scan for sequence variations in a target gene. The aim of this study was to test the potential of HRMA to distinguish particular bacterial species of the Staphylococcus genus even when using a broad-range PCR within the 16S rRNA gene where sequence differences are minimal. Genomic DNA samples isolated from 12 reference staphylococcal strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus xylosus) were subjected to a real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene in the presence of fluorescent dye EvaGreen™, followed by HRMA. Melting profiles were used as molecular fingerprints for bacterial species differentiation. HRMA of S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus resulted in undistinguishable profiles because of their identical sequences in the analyzed 16S rRNA region. The remaining reference strains were fully differentiated either directly or via high-resolution plots obtained by heteroduplex formation between coamplified PCR products of the tested staphylococcal strain and phylogenetically unrelated strain.

  1. Dermatitis in rubber manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    White, I.R.

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the history of rubber technology and the manufacturing techniques used in rubber manufacturing industries. The important aspects of the acquisition of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis within the industry are presented for the reader.

  2. Atopic dermatitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 5. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Atopic dermatitis, eczema, and noninfectious immunodeficiency disordersIn: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the ...

  3. What is intrinsic atopic dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Roguedas-Contios, Anne-Marie; Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Many authors favor a distinction between the extrinsic and intrinsic forms of atopic dermatitis. In this review, the controversy is discussed and several definitions are presented. After reviewing many papers on this topic, it is our opinion that it is useful to separate the intrinsic and extrinsic forms of atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema and atopiform dermatitis because the pathophysiology appears to be different between them. However, these terms require concrete definition and clarification of the distinction between these two concepts. This debate is a new step in the history of atopic dermatitis. It is possible that a single patient could suffer from one form and then from another but genetic differences suggest that two types could really exist.

  4. Contact dermatitis in a woodworker.

    PubMed

    Correale, Christine E; Marks, James G

    2002-03-01

    Woods are capable of causing allergic or irritant contact dermatitis which typically occurs on the exposed areas of the arms, face, and neck. The allergens found in woods include quinones, stilbenes, phenols, and terpenes. We report an 84-year-old woodworker who developed allergic contact dermatitis from Bolivian rosewood and Cocobolo wood. The patient was patch-tested using the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Tray; 2,6 dimethoxyl 1,4 benzoquinone; and wood that he had been exposed to on a regular basis. Positive patch test reactions occurred to methyldibromo glutaronitrile phenoxyethanol, sodium gold thiosulfate, Bolivian rosewood, and Cocobolo wood. Allergens found in Bolivian rosewood and Cocobolo wood caused this patient's chronic dermatitis, which cleared when he avoided these woods.

  5. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is elevated in mice with atopic dermatitis. The factors involved in this regulation, however, aren’t well understood. Past work led by Dr. Arup Indra at Oregon State University showed that COUP-TF interacting protein 2 (Ctip2) ...

  6. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  7. Contact dermatitis to fragrances.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Cristaudo, A; Cannistraci, C; Picardo, M

    1987-02-01

    2 groups of patients (1200 and 1500 respectively) were patch tested with different concentrations of perfume mix and fragrance raw materials. The study was to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to fragrances in Roma, Italy, and the influence of limited variations in fragrance and perfume mix concentrations on patch test responses. The results showed that a decrease in the perfume mix concentration from 16% to 8% correlated with a decrease in the % of positive patients (from 5.2% to 3.6%). Variations in the concentration of fragrance raw materials did not influence the % of positive reactions in the 2 groups. The perfume mixture at 16% or 8% gave some positive results, without a corresponding reaction to any of the constituents, that were not related to an excited skin syndrome.

  8. Phototherapy for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rodenbeck, Dorothy L; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is a second-line treatment for moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) that effectively decreases cutaneous inflammation with minimal or no systemic side effects. Children in grade school, adolescents, and adults may benefit from phototherapy, when they have chronic AD refractory to first-line topical treatments. This review focuses on six approaches for phototherapy in AD: (1) broadband ultraviolet B (UVB), (2) Goeckerman regimen (coal tar + broadband UVB), (3) narrowband UVB, (4) excimer lasers for targeted areas, (5) combination UVA/UVB, and (6) UVA-1. Phototherapy can be very effective in some individuals, but it is limited by inconvenience and adverse effects, including limited access to in-office treatment, difficulty adhering to thrice-weekly schedule, flaring from excessive heat, and increased risk of skin cancer. Dosing regimen and treatment concerns are reviewed. PMID:27638440

  9. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration.

  10. Dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z

    1983-01-01

    22 patients with dermatitis from propolis were studied. In all the 21 tests with propolis were positive, and in 19 they were also positive to balsam of Peru. The chromatogram of the balsam and propolis show marked similarity and 3 identical peaks could be recognised in both substances. Among the patients sensitive to balsam of Peru and propolis, 12 were tested with some common components; 3 were positive to cinnamyl cinnamate, 2 to vanillin and 1 to benzyl cinnamate. Chromatograms of the 3 propolis samples from the Warsaw region were very similar, but not identical. Some of the patients were tested with 35 essential oils and eugenol. Sensitivity to clove oil was common. PMID:6220861

  11. [Atopic dermatitis and allergy].

    PubMed

    Karila, C

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.

  12. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used.

  13. Perioral dermatitis: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bendl, B J

    1976-05-01

    Ninety-five patients with perioral dermatitis were studied from an epidemiological aspect. Consistent clearing of the eruption was obtained with oral tetracycline in combination with a topical sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur-hydro-cortisone lotion. Comparison of the study group of patients to a group of 50 control patients revealed highly significant quantitative differences in the cosmetic preparations used by the two groups. This latter finding would suggest that lubricating and moisturizing products play some part in the etiology of perioral dermatitis.

  14. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  15. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  16. Cosmetic dermatitis due to a perfume.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    1975-06-01

    A patient with perfume dermatitis was patch-tested to 94 constituents of perfume and was found to have positive reactions to 12 components. An approach with regard to reducing the prevalence of perfume dermatitis is suggested.

  17. Contact dermatitis from an ostomy deodorant.

    PubMed

    Davids, M G; Hodgson, G A; Evans, E

    1978-02-01

    Two patients with contact dermatitis from an ostomy agent are described. Detailed patch testing revealed contact allergic dermatitis to one of the twelve groups of ingredients which largely comprised citronella oil. The problem of dermatitis is discussed in relation to the perfume ingredients of the ostomy agent.

  18. Occupational dermatitis from IPPD in tires.

    PubMed

    Ancona, A; Monroy, F; Fernández-Diez, J

    1982-03-01

    A tire assembler developed contact dermatitis from IPPD, a rubber antioxidant. The lichenoid clinical pattern corresponded histologically to lichenified dermatitis. Tire assemblers appear to acquire contact dermatitis to this aromatic amine more frequently than any other workers in the tire manufacturing industry. Possible adjuvant factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  19. [Systemic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Gomułka, Krzysztof; Dziemieszonek, Paulina; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV) and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th) (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc), and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens' distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease. PMID:26943310

  20. [Atopic dermatitis: pathophysiology update].

    PubMed

    Taieb, Alain

    2012-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is very common in industrialized countries, where it affects 15% to 30% of children and 2% to 10% of adults. AD has a complex determinism, combining environmental influences and genetic predisposition, hitherto dominated by an immunological perspective, particularly after the discovery of associated high IgE serum levels. DA is a possible mode of onset of asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergies, resulting in the poorly understood "atopic march". The discovery of mutations in the filaggrin gene, a key protein for stratum corneum maturation, have refocused attention on the skin and operated a Copernican revolution in our understanding of this group of disorders. AD has become a prototype of inflammatory epithelial barrier diseases. The epidermal barrier has three major elements: the stratum corneum, which provides an air-liquid barrier, tight junctions in the granular layer (liquid-liquid barrier), and Langerhans cells that capture antigens (immunological barrier). Better knowledge of the molecular events underlying epidermal barrier function and its dysfunction in AD should lead to ways of preventing and eventually curing this group of disorders. PMID:23472351

  1. Differentiation of pulmonary bacterial pathogens in cystic fibrosis by volatile metabolites emitted by their in vitro cultures: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Sovová, Kristýna; Nemec, Alexandr; Španěl, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    As a contribution to the continuing search for breath biomarkers of lung and airways infection in patients with cystic fibrosis, CF, we have analysed the volatile metabolites released in vitro by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria involved in respiratory infections in these patients, i.e. those belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex, Staphylococcus aureus or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These opportunistic pathogens are generally harmless to healthy people but they may cause serious infections in patients with severe underlying disease or impaired immunity such as CF patients. Volatile organic compounds emitted from the cultures of strains belonging to the above-mentioned four taxa were analysed by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In order to minimize the effect of differences in media composition all strains were cultured in three different liquid media. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that the four taxa can be well discriminated by the differences in the headspace VOC concentration profiles. The compounds that should be targeted in breath as potential biomarkers of airway infection were identified for each of these taxa of CF pathogens. PMID:27506232

  2. Presence of toll like receptor-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and its modulation by Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. .

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandrayee; Prakash, Nune Ravi; Manna, Sunil Kumar; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2015-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors identifying pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). They play a critical role in the innate immune response during the initial interaction between the infecting microorganism and phagocytic cells. Here, we verified the presence of TLR-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and their modulation after infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. It was seen that TLR-2 gene transcribed to its respective mRNA on S. aureus infection, in thymus, spleen and lymph node of mice but their levels and mode of expression varied. When challenged with LPS no prominent changes in the expression of TLR-2 receptor was observed but its expression increased gradually with time in the thymus, spleen and lymph node of S. aureus infected mice. TLR-2 expression was also found enhanced in infected splenic macrophages. By studying the serum cytokine profile the functionality of the receptor was measured. The results indicate the presence of TLR-2 in thymus, spleen and lymph node of Swiss albino strain of mice and that they are modulated by S. aureus.

  3. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function.

  4. Comparison of MRSASelect Agar, CHROMagar Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Medium, and Xpert MRSA PCR for Detection of MRSA in Nares: Diagnostic Accuracy for Surveillance Samples with Various Bacterial Densities ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wolk, D. M.; Marx, J. L.; Dominguez, L.; Driscoll, D.; Schifman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid laboratory methods provide optimal support for active surveillance efforts to screen for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Most laboratories struggle to determine the optimal use of resources, considering options to balance cost, speed, and diagnostic accuracy. To assess the performance of common methods, the first comparison of MRSASelect agar (MS) and CHROMagar MRSA (CA), with and without broth enrichment followed by a 24-h subculture to MS, was performed. Results were compared to those of the Xpert MRSA assay. For direct culture methods, the agreement between MS and CA was 98.8%. At 18 h, direct MS identified 93% of all positive samples from direct culture and 84% of those identified by the Xpert MRSA. For Trypticase soy broth-enriched MS culture, incubated overnight and then subcultured for an additional 24 h, the agreement with Xpert MRSA was 96%. The agreement between direct MS and Xpert MRSA was 100% when semiquantitative culture revealed a bacterial density of 2+ or greater; however, discrepancies between culture and Xpert MRSA arose for MRSA bacterial densities of 1+ or less, indicating low density as a common cause of false-negative culture results. Since 1+ or less was established as the most common MRSA carrier state, broth enrichment or PCR may be critical for the identification of all MRSA carriers who may be reservoirs for transmission. In this active-surveillance convenience sample, the use of broth enrichment followed by subculture to MS offered a low-cost but sensitive method for MRSA screening, with performance similar to that of Xpert MRSA PCR. PMID:19828738

  5. [Dermatitis from contact with perfume].

    PubMed

    Piriou-Robaglia, A; Robaglia, J L; Bonérandi, J J

    1990-09-01

    Contact dermatitis essentially involves those areas to which perfume is applied. The mixture of perfumes in the standard battery of the L.C.D.R.G. detects 70 to 80% of sensitised cases. The allergens that are most often involved are oak moss, isoeugenol and cinnamic aldehyde. Prevention of dermatitis requires, at individual level, use of non-perfumed cosmetics and at the industrial level, good observance of the international rules of I.F.R.A., aimed at limiting the frequency of occurrence.

  6. Bindi dermatitis to 'chandan' bindi.

    PubMed

    Tewary, M; Ahmed, I

    2006-12-01

    Bindi (meaning dot in Sanskrit) is a mark worn by most Indian women on their forehead for religious and social purposes. Traditionally it was worn by only Hindu women to signify their marital status. Nowadays, it is a huge fashion accessory, being worn in different sizes, shapes, designs and colours. The variety includes sequined designs, motifs dusted with gold and silver powder, studded with beads, or even surrounded by glittering gems. Stick-on and liquid ranges are both equally in demand. We report a case of bindi dermatitis with 'chandan' (sandalwood) bindi. To our knowledge this is the first report of contact allergic dermatitis to 'chandan' (sandalwood) bindi. PMID:17101021

  7. Genomic Diversity in Staphylococcus xylosus▿

    PubMed Central

    Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Dorchies, Géraud; De Araujo, Cécilia; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is a commensal of the skin of humans and animals and a ubiquitous bacterium naturally present in food. It is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation, but a few strains could potentially be hazardous and are related to animal opportunistic infections. To better understand the genetic diversity of S. xylosus intraspecies, suppressive and subtractive hybridization (SSH) was carried out with the S. xylosus C2a strain, a commensal of human skin, used as the driver for three tester strains, S04002 used as a starter culture, S04009 isolated from cow mastitis, and 00-1747, responsible for mouse dermatitis. SSH revealed 122 tester-specific fragments corresponding to 149 open reading frames (ORFs). A large proportion of these ORFs resembled genes involved in specific metabolisms. Analysis of the distribution of the tester-specific fragments in 20 S. xylosus strains of various origins showed that the S. xylosus species could be divided into two clusters with one composed only of potentially hazardous strains. The genetic content diversity of this species is colocalized in a region near the origin of replication of the chromosome. This region of speciation previously observed in the Staphylococcus genus corresponded in S. xylosus species to a strain-specific region potentially implicated in ecological fitness. PMID:17890333

  8. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp.,...

  9. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp.,...

  10. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp.,...

  11. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp.,...

  12. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Proteus spp.; bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli; generalized... Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp.,...

  13. Impact of neonatal intensive care bed configuration on rates of late-onset bacterial sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Samuel; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Sellenriek, Patricia; Shannon, William D.; Hamvas, Aaron; Tarr, Phillip I.; Warner, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The association between nursery design and nosocomial infections has not been delineated. We hypothesized that rates of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), late-onset sepsis, and mortality are reduced in single-patient rooms. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting NICU in a tertiary referral center. Methods Our NICU is organized into single-patient and open-unit rooms. Clinical datasets including bed location and microbiology results were examined over a 29-month period. Differences in outcomes between bed configurations were determined by Chi-square and Cox regression. Patients All NICU patients. Results Among 1823 patients representing 55,166 patient-days, single-patient and open-unit models had similar incidences of MRSA colonization and MRSA colonization-free survival times. Average daily census was associated with MRSA colonization rates only in single-patient rooms (hazard ratio 1.31, p=0.039), while hand hygiene compliance on room entry and exit was associated with lower colonization rates independent of bed configuration (hazard ratios 0.834 and 0.719 per 1% higher compliance, respectively). Late-onset sepsis rates were similar in single-patient and open-unit models as were sepsis-free survival and the combined outcome of sepsis or death. After controlling for demographic, clinical and unit-based variables, multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that bed configuration had no effect on MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis, or mortality. Conclusions MRSA colonization rate was impacted by hand hygiene compliance, regardless of room configuration, while average daily census only affected infants in single-patient rooms. Single-patient rooms did not reduce the rates of MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis or death. PMID:26108888

  14. Deficiency of dermcidin-derived antimicrobial peptides in sweat of patients with atopic dermatitis correlates with an impaired innate defense of human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rieg, Siegbert; Steffen, Heiko; Seeber, Silke; Humeny, Andreas; Kalbacher, Hubert; Dietz, Klaus; Garbe, Claus; Schittek, Birgit

    2005-06-15

    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral part of the epithelial innate defense system. Dermcidin (DCD) is a recently discovered antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity. It is constitutively expressed in human eccrine sweat glands and secreted into sweat. Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have recurrent bacterial or viral skin infections and pronounced colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. We hypothesized that patients with AD have a reduced amount of DCD peptides in sweat contributing to the compromised constitutive innate skin defense. Therefore, we performed semiquantitative and quantitative analyses of DCD peptides in sweat of AD patients and healthy subjects using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ELISA. The data indicate that the amount of several DCD-derived peptides in sweat of patients with AD is significantly reduced. Furthermore, compared with atopic patients without previous infectious complications, AD patients with a history of bacterial and viral skin infections were found to have significantly less DCD-1 and DCD-1L in their sweat. To analyze whether the reduced amount of DCD in sweat of AD patients correlates with a decreased innate defense, we determined the antimicrobial activity of sweat in vivo. We showed that in healthy subjects, sweating leads to a reduction of viable bacteria on the skin surface, but this does not occur in patients with AD. These data indicate that reduced expression of DCD in sweat of patients with AD may contribute to the high susceptibility of these patients to skin infections and altered skin colonization.

  15. Crystal deodorant dermatitis: irritant dermatitis to alum-containing deodorant.

    PubMed

    Gallego, H; Lewis, E J; Crutchfield, C E

    1999-07-01

    Two patients developed an irritant dermatitis of the axillae shortly after using an over-the-counter "natural deodorant crystal" product containing alum. We discuss this previously unreported, untoward reaction to alum, an ancient agent with newfound popularity as an alternative health product. PMID:10431678

  16. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement.

  17. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  18. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  19. MASD part 2: incontinence-associated dermatitis and intertriginous dermatitis: a consensus.

    PubMed

    Black, Joyce M; Gray, Mikel; Bliss, Donna Z; Kennedy-Evans, Karen L; Logan, Susan; Baharestani, Mona M; Colwell, Janice C; Goldberg, Margaret; Ratliff, Catherine R

    2011-01-01

    A consensus panel was convened to review current knowledge of moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and to provide recommendations for prevention and management. This article provides a summary of the discussion and the recommendations in regards to 2 types of MASD: incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and intertriginous dermatitis (ITD). A focused history and physical assessment are essential for diagnosing IAD or ITD and distinguishing these forms of skin damage from other types of skin damage. Panel members recommend cleansing, moisturizing, and applying a skin protectant to skin affected by IAD and to the perineal skin of persons with urinary or fecal incontinence deemed at risk for IAD. Prevention and treatment of ITD includes measures to ensure that skin folds are dry and free from friction; however, panel members do not recommend use of bed linens, paper towels, or dressings for separating skin folds. Individuals with ITD are at risk for fungal and bacterial infections and these infections should be treated appropriately; for example, candidal infections should be treated with antifungal therapies. PMID:21747256

  20. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition. PMID:18976564

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions.

  3. A pediculid case: autosensitization dermatitis caused by pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Takcı, Zennure; Tekin, Ozlem; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis ectoparasite that only lives on the hairs of the scalp. As a result of severe itching excoriation, secondary bacterial infection, cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy are seen frequently where, sometimes bite reaction, viral exanthema mimicking hypersensitivity eruption and conjunctivitis may occur. Hereby, with the presentation of a quite rarely seen pediculid case, characterized with common autosensitization dermatitis as an -id reaction to pediculosis capitis, the importance of exploring the source of the infection and/or infestation on the patients who have presented with generalized pruritic maculopapular eruption, is emphasized. PMID:23169166

  4. Evaluation of the relationship between IgE level and skin superinfection in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alyson B; Yousef, Ejaz; Hossain, Jobayer

    2010-01-01

    Increased Th2 polarity weakens the innate immune response and predisposes children with atopic dermatitis (AD) to skin superinfection. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between IgE level and bacterial superinfection in children with AD. A medical chart review was performed on 103 children with AD to assess the association between IgE level and skin superinfection. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between categorized IgE level and the presence of bacterial superinfection after adjusting for cofounding variables including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and food allergy. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare pre- and postskin superinfection median IgE levels in a subset of patients. Compared with children with an IgE level of <300 IU/mL, children with an IgE level of >1001 IU/mL were 66.00 times more likely to have a skin superinfection (p = 0.003) and children with an IgE level between 301 and 1000 IU/mL were 12.38 times more likely to have a skin superinfection (p < 0.001). After controlling for cofounding variables including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy, children with an IgE level of >1001 IU/mL were 71.89 times more likely to have a skin superinfection (p = 0.018) and children with an IgE level between 301 and 1000 IU/mL were 8.79 times more likely to have a skin superinfection (p < 0.001) when compared with children with an IgE level of <300 IU/mL. There was a significant increase in IgE levels from baseline in 13 children treated for a skin superinfection (p = 0.001). IgE level is associated with Staphylococcus aureus superinfection in children with AD.

  5. Atopic Dermatitis in Children: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Jonathan J.; Milner, Joshua D.; Stone, Kelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, highly pruritic skin condition resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier and associated immune dysregulation in the skin of genetically predisposed hosts. AD generally develops in early childhood, has a characteristic age-dependent distribution and is commonly associated with elevated IgE, peripheral eosinophilia and other allergic diseases. Staphylococcus aureus colonization is common and may contribute to disease progression and severity. Targeted therapies to restore both impaired skin barrier and control inflammation are required for optimal outcomes for patients with moderate to severe disease. Pruritus is universal among patients with AD and has a dominant impact on diminishing quality of life. Medications such as anti-histamines have demonstrated poor efficacy in controlling AD-associated itch. Education of patients regarding the primary underlying defects and provision of a comprehensive skin care plan is essential for disease maintenance and management of flares. PMID:25459583

  6. Efficiency of vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructures against bacterial adherence and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Bilcu, Maxim; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Popescu, Roxana Cristina; Mogoșanu, George Dan; Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, George A; Mihailescu, Dan Florin; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14) in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties.

  7. Efficiency of vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructures against bacterial adherence and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Bilcu, Maxim; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Popescu, Roxana Cristina; Mogoșanu, George Dan; Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, George A; Mihailescu, Dan Florin; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14) in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties. PMID:25375335

  8. Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2014-04-01

    This article presents an overview of diaper dermatitis for the pediatric community. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of this common condition in infancy are reviewed. This information will assist in making the appropriate diagnosis and managing this irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper area. With conservative management, most cases of irritant diaper dermatitis are self-limited. When the condition persists, one must consider other diagnoses.

  9. Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2014-04-01

    This article presents an overview of diaper dermatitis for the pediatric community. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of this common condition in infancy are reviewed. This information will assist in making the appropriate diagnosis and managing this irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper area. With conservative management, most cases of irritant diaper dermatitis are self-limited. When the condition persists, one must consider other diagnoses. PMID:24636651

  10. Berloque dermatitis induced by "Florida water".

    PubMed

    Wang, Lena; Sterling, Barton; Don, Philip

    2002-07-01

    Phytophotodermatitis is a phototoxic dermatitis resulting from contact with psoralen-containing plants such as celery, limes, parsley, figs, and carrots. Berloque dermatitis is a variant of phytophotodermatitis and is caused by high concentrations of psoralen-containing fragrances, most commonly oil of bergamot. Berloque dermatitis is rarely seen today because of the removal of these fragrances from most cosmetic products in the United States. We report, however, a group of patients still at risk for berloque dermatitis. These patients use the colognes "Florida Water" and "Kananga Water," which are popular in Hispanic, African American, and Caribbean populations. These fragrant waters are used for spiritual blessing, treating headaches, and personal hygiene.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins. PMID:19808007

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins.

  13. Itch in Atopic Dermatitis Management.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Yayoi; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from chronic inflammatory dermatitis and antihistamine-resistant itch. The management of intractable pruritus in AD is important, requiring the development of new therapeutic approaches. At present, the standard treatments for AD include topical anti-inflammatory drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids. Topical emollient treatment is recommended to moisten the skin and to restore and maintain barrier function. Phototherapy is also effective in reducing the number of epidermal nerve fibers, normalizing imbalances in the levels of expression of axon guidance molecules, and inhibiting pruritus. Systemic treatments such as cyclosporine A and aprepitant are used to treat severe and intractable pruritus in AD. Clinical trials of dupilumab and CIM331 have displayed a significant reduction of pruritus in patients with AD. New antipruritic approaches are targeted to the central nervous system such as spinal interneurons and glial cells. This chapter describes therapeutic approaches for attenuating intractable itch in AD. PMID:27578076

  14. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  15. Therapeutic perspectives in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Therapy of atopic dermatitis should comprise emollients, topical glucocorticosteroids, or calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapies, immunosuppressants like cyclosporin A, and other treatments. All these treatments should be improved, thanks to research. But new therapeutic perspectives should be given by topical anti-inflammatory substances, selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists, probiotics, interferon γ, TNFα inhibitors, inhibition of T cells or B cells, inhibition of IgE binding, and many other possibilities.

  16. [New concepts about atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Sosa Vázquez, M; Orea, M; Flores, G

    2001-01-01

    The atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin illness, with remissions and exacerbations, itch, and association with allergic rhinitis and asthma. There is a complex interrelationship of genetic, environmental, pharmacological and psychological factors that contribute to the development and severity of the illness: Different manifestations of immunological disorders are an increment in the number of IgE antibodies toward common antigens, an increment in the liberation of proinflammatory mediators by basophils and mast cells, peripheral and local eosinophilia, biphasic activity Th1/Th2 with the liberation of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), GM-CSF and the IFN-gamma caused by the cells Th1. an increment in the liberation of major basic protein, eosinophil cationic protein besides the expression of chemotactic factors by the monocytes (RANTES, eotaxin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, etc.). In 1980, Hanifin and Rajka made public the diagnostic criteria for the atopic dermatitis and it has been universally accepted as an standard for the diagnosis. Leung reported that a knowledge about the immunopathological bases of the atopic dermatitis has important clinical implications for the diagnosis and possible treatment there are multiple choices for a treatment because of the complexity of the illness. Among these are thalidomide and transfer factor as an immunomodulator treatment with acceptable safety and clinical efficacy.

  17. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  18. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  19. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  20. ATOPIC DERMATITIS: EXPRESSION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL IMBALANCE.

    PubMed

    Manti, S; Chimenz, R; Salpietro, A; Colavita, L; Pennisi, P; Pidone, C; Sturiale, M; Arrigo, T; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory skin condition, characterized by a skin barrier dysfunction resulting in epidermal damage and altered permeability to allergens and microbes. Although pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is complex and still not fully understood, it has been hypothesized that genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and skin barrier dysfunction are involved. Innate and adaptive immune system has also a pivotal role in the development, maintenance and flare-up of atopic dermatitis. The immune-pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is determined by the impairment of different T helper cells, of their cytokine secretion profiles as well as of their specific receptor. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of the etiopathogenetic pathways of atopic dermatitis in relationship to the critical role of the innate and adaptive immune system, providing a unifying view. PMID:26634582

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances.

  2. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  3. Munchausen Syndrome as Dermatitis Simulata

    PubMed Central

    Hariharasubramony, Ambika; Chankramath, Sujatha; Srinivasa, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with many dermatological disorders. It may be the cause for skin problem or may be the effect of a skin problem as skin being a visual organ. A 28-year-old female presented with multiple red lesions on the skin with unusual morphology and was diagnosed as dermatitis simulata. She gave history of multiple episodes of similar illnesses with admissions in various hospitals and being evaluated and dropping off in between treatments. After detailed psychological evaluation, patient was diagnosed as case of Munchausen syndrome. PMID:22661819

  4. Contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Roopal V; Scheman, Andrew J; Gutmanovich, Artem; Hernandez, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    A 31-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of presumed atopic dermatitis. She complained of severe pruritus and the presence of extensive patches of erythema and scale. Her previous treatments included: multiple topical corticosteroids, tacrolimus 0.1% ointment, pimecrolimus 1% cream, and cyclosporine with no improvement of her symptoms. Her past medical history was unremarkable and she was on no other oral medications, including over-the-counter products. On physical examination, multiple erythematous, scaly patches were present on the chest, abdomen,back, and upper extremities. Lichenification of both antecubital fossa was present. Extensive excoriations on her arms and abdomen were also noted. Although the patient had a long-standing history of presumed atopic dermatitis, she had never undergone a skin biopsy. A skin biopsy was performed which demonstrated a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with eosinophils and dermal edema (Figures 1, 2). The biopsy was suggestive of possible hypersensitivity dermatitis. The patient then underwent patch testing. The following patch tests were applied to normal back skin using IQ chambers:North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) expanded standard, textile, fragrance trays, and ingredients found in her products (Chemotechnique, Malmo, Sweden). A total of 89 patches were applied, removed at 48 hours, and read both at 48 and 96 hours. At 48 hours, a total of 70 allergens were positive, 69 of those allergens were in a petrolatum vehicle. There were 50, 3+ reactions to sites of allergens in petrolatum (Figure 3). There were only two sites with petrolatum that were negative: budesonide (a corticosteroid) and melamine formaldehyde. In contrast, all of the sites where there were allergens in liquid vehicles were negative, with the exception of a 1+ reaction to cocamidopropyl betaine. At 48 hours,four additional patch tests were applied to plain petrolatum. Two of these patches were in plastic IQ chambers

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  6. Oxidative Stress in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongxiu; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic skin disorder affecting many people especially young children. It is a disease caused by the combination of genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, and skin barrier defect. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests oxidative stress may play an important role in many skin diseases and skin aging, possibly including AD. In this review, we give an update on scientific progress linking oxidative stress to AD and discuss future treatment strategies for better disease control and improved quality of life for AD patients. PMID:27006746

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products. PMID:23259208

  8. Role of TRPV3 in immune response to development of dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Kinichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Hirasawa, Tsutomu; Sakata, Tsuneaki

    2009-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been reported that the Gly573Ser substitution of transient receptor potential V3 (TRPV3) leads to increased ion-channel activity in keratinocytes. Our previous studies have indicated that the spontaneous hairless and dermatitis phenotypes of DS-Nh mice, which were newly established as an animal model of atopic dermatitis (AD), are caused by TRPV3Gly573Ser. Although this substitution causes hairlessness in several kinds of rodents, in our investigations, dermatitis developed in only a few animals. Here, we generated NC/Nga-Nh mice to elucidate the role of TRPV3Gly573Ser in NC/Nga mice, which is one of the most studied animal models of AD. Methods To establish and validate the new AD animal model, NC/Nga-Nh mice were generated using NC/Nga and DS-Nh mice, and their clinical features were compared. Next, T-cell receptor (TCR) Vβ usage in splenocytes, evaluation of bacterial colonization, and serological and histological analyses were carried out. Finally, repeated-hapten-application dermatitis was induced in these mice. Results NC/Nga-Nh mice did not develop spontaneous dermatitis, whereas DS-Nh mice displayed this phenotype when maintained under the same conditions. Serological analysis indicated that there really was a phenotypic difference between these mice, and TCR repertoire analysis indicated that TCRVβ haplotypes played an important role in the development of dermatitis. Artificial dermatitis developed in DS and NC/Nga-Nh mice, but not in DS-Nh and NC/Nga mice. Histological and serological analyses indicated that mouse strains were listed in descending order of number of skin mast cells: DS-Nh > DS ≈ NC/Nga-Nh > NC/Nga, and serum IgE levels were increased after 2,4,6 trinitrochlorobenzene application in these mice. Serum IgE level in DS-Nh mice was lower than that mesured in other strains. Conclusion Our results confirm the contribution of the TRPV3Gly573Ser gene to the development of repeated hapten dermatitis, but not

  9. Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis: a complication of adult urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Van, Livia; Harting, Mandy; Rosen, Ted

    2008-07-01

    Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis is typically described as a severe irritant dermatitis of the perianal region. However, Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis, perianal pseudoverrucous papules and nodules, and granuloma gluteale infantum/ adultorum have been regarded as discrete entities or all part of the same clinical spectrum, representing the result of chronic, severe, irritant contact dermatitis. We present a case of Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis and a discussion of the clinical spectrum of diseases to which it belongs.

  10. Recent Insights into Atopic Dermatitis and Implications for Management of Infectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Leung, Donald Y. M.

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, complex disease that frequently follows a chronic, relapsing course and impacts the quality of life of patients and families in a significant manner. New insights into the pathophysiology of AD point to an important role of structural abnormalities in the epidermis combined with immune dysregulation. Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by a number of microbial organisms, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simpex virus. A multi-pronged approach directed at healing or protecting the skin barrier and addressing the immune dysregulation is necessary to improve the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20109729

  11. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... day. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  12. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... day. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  13. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... day. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  14. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... day. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  15. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... day. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  16. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis with Eosinophilic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall and variable gastrointestinal manifestations. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for EG when faced with gastrointestinal symptoms and peripheral eosinophilia to avoid incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatments. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and a laparoscopic appendectomy performed for a presumed diagnosis of an acute appendicitis. However, the procedure revealed bowel edema and a moderate amount of ascites without evidence of a suppurative appendicitis. Postoperatively, she showed persistent and progressive eosinophilia, exudative eosinophilic ascites, eosinophilic infiltration of the resected appendix wall, and eosinophilic infiltration of gastroduodenal mucosa. A punch biopsy of the abdominal skin also revealed inflammation with marked eosinophilic infiltration of the skin. She recovered after the treatment with a low dose of steroid for the EG with eosinophilic dermatitis. EG with eosinophilic dermatitis has not been reported yet and is considered fortuitous in this case. PMID:20046530

  17. Contact dermatitis to biperiden and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist.

    PubMed

    Torinuki, W

    1995-08-01

    A case of contact dermatitis to biperiden, an anti-Parkinson agent, and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist was reported. The patient developed eczematous lesions on exposed area after she had worked at a psychiatric hospital for 6 months. She showed positive patch test reaction to biperiden. In addition, she reacted positively to photopatch testing with ultraviolet A and phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine and perphenazine. To our knowledge, contact dermatitis to biperiden has not been previously reported in the English literature.

  18. Collembola are Unlikely to Cause Human Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, CSH; Lim, SL; Chew, FT; Ong, TC; Deharveng, L

    2009-01-01

    There have been several unconfirmed case reports of dermatitis caused by Collembola (springtails). We recently investigated two nurses with dermatitis suspected to be caused by Drepanura Schött (Collembola: Entomobryidae). IgE antibodies to Collembola proteins were not detected in sera from the nurses and skin tests with the Collembola extract and crushed whole Collembola were negative in both the nurses and volunteers. This study suggests that the springtail Drepanura may not cause human dermatitis and that other organisms and organic matter that are also found in the moist environment inhabited by Collembola might instead be responsible. PMID:19611235

  19. Systemic Contact Dermatitis from Propolis Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eujin; Lee, Jeong Deuk

    2011-01-01

    Propolis, also known as bee glue, is a substance collected by worker bees and it is used as a material for constructing and maintaining their beehives. It has been used topically and orally by humans for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the growing use of propolis has been paralleled by reports of allergic contact dermatitis as a reaction to the substance. Contact dermatitis with generalized cutaneous manifestations elicited by propolis ingestion has not been previously reported. Here we report on the first case of systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion in a 36-year-old woman. PMID:21738371

  20. [Immunomodulation by tacrolimus in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Orozco, Alain R; Ruiz Reyes, Héctor

    2004-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic disease, in which the treatment is extremely complex; even when several immunological abnormalities have been described in atopic dermatitis, the immune response to drugs remains unclear for both: conventional and unconventional therapies. The present review is centered on clinical efficacy and safety of tacrolimus, one of the immunomodulators proposed to treat atopic dermatitis. There are clinical evidences to support that tacrolimus have considerable impact on expression of inflammatory markers, despite of clinical assays could be necessary to demonstrate its profiles of toxicity and efficacy, during long-time periods.

  1. [Occupational dermatitis in health care personnel].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick

    2002-09-01

    Occupational dermatosis are frequent among healthcare workers. Irritant hand dermatitis is more common than allergic contact dermatitis. It is enhanced by the exposure to irritants: water, detergents, disinfectants and a history of atopic dermatitis. Natural rubber latex contained in rubber gloves can induce contact urticaria or generalized immediate allergic reactions. Contact eczema can be induced by rubber accelerators such as thiurams, disinfectants (glutaraldehyde, dodecyldimethylammonium). Nurses can become sensitized to handled drugs (antibiotics, propacetamol...). These occupational allergies have to be diagnosed, because sensitized nurses can develop severe generalized cutaneous adverse drug reactions if they are systemically exposed to the same drug than those that has previously induced an occupational contact allergy. PMID:12385152

  2. Systemic contact dermatitis--kids and ketchup.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise M; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Systemic manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis due to consumption of foods containing balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)-associated chemicals have recently been reported in children. We present seven children with widespread, recalcitrant dermatitis who experienced 60-80% clearance after initiating a diet low in balsam of Peru, specifically the tomato product ketchup. Furthermore, because we have observed a high prevalence of ketchup in our pediatric patients' diets, we recommend consideration of moderate consumption of this product in patients with recalcitrant widespread dermatitis. PMID:22299798

  3. [Dermatitis from contact with Agave americana].

    PubMed

    Golan, H; Landau, M; Goldberg, I; Brenner, S

    2000-10-01

    Various plants induce dermatitis in man. There have been only a few published cases of contact dermatitis caused by Agave americana (AA). We report intentional exposure to AA in a soldier seeking sick leave, and review our previously reported cases. Treatment with oral antihistamines and topical saline compresses resulted in subsidence of the systemic symptoms within 24 h and regression of cutaneous manifestations in 7-10 days. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of self-inflicted contact dermatitis induced by exposure to plants, especially to A. americana. Systemic signs may accompany the cutaneous lesions.

  4. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  5. The Role of Textiles in Dermatitis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Mobolaji-Lawal, Motunrayo; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Dermatitis has important implications for individuals who are affected. It can significantly impair function and quality of life. Dermatitis is multi-factorial and often includes elements of atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and irritant contact dermatitis in a co-existent manner. Textiles are in contact with the human skin for extended periods of time and as a result, they are an important part of the cutaneous environment. Thus, it is not surprising that textiles play a major role in both the etiology and the treatment of various types of dermatitis. This review discusses the role of textiles in dermatitis with an emphasis on interesting and recent advances, trends, perspectives, gaps, and conflicts in the field. In addition, we mention other disease processes to be aware of as they can often mimic textile pattern dermatitis. Lastly, we provide a diagnostic approach for patients presenting with textile pattern dermatitis.

  6. Cytopathology of parasitic dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

    2012-04-01

    Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis. PMID:23543297

  7. Footwear dermatitis: pathogenesis--part I.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Rasool, Farhan; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok; Verma, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Footwear dermatitis is an important aspect of contemporary dermatology. The causative factors are constantly changing just as the footwear industry is continually changing. These range from the leather itself to rubber accelerators and from dyes to even metal trim.

  8. Atopic dermatitis in the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2016-01-01

    Dogs may develop a syndrome of spontaneous, inflammatory, pruritic dermatitis that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis, including a young age of onset, characteristic lesion distribution, immunoglobulin E sensitization to common environmental allergen sources, and evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction. There are also several important differences between canine and human atopic dermatitis. Although dogs may suffer from multiple-organ hypersensitivity syndromes, there is no evidence that this species experiences the progressive evolution from cutaneous to respiratory allergy characteristic of the human atopic march. Despite the presence of epidermal barrier derangement, there is no significant association between canine atopic dermatitis and mutations in filaggrin. Finally, treatment of canine disease relies much less heavily on topical therapy than does its human counterpart, while allergy testing and allergen-specific immunotherapy provide an often essential component of effective clinical management of affected dogs. PMID:26903192

  9. Canine atopic dermatitis - what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Uri, Maarja; Halliwell, Richard

    2013-02-23

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a complex multifactorial disease. Here, Tim Nuttall, Maarja Uri and Richard Halliwell, representing three generations of veterinary dermatologists, describe the research underpinning our understanding of the condition and highlight its relevance to clinical practice.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Juglans mandshurica leaf on allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions-induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-03-01

    Allergic dermatitis among common skin diseases is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder caused by genetic, environmental, allergens as well as microbial factors. Allergic dermatitis patients clinically present skin erythematous plaques, eruption, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine levels. The leaf of walnut tree Juglans mandshurica Maxim (JM) is consumed food and traditional phytomedicine in Asia, China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of JM on allergic dermatitis has been reported. Here, we demonstrated the effect of JM against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions. 0.5% JM or 1% dexamethasone (positive control) applied to the dorsal skin inhibited development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions and scratching behavior. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines IgE, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-13, were significantly reduced by JM treatment. Thus JM can inhibit development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators, and may be an effective alternative therapy for allergic dermatitis.

  11. Atopic Dermatitis: Update for Pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine; Maguiness, Sheilagh

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disorder present in up to 20% of children. Recent advances implicate skin barrier dysfunction as central to disease pathogenesis. Genetic defects in the filaggrin gene, the product of which is important for maintaining the epidermal barrier, are a strong predisposing factor in the development of AD. In addition to reducing identifiable triggers, treatment should focus on the four clinical characteristics of eczema: emollients for dry skin, topical anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and itch, and strategies to reduce infection/colonization, which can include diluted bleach baths. New studies demonstrate that early emollient application from birth may prevent development of AD. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e280-e286.]. PMID:27517355

  12. [Allergic contact dermatitis due to prednicarbate].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Kunz, R; Köllner, A; Kunze, J

    1991-01-01

    Two female patients developed an allergic contact dermatitis after using Dermatop cream and -ointment for several weeks. Patch tests were positive with the reagent prednicarbate itself. No cross reactions to other glucocorticosteroids were observed. Type-IV-sensitization to glucocorticosteroids should be considered if chronic dermatitis does not improve, or even becomes worse, in spite of adequate therapy. With regard to possible cross reactions or multiple sensitization, epicutaneous tests with other glucocorticosteroids are necessary.

  13. Radiation Recall Dermatitis Secondary to Dactinomycin.

    PubMed

    Prindaville, Brea; Horii, Kimberly A; Canty, Kristi M

    2016-09-01

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an uncommon reaction typically triggered by the use of chemotherapeutic agents in the months after treatment with radiation therapy. It usually presents as dermatitis in the irradiated field with prominent intertriginous involvement, and because internal involvement occurs in up to one-third of cases, early recognition is important. RRD has rarely been reported in the pediatric literature. We report the case of a 15-month-old boy with RRD to dactinomycin. PMID:27377050

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to adhesive bandages.

    PubMed

    Norris, P; Storrs, F J

    1990-01-01

    More than two billion Band-Aid Brand Sheer Strips are used in the United States yearly, yet allergic contact dermatitis resulting from their use is nearly nonexistent. We report four patients with allergic reactions to these strips. One patient reacted to tricresyl phosphate, the plasticizer in the vinyl backing; another patient was allergic to 2,5-di(tertiary-amyl)hydroquinone, the antioxidant in the adhesive. In the other two patients, the allergic contact dermatitis remains unexplained.

  15. Diaper dermatitis that does not quit.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2005-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in infants. The humid, moist environment under the diaper makes the skin more susceptible to injury from exposure to irritants particularly related to urine and feces. A gentle cleansing routine, frequent diaper changes, and a thick barrier cream help control this condition. Irritant diaper dermatitis should be distinguished from other skin conditions that may develop in this sensitive area.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee; Choi, Jun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2004-05-01

    White petrolatum is known for its nonsensitizing and nonirritating properties. Only a few cases of allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum have been reported. Although it is a rare event, the finding of contact sensitization to white petrolatum raises the potential problem of its usage of common topical agents or vehicles for patch testing. We herein report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

  17. Diaper Dermatitis: Differential Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kellen, Philippa E.

    1990-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common dermatoses occurring in infancy. It is an irritant dermatitis, in which a variety of factors act in concert to produce inflammation of the diapered skin. The differential diagnosis includes many common and some uncommon conditions. Successful treatment requires detailed instructions to caregivers regarding simple hygienic procedures and diapering practices. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:21233927

  18. Ciclopirox shampoo for treating seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Bluhm, R

    2004-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease, affecting between 1% and 3% of immunocompetent adults. While its cause is unknown, a number of predisposing factors have been reported, including the implications of Malassezia yeasts. Various treatment options are available, such as ciclopirox shampoo, which combines anti-Malassezia activity with an anti-inflammatory action. This agent has been shown to be an effective and safe treatment for seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.

  19. [New treatments of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Taïeb, A; Boralevi, F

    2005-04-01

    Topical steroids are still used suboptimally, but remain the mainstay of atopic dermatitis treatment. Topical steroid phobia is rampant in many countries, a real advantage for the entry on the market of topical immunomodulators (TIMs), which inhibit both antigen specific and non-specific T cell activation in the skin, by blockade of gene transcription of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL2 and TNF alpha. Topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus have the most advanced clinical development. Tacrolimus, already used orally in transplantation medicine, is already available in France since 2003 as a 0.03% ointment for children (Protopic, Fujisawa). Its introduction on the market has substantially changed prescription habits in atopic dermatitis. Recalcitrant adolescent and adult head and neck lesions are the major target, but the drug is is also widely used in children, with a good safety profile. The risk of herpes virus superinfections did not increase significantly in clinical trials but needs further monitoring. Long-term prescription will need a closer look at a still much debated increased skin cancer risk. The marked efficacy on thin skin sites and absence of atrophogenic properties of the drug balance its side effects at the first applications on inflamed skin (pruritus, burning sensation). Clinical studies using pimecrolimus (Elidel, Novartis), marketed as a 1% cream, show a satisfactorily efficacy profile in adults and children including infants. The drug is better tolerated and is already widely introduced on the international market since 2002 with a pediatric positioning, but is nor available yet in 2004 in France. Besides phototherapy, systemic immunosuppressants remain useful drugs in severe disease especially in older children and adolescents, cyclosporin remaining the leading drug. Preventive immunomodulation modifying the intestinal microflora is very promising approach which deserves a large-scale assessment. PMID:15808446

  20. Optimizing Treatment Approaches in Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson’s disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment. PMID:23441240

  1. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:26191377

  2. Optimizing treatment approaches in seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gary, Goldenberg

    2013-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson's disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment. PMID:23441240

  3. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangmi

    2015-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed.

  4. Production and secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M; Kemp, A

    1994-01-01

    IFN-gamma is known to be a major inhibitor of IgE synthesis in vitro. Recent studies demonstrating reduced production of IFN-gamma in children and adults with atopic dermatitis and elevated serum IgE suggest a similar role for this cytokine in vivo. The reasons for this reduced IFN-gamma production are not known. One possibility is that atopic individuals have a reduced population of cells producing IFN-gamma in vivo. Using a fluorescence-labelled antibody to detect intracellular IFN-gamma, the percentage of IFN-gamma-producing cells was determined in children with atopic dermatitis and in non-atopic controls. Children with atopic dermatitis had a greater percentage of IFN-gamma-producing cells in unstimulated cultures compared with controls, indicating in vivo activation of lymphocytes in the atopic group. This could reflect the significant degree of inflammation present in these children, or the presence of bacterial infection or colonization. Although secretion of IFN-gamma after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/Ca was significantly lower in children with atopic dermatitis compared with controls, the percentage of IFN-gamma-producing cells in the stimulated cultures from this group was equivalent to controls. This demonstrates that the reduced ability of atopic children to secrete IFN-gamma in vitro does not relate to a lack of IFN-gamma-producing cells, but to a difference in the regulation of IFN-gamma production beyond the stage of signal transduction. PMID:8287610

  5. Cow's Milk Allergy Is a Major Contributor in Recurrent Perianal Dermatitis of Infants.

    PubMed

    El-Hodhod, Mostafa Abdel-Aziz; Hamdy, Ahmad Mohamed; El-Deeb, Marwa Talaat; Elmaraghy, Mohamed O

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recurrent perianal inflammation has great etiologic diversity. A possible cause is cow's milk allergy (CMA). The aim was to assess the magnitude of this cause. Subjects and Methods. This follow up clinical study was carried out on 63 infants with perianal dermatitis of more than 3 weeks with history of recurrence. Definitive diagnosis was made for each infant through medical history taking, clinical examination and investigations including stool analysis and culture, stool pH and reducing substances, perianal swab for different cultures and staining for Candida albicans. Complete blood count and quantitative determination of cow's milk-specific serum IgE concentration were done for all patients. CMA was confirmed through an open withdrawal-rechallenge procedure. Serum immunoglobulins and CD markers as well as gastrointestinal endoscopies were done for some patients. Results. Causes of perianal dermatitis included CMA (47.6%), bacterial dermatitis (17.46%), moniliasis (15.87%), enterobiasis (9.52%) and lactose intolerance (9.5%). Predictors of CMA included presence of bloody and/or mucoid stool, other atopic manifestations, anal fissures, or recurrent vomiting. Conclusion. We can conclude that cow's milk allergy is a common cause of recurrent perianal dermatitis. Mucoid or bloody stool, anal fissures or ulcers, vomiting and atopic manifestations can predict this etiology. PMID:22988522

  6. Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to intraocular lenses.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, P. G.; Elliot, T. S.; McTaggart, L.

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated, with an in vitro model, that Staphylococcus epidermidis is able to colonise intraocular lenses. Adherent organisms were quantitated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and viable counting. Bacterial adherence was associated with production of a polysaccharide glycocalyx. Organisms which were attached to the lenses were resistant to apparently bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics, as determined by conventional testing. We speculate on the role of colonisation in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis. Images PMID:2751971

  7. Easter egg hunt dermatitis: systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with chocolate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis.

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus laryngitis.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Tracey; Kaye, Keith; Rubin, Adam D

    2010-09-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become more prevalent, in part because of the emergence and spread of community-acquired MRSA. This trend is particularly concerning because of the significant rates of morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA infections, and because MRSA strains are often resistant to many classes of antibiotics. Reports of infections of the head and neck, including wound infections, cellulitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and otitis externa, are well documented. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of bacterial laryngitis due to MRSA. We report the first published case of bacterial laryngitis caused by MRSA.

  9. Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, M.V. )

    1988-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age, sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.

  10. Mental Health Comorbidity in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yaghmaie, Pouya; Koudelka, Caroline W.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent data, primarily from Europe, suggest children with atopic dermatitis may be at increased risk of developing mental health disorders. Objective We aimed to quantify the mental health burden associated with pediatric atopic dermatitis in the United States. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used analyzing data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health – a survey reporting on the health status of 92,642 non-institutionalized children ages 0-17. The lifetime prevalence of various provider-diagnosed mental health conditions was calculated for those with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Results The odds of having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly increased in children with atopic dermatitis compared to non-atopic dermatitis controls, OR 1.87 (95% CI 1.54, 2.27) even after controlling for known confounders. The adjusted odds ratios for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and autism were 1.81 (95% CI 1.33,2.46) , 1.77 (95% CI 1.36, 2.29), 1.87 (1.46, 2.39), and 3.04 (95% CI 2.13, 4.34), respectively, and these estimates were all statistically significant. A clear dose-dependent relationship was observed between the prevalence of a mental health disorder and the reported severity of the skin disease. Conclusions Our data reveal a striking association between mental health disorders and atopic dermatitis in the U.S. pediatric population. The severity of the skin disease alters the strength of the association. Prospective cohort studies are needed to verify these associations and to explore underlying mechanisms. Strategies to prevent atopic dermatitis or to aggressively treat early skin inflammation may modify the risk of developing mental health disorders in at-risk children. PMID:23245818

  11. Carotenoid Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ray K.; White, David C.

    1970-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments of Staphylococcus aureus U-71 were identified as phytoene; ζ-carotene; δ-carotene; phytofluenol; a phytofluenol-like carotenoid, rubixanthin; and three rubixanthin-like carotenoids after extraction, saponification, chromatographic separation, and determination of their absorption spectra. There was no evidence of carotenoid esters or glycoside ethers in the extract before saponification. During the aerobic growth cycle the total carotenoids increased from 45 to 1,000 nmoles per g (dry weight), with the greatest increases in the polar, hydroxylated carotenoids. During the anaerobic growth cycle, the total carotenoids increased from 20 nmoles per g (dry weight) to 80 nmoles per g (dry weight), and only traces of the polar carotenoids were formed. Light had no effect on carotenoid synthesis. About 0.14% of the mevalonate-2-14C added to the culture was incorporated into the carotenoids during each bacterial doubling. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The incorporation and turnover of 14C indicated the carotenes were sequentially desaturated and hydroxylated to form the polar carotenoids. PMID:5423369

  12. A prospective study of the clinical findings, treatment and histopathology of 44 cases of pyotraumatic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Holm, Birgit R; Rest, Joan R; Seewald, Wolfgang

    2004-12-01

    Pyotraumatic dermatitis (hot spot) is a common clinical syndrome in dogs but there are few prospective scientific studies related to it. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations among clinical pyotraumatic dermatitis, histopathology of the lesions and possible predisposing causes. The relationship of these with breed, age, sex and location of lesion was assessed statistically. A clinical diagnosis of acute pyotraumatic dermatitis was made in 44 privately owned dogs. Males exceeded females (P = 0.0348) and lesions were more common in dogs aged 4 years or less (P < 0.0001). Lesions were most often seen on the cheek, neck and lateral thigh with a significant correlation between breed and site of lesion (P < 0.0001). In 31 cases a possible underlying cause was found or suspected. In contrast to previous studies, no otitis externa was recorded and the study was conducted in an area without endemic fleas. Fourteen breeds were represented of which Rottweiler, German shepherd dog and golden retriever were most common. There was no significant seasonal incidence and no correlation among site of lesion and cause, time of year, age or sex. Histopathologically, the dogs could be separated into four patterns by the presence or absence of eosinophils and/or folliculitis. Eosinophils have not previously been recorded in pyotraumatic dermatitis but were seen in 29 cases. Acute folliculitis was seen in 20 cases. However, no correlation was seen among age, sex, breed, underlying cause or site of lesion and histopathology. Twenty-seven cases were cultured for bacteria of which 25 grew Staphylococcus intermedius and two were negative.

  13. Risk factors for dermatitis in submariners during a submerged patrol: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Lindsay, Michael; Gunner, Frances; Wyllie, David H

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this pilot study was to determine risk factors, including Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, for dermatitis in submariners during a submarine patrol. Participants and methods 36 submariners undertaking a submerged 6-week patrol participated in the study. Severity of dermatitis and its impact was assessed using visual analogue scales and questionnaires at baseline and weekly throughout the patrol. S. aureus carriage levels in submariners were determined by nasal swabbing at baseline and shortly before disembarking the submarine. Occurrence of any skin or soft tissue infections (SSTI) were reported to the medical officer and swabs of the area were taken for subsequent analysis. Results S. aureus carriers were significantly more likely than non-carriers to have previously received treatment for a cutaneous abscess (39% vs 5%, OR=13 (95% CI 1.3 to 130)) with a trend to being submariners longer (p=0.051). Skin scores at baseline and on patrol were not significantly associated with carriage status. Higher dermatitis scores were observed in those who had been submariners longer (p=0.045). Smoking and allergies were not found to be linked to carriage status or skin health score in this cohort. Conclusions This small pilot study investigates S. aureus carriage status and skin health in submariners. Length of submarine service but not S. aureus carriage was identified as a risk factor for worsening skin health in this small cohort during a 6-week patrol. This does not support S. aureus decolonisation to improve skin health in this population. Further investigation into causes of dermatitis in submariners is required. This data supports a better understanding of the potential impact of exposure to environmental factors that could affect skin health in submariners. PMID:27256090

  14. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are among the most important causative agents of acute and chronic bacterial infections in humans as well as in animals. Treatment of Staphylococcus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. For this reason innovative antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action are needed. Since the discovery that QS is used by Staphylococcus spp. to coordinate the expression of several genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity, QS inhibition has gained increasing attention as an alternative anti-pathogenic strategy. A major advantage compared with antibiotic therapy is that QSIs are used in concentrations that do not affect bacterial growth. For this reason, it is expected that these compounds would exert less pressure towards the development of resistance. However, some important points still need to be addressed. Although several inhibitors have proven to be active antipathogenic agents in vitro and in several in vivo models, it is still unknown whether these compounds will also be useful in humans. Furthermore, several fundamental mechanisms by which the different QS systems in Staphylococcus spp. exert their regulatory functions and how they are inhibited by QSIs are still poorly understood. In order to achieve real-life applications with QSIs, these challenges should be addressed and more research will be needed. In this article, we will discuss the different QS systems present in Staphylococcus spp., how they are used to control virulence and biofilm formation and how they can be blocked.

  15. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gary W; Pope, Sara M; Jaboori, Khalid A

    2015-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition in infants, adolescents, and adults. The characteristic symptoms-scaling, erythema, and itching-occur most often on the scalp, face, chest, back, axilla, and groin. Seborrheic dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on the location and appearance of the lesions. The skin changes are thought to result from an inflammatory response to a common skin organism, Malassezia yeast. Treatment with antifungal agents such as topical ketoconazole is the mainstay of therapy for seborrheic dermatitis of the face and body. Because of possible adverse effects, anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors should be used only for short durations. Several over-the-counter shampoos are available for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, and patients should be directed to initiate therapy with one of these agents. Antifungal shampoos (long-term) and topical corticosteroids (short-term) can be used as second-line agents for treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gary W; Pope, Sara M; Jaboori, Khalid A

    2015-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition in infants, adolescents, and adults. The characteristic symptoms-scaling, erythema, and itching-occur most often on the scalp, face, chest, back, axilla, and groin. Seborrheic dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on the location and appearance of the lesions. The skin changes are thought to result from an inflammatory response to a common skin organism, Malassezia yeast. Treatment with antifungal agents such as topical ketoconazole is the mainstay of therapy for seborrheic dermatitis of the face and body. Because of possible adverse effects, anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors should be used only for short durations. Several over-the-counter shampoos are available for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, and patients should be directed to initiate therapy with one of these agents. Antifungal shampoos (long-term) and topical corticosteroids (short-term) can be used as second-line agents for treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:25822272

  18. Retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, M; Suzuma, K; Inaba, I; Ogura, Y; Yoneda, K; Okamoto, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis, one of the most common forms of dermatitis in Japan, has markedly increased in Japan in the past 10 years. To clarify pathogenic mechanisms of retinal detachment in such cases, we retrospectively studied clinical characteristics of retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis. METHODS: We examined the records of 80 patients (89 eyes) who had retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis. The patients were classified into three groups according to lens status: group A, eyes with clear lenses (40 eyes); group B, eyes with cataract (38 eyes), and group C, aphakic or pseudophakic eyes (11 eyes). RESULTS: No significant differences were noted in the ratio of males to females, age distribution, refractive error, or characteristic of retinal detachment among the three groups. The types of retinal breaks, however, were different in eyes with and without lens changes. While atrophic holes were dominant in group A, retinal dialysis was mainly seen in groups B and C. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that anterior vitreoretinal traction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of retinal breaks in eyes with atopic cataract and that the same pathological process may affect the formation of cataract and tractional retinal breaks in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:8664234

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause.

  20. Atypical diaper dermatitis: contact allergy to mercapto compounds.

    PubMed

    Onken, Anna Theresa; Baumstark, Julia; Belloni, Benedetta; Ring, Johannes; Schnopp, Christina

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis in an 18-month-old boy caused by type-IV allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole as components of the elastic border of diapers. Allergic contact dermatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of diaper dermatitis, especially in difficult-to-treat cases or atypical clinical presentation.

  1. Dermatitis Neglecta -- A Dirty Dermatosis: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Abhijit; Seth, Joly; Sharma, Amita; Biswas, Desharghya

    2015-01-01

    Dermatitis neglecta is a condition that results from inadequate frictional cleansing leading to accumulation of corneocytes, sebum and sweat ultimately resulting in hyper-pigmented patch or verrucous plaque. Recognizing this condition avoids unnecessary, aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Here we report three cases of dermatitis neglecta in whom the dermatitis developed as a result of intentional neglect of personal hygiene. PMID:25814710

  2. [Atopic dermatitis of the adult].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Aubert, H; Bernier, C; Néel, A; Barbarot, S

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) of the adult is a common skin disease. Its prevalence has greatly increased during the past decades. AD is commonly associated with other atopic disorders. Its impact on quality of life is often underestimated. Various immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in AD: innate epidermal barrier dysfunction due to filaggrin gene mutations, innate and adaptative abnormalities of the immune system (an initial Th2 phase precedes a chronic Th1 phase), intestinal and cutaneous microbiomes dysbiosis, and environmental factors. Diagnosis of AD is clinical and there is no predictive biomarker of future severity. The main differential diagnoses are: scabies, psoriasis, cutaneous adverse reaction, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, primary immunodeficiency, and Netherton's syndrome. Therapeutic management is challenging and should integrate a therapeutic education program. Topical corticosteroids are the first line treatment, including a preliminary assessment of possible topical corticosteroids phobia. Systemic treatments are recommended in severe, chronic and resistant AD, after careful evaluation in a reference centre. Dupilumab, an IL4/IL13 inhibitor, might be the first effective targeted therapy in AD, whereas therapies that specifically target the mechanisms of pruritus represent an exciting perspective.

  3. [Atopic dermatitis of the adult].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Aubert, H; Bernier, C; Néel, A; Barbarot, S

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) of the adult is a common skin disease. Its prevalence has greatly increased during the past decades. AD is commonly associated with other atopic disorders. Its impact on quality of life is often underestimated. Various immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in AD: innate epidermal barrier dysfunction due to filaggrin gene mutations, innate and adaptative abnormalities of the immune system (an initial Th2 phase precedes a chronic Th1 phase), intestinal and cutaneous microbiomes dysbiosis, and environmental factors. Diagnosis of AD is clinical and there is no predictive biomarker of future severity. The main differential diagnoses are: scabies, psoriasis, cutaneous adverse reaction, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, primary immunodeficiency, and Netherton's syndrome. Therapeutic management is challenging and should integrate a therapeutic education program. Topical corticosteroids are the first line treatment, including a preliminary assessment of possible topical corticosteroids phobia. Systemic treatments are recommended in severe, chronic and resistant AD, after careful evaluation in a reference centre. Dupilumab, an IL4/IL13 inhibitor, might be the first effective targeted therapy in AD, whereas therapies that specifically target the mechanisms of pruritus represent an exciting perspective. PMID:26617291

  4. [Food allergy in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Wichmann, K; Heratizadeh, A; Werfel, T

    2012-04-01

    Food allergy predominantly affects children rather than adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Early sensitization to foods has been found to be significantly associated with AD. Three different patterns of clinical reactions to food allergens in AD patients exist: i. immediate-type reaction, ii. isolated late-type reaction, iii. combined reaction (i. + ii.). While in children allergens from cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, fish, peanut or tree nuts are mostly responsible for allergic reactions, birch-pollen related food allergens seem to play a major role in adolescent and adults with AD in Central and Northern Europe. Defects of the epidermal barrier function seem to facilitate the development of sensitization to allergens following epicutaneous exposure. The relevance of defects of the gut barrier as well as genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk for food allergy remain to be further investigated. Numerous studies focus on prevention strategies which include breast-feeding or feeding with hydrolyzed milk substitute formula during the first 4 months of life.

  5. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  6. The adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli on cotton, polyester and their blends.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y L; Merry, J

    1986-06-01

    The adherent behaviour of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli on cotton, polyester and their blends through contact in aqueous suspensions was studied. Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to adhere to fabrics much more so than Staph. aureus. The adherence of both Staph. epidermidis and Staph. aureus to fabrics increased as the content of polyester fibres in the fabrics increased. The attachment of E. coli to all fabrics was very low and was not affected by the fibre contents. Total numbers of adherent bacteria on cotton and polyester fabrics were related directly to the concentrations of the bacterial suspensions. The extents of adherence, expressed by the percentage of adherent bacteria from the suspension, however, were independent of the concentration. The length of contact with bacteria was also found to affect the adherence of bacteria on fabrics studied.

  7. [Adaptive immune response and associated trigger factors in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Heratizadeh, A; Werfel, T; Rösner, L M

    2015-02-01

    Due to a broad variety of extrinsic trigger factors, patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are characterized by complex response mechanisms of the adaptive immune system. Notably, skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus seems to be of particular interest since not only exotoxins, but also other proteins of S. aureus can induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses which partially also correlate with the severity of AD. In a subgroup of AD patients Malassezia species induce specific IgE- and T cell-responses which has been demonstrated by atopy patch tests. Moreover, Mala s 13 is characterized by high cross-reactivity to the human corresponding protein (thioredoxin). Induction of a potential autoallergy due to molecular mimicry seems therefore to be relevant for Malassezia-sensitized AD patients. In addition, sensitization mechanisms to autoallergens aside from cross-reactivity are under current investigation. Regarding inhalant allergens, research projects are in progress with the aim to elucidate allergen-specific immune response mechanisms in more depth. For grass-pollen allergens a flare-up of AD following controlled exposure has been observed while for house dust mite-allergens a polarization towards Th2 and Th2/Th17 T cell phenotypes can be observed. These and further findings might finally contribute to the development of specific and effective treatments for aeroallergen-sensitized AD patients. PMID:25532900

  8. Modern Aspects of Phototherapy for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, Sonja Alexandra; Beissert, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Phototherapy has still great importance in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, though costs, compliance, and long-term risks narrow its relevance. In spite of its long history, up to now, the therapeutic regimes are mostly empirical. Narrowband UVB und UVA1 are the most frequently applied regimens in atopic dermatitis with proven efficacy. However, even for these modalities randomized prospective and controlled studies are still pending. Advances in photoimmunology and molecular biology had demonstrated that phototherapy targets inflammatory cells, alters cytokine production, and has a significant antimicrobial effect within atopic skin. This paper summarizes the current literature on the different regimes of phototherapy and also discusses therapeutic modalities like photochemotherapy and extracorporeal photopheresis. These more complex regimes should be restricted to severe cases of atopic dermatitis, which are refractory to topical treatment. PMID:22220185

  9. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis secondary to soy.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Senait W; Hirsch, Ann; Jaworsky, Christine

    2004-08-01

    A healthy 58-year-old woman developed an asymptomatic papular eruption of the neck, cheek, abdomen, arms, and flexures. There was an 8-year history of the lesions, which had erupted when the patient started a strict vegetarian diet. Lesions lasted 3 to 5 days, cleared without scarring, and were associated with burning and increased tearing of the eyes. The biopsy specimen showed an interstitial granulomatous dermatitis without vascular injury, collagen alteration, or mononuclear atypia. The eruption cleared when the patient omitted soy products from her diet. It subsequently recurred with intake of even minimal amounts of soy. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a histologic pattern of inflammation that generates a broad differential diagnosis. No previous reports of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis related to soy products are available in the literature.

  10. Filarial dermatitis in a striped skunk.

    PubMed

    Saito, E K; Little, S E

    1997-10-01

    A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Kansas (USA) with severe diffuse dermatitis characterized by extensive alopecic areas, thickened skin, and multiple, scattered cutaneous abscesses on the dorsal aspect of the head, neck, and trunk was submitted for diagnostic evaluation. More than 50 nematodes identified as Filaria taxideae were found in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Histologic examination of the skin revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation with intralesional larvated nematode eggs, moderate orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and mild acanthosis. The lesions resemble those reported from badgers (Taxidea taxus) and a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) with dermatitis caused by Filaria taxideae. Although F. taxideae has been previously collected from skunks, this is the first report of filarid dermatitis caused by this nematode in a striped skunk.

  11. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dochang; Koo, Ja Seung; Suh, Chang-Ok; Yoon, Chang Yun; Bae, Jaehyun; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of radiation recall dermatitis caused by trastuzumab. A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer received palliative first-line trastuzumab/paclitaxel and a salvage partial mastectomy with lymph node dissection was subsequently performed. In spite of the palliative setting, the pathology report indicated that no residual carcinoma was present, and then she underwent locoregional radiotherapy to ensure a definitive response. After radiotherapy, she has maintained trastuzumab monotherapy. Nine days after the fifth cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis in previously irradiated skin developed, with fever. Radiation recall dermatitis triggered by trastuzumab is extremely rare. A high fever developed abruptly with a skin rash. This may be the first case of this sort to be reported.

  12. Dissociative identity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Aydemir, Ertugrul H; Oguz, Oya

    2006-06-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rare psychiatric condition characterized by rubbing of skin blisters and denial of self-infliction. Dissociation may be comorbid with self-injurious behavior. A background of emotional disturbances during formative years and in later life often results in feelings of isolation and insecurity, which can lead to dissociation as a primary defense mechanism used to overcome traumatic events. In this case report, we describe a female patient with dermatitis artefacta associated with dissociative identity disorder. The patient was a 14-year-old girl. Multiple large, deep ulcerations with unnatural shapes were seen on her left forearm. The ulcerations were thought to be self-inflicted. Psychiatric examination revealed that she had a different identity, and inflicted the lesions when this was assumed. This case leads us to suggest that patients with dermatitis artefacta might have comorbid dissociative experiences, which cannot be identified easily.

  13. Identifying the causes of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ruth; Horn, Helen M

    2014-06-01

    Contact dermatitis results from skin contact with an exogenous substance. It can be caused by direct contact, airborne particles, vapours or light. Individuals of any age can be affected. The two most common variants are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ICD is more common and has a worse prognosis. Other less common forms of contact dermatitis include photocontact allergy and, in food handlers, protein contact dermatitis. ICD is a form of eczema and is induced by direct inflammatory pathways without prior sensitisation. Classical ACD is mediated by type 4 cell-mediated immunity. Sensitisation occurs within 5 to 16 days of skin contact with a potential allergen but at this first exposure there is no inflammation. Frequent exposure and high concentrations of potential allergens increase the risk of sensitisation. If eczema is recurrent/persistent, or occurs in an individual with no previous history of eczema, contact dermatitis should be considered. Dorsal aspects of the hands are most often affected by ICD, usually with involvement of the finger webs. Cumulative effects of water, soaps and detergents are the most common cause of ICD which affects the hands more often than any other site. Nickel, fragrances, rubber accelerators and biocides are the most common sensitisers in ACD. Patients with leg ulcers and stasis eczema are at especially high risk of developing allergies to ingredients of their topical treatments, dressings and bandages. If ACD is suspected the patient should be referred to secondary care for patch testing. Age should not be a deterrent to patch testing. Accurate diagnosis, avoidance of identified allergens and protection from irritants are the key to successful treatment.

  14. PERIORAL DERMATITIS: STILL A THERAPEUTIC CHALLENGE.

    PubMed

    Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Kummer, Ana; Mosler, Elvira Lazić; Čeović, Romana; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    Perioral dermatitis is a common and often chronic dermatosis. In its classic form, it primarily affects women aged 15 to 45 years, but there are also variants including lupus-like and granulomatous perioral dermatitis, where granulomatous form is more common in childhood and affects mostly prepubescent boys. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there is a frequent finding of prolonged use of topical products, especially corticosteroids, in the treatment of rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis, preceding the clinical manifestation of perioral dermatitis. Other causes important for the occurrence of the disease include various skin irritants, as well as other physical and hormonal factors, which all share the epidermal barrier dysfunction as an underlying main pathogenic factor. Clinical presentation of papulovesicular eruption in the perioral region with a typical narrow spared zone around the edge of the lips is characteristic. Therapeutic approach should be individually addressed, depending on the severity of clinical presentation and patient's age, with special attention to patient's education and continuous psychological support. In mild forms of perioral dermatitis, 'zero therapy' is the treatment of choice. In the initial treatment period, patients with steroid-induced perioral dermatitis should be closely followed up because the rebound phenomenon usually develops after cessation of previous topical treatment. In moderate disease, treatment includes topical metronidazole, erythromycin, and pimecrolimus, whereas in more severe cases the best validated choice is oral tetracycline in a subantimicrobial dose until complete remission is achieved. Systemic isotretinoin should be considered as a therapeutic option for patients refractory to all standard therapies. PMID:26415314

  15. Prevention, Treatment and Parent Education for Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common cutaneous condition characterized by an acute inflammatory eruption of the skin in the diaper area of an infant. Although this condition is relatively common, it can cause considerable pain and stress for infants and can be troublesome for their caregivers. In the United States, the frequency of diaper dermatitis is substantial and accounts for a high number of visits to health care providers. The three most common types of diaper dermatitis are chafing dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and diaper candidiasis. This article reviews common causes, differential diagnosis, current prevention and treatment recommendations, nursing implications and practical tips for families to utilize while caring for their infants at home.

  16. Innovative topical formulations for treatment of dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Senyigit, Taner; Ozcan, Ipek; Ozer, Ozgen

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of dermatitis with conventional dosage forms (ointment, cream, lotion etc.) has many concerns due to side effects especially in long-term therapy. Recent studies focused on strategies to optimize the potency of formulation while minimizing side effects. Several attempts have been made to increase the safety of treatment, including special vehicles (nanoparticle, liposome, patch etc.), combined therapy and new synthesized agents. This review provides major innovations and advances of new approaches for dermatitis treatment based on the published articles and patent applications.

  17. Infections and skin diseases mimicking diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common condition that often prompts parents to seek medical attention. Irritant diaper dermatitis is by far the most common cause, but numerous potentially serious diseases can present with changes of the skin in the diaper area. The differential diagnosis can include psoriasis, metabolic disorders, rare immune diseases and infection. Clinical examination can be helpful in distinguishing the underlying cause. General screening laboratory tests, as well as select testing when a specific condition is suspected, can be used to challenge or confirm the putative diagnosis.

  18. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath.

  19. Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation. PMID:19349256

  20. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath. PMID:15860002

  1. [Evaluation and management of acute radiation dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Modesto, A; Faivre, J-C; Granel-Brocard, F; Tao, Y-G; Pointreau, Y

    2012-09-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis remains one of the most commonly observed side effect during radiation therapy leading to complication such as superinfection or treatment disruption. Its management is characterized by a great heterogeneity. Few strategies have demonstrated a benefit in preventing radiation dermatitis, which relies mostly on decreasing dose delivered to the skin and skin care practices. Simple emollients and use of topical steroids can be useful in early stages. The singularity of the skin toxicity seen with cetuximab and radiotherapy warrants a specific grading system and distinctive clinical treatment with use of antibiotics.

  2. [Treatment and prevention of acute radiation dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Benomar, S; Boutayeb, S; Lalya, I; Errihani, H; Hassam, B; El Gueddari, B K

    2010-06-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common side-effect of radiotherapy which often necessitates interruption of the therapy. Currently, there is no general consensus about its prevention or about the treatment of choice. The goal of this work was to focus on optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy and to determine if there are specific topical or oral agents for the prevention of this acute skin reaction. The prevention and the early treatment are the two focus points of the management of the acute radiation dermatitis.

  3. Atopic dermatitis and the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Due to the narrow associations between the skin, immune system, and nervous system, nerve endings are very important in the pathophysiology of inflammatory dermatoses and especially in atopic dermatitis. Many neurotransmitters and nerve growth factors that are released in blood or skin are involved in neurogenic inflammation, which dramatically enhance the inflammation induced by immune cells. During times of stress, their release is highly enhanced. In atopic dermatitis lesions, there are many specific changes in skin neurobiology and neurophysiology. These interesting data suggest that novel therapeutic possibilities can be imagined.

  4. [Ashy dermatitis. Comments on 2 clinical forms].

    PubMed

    Carvajal Huerta, L; Uraga Pazmiño, E; Loayza Vivanzo, E; Sabando Sánchez, R; García Atiaga, I; Jeny, E

    1986-01-01

    The typical clinical characteristic of the ashy dermatitis is the fact that in case of light colored skin, the grey colour remains invariable. There is a new clinical form which is called the Brown Cinder Dermatitis which is characterized by a disciplined localization in the center of the face, trunk or upper extremities together with an inexorable change of the grey colour at the beginning to a brown colour at the end on the other it, has be enhanced the existence of the nummular form which is characterized by the existence of many greyish independent spots of circular or oval form mainly at the level of the trunk.

  5. A woman with dermatitis and dissociative periods.

    PubMed

    Wise, T N; Reading, A J

    1975-01-01

    A nineteen year old female with pustular eczema and dissociative spells is presented. The patient has a three year history of severe dermatitis beginning shortly after her marriage. Central dynamic issues appear to be difficulty separating from her mother and an ambivalent identification with a hostile father. The patient also describes fugue-like episodes which occur with emerging aggressive feelings. Psychological testing supported these hypotheses. The relevant literature describing the correlation between aggression and skin disease is reviewed. A final uniform formulation was tentatively proposed that this patient, in addition to a strong genetic component for atopic dermatitis, had her illness abetted by inability to cope with aggressive affects.

  6. Invasive potential of bacterial isolates associated with subclinical bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Anaya-López, José L; Contreras-Guzmán, Oscar E; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Baizabal-Aguirre, Victor M; López-Meza, Joel E; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan J; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2006-12-01

    This work describes differences in the invasive ability of bacterial isolates associated with mastitis. Invasion ability was determined by the uptake and survival in a primary culture of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). BMEC were isolated from a healthy lactating cow and characterized by their morphology, immunostaining for cytokeratin and the detection of beta- and kappa-casein mRNAs. Ten bacterial isolates comprising the staphylococcal species Staphylococcus aureus (3), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (1), Staphylococcus equorum (2), Staphylococcus xylosus (1) and Brevibacterium stationis (2) obtained from raw milk of cows with mastitis from backyard farms were assayed for their ability to invade BMEC. Only two S. aureus and one S. epidermidis isolates were able to invade BMEC, at similar levels to the S. aureus control strain ATCC 27543. In conclusion, using the in vitro model of infection used in this study, differences in bacterial invasion capability may be detected. PMID:16624358

  7. Effect of Topical Application of the Cream Containing Magnesium 2% on Treatment of Diaper Dermatitis and Diaper Rash in Children A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Seyyed Mohammad-Kazem; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjatollah; Kheiri, Maryam; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Shirani, Majid; Ahrani, Saeedeh; Karami, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diaper dermatitis is referred to the inflammation in outer layers of the skin in the perineal area, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. The lesions are maculopapular and usually itchy, which could cause bacterial or candida infection, and predispose the infants to penis or vaginal and urinary infection and lead to discomfort, irritability, and restlessness. The drugs which have been so far administered for this disease (topical steroids) cause special complications for the sensitive skin in this area. Magnesium (Mg) is known for its anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. Aim The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the cream containing Mg 2% on treatment of diaper dermatitis and diaper rash in children. Materials and Methods In this clinical trial study, 64 children aged less than two years old with diaper dermatitis referring Paediatric Ward of Hajar Hospital were randomly assigned to two groups of 32. Group one was treated with the combined cream Mg 2% and Calendula and group two with Calendula cream alone. The duration of recovery was compared between the two groups. Results The duration of recovery was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p-value<0.001), but there was no significant difference in the lesions size and diapers’ number between the two groups. Conclusion Based on the finding of this study, Mg is effective on treatment of diaper dermatitis and could be used for treating diaper dermatitis and other types of dermatitis. PMID:26894161

  8. [Adulthood atopic dermatitis: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, provoking and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis. PMID:17344114

  9. Eradication of bacterial species via photosensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Paul S.; Maddocks, L.; King, Terence A.; Drucker, D. B.

    1999-02-01

    Photosensitization and inactivation efficacy of three bacterial species: Prevotella nigrescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have been investigated. Samples of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were treated with the triphenylmethane dye malachite green isothiocyanate and exposed to light from a variety of continuous and pulsed light sauces at a wavelength of approximately 630 nm. Inactivation of the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus aureus was found to increase with radiation dose, whilst Gram-negative Escherichia coli was resistant to such treatment. Samples of the pigmented species Prevotella nigrescens were found to be inactivated by exposure to light alone. The mechanism of photosensitization and inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus with malachite green isothiocyanate is addressed. The possible roles of the excited triplet state of the photosensitizer, the involvement of molecular oxygen, and the bacterial cell wall are discussed. Photosensitization may provide a way of eliminating naturally pigmented species responsible for a variety of infections, including oral diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis.

  10. Contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode paste.

    PubMed

    Cochran, R J; Rosen, T

    1980-12-01

    A case of contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode cream is presented and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Our patient was found to be allergic to propylene glycol. Patch-testing remains an invaluable tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of being allergic to ECG paste, creams, and gels.

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  12. [How I treat...diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Henry, F; Thirion, L; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Letawe, C; Piérard, G E

    2006-04-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most frequent skin disorder of the newborn. Several clinical types are distinguished. The most frequent type results from increased fragility of the newborn buttock skin when covered by diapers. According to the mechanisms involved and the severity of the dermatitis, one can distinguish the intertrigo of the chubby baby, and the so-called "W", "Y" and "red panties" types of diaper dermatitis. When the effects of occlusion are not controlled by adequate absorption by the diapers maceration of the stratum corneum occurs. As a result, degradation of the skin barrier function takes place. In addition, the value of the coefficient of friction of the skin increases with epidermal weakening to rubbing. In addition, fecal enzymes alter urines and skin. Judicious hygiene measures and a correct choice of care and diapers are mandatory. Cutaneous colonisation by microorganisms, in particular the yeasts Candida spp, is the main complication. Adequate preventive and curative measures can combat diaper dermatitis with confidence. A miconazole paste allows to improve the tribological properties of the interface between diapers and the skin. It also corrects the degradation of the skin barrier function, reduces inflammation and abates the impact of Candida spp. in the pathogenesis of the skin disorder.

  13. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  14. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  15. Nosocomial dermatitis caused by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, A P; Bories, C; Foulet, F; Bretagne, S; Botterel, F

    2008-03-01

    The mite Dermanyssus gallinae may cause pruritic dermatitis in humans. We describe a case of nosocomial infestation with D. gallinae from an abandoned pigeon nest suspended on the front wall of the Hôpital Henri Mondor near a window. Close surveillance and regular destruction of pigeon nests could prevent these incidents of infection in humans.

  16. Management of seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Faergemann, J

    2000-01-01

    Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis are two very common skin diseases. Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic superficial fungal disease usually located on the upper trunk, neck, or upper arms. In pityriasis versicolor, the lipophilic yeast Malassezia (also know as Pityrosporum ovale or P. orbiculare) changes from the blastospore form to the mycelial form under the influence of predisposing factors. The most important exogenous factors are high temperatures and a high relative humidity which probably explain why pityriasis versicolor is more common in the tropics. The most important endogenous factors are greasy skin, hyperhidrosis, hereditary factors, corticosteroid treatment and immunodeficiency. There are many ways of treating pityriasis versicolor topically. Options include propylene glycol, ketoconazole shampoo, zinc pyrithione shampoo, ciclopiroxamine, selenium sulfide, and topical antifungals. In difficult cases, short term treatment with fluconazole or itraconazole is effective and well tolerated. To avoid recurrence a prophylactic treatment regimen is mandatory. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by red scaly lesions predominantly located on the scalp, face and upper trunk. There are now many studies indicating that Malassezia plays an important role in this condition. Even a normal number of Malassezia will start an inflammatory reaction. Mild corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. However, the disease recurs quickly, often within just a few days. Antifungal therapy is effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis and, because it reduces the number of Malassezia, the time to recurrence is increased compared with treatment with corticosteroids. Antifungal therapy should be the primary treatment of this disease.

  17. Management of Itch in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Judith; Buddenkotte, Joerg; Berger, Timothy G.; Steinhoff, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, pruritic, inflammatory skin disorder. Chronic, localized, or even generalized pruritus is the diagnostic hallmark of atopic dermatitis, and its management remains a challenge for physicians. The threshold for itch and alloknesis is markedly reduced in these patients, and infections can promote exacerbation and thereby increase the itch. Modern management consists of anti-inflammatory, occasionally antiseptic, as well as antipruritic therapies to address the epidermal barrier as well as immunomodulation or infection. Mild forms of atopic dermatitis may be controlled with topical therapies, but moderate-to-severe forms often require a combination of systemic treatments consisting of antipruritic and immunosuppressive drugs, phototherapy, and topical compounds. In addition, patient education and a therapeutic regimen to help the patient cope with the itch and eczema are important adjuvant strategies for optimized long-term management. This review highlights various topical, systemic, and complementary and alternative therapies, as well as provide a therapeutic ladder for optimized long-term control of itch in atopic dermatitis. PMID:21767767

  18. Pustular Dermatitis Caused by Dermatophilus congolensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Eileen M.; Juzych, Lydia A.; Rudrik, James T.; Habib, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of pustular dermatitis in a 15-year-old girl who had just returned from horseback riding camp. Based on gram staining, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and whole-cell fatty acid analysis, the causative agent was identified as Dermatophilus congolensis. The literature contains few reports of human infection with this organism. PMID:17376877

  19. First Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus xylosus, a Meat Starter Culture and a Host to Propagate Staphylococcus aureus Phages

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Simon J.; El Haddad, Lynn; Tremblay, Denise M.; Plante, Pier-Luc; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dumaresq, Jeannot; Dewar, Ken; Corbeil, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is a bacterial species used in meat fermentation and a commensal microorganism found on animals. We present the first complete circular genome from this species. The genome is composed of 2,757,557 bp, with a G+C content of 32.9%, and contains 2,514 genes and 79 structural RNAs. PMID:25013142

  20. Bacillus cereus strain isolated from Demodex folliculorum in patients with topical steroid-induced rosaceiform facial dermatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Tatu, Alin Laurentiu; Ionescu, Marius Anton; Clatici, Victor Gabriel; Cristea, Violeta Corina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify Bacillus species from the Demodex folliculorum of patients with topical steroidinduced facial rosaceiform dermatitis. Of the 75 patients examined, 20% had clinical spinulosis, while 18.66% had dermoscopic features of Demodex: follicular plugs and tails. Of the 17.33% positive patients identified upon microscopy for Demodex, samples for bacterial culture were plated on trypticase soy Colombia agar. Identification was performed by microorganisms grown method mass spectrometry. We identified a strain of Bacillus cereus.

  1. Requirement for additional treatment for dogs with atopic dermatitis undergoing allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Colombo, S; Hill, P B; Shaw, D J; Thoday, K L

    2007-06-23

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is one of the main treatments for atopic dermatitis in dogs, but it often requires additional treatments such as antibacterial and antifungal therapy for secondary bacterial and yeast infections, or antipruritic drugs to control the clinical signs or treat the adverse effects of the immunotherapy. Twenty-seven dogs enrolled in a study of ASIT were clinically assessed four times over a period of nine months; their requirement for treatment for secondary bacterial and yeast infections, for the administration of glucocorticoids as additional antipruritic therapy, and for the treatment of any adverse effects of the ASIT were evaluated. Twenty (74 per cent) of the dogs were treated for superficial bacterial pyoderma, 18 (66.6 per cent) required treatment for Malassezia species dermatitis on one or more occasions, eight (29.6 per cent) required treatment for otitis externa due to Malassezia species or bacteria, and eight required glucocorticoids to control their clinical signs. Five (18.5 per cent) of the dogs experienced adverse effects due to the ASIT and two required treatment with antihistamines (H1 receptor antagonists) in order to continue with the ASIT. PMID:17586789

  2. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  3. Medicated shampoos for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, Whitney; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2008-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous disorder of the skin, affecting 3% to 5% of the population. Dandruff, a less severe form of seborrheic dermatitis, affects a greater proportion of the population. The exact pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown, however colonization of the lipophilic yeast, Malasezzia furfur, and an inflammatory reaction to this yeast each seem to play a role in disease etiology. Therefore, treatment for seborrheic dermatitis is aimed at yeast elimination and inflammation control. Several treatment modalities are available for seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff including shampoos, which contain both active ingredients related to antimycotic or anti-inflammatory effects and also surfactant ingredients that allow these shampoos to replace regular shampoos in affected patients. The literature regarding the treatment of therapeutic shampoos is reviewed, and treatment strategies for managing seborrheic dermatitis with therapeutic shampoos are provided.

  4. PPAD: a tool for presumption of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Cambazard, Frédéric; Guillet, Gérard; Thomas, Luc; Lorette, Gérard; Durosier, Vincent; Rahhali, Nora; Auges, Marie; Taieb, Charles

    2012-02-01

    Although it is a frequent disease, atopic dermatitis is poorly recognised and therefore under-diagnosed. The aim of this study was to define and validate a convenient tool allowing presumption of atopic dermatitis for non-dermatologists. A 20-item questionnaire (PPAD) and an 8-item short version (PPAD-S) were developed in French by a board of experts, then tested on outpatients presenting with atopic dermatitis or not. Diagnosis was confirmed by a dermatologist, who measured the severity of the disease by using SCORAD. PPAD and PPAD-S proved to be efficient tools for presumption of atopic dermatitis, but not tools for diagnosis. Scores were correlated to the severity of the disease. PPAD and PPAD-S can be considered useful tools for orientating patients with undiagnosed atopic dermatitis to a specialised consultation, all the more quickly since atopic dermatitis is severe.

  5. Medicated shampoos for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, Whitney; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2008-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous disorder of the skin, affecting 3% to 5% of the population. Dandruff, a less severe form of seborrheic dermatitis, affects a greater proportion of the population. The exact pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown, however colonization of the lipophilic yeast, Malasezzia furfur, and an inflammatory reaction to this yeast each seem to play a role in disease etiology. Therefore, treatment for seborrheic dermatitis is aimed at yeast elimination and inflammation control. Several treatment modalities are available for seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff including shampoos, which contain both active ingredients related to antimycotic or anti-inflammatory effects and also surfactant ingredients that allow these shampoos to replace regular shampoos in affected patients. The literature regarding the treatment of therapeutic shampoos is reviewed, and treatment strategies for managing seborrheic dermatitis with therapeutic shampoos are provided. PMID:18664167

  6. Bistability and Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

  7. Epidermal Permeability Barrier Defects and Barrier Repair Therapy in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease perpetuated by gene-environmental interactions and which is characterized by genetic barrier defects and allergic inflammation. Recent studies demonstrate an important role for the epidermal permeability barrier in AD that is closely related to chronic immune activation in the skin during systemic allergic reactions. Moreover, acquired stressors (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus infection) to the skin barrier may also initiate inflammation in AD. Many studies involving patients with AD revealed that defective skin barriers combined with abnormal immune responses might contribute to the pathophysiology of AD, supporting the outside-inside hypothesis. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in human and animal models, focusing on the defects of the epidermal permeability barrier, its immunologic role and barrier repair therapy in AD. PMID:24991450

  8. Therapeutic Implications of a Barrier-based Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this review, I first provide relevant background information about normal epidermal barrier structure and function. I then update recent information about how inherited defects in either filaggrin and/or in the serine protease inhibitor, lymphoepithelial Kazal-type inhibitor 1, converge to stimulate the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). Next I explain the multiple mechanisms whereby a primary barrier abnormality in AD can lead to inflammation. Furthermore, I explore how certain acquired stressors, such as a reduced external humidity, high pH soaps/surfactants, psychological stress, as well as secondary Staphylococcus aureus infections initiate or further aggravate AD. Finally, and most importantly, I compare various therapeutic paradigms for AD, highlighting the risks and benefits of glucocorticoids and immunomodulators vs. corrective, lipid replacement therapy. PMID:20711259

  9. Altered cutaneous expression of beta-defensins in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    van Damme, Catharina M M; Willemse, Ton; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2009-08-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic allergic skin disorder with an immunopathogenesis comparable to that in humans with AD. The high frequency of recurrent infections with Staphylococcus pseudo intermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis may indicate a defective innate immune response in the skin of atopic dogs. Production of beta-defensins constitutes an important role in skin defense but information on canine beta-defensin localization and regulation is scarce. We conducted a gene-expression study of 16 canine beta-defensins (cBDs) in 11 tissues of healthy dogs, which revealed a variable expression of cBDs in different organ systems of the dog. In skin, three beta-defensins, cBD1, cBD103 and cBD107, were extensively expressed, while inconsistent expression of five other beta-defensins was detected. Using immunohistochemistry abundant expression of cBD103 peptide was detected in the epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, comparable to hBD3 expression in human skin. To examine the gene-expression of beta-defensins in atopic dogs, full thickness skin biopsy specimens (non-lesional and lesional) of 10 atopic dogs and 7 healthy dogs were examined with real-time PCR. A significant 12-fold increased expression of cBD1 was detected in lesional atopic skin compared to healthy skin, while non-lesional skin showed a 5-fold increase. Contrary to cBD1, expression of cBD103 was slightly (2-fold) downregulated in skin of atopic dogs. Gene-expression levels of S100A8, a marker for atopic dermatitis, were also highly upregulated in skin of atopic dogs, confirming the diagnostics of the skin biopsies. Taken together these results provide new evidence for a possible defect in the innate immune response of dogs with atopic dermatitis, and indicate the potential of the dog as a model for human AD. PMID:19576634

  10. The course of life of patients with childhood atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brenninkmeijer, Elian E A; Legierse, Catharina M; Sillevis Smitt, J Henk; Last, Bob F; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Bos, Jan D

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis mainly covers the period of infancy to adulthood, an important period in the development of an individual. The impairment of quality of life and the psychological wellbeing of children with atopic dermatitis have been well documented but so far no data exist about the impact of atopic dermatitis in childhood on fulfilling age-specific developmental tasks and achieving developmental milestones during this period, referred to as the course of life. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess the course of life and define the disease-related consequences in young adult patients with childhood atopic dermatitis and (ii) determine whether the severity of atopic dermatitis is predictive for the course of life, the disease-related consequences and quality of life later in life. Adult patients who grew up with atopic dermatitis were asked to complete a medical history questionnaire, the Skindex-29, the "course of life" questionnaire and a subjective disease-specific questionnaire. Patients with severe atopic dermatitis in childhood showed a significant delayed social development in their course of life. The results of the disease-specific questionnaire demonstrated remarkable high percentages of psycho-social consequences and physical discomfort caused by atopic dermatitis in childhood. Patients showed a severely negative impact of atopic dermatitis on their current quality of life. This is the first study that applied the "course of life" questionnaire in atopic dermatitis. More insight in the course of life, disease-specific consequences and quality of life of atopic dermatitis is of high importance, especially in case of severe atopic dermatitis.

  11. Pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol in a child.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Ali Ihsan; Albayrak, Hulya; Uslu, Esma; Başkan, Elife; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2015-03-01

    Pustular irritant contact dermatitis is rare and unusual clinic form of contact dermatitis. Dexpanthenol is the stable alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid. It is widely used in cosmetics and topical medical products for several purposes. We present the case of 8-year-old girl with pustules over erythematous and eczematous areas on the face and neck. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported that is diagnosed as pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol. PMID:24506320

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Daniela; Ganau, Giulia; Spiga, Luisella; Bulla, Antonio; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Campus, Gian Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections.

  13. Atopic dermatitis: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Smita; Rothe, Marti Jill; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    The approach to children and adults with atopic dermatitis is similar. In both age groups, failure to respond to conventional therapy should prompt evaluation for complicating factors such as secondary infection and secondary ACD. Immunologic, metabolic, genetic, and nutritional disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of refractory pediatric atopic dermatitis. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), cutaneous drug reactions, other spongiotic dermatoses, psoriasis, dermatomycosis, and infestations should be considered in the differential of refractory atopic dermatitis in adults. Systemic therapies prescribed to both children and adults with severe atopic dermatitis include oral corticosteroids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, azathioprine, and mycophenolate mofetil. PMID:26686011

  14. Ciclopirox 1% shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Nicol, Karyn A

    2006-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic superficial fungal infection of the skin, particularly affecting sites rich in sebaceous glands. Although the precise etiology of seborrheic dermatitis is uncertain, yeasts of the genus Malassezia are known to play a causative role. Ciclopirox is a broad-spectrum, hydroxypyridone-derived, synthetic antifungal agent, which also has anti-inflammatory properties. Ciclopirox is effective both in vitro and in vivo against Malassezia yeasts, making it a valuable option for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Varying frequencies and concentrations of ciclopirox shampoo have been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.

  15. Hand dermatitis--differential diagnoses, diagnostics, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hand dermatitis is multifactorial, and includes factors such as genetic predisposition and exposure. A high incidence rate is associated with female gender, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. The most important risk factors for the persistence of hand dermatitis include its extent, contact allergic or atopic etiology, childhood dermatitis, and early onset (before the age of 20). The cost of illness of hand dermatitis corresponds to this seen in moderate to severe psoriasis. The diagnostic workup of hand dermatitis and its differential diagnoses requires a detailed assessment of occupational and recreational exposure. In case of possible work-related triggers, early notification of the accident insurer should be sought (via the dermatologist's report). Exposure to a contact allergen is a contributing factor in one-half of all cases of hand dermatitis. It is therefore imperative that all patients with hand dermatitis persisting for more than three months undergo patch testing. Successful and sustainable treatment of hand dermatitis starts with the proper identification and elimination of individual triggers, including the substitution of identified contact allergens and irritants, as well as optimizing preventive measures. Graded therapy taking the clinical severity into account is essential. Validated instruments may be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Economic Impact of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587

  17. Systematized contact dermatitis and montelukast in an atopic boy.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; González, Mercedes E; Connelly, Elizabeth A; Giordano, Kelly; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-01-01

    Upon ingestion, the artificial sweetener, aspartame is metabolized to formaldehyde in the body and has been reportedly associated with systemic contact dermatitis in patients exquisitely sensitive to formaldehyde. We present a case of a 9-year-old Caucasian boy with a history of mild atopic dermatitis that experienced severe systematized dermatitis after being started on montelukast chewable tablets containing aspartame. Patch testing revealed multiple chemical sensitivities which included a positive reaction to formaldehyde. Notably, resolution of his systemic dermatitis only occurred with discontinuation of the montelukast chewables.

  18. [Allergic contact dermatitis in beauty parlor clients].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Bezold, G; Peter, R U

    2001-05-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis in hair dressers and beauticians has increased in importance in the past years. Type IV-allergies against glyceryl monothioglycate components of permanent waves are most common. Other occupational allergens include bleach components such as ammonium persulfate and hair dye ingredients such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylene-diamine (PTD) base. Allergies to hair dyes in customers of hair dressers have rarely been observed. Two female patients developed allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp and face after repeated use of Polycolor intensivtönung schwarz and of Movida color. We also review the current literature on type IV-allergies to components of hair dressing products components.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2012-12-01

    Fragrances are a large group of substances and the second most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Spain. These potential allergens are extremely common and the general population is subject to continuous exposure on a daily basis. While the fragrance markers included in the current Spanish standard patch test series are good, there is room for improvement. New markers that have emerged in recent years have proven to be of value in standard series used in other countries. Diagnosing fragrance allergy has taken on even greater importance since the European Union added 26 fragrances to its list of mandatory ingredients to be specified on product labels. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances. We examine the main sources of exposure and clinical manifestations of this condition and propose a diagnostic and treatment protocol.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  1. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  2. Concomitant bullous pemphigoid and dermatitis herpetiformis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Franziska; van Beek, Nina; Terheyden, Patrick; Zillikens, Detlef; Schmidt, Enno

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis and bullous pemphigoid are bullous autoimmune diseases of the skin microscopically characterized by subepidermal blisters. We present a 77-year-old patient with an 18-month history of disseminated pruritic papular lesions. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy revealed linear deposition of IgG at the basement membrane zone as well as granular deposits of IgA in the papillary dermis. Circulating IgG antibodies against BP180, BP230 and gliadin as well as IgA reactivity against endomysium, tissue transglutaminase, and gliadin were detected compatible with both bullous pemphigoid and dermatitis herpetiformis. Here, we review the English literature on all previously reported patients with co-occurrence of both entities. Interestingly, in previous cases, tissue-bound and serum autoantibodies against the respective target antigens had not yet been completely characterized.

  3. [Allergic contact dermatitis in beauty parlor clients].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Bezold, G; Peter, R U

    2001-05-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis in hair dressers and beauticians has increased in importance in the past years. Type IV-allergies against glyceryl monothioglycate components of permanent waves are most common. Other occupational allergens include bleach components such as ammonium persulfate and hair dye ingredients such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylene-diamine (PTD) base. Allergies to hair dyes in customers of hair dressers have rarely been observed. Two female patients developed allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp and face after repeated use of Polycolor intensivtönung schwarz and of Movida color. We also review the current literature on type IV-allergies to components of hair dressing products components. PMID:11405157

  4. Malassezia, dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hay, R J

    2011-10-01

    From their original description, fungi of the genus Malassezia (previously Pityrosporum) have been associated with dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The principle evidence on which this connection was based was that the organisms were present, often in high numbers, on the skin in these conditions and that both responded to treatment that inhibited or destroyed Malassezia yeasts. The availability of new tools such as genomic and proteomic analyses has begun to provide a new insight into the pathogenetic mechanisms involved. New evidence shows the production of specific phospholipases on affected skin sites in dandruff and signalling molecules such as malassezin in seborrhoeic dermatitis. It is still not clear why those individuals and skin sites, prone to either disease, are particularly associated with the presence of these marker molecules but these studies are providing clues to the different ways in which organisms, which are normally commensals, interact with human skin. PMID:21919896

  5. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin*

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  6. Mucormycotic dermatitis in captive adult Wyoming toads.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S K; Williams, E S; Pier, A C; Mills, K W; Bock, M D

    1999-01-01

    During late May 1995, 50 adult captive endangered Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) were brought out of hibernation. Approximately 3 to 10 days after hibernation emergence, all toads were hormonally induced to breed, and paired. Each pair was placed in their own breeding tank. Four toads developed clinical signs of disease which included lethargy and multiple (4 to 12) small (2 mm) raised hyperemic nodules with white fuzzy caps on the ventral skin. The condition progressively worsened until death occurred, within 3 to 6 days. Mycotic dermatitis caused by Mucor sp. was diagnosed in the four toads through histology and isolation of the organism. This is the first case report of a Mucor sp. causing a fatal dermatitis in an amphibian without significant inflammatory response and without systemic involvement. PMID:10073348

  7. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum.

  8. Berloque dermatitis - a continuing cosmetic problem.

    PubMed

    Zaynoun, S T; Aftimos, B A; Tenekjian, K K; Kurban, A K

    1981-03-01

    Despite the decline in the incidence of berloque dermatitis during the past decade, milder cases resulting from the presence of relatively small quantities of bergapten in perfumed cosmetics continue to occur. The resultant hyperpigmentation may have an atypical presentation leading to error in diagnosis. In addition, the condition can sometimes induce or aggravate melasma and may be responsible for other pigmentary disorders of the face and neck of questionable etiology such as poikiloderma of Civatte, Riehl's melanosis and pigmented peribuccal erythema of Brocq.

  9. Addressing psychosocial aspects of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, Kimberly; Klinnert, Mary; Bender, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) negatively affects patients and their families. Pruritus, scratching, and sleep problems are common complaints linked to disturbed quality of life. Treatment is complex, and nonadherence rates are high. This article reviews the effect of AD on patients and their families and intervention strategies that have some success in improving quality of life. A treatment model for addressing the psychosocial effect of moderate to severe AD within a multidisciplinary setting is suggested herein. PMID:20670820

  10. Atopic dermatitis results in intrinsic barrier and immune abnormalities: Implications for contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gittler, Julia K.; Krueger, James G.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), as well as irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), are common skin diseases. These diseases are characterized by skin inflammation mediated by activated innate immunity or acquired immune mechanisms. Although AD, ICD, and ACD can be encountered in pure forms by allergists and dermatologists, patients with AD often present with increased frequency of ICD and ACD. Although a disturbed barrier alone could potentiate immune reactivity in patients with AD through increased antigen penetration, additional immune mechanisms might explain the increased susceptibility of atopic patients to ICD and ACD. This review discusses cellular pathways associated with increased skin inflammation in all 3 conditions and presents mechanisms that might contribute to the increased rate of ICD and ACD in patients with AD. PMID:22939651

  11. [Three cases of dry cleaning dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Kageyama, R

    1989-08-01

    Acute irritant dermatitis caused by contact with dry cleaned clothes (slacks, jacket, and skirt) was observed in three young females. Irritant sensations were noticed within an hour after wearing the clothes in all cases, but two patients thought that stocking were the cause. All patients continued wearing the clothes for various reasons. When they took off the clothes 3 to 9 hours later, erythema, edema, and bullae were noted on the posterior aspect of the thighs, the inner side of the right upper arm or the belt portion of the waist. Dry cleaning solvents used were not perchloroethylene, but were so-called new petrolatum solvents in all three cases. They were composed of paraffins in one case and paraffins plus naphtens in the other two cases. All solvents contained practically no aromatic substances. No spontaneous flare up was noted in any case. Therefore, dry cleaning solvents remaining in the clothes were thought to be the causative agent of this acute irritant contact dermatitis. This seems to be the first published report of dry cleaning dermatitis in Japan. PMID:2601111

  12. Treatment of canine atopic dermatitis: 2010 clinical practice guidelines from the International Task Force on Canine Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; DeBoer, Douglas J; Favrot, Claude; Jackson, Hilary A; Mueller, Ralf S; Nuttall, Tim; Prélaud, Pascal

    2010-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic relapsing pruritic skin disease of dogs for which treatment has varied over time and geographical location. Recent high quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have established which drugs are likely to offer consistent benefit. The International Task Force for Canine AD currently recommends a multi-faceted approach to treat dogs with AD. Acute flares should be treated with a combination of nonirritating baths and topical glucocorticoids, once an attempt has been made to identify and remove the suspected causes of the flare. Oral glucocorticoids and antimicrobial therapy must be added when needed. In dogs with chronic AD, a combination of interventions should be considered. Again, factors that trigger flares of AD must be identified and, if possible, avoided. Currently recognized flare factors include food, flea and environmental allergens, Staphylococcus bacteria and Malassezia yeast. Skin and coat hygiene and care must be improved by bathing with nonirritating shampoos and dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids. The severity of pruritus and skin lesions can be reduced with a combination of anti-inflammatory drugs. Currently, medications with good evidence of high efficacy include topical and oral glucocorticoids, and calcineurin inhibitors such as oral ciclosporin and topical tacrolimus. The dose and frequency of administration of these drugs should be tailored to each patient considering each drug's efficacy, adverse effects and cost. Allergen-specific immunotherapy should be offered, whenever feasible, in an attempt to prevent recurrence of clinical signs upon further exposure to environmental allergens to which the patient is hypersensitive. PMID:20456716

  13. Etiology and pathophysiology of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Berg, R W

    1988-01-01

    Common diaper dermatitis is a group of skin disorders that result from attack of the skin by physical, chemical, enzymatic, and microbial factors in the diaper environment. The integrity of healthy skin is compromised by the very nature of the diaper environment, and normal intact skin therefore remains an elusive goal of current diapering practices. Moist occlusion promotes miliaria, and causes an increase in the coefficient of skin friction. Skin hydration and an increase in skin pH result in impaired barrier function, and fecal enzymes begin to attack the skin, further degrading its normal ability to cope with its environment. Skin in this weakened state is susceptible to a variety of biological, chemical, and physical insults that can cause or aggravate diaper dermatitis. These include attack of the skin by fecal enzymes and other irritants in urine and feces, mechanical abrasion, and infection by C. albicans. Diapering is unquestionably an effective and convenient way of localizing an infant's excreta. Unfortunately, infant skin was not designed to operate continuously in the resulting environment, and is frequently unable to weather this assault. However, by improving the inherently adverse relationship between diapers and diapered skin, one can have a significant effect on the incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis. A diaper that keeps skin drier will result in skin that is less permeable to irritants, supports less microbial growth, is less susceptible to chafing damage, and has less contact with irritants in urine and feces. A diaper that maintains the environment closer to the normal acidic pH of skin will promote skin that is less permeable to irritants, and reduce the irritancy of fecal enzymes. Finally, a diaper that limits the mixing and spreading of urine and feces will result in less potentiation of enzyme activity and less contact of the skin with fecal irritants. Diaper dermatitis, by definition, cannot exist in the absence of diapers

  14. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial pathogens from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis conducted by the Japanese surveillance committee during 2009 and 2010: antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shingo; Uehara, Shinya; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Narita, Harunori; Kawano, Hiromi; Hosobe, Takahide; Takayama, Kazuo; Sumii, Toru; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Takashi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Izumitani, Masanobu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kano, Motonori; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Kenji; Inatomi, Hisato; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Nishi, Shohei; Takahashi, Koichi; Kawano, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Satoshi; Tsuneyoshi, Kengo; Matsushita, Shinji; Yamane, Takashi; Hirose, Takaoki; Fujihiro, Shigeru; Endo, Katsuhisa; Oka, Yasuhiko; Takeyama, Koh; Kimura, Takahiro; Uemura, Tetsuji

    2013-06-01

    The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.

  15. Reactive Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Review of Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Drug Reaction, and a Proposed Reclassification.

    PubMed

    Rosenbach, Misha; English, Joseph C

    2015-07-01

    The terms "palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis," "interstitial granulomatous dermatitis," and the subset "interstitial granulomatous drug reaction" are a source of confusion. There exists substantial overlap among the entities with few strict distinguishing features. We review the literature and highlight areas of distinction and overlap, and propose a streamlined diagnostic workup for patients presenting with this cutaneous reaction pattern. Because the systemic disease associations and requisite workup are similar, and the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but likely similar among these entities, we propose the simplified unifying term "reactive granulomatous dermatitis" to encompass these entities.

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25782705

  17. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis between the age of 15 to 49 years were 0.21%, 6%, and 19.6%, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of homicide-suicidal ideation in mothers or fathers of patients (aged 0-14 years) with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis were 0.11%,…

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  19. STUDIES ON SOME RECOMMENDED AYURVEDIC HERBS FOR CONTACT DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, M.A.; Tripathi, M.; Srinivas, C.R; Nayak, S.G.K

    1997-01-01

    A number of plant drugs are used in topical application meant for medical and cosmetic purposes. Many of such recommended drugs have been reported to cause contact dermatitis which fact is well supported by clinical studies. To find out the role of these plant drugs in the etiology of contact dermatitis, clinical studies of 34 such herbal drugs were carried out. PMID:22556829

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates.

    PubMed

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates.

  1. Budesonide-induced periorificial dermatitis presenting as chalazion and blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Emil; Bygum, Anette

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of periorificial dermatitis caused by suboptimal inhalation of budesonide for asthma. The initial skin lesions presented in the eye surroundings, leading to diagnostic difficulties and treatment of presumed chalazion and staphylococcal folliculitis. After several months, the patient developed perioral papules and pustules and was diagnosed with periorificial dermatitis. He was efficiently treated with topical metronidazole and oral erythromycin.

  2. Facing Antibiotic Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus Phages as a Medical Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use. PMID:24988520

  3. Bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara; Paul, George

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the frequency of bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death (cadaver eyes) which will give information about the bacterial contamination of donor eyes, and the in-vitro sensitivity of isolated bacteria to the commonly used antibiotics in ophthalmic practice. METHODS Conjunctival swabs were taken from the cadavers (motor vehicle accident deaths and patients who died in the hospital), within 6h after death, and sent for culture and sensitivity test. Conjunctival swabs, taken from the healthy conjunctiva of patients admitted for cataract surgery, were sent for culture and sensitivity as controls (eyes in those of living status). The bacterial isolates were tested against the commonly used antibiotics (chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin) in ophthalmology practice. RESULTS Bacteria were isolated in 41 out of 100 conjunctival swabs (41%), taken from 50 cadavers (study group). Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common bacteria isolated (15%), followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%). Gentamicin was effective against majority of the bacterial isolates (82%). Bacteria were isolated from 7 out of 100 conjunctival swabs taken as control group (eyes in living state). Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common organism (5%) isolated in control group; the others were staphylococcus aureus (1%) and beta hemolyticus streptococci (1%). CONCLUSION Bacteria were isolated from 41% of the cadaver eyes. High percentage sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to gentamicin (82%) supports the practice of thorough irrigation of the eyes with gentamicin solution before starting the procedure of enucleation followed by immersion of the enucleated eyeballs in gentamycin solution, to prevent the bacterial contamination. PMID:24195038

  4. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  5. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  6. Microorganism-induced exacerbations in atopic dermatitis: a possible preventive role for vitamin D?

    PubMed

    Benetti, Cecilia; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Capristo, Carlo; Boner, Attilio L; Peroni, Diego G

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by a complex pathogenesis not completely understood despite numerous studies to date. The clinical patterns result from interactions between genetic disorders determining abnormalities in the epidermis differentiation complex, modification of the cutaneous barrier, and dysfunction of immune responses. Several studies have shown that an alteration of the skin barrier combined with immune dysfunction is important for the onset, maintenance, and risk of exacerbations of the disease. In recent years, new aspects regarding the pathogenesis of the disease, such as the effects of vitamin D (VD) on immunity at the skin level and the role of certain microorganisms (particularly Staphylococcus and Malassezia species) on eczema exacerbations, have been evaluated. This article provides an overview of the evidences supporting the link between VD (deficiency) and microorganisms (skin colonization/sensitization) in AD pathogenesis, based on comprehensive review of the literature. By considering different aspects of disease, it might be possible to improve our understanding, particularly in those patients refractory to conventional treatments. An electronic research strategy was used to search in Medline Pub-Med Library using as research words AD, exacerbation, VD, Staphylococcus aureus (SA), and Malassezia. The results were downloaded and analyzed for systematic review. Few studies actually consider the relationship between VD deficiency (VDD), AD, and SA and Malassezia, but many suggest a correlation between these factors. VDs play a major role against microorganisms in the development of AD and should be considered when treating patients. PMID:25562552

  7. Smoking and Hand Dermatitis in the United States Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yi Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand dermatitis is a common chronic relapsing skin disease resulting from a variety of causes, including endogenous predisposition and environmental exposures to irritants and allergens. Lifestyle factors such as smoking have been implicated in hand dermatitis. Objective To evaluate the association between tobacco exposure and hand dermatitis using the 2003~2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Methods Data were retrieved and analyzed from 1,301 participants, aged 20~59 years, from the 2003~2004 NHANES questionnaire study who completed health examination and blood tests. Diagnosis of hand dermatitis was based on standardized photographs of the dorsal and palmar views of the hands read by two dermatologists. Results There were 38 diagnosed cases of active hand dermatitis out of the 1,301 study participants (2.9%). Heavy smokers (>15 g tobacco daily) were 5.11 times more likely to have active hand dermatitis (odds ratio [OR], 5.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39~18.88; p=0.014). Those with serum cotinine >3 ng/ml were also more likely to have active hand dermatitis, compared with those with serum cotinine ≤3 ng/ml (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.26~4.95; p=0.007). After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, atopic diathesis, occupational groups, and physical activity, the association between tobacco exposure and active hand dermatitis remained significant. Conclusion Smoking has a significant association with the presence of active hand dermatitis. It is important to consider smoking cessation as part of management of hand dermatitis. PMID:27081262

  8. Is Frictional Lichenoid Dermatitis a Minor Variant of Atopic Dermatitis or a Photodermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Goel, Khushbu; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Goel, Alka; Khanna, Deepshikha; Grover, Chander; Khurana, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Context: Frictional lichenoid dermatitis. Background: Frictional lichenoid dermatitis (FLE) is an entity that is probably under diagnosed and has been variably associated with either friction and/or atopy with a distinctive seasonal variation. Aims and Objectives: To study correlation of FLE with UV index and to assess its association with atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional analysis of children with FLE was done, over a period of 6 years in two tertiary hospitals. A detailed history and examination was done to assess the features of atopic dermatitis. The number of cases seen per month was compared with the mean monthly UV index. Two-tailed significance tests using Pearson's coefficient of correlation and T-test were used to interpret the data. (P < 0.05). Results: One hundred seventy-four patients were studied using the UKC criterion 17.2% of the patients had AD while xerosis (40.3%) was the predominant cutaneous finding. The number of patients seen in summer was more than in winter (P < 0.05) but there was no statistical difference between the cases in winter and spring. There was a significant correlation of the number of cases per month with UV index (P = 0.019). Almost 42% of patients gave a history of recurrence. Conclusions: FLE is probably not associated with atopic dermatitis and is likely to be related to the ambient UV index though a larger cohort with meticulous follow up may be needed to draw a final conclusion. Statistical Analysis Used: The Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used for comparing the cases per month with the UV index. The tests of hypothesis used included the paired T-tests. F-test of variance, Welch test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. PMID:25657400

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Extracts of Acacia Aroma Against Methicillin-Resistant And Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, C.M.; Satorres, S.E.; Sosa, A.; Fusco, M.; Alcará, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections. PMID:24031532

  10. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR.

  11. Atopic Dermatitis; Etio-Pathogenesis, An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Khurana, Ananta; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Saxena, Deepti; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a well-recognized clinical entity, several facets of which continue to be mystified. Accordingly, its etio-pathogenesis is largely elusive. It appears to be an outcome of interplay of several undertones, namely: genetics, maternal factor and inheritance, pregnancy/intrauterine, environmental factors, immune dysregulation, immuno-globulins, role of diet, and infection. Besides, recent innovative breakthroughs consisting of nutritional supplementation, the highlights of which were considered worthwhile to take stock of to define its current status. An endeavor to enlighten the audience has been made for their benefit. PMID:26288398

  12. Oscar Wilde's skin disease: allergic contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Nater, J P

    1992-07-01

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly used a dye to conceal his rapidly graying hair. He sensitized himself to p-phenylenediamine and developed a stubborn allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing, the only proof of such a diagnosis, had not yet been devised.

  13. Contactants in 'Kum-Kum' dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J V; Moideen, R; Murugesh, S B

    1996-01-01

    Twenty patients having contact dermatitis on the forehead due to Kum-Kum were patch tested with the commercially available Kum-Kum used by the patient as such, and also the extended European standard series of allergens, as well as brilliant lake red R, sudan I, aminoazobenzene and canaga oil since analysis of the Kum-Kum by thin-layer chromatography showed presence of these constituents. Patch tests were positive in all the patients with the commercial Kum-Kum and brilliant lake red R, sudan I, aminoazobenzene and canaga oil, but not with the extended European standard series of allergens.

  14. Depigmented contact dermatitis due to incense.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Arima, Y

    1987-05-01

    A 63-year-old male school teacher with itchy depigmented macules on his left dorsum manus, left shoulder and abdomen presented at our clinic on 8 July 1986. He had practiced the incense ceremony for about 15 years, and had burnt several incenses and sandalwood. 48 h closed patch testing revealed perfume in the incenses was the cause. We assumed that perfume in the incense was volatized in air when incense was burnt; skin surface contact occurred with airborne particle, which dissolved in sebum; thus allergic contact dermatitis accompanied by depigmentation might arise.

  15. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR. PMID:20487662

  16. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  17. MiRNA in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Samochocki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are relatively new molecules that have been widely studied in recent years as to determine their exact function in the human body. It is suggested that microRNAs control approx. 30% of all genes, making them one of the largest groups that control the expression of proteins. Various functions of miRNAs have already been described. In skin diseases, there are more and more studies describing an altered expression of microRNAs in the skin or serum. Relatively little is known about the function of these molecules in atopic dermatitis, which prompted us to gather current reports on this subject. PMID:27512348

  18. Atopic dermatitis: current treatment guidelines. Statement of the experts of the Dermatological Section, Polish Society of Allergology, and the Allergology Section, Polish Society of Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciak, Magdalena; Wilkowska, Aleksandra; Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Ługowska-Umer, Hanna; Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Kowalewski, Cezary; Kruszewski, Jerzy; Maj, Joanna; Silny, Wojciech; Śpiewak, Radosław; Petranyuk, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition frequently encountered in medical practices across the country. More than 60% of children with AD are at risk to develop allergic rhinitis or asthma (the atopic march). Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by Staphylococcus aureus. Treatments for AD need to rapidly control symptoms of the disease, improve quality of life and prevent exacerbations. Given the chronic and relapsing nature of the disease, therapies need to encourage good compliance and be well tolerated. PMID:26366146

  19. Atopic dermatitis: current treatment guidelines. Statement of the experts of the Dermatological Section, Polish Society of Allergology, and the Allergology Section, Polish Society of Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Roman; Trzeciak, Magdalena; Wilkowska, Aleksandra; Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Ługowska-Umer, Hanna; Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Kowalewski, Cezary; Kruszewski, Jerzy; Maj, Joanna; Silny, Wojciech; Śpiewak, Radosław; Petranyuk, Andriy

    2015-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition frequently encountered in medical practices across the country. More than 60% of children with AD are at risk to develop allergic rhinitis or asthma (the atopic march). Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by Staphylococcus aureus. Treatments for AD need to rapidly control symptoms of the disease, improve quality of life and prevent exacerbations. Given the chronic and relapsing nature of the disease, therapies need to encourage good compliance and be well tolerated.

  20. Metal ion acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus: overcoming nutritional immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cassat, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals are essential nutrients to virtually all forms of life, including bacterial pathogens. In Staphylococcus aureus, metal ions participate in diverse biochemical processes such as metabolism, DNA synthesis, regulation of virulence factors, and defense against oxidative stress. As an innate immune response to bacterial infection, vertebrate hosts sequester transition metals in a process that has been termed “nutritional immunity.” To successfully infect vertebrates, S. aureus must overcome host sequestration of these critical nutrients. The objective of this review is to outline the current knowledge of staphylococcal metal ion acquisition systems, as well as to define the host mechanisms of nutritional immunity during staphylococcal infection. PMID:22048835

  1. Multidrug efflux pumps in Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is rapidly spreading among bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of diseases in humans. For the last two decades, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps have drawn attention due to their potential association with clinical multidrug resistance. Numerous researchers have demonstrated efflux-mediated resistance in vitro and in vivo and found novel multidrug transporters using advanced genomic information about bacteria. This article aims to provide a concise summary of multidrug efflux pumps and their important clinical implications, focusing on recent findings concerning S. aureus efflux pumps.

  2. Serum antibodies to Malassezia yeasts in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, T J; Halliwell, R E

    2001-12-01

    Significant numbers of humans with atopic dermatitis develop Malassezia-specific IgE. Immediate skin-test reactivity to Malassezia has been demonstrated in atopic dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum IgG and IgE response to Malassezia in atopic dogs with and without clinical evidence of Malassezia dermatitis and/or otitis, nonatopic dogs with clinical evidence of Malassezia dermatitis and/or otitis and healthy dogs. Cytology was used to diagnose clinically significant Malassezia dermatitis and otitis. Contact plate cultures confirmed the validity of this technique. Reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Malassezia-specific IgG and IgE in canine serum were established. Atopic dogs had significantly higher serum IgG and IgE levels than either healthy dogs or nonatopic dogs with clinical evidence of Malassezia dermatitis and/or otitis. There was no significant difference in IgG and IgE levels between atopic dogs with and without clinical evidence of Malassezia dermatitis and/or otitis. The implications of these findings in the pathogenesis and management of canine atopic dermatitis are discussed. PMID:11844222

  3. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  4. Superficial Mycoses Associated with Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Rojas, Rubí; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Chávez-López, Dinora; Mena, Carlos; Calderón, Luz; María, Ponce-Olivera Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Diapers create particular conditions of moisture and friction, and with urine and feces come increased pH and irritating enzymes (lipases and proteases). Fungi can take advantage of all these factors. Candida yeasts, especially C. albicans, are responsible for the most frequent secondary infections and are isolated in more than 80 % of cases. Correct diagnosis is important for ensuring the correct prescription of topical antimycotics. Nystatin, imidazoles and ciclopirox are effective. It is important to realize there are resistant strains. Dermatophytes can infect the diaper area, with the most common agent being Epidermophyton floccosum. The clinical characteristics of dermatophytosis are different from those of candidiasis, and it can be diagnosed and treated simply. Malassezia yeasts can aggravate conditions affecting the diaper area, such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and inverse psoriasis. Additional treatment is recommended in this case, because they usually involve complement activation and increased specific IgE levels. Erythrasma is a pseudomycosis that is indistinguishable from candidiasis and may also occur in large skin folds. It is treated with topical antibacterial products and some antimycotics.

  5. Superficial Mycoses Associated with Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Rojas, Rubí; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Chávez-López, Dinora; Mena, Carlos; Calderón, Luz; María, Ponce-Olivera Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Diapers create particular conditions of moisture and friction, and with urine and feces come increased pH and irritating enzymes (lipases and proteases). Fungi can take advantage of all these factors. Candida yeasts, especially C. albicans, are responsible for the most frequent secondary infections and are isolated in more than 80 % of cases. Correct diagnosis is important for ensuring the correct prescription of topical antimycotics. Nystatin, imidazoles and ciclopirox are effective. It is important to realize there are resistant strains. Dermatophytes can infect the diaper area, with the most common agent being Epidermophyton floccosum. The clinical characteristics of dermatophytosis are different from those of candidiasis, and it can be diagnosed and treated simply. Malassezia yeasts can aggravate conditions affecting the diaper area, such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and inverse psoriasis. Additional treatment is recommended in this case, because they usually involve complement activation and increased specific IgE levels. Erythrasma is a pseudomycosis that is indistinguishable from candidiasis and may also occur in large skin folds. It is treated with topical antibacterial products and some antimycotics. PMID:27193417

  6. Sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinna; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Hua, Heyu; Xu, Chuanshan; Ip, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen causing biofilm-associated infections. To investigate sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic culture, a biofilm-producing strain Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) was incubated with hypocrellin B and then exposed to ultrasound at intensity (ISATA) of 1.56 W/cm(2) with a frequency of 1 MHz in continuous mode for 5 min. After sonodynamic treatment of hypocrellin B, the bacterial growth was measured using the colony counting method. Bacterial membrane integrity was investigated using a flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured using a flow cytometry with DCFH-DA staining. The results showed that sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B significantly induced survival reduction of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a hypocrellin B dose-dependent manner, and a 4-log reduction was observed after the combined treatment of hypcorellin B (40 μM) and ultrasound sonication with the intensity of 1.56 W/cm(2) for 5 min. Bacterial membrane integrity was notably damaged and the level of intracellular ROS level was remarkably increased after sonodynamic treatment. The findings demonstrated that sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B had significant antibacterial activity on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic condition probably through increasing intracellular ROS level to cause damage to bacterial membrane integrity.

  7. Bacterial Identification Using Light Scattering Measurements: a Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The light scattering properties of single bacterial cells were examined as a possible means of identification. Three species were studied with streptococcus faecalis exhibiting a unique pattern; the light-scattering traces for staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli were quite similar although differences existed. Based on preliminary investigations, the light scattering approach appeared promising with additional research needed to include a wide variety of bacterial species, computer capability to handle and analyze data, and expansion of light scattering theory to include bacterial cells.

  8. Borage oil in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel H; Hardy, Gil; Alany, Raid G

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation with omega-6 essential fatty acids (omega-6 EFAs) is of potential interest in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. EFAs play a vital role in skin structure and physiology. EFA deficiency replicates the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and patients with atopic dermatitis have been reported to have imbalances in EFA levels. Although direct proof is lacking, it has been hypothesized that patients with atopic dermatitis have impaired activity of the delta-6 desaturase enzyme, affecting metabolism of linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). However, to date, studies of EFA supplementation in atopic dermatitis, most commonly using evening primrose oil, have produced conflicting results. Borage oil is of interest because it contains two to three times more GLA than evening primrose oil. This review identified 12 clinical trials of oral or topical borage oil for treatment of atopic dermatitis and one preventive trial. All studies were controlled and most were randomized and double-blind, but many were small and had other methodological limitations. The results of studies of borage oil for the treatment of atopic dermatitis were highly variable, with the effect reported to be significant in five studies, insignificant in five studies, and mixed in two studies. Borage oil given to at-risk neonates did not prevent development of atopic dermatitis. However, the majority of studies showed at least a small degree of efficacy or were not able to exclude the possibility that the oil produces a small benefit. Overall, the data suggest that nutritional supplementation with borage oil is unlikely to have a major clinical effect but may be useful in some individual patients with less severe atopic dermatitis who are seeking an alternative treatment. Which patients are likely to respond cannot yet be identified. Borage oil is well tolerated in the short term but no long-term tolerability data are available. PMID:20579590

  9. Borage oil in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel H; Hardy, Gil; Alany, Raid G

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation with omega-6 essential fatty acids (omega-6 EFAs) is of potential interest in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. EFAs play a vital role in skin structure and physiology. EFA deficiency replicates the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and patients with atopic dermatitis have been reported to have imbalances in EFA levels. Although direct proof is lacking, it has been hypothesized that patients with atopic dermatitis have impaired activity of the delta-6 desaturase enzyme, affecting metabolism of linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). However, to date, studies of EFA supplementation in atopic dermatitis, most commonly using evening primrose oil, have produced conflicting results. Borage oil is of interest because it contains two to three times more GLA than evening primrose oil. This review identified 12 clinical trials of oral or topical borage oil for treatment of atopic dermatitis and one preventive trial. All studies were controlled and most were randomized and double-blind, but many were small and had other methodological limitations. The results of studies of borage oil for the treatment of atopic dermatitis were highly variable, with the effect reported to be significant in five studies, insignificant in five studies, and mixed in two studies. Borage oil given to at-risk neonates did not prevent development of atopic dermatitis. However, the majority of studies showed at least a small degree of efficacy or were not able to exclude the possibility that the oil produces a small benefit. Overall, the data suggest that nutritional supplementation with borage oil is unlikely to have a major clinical effect but may be useful in some individual patients with less severe atopic dermatitis who are seeking an alternative treatment. Which patients are likely to respond cannot yet be identified. Borage oil is well tolerated in the short term but no long-term tolerability data are available.

  10. Protease production by Staphylococcus epidermidis and its effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Depuydt, Pieter; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2014-04-01

    Due to the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to several antibiotics, treatment of S. aureus infections is often difficult. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, the field of bacterial interference is investigated. Staphylococcus epidermidis produces a serine protease (Esp) which inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation and which degrades S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the protease production of 114 S. epidermidis isolates, obtained from biofilms on endotracheal tubes (ET). Most of the S. epidermidis isolates secreted a mixture of serine, cysteine and metalloproteases. We found a link between high protease production by S. epidermidis and the absence of S. aureus in ET biofilms obtained from the same patient. Treating S. aureus biofilms with the supernatant (SN) of the most active protease producing S. epidermidis isolates resulted in a significant biomass decrease compared to untreated controls, while the number of metabolically active cells was not affected. The effect on the biofilm biomass was mainly due to serine proteases. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms treated with the SN of protease producing S. epidermidis were thinner with almost no extracellular matrix. An increased survival of Caenorhabditis elegans, infected with S. aureus Mu50, was observed when the SN of protease positive S. epidermidis was added.

  11. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... organisms as follows: Respiratory infections (tonsillitis, tracheobronchitis) due to Staphylococcus aureus.... aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  12. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... organisms as follows: Respiratory infections (tonsillitis, tracheobronchitis) due to Staphylococcus aureus.... aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  13. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organisms as follows: Respiratory infections (tonsillitis, tracheobronchitis) due to Staphylococcus aureus.... aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  14. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organisms as follows: Respiratory infections (tonsillitis, tracheobronchitis) due to Staphylococcus aureus.... aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal infections (bacterial gastroenteritis) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis due to...

  15. Occupational Airborne Contact Dermatitis From Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeKoven, Joel G; Yu, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Few published reports have described occupational contact dermatitis from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure in the literature. We present an additional case of a 58-year-old male pharmaceutical worker with an occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis to PPIs confirmed by patch testing. This is a novel report of workplace exposure to dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole PPIs with resultant clinical contact allergy and relevant positive patch test results to these 2 agents. A literature review of all previously reported cases of occupational contact dermatitis to PPI is summarized. The case also emphasizes the importance of even minute exposures when considering workplace accommodation.

  16. [Clinical presentation and treatment of diaper dermatitis--part II].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Juliana Dumet; Machado, Maria Cecília Rivitti; Oliveira, Zilda Najjar Prado de

    2009-01-01

    Diaper irritant contact dermatitis is the most prevalent diaper dermatitis and, probably, the most common cause of cutaneous disease in infants. Wearing diapers causes over-hydration and increase of local temperature and humidity. As a consequence, the skin becomes susceptible to friction from movement under the diaper. Occlusion, maceration and possibly Candida and bacteria may all play a role. Oils, soaps and powders can be irritants and aggravate the eruption. The best thing to do is prevention. Treatment is simple and depends on dermatitis type and severity.

  17. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-05-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands.

  18. Airborne pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk ambrette in incense.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Arima, Y

    1987-02-01

    We reported 2 patients with pigmented contact dermatitis caused by occupational airborne contactants, whitening dyes in clothes and formaldehyde in packing adhesive tapes. A women developed airborne pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk ambrette in incense. Patch testing confirmed the diagnosis. Since olden times, people in Japan have burnt incense when they worshipped their ancestors. Recently, it has been in fashion to enjoy perfumes and people may burn incense all day long every day. Our patient burnt 2 kinds of incense every day for about 5 years. We assumed musk ambrette was volatilized when incense was burnt, and contact on her face being dissolved in sebum, thus inducing allergic pigmented contact dermatitis.

  19. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  20. Cell phone allergic contact dermatitis: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Rajpara, Anand; Feldman, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    The combination of increased cell phone ownership and unlimited usage plans has led to a situation in which metal cell phone parts may come into contact with the cell phone user's ear and face for prolonged periods of time. Thus, it is not surprising that recent reports of facial allergic contact dermatitis to cell phone metals have begun to emerge. In this paper we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to cell phone metal and review all other reports on the subject. We also discuss what the implications of cell phone contact dermatitis are for dermatologists and patients.

  1. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. PMID:23031377

  2. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel.

  3. Phenazine antibiotic inspired discovery of potent bromophenazine antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Nicholas V; Bai, Fang; Perez, Cristian; Duong, Benjamin Q; Rocca, James R; Jin, Shouguang; Huigens, Robert W

    2014-02-14

    Nearly all clinically used antibiotics have been (1) discovered from microorganisms (2) using phenotype screens to identify inhibitors of bacterial growth. The effectiveness of these antibiotics is attributed to their endogenous roles as bacterial warfare agents against competing microorganisms. Unfortunately, every class of clinically used antibiotic has been met with drug resistant bacteria. In fact, the emergence of resistant bacterial infections coupled to the dismal pipeline of new antibacterial agents has resulted in a global health care crisis. There is an urgent need for innovative antibacterial strategies and treatment options to effectively combat drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe the implementation of a Pseudomonas competition strategy, using redox-active phenazines, to identify novel antibacterial leads against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this report, we describe the chemical synthesis and evaluation of a diverse 27-membered phenazine library. Using this microbial warfare inspired approach, we have identified several bromophenazines with potent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The most potent bromophenazine analogue from this focused library demonstrated a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78-1.56 μM, or 0.31-0.62 μg mL(-1), against S. aureus and S. epidermidis and proved to be 32- to 64-fold more potent than the phenazine antibiotic pyocyanin in head-to-head MIC experiments. In addition to the discovery of potent antibacterial agents against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we also report a detailed structure-activity relationship for this class of bromophenazine small molecules.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of CcpE-regulated genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Ding, Yue; Lan, Lefu

    2015-09-01

    The transcriptional regulator CcpE is an important citrate-sensing regulator that modulates metabolic state, virulence factor expression, and bacterial virulence of Staphylococcus aureus (Ding et al., 2014 [1]). In this article, we report detailed methods for genome-wide transcriptional profiling of CcpE-regulated genes generated for the research article "Metabolic sensor governing bacterial virulence in Staphylococcus aureus" (Ding et al., 2014 [1]). All transcriptional profiling data was deposited to Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE57260. PMID:26484245

  5. Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis: dermatitis due to live bee acupuncture therapy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting.

  6. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  7. Differentiation Between {\\varvec{Staphylococcus aureus}} and {\\varvec{Staphylococcus epidermidis}} Using Microcalorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Natividad Lago; Soto, José L. Legido; Santos, Isaac Arias; Casás, Lidia M.

    2013-06-01

    Microcalorimetry is a highly sensitive experimental technique that determines heat changes in any process or transformation. All organisms produce heat due to their metabolism. The rate of heat flow is an adequate measure of metabolic activity of living beings and their component parts. Microorganisms produce small amounts of heat: 1 pW to 3 pW per cell. Although the heat produced by bacteria is very small, their exponential reproduction in a culture medium permits heat detection through microcalorimetry. A microcalorimetric growth and metabolic study was carried out for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, by using heat liberated during metabolism. A thermal conductivity calorimeter of the Calvet type was used. The inside of the calorimeter contains two stainless steel cells (experimental and reference) with a screw-on Teflon cap with a hole in the center. Experiments were carried out with final concentrations of the order of (106, 105, 103, and 10) CFU {\\cdot } { ml }^{-1}. These were kept at a constant temperature of 309.65 K. The plot of change in heat voltage versus time enables acquisition of the characteristic growth curve for each bacterial strain. Thermograms were analyzed mathematically and helped determine the characteristic parameters for each microorganism, and led to the identification of the bacterial species.

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequently encountered member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci on human epithelial surfaces. It has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, especially in infections of indwelling medical devices. The mechanisms that S. epidermidis uses to survive during infection are in general of a passive nature, reflecting their possible origin in the commensal life of this bacterium. Most importantly, S. epidermidis excels in forming biofilms, sticky agglomerations that inhibit major host defense mechanisms. Furthermore, S. epidermidis produces a series of protective surface polymers and exoenzymes. Moreover, S. epidermidis has the capacity to secrete strongly cytolytic members of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) family, but PSMs in S. epidermidis overall appear to participate primarily in biofilm development. Finally, there is evidence for a virulence gene reservoir function of S. epidermidis, as it appears to have transferred important immune evasion and antibiotic resistance factors to Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, S. epidermidis also has a beneficial role in balancing the microflora on human epithelial surfaces by controlling outgrowth of harmful bacteria such as in particular S. aureus. Recent research yielded detailed insight into key S. epidermidis virulence determinants and their regulation, in particular as far as biofilm formation is concerned, but we still have a serious lack of understanding of the in vivo relevance of many pathogenesis mechanisms and the factors that govern the commensal life of S. epidermidis.

  9. Bacterial Toxins—Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

    PubMed Central

    FRIES, BETTINA C.; VARSHNEY, AVANISH K.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects upon the immune system, leading to stimulation of cytokine release and inflammation. It is associated with food poisoning, nonmenstrual toxic shock, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and nasal polyps in humans. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available. Passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies made in several different species has shown significant inhibition in in vitro studies and reduction in staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced lethal shock in in vivo studies. This should encourage future endeavors to develop these antibodies as therapeutic reagents. PMID:26184960

  10. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commerical broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease with increasing economic importance. This experiment was undertaken to describe symptoms, patholgocial changes and diagnosis of GD and to study their immunopathology and cytokine expression alterations. In addition to description of symptoms, pathol...

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  12. Mobile genetic elements of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Malachowa, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus are successful as commensal organisms or pathogens in part because they adapt rapidly to selective pressures imparted by the human host. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a central role in this adaptation process and are a means to transfer genetic information (DNA) among and within bacterial species. Importantly, MGEs encode putative virulence factors and molecules that confer resistance to antibiotics, including the gene that confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Inasmuch as MRSA infections are a significant problem worldwide and continue to emerge in epidemic waves, there has been significant effort to improve diagnostic assays and to develop new antimicrobial agents for treatment of disease. Our understanding of S. aureus MGEs and the molecules they encode has played an important role toward these ends and has provided detailed insight into the evolution of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and virulence. PMID:20668911

  13. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thomer, Lena; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , a Gram-positive bacterium colonizing nares, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract, frequently invades the skin, soft tissues, and bloodstreams of humans. Even with surgical and antibiotic therapy, bloodstream infections are associated with significant mortality. The secretion of coagulases, proteins that associate with and activate the host hemostatic factor prothrombin, and the bacterial surface display of agglutinins, proteins that bind polymerized fibrin, are key virulence strategies for the pathogenesis of S. aureus bloodstream infections, which culminate in the establishment of abscess lesions. Pathogen-controlled processes, involving a wide spectrum of secreted factors, are responsible for the recruitment and destruction of immune cells, transforming abscess lesions into purulent exudate, with which staphylococci disseminate to produce new infectious lesions or to infect new hosts. Research on S. aureus bloodstream infections is a frontier for the characterization of protective vaccine antigens and the development of immune therapeutics aiming to prevent disease or improve outcomes. PMID:26925499

  14. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research.

  15. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research. PMID:27482738

  16. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Barbara M.; Mrochen, Daniel; Péton, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research. PMID:26999219

  17. Laser Capture Microdissection of Feline Streptomyces spp Pyogranulomatous Dermatitis and Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Traslavina, R P; Reilly, C M; Vasireddy, R; Samitz, E M; Stepnik, C T; Outerbridge, C; Affolter, V K; Byrne, B A; Lowenstine, L J; White, S D; Murphy, B

    2015-11-01

    Suspected Streptomyces spp infections were identified in 4 cats at UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1982 and 2011. Three had ulcerated, dark red mycetomas involving the dermis, subcutis, and fascia with fistulous tracts and/or regional lymphadenopathy. One cat had pyogranulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis. Granulomatous inflammation in all cats contained colonies of Gram-positive, non-acid-fast organisms. All 4 cats failed to respond to aggressive medical and surgical treatment and were euthanized. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to selectively harvest DNA from the affected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Cloned amplicons from LCM-derived tissue confirmed the presence of Streptomyces spp in the dermatitis cases. Amplicons from the remaining cat with peritoneal involvement aligned with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene for Actinomycetales. Usually considered a contaminant, Streptomyces spp can be associated with refractory pyogranulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis in cats with outdoor access. LCM is useful in the diagnosis of bacterial diseases where contamination may be an issue.

  18. Laser Capture Microdissection of Feline Streptomyces spp Pyogranulomatous Dermatitis and Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Traslavina, R P; Reilly, C M; Vasireddy, R; Samitz, E M; Stepnik, C T; Outerbridge, C; Affolter, V K; Byrne, B A; Lowenstine, L J; White, S D; Murphy, B

    2015-11-01

    Suspected Streptomyces spp infections were identified in 4 cats at UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 1982 and 2011. Three had ulcerated, dark red mycetomas involving the dermis, subcutis, and fascia with fistulous tracts and/or regional lymphadenopathy. One cat had pyogranulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis. Granulomatous inflammation in all cats contained colonies of Gram-positive, non-acid-fast organisms. All 4 cats failed to respond to aggressive medical and surgical treatment and were euthanized. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to selectively harvest DNA from the affected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Cloned amplicons from LCM-derived tissue confirmed the presence of Streptomyces spp in the dermatitis cases. Amplicons from the remaining cat with peritoneal involvement aligned with the 16S ribosomal RNA gene for Actinomycetales. Usually considered a contaminant, Streptomyces spp can be associated with refractory pyogranulomatous dermatitis and cellulitis in cats with outdoor access. LCM is useful in the diagnosis of bacterial diseases where contamination may be an issue. PMID:25516065

  19. Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Borda, Luis J.; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C.

    2016-01-01

    Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) and dandruff are of a continuous spectrum of the same disease that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Dandruff is restricted to the scalp, and involves itchy, flaking skin without visible inflammation. SD can affect the scalp as well as other seborrheic areas, and involves itchy and flaking or scaling skin, inflammation and pruritus. Various intrinsic and environmental factors, such as sebaceous secretions, skin surface fungal colonization, individual susceptibility, and interactions between these factors, all contribute to the pathogenesis of SD and dandruff. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SD and dandruff, including epidemiology, burden of disease, clinical presentations and diagnosis, treatment, genetic studies in humans and animal models, and predisposing factors. Genetic and biochemical studies and investigations in animal models provide further insight on the pathophysiology and strategies for better treatment. PMID:27148560

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from shellac in mascara.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Christophe-J; Leclere, Jean-Marie; Arnoult, Elisabeth; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Vigan, Martine

    2002-03-01

    We report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids due to mascara. Allergy occurred in women aged 17-34 years, between September 1999 and June 2001. The main ingredient responsible for allergy was shellac, which gave positive patch test reactions in 5/5 patients. This resinous substance is mainly used in cosmetics, food and industry. The exact nature of the hapten remains unknown, and its presence and level in shellac can vary with the source and the treatments applied to it. One patient was also sensitized to quaternium-22, a quaternary ammonium compound in the cosmetic. These reports underline the rôle of networks, such as REVIDAL-GERDA, in monitoring the emergence of contact allergens and disseminating such information among the medical community.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  2. The Changing Paradigm of Atopic Dermatitis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Sheila F; Simpson, Eric L; Irvine, Alan D; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2016-06-01

    The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is complex, and future treatment options will likely be incorporated in a multimodal approach to management. The new, directed therapies that have been developed will likely be used in conjunction with concomitant continuous or intermittent use of standard therapies; the goal is to optimize therapeutic outcomes while minimizing adverse impacts on safety and cost. Current data regarding disease course and expression throughout life suggest that treatment strategies also will need to be adjusted as a patient grows. Research also indicates that interventions begun in infancy-such as the use of emollients-may mitigate or prevent AD signs and symptoms in children at high risk for the disease. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp5):S97-S99. PMID:27526330

  3. Pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk moskene.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Hirose, O; Arima, Y

    1991-07-01

    Musk moskene is a soft, sweet fragrance resembling musk ambrette which introduces a very desirable creamy powder note for cosmetic fragrance. Because of its advantages, which include low cost, oil solubility, and less sensitive to sunlight, musk moskene has recently increased its share of the market. In this paper, we reported a case with pigmented contact dermatitis from musk moskene in cheek rouges. Patch test positive reactions to cheek rouges resulted in hyperpigmentation. Both the perfume used in the cheek rouges and musk moskene, which was a component of that perfume, showed strongly positive reactions. Residual hyperpigmentation was seen on the regions of the perfume and musk moskene patch testings. Hyperpigmentation on cheeks of the patient gradually diminished after discontinuing use of the causative cheek rouge.

  4. Contact dermatitis to cosmetics, fragrances, and botanicals.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics, fragrances, and botanicals are important causes of allergic contact dermatitis. Identifying and avoiding the causative allergens can pose a challenge to both the patient and the dermatologist. The site of involvement can give the investigator clues to the cause of the eruption in many cases. Fragrances and preservatives are the two most clinically relevant allergens in cosmetics. Botanicals are being added to cosmetics because of consumer demand and are now being recognized as sources of allergy as well. Patch testing allows for the detection of allergens that are potentially relevant in the genesis of the patient's eczema. Common skin-care product allergens, including fragrances and botanicals as well as those found in sunscreen, nail, and hair-care products, are reviewed. Practical methods of allergen avoidance are also discussed.

  5. Pyridoxine induced rosacea-like dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Paštar, Zrinjka

    2015-03-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by remissions and exacerbations, presenting with centrofacial erythema and telangiectasias. It affects mainly adults around the age of 30 years and classically predominates in females. The pathophysiology of rosacea has not yet been fully understood. Risk factors are positive family history, very light skin phototype, sun exposure and consumption of spicy food or alcohol. Recently, there has been some evidence that some drugs or vitamins could be potential factors that can aggravate rosacea or induce rosacea-like symptoms. In this context, we present a 53-year-old female developing rosacea-like dermatitis due to a fixed combination of isoniazid and pyridoxine, which she was receiving along with rifampicin for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  6. Mascaras may cause irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M; Wessman, C

    2002-10-01

    The majority of adverse effects of cosmetics have been attributed to soaps in Dutch and English studies, but to eye makeup in a recent Swedish study. The reactions may be caused by irritants or by sensitizing substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of commercially available mascaras. The mascaras were exposed to the skin in aluminium chambers. The skin reaction was evaluated using both visual assessments of erythema and non-invasive measurements of the skin reaction. Seven mascaras were tested on 15 healthy individuals in a randomized and blinded fashion. Two of the seven tested mascaras induced pronounced skin inflammation, when applied to normal skin under occlusion. These two mascaras were based on volatile petroleum distillate, in contrast to the other five mascaras that were conventional emulsions with stearate as the main emulsifier. The findings suggest that solvent-based mascaras might induce contact dermatitis due to its content of irritating substances.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  8. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  9. Drug-Induced Rosacea-like Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Paštar, Zrinjka

    2016-04-01

    Rosacea is a common, chronic cutaneous disorder with a prevalence of 0.5-10%, predominantly affecting women. The disease presents with a heterogeneous clinical picture characterized by transient flushing, persistent facial redness, telangiectasias, and, in more severe clinical forms, the presence of inflammatory papules and pustules in the central third of the face. Although its pathophysiology is complex and still remains unknown, factors that exacerbate the disease are well defined. They include genetic predisposition as well as external factors such as exposure to UV light, high temperature, and diet. Besides these well-known factors, recent studies suggest that drugs and vitamins could also be possible factors inducing rosacea-like dermatitis or aggravating pre-existing rosacea. Although these are less common possible triggering factors, the aim of this article is to present the current knowledge on the association between use of certain drugs or vitamins and rosacea. PMID:27149131

  10. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  11. Gigantobilharzia, possible cause of cercarial dermatitis: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Hussein M.; Omer, Osama H.; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is a worldwide, often neglected parasitic skin disease characterized by strong maculopapular skin eruption accompanied by intensive itching. A fisherman suffered from forearm dermatitis. Clinical history associated with the recovery of the avian schistosome; Gigantobilharzia from little green bee-eater (Merops orientalis najdanus) and collected Lymnaea snails supported the authors’ opinion that patient clinical signs are most likely due to the invasion of avian schistosome cercariae. PMID:27004065

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  13. Erlotinib-induced Rosacea-like Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Paštar, Zrinjka; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Pavliša, Gordana; Kovačević, Suzana

    2016-04-01

    Skin and skin adnexa toxicities are the most common side effects associated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and occur in most patients receiving this therapy. The majority of these cutaneous side effects are transient, reversible, and dose dependent. Although these symptoms are in general not severe, they significantly affect quality of life and can have a serious effect on treatment compliance as well as the treatment regimen. The most common early symptoms present as papulopustules on an erythematous base, usually localized in seborrheic areas. This clinical presentation is commonly described as "acneiform", although these adverse reactions have clinical presentations, such as rosacea-like and seborrheic-like dermatitis. In this context, we report a case of a 77-year-old man with a medical history of planocellular lung cancer with ipsilateral pulmonary metastasis and mediastinum infiltration who received erlotinib as a third-line therapy, presenting with centrofacial rosaceiform rash as a side effect associated with the use of EGFR-TKIs. The patient had a negative previous history of rosacea. Therefore, symptoms probably occurred as an adverse reaction due to the oncological therapy. Current terminology of early cutaneous adverse reactions caused by EGFR-TKIs refers to "acneiform" or "papulopustular" lesions, excluding less common side effects such as rosacea-like dermatitis so these symptoms might be overlooked and misdiagnosed. Thus, we would like to emphasize the importance of developing a more accurate classification of terms in order to provide early detection of all possible cutaneous side effects, including less common ones, providing specific and timely treatment, and allowing continuation of drug therapy. PMID:27149133

  14. Canine atopic dermatitis in Greece: clinical observations and the prevalence of positive intradermal test reactions in 91 spontaneous cases.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, M N; Koutinas, A F; Gioulekas, D; Leontidis, L

    1999-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in a total of 91 dogs by combining the compatible historical evidence and clinical signs with the presence of one or more positive intradermal test reactions well correlated with the exposure to the aeroallergens and the seasonality of the clinical signs. Compared to the general hospital population Yorkshire terriers, Chinese Shar-Peis and cocker spaniels showed a strong predilection. No such predilection was found regarding the sex of the animals. The age of the dogs at the onset of the clinical signs ranged from 2 months to 8 years (median: 2.5 years). Moderate to severe pruritus, noticed in all the 91 dogs, was either localized (29/91) or generalized (64/91) and non-seasonal (43/91), seasonal (19/91) or of unknown seasonality (29/91). The most common cutaneous lesions included erythema, hyperpigmentation, hypotrichosis and crusts; their body distribution was generalized (64%) or localized (36%) with the feet as the most common site of involvement. Five dogs that had unlesional skin were significantly younger and had been pruritic for a shorter period of time compared to the majority of our study population. Otitis externa (43/91) and bacterial pyoderma (30/91) were the most common conditions associated with atopic dermatitis, while the prevalence of Malassezia dermatitis was very low (2/91). Of the other allergic skin diseases flea allergic dermatitis was the most common (29/91) followed by food hypersensitivity (2 out of the 15 dogs tested). The majority of the dogs demonstrated multiple sensitivities to the 50 aeroallergens tested, while domestic mites (77/91), and particularly Dermatophagoides farinae (64/91), were the most commonly implicated. The total number of the positive intradermal test reactions was increasing parallel to the age of the dogs but it was negatively associated with the presence of skin lesions on the carpal and tarsal joints. PMID:10490235

  15. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E.; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections. PMID:26369955

  16. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D; Chen, Meng; Sun, Hongmin

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections. PMID:26369955

  17. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D; Chen, Meng; Sun, Hongmin

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections.

  18. Identification of bacterial species by untargeted NMR spectroscopy of the exo-metabolome.

    PubMed

    Palama, T L; Canard, I; Rautureau, G J P; Mirande, C; Chatellier, S; Elena-Herrmann, B

    2016-08-01

    Identification of bacterial species is a crucial bottleneck for clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases. Quick and reliable identification is a key factor to provide suitable antibiotherapies and avoid the development of multiple-drug resistance. We propose a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics strategy for rapid discrimination and identification of several bacterial species that relies on untargeted metabolic profiling of supernatants from bacterial culture media. We show that six bacterial species (Gram negative: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis; Gram positive: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) can be well discriminated from multivariate statistical analysis, opening new prospects for NMR applications to microbial clinical diagnosis. PMID:27349704

  19. Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, A; Sei, Y; Guillot, J

    2000-10-01

    We identified Malassezia species isolated from 42 patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis, 17 patients with atopic dermatitis, 22 patients with pityriasis versicolor, 35 normal subjects and 73 healthy medical students. Regarding the prevalence of Malassezia species in the 35 normal subjects, the frequency of isolation of Malassezia globosa was 22%, M. sympodialis 10% and M. furfur 3%. M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis, M. restricta and M. obtusa were infrequently isolated from normal skin. Two different species were isolated coincidentally from seven samples. In the patients with atopic dermatitis, M. furfur was isolated more frequently from lesional skin (21%) than non-lesional skin (11%). However, there was no statistical significance. Therefore, this result, by itself, is insufficient to prove that M. furfur should be considered to be an exacerbating factor of atopic dermatitis. In seborrhoeic dermatitis, M. furfur (35%) and M. globosa (22%) were isolated from lesional skin on the face at significantly high rates in comparison with the normal subjects. Therefore, M. furfur and/or M. globosa may be pathogens of seborrhoeic dermatitis. M. globosa was isolated at a frequency of 55% from lesional skin of pityriasis versicolor, while all other species were below 10%. These data suggest that the pathogenic species of pityriasis versicolor is M. globosa.

  20. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  1. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HERPESVIRAL DERMATITIS IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) IN NAMIBIA.

    PubMed

    Flacke, Gabriella L; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) housed at the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia developed cutaneous lesions consisting of alopecia, erythema, ulceration, and crusting on the left fore and hind limbs. Histopathology of skin biopsies in conjunction with indirect fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus-1 dermatitis; microbial culture indicated secondary bacterial infection. Therapy included targeted systemic antimicrobial and antiviral treatment, topical medications, and repeated cryotherapy. Lesions exhibited varying degrees of clinical improvement but, overall, progressed in extent, size, and severity during the subsequent 2.5 yr of intense treatment. The cheetah was ultimately euthanized due to a guarded prognosis and concerns about poor quality of life. Potential factors initiating or contributing (or both) to the severity and nonhealing nature of the cutaneous lesions include chronic unidentified stress, altered immune system function, and other environmental influences.

  2. S2k guideline on diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis--short version.

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas; Heratizadeh, Annice; Aberer, Werner; Ahrens, Frank; Augustin, Matthias; Biedermann, Tilo; Diepgen, Thomas; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Gieler, Uwe; Kahle, Julia; Kapp, Alexander; Nast, Alexander; Nemat, Katja; Ott, Hagen; Przybilla, Bernhard; Roecken, Martin; Schlaeger, Martin; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schmitt, Jochen; Schwennesen, Thomas; Staab, Doris; Worm, Margitta

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) represents a pruritic, non-contagious, chronic or chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease. The course of the disease may be complicated by bacterial or viral superinfections. The first manifestation of the disease and further flare-ups are due to genetic predisposition and also to a variety of further trigger factors. The therapy regimen should be adapted to disease symptoms that are actually present and consider individual features of the disease as reported by the patients or their parents. This short version of the German guideline on AD provides an overview of evidence-based diagnostic and treatment options. All recommendations made here are the result of a consensus of the scientific medical societies, working groups and support groups based on scientific data published to date. Abstracts and details of the studies cited are provided in the long version of this guideline (see: www.awmf.org).

  3. Increased concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus sp. in small animals exposed to aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.

  4. Mechanism of Gene Regulation by a Staphylococcus aureus Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Chatterjee, Som S.; Villaruz, Amer E.; Dickey, Seth W.; Tan, Vee Y.; Chen, Yan; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Ricklefs, Stacy M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The virulence of many bacterial pathogens, including the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, depends on the secretion of frequently large amounts of toxins. Toxin production involves the need for the bacteria to make physiological adjustments for energy conservation. While toxins are primarily targets of gene regulation, such changes may be accomplished by regulatory functions of the toxins themselves. However, mechanisms by which toxins regulate gene expression have remained poorly understood. We show here that the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) toxins have gene regulatory functions that, in particular, include inducing expression of their own transport system by direct interference with a GntR-type repressor protein. This capacity was most pronounced in PSMs with low cytolytic capacity, demonstrating functional specification among closely related members of that toxin family during evolution. Our study presents a molecular mechanism of gene regulation by a bacterial toxin that adapts bacterial physiology to enhanced toxin production. PMID:27795396

  5. A Compound Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus from Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naomoto; Ohtaguro, Norihiro; Yoshida, Yasuaki; Hirai, Motoshi; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Yamada, Yoichi; Imamura, Nobutaka; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm is one virulence factor of bacteria. It contributes not only to bacterial adherence to many kinds of infection-establishing surfaces, but also to bacterial resistance against antimicrobial agents and antiseptic agents. Thus, inhibitors of bacterial biofilm formation should be useful in the prevention of infections. We found that a culture of Streptomyces sp. strain MC11024 showed inhibitory activity on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and isolated streptorubin B as an inhibitor of this formation in S. aureus. The biofilm formation of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) N315 was reduced to less than 30% at 1 µg/mL of streptorubin B, and at this concentration cell growth was not affected. Our study suggests that streptorubin B has the potential to be a leading compound of anti-infectious agents of S. aureus.

  6. The papain inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibits bacterial cysteine proteases and is an antagonist of bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Zindel, Stephan; Kaman, Wendy E; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Peters, Anna; Hays, John P; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar

    2013-07-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacterial virulence factors and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic treatment against a range of unrelated pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Wall teichoic acid protects Staphylococcus aureus against antimicrobial fatty acids from human skin.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Thomas; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Peschel, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    Skin-colonizing gram-positive bacteria produce wall teichoic acids (WTAs) or related glycopolymers for unclear reasons. Using a WTA-deficient Staphylococcus aureus mutant, we demonstrated that WTA confers resistance to antimicrobial fatty acids from human sebaceous glands by preventing fatty acid binding. Thus, WTA is probably important for bacterial skin colonization.

  8. Techniques for rapid detection and quantification of active foodborne Staphylococcus Enterotoxin(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen and causative agent of foodborne illnesses.Staphylococcal enterotoxins(SEs)produced by this organism act upon the gastrointestinal tract and generate a superantigen immune response in low concentrations. Recent S. aureus foodborne ...

  9. Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" on Campus: A New Challenge to College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, H. Richard

    2008-01-01

    As new drugs to control bacterial pathogens are developed, the organisms evolve to survive. "Staphylococcus aureus", a common organism, has steadily developed resistance to antibiotics. For more than 40 years, resistant "S. aureus" presented a formidable problem to hospitalized patients; in the past decade, however, it has begun to appear outside…

  10. Interfering with Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Kerstin; Steinbach, Anke; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) describes the exchange of chemical signals in bacterial populations to adjust the bacterial phenotypes according to the density of bacterial cells. This serves to express phenotypes that are advantageous for the group and ensure bacterial survival. To do so, bacterial cells synthesize autoinducer (AI) molecules, release them to the environment, and take them up. Thereby, the AI concentration reflects the cell density. When the AI concentration exceeds a critical threshold in the cells, the AI may activate the expression of virulence-associated genes or of luminescent proteins. It has been argued that targeting the QS system puts less selective pressure on these pathogens and should avoid the development of resistant bacteria. Therefore, the molecular components of QS systems have been suggested as promising targets for developing new anti-infective compounds. Here, we review the QS systems of selected gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, namely, Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and discuss various antivirulence strategies based on blocking different components of the QS machinery. PMID:26819549

  11. Changes of Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated in 8 Consecutive Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Chunguang; Yao, Hanxin; Xu, Jiancheng

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1469 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from sputum 705 (18.0%), secretions 206 (14.0%), pus 177 (12.0%) during the past 8 years. The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were between 50.8% and 83.3% during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus had increased. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance to Staphylococcus aureus should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  12. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-06-16

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.

  13. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  14. Immunopathological features of rat Staphylococcus aureus arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Bremell, T; Lange, S; Holmdahl, R; Rydén, C; Hansson, G K; Tarkowski, A

    1994-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial species found in nongonococcal bacterial arthritis in humans. We present the first description, to our knowledge, of an outbreak of spontaneous staphylococcal arthritis in a rat colony. In a group of 10 rats, 9 displayed arthritis. Clinically, the most obvious findings were arthritis of one or both hindpaws and malaise. Bacteriophage typing showed the common phage type 85 in isolates recovered from the joints, blood, and bedding of rats and from the nose and cheeks of one person from the staff of the animal facility. The S. aureus strain proved to produce staphylococcal enterotoxin A and exhibited strong binding to collagen types I and II and bone sialoprotein, which are potentially important virulence factors. When the recovered S. aureus strain was injected intravenously into healthy rats, severe septic arthritis was induced in almost all of the animals. The arthritic lesions were characterized by infiltration of phagocytic cells and T lymphocytes into the synovium. Many of the synovial cells strongly expressed major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Increased levels of interleukin 6 in serum as well as a prominent polyclonal B-cell activation were noted throughout the disease course. Pretreatment of S. aureus-injected rats in vivo with an antibody to the alpha beta T-cell receptor significantly decreased the severity of the arthritis. Our results indicate that alpha beta + T lymphocytes contribute to an erosive and persistent course of S. aureus arthritis. Images PMID:8188356

  15. Oral administration of the broad-spectrum antibiofilm compound toremifene inhibits Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    De Cremer, Kaat; Delattin, Nicolas; De Brucker, Katrijn; Peeters, Annelies; Kucharíková, Soña; Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan; Van Dijck, Patrick; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-12-01

    We here report on the in vitro activity of toremifene to inhibit biofilm formation of different fungal and bacterial pathogens, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida krusei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. We validated the in vivo efficacy of orally administered toremifene against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm formation in a rat subcutaneous catheter model. Combined, our results demonstrate the potential of toremifene as a broad-spectrum oral antibiofilm compound. PMID:25288093

  16. Do early skin care practices alter the risk of atopic dermatitis? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Marla E; Baig-Lewis, Shahana F; Berry, Trista M; Denny, Melissa E; Simpson, Brenda M; Brown, Peter A; Simpson, Eric L

    2011-01-01

    The rise in atopic dermatitis prevalence observed in industrialized countries is unexplained. We hypothesized that certain skin care practices early in life may increase the risk for developing atopic dermatitis. Our case-control study could not identify any one practice that increased the odds of developing atopic dermatitis, but it revealed that regular lotion use was very common in infants who later develop atopic dermatitis.

  17. Laboratory studies on biomachining of copper using Staphylococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Shinji; Sreekumari, Kurissery R; Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Ozawa, Mazayoshi; Kikuchi, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of using bacteria to drill metallic surfaces has been demonstrated using Staphylococcus sp., a facultative anaerobic bacterium, isolated from corroded copper piping. The experiment involved exposure of copper coupons (25 mm x 15 mm x 3 mm) to a culture of Staphylococcus sp. for a maximum period of 7 days. Coupons exposed to sterile bacterial growth medium were used as controls. Exposed coupons were removed intermittently and observed microscopically for the extent of drilling. The total pit area and volume on these coupons were determined using image analysis. The results showed that both the biomachined area and volume increased with the duration of coupon exposure. In the drilling experiment, a copper thin film 2 microm thick was perforated by this bacterium within a period of 7 days. In conclusion, the results suggested that bacteria can be used as a tool for machining metallic surfaces.

  18. Enzymatic removal and disinfection of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, C; Falholt, P; Gram, L

    1997-01-01

    Model biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were made on steel and polypropylene substrata. Plaque-resembling biofilms of Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were made on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. The activity of enzymes against bacterial cells in biofilm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and an indirect conductance test in which evolution of carbon dioxide was measured. Glucose oxidase combined with lactoperoxidase was bactericidal against biofilm bacteria but did not remove the biofilm from the substrata. A complex mixture of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes was able to remove bacterial biofilm from steel and polypropylene substrata but did not have a significant bactericidal activity. Combining oxidoreductases with polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes resulted in bactericidal activity as well as removal of the biofilm. PMID:9293025

  19. Bacterial colonization of percutaneous sutures.

    PubMed

    Gristina, A G; Price, J L; Hobgood, C D; Webb, L X; Costerton, J W

    1985-07-01

    The direct electron microscopic examination of 15 sutures and 15 staples removed from 10 healed surgical wounds showed, on the intradermal portions, consistent colonization by bacteria growing in adherent biofilms. This clearly demonstrable bacterial colonization of biomaterials within the wound tract had not resulted in infection or perceptible inflammation in any of the wounds. These bacterial cells were of several morphotypes, including gram-positive cocci, and all specimens yielded cultures of the autochthonous (native) skin bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis. The bacteria within the wound tracts were enveloped by extracellular material that appeared on scanning electron microscopy to be a condensed amorphous residue and on transmission electron microscopy to be a fibrous extracellular matrix. We suggest that this mode of growth, in which the colonizing bacteria are enveloped in a copious exopolysaccharide glycocalix, protects the bacteria from host defense factors and accounts for their persistence on the suture surfaces until they are removed with the sutures.

  20. Association between passive smoking and atopic dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ka, D; Marignac, G; Desquilbet, L; Freyburger, L; Hubert, B; Garelik, D; Perrot, S

    2014-04-01

    Onset of atopic dermatitis and occurrence of related skin lesions are influenced by various environmental factors in humans, and companion animals. Several studies have demonstrated an association between passive smoking and the development of atopic dermatitis in children. This association has never been investigated in the dog to our knowledge. We enrolled 161 dogs seen at dermatology and vaccination consultations over a six-month period for this study. Dog owners were asked to complete a questionnaire, to evaluate the exposure of the dog to tobacco smoke. The atopic or non-atopic status of the dog was assessed on the basis of Favrot's criteria (history, clinical examination and cutaneous cytology for Malassezia). Analysis of the data for the 161 dogs enrolled revealed a significant association between high levels of passive exposure to tobacco smoke (cigarette consumption divided by the area of the home) and the presence of atopic dermatitis in the dogs (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.10-17.44; p=0.03; NNH (number needed to harm) 3, 95% CI 2-52). The prevalence of atopic dermatitis showed a slight, but non-significant association with breed predisposition. Dogs with high levels of exposure to tobacco smoke may have a higher risk of atopic dermatitis than non-exposed dogs. PMID:24491262